WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding medium based

  1. Identification of -SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond medium using weak Raman surface phonons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla; Harish Ojha; Vadali Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth

    2013-11-01

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its volume content when relatable, will affect the resultant Raman response of -SiC phase as seen in the present case of diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin films.

  2. Sh2-205: I. The surrounding interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, G A

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the HII region Sh2-205 and its environs, based on data obtained from the CGPS, 12CO observations, and MSX data. We find that Sh2-205 can be separated in three independent optical structures: SH149.25--0.0, SH 148.83-0.67, and LBN 148.11-0.45. The derived spectral indices show the thermal nature of SH 148.83--0.67 and LBN 148.11--0.45. The morphology of SH 148.83--0.67, both in the optical and radio data, along with the energetic requ irements indicate that this feature is an interstellar bubble powered by the UV photons of HD 24431 (O9 III). LBN 148.11--0.45 has the morphology of a classic al HII region and their ionizing sources remain uncertain. Dust and molecular gas are found related to LBN 148.11-0.45.Particularly, a photodissociation region is detected at the interface between the ionized and molecular regions. If the proposed exciting star HD 24094 were an O8--O9 type star, as suggested by its near-infrared colors, its UV photon flux would be enough to explain the ionization of th...

  3. $\\gamma$-Ray Burst Afterglows Effects of Radiative Corrections and Nonuniformity of the Surrounding Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Z G

    1998-01-01

    The afterglow of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) is commonly thought to be due to continuous deceleration of a relativistically expanding fireball in the surrounding medium. Assuming that the expansion of the fireball is adiabatic and that the density of the medium is a power-law function of shock radius, viz., $n_{ext}\\propto R^{-k}$, we analytically study the effects of the first-order radiative correction and the nonuniformity of the medium on a GRB afterglow. We first derive a new relation among the observed time, the shock radius and the fireball's Lorentz factor: $t_\\oplus=R/4(4-k)\\gamma^2c$, and also derive a new relation among the comoving time, the shock radius and the fireball's Lorentz factor: $t_{co}=2R/(5-k)\\gamma c$. We next study the evolution of the fireball by using the analytic solution of Blandford and McKee (1976). The radiation losses may not significantly influence this evolution. We further derive new scaling laws both between the X-ray flux and observed time and between the optical flux and ob...

  4. Quasars Probing Quasars VII. The Pinnacle of the Cool Circumgalactic Medium Surrounds Massive z~2 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    We survey the incidence and absorption strength of the metal-line transitions CII 1334 and CIV from the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding z~2 quasars, which act as signposts for massive dark matter halos M_halo~10^12.5 Msun. On scales of the virial radius (Mvir~160kpc), we measure a high covering fraction fC=0.73+/-0.10 to strong CII absorption (rest equivalent width W1334>0.2A), implying a massive reservoir of cool (T~10^4K) metal enriched gas. We conservatively estimate a metal mass exceeding 10^8 Msun. We propose these metals trace enrichment of the incipient intragroup/intracluster medium that these halos eventually inhabit. This cool CGM around quasars is the pinnacle amongst galaxies observed at all epochs, as regards covering fraction and average equivalent width of HI Lya and low-ion metal absorption. We argue that the properties of this cool CGM primarily reflect the halo mass, and that other factors such as feedback, star-formation rate, and accretion from the intergalactic medium are secondar...

  5. The interplay between the young stellar super cluster Westerlund 1, and the surrounding interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the multi-band (CO, HI and Spitzer maps, large-scale (150 pc gaseous structure around Westerlund 1, the most massive known superstar cluster in the Milky Way, with the intention of exploring the effect of feedback from massive stars in this young (age < 5 Myr cluster on the surrounding interstellar medium. We find no traces of the parental molecular cloud in the immediate vicinity of the cluster, instead this volume is partially filled by HI gas. On the other hand, there are two giant molecular clouds, both moving away from the cluster at 5–10 km s−1, at distances of around 50–150 pc. There are several ultra-compact HII regions associated with these giant molecular clouds. All these events suggest that the cluster has played an important role in re-structuring the ISM, in the form of ejecting the molecular gas, as well as triggering secondary star formation.

  6. Subwavelength imaging of sparse broadband sources surrounded by an open disordered medium from a single antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this letter we study the subwavelength imaging of sparse broadband sources inside a disordered medium by processing the data acquired by a single antenna. A mathematical model has been developed for solving such problem based on the idea of sparse reconstruction. We show that the strongly disordered medium can serves as an efficient apparatus for compressive measurement, which shifts the complexity of devising compressive sensing (CS) hardware from the design, fabrication and electronic control. The proposed method and associated results can find applications in several imaging disciplines, such as optics, THz, RF or ultrasound imaging.

  7. Quasars Probing Quasars VIII. The Physical Properties of the Cool Circumgalactic medium Surrounding z ~ 2-3 Massive Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Marie Wingyee; Hennawi, Joseph F

    2015-01-01

    We characterize the physical properties of the cool T ~ 10^4 K circumgalactic medium surrounding z ~ 2-3 quasar host galaxies, which are predicted to evolve into present day massive ellipticals. Using a statistical sample of 14 quasar pairs with projected separation 100 cm^-3 and subparsec scale gas clumps.

  8. Effect of synthesis conditions and surrounding medium on luminescence properties of YVO4:Eu3+nanopowders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EV Golyeva; DV Tolstikova; IE Kolesnikov; MD Mikhailov

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline yttrium vanadate doped with europium ions powders were synthesized via sol-gel method based on decomposition of metal-polymer complex. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that samples had pure tetragonal phase without any impurities. Scanning electron microscopy and static light scattering technique were used to study morphology and size of prepared nanoparticles. Average diameter of the nanoparticles was about 40 nm. The changes in structural and luminescence properties were observed as a function of the first and second calcination temperature. The optimal conditions for synthesis of nanoparticles were determined asТ1=500 °С, t1=1 h;Т2=950 °С, t2=1.5 h. The effect of different media surrounding the nanoparticles on their luminescence properties and lifetime was investigated and discussed in terms of effective refractive index. It was found that the observed lifetime of YVO4:Eu3+ 5 at.% nanophosphor was decreased from 0.64 ms in air (nmed=1) to 0.45 ms in chalcogenide glass As39S61 (nmed=2.39).

  9. Crustal Anisotropy Across Eastern Tibet and Surroundings Modeled as a Depth-Dependent Tilted Hexagonally Symmetric Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiayi; Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Shen, W.; Wang, Weitao

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYTwo types of surface wave anisotropy are observed regularly by seismologists but are only rarely interpreted jointly: apparent radial anisotropy, which is the difference in propagation speed between horizontally and vertically polarized waves inferred from Love and Rayleigh waves, and apparent azimuthal anisotropy, which is the directional dependence of surface wave speeds (usually Rayleigh waves). We show that a new data set of Love and Rayleigh wave isotropic phase speeds and Rayleigh wave azimuthal anisotropy observed within and surrounding eastern Tibet can be explained simultaneously by modeling the crust as a depth-dependent tilted hexagonally symmetric (THS) medium. We specify the THS medium with depth-dependent hexagonally symmetric elastic tensors tilted and rotated through dip and strike angles and estimate these quantities using a Bayesian Monte Carlo inversion to produce a 3-D model of the crust and uppermost mantle on a 0.5°x0.5° spatial grid. In the interior of eastern Tibet and in the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau, we infer a steeply dipping THS upper crustal medium overlying a shallowly dipping THS medium in the middle-to-lower crust. Such vertical stratification of anisotropy may reflect a brittle to ductile transition in which shallow fractures and faults control upper crustal anisotropy and the crystal preferred orientation of anisotropic (perhaps micaceous) minerals governs the anisotropy of the deeper crust. In contrast, near the periphery of the Tibetan Plateau the anisotropic medium is steeply dipping throughout the entire crust, which may be caused by the reorientation of the symmetry axes of deeper crustal anisotropic minerals as crustal flows are rotated near the borders of Tibet.

  10. Quasars probing quasars. VII. The pinnacle of the cool circumgalactic medium surrounds massive z ∼ 2 galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Lau, Marie Wingyee [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69115 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    We survey the incidence and absorption strength of the metal-line transitions C II 1334 and C IV 1548 from the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding z ∼ 2 quasars, which act as signposts for massive dark matter halos M {sub halo} ≈ 10{sup 12.5} M {sub ☉}. On scales of the virial radius (r {sub vir} ≈ 160 kpc), we measure a high covering fraction f{sub C} = 0.73 ± 0.10 to strong C II 1334 absorption (rest equivalent width W {sub 1334} ≥ 0.2 Å), implying a massive reservoir of cool (T ∼ 10{sup 4} K) metal enriched gas. We conservatively estimate a metal mass exceeding 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. We propose that these metals trace enrichment of the incipient intragroup/intracluster medium that these halos eventually inhabit. This cool CGM around quasars is the pinnacle among galaxies observed at all epochs, as regards covering the fraction and average equivalent width of H I Lyα and low-ion metal absorption. We argue that the properties of this cool CGM primarily reflect the halo mass, and that other factors such as feedback, star-formation rate, and accretion from the intergalactic medium are secondary. We further estimate that the CGM of massive, z ∼ 2 galaxies accounts for the majority of strong Mg II absorption along random quasar sightlines. Last, we detect an excess of strong C IV 1548 absorption (W {sub 1548} ≥ 0.3 Å) over random incidence to the 1 Mpc physical impact parameter and measure the quasar-C IV cross-correlation function: ξ{sub C} {sub IV-Q}(r)=(r/r{sub 0}){sup −γ} with r{sub 0}=7.5{sub −1.4}{sup +2.8} h{sup −1} Mpc and γ=1.7{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1}. Consistent with previous work on larger scales, we infer that this highly ionized C IV gas traces massive (10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}) halos.

  11. Combined Method of 3d Analysis for Underground Structures in View of Surrounding Infinite Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Chernysheva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The application of algorithms of the finite element method (FEM or the boundary element method (BEM reveals some peculiar properties for a numerical solution of the three-dimensional analysis in infinite domains. Various algorithms offer to avoid such problems at the expense of combining different methods and equations. The algorithm of the 3d analysis developed to solve an external boundary problem by applying the combined method based on incorporating the FEM and Somigliana’s integral formula is considered. The algorithm is modified for the case of the interaction of a structure with an inhomogeneous medium. The efficiency of software implementation of both algorithms has been tested. A stress-strain analysis of an inhomogeneous medium with a cavity has been carried out to illustrate the given approach.

  12. Medium-Based Design: Extending a Medium to Create an Exploratory Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Jochen; Lamberty, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces "medium-based" design -- an approach to creating "exploratory learning environments" using the method of "extending a medium". First, the characteristics of exploratory learning environments and medium-based design are described and grounded in related work. Particular attention is given to "extending a medium" --…

  13. Dispersion of Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) from a CP Production Plant to the Surrounding Surface Soils and Coniferous Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiazhi; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Haijun; Zhan, Faqiang; Chen, Jiping

    2016-12-06

    Chlorinated paraffin (CP) production is one important emission source for short- and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs) in the environment. In this study, 48 CP congener groups were measured in the surface soils and coniferous leaves collected from the inner and surrounding environment of a CP production plant that has been in operation for more than 30 years to investigate the dispersion and deposition behavior of SCCPs and MCCPs. The average concentrations of the sum of SCCPs and MCCPs in the in-plant coniferous leaves and surface soils were 4548.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) and 3481.8 ng g(-1) dw, which were 2-fold and 10-fold higher than those in the surrounding environment, respectively. The Gaussian air pollution model explained the spatial distribution of CPs in the coniferous leaves, whereas the dispersion of CPs to the surrounding surface soils fits the Boltzmann equation well. Significant fractionation effect was observed for the atmospheric dispersion of CPs from the production plant. CP congener groups with higher octanol-air partitioning coefficients (KOA) were more predominant in the in-plant environment, whereas the ones with lower KOA values had the elevated proportion in the surrounding environment. A radius of approximately 4 km from the CP production plant was influenced by the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of CPs.

  14. Effects of the variability of the nucleus of NGC1275 on X-ray observations of the surrounding intracluster medium

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Pinto, C; Russell, H R; Edge, A C

    2015-01-01

    The active galaxy NGC1275 lies at the centre of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, which is the X-ray brightest cluster in the Sky. The nucleus shows large variability over the past few decades. We compile a lightcurve of its X-ray emission covering about 40 years and show that the bright phase around 1980 explains why the inner X-ray bubbles were not seen in the images taken with the Einstein Observatory. The flux had dropped considerably by 1992 when images with the ROSAT HRI led to their discovery. The nucleus is showing a slow X-ray rise since the first Chandra images in 2000. If it brightens back to the pre-1990 level, then X-ray absorption spectroscopy by ASTRO-H can reveal the velocity structure of the shocked gas surrounding the inner bubbles.

  15. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  16. Theca cells and theca-cell conditioned medium inhibit the progression of FSH-induced meiosis of bovine oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells connected to membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, H T; Bevers, M M

    1998-11-01

    The effect of follicular cells and their conditioned media on the FSH-induced oocyte maturation of oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells connected to the membrana granulosa (COCGs) was investigated. COCGs and cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured for 22 hr in M199 supplemented with 0.05 IU FSH/ml in either the presence of pieces of theca cell layer or in the presence of pieces of membrana granulosa. COCGs and COCs were also cultured for 22 hr in either theca-cell conditioned medium (CMt) or in granulosa cell conditioned medium (CMg), both supplemented with 0.05 IU FSH/ml. To investigate the importance of cell-cell contacts between granulosa cells and cumulus cells, oocytes were cultured as COCs in CMt, as COCs in CMt supplemented with pieces of membrana granulosa, or as COCGs in CMt. In all groups the medium was supplemented with 0.05 IU FSH/ml. After culture the nuclear status of the oocytes was assessed using orcein staining. Culture of COCGs in the presence of theca cells as well as in CMt resulted in a significantly decreased proportion of oocytes that had undergone germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) at the end of the culture period as compared to the control. Of the oocytes that resumed meiosis in the presence of theca cells or in CMt, the proportion of oocytes that progressed up to the MII stage was significantly reduced. This indicates the production of a meiosis-inhibiting factor by theca cells. Culture with COCs instead of COCGs resulted in comparable results although the effect was less pronounced. The significant effect on the progression of meiosis of oocytes cultured as COCGs or as COCs, obtained in the presence of granulosa cells or in CMg, was much weaker than the effect of theca cells or culture in CMt. Culture of COCs in CMt supplemented with layers of membrana granulosa and 0.05 IU FSH/ml, resulted in significantly less oocytes that resumed meiosis as compared to culture of COCs in CMt. Of the oocytes that showed GVBD, the proportion that

  17. Stability Evaluation on Surrounding Rocks of Underground Powerhouse Based on Microseismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the stability of underground powerhouse at Houziyan hydropower station during excavation, a microseismic monitoring system is adopted. Based on the space-time distribution characteristics of microseismic events during excavation of the main powerhouse, the correlation between microseismic events and blasting construction is established; and the microseismic clustering areas of the underground powerhouse are identified and delineated. The FLAC3D code is used to simulate the deformation of main powerhouse. The simulated deformation characteristics are consistent with that recorded by microseismic monitoring. Finally, the correlation between the macroscopic deformation of surrounding rock mass and microseismic activities is also revealed. The results show that multiple faults between 1# and 3# bus tunnels are activated during excavation of floors V and VI of the main powerhouse. The comprehensive method combining microseismic monitoring with numerical simulation as well as routine monitoring can provide an effective way to evaluate the surrounding rock mass stability of underground caverns.

  18. Geometric-model-based segmentation of the prostate and surrounding structures for image-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Jeong, Yongwon; Radke, Richard J.; Chen, George T. Y.

    2004-01-01

    We present a computer vision tool to improve the clinical outcome of patients undergoing radiation therapy for prostate cancer by improving irradiation technique. While intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) allows one to irradiate a specific region in the body with high accuracy, it is still difficult to know exactly where to aim the radiation beam on every day of the 30~40 treatments that are necessary. This paper presents a geometric model-based technique to accurately segment the prostate and other surrounding structures in a daily serial CT image, compensating for daily motion and shape variation. We first acquire a collection of serial CT scans of patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy, and manual segmentation of the prostate and other nearby structures by radiation oncologists. Then we train shape and local appearance models for the structures of interest. When new images are available, an iterative algorithm is applied to locate the prostate and surrounding structures automatically. Our experimental results show that excellent matches can be given to the prostate and surrounding structure. Convergence is declared after 10 iterations. For 256 x 256 images, the mean distance between the hand-segmented contour and the automatically estimated contour is about 1.5 pixels (2.44 mm), with variance about 0.6 pixel (1.24 mm).

  19. Design and Implementation of Surrounding Transaction Plotting and Management System Based on Google Map API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y. B.; Hua, Y. X.; Zhao, J. X.; Guo, S. M.

    2013-11-01

    With China's rapid economic development and comprehensive national strength growing, Border work has become a long-term and important task in China's diplomatic work. How to implement rapid plotting, real-time sharing and mapping surrounding affairs has taken great significance for government policy makers and diplomatic staff. However, at present the already exists Boundary information system are mainly have problems of Geospatial data update is heavily workload, plotting tools are in a state of serious lack of, Geographic events are difficult to share, this phenomenon has seriously hampered the smooth development of the border task. The development and progress of Geographic information system technology especially the development of Web GIS offers the possibility to solve the above problems, this paper adopts four layers of B/S architecture, with the support of Google maps service, uses the free API which is offered by Google maps and its features of openness, ease of use, sharing characteristics, highresolution images to design and implement the surrounding transaction plotting and management system based on the web development technology of ASP.NET, C#, Ajax. The system can provide decision support for government policy makers as well as diplomatic staff's real-time plotting and sharing of surrounding information. The practice has proved that the system has good usability and strong real-time.

  20. Nonlinear Progressive Failure Analysis of Surrounding Rock System Based on Similarity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear progressive failure study of surrounding rock is important for the stability analysis of underground engineering projects. Taking a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing as an example, a three dimensional(3-D physical model was established based on similarity theory. To satisfy similarity requirement of physical–mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, compressive strength and Poisson ratio, physical model materials were developed. Using full inner-spy photograph technology, the deformation and failure process of rock were studied under the situation of independent and combined action of anchor, shotcrete and reinforcing mesh. Based on experimental results, the interaction mechanism between rock and support structure under high stress was investigated.

  1. Charge plasma technique based dopingless accumulation mode junctionless cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFET: analog performance improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nitin; Kumar, Manoj; Haldar, Subhasis; Deswal, S. S.; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    A charge plasma technique based dopingless (DL) accumulation mode (AM) junctionless (JL) cylindrical surrounding gate (CSG) MOSFET has been proposed and extensively investigated. Proposed device has no physical junction at source to channel and channel to drain interface. The complete silicon pillar has been considered as undoped. The high free electron density or induced N+ region is designed by keeping the work function of source/drain metal contacts lower than the work function of undoped silicon. Thus, its fabrication complexity is drastically reduced by curbing the requirement of high temperature doping techniques. The electrical/analog characteristics for the proposed device has been extensively investigated using the numerical simulation and are compared with conventional junctionless cylindrical surrounding gate (JL-CSG) MOSFET with identical dimensions. For the numerical simulation purpose ATLAS-3D device simulator is used. The results show that the proposed device is more short channel immune to conventional JL-CSG MOSFET and suitable for faster switching applications due to higher I ON/ I OFF ratio.

  2. Reconstructing the sequence of events surrounding body disposition based on color staining of bone*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huculak, Meaghan A; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-09-01

    Literature regarding bone color is limited to determining location of primary and secondary dispositions. This research is the first to use bone color to interpret the sequence of events surrounding body disposition. Two scenarios were compared-bones buried and then exposed on the ground surface and bones exposed then buried. Forty juvenile pig humeri with minimal tissue were used in each scenario with an additional 20 controls to determine if decomposing tissue affects bone color. Munsell Color Charts were used to record bone color of surface and 2.5 cm cross-sections. Results reveal five main surface colors attributed to soil, sun, hemolysis, decomposition, and fungi. Fungi on buried bones suggests prior surface exposure. Cross-sections of strictly buried bones are identical to buried then exposed bone, stressing the importance of bone surface analysis. Cross-sectioning may help verify remains have been exposed then buried. Decomposition of excess tissue creates minimal color staining.

  3. Elastic-plastic model identification for rock surrounding an underground excavation based on immunized genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Dongliang; Wang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    To compute the stability of underground engineering, a constitutive model of surrounding rock must be identified. Many constitutive models for rock mass have been proposed. In this model identification study, a generalized constitutive law for an elastic-plastic constitutive model is applied. Using the generalized constitutive law, the problem of model identification is transformed to a problem of parameter identification, which is a typical and complicated optimization. To improve the efficiency of the traditional optimization method, an immunized genetic algorithm that is proposed by the author is applied in this study. In this new algorithm, the principle of artificial immune algorithm is combined with the genetic algorithm. Therefore, the entire computation efficiency of model identification will be improved. Using this new model identification method, a numerical example and an engineering example are used to verify the computing ability of the algorithm. The results show that this new model identification algorithm can significantly improve the computation efficiency and the computation effect.

  4. Effects of surrounding confinements of Si nanoparticles on Si-based anode performance for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Soo; Lee, Jong Gook; Lee, Hae Yeon; Kim, Sang Won [Carbon Nanomaterials Design Laboratory, Global Research Laboratory (GRL), Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chong Rae, E-mail: crpark@snu.ac.k [Carbon Nanomaterials Design Laboratory, Global Research Laboratory (GRL), Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-30

    We report herein the effects of various surrounding confinements of Si nanoparticles on the electrochemical performance of Si nanoparticles based anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Three different types of surrounding confinements are incorporated onto or around the surface of Si nanoparticles: Si nanoparticles-embedded carbon nanofibers (Si-CNF) via electrospinning, carbon nitride encapsulated Si nanoparticles with core/shell structure (Si-CND), and binder enriched Si nanoparticles-based anode (Si-RBD). Morphology and microstructure of the samples are characterized using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and the results were discussed in relation to the electrochemical performances. It is found that Si-CNF which has conducting hard surrounding confinements and Si-RBD exhibited high reversible specific capacity of 620 mA hg{sup -1} and 1200 mA hg{sup -1}, up to 30th cycle, respectively. Meanwhile, Si-CND that has mechanically hard but poor electrical conductivity exhibits low specific capacity compared with the other two samples.

  5. Long-term in vitro culture of bovine preantral follicles: Effect of base medium and medium replacement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, V R; Gastal, M O; Wischral, A; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L

    2015-10-01

    Two culture media and replacement methods were compared during long-term in vitro culture of secondary follicles of cattle using α-MEM(+) or TCM-199(+) as base media. The medium replacement methods were: Conventional - removal and subsequent addition of the same amount (60μl) in a 100μl aliquot (MEM-C and TCM-C), and Small Supplementation - addition of 5μl of fresh medium to an initial small aliquot (50μl), resulting in a final volume of 125μl on the last day of culture (MEM-S and TCM-S). A total of 207 secondary follicles were cultured individually for 32 days at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 and medium replacement was performed every other day. The MEM-S treatment resulted in a larger (P0.05) the follicular and estradiol end points for TCM-199(+). The expression of the FSHR gene was greater (Pculture of preantral follicles of cattle if progressive addition of medium is used for medium change.

  6. A study of possibility to design a fast neutron spectrometer based on the organic scintillator with surrounding materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdić Senada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a novel spectrometer of fast neutrons in nuclear safeguards applications based on the liquid organic scintillator EJ-309 with materials of different thickness surrounding the detector. The investigation was performed on the simulated data obtained by the MCNPX-PoliMi numerical code based on the Monte Carlo method. Among the various materials (polyethylene, iron, aluminum, and graphite investigated as layers around the scintillator, polyethylene and iron have shown the most promising characteristics for evaluation of fast neutron energy spectra. The simulated pulse height distributions were summed up for each energy bin in the neutron energy range between 1 MeV and 15 MeV in order to obtain better counting statistics. The unfolded results for monoenergetic neutron sources obtained by a first order of Tikhonov regularization and non-linear neural network show very good agreement with the reference data while the evaluated spectra of neutron sources continuous in energy follow the trend of the reference spectra. The possible advantages of a novel spectrometer include a less number of input data for processing and a less sensitivity to the noise compared to the scintillation detector without surrounding materials.

  7. Insights on Metal Based Dental Implants and their Interaction with the Surrounding Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Marcela; Hussien, Mohamed D; Cirstea, Alexandra; Grigore, Raluca; Lazar, Veronica; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Sakizlian, Monica; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bertesteanu, Serban

    2015-01-01

    At present, the use of dental implants is a very common practice as tooth loss is a frequent problem and can occur as a result of disease or trauma. An implant is usually made of biocompatible materials that do not cause rejection reactions and allow the implant union with the respective bone. To achieve this goal, the implant surface may have different structures and coatings, generally used to increase the adherence of the implant to the bone and to decrease the risk of the periimplantar inflammatory reactions. This review gives some insights of the metal based materials used for dental implants, their limits, improvement strategies as well as the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of periimplantary diseases.

  8. The impact of a port on the surrounding seashores based on the 13-year monitoring results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Orviku, Kaarel; Kont, Are

    2017-04-01

    The study was carried out in the vicinity of Sillamäe town and industrial port, located on the north-eastern coast of Estonia in the south-eastern part of the Gulf of Finland (The Baltic Sea). Sillamäe was potentially one of the most serious threats for the whole Baltic Sea environment. The town was founded together with the construction of a highly specialized chemical and metallurgy plant in 1946, where fuel rods and nuclear materials for the Soviet nuclear power plants and weapons were produced. The current study is focusing on the shore processes and the coastal sea fronting Sillamäe. The town is located east of the port. It is the region with the highest potential impact of the port. Until the town was founded and the factory with its nuclear waste depository was constructed, the shores near the town were described as one litho-dynamic system with a good natural balance. Major human influence (construction of the port, waste depository, etc.) and additionally climate warming has taken place since then. The shores in front of the nuclear waste depository are well protected today. However, the rapidly expanding port is the major obstacle of the longshore sediment transport since 2001. The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of the port to the changes in coastal evolution and sediment budget in the vicinity of the port based on the regular monitoring results. The dynamics of the seashores was assessed using remote methods and in situ measurements. Remote methods included the analyses of shoreline changes and changes in scarp positions in space and time using orthophotos. The study is also based on the measurements of scarp edges, shorelines and shore profiles conducted in 2004-2016. The measurements were carried out using Leica GS09 RTK-GPS and Leica level. The volume of sediments in the active zone of each profile was calculated. The active zone was defined as the zone from the mean shoreline to the elevation where storm waves were still able to

  9. Effective medium based optical analysis with finite element method simulations to study photochromic transitions in Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhilash, T.; Balasubrahmaniyam, M.; Kasiviswanathan, S.

    2016-03-01

    Photochromic transitions in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded titanium dioxide (TiO2) films under green light illumination are marked by reduction in strength and blue shift in the position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) associated with AgNPs. These transitions, which happen in the sub-nanometer length scale, have been analysed using the variations observed in the effective dielectric properties of the Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite films in response to the size reduction of AgNPs and subsequent changes in the surrounding medium due to photo-oxidation. Bergman-Milton formulation based on spectral density approach is used to extract dielectric properties and information about the geometrical distribution of the effective medium. Combined with finite element method simulations, we isolate the effects due to the change in average size of the nanoparticles and those due to the change in the dielectric function of the surrounding medium. By analysing the dynamics of photochromic transitions in the effective medium, we conclude that the observed blue shift in LSPR is mainly because of the change in the dielectric function of surrounding medium, while a shape-preserving effective size reduction of the AgNPs causes decrease in the strength of LSPR.

  10. Fuzzy integral based measurement and assessment of medium and small enterprises' product innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕克新; 张铁柱; 孙金花; 冯英浚

    2003-01-01

    A fuzzy integral based way of measurement assessment has been established by using linguistic varia-bles and combining fuzzy integral with hierarchy analysis for measurement of medium and small enterprises'product innovation. The conclusions drawn from analyses made with 20 medium and small enterprises providebases for governments to formulate applicable policies and for medium and small enterprises to enhance theirproduct innovation.

  11. KIDSpec: an MKID based medium resolution integral field spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kieran; Thatte, Niranjan; Mazin, Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    We present a novel concept for a highly sensitive, medium spectral resolution optical through near-IR spectrograph. KIDSpec, the Kinetic Inductance Detector Spectrograph, uses the intrinsic energy resolving capability of an array of optical/IR-sensitive MKIDs to distinguish multiple orders from a low line-density (echelle) grating. MKID arrays have a wide bandpass (0.1-2.5um) and good quantum efficiency, making them strong candidates for replacing CCDs in many astronomical instruments. By acting as an `order resolver', the MKID array replaces the cross-disperser in an echelle spectrograph. This greatly simplifies the optical layout of the spectrograph and enables longer slits than are possible with cross-dispersed instruments. KIDSpec would have similar capabilities to ESO's X-shooter instrument. It would provide an R=4000-10,000 spectrum covering the entire optical and near-IR spectral range. In addition to a `long-slit' mode, the IFU would provide a small (~50 spaxel) field-of-view for spatially resolved sources. In addition, the photon-counting operation of MKIDs and their photon-energy resolving ability enable a read-noise free spectrum with perfect cosmic ray removal. The spectral resolution would be sufficient to remove the bright night-sky lines without the additional pixel noise, making the instrument more sensitive than an equivalent semiconductor-based instrument. KIDSpec would enhance many existing high-profile science cases, including transient (GRB, SNe, etc.) follow-up, redshift determination of faint objects and transit spectroscopy of exoplanets. In addition it will enable unique science cases, such as dynamical mass estimates of the compact objects in ultra-compact binaries.

  12. GIS and Remote Sensing based zonation map for volcaniclastic debris flow susceptibility: a case study from area surrounding the Vesuvius (Campania Region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marina; Spinetti, Claudia; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The volcanic areas affected by pyroclastic deposits and significant hillslopes can be considered zone with high proneness for triggering volcaniclastic debris flows. In fact, in presence of heavy and/or persistent rainfall, loose pyroclastic covers can be remobilized and generate volcaniclastic flows causing disastrous effects. The most important volcanoclastic debris flow in the Campania Region (Italy) has been the Sarno-Quindici event occurred on May 5-6, 1998 that caused the death of more than 150 people and relevant damages to villages at the foot of the Apennine Mountains in the circumvesuvian area. In order to improve the volcaniclastic flow hazard zonation in the area surrounding the Vesuvius volcano, we propose a methodological approach based on remote sensing analyses combined with morphometric study derived from a Digital Elevation Model having a spatial resolution of 10 meters to identify the drainage basins potentially more prone to generate volcaniclastic flows. The satellite high-medium resolution data will be used to derive the land cover mapping. The elaborations will be performed in the GIS environment and the combination of identified drainage basins with the land cover classes will provide the map classifying the areas according to different degree of susceptibility for triggering debris flows.

  13. 454 Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial diversity and community structure in termite guts, mounds and surrounding soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonde, Huxley M; Mwirichia, Romano; Osiemo, Zipporah; Boga, Hamadi I; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Termites constitute part of diverse and economically important termite fauna in Africa, but information on gut microbiota and their associated soil microbiome is still inadequate. In this study, we assessed and compared the bacterial diversity and community structure between termites' gut, their mounds and surrounding soil using the 454 pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. A wood-feeder termite (Microcerotermes sp.), three fungus-cultivating termites (Macrotermes michaelseni, Odontotermes sp. and Microtermes sp.), their associated mounds and corresponding savannah soil samples were analyzed. The pH of the gut homogenates and soil physico-chemical properties were determined. The results indicated significant difference in bacterial community composition and structure between the gut and corresponding soil samples. Soil samples (Chao1 index ranged from 1359 to 2619) had higher species richness than gut samples (Chao1 index ranged from 461 to 1527). The bacterial composition and community structure in the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni and Odontotermes sp. were almost identical but different from that of Microtermes and Microcerotermes species, which had unique community structures. The most predominant bacterial phyla in the gut were Bacteroidetes (40-58 %), Spirochaetes (10-70 %), Firmicutes (17-27 %) and Fibrobacteres (13 %) while in the soil samples were Acidobacteria (28-45 %), Actinobacteria (20-40 %) and Proteobacteria (18-24 %). Some termite gut-specific bacterial lineages belonging to the genera Dysgonomonas, Parabacteroides, Paludibacter, Tannerella, Alistipes, BCf9-17 termite group and Termite Treponema cluster were observed. The results not only demonstrated a high level of bacterial diversity in the gut and surrounding soil environments, but also presence of distinct bacterial communities that are yet to be cultivated. Therefore, combined efforts using both culture and culture-independent methods are suggested to

  14. Partial characterization of the factor in theca-cell conditioned medium that inhibits the progression of FSH-induced meiosis of bovine oocytes surrounded by cumulus cells connected to the membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, H T; Bevers, M M

    2001-11-01

    A factor, secreted by theca cells, inhibits FSH induced resumption of meiosis in bovine oocytes that are surrounded by cumulus cells which are attached to a piece of the membrana granulosa (COCGs). In order to characterize this factor, theca cell conditioned medium (CMt) was heat-treated, filtered through a 5 kD spin off filter, charcoal treated, chloroform extracted and protease treated. To investigate whether the meiosis inhibiting factor produced by theca cells was also present in follicular fluid (FF), the same treatments were done with 50% bovine follicular fluid (bFF). COCGs, originating from 2 to 8 mm follicles of bovine ovaries collected at a slaughterhouse, were cultured in groups of 15 per 600 microl medium supplemented with 0.05 IU ml FSH for 22 hr at 39 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO(2). After culture the oocytes were denuded, stained with orcein, and the nuclear status assessed. Heat treatment did not affect the meiosis arresting capacity of CMt since a similar proportion of the oocytes remained at the GV stage after 22 hr of culture in heat treated CMt as compared to the proportion of oocytes in the GV stage after culture in untreated CMt. Filtering through a 5 kD spin-off filter revealed that the meiosis inhibiting action was maintained in the <5 kD fraction, although there was a significant (P < 0.05) loss of inhibiting activity compared to nonfiltered CMt. No significant decrease was observed in the meiosis arresting capacity of the <5 kD fraction after charcoal or protease treatment. Extraction of the <5 kD fraction with chloroform also did not affect the theca cell produced factor. The effect of the theca cell factor on the progression of meiosis of the oocytes that resumed meiosis, as demonstrated by a very low percentage of the oocytes that matured up to the M2 stage, was not affected following any of the treatments. With regard to bFF, the results show a lower percentage of the oocytes in the GV stage after culture in 50% bFF as

  15. 3D Room Visualization on Android Based Mobile Device (with Philips™’ Surround Sound Music Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durio Etgar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This project’s specifically purposed as a demo application, so anyone can get the experience of a surround audio room without having to physically involved to it, with a main idea of generating a 3D surround sound room scenery coupled with surround sound in a handier package, namely, a “Virtual Listen Room”. Virtual Listen Room set a foundation of an innovative visualization that later will be developed and released as one of way of portable advertisement. This application was built inside of Android environment. Android device had been chosen as the implementation target, since it leaves massive development spaces and mostly contains essential components needed on this project, including graphic processor unit (GPU.  Graphic manipulation can be done using an embedded programming interface called OpenGL ES, which is planted in all Android devices generally. Further, Android has a Accelerometer Sensor that is needed to be coupled with scene to produce a dynamic movement of the camera. Surround sound effect can be reached with a decoder from Phillips called MPEG Surround Sound Decoder. To sum the whole project, we got an application with sensor-dynamic 3D room visualization coupled with Philips’ Surround Sound Music Player. We can manipulate several room’s properties; Subwoofer location, Room light, and how many speakers inside it, the application itself works well despite facing several performance problems before, later to be solved. [Keywords : Android,Visualization,Open GL; ES; 3D; Surround Sensor

  16. Intelligent direct analysis of physical and mechanical parameters of tunnel surrounding rock based on adaptive immunity algorithm and BP neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Because of complexity and non-predictability of the tunnel surrounding rock, the problem with the determination of the physical and mechanical parameters of the surrounding rock has become a main obstacle to theoretical research and numerical analysis in tunnel engineering. During design, it is a frequent practice, therefore, to give recommended values by analog based on experience. It is a key point in current research to make use of the displacement back analytic method to comparatively accurately determi...

  17. 3D Room Visualization on Android Based Mobile Device (with Philips™’ Surround Sound Music Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durio Etgar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This project’s specifically purposed as a demo application, so anyone can get the experience of a surround audio room without having to physically involved to it, with a main idea of generating a 3D surround sound room scenery coupled with surround sound in a handier package, namely, a “Virtual Listen Room”. Virtual Listen Room set a foundation of an innovative visualization that later will be developed and released as one of way of portable advertisement. This application was built inside of Android environment. Android device had been chosen as the implementation target, since it leaves massive development spaces and mostly contains essential components needed on this project, including graphic processor unit (GPU. Graphic manipulation can be done using an embedded programming interface called OpenGL ES, which is planted in all Android devices generally. Further, Android has a Accelerometer Sensor that is needed to be coupled with scene to produce a dynamic movement of the camera. Surround sound effect can be reached with a decoder from Phillips called MPEG Surround Sound Decoder. To sum the whole project, we got an application with sensor-dynamic 3D room visualization coupled with Philips’ Surround Sound Music Player. We can manipulate several room’s properties; Subwoofer location, Room light, and how many speakers inside it, the application itself works well despite facing several performance problems before, later to be solved.

  18. THE PETROLOGY CHARACTERISTIC OF GRANITOID ROCK BASED ON GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF BAJAU CAPE COAST AND ITS SURROUNDING, WEST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor C.D. Aryanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify of petrology characteristic based on geochemical analysis in order to know the granitoid rock type. Administratively, the study area is in the City and District of Singkawang, West Kalimantan Province, at coordinate 108°48'30” - 109°1'30” E and 0°40'30” - 0°54'30” N and, situated ± 145 km to the north of Pontianak City. The outcrop of granitoid along Bajau Cape coast and its surrounding, had been analyzed petrographically and geochemically using AAS method. Based on analysis of five samples show that the ratio mole of Al2O3/(CaO+Na2O +K2O > 1 ranged between 1.12 and 1.7, while the rest of three samples are moderately aluminous, with a ratio value between 0.5 and 1.0. The ratio between K2O and (K2O+Na2O+CaO ranges 0.07 to 0.55 (moderate that forms alkali feldspar normative ranges from 3.8 to 15.89 wt%. This ratio shows that granite alkali feldspar is classified to be calc-alkaline series. Petrographically, this rock is porfiritic texture, hollocrystalline, granular hypodiomorphic and biotite present as phenocryst, yellowish brown, euhedral, thin and platy. The content of oxides element (Na2O and MgO tend to decrease, whereas of other oxides elements, namely Al2O3, TiO2, K2O, FeO and CaO increased, parallel with the raising of SiO2. Therefore, the Singkawang Granitoid can be grouped as alkali feldspar granite, syeno-granite and quartz monzonite.

  19. Perfil do Controller em empresas de médio e grande porte da Grande Florianópolis = The controller profile in medium and big enterprises in Florianopolis and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Seixas Ribeiro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Há certa assimetria e fragilidade entre a literatura sobre controladoria e a prática atual das organizações. Para compreender as razões dessas divergências, este ensaio visa apresentar os resultados de uma pesquisa, na literatura, sobre as funções de um controller e confrontá-los com as constatações de uma pesquisa de campo em médias e grandes empresas da Grande Florianópolis. Nela busca-se diagnosticar pontos específicos como, posição hierárquica, subordinação, formação, funções e habilidades relacionadas ao controller. O delineamento metodológico adotado foi o descritivo, de caráter quantitativo, conduzido através do instrumento de levantamento (survey e amostragem por acessibilidade. Os resultados mostram que o controller possui, preponderantemete, formação em ciências contábeis (55,6%, ocupa posição de gerência (41,2%, e que as funções de controles internos, elaboração de relatórios locais e habilidades relacionadas ao conhecimento profundo de contabilidade, iniciativa, liderança, flexibilidade para mudanças, capacidade analítica e raciocínio lógico são as mais demandadas.The bibliography on business control shows much fragility and asymmetry in itstheoretical basis if compared to its practice. In order to better understand the reasonsfor such differences, the present essay aims at presenting the results of a bibliographicalresearch on the functions of a controller and later, through a survey, to show the profileof this professional in medium and big enterprises of Florianopolis and its surroundings.Questionnaires were applied in order to identify specific issues such as status,subordination, training, functions and abilities connected with controllers. Themethodology adopted was descriptive, both quantitative and qualitative, and the workwas conducted through data collection and sample according to accessibility. The resultsreveal that the controller is a manager (41,18% who has graduated on

  20. The optimal design of an implant to improve bone quality of implant surroundings based on stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyama, Yoshihiro; Nagayama, Noriyuki; Kuramoto, Koichi; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2009-05-01

    Research on how implant surface shape contributes to long-term stability after implantation is important in the field of orthopaedics. In particular, technology that controls various bone quality parameters and voluntary bone inducement in implant surroundings should be developed for the next generation of implants and this will improve the patient's quality of life (QOL). For this research, we focused on the inducement of the appropriate alignment for biological apatite (BAp) crystallites and related collagen (Col.) fibres as a bone quality parameter. In this study, we predicted that when stress is applied to bone, the BAp/Col. preferential alignment can be formed if osteocytes are in an environment that is aligned with the principle stress vector. We tested this idea by introducing grooves in the principal stress direction on the surface of an implant. This work thus analyzes the effect of stress transmission by a load at the proximal femur on the bone inside and near the grooves by using mechanical simulation in which groove angles can be changed on the implant surface. Coordinate data from the mechanical simulation of the combined bone/implant environment was verified against the coordinate data obtained by CT scans of actual canine bone. Results suggest that the tendency of stress transmission differs depending on the position and angle of the grooves and based on a vector diagram of the maximum and minimum principal stresses. The simulation was able to predict bone dynamics in vivo and enabled a best design of an implant to control the BAp/Col. alignment as an index of bone quality.

  1. Elasto-plastic analysis of the surrounding rock mass in circular tunnel based on the generalized nonlinear unified strength theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiujie; Zhang Jixun; Yang Ling; Yang Shikou; Wang Xingli

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims to establish a versatile strength theory suitable for elasto-plastic analysis of underground tunnel surrounding rock. In order to analyze the effects of intermediate principal stress and the rock properties on its deformation and failure of rock mass, the generalized nonlinear unified strength theory and elasto-plastic mechanics are used to deduce analytic solution of the radius and stress of tunnel plastic zone and the periphery displacement of tunnel under uniform ground stress field. The results show that: intermediate principal stress coefficient b has significant effect on the plastic range, the magnitude of stress and surrounding rock pressure. Then, the results are compared with the unified strength criterion solution and Mohr–Coulomb criterion solution, and concluded that the generalized nonlinear unified strength criterion is more applicable to elasto-plastic analysis of underground tunnel surrounding rock.

  2. The Study of Application System for Small and Medium CTI Based on Voice Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of computer telecommunications integration (CTI technology, the development of application system for small and medium CTI are updated constantly, but the study of application system for small and medium CTI, we are lack of a stability and unified model. In this paper, the author analyzes the unified structure platform of application system for small and medium CTI based on voice card. Meanwhile, the author introduces a suitable software architecture model and general procedural framework for application system for small and medium CTI based on voice card by using the idea of hierarchical design, which shows the versatility of the architecture. It provided an efficient channel for the development of small and medium CTI.

  3. Monitoring of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf based on medium resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of inland and offshore oil fields are located in the Arabian Gulf where about 25% of the world's oil is produced by the countries surrounding the Arabian Gulf region. Almost all of this oil production is shipped by sea worldwide through the Strait of Hormuz making the region vulnerable to environmental and ecological threats that might arise from accidental or intentional oil spills. Remote sensing technologies have the unique capability to detect and monitor oil pollutions over large temporal and spatial scales. Synoptic satellite imaging can date back to 1972 when Landsat-1 was launched. Landsat satellite missions provide long time series of imagery with a spatial resolution of 30 m. MODIS sensors onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites provide a wide and frequent coverage at medium spatial resolution, i.e. 250 m and 500, twice a day. In this study, the capability of medium resolution MODIS and Landsat data in detecting and monitoring oil pollutions in the Arabian Gulf was tested. Oil spills and slicks show negative or positive contrasts in satellite derived RGB images compared with surrounding clean waters depending on the solar/viewing geometry, oil thickness and evolution, etc. Oil-contaminated areas show different spectral characteristics compared with surrounding waters. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance at the seven medium resolution bands of MODIS is lower in oil affected areas. This is caused by high light absorption of oil slicks. 30-m Landsat image indicated the occurrence of oil spill on May 26 2000 in the Arabian Gulf. The oil spill showed positive contrast and lower temperature than surrounding areas. Floating algae index (FAI) images are also used to detect oil pollution. Oil-contaminated areas were found to have lower FAI values. To track the movement of oil slicks found on October 21 2007, ocean circulations from a HYCOM model were examined and demonstrated that the oil slicks were advected toward the coastal areas of United Arab

  4. Star-forming regions at the periphery of the supershell surrounding the Cyg OB1 association. I. The star cluster vdB 130 and its ambient gas and dust medium

    CERN Document Server

    Sitnik, T G; Lozinskaya, T A; Moiseev, A V; Rastorguev, A S; Tatarnikov, A M; Tatarnikova, A A; Wiebe, D S; Zabolotskikh, M V

    2015-01-01

    Stellar population and the interstellar gas-dust medium in the vicinity of the open star cluster vdB 130 are analysed using optical observations taken with the 6-m telescope of the SAO RAS and the 125-cm telescope of the SAI MSU along with the data of Spitzer and Herschel. Based on proper motions and BV and JHKs 2MASS photometric data, we select additional 36 stars as probable cluster members. Some stars in vdB 130 are classified as B stars. Our estimates of minimum colour excess, apparent distance modulus and the distance are consistent with young age (from 5 to 10 Myrs) of the cluster vdB 130. We suppose the large deviations from the conventional extinction law in the cluster direction, with $R_V$ ~ 4 - 5. The cluster vdB 130 appears to be physically related to the supershell around Cyg OB1, a cometary CO cloud, ionized gas, and regions of infrared emission. There are a few regions of bright mid-infrared emission in the vicinity of vdB 130. The largest of them is also visible on H-alpha and [SII] emission m...

  5. Graph-based interpretation of the molecular interstellar medium segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Ginsburg, A.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hughes, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a generalization of the giant molecular cloud identification problem based on cluster analysis. The method we designed, SCIMES (Spectral Clustering for Interstellar Molecular Emission Segmentation) considers the dendrogram of emission in the broader framework of graph theory and utilizes spectral clustering to find discrete regions with similar emission properties. For Galactic molecular cloud structures, we show that the characteristic volume and/or integrated CO luminosity are useful criteria to define the clustering, yielding emission structures that closely reproduce `by-eye' identification results. SCIMES performs best on well-resolved, high-resolution data, making it complementary to other available algorithms. Using 12CO(1-0) data for the Orion-Monoceros complex, we demonstrate that SCIMES provides robust results against changes of the dendrogram-construction parameters, noise realizations and degraded resolution. By comparing SCIMES with other cloud decomposition approaches, we show that our method is able to identify all canonical clouds of the Orion-Monoceros region, avoiding the overdivision within high-resolution survey data that represents a common limitation of several decomposition algorithms. The Orion-Monoceros objects exhibit hierarchies and size-line width relationships typical to the turbulent gas in molecular clouds, although `the Scissors' region deviates from this common description. SCIMES represents a significant step forward in moving away from pixel-based cloud segmentation towards a more physical-oriented approach, where virtually all properties of the ISM can be used for the segmentation of discrete objects.

  6. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  7. Graph-based interpretation of the Molecular Interstellar Medium Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Colombo, Dario; Ginsburg, Adam; Duarte-Cabral, Ana; Hughes, Annie

    2015-01-01

    We present a generalization of the Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) identification problem based on cluster analysis. The method we designed, SCIMES (Spectral Clustering for Interstellar Molecular Emission Segmentation) considers the dendrogram of emission in the broader framework of graph theory and utilizes spectral clustering to find discrete regions with similar emission properties. For Galactic molecular cloud structures, we show that the characteristic volume and/or integrated CO luminosity are useful criteria to define the clustering, yielding emission structures that closely reproduce "by-eye" identification results. SCIMES performs best on well-resolved, high-resolution data, making it complementary to other available algorithms. Using 12CO(1-0) data for the Orion-Monoceros complex, we demonstrate that SCIMES provides robust results against changes of the dendrogram-construction parameters, noise realizations and degraded resolution. By comparing SCIMES with other cloud decomposition approaches, we show t...

  8. Lithological and land-use based assessment of heavy metal pollution in soils surrounding a cement plant in SW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Gómez-Armesto, Antía; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-15

    We study the influence of phasing out a cement plant on the heavy metal (Hg, Pb and Cr) content in the surrounding soils, taking into account factors often neglected, such as contributions due to local lithology or land use. The range of total Hg was 10-144µg kg(-1), reaching up to 41 and 145mgkg(-1) for total contents of Pb and Cr, respectively. Forest soils showed higher concentration of Hg than prairie soils, indicating the importance of land use on the accumulation of volatile heavy metals in soils. In forest soils, total Hg showed a trend to decrease with soil depth, whereas in prairie soils the vertical pattern of heavy metal concentrations was quite homogeneous. In most cases, the distance to the cement plant was not a factor of influence in the soils content of the analyzed heavy metals. Total Pb and Cr contents in soils nearby the cement plant were quite similar to those found in the local lithology, resulting in enrichment factor values (EF's) below 2. This suggests that soil parent material is the main source of these heavy metals in the studied soils, while the contribution of the cement plant to Pb and Cr soil pollution was almost negligible. On the contrary, the soils surrounding the cement plant accumulate a significant amount of Hg, compared to the underlying lithology. This was especially noticeable in forest soils, where Hg EF achieved values up to 36. These results are of relevance, bearing in mind that Hg accumulation in soils may be an issue of environmental concern, particularly in prairie soils, where temporal flooding can favor Hg transformation to highly toxic methyl-Hg. In addition, the concurrence of acid soils and total-Cr concentrations in the range of those considered phytotoxic should be also stressed.

  9. Holocene history and environmental reconstruction of a Hercynian mire and surrounding mountain landscape based on multiple proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudová, Lydie; Hájková, Petra; Opravilová, Věra; Hájek, Michal

    2014-07-01

    We discovered the first peat section covering the entire Holocene in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains, representing an island of unique alpine vegetation whose history may display transitional features between the Hercynian and Carpathian regions. We analysed pollen, plant macrofossils (more abundant in bottom layers), testate amoebae (more abundant in upper layers), peat stratigraphy and chemistry. We found that the landscape development indeed differed from other Hercynian mountains located westward. This is represented by Pinus cembra and Larix during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, the early expansion of spruce around 10,450 cal yr BP, and survival of Larix during the climatic optimum. The early Holocene climatic fluctuations are traced in our profile by species compositions of both the mire and surrounding forests. The mire started to develop as a calcium-rich percolation fen with some species recently considered to be postglacial relicts (Meesia triquetra, Betula nana), shifted into ombrotrophy around 7450 cal yr BP by autogenic succession and changed into a pauperised, nutrient-enriched spruce woodland due to modern forestry activities. We therefore concluded that its recent vegetation is not a product of natural processes. From a methodological viewpoint we demonstrated how using multiple biotic proxies and extensive training sets in transfer functions may overcome taphonomic problems.

  10. [Base for use a new liquid accumulation growth medium for the isolation of Salmonella from water objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasovets, O P; Netrusov, A I; Golovina, S V; Aleshnia, V V; Zhuravlev, P V

    2007-01-01

    Base for use of new luquid mild inhibitory accumulation medium for the isolation of Salmonella from water objects has been proposed. High sensitivity and efficacy of the new medium compared with routinely used magnesium and selenitic media were shown in experimental conditions. During examination of water from surface reservoirs the new accumulation medium allowed to isolate Salmonella with higher index and various serologic patterns.

  11. Revenue-Based Financial Modeling: A Sustainable Model for Medium-Size, Private, Mission-Based Schools of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbouk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and assessment of revenue-based budgeting at a medium-size, private, mission-based graduate school of education (SOE), under the pseudonym Peter Claver University (PCU). Additionally, two other similar schools were included in the study because they used revenue-based budgeting for a period of 10 years or…

  12. A compentence-based approach for small and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancatisano, Germano; Jurriëns, Jan; Verburg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of empirical research, a competence-based model of the internationalization process of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is developed. The model focuses on so-called International Market-Entry Core Competencies (IMECC), which are global management competences considered crucial

  13. A compentence-based approach for small and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germano Brancatisano; Jan Jurriëns; Robert Verburg

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of empirical research, a competence-based model of the internationalization process of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is developed. The model focuses on so-called International Market-Entry Core Competencies (IMECC), which are global management competences considered crucial

  14. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we establish the evaluation index system based on the AHP small and medium-sized enterprise and then use AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, we use Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and give the measurement process. The empirical research, to validate the method is scientific and feasible.

  15. Numerical analysis of road pavement thermal deformability, based on Biot viscoelastic model of porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewska-Urban, Monika; Zombroń, Marek; Strzelecki, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The following study presents numerical calculations for establishing the impact of temperature changes on the process of distortion of bi-phase medium represented using Biot consolidation equations with Kelvin-Voigt rheological skeleton presented, on the example of thermo-consolidation of a pavement of expressway S17. We analyzed the behavior of the expressway under the action of its own weight, dynamic load caused by traffic and temperature gradient. This paper presents the application of the Biot consolidation model with the Kelvin-Voigt skeleton rheological characteristics and the influence of temperature on the deformation process is taken into account. A three-dimensional model of the medium was created describing the thermal consolidation of a porous medium. The 3D geometrical model of the area under investigation was based on data obtained from the land surveying and soil investigation of a 200 m long section of the expressway and its shoulders.

  16. Intelligent direct analysis of physical and mechanical parameters of tunnel surrounding rock based on adaptive immunity algorithm and BP neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-rui Wang; Yuan-han Wang; Xiao-feng Jia

    2009-01-01

    Because of complexity and non-predictability of the tunnel surrounding rock, the problem with the determination of the physical and, mechanical parameters of the surrounding rock has become a main obstacle to theoretical research and numerical analysis in tunnel engineering. During design, it is a frequent practice, therefore, to give recommended values by analog based on experience. It is a key point in current research to make use of the displacement back analytic method to comparatively accurately determine the parameters of the surrounding rock whereas artificial intelligence possesses an exceptionally strong capability of identifying, expressing and coping with such complex non-linear relationships. The parameters can be verified by searching the optimal network structure, using back analysis on measured data to search optimal parameters and performing direct computation of the obtained results. In the current paper, the direct analysis is performed with the biological emulation system and the software of Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC3D. The high non-linearity, network reasoning and coupling ability of the neural network are employed. The output vector required of the training of the neural network is obtained with the numerical analysis software. And the overall space search is conducted by employing the Adaptive Immunity Algorithm. As a result, we are able to avoid the shortcoming that multiple parameters and optimized parameters are easy to fall into a local extremum. At the same time, the computing speed and efficiency are increased as well. Further, in the paper satisfactory conclusions are arrived at through the intelligent direct-back analysis on the monitored and measured data at the Erdaoya tunneling project. The results show that the physical and mechanical parameters obtained by the intelligent direct-back analysis proposed in the current paper have effectively unproved the recommended values in the original prospecting data. This is of

  17. Towards Semantic Understanding of Surrounding Vehicular Maneuvers: A Panoramic Vision-Based Framework for Real-World Highway Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Satzoda, Ravi K.;

    2016-01-01

    into events. A user-centric vision-based framework is presented using a vehicle detector and tracker in each separate perspective. Multi-perspective trajectories are estimated and analyzed to extract 14 different events, including potential dangerous behaviors such as overtakes and cut-ins. The system...

  18. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  19. Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks based on Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband

    CERN Document Server

    Berthe, Abdoulaye; Dragomirescu, Daniela; Plana, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed performance evaluation of distributed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks based on Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) Physical layer (PHY). Two main classes of Medium Access Control protocol have been considered: Slotted and UnSlotted with reliability. The reliability is based on Automatic Repeat ReQuest (ARQ). The performance evaluation is performed using a complete Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) simulator built on the Global Mobile Information System Simulator (GloMoSim). The optimal operating parameters are first discussed for IR-UWB in terms of slot size, retransmission delay and the number of retransmission, then a comparison between IR-UWB and other transmission techniques in terms of reliability latency and power efficiency.

  20. Convenience Sampling of Children Presenting to Hospital-Based Outpatient Clinics to Estimate Childhood Obesity Levels in Local Surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Clark, Andrew F; Kobrzynski, Marta; Filler, Guido

    2015-07-01

    Childhood obesity is a critical public health matter associated with numerous pediatric comorbidities. Local-level data are required to monitor obesity and to help administer prevention efforts when and where they are most needed. We hypothesized that samples of children visiting hospital clinics could provide representative local population estimates of childhood obesity using data from 2007 to 2013. Such data might provide more accurate, timely, and cost-effective obesity estimates than national surveys. Results revealed that our hospital-based sample could not serve as a population surrogate. Further research is needed to confirm this finding.

  1. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  2. Near-Field Thermometry Sensor Based on the Thermal Resonance of a Microcantilever in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth David Kihm

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A new concept using a near-field thermometry sensor is presented, employing atipless microcantilever experimentally validated for an aqueous medium within approximatelyone cantilever width from the solid interface. By correlating the thermal Brownian vibratingmotion of the microcantilever with the surrounding liquid temperature, the near-fieldmicroscale temperature distributions at the probing site are determined at separation distancesof z = 5, 10, 20, and 40 μm while the microheater temperature is maintained at 50°C, 70°C, or90°C. In addition, the near-field correction of the correlation is discussed to account for thequenched cantilever vibration frequencies, which are quenched due to the no-slip solid-wallinterference. Higher thermal sensitivity and spatial resolution is expected when the vibrationfrequencies increase with a relatively short and thick cantilever and the dimensions of themicrocantilever are reduced. Use of the microcantilever thermometry sensor can also reduce thecomplexity and mitigate the high cost associated with existing microfabricated thermocouplesor thermoresistive sensors.

  3. 随机介质理论下隧道围岩渐进破坏过程数值实验研究%Numerical Experiment Research on the Progressive Failure Process of the Surrounding Rock of the Tunnel under the Stochastic Medium Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商拥辉; 李航; 张波; 方前程

    2015-01-01

    The strength subtraction is introduced to safety evaluation of tunnel surrounding rock,combining with “the shallow tunnel rapid construction double small spacing tunnels,wear interchange structure under the shield tunnel and the surface of the structure containing joint,irregular fissure of mountain highway tunnel”engi-neering examples,using real damage of material analysis software RFPA -2D ,the finite element model of each strength reduction factor is set up.Viscoelastic artificial boundary is adopted to eliminate the influence of boundary conditions on the calculation precision in model,and the model achieves the mesoscopic structure unit of surround-ing rock of the mean and the defects of random distribution by means of random medium theory,it also reveals the dynamic gradual damage process of surrounding rock,the primitive phase change damage evolution mechanism and characteristics of rock mass structural plane under different working conditions,the mesoscopic damage of surround-ing rock is thought to be caused by non average of rock nonlinear material macroscopic unit,the calculation results judged in failure of tunnel surrounding rock with different step reduction in crack development trends and the num-ber of cell damage,and calculates safety factor in the sense of the safety reserve.At the same time,combining ABAQUS with RFPA -2D two different finite element models,comparatively analyzing the random medium theory and continuum theory combining strength subtraction in differences of the evaluation of surrounding rock stability.%将强度折减法引入到隧道围岩安全评价中,结合“浅埋暗挖快速施工双线小间距隧道、盾构下穿立交结构隧道和结构面含有节理、不规则裂隙的山体公路隧道”等工程实例,借助材料真实破坏分析软件 RFPA-2D,建立每个强度折减系数下的有限元模型。模型采用了黏弹性人工边界来消除边界条件对计算精度的影响,并借助随机介

  4. Medium-Contention Based Energy-Efficient Distributed Clustering (MEDIC) for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Zhao; Qilian Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize clustering to organize wireless sensors into an energy-efficient hierarchy. We propose a Medium-contention based Energy-efficient DIstributed Clustering (MEDIC) scheme, through which sensors self-organize themselves into energy-efficient clusters by bidding for cluster headship. This scheme is based on a new criterion that can be used by each sensor node to make a distributed decision on whether electing to be a cluster head or a non-head member, which is a fully dis...

  5. err aA spatial evaluation of socio demographics surrounding National Priorities List sites in Florida using a distance-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiros Gebre-Egziabher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, various spatial techniques have been demonstrated using geographical information systems (GIS to adequately estimate and characterize inequities of minority populations living near environmentally hazardous facilities. However, these methods have produced mixed results. In this study, we use recently developed variations of the "distance based" approach to spatially evaluate and compare demographic and socioeconomic disparities surrounding the worst hazardous waste sites in Florida. Methods We used data from the 2000 US Census Bureau and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to identify selected socio and economic variables within one (1 mile of 71 National Priorities List (NPL or Superfund sites in Florida. ArcMap (ESRI, v. 9.2 was used to map the centroid locations of each of the NPL sites as well as identify and estimate the number of host and non-host tracts. The unit of analysis in this study was at the census tract level. Logistic regression (SAS v9.1.3 was used to determine if race/ethnicity and socioeconomic indicators are significant predictors of the location of NPL sites. Results There were significant differences in race/ethnicity composition and socio-economic factors between NPL host census tracts and non-host census tracts in Florida. The percentages of Blacks (OR = 5.7, p Conclusion The recently developed distance-based method supports previous studies and suggests that race and ethnicity play substantial roles in where hazardous facilities are located in Florida. Recommendations include using distance-based methods to evaluate socio and demographic characteristics surrounding other less known environmental hazardous facilities, such as landfills, or Toxic Release Inventory (TRI sites.

  6. FDTD-based computed terahertz wave propagation in multilayer medium structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wan-li; Zhong, Shun-cong; Yao, Hai-zi; Shen, Yao-chun

    2013-08-01

    The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum spans the frequency range of 0.1THz~10THz, which means it sandwiches between the mid-infrared (IR) and the millimeter/ microwave. With the development and commercialization of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS) and terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) systems, terahertz technologies have been widely used in the sensing and imaging fields. It allows high quality cross-sectional images from within scattering media to be obtained nondestructively. Characterizing the interaction of terahertz radiation with multilayer medium structures is critical for the development of nondestructive testing technology. Currently, there was much experimental investigation of using TPI for the characterization of terahertz radiation in materials (e.g., pharmaceutical tablet coatings), but there were few theoretical researches on propagation of terahertz radiation in multilayer medium structures. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) algorithm is a proven method for electromagnetic scattering theory, which analyzes continuous electromagnetic problems by employing finite difference and obtains electromagnetic field value at the sampling point to approach the actual continuous solutions. In the present work, we investigated the propagation of terahertz radiation in multilayer medium structures based on FDTD method. The model of multilayer medium structures under the THz frequency plane wave incidence was established, and the reflected radiation properties were recorded and analyzed. The terahertz radiation used was broad-band in the frequency up to 2 THz. A batch of single layer coated pharmaceutical tablets, whose coating thickness in the range of 40~100μm, was computed by FDTD method. We found that the simulation results on pharmaceutical tablet coatings were in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using a commercial system (TPI imaga 2000, TeraView, Cambridge, UK) , demonstrating its usefulness in simulating and analyzing

  7. Analysis of a Self-organizing Algorithm for Time Slot Selection in Schedule-based Medium Access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2009-01-01

    To ensure a long-lived network of wireless communicating sensors, it is necessary to have a medium access control protocol that is able to prevent energy-wasting behaviour like idle listening, hidden terminal problem or collision of packets. Schedule-based medium access protocols are in general robu

  8. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  9. KSR-Based Medium Improves the Generation of High-Quality Mouse iPS Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring wi...

  10. Image Reconstruction of Two-Dimensional Highly Scattering Inhomogeneous Medium Using MAP-Based Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A maximum a posteriori (MAP estimation based on Bayesian framework is applied to image reconstruction of two-dimensional highly scattering inhomogeneous medium. The finite difference method (FDM and conjugate gradient (CG algorithm serve as the forward and inverse solving models, respectively. The generalized Gaussian Markov random field model (GGMRF is treated as the regularization, and finally the influence of the measurement errors and initial distributions is investigated. Through the test cases, the MAP estimate algorithm is demonstrated to greatly improve the reconstruction results of the optical coefficients.

  11. General insight into the complementary medium-based camouflage devices from Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2010-07-01

    We present a general insight into complementary medium-based camouflage devices from Fourier optics. The cloaks are simply spatial filters with different transfer functions and play the role of passively remedying or actively modulating the propagation optical field to make an object invisible or changeable. We further analytically show and numerically demonstrate two filters for realizing another invisibility method: optically camouflaging an object at one place to appear at another place with parallel displacement or orientation changeable displacement, respectively. Our analysis is from a completely different point of view and should clarify understanding of the mechanism of invisibility phenomena.

  12. To optimize splice joint between different PCF-based devices and SMF transmission medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faramarz E. Seraji; S. Farsinezhad

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of splice loss between photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) and conventional single-mode fibers (SMFs) is presented at bending and straight conditions, by using scalar effective index method (SEIM), vectorial effective index method (VEIM), and finite-difference frequency domain (FDFD) methods. It is shown that when there is a slight bending at the vicinity of splice joint, the spot size increases sharply at higher frequencies. On the basis of the obtained results, a mechanism to optimize the splice loss between PCFs and conventional SMFs, both with any geometry, is suggested. The results can be utilized for PCF-based devices to be jointed to SMF as a transmission medium.

  13. ANALYSIS OF LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ŠIBENIK-KNIN COUNTY BASED ON MEDIUM AND LARGE ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Požega

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades leadership has become the main focus of intense interest and research by scientists and theorists. A large number of leadership models has been developed in order to define and enable the certain level of business flexibility that is crucial to survive in a new business environment which is characterized by frequent market change, growing global competition and technology development together with demographic changes of employees. The purpose of the paper is to determine the dominant leadership style as well as the advantages and disadvantages in medium and large organizations in Šibenik-Knin County. For the purpose of this paper, empirical research was conducted with the goal of defining the leadership styles of top and middle management based on medium and large organizations. The research was based on the leadership model developed and established by Likert Renis which is the most used and recognized model for diagnostic determination of the dominant leadership style. The Likert model is based on six components: leadership, motivation, communication, decision making, goals and control which determine the four leadership styles: extreme authoritative, paternalistic, consultative and participative leadership style.

  14. The diurnal and seasonal characteristics of urban heat island variation in Beijing city and surrounding areas and impact factors based on remote sensing satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jiahua; HOU Yingyu; LI Guicai; YAN Hao YANG Limin; YAO Fengmei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the land surface temperature (LST), the land cover classification map,vegetation coverage, and surface evapotranspiration derived from EOS-MODIS satellite data, and by the use of GIS spatial analytic technique and multivariate statistical analysis method, the urban heat island (UHI) spatial distribution of the diurnal and seasonal variabilities and its driving forces are studied in Beijing city and surrounding areas in 2001. The relationships among UHI distribution and landcover categories, topographic factor, vegetation greenness, and surface evapotranspiration are analyzed. The results indicate that: (i) The significant UHI occur in Beijing city areas in the four seasons due to high heat capacity and multi-reflection of compression building, as well as with special topographic features of its three sides surrounded by mountains,especially in the summer. The UHI spatial distribution is corresponding with the urban geometry structure profile. The LST difference is approximately 4-6℃ between Beijing city and suburb areas, comparatively is 8- 10℃ between Beijing city area and outer suburb area in northwestern regions. (ii) The UHI distribution and intensity in daytime are different from nighttime in Beijing city area, the nighttime UHI is obvious. However, in the daytime, the significant UHI mainly appears in the summer, the autumn takes second place, and the UHI in the winter and the spring seem not obvious. The surface evapotranspiration in suburb areas is larger than that in urban areas in the summer, and high latent heat exchange is evident, which leads to LST difference between city area and suburb area. (iii) The reflection of surface landcover categories is sensitive to the UHI, the correlation between vegetation greenness and UHI shows obviously negative.The scatterplot shows that there is the negative correlation between NDVI and LST (R2 = 0.6481).The results demonstrate that the vegetation greenness is an important factor for reducing the UHI

  15. Study the Surface Effect on the Buckling of Nanowires Embedded in Winkler–Pasternak Elastic Medium Based on a Nonlocal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rahmani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nano structures such as nanowires, nanobeams and nanoplates have been investigated widely for their innovative properties. In this paper the buckling of nanowires surrounded in a Winkler - Pasternak elastic medium has been examined based on the nonlocal Euler-Bernoully model with considering the surface effects. In the following a parametric study that explores the influence of numerous physical and geometrical parameters on the buckling of nanowires is presented.  It has been shown that by growing the ratio of surface area to bulk in nano-size structures, the effect of surface energy turn out to be important and should be taken into consideration. Moreover the results point out that surface elasticity and residual surface tension stimulus the buckling behavior of nanowires.

  16. Distributed Fair Auto Rate Medium Access Control for IEEE 802.11 Based WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanfeng; Niu, Zhisheng

    Much research has shown that a carefully designed auto rate medium access control can utilize the underlying physical multi-rate capability to exploit the time-variation of the channel. In this paper, we develop a simple analytical model to elucidate the rule that maximizes the throughput of RTS/CTS based multi-rate wireless local area networks. Based on the discovered rule, we propose two distributed fair auto rate medium access control schemes called FARM and FARM+ from the view-point of throughput fairness and time-share fairness, respectively. With the proposed schemes, after receiving a RTS frame, the receiver selectively returns the CTS frame to inform the transmitter the maximum feasible rate probed by the signal-to-noise ratio of the received RTS frame. The key feature of the proposed schemes is that they are capable of maintaining throughput/time-share fairness in asymmetric situation where the distribution of SNR varies with stations. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed schemes outperform the existing throughput/time-share fair auto rate schemes in time-varying channel conditions.

  17. Calibrating galaxy redshifts using absorption by the surrounding intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic, Olivera; Schaye, Joop; Steidel, Charles C.; Rudie, Gwen C.

    2011-07-01

    Rest-frame UV spectral lines of star-forming galaxies are systematically offset from the galaxies' systemic redshifts, probably because of large-scale outflows. We calibrate galaxy redshifts measured from rest-frame UV lines by utilizing the fact that the mean H I Lyα absorption profiles around the galaxies, as seen in spectra of background objects, must be symmetric with respect to the true galaxy redshifts if the galaxies are oriented randomly with respect to the lines of sight to the background objects. We use 15 bright QSOs at z≈ 2.5-3 and more than 600 foreground galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts at z≈ 1.9-2.5. All galaxies are within 2 Mpc proper from the lines of sight to the background QSOs. We find that Lyα emission and ISM absorption redshifts require systematic shifts of ? and ?, respectively. Assuming a Gaussian distribution, we put 1σ upper limits on possible random redshift offsets of ? for Lyα and ? for ISM redshifts. For the small subset (Technology, the University of California and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  18. Comparison of Expansion During Fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols Oil-Based and Butter Fat-Based Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion during fermentation on Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols (MCT oil-based doughs compared to butter fat-based doughs were studied, and the mechanism of fermentation accelerator of MCT oilbased in dough was also investigated. The results obtained as follows; the concentration of MCT oil-based accelerator on the fermentation of dough was confirmed maximum at 6.0%. The rate of expansion became the maximum a 60% of gluten contents at the dough with MCT oil-based. Mechanism of expansion of fermentation on MCT oil-based doughs was discussed. Gluten is formed of gliadin and glutenin. Gluten was denatured by MCT oil-based, which gluten molecule grows large. Fermentation is promoted by this phenomenon. This fact can provide new information to the bread-making industry.

  19. Explicit continuous charge-based compact model for long channel heavily doped surrounding-gate MOSFETs incorporating interface traps and quantum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Afiq; Hamid, Fatimah A.; Ismail, Razali

    2016-12-01

    An explicit solution for long-channel surrounding-gate (SRG) MOSFETs is presented from intrinsic to heavily doped body including the effects of interface traps and fixed oxide charges. The solution is based on the core SRGMOSFETs model of the Unified Charge Control Model (UCCM) for heavily doped conditions. The UCCM model of highly doped SRGMOSFETs is derived to obtain the exact equivalent expression as in the undoped case. Taking advantage of the undoped explicit charge-based expression, the asymptotic limits for below threshold and above threshold have been redefined to include the effect of trap states for heavily doped cases. After solving the asymptotic limits, an explicit mobile charge expression is obtained which includes the trap state effects. The explicit mobile charge model shows very good agreement with respect to numerical simulation over practical terminal voltages, doping concentration, geometry effects, and trap state effects due to the fixed oxide charges and interface traps. Then, the drain current is obtained using the Pao-Sah's dual integral, which is expressed as a function of inversion charge densities at the source/drain ends. The drain current agreed well with the implicit solution and numerical simulation for all regions of operation without employing any empirical parameters. A comparison with previous explicit models has been conducted to verify the competency of the proposed model with the doping concentration of 1× {10}19 {{cm}}-3, as the proposed model has better advantages in terms of its simplicity and accuracy at a higher doping concentration.

  20. Application of ecological risk assessment based on a novel TRIAD-tiered approach to contaminated soil surrounding a closed non-sealed landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Laura; Garbisu, Carlos; Ciprián, Estela; Becerril, José M; Soto, Manu; Etxebarria, Javier; Madariaga, Juan M; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Epelde, Lur

    2015-05-01

    The Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) is a reliable tool for communicating risk to decision makers in a comprehensive and scientific evidence-based way. In this work, a site-specific ERA methodology based on the TRIAD approach was applied to contaminated soil surrounding a closed non-sealed landfill, as a case study to implement and validate such ERA methodology in the Basque Country (northern Spain). Initially, the procedure consisted of the application of a Parameter Selection Module aimed at selecting the most suitable parameters for the specific characteristics of the landfill contaminated soil, taking into consideration the envisioned land use, intended ecosystem services and nature of contaminants. Afterwards, the selected parameters were determined in soil samples collected from two sampling points located downstream of the abovementioned landfill. The results from these tests were normalized to make them comparable and integrable in a risk index. Then, risk assessment criteria were developed and applied to the two landfill contaminated soil samples. Although the lack of a proper control soil was evidenced, a natural land use was approved by the ERA (at Tier 2) for the two landfill contaminated soils. However, the existence of a potential future risk resulting from a hypothetical soil acidification must be considered.

  1. Overview of nongynecological samples prepared with liquid-based cytology medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shuyue; Solomides, Charalambos; Draganova-Tacheva, Rossitza; Bibbo, Marluce

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-based cytology of nongynecological specimens is commonly used in cytology laboratories throughout the world and various processing methods, such as ThinPrep and SurePath, have been reported. The cytological features and performance of liquid-based cytology for various cytology specimens, including body cavity fluids, urine, brushing specimens and fine-needle aspiration of various lesions, were reviewed and compared with the experience of our laboratory and the literature published in PubMed. The parameters for the evaluation of liquid-based cytology and conventional smears were described in the various types of specimens. Criteria for the interpretation of nongynecological liquid-based cytology were highlighted to show differences in cell morphology, background and artifacts. The interpretation requires familiarity with the appearance of liquid-based cytology in the various types of preparations to avoid misdiagnosis. Cell blocks can be prepared with specimens preserved in a liquid-based cytology medium and immunocytochemical stains and molecular testing can be successfully performed. These are important adjuncts in order to reach a definitive diagnosis.

  2. A CTRW-based model of time-resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging in a turbid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomordik, Victor; Gandjbakhche, Amir H; Hassan, Moinuddin; Pajevic, Sinisa; Weiss, George H

    2010-12-01

    We develop an analytic model of time-resolved fluorescent imaging of photons migrating through a semi-infinite turbid medium bounded by an infinite plane in the presence of a single stationary point fluorophore embedded in the medium. In contrast to earlier models of fluorescent imaging in which photon motion is assumed to be some form of continuous diffusion process, the present analysis is based on a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) on a simple cubic lattice, the object being to estimate the position and lifetime of the fluorophore. Such information can provide information related to local variations in pH and temperature with potential medical significance. Aspects of the theory were tested using time-resolved measurements of the fluorescence from small inclusions inside tissue-like phantoms. The experimental results were found to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions provided that the fluorophore was not located too close to the planar boundary, a common problem in many diffusive systems.

  3. Electrochemical degradation of diuron in chloride medium using DSA Registered-Sign based anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipi, Angelo R. F.; Aquino Neto, Sidney; Andrade, Adalgisa R. de, E-mail: ardandra@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    This work presents a study of the electrochemical degradation of the herbicide diuron using Ti/Ru{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x)}O{sub 2} and Ti/Ir{sub x}Ti{sub (1-x)}O{sub 2} (x 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7) anodes. The investigation of the degradation was conducted in the presence and in the absence of chloride. The study of the herbicide removal as a function of the current density in the absence of chloride yielded 41 and 49% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removals and 10 and 14% TOC (total organic carbon) removal at 100 mA cm{sup -2}, respectively. By keeping the electrolysis time constant (4 h), Ti/Ru{sub 0.7}Ti{sub 0.3}O{sub 2} anode composition was determined as the most active for removal of diuron and its byproduct. The maximum removal value achieved after 4 h was 58%. Addition of chloride doubled the removal ratio, and 100% COD removal was obtained for Ti/Ru{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 2} . High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed the total removal of the herbicide in chloride medium and indicated the formation of byproducts. The generated byproducts presented as function of the applied current density and the anode composition. Ir-based anodes promoted milder oxidation and furnished more byproducts in aqueous medium. (author)

  4. A Medium/Long-Range Forecast of Pacific Subtropical High Based on Dynamic Statistic Model Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the 500-hPa geopotential height field series of T106 numerical forecast products, by empirical orthogonal function (EOF) time-space separation, and on the hypotheses of EOF space-models being stable, the EOF time coefficient series were taken as dynamical statistic model variables. The dynamic system reconstruction idea and genetic algorithm were introduced to make the dynamical model parameters optimized, and a nonlinear dynamic statistic model of EOF separating time coefficient series was established. By the model time integral and EOF time-space reconstruction, a medium/long-range forecast of subtropical high was carried out. The results show that the dynamical model forecast and T106 numerical forecast were approximately similar in the short-range forecast (≤5 days), but in the medium/long-range forecast (≥5 days), the forecast results of dynamical model was superior to that of T106 numerical products. A new method and idea were presented for diagnosing and forecasting complicated weathers such as subtropical high, and showed a better application outlook.

  5. Removal of Cu 2+ Ions from Aqueous Medium Using Clinoptilolite/Emeraldine Base Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya I. Lavrova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the removal efficiency of in situ synthesized composites consisted of emeraldine base and clinoptilolite on copper ions removal from aqueous medium. Two composite materials (Composite I and Composite II with different quantity of clinoptilolite were synthesised. The influence of the composite dosage, the contact time and the initial copper ions concentration has been studied. The results show that the significant removal of the copper ions becomes at the first minute of the contact between the composite material and the aqueous medium and the longer contact time leads to increasing of the copper ions removal. The removal efficiency at the 1st minute was 57.5% and 77.3% using Composite Iand Composite II, respectively. Maximum removal efficiency of 87.3% and 96.8% was achieved at the same dosage of Composite I and Composite II, respectively, at contact time of 360 minutes and temperature of 24 °C.

  6. Study of an acrylamide-based photopolymer for use as a holographic data storage medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, H.; Naydenova, I.; Martin, S.; McGinn, C.; Berger, G.; Denz, C.; Toal, V.

    2005-06-01

    An acrylamide-based photopolymer formulated in the Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics has been investigated with a view to further optimisation for holographic optical storage. Series of 15 to 30 gratings were angularly multiplexed in a volume of the photopolymer layers with different thickness at a spatial frequency of 1500 lines/mm. Since the photopolymer is a saturable material, an exposure scheduling method was used to exploit the entire dynamic range of the material and allow equal strength gratings to be recorded. From this investigation the photopolymer layer's M/# was determined with regard to the recording geometry used. The temporal stability of photopolymer layers was studied in terms of diffraction efficiency and change of the reconstructed angle due to material shrinkage. In addition, the potential of the photopolymer as a holographic data storage medium was demonstrated by recording bit data-pages.

  7. Implementing a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil in pediatric patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebeling, L C; Lerner, E

    1995-06-01

    Traditionally, a ketogenic diet is given to drug-resistant children with epilepsy to improve seizure control. Inducing a ketogenic state in patients with cancer may be a useful adjunct to cancer treatment by affecting tumor glucose metabolism and growth while maintaining the patient's nutritional status. A ketogenic diet consisting of 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil, 20% protein, 10% carbohydrate, and 10% other dietary fats was provided to a select group of pediatric patients with advanced-stage cancer to test the effects of dietary-induced ketosis on tumor glucose metabolism. Issues of tolerance and compliance for patients consuming an oral diet (consisting of normal table foods and daily MCT oil "shakes") and for patients receiving an enteral formula are reviewed. Preliminary use of the MCT oil-based diet suggests a potential in pediatric patients with cancer.

  8. Modified Distributed Medium Access Control Algorithm Based on Multi-Packets Reception in Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qing; YANG Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Multi-Packet Reception(MPR)capability at the physical layer and the Distributed Coordination Function(DCF)of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol,we propose a modified new solution about WAITING mechanism to make full use of the MPR capability in this paper,which is named as modified distributed medium access control algorithm.We describe the details of each step of the algorithm after introducing the WAITING mechanism.Then,we also analyze how the waiting-time affects the throughput performance of the network.The network simulator NS-2 is used to evaluate the throughput performance of the new WAITING algorithm and we compare it with IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol and the old WAITING algorithm.The experimental results show that our new algorithm has the best performance.

  9. Isotropic negative permeability composite based on Mie resonance of the BST-MgO dielectric medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qian; KANG Lei; DU Bo; ZHAO HongJie; XIE Qin; LI Bo; ZHOU Ji; LI LongTu; MENG YongGang

    2008-01-01

    Isotropic negative permeability composite, composed of BST-MgO dielectric cubes with high permit-tivity dispersed in the Teflon substrate with low permittivity, was designed and fabricated based on Mie resonance and the effective medium theory. Measurements and simulations showed that the dielectric composite exhibited a strong sub-wavelength magnetic resonance at the first Mie resonance and possessed isotropic negative permeability, which resulted from the displacement current excited in the cubes. The dielectric particle was equivalent to a magnetic dipole at the magnetic resonance, which could be adjusted by the size and permitllvity of the particles. It may provide a convenient method to design isotropic metamaterials and invisible cloak at infrared and visible frequencies.

  10. Speed regulating Effects of Incentive-based Intelligent Speed Adaptation in the short and medium term

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels

    Speed regulating Effects of Incentive-based Intelligent Speed Adaptation in the short and medium term Despite massive improvements in vehicles’ safety equipment, more information and safer road network, inappropriate road safety is still causing that more than 250 people are killed and several...... thousands injured each year in Denmark. Until a few years ago the number of fatalities in most countries had decreased while the amount of traffic increased. However, this trend has been replaced by a more uncertain development towards a constant or even somewhat increasing risk. Inappropriate speeding...... sufficient further road safety on the basis of these solutions, while additional solutions known as Intelligent Transport Systems, and more particularly Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA), can be seen as a central solution towards a safer road network. ISA can be informative. It informs the driver about...

  11. KSR-based medium improves the generation of high-quality mouse iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Ye, Xiaoying; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Jingzhuo; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.

  12. Broadly neutralizing antibody PGT121 allosterically modulates CD4 binding via recognition of the HIV-1 gp120 V3 base and multiple surrounding glycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Julien

    Full Text Available New broad and potent neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies have recently been described that are largely dependent on the gp120 N332 glycan for Env recognition. Members of the PGT121 family of antibodies, isolated from an African donor, neutralize ∼70% of circulating isolates with a median IC50 less than 0.05 µg ml(-1. Here, we show that three family members, PGT121, PGT122 and PGT123, have very similar crystal structures. A long 24-residue HCDR3 divides the antibody binding site into two functional surfaces, consisting of an open face, formed by the heavy chain CDRs, and an elongated face, formed by LCDR1, LCDR3 and the tip of the HCDR3. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of the antibody paratope reveals a crucial role in neutralization for residues on the elongated face, whereas the open face, which accommodates a complex biantennary glycan in the PGT121 structure, appears to play a more secondary role. Negative-stain EM reconstructions of an engineered recombinant Env gp140 trimer (SOSIP.664 reveal that PGT122 interacts with the gp120 outer domain at a more vertical angle with respect to the top surface of the spike than the previously characterized antibody PGT128, which is also dependent on the N332 glycan. We then used ITC and FACS to demonstrate that the PGT121 antibodies inhibit CD4 binding to gp120 despite the epitope being distal from the CD4 binding site. Together, these structural, functional and biophysical results suggest that the PGT121 antibodies may interfere with Env receptor engagement by an allosteric mechanism in which key structural elements, such as the V3 base, the N332 oligomannose glycan and surrounding glycans, including a putative V1/V2 complex biantennary glycan, are conformationally constrained.

  13. Utilising an LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker approach to assess mycotoxin exposure in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Petchkongkaew, Awanwee; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Human exposures to mycotoxins through dietary intake are a major health hazard and may result in various pathophysiological effects. Although Thailand is a country at increased risk due to its climatic conditions, no comprehensive dataset is available to perform proper exposure assessment of its population with regard to mycotoxins. Therefore, this pilot study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the exposure levels of major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes). Sixty first-morning urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers who live in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces (Pathumthani, Nonthaburi, Samutprakarn and Samutsakorn). Urine samples were analysed by a LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker method following a so-called 'dilute and shoot' approach. Results generally indicated low mycotoxin exposures in most individuals through the determination of the four biomarkers that were detected in urine samples, i.e. aflatoxin M₁, ochratoxin A (OTA), as well as the deoxynivalenol (DON) metabolites DON-3-glucuronide and DON-15-glucuronide in 10 of 60 individuals. The maximum concentrations were used to estimate the daily intake confirming that none of the individuals exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON (maximum 26% of TDI) or OTA (maximum 22% of TDI). However, the maximum exposure of aflatoxin B₁, estimated to be 0.91 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹, should raise some concerns and suggests further studies utilising a more sensitive method. Low exposure to Fusarium toxins was also confirmed by the absence of zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol and zearalenone-14-glucuronide as well as T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and free DON. This is the first multi-mycotoxin biomarker study performed in Southeast Asia.

  14. Developing improved micropropagation medium for hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) based on ion concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelnuts are one of the most challenging crops to propagate because of the varied nutritional requirements of the genotypes. Initial steps to improving growth medium determined needed changes to the minor nutrient components. Major mineral nutrients are not yet optimized. To develop a medium optim...

  15. Effect of fibre aspect ratio onto the modulus of palm-based medium-density fibreboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Azlin Mohmad; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Baharum, Azizah

    2015-09-01

    Polyurethane prepolymer (pPU) was used as a binder in the production of palm-based medium-density fibreboard (MDF). Untreated empty fruit bunch fibre (EFB) with three different fibre sizes was used and their effects on the mechanical and thermal properties of the MDF were studied. Palm kernel oil-based monoester polyol (PKO-p), 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) were used to prepare the resin. Acetone was added into the resin as a solvent. Three different fibre sizes were used; 250 µm to 500 µm (MDF S1), 500 µm to 1000 µm (MDF S2) and 1000 µm to 2000 µm (MDF S3). Three points bending test showed that the flexural strength and modulus increased as the EFB fibres size decreased with optimum flexural strength at 46.7 MPa and optimum flexural modulus of 1923 MPa. The results were supported by the morphological study that showed better matrix encapsulation occurred in MDF S1, followed by MDF S2. The scenario was rather different in MDF S3 whereby uneven matrix distribution can be seen obviously with some matrix rich spots were found clearly. Bomb calorimetry analysis had also supported the results showing a decreasing trend in heat of combustion, led by MDF S1, followed by MDF S2 and finally MDF S3.

  16. Observation of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over Peninsular Malaysia based on IPP trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, Asnawi; Abdullah, M.; Momani, M. A.

    2011-04-01

    Using vertical total electron content (VTEC) data that were derived from the Malaysia Real Time Kinematic GPS network (MyRTKnet), we analyzed the time variation of the VTEC with the occurrence of medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) based on ionospheric pierce point (IPP) trajectories. MSTIDs are known as ionospheric disturbance phenomena that generally induce perturbations in important ionospheric parameters such as the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). A method was developed to detect the existence of MSTIDs by identifying rapid fluctuations in the TEC by subjecting the TEC data time series to high-pass filtering. Data were evaluated using the GPS MyRTKnet network over Peninsular Malaysia in the month of September 2007 (a time period with relatively low geomagnetic activity). Two-dimensional maps over Peninsular Malaysia were constructed based on the IPP trajectories. Analysis of the cross correlation of detrended VTEC data from six MyRTKnet stations (PASP, KRAI, GMUS, CAME, TLKI and SBKB) yielded MSTID velocities of around 100 ± 50 m s-1 in the daytime and 60 ± 30 m s-1 in the nighttime, with occurrences of 17.6% and 13.7%, respectively. The results show that although the MSTID wave structure propagates southwestward, some waves also move northward. These waves were connected to the effect of the meridional neutral wind in the upper regions of the ionosphere (400 km).

  17. A study of constraints on the constitutive relationships of electromagnetic medium based on generally acknowledged truths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huiping; LIU Xueguan; YIN Hongcheng; CHAO Zengming; HUANG Peikang

    2005-01-01

    The study of constraints on the constitutive relationships of electromagnetic media is of great importance in the aspects of the medium characteristics analysis, the new article material synthesis and the medium parameters reconstruction, etc. According to the fact that the constitutive relationships should not conflict with the general physical laws, the constraints that the constitutive relationships of electromagnetic medium must satisfy have been summarized in this paper. These constraints include determinacy principle, objectivity principle, causality principle and permission principle. And the parameter constraints of the arbitrary linear homogenous time-invariant medium are obtained following the minimum energy consumption principle. This work provides a new way of ascertaining the constitutive relationships of the electromagnetic medium.

  18. [Culture medium based on biogas slurry and breeding of oil Chlorella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Min; Mei, Shuai; Cao, You-Fu; Ding, Jin-Feng; Xu, Jia-Jie; Li, Shu-Jun

    2014-06-01

    The oil chlorella cultivation and biogas slurry treatment were combined. The biogas slurry provided water and nutrient for growing chlorella, at the same time, harmless treatment of biogas slurry was realized. This paper cultivated 4 species of oil chlorella in the mixed medium of biogas slurry and green algae medium (the volume ratios were 1 : 9, 1 : 3, 1 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively), and compared their oil productivity to select the best oil chlorella species and the optimal culture medium. The results showed that, the combination of medium and chlorella species to reach the highest oil productivity was a volume ratio of 1 : 3 and the chlorella species BJ05, and the oil productivity of chlorella BJ05 was 9.20 mg x (L x d)(-1), higher than that in green algae medium [8.66 mg x (L x d)(-1)]. In mixed medium with a volume ratio of 1:3, the effect of adding different nutrients into the green algae medium on the oil productivity was examined, and the results showed that, sodium carbonate and citric acid had no negative effect on the oil productivity of chlorella BJ05. in the absence of sodium carbonate and citric acid, the oil productivity of chlorella BJ05 was 9.36 mg x (L x d)(-1), and the removal of COD (chemical oxygen demand), total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen rates were 59%, 75%, 61% and 100%, respectively. Deficiency in other nutrients had negative effect on the oil productivity. Therefore, the culture medium was further optimized to the mixed medium of biogas slurry and green algae medium with a volume ratio of 1 : 3 and without addition of sodium carbonate and citric acid.

  19. Thiosemicabazone based fluorescent chemosensor for transition metal ions in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udhayakumari, Duraisamy; Suganya, Sivalingam; Velmathi, Sivan, E-mail: velmathis@nitt.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highly efficient fluorescent chemosensors for metal ions have been synthesized by using thiosemicarbazide and aromatic aldehydes. Detection of transition metal ions was performed via UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. This is the first report on thiosemicarbazone based sensor capable of detecting transition metal ions in aqueous medium. The binding constant, stoichiometry of the complex were confirmed by using B–H plot and Job's plot method. The fluorescence enhancement of thiosemicarbazones on binding with Hg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 2+} ions is due to the inhibition of photoinduced electron transfer mechanism whereas, quenching of fluorescence is attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer mechanism in case of Cu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions. -- Graphical abstract: Three highly sensitive aromatic thiosemicarbazones act as a fluorescent chemosensor for cations. Detection of transition metal ions was performed via UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. This represents the first report on thiosemicarbazone based sensor capable of detecting transition metal ions in aqueous medium. The binding constant, stoichiometry of the complex was confirmed by using B–H plot and Job's plot method. The fluorescence enhancement of thiosemicarbazones on binding with Hg{sup 2+} , Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 2+} ions is due to the inhibition of photoinduced electron transfer whereas, in the case of Cu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions quenching of fluorescence occurring is attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer mechanism. Highlights: • The receptors were synthesized and studied for its optical/fluorescence emission properties. • R1+Zn{sup 2+}/Co{sup 2+}/Ni{sup 2+} and R2+Hg{sup 2+}/Sn{sup 2+} exhibits fluorescence enhancement via inhibition of PET. • R1+Cu{sup 2+} and R3+Mn{sup 2+} exhibits fluorescence quenching via PET mechanism.

  20. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  1. Medium optimization to improve astaxanthin production of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant W6-8 based on genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangWenjun; YuLongjiang; HePu; ZhouPengpeng

    2004-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GA) based on the principle of mimicing Darwinian evolution and survival of the fittest in a natural environment was used to optimize the medium for astaxanthin production by the mutant strain W6-8 of Xantho-phyllomyces dendrorhous. The 50 concentration levels of 6 medium components were optimized within 50 experiments (full experimental plan: 506 experiments). The results showed that GA could be applied in the medium optimization and better results were obtained. By employing optimized medium components (glucose 39.8 g l-1, yeast extract 4.08 g l-1,(NH4)2SO4 7.36 g l-1, MgSO4 2 g l-1, K2HPO4 2.04 g l-1 and KH2PO4 3.48 g l-1), the highest astaxanthin production was 9.855 mg l-1, approximately 31% higher than that under the initial conditions, and was approximately 15.46% higher than that by orthogonal array but only slightly higher than that by response surface methodology. In the sequent scale-up experiments, the astaxanthin yield was obtained approximately 14.753 mg l-1, employing the optimal medium. The results indicated that GA, as an euiicient method for medium optimization, was superior to other optimal means such as orthogonal array.

  2. NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining

  3. Are fragment-based quantum chemistry methods applicable to medium-sized water clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dandan; Shen, Xiaoling; Li, Wei; Li, Shuhua

    2016-06-28

    Fragment-based quantum chemistry methods are either based on the many-body expansion or the inclusion-exclusion principle. To compare the applicability of these two categories of methods, we have systematically evaluated the performance of the generalized energy based fragmentation (GEBF) method (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 2193) and the electrostatically embedded many-body (EE-MB) method (J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2007, 3, 46) for medium-sized water clusters (H2O)n (n = 10, 20, 30). Our calculations demonstrate that the GEBF method provides uniformly accurate ground-state energies for 10 low-energy isomers of three water clusters under study at a series of theory levels, while the EE-MB method (with one water molecule as a fragment and without using the cutoff distance) shows a poor convergence for (H2O)20 and (H2O)30 when the basis set contains diffuse functions. Our analysis shows that the neglect of the basis set superposition error for each subsystem has little effect on the accuracy of the GEBF method, but leads to much less accurate results for the EE-MB method. The accuracy of the EE-MB method can be dramatically improved by using an appropriate cutoff distance and using two water molecules as a fragment. For (H2O)30, the average deviation of the EE-MB method truncated up to the three-body level calculated using this strategy (relative to the conventional energies) is about 0.003 hartree at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level, while the deviation of the GEBF method with a similar computational cost is less than 0.001 hartree. The GEBF method is demonstrated to be applicable for electronic structure calculations of water clusters at any basis set.

  4. Exo-metabolome of some fungal isolates growing on cork-based medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2011-01-01

    are produced by the studied fungal species, both in cork medium or in cork medium added with C. sitophila extracts. However, the addition of C. sitophila extract to the cork medium enhanced the growth of the other studied fungal isolates and altered the respective exo-metabolome profile, leading...... they can be dependent of the remains of former colonizers. In fact, the production of the exo-metabolites by the studied fungal isolates suggests that, under the used experimental conditions, they appear to play an important role in fungal interactions amongst the cork mycoflora....

  5. Medicanes: A prognostic analysis of November 7, 2014, case study based on ECMWF medium range products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangouras, Ioannis; Nastos, Panagiotis; Pytharouris, Ioannis; Kamperakis, Nicolaos

    2015-04-01

    Mediterranean basin is a well-known European region for cyclone formation. The so-called medicanes (MEDIterranean hurriCANES) are cyclones that develop over the Mediterranean basin and exhibit some similarities to tropical cyclones. These rare meteorological phenomena are rare warm-core cyclones that may cause significant impact at coastal regions. In this paper, we present an analysis of prognostic products derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) investigating the development of a medicane case study. All forecast products are based on the 12:00 UTC ECMWF run. On November 7, 2014, a medicane developed over central Mediterranean, first hitting Lampedusa on the island of Linosa, then Malta (at around 16.30 UTC), and finally the eastern coast of Sicily. The analysis revealed that ECMWF 240 forecast products highlighted the central Mediterranean basin as an area of deep cyclonic circulation. In addition, results from 240 to 24 forecast analysis, demonstrated that this cyclonic signature became more constant.

  6. High flux filtration medium based on nanofibrous substrate with hydrophilic nanocomposite coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefen; Chen, Xuming; Yoon, Kyunghwan; Fang, Dufei; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Chu, Benjamin

    2005-10-01

    A novel high flux filtration medium, consisting of a three-tier composite structure, i.e., a nonporous hydrophilic nanocomposite coating top layer, an electrospun nanofibrous substrate midlayer, and a conventional nonwoven microfibrous support, was demonstrated for oil/water emulsion separations for the first time. The nanofibrous substrate was prepared by electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) followed by chemical cross-linking with glutaraldehyde (GA) in acetone. The resulting cross-linked PVA substrates showed excellent water resistance and good mechanical properties. The top coating was based on a nanocomposite layer containing hydrophilic polyether-b-polyamide copolymer or a cross-linked PVA hydrogel incorporated with surface-oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations indicated that the nanocomposite layer was nonporous within the instrumental resolution and MWNTs were well dispersed in the polymer matrix. Oil/ water emulsion tests showed that this unique type of filtration media exhibited a high flux rate (up to 330 L/m2-h at the feed pressure of 100 psi) and an excellent total organic solute rejection rate (99.8%) without appreciable fouling. The increase in the concentration of surface-oxidized MWNT in the coating layer generally improves the flux rate, which can be attributed to the generation of more effective hydrophilic nanochannels for water passage in the composite membranes.

  7. Behavior of Medium-frequency Core Loss in Fe-based Nanocrystalline Soft Magnetic Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The dependences of the power loss per cycle on frequency have been investigated in the ranges of 100 Hz< f <25000 Hz and 0.1 T< Brn <1.0 T for three main original magnetic states in five sorts of Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The measured and calculated results showed that the total ipower loss per cycle clearly exhibited a nonlinear behavior in the range below 3 kHz~5 kHz depending on both the magnetic state and the value of Bm, whereas it showed a quasi-linear behavior above this range. The total loss was decomposed into hysteresis loss, classical eddy current loss and excess loss, the obvious nonlinear behavior has been confirmed to be completely determined by the dependence of the excess loss on frequency. It has been indicated that the change rate of the excess loss per cycle with respect to frequency sharp decreases with increasing frequency in the range below about 3 kHz~5 kHz, herease the rate of change slowly varies above this range, thus leading to the quasilinear behavior of the total loss per cycle. In this paper, some linear expressions of the total loss per cycle has been given in a wider medium-frequency segment, which can be used for roughly estimating the total loss.

  8. Heterocyclic ring based colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensor for transition metal ions in an aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udhayakumari, Duraisamy [Department of Chemistry, Organic and Polymer Synthesis Laboratory, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Velmathi, Sivan, E-mail: velmathis@nitt.edu [Department of Chemistry, Organic and Polymer Synthesis Laboratory, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Boobalan, Maria susai [Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph' s College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620002 (India); Venkatesan, Parthiban; Wu, Shu-Pao [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-02-15

    Heterocyclic ring based R1–R3 have been synthesized from the simple condensation method. R1–R3 exhibit highly selective and sensitive recognition towards transition metal ions in an aqueous medium via visual color change and were further confirmed by UV–vis and fluorescent spectroscopic methods. Fluorescent turn on and turn off behavior was observed for receptors tested with transition metal ions. The interaction of transition metal ions and receptors R1–R3 was confirmed to adopt 1:1 binding stoichiometry. Micromolar detection limit was found for R1–R3 with metal ions. DFT theoretical calculations were employed to understand the sensing mechanism of the sensors towards the metal ions. R1 and R2 were also successfully demonstrated as a fluorescent probe for detecting Cu{sup 2+} ions in living cells. - highlights: • R1–R3 act as colorimetric and fluorescent sensors for metal ions. • Receptors (R1–R3) detect Cu{sup 2+} ions in aqueous solution at nanomolar levels. • R1 and R2 act as a fluorescent probe for detecting Cu{sup 2+} ions in living cells.

  9. Academic Achievement from Using the Learning Medium Via a Tablet Device Based on Multiple Intelligences in Grade 1 Elementary Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuallaong, Winitra; Nuallaong, Thanya; Preechadirek, Nongluck

    2015-04-01

    To measure academic achievement of the multiple intelligence-based learning medium via a tablet device. This is a quasi-experimental research study (non-randomized control group pretest-posttest design) in 62 grade 1 elementary students (33 males and 29 females). Thirty-one students were included in an experimental group using purposive sampling by choosing a student who had highest multiple intelligence test scores in logical-mathematic. Then, this group learned by the new learning medium via a tablet which the application matched to logical-mathematic multiple intelligence. Another 31 students were included in a control group using simple random sampling and then learning by recitation. Both groups did pre-test and post-test vocabulary. Thirty students in the experimental group and 24 students in the control group increased post-test scores (odds ratio = 8.75). Both groups made significant increasing in post-test scores. The experimental group increased 9.07 marks (95% CI 8.20-9.93) significantly higher than the control group which increased 4.39 marks (95% CI 3.06-5.72) (t = -6.032, df = 51.481, p multiple intelligence-based learning medium via a tablet or recitation can contribute academic achievement, learningfrom the new medium contributed more achievement than recitation. The new learning medium group had higher post-test scores 8.75 times than the recitation group. Therefore, the new learning medium is more effective than the traditional recitation in terms of academic achievement. This study has limitations because samples came from the same school. However, the previous study in Thailand did notfind a logical-mathematical multiple intelligence difference among schools. In the future, long-term research to find how the new learning medium affects knowledge retention will support the advantage for life-long learning.

  10. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  11. Statistical optimization of process parameters for exopolysaccharide production by Aureobasidium pullulans using sweet potato based medium

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanaban, Sethuraman; Balaji, Nagarajan; Muthukumaran, Chandrasekaran; Tamilarasan, Krishnamurthi

    2015-01-01

    Statistical experimental designs were applied to optimize the fermentation medium for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Plackett–Burman design was applied to identify the significance of seven medium variables, in which sweet potato and yeast extract were found to be the significant variables for EPS production. Central composite design was applied to evaluate the optimum condition of the selected variables. Maximum EPS production of 9.3 g/L was obtained with the predicted optimal level of ...

  12. L(+-Lactic acid recovery from cassava bagasse based fermented medium using anion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojan P. John

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the ion exchange resins, Amberlite IRA 402, a strong anion exchange resin and IRA 67, a weak anion exchange resin were determined to evaluate their comparative suitability for lactic acid recovery from fermented cassava bagasse. Data on binding capacities and recovery proved that weak base resin in chloride form was the most favourable ones for lactic acid recovery from aqueous solutions and fermentation media. Fermented media obtained through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cassava bagasse starch hydrolysate based medium were used for lactic acid recovery study using weak base resin column. Amberlite IRA 67 had much more efficiency than Amberlite IRA 402 to recover lactic acid. Like in other reports, due to the presence of nutrients and ions other than lactate, the binding capacity was slightly lesser while using fermented media (~93% instead of aqueous lactic acid solutions (~98%.As propriedades das resinas de troca iônica, da Amberlite IRA 402, uma resina de troca aniônica forte, e da IRA 67, uma resina de troca aniônica fraca, foram determinadas para se avaliar a adequabilidade comparativa delas à obtenção de ácido lático de bagaço de mandioca fermentado. Dados sobre a capacidade de ligação e sobre a obtenção provaram que a resina de base fraca na forma de cloreto era a mais adequada para a obtenção de ácido lático em soluções aquosas e meios de fermentação. Os meios de fermentação obtidos da sacarificação e da fermentação simultâneas de meios baseados hidrolisados de fécula de bagaço de mandioca foram usados para o estudo da obtenção de ácido lático usando uma coluna de resina de base fraca. A Amberlite IRA 67 mostrou-se muito mais eficaz do que a Amberlite IRA 402 para a obtenção de ácido lático. Como em outros relatórios, devido à presença de nutrientes e íons que não lactatos, a capacidade de ligação foi ligeiramente inferior enquanto se utilizavam meios

  13. Study on the Reinforcement Measures and Control Effect of the Surrounding Rock Stability Based on the Shield Tunneling Under Overpass Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-cheng Fang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the stability of surrounding rocks for shield tunneling under overpass structures and the safety of existing bridge structures, a practical example of the method was cited through a shield tunneling project under the overpass structure between K1+110 and K1+700 on Line 2 of Shenyang Subway, China. The sub-area reinforcement was proposed according to surrounding rock deformation characteristics during shield tunnel excavation. The bridge foundation (i.e., the clear spacing to the shield tunnel is less than 2 m was reinforced by steel support, the bridge foundation (the clear spacing is about 2~7m used “jet grouting pile” reinforcement, whereas the bridge foundation (the clear spacing is greater than 7 m did not adopt any reinforcement measures for the moment. For this study, the mean value and material heterogeneity models were established to evaluate the reinforcement effect from several aspects, such as surrounding rock deformation, plastic zone development, and safety factor. The simulation results were consistent with those of field monitoring. After reinforcement, the maximum deformation values of the surrounding rock were reduced by 4.9%, 12.2%, and 48.46%, and the maximum values of surface subsidence were decreased by 5.6%, 72.2%, and 88.64%. By contrast, the overall safety factor was increased by 4.1%, 55.46%, and 55.46%. This study posited that this reinforcement method can be adopted to solve tunnel construction problems in engineering-geological conditions effectively. References for evaluating similar projects are provided.

  14. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  15. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  16. Disentangling location-based advertising : the effects of location congruency and medium type on consumers' ad attention and brand choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Paul; Bernritter, Stefan; van 't Riet, Jonathan; Huhn, Arief Ernst; van Woudenberg, Thabo; Muller, Barbara; Janssen, Loes

    2015-01-01

    Research on location-based advertising (LBA) suggests that the merits of LBA lie in the fact that consumers can be targeted with location-congruent ads on their personal mobile devices. However, LBA consists of two underlying constructs: a mobile (vs. point-of-sales) advertising medium and location

  17. Disentangling location-based advertising : the effects of location congruency and medium type on consumers' ad attention and brand choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Paul; Bernritter, Stefan; van 't Riet, Jonathan; Huhn, Arief Ernst; van Woudenberg, Thabo; Muller, Barbara; Janssen, Loes

    2017-01-01

    Research on location-based advertising (LBA) suggests that the merits of LBA lie in the fact that consumers can be targeted with location-congruent ads on their personal mobile devices. However, LBA consists of two underlying constructs: a mobile (vs. point-of-sales) advertising medium and location

  18. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  19. Quantitative determination of VEGF165 in cell culture medium by aptamer sandwich based chemiluminescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Siwen; He, Ziyi; Mao, Sifeng; Jie, Mingsha; Yi, Linglu; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we have developed a sensitive and selective chemiluminescence (CL) assay for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) quantitative detection based on two specific VEGF165 binding aptamers (Apt). VEGF is a predominant biomarker in cancer angiogenesis, and sensitive detection method of VEGF are highly demanded for both academic study and clinical diagnosis of multiple cancers. In our experiment, VEGF165 was captured in a sandwich structure assembled by two binding aptamers, one capture aptamer was immobilized on streptavidin-coated magnetic beads (MBs) and another VEGF-binding aptamer was labeled by biotin for further phosphatase conjunction. After Apt-VEGF-Apt sandwich was formed on MBs surface, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was modified to the second aptamer to catalyze CL reaction. By applying 4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2-adamantane) (AMPPD) as CL substrate, strong signal intensity was achieved. VEGF165 content as low as 1ng/mL was detected in standard spiked samples by our assay, and linear range of working curve was confirmed from 1 to 20ng/mL. Then our method was successfully applied for cell culture medium analysis and on-chip hypoxic HepG2-HUVEC co-culture model study with excellent accuracy equal to ELISA Kit. Our developed assay demonstrated an outstanding performance in VEGF165 quantification and may be further extended to clinical testing of important biomarkers as well as probing microchip cell culture model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring on n-alkanes in Small and Medium-sized Reservoirs and Lakes in Guangzhou City and Its Surrounding%广州市及其周边城市中小型水库和湖泊正构烷烃监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐超

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究广州市及其周边城市中小型水库和湖泊正构烷烃(n-alkanes)的污染情况.[方法]n-alkanes样品采自广州市及其周边14座中小型水库或者湖泊,采用日本岛津2010型气相色谱质谱仪对n-alkanes样品进行定性与定量测定.[结果]各水库水相中的20种n-alkanes(记作∑(nC15-nC34))的浓度为0.12 ~3.55 g/L;颗粒物中∑(nC15-nCu)浓度为9.9 ~1 272 μg/g;水体总浓度(溶解态+颗粒物)为0.33~46.9 μg/L;各功能区n-alkanes平均浓度水平依次为:商贸区>农业区>工业区>水源区,略高于珠江三角洲河道水系.溶解态n-alkanes的总浓度与溶解态有机碳存在较好的线性关系,表明分析水相中n-alkanes具有指示水中溶解态有杌污染总量的作用.水体中n-alkanes来源复杂,主要来自化石燃料的燃烧和生活污水排放.[结论]广州市各水库的水体受到的n-alkanes污染处于中等水平,市区的3个湖泊污染严重.%[Objective] The study aimed to research the contamination of n-alkanes in small and medium-sized reservoirs and lakes in Guangzhou City and its surrounding. [ Method] The n-alkanes samples were collected from 14 small and medium-sized reservoirs and lakes in Guangzhou City and its surrounding and they were made for the qualitative and quantitative determination by Japanese Daojin 2010 type gas chroma-tography mass spectrometer [Result] In the various reservoirs, 20 kinds of n-alkanes (recorded as Σ (nC15-nC34)) concn. In the water phase was 0. 12 -3.55 μg/L; that in the paniculate matter was9.9 -1 272 μg/g; that in the water (dissolved + particles) was 0.33 -46.9 μg/L in total; the average concn. Of n-alkanes in various function areas were: business regions > agricultural regions > industrial regions > water resource regions, being slightly higher than the river stream of Pearl River Delta. The total concn. Of dissolved n-alkanes had a good linear relationship to the dissolved organic carbon, showing

  1. From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Fjellheim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer

  2. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  3. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  4. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  5. Medium Brigade 2003: Can Space-Based Communications Ensure Information Dominance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    provide an earlier medium brigade capability equipped with survivable wheeled vehicles ( Suro 1999). Given new technologies, new organizations, and...1997. Dynamics of Command: Do they have a Future? Monograph, U.S. Army School for Advanced Military Studies, Ft. Leavenworth, KS. Suro

  6. Evaluating the Acceptance of Cloud-Based Productivity Computer Solutions in Small and Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing has emerged as a new paradigm for on-demand delivery and consumption of shared IT resources over the Internet. Research has predicted that small and medium organizations (SMEs) would be among the earliest adopters of cloud solutions; however, this projection has not materialized. This study set out to investigate if behavior…

  7. Evaluating the Acceptance of Cloud-Based Productivity Computer Solutions in Small and Medium Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing has emerged as a new paradigm for on-demand delivery and consumption of shared IT resources over the Internet. Research has predicted that small and medium organizations (SMEs) would be among the earliest adopters of cloud solutions; however, this projection has not materialized. This study set out to investigate if behavior…

  8. Ideas on Node Mobility Support in Schedule-based Medium Access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Erman-Tüysüz, A.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Typically, medium access control (MAC) protocols for wireless sensor networks implement synchronised periodic sleeping to conserve energy. We argue that (local) synchronisation between nodes is the main cause why MAC protocols do not efficiently support node mobility e.g. nodes waste valuable energy

  9. The web-based information system for small and medium enterprises of Tomsk region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senchenko, P. V.; Zhukovskiy, O. I.; Gritsenko, Yu B.; Senchenko, A. P.; Gritsenko, L. M.; Kovaleva, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the web enabled automated information data support system of small and medium-sized enterprises of Tomsk region. We define the purpose and application field of the system. In addition, we build a generic architecture and find system functions.

  10. Remote sensing and GIS-based integrated analysis of land cover change in Duzce plain and its surroundings (north western Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikiel, Cercis; Ustaoglu, Beyza; Dutucu, Ayse Atalay; Kilic, Derya Evrim

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to research natural land cover change caused by the permanent effects of human activities in Duzce plain and its surroundings, and to determine the current status of the land cover. For this purpose, two Landsat TM images were used in the study for the years 1987 and 2010. These images are analysed by using data image processing techniques in ERDAS Imagine©10.0 and ArcGIS©10.0 software. Land cover change nomenclature is classified according to the Coordination of Information on the Environment Level 2 Classification (1--urban fabric, 2--industrial, commercial and transport units, 3--heterogeneous agricultural areas, 4--forests, and 5--inland wetlands). Furthermore, the image analysis results are confirmed by the field research. According to the results, a decrease of 33.5 % was recorded in forest areas from 24,840.7 to 16,529.0 ha; an increase of 11.2 % was recorded in heterogeneous agricultural areas from 47,702.7 to 53,051.7 ha. Natural vegetation, which is the large part of land cover in the research area, has been changing rapidly because of rapid urbanisation and agricultural activities. As a result, it is concluded that significant changes have occurred on the natural land cover between the years 1987 and 2010 in the Duzce plain and its surroundings.

  11. The Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE): A new base for the processes study of atmospheric physics and environment over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, with the most prominent and complicated terrain on the globe and an elevation of more than 4000 m on average above sea leave (msl), is often called the "Third Pole" due to its significance parallel with Antarctica and the Arctic. The exchange of energy, water vapor and some greenhouse gases between land surface and atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding regions play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and some international organizations, a Third Pole Environment (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) is now implementing over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding region. The background of the establishment of the TPEP, the establishing and monitoring plan of long-term scale (5-10 years) of the TPEP will be shown firstly. Then the preliminary observational analysis results, such as the characteristics of land surface heat fluxes, CO2 flux and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning (diurnal variation, inter-monthly variation and vertical variation etc), aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas, the characteristics of atmospheric and soil variables, the structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and the turbulent characteristics have also been shown in this study.

  12. Hybrid radiosity-SP3 equation based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Zhang, Qitan; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    To provide an ideal solution for a specific problem of gastric cancer detection in which low-scattering regions simultaneously existed with both the non- and high-scattering regions, a novel hybrid radiosity-SP3 equation based reconstruction algorithm for bioluminescence tomography was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) was combined with the radiosity equation to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues, which provided acceptable accuracy for the turbid medium with both low- and non-scattering regions. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated with digital mouse based simulations and a gastric cancer-bearing mouse based in situ experiment. Primary results demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of the proposed algorithm for the turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions.

  13. A Field-length based refinement criterion for adaptive mesh simulations of the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gressel, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Adequate modelling of the multiphase interstellar medium requires optically thin radiative cooling, comprising an inherent thermal instability. The size of the occurring condensation and evaporation interfaces is determined by the so-called Field-length, which gives the dimension at which the instability is significantly damped by thermal conduction. Our aim is to study the relevance of conduction scale effects in the numerical modelling of a bistable medium and check the applicability of conventional and alternative adaptive mesh techniques. The low physical value of the thermal conduction within the ISM defines a multiscale problem, hence promoting the use of adaptive meshes. We here introduce a new refinement strategy that applies the Field condition by Koyama & Inutsuka as a refinement criterion. The described method is very similar to the Jeans criterion for gravitational instability by Truelove and efficiently allows to trace the unstable gas situated at the thermal interfaces. We present test compu...

  14. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of a New Phenylboronic-Modified Affinity Medium for Metalloprotease Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangyong; Wang, Linna; Xu, Ximing; Lin, Shengxiang; Wang, Yuejun; Hao, Jianhua; Sun, Mi

    2016-01-01

    Metalloproteases are emerging as useful agents in the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and fibrosis. Studies that could shed light on the metalloprotease pharmaceutical applications require the pure enzyme. Here, we reported the structure-based design and synthesis of the affinity medium for the efficient purification of metalloprotease using the 4-aminophenylboronic acid (4-APBA) as affinity ligand, which was coupled with Sepharose 6B via cyanuric chloride as spacer. The molecular docking analysis showed that the boron atom was interacting with the hydroxyl group of Ser176 residue, whereas the hydroxyl group of the boronic moiety is oriented toward Leu175 and His177 residues. In addition to the covalent bond between the boron atom and hydroxyl group of Ser176, the spacer between boronic acid derivatives and medium beads contributes to the formation of an enzyme-medium complex. With this synthesized medium, we developed and optimized a one-step purification procedure and applied it for the affinity purification of metalloproteases from three commercial enzyme products. The native metalloproteases were purified to high homogeneity with more than 95% purity. The novel purification method developed in this work provides new opportunities for scientific, industrial and pharmaceutical projects. PMID:28036010

  15. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of a New Phenylboronic-Modified Affinity Medium for Metalloprotease Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangyong Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases are emerging as useful agents in the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and fibrosis. Studies that could shed light on the metalloprotease pharmaceutical applications require the pure enzyme. Here, we reported the structure-based design and synthesis of the affinity medium for the efficient purification of metalloprotease using the 4-aminophenylboronic acid (4-APBA as affinity ligand, which was coupled with Sepharose 6B via cyanuric chloride as spacer. The molecular docking analysis showed that the boron atom was interacting with the hydroxyl group of Ser176 residue, whereas the hydroxyl group of the boronic moiety is oriented toward Leu175 and His177 residues. In addition to the covalent bond between the boron atom and hydroxyl group of Ser176, the spacer between boronic acid derivatives and medium beads contributes to the formation of an enzyme-medium complex. With this synthesized medium, we developed and optimized a one-step purification procedure and applied it for the affinity purification of metalloproteases from three commercial enzyme products. The native metalloproteases were purified to high homogeneity with more than 95% purity. The novel purification method developed in this work provides new opportunities for scientific, industrial and pharmaceutical projects.

  16. Vacuum Infusion Molding Process Part 1:VIMP Based on a High-Permeable Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-dan; WANG Ji-hui; YANG Zui; TAN Hua

    2003-01-01

    The visualization experiments were carried out to investigate the permeability of the high-permeable medium (HPM) and the roles of the peel ply and the HPM in the mold filling.The influence of process parameters on mold filling is discussed.Furthermore,the whole vacuum infusion molding process (VIMP) procedure is introduced in detail taking the manufacture of a model boat for example.

  17. Emulsion culture: a miniaturized library screening system based on micro-droplets in an emulsified medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takaaki; Nagao, Nobuhito; Ando, Daisuke; Ojima, Teruyo; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Isao; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Nakano, Hideo

    2011-09-01

    A typical library screen in directed evolution primarily requires physical separation of the clones on agar plates followed by detection of clones with improved properties; using this method only limited numbers of clones relative to the number of potential variations can be assessed. In particular, screening for a secretory enzyme is difficult to perform at high clone density, because of diffusion of the signal or unfavorable utilization of the reaction product by neighboring clones. In this study, we have developed a novel method of enrichment culture: "Emulsion Culture", i.e., segregated replication of clones in an emulsified culture medium. Clones expressing enzyme-variants are separately distributed to small (up to 50 μm in diameter), segregated compartments composed of a droplet of medium to form several tens of millions of microcolonies in a milliliter of medium, which allows a miniaturized, in-bulk screening of clones. We applied this culture method to yeast clones expressing secretory beta-galactosidase to analyze the enrichment factor achieved. A high-density screen for a signal peptide sequence that maximizes extracellular production of the enzyme was also performed to demonstrate the practicability of this culture method. In addition, micro-channel emulsification was tested as a method of forming uniformly-sized compartments in the emulsion.

  18. A sparsity regularization and total variation based computational framework for the inverse medium problem in scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgel, Florian; Kazimierski, Kamil S.; Lechleiter, Armin

    2017-06-01

    We present a fast computational framework for the inverse medium problem in scattering, i.e. we look at discretization, reconstruction and numerical performance. The Helmholtz equation in two and three dimensions is used as a physical model of scattering including point sources and plane waves as incident fields as well as near and far field measurements. For the reconstruction of the medium, we set up a rapid variational regularization scheme and indicate favorable choices of the various parameters. The underlying paradigm is, roughly speaking, to minimize the discrepancy between the reconstruction and measured data while, at the same time, taking into account various structural a-priori information via suitable penalty terms. In particular, the involved penalty terms are designed to promote information expected in real-world environments. To this end, a combination of sparsity promoting terms, total variation, and physical bounds of the inhomogeneous medium, e.g. positivity constraints, is employed in the regularization penalty. A primal-dual algorithm is used to solve the minimization problem related to the variational regularization. The computational feasibility, performance and efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated for synthetic as well as experimentally measured data.

  19. Improvement of the Brucella abortus B19 vaccine by its preparation in a glycerol based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangari, F J; Agüero, J; García-Lobo, J M

    1996-03-01

    The Brucella abortus B19 vaccine strain differs from other Brucella strains in its sensitivity to erythritol. However, erythritol tolerant (Eri(t)) mutants arise from sensitive cultures of B19 at high rate, and may cause persistence and/or abortion when the vaccine is inoculated on adult cattle. Twelve different batches of B19 have been examined for the presence of Eri(t) mutants. All contained Eri(t) variants at a proportion ranging from 10(-4) to 10(-6). In order to eliminate these mutants from the vaccine cultures, we have developed a minimal medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source, named MMG30. Growth of the parental strain B19 (erythritol sensitive) in this medium was fairly good compared with the growth of its Eri(t) derivatives. Culture of the 12 different batches of B19 in liquid MMG30 produced up to a thousandfold decrease in the proportion of Eri(t) mutants present in the vaccine cultures. Use of this medium to grow B19 could represent an easy and considerable improvement of the vaccine, by the reduction of the presence of potentially dangerous Eri(t) mutants.

  20. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  1. The Infrared Medium-Deep Survey. V. A New Selection Strategy for Quasars at z > 5 based on Medium-Band Observation with SQUEAN

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Yiseul; Pak, Soojong; Hyun, Minhee; Kim, Sanghyuk; Kim, Yongjung; Lee, Hye-In; Park, Woojin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple color selection techniques have been successful in identifying quasars from wide-field broad-band imaging survey data. Among the quasars that have been discovered so far, however, there is a redshift gap at $5 \\lesssim {\\rm z} \\lesssim 5.7$ due to the limitations of filter sets in previous studies. In this work, we present a new selection technique of high redshift quasars using a sequence of medium-band filters: nine filters with central wavelengths from 625 to 1025 nm and bandwidths of 50 nm. Photometry with these medium-bands traces the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a source, similar to spectroscopy with resolution R $\\sim$ 15. By conducting medium-band observations of high redshift quasars at 4.7 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 6.0 and brown dwarfs (the main contaminants in high redshift quasar selection) using the SED camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (SQUEAN) on the 2.1-m telescope at the McDonald Observatory, we show that these medium-band filters are superior to multi-color broad-band color sectio...

  2. Effect of Compost Amendment on Heavy Metals, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in a Peat-Based Container Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yi-Ping; HE Zhen-Li; P. J. STOFFELLA; D. V. CALVERT; ZHANG Ming-Kui; YANG Xiao-E; S. B. WILSON

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effect of compost amendment on mobility and leaching potential of heavy metals, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from a peat-based commercial container medium containing 700 g kg-1peat, 200 g kg-1 perlite and 100 g kg-1 vermiculite at varying amendment rates of compost (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 LL-1). Increasing compost amendment significantly and linearly increased the pH (P<0.01), the total concentrations of organic carbon (P<0.05), copper (Cu) (P<0.01), cadmium (Cd) (P<0.01), and lead (Pb) (P<0.01), and increased the bulk density (P<0.01) of the medium. The electrical conductivity (EC), and total N and P of the medium increased significantly (P<0.01) and quadratically with increasing compost amendment. The relationship of the C/N ratio of the medium with the compost amendment rate was decreasing, significant (P<0.01) and cubic, while that of the total Zn was increasing, significant (P<0.01) and cubic. Extractable P, NO3-N, and NH4-N increased initially with an increasing compost amendment of up to 0.50 L L-1 and then decreased with further increasing compost rate. Increasing compost rates resulted in a highly significant (P<0.01) and linear increase in total Cd, Cu, and Pb, and a highly significant (P<0.01) and cubic increase in total Zn in the medium. Increasing compost rates also significantly (P<0.01) increased extractable Cu (linearly) and Zn (quadratically), but significantly (P<0.01) decreased extractable Pb (linearly). There was no significant effect of compost amendment on the extractable Cd concentration in the medium. However, with increasing compost rates from 0.25 to 1.00 L L-1, extractability of P, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn (extractable concentration as a percent of total) was decreased, indicating that compost amendment could lower the leachability of these elements from the medium.

  3. Creating a flipbook as a medium of instruction based on the research on activity test of kencur extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monika, Icha; Yeni, Laili Fitri; Ariyati, Eka

    2016-02-01

    This research aimed to reveal the validity of the flipbook as a medium of learning for the sub-material of environmental pollution in the tenth grade based on the results of the activity test of kencur (Kaempferia galanga) extract to control the growth of the Fusarium oxysporum fungus. The research consisted of two stages. First, testing the validity of the medium of flipbook through validation by seven assessors and analyzed based on the total average score of all aspects. Second, testing the activity of the kencur extract against the growth of Fusarium oxysporum by using the experimental method with 10 treatments and 3 repetitions which were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The making of the flipbook medium was done through the stages of analysis for the potential and problems, data collection, design, validation, and revision. The validation analysis on the flipbook received an average score of 3.7 and was valid to a certain extent, so it could be used in the teaching and learning process especially in the sub-material of environmental pollution in the tenth grade of the senior high school.

  4. Optimum culture medium composition for lipopeptide production by Bacillus subtilis using response surface model-based ant colony optimization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Satya Eswari; M Anand; C Venkateswarlu

    2016-01-01

    Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of experiments was used to obtain data for Lipopeptide and Biomass concentrations from fermentation medium containing the following five components: glucose,monosodium glutamate, yeast extract,MgSO4·7H2O, and K2HPO4. Data was used to develop a second order regression response surface model (RSM) which was coupled with ant colony optimization (ACO) to optimize the media compositions so as to enhance the productivity of lipopeptide. The optimized media by ACO was found to yield 1.501 g/L of lipopeptide concentration which was much higher compared to 1.387 g/L predicted by Nelder–Mead optimization (NMO). The optimum from ACO was validated experimentally. RSM-based ACO is thus shown to be an effective tool for medium optimization of biosurfactant production.

  5. A novel hybrid plasmonic waveguide with loss compensation via electrically pumped gain medium based on silicon platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose and study a new hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure with gain medium. The structure is based on silicon platform with gain medium to be III-V material, which can be electrically pumped. The whole structure can be realized through the bonding technique. An adhesive polymer layer adopted in the bonding process acts as the low refractive index layer here in the hybrid plasmonic waveguide. Further simulation with gain presented shows that a moderate gain coefficient of 891 cm-1 is required for lossless propagation while keeping subwavelength modal size, especially in the lateral direction which is important for high density integration. Considering the fabrication compatibility, this new SPP structure would be highly favorable in the silicon photonics.

  6. Toxicological impact studies based on Escherichia coli bacteria in ultrafine ZnO nanoparticles colloidal medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayner, Roberta; Ferrari-Iliou, Roselyne; Brivois, Nicolas; Djediat, Shakib; Benedetti, Marc F; Fiévet, Fernand

    2006-04-01

    We report here preliminary studies of biocidal effects and cellular internalization of ZnO nanoparticles on Escherichia coli bacteria. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized in di(ethylene glycol) (DEG) medium by forced hydrolysis of ionic Zn2+ salts. Particle size and shape were controlled by addition of small molecules and macromolecules such as tri-n-octylphosphine oxide, sodium dodecyl sulfate, polyoxyethylene stearyl ether, and bovine serum albumin. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to characterize particle structure, size, and morphology. Bactericidal tests were performed in Luria-Bertani medium on solid agar plates and in liquid systems with different concentrations of small and macromolecules and also with ZnO nanoparticles. TEM analyses of bacteria thin sections were used to study biocidal action of ZnO materials. The results confirmed that E. coli cells after contact with DEG and ZnO were damaged showing a Gram-negative triple membrane disorganization. This behavior causes the increase of membrane permeability leading to accumulation of ZnO nanoparticles in the bacterial membrane and also cellular internalization of these nanoparticles.

  7. Medium-density particleboards from modified rice husks and soybean protein concentrate-based adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciannamea, Emiliano M; Stefani, Pablo M; Ruseckaite, Roxana A

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to evaluate the technical feasibility of using rice husk (RH) as wood substitute in the production of environmentally sound medium-density particleboards using adhesives from soybean protein concentrate (SPC). Chemical modification of rice husk with sodium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide followed by hydrogen peroxide (bleaching) were undertaken to evaluate the effect of such treatments on the composition and topology of rice husk and the performance of produced panels. Both treatments were efficient in partially eliminating hemicelluloses, lignin and silica from RH, as evidenced by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy observations suggested that alkaline treatment resulted in a more damaged RH substrate than bleaching. The dependence of mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond) and the physical properties (water absorption and thickness swelling) on chemical treatments performed on both, rice husk and SPC was studied. Bleached-rice husk particleboards bonded with alkaline-treated soybean protein concentrate displayed the best set of final properties. Particleboards with this formulation met the minimum requirements of internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture recommended by the US Standard ANSI/A208.1 specifications for M1, MS and M2-grade medium-density particleboards, but failed to achieve the thickness swelling value recommended for general use panels. This limitation of soybean protein concentrate-bonded rice husk particleboards was counterbalanced by the advantage of being formaldehyde-free which makes them a suitable alternative for indoor applications.

  8. The addition of medium-chain triglycerides to a purified fish oil-based diet alters inflammatory profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sarah J; Nandivada, Prathima; Chang, Melissa I; Mitchell, Paul D; O'Loughlin, Alison; Cowan, Eileen; Gura, Kathleen M; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks medium access control protocol based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pandit, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the use of the spectrum sharing techniques in cognitive radio technology, in order to address the problem of spectrum scarcity for future wireless communications. The authors describe a cognitive radio medium access control (MAC) protocol, with which throughput maximization has been achieved. The discussion also includes use of this MAC protocol for imperfect sensing scenarios and its effect on the performance of cognitive radio systems. The authors also discuss how energy efficiency has been maximized in this system, by applying a simple algorithm for optimizing the transmit power of the cognitive user. The study about the channel fading in the cognitive user and licensed user and power adaption policy in this scenario under peak transmit power and interference power constraint is also present in this book.

  10. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  11. Probe frequency- and field intensity-sensitive coherent control effects in an EIT-based periodic layered medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teh-Chau Liau; Jin-Jei Wu; Jianqi Shen; Tzong-Jer Yang

    2012-01-01

    A periodic layered medium,with unit cells consisting of a dielectric and an electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT)-based atomic vapor,is designed for light propagation manipulation. Considering that a destructive quantum interference relevant to a two-photon resonance emerges in EIT-based atoms interacting with both control and probe fields,an EIT-based periodic layered medium exhibits a flexible frequency-sensitive optical response,where a very small variation in the probe frequency can lead to a drastic variation in reflectance and transmittance.The present EIT-based periodic layered structure can result in controllable optical processes that depend sensitively on the external control field.The tunable and sensitive optical response induced by the quantum interference of a multi-level atomic system can be applied in the fabrication of new photonic and quantum optical devices.This material will also open a good perspective for the application of such designs in several new fields,including photonic microcircuits or integrated optical circuits.

  12. 等效数值法在围岩稳定性评价中的应用%Evaluation on Stability of Surrounding Rock Mass Based on Equivalent Numerical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高科; 李夕兵

    2009-01-01

    提出了一种新的围岩的稳定性评价方法--等效数值法,建立了基于等效数值方法的围岩稳定性评价新模型.该方法将样本指标值与围岩稳定性各指标分类标准对比来确定权重,客观性强,计算简捷.对5个典型的围岩作为评价样本进行了评价研究,并将得到的评价结果与模糊识别法、可拓方法与模糊可变集合工程方法结果进行比较.研究结果表明,等效数值法成功率高、客观性强,为围岩稳定性的评价研究提供了一条新思路.%In this paper,a new stability evaluation method on surrounding rock mass by using equivalent numerical method is presented.The stability assessment model for the Surrounding Rock Mass based on an equivalent numerical method is established.5 actual samples were used to verify the effectiveness of this method.Compared with Furry Pattern Reeoginition,extension method and engineering method of variable fuzzy set,equivalent numerical method has a practical performance in evaluating the stability of surrounding rock mass.This paper provides a new way for evaluation on stability of surrounding rock mass.

  13. 3D controlled-source electromagnetic modeling in anisotropic medium using edge-based finite element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Hongzhu; Xiong, Bin; Han, Muran

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a linear edge-based finite element method for numerical modeling of 3D controlled-source electromagnetic data in an anisotropic conductive medium. We use a nonuniform rectangular mesh in order to capture the rapid change of diffusive electromagnetic field within the regions...... of anomalous conductivity and close to the location of the source. In order to avoid the source singularity, we solve Maxwell's equation with respect to anomalous electric field. The nonuniform rectangular mesh can be transformed to hexahedral mesh in order to simulate the bathymetry effect. The sparse system...

  14. Development of multimodel ensemble based district level medium range rainfall forecast system for Indian region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Roy Bhowmik; V R Durai

    2012-04-01

    India Meteorological Department has implemented district level medium range rainfall forecast system applying multimodel ensemble technique, making use of model outputs of state-of-the-art global models from the five leading global NWP centres. The pre-assigned grid point weights on the basis of anomaly correlation coefficients (CC) between the observed values and forecast values are determined for each constituent model at the resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° utilizing two season datasets (1 June–30 September, 2007 and 2008) and the multimodel ensemble forecasts (day-1 to day-5 forecasts) are generated at the same resolution on a real-time basis. The ensemble forecast fields are then used to prepare forecasts for each district, taking the average value of all grid points falling in a particular district. In this paper, we describe the development strategy of the technique and performance skill of the system during summer monsoon 2009. The study demonstrates the potential of the system for improving rainfall forecasts at five days time scale over Indian region. Districtwise performance of the ensemble rainfall forecast reveals that the technique, in general, is capable of providing reasonably good forecast skill over most states of the country, particularly over the states where the monsoon systems are more dominant.

  15. Energy-Efficient Reservation-Based Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohvakka Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, a robust and energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC protocol is required for high energy efficiency in harsh operating conditions, where node and link failures are common. This paper presents the design of a novel MAC protocol for low-power WSNs. The developed MAC protocol minimizes the energy overhead of idle time and collisions by strict frame synchronization and slot reservation. It combines a dynamic bandwidth adjustment mechanism, multi-cluster-tree network topology, and a network channel allowing rapid and low-energy neighbor discoveries. The protocol achieves high scalability by employing frequency and time division between clusters. Performance analysis shows that the MAC protocol outperforms current state-of-the-art protocols in energy efficiency, and the energy overhead compared to an ideal MAC protocol is only 2.85% to 27.1%. The high energy efficiency is achieved in both leaf and router nodes. The models and the feasibility of the protocol were verified by simulations and with a full-scale prototype implementation.

  16. The metallicity-luminosity relation at medium redshift based on faint CADIS emission line galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, C; Hippelein, H

    2004-01-01

    The emission line survey within the Calar Alto Deep Imaging Survey (CADIS) detects galaxies with very low continuum brightness by using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. With spectroscopic follow-up observations of MB>~-19 CADIS galaxies using FORS2 at the VLT and DOLORES at TNG we obtained oxygen abundances of 5 galaxies at z~0.4 and 10 galaxies at z~0.64. Combining these measurements with published oxygen abundances of galaxies with MB<~-19 we find evidence that a metallicity-luminosity relation exists at medium redshift, but it is displaced to lower abundances and higher luminosities compared to the metallicity-luminosity relation in the local universe. Comparing the observed metallicities and luminosities of galaxies at z<3 with Pegase2 chemical evolution models we have found a favoured scenario in which the metallicity of galaxies increases by a factor of ~2 between z~0.7 and today, and their luminosity decreases by ~0.5-0.9mag.

  17. A Novel Medium Access Control for Ad hoc Networks Based on OFDM System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yi-fan; YIN Chang-chuan; YUE Guang-xin

    2005-01-01

    Recently, hosts of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Ad hoc radio networks have been proposed to solve the hidden terminal problem and exposed terminal problem. However most of them take into no account the interactions between physical (PHY) system and MAC protocol. Therefore, the current MAC protocols are either inefficient in the networks with mobile nodes and fading channel or difficult in hardware implementation. In this paper, we present a novel media access control for Ad hoc networks that integrates a media access control protocol termed as Dual Busy Tone Multiple Access (DBTMA) into Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system proposed in IEEE 802.11a standard. The analysis presented in the paper indicates that the proposed MAC scheme achieves performance improvement over IEEE 802.11 protocol about 25%~80% especially in the environment with high mobility and deep fading. The complexity of the proposed scheme is also lower than other implementation of similar busy tone solution. Furthermore, it is compatible with IEEE 802.11a networks.

  18. Interstitial optical parameter quantification of turbid medium based on CW radiance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Zhang, Limin; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan

    2016-10-01

    CW radiance measurements examine the light intensity at a single source-detector location from different detection directions to recover absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient of the turbid medium which is important in treatment planning of minimally invasive laser therapies. In this paper, P9 approximation for radiance is used as the forward model for fitting by considering the balance between computational time and the correctness of the forward model at low albedo and small source detector separation (SDS). By fitting P9 approximation for radiance to the angular radiance Monte Carlo (MC) simulations used as the angular radiance measurements, optical parameters are recovered over a wide range of reduced albedo between 0.69 and 0.99 at small SDS 2mm. The recovery errors of absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient are less than 11.96% and 2.63%, respectively. The effects of the maximum angle used for fitting on optical parameter recovery have been further studied. The results show that the recovery errors of absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient are less than 12% and 3% respectively when the maximum angle is greater than 70 degree.

  19. Monte Carlo based water/medium stopping-power ratios for various ICRP and ICRU tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Varea, José M; Carrasco, Pablo; Panettieri, Vanessa; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2007-11-07

    Water/medium stopping-power ratios, s(w,m), have been calculated for several ICRP and ICRU tissues, namely adipose tissue, brain, cortical bone, liver, lung (deflated and inflated) and spongiosa. The considered clinical beams were 6 and 18 MV x-rays and the field size was 10 x 10 cm(2). Fluence distributions were scored at a depth of 10 cm using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. The collision stopping powers for the studied tissues were evaluated employing the formalism of ICRU Report 37 (1984 Stopping Powers for Electrons and Positrons (Bethesda, MD: ICRU)). The Bragg-Gray values of s(w,m) calculated with these ingredients range from about 0.98 (adipose tissue) to nearly 1.14 (cortical bone), displaying a rather small variation with beam quality. Excellent agreement, to within 0.1%, is found with stopping-power ratios reported by Siebers et al (2000a Phys. Med. Biol. 45 983-95) for cortical bone, inflated lung and spongiosa. In the case of cortical bone, s(w,m) changes approximately 2% when either ICRP or ICRU compositions are adopted, whereas the stopping-power ratios of lung, brain and adipose tissue are less sensitive to the selected composition. The mass density of lung also influences the calculated values of s(w,m), reducing them by around 1% (6 MV) and 2% (18 MV) when going from deflated to inflated lung.

  20. Purification processes of cadmium based quantum dots in aqueous medium: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petris, Dimitri; Freitas, Denilson V.; dos Santos, Rayany K. V.; Dias, Jéssica M. M.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2017-07-01

    Three different purification methods for CdTe-MPA quantum dot (QD) were performed in aqueous medium: acid titration (HCl, HClO4, H2SO4 and CH3COOH), non-selective precipitation by addition of acetone and co-precipitation of the QD in the presence of inorganic salts. The QD stock solutions were prepared by an electrochemical method of synthesis, in four different heating times (1 h, 4 h, 8 h and 12 h). After purifications, the QD solids were redispersed in distilled water and analyzed by absorption and emission spectra. The λ abs and λ em of the purified QDs showed similar data observed for QD stock solutions, and the recovery rate varied from 71% to 99%. Co-precipitation method showed some advantages: quantum yield maintenance of the QD redispersed solution, longer period of storage (over 6 months) in solution and in solid state (QD embedded into the KCl crystal lattice). CdSe-MPA and CdS-MPA solutions were also purified by co-precipitation method with KCl, showing good results as observed for CdTe-MPA.

  1. Improvement in Medium Access Control protocol based on new contention scheme for wireless ad hoc network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Ellammal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In todays wireless networks, stations using the IEEE 802.11 standard contend for the channel using the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF. Research has shown that DCF€™s performance degrades especially with the large number of stations. This becomes more concerning due to the increasing proliferation of wireless devices. In this paper, we present a Medium Access Control (MAC scheme for wireless LANs and compare its performance to DCF . Our scheme, which attempts to resolve the contention in a constant number of slots (or constant time, is called CONSTI. The contention resolution happens over a predefined number of slots. In a slot, the stations probabilistically send a jam signal on the channel. The stations listening retire if they hear a jam signal. The others continue to the next slot. Over several slots, we aim to have one station remaining in the contention, which will then transmit its data. We find the optimal parameters of CONSTI and present an analysis on its performance.

  2. Simulation Analysis for Opening Performance of Medium Voltage Vacuum Circuit Breaker Based on ADAMS and Maxwell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xianliang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The circuit breakers play a important role in control and protect the power systemand the vacuum circuit breaker has beenwidely used in the field of medium voltage with its excellent opening performance.Virtual prototyping technology is alsobecamemore and more popularin design and optimization of the vacuum circuit breaker. In this paper, the electromagnetic simulation software Ansoft Maxwell is used to analyze the electric repulsion of the circuit breaker in the case of open the rated short circuit breaking current. The 3D model that wasbuilt by CREOis imported into ADAMS. Thenconstraints, contact force, and the electric repulsion forcethat was analysezed in Ansoft Maxwell is added into the 3D model.Therefore, we can carry on the multi-body dynamics simulation to the 3D model. Then We can get the openingperformance of the vacuum circuit breakerin the condition of open circuit rated short circuit breaking current. The simulation results show that the circuit breaker can still meet the performance requirements in the condition of open circuit rated short circuit breaking current.

  3. Waste molasses alone displaces glucose-based medium for microalgal fermentation towards cost-saving biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Lu, Yue; Chen, Yi-Feng; Wu, Qingyu

    2011-06-01

    The by-product of sugar refinery-waste molasses was explored as alternative to glucose-based medium of Chlorella protothecoides in this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis is required for waste molasses suitable for algal growth. Waste molasses hydrolysate was confirmed as a sole source of full nutrients to totally replace glucose-based medium in support of rapid growth and high oil yield from algae. Under optimized conditions, the maximum algal cell density, oil content, and oil yield were respectively 70.9 g/L, 57.6%, and 40.8 g/L. The scalability of the waste molasses-fed algal system was confirmed from 0.5L flasks to 5L fermenters. The quality of biodiesel from waste molasses-fed algae was probably comparable to that from glucose-fed ones. Economic analysis indicated the cost of oil production from waste molasses-fed algae reduced by 50%. Significant cost reduction of algal biodiesel production through fermentation engineering based on the approach is expected.

  4. The coulometric titration of acids and bases in m-cresol medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Dahmen, E.A.M.F.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for the coulometric titration of acids and bases in the solvent m-cresol. The method is suitable for bases with pKa values greater than 11 in m-cresol, or for acids with pKa values below 13 in m-cresol. Amounts of 5–50 μeq of acid or base can be determined with a relative

  5. A Systematic Review and Summarization of the Recommendations and Research Surrounding Curriculum-Based Measurement of Oral Reading Fluency (CBM-R) Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoin, Scott P.; Christ, Theodore J.; Morena, Laura S.; Cormier, Damien C.; Klingbeil, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Research and policy have established that data are necessary to guide decisions within education. Many of these decisions are made within problem solving and response to intervention frameworks for service delivery. Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading (CBM-R) is a widely used data collection procedure within those models of service delivery.…

  6. The Local Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Redfield, S

    2006-01-01

    The Local Interstellar Medium (LISM) is a unique environment that presents an opportunity to study general interstellar phenomena in great detail and in three dimensions. In particular, high resolution optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy have proven to be powerful tools for addressing fundamental questions concerning the physical conditions and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of this local material. After reviewing our current understanding of the structure of gas in the solar neighborhood, I will discuss the influence that the LISM can have on stellar and planetary systems, including LISM dust deposition onto planetary atmospheres and the modulation of galactic cosmic rays through the astrosphere - the balancing interface between the outward pressure of the magnetized stellar wind and the inward pressure of the surrounding interstellar medium. On Earth, galactic cosmic rays may play a role as contributors to ozone layer chemistry, planetary electrical discharge frequency, biological mutation rates, and cl...

  7. Accurate reconstruction of the optical parameter distribution in participating medium based on the frequency-domain radiative transfer equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yao-Bin; Qi, Hong; Zhao, Fang-Zhou; Ruan, Li-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructing the distribution of optical parameters in the participating medium based on the frequency-domain radiative transfer equation (FD-RTE) to probe the internal structure of the medium is investigated in the present work. The forward model of FD-RTE is solved via the finite volume method (FVM). The regularization term formatted by the generalized Gaussian Markov random field model is used in the objective function to overcome the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. The multi-start conjugate gradient (MCG) method is employed to search the minimum of the objective function and increase the efficiency of convergence. A modified adjoint differentiation technique using the collimated radiative intensity is developed to calculate the gradient of the objective function with respect to the optical parameters. All simulation results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm based on FD-RTE can obtain the accurate distributions of absorption and scattering coefficients. The reconstructed images of the scattering coefficient have less errors than those of the absorption coefficient, which indicates the former are more suitable to probing the inner structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51476043), the Major National Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development Special Foundation of China (Grant No. 51327803), and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51121004).

  8. Bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber as a gain medium for L-band amplification and Brillouin fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Shahi, S.; Harun, S. W.

    2010-03-01

    Bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber (Bi-EDF) is demonstrated as an alternative medium for optical amplification and nonlinear applications. The bismuth glass host provides the opportunity to be doped heavily with erbium ions to allow a compact optical amplifier design. The bismuth-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier (Bi-EDFA) is demonstrated to operate at wavelength region from 1570 to 1620 nm using only a 215 cm long of gain medium. The maximum gain of 15.8 dB is obtained at signal wavelength of 1610 nm with the corresponding noise figure of about 6.3 dB. A multi-wavelength laser comb is also demonstrated using a stimulated Brillouin scattering in the 215 cm long Bi-EDF assisted by the 1480 nm pumping. The laser generates more than 40 lines of optical comb with a line spacing of approximately 0.08 at 1612.5 nm region using 152 mW of 1480 nm pump power.

  9. The contribution of counselling in hospital and home-based care in a small town and surrounding rural area in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, I B; Haworth, A

    1995-01-01

    In early 1991 in Zambia, Mansa General Hospital hosted Luapula Province's first training course for counselors of patients with AIDS and their families. Physicians and nurses soon saw that counseling made their work easier. Counseling helped the clients and their families and affected the behavior of the providers. The counselors have made it easier for hospital providers to discuss AIDS. Several months passed after counseling was implemented before a specific room for counseling was established to preserve privacy. The counselors provide pre- and post-test counseling. They meet weekly to share problems and concerns and to review counseling content so they can learn from each other. Since some patients live too far from the hospital, four counselors have joined the home-based care team (nurse, clinical officer, laboratory assistant, and physician). Home-based teams help HIV-positive spouses, widows about to lose all their property to the late husband's relatives, and family members providing for orphaned children. Community counseling or community education for transformation eventually replaced the hospital-centered home-based care model that ignored the community and its resources. The local health educator facilitated this transition. This model provided information to chiefs and headmen and helped them to learn how HIV/AIDS affects individuals. Teachers, social workers, and church workers were later also targeted as community leaders. The second training course in Mansa was established to train counselors who would then be resource persons to local institutions or within their own communities. Training of social workers and teachers relieves the home-based care team of the counseling burden. Thus, the counseling program evolved into a multi-nodal network made of resources from the hospital, health center, and community.

  10. Model of Coastal Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Based on the Potential of Local Port and marine Tourism Port, Case Study: Fort Rotterdam Makassar and the Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, A. B.; Yudono, A.; Akil, A.; Ramli, I.

    2017-08-01

    The lack of social and public facilties of seven small islands around Makassar, causing the commuters to experience inefficiency in fulfilling their basic needs in the mainland of Makassar city. The purpose of this study is finding the location of coastal TOD in accordance with the principles of development model of coastal TOD. The result showed that inefficiency of time, cost and distance could be eliminated by applying vertical, united and integrated development model of coastal TOD. Using survey, interview and literature study through expert system analysis based on GIS deliniates coastal TOD.

  11. Exploring social inclusion strategies for public health research and practice: The use of participatory visual methods to counter stigmas surrounding street-based substance abuse in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterbusch, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the participatory visual research design and findings from a qualitative assessment of the social impact of bazuco and inhalant/glue consumption among street youth in Bogotá, Colombia. The paper presents the visual methodologies our participatory action research (PAR) team employed in order to identify and overcome the stigmas and discrimination that street youth experience in society and within state-sponsored drug rehabilitation programmes. I call for critical reflection regarding the broad application of the terms 'participation' and 'participatory' in visual research and urge scholars and public health practitioners to consider the transformative potential of PAR for both the research and practice of global public health in general and rehabilitation programmes for street-based substance abuse in Colombia in particular. The paper concludes with recommendations as to how participatory visual methods can be used to promote social inclusion practices and to work against stigma and discrimination in health-related research and within health institutions.

  12. Development of a web-based learning medium on mechanism of labour for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdprasert, Sailom; Pruksacheva, Tassanee; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a web-based learning media on the process and mechanism of labour for the third-year university nursing and midwifery students. This media was developed based on integrating principles of the mechanism of labour with the 5Es inquiry cycle and interactive features of information technology. In this study, the web-based learning unit was used to supplement the conventional lecture as in the traditional teaching. Students' achievements were assessed by using the pre- and post-test on factual knowledge and semi-structured interviews on attitude to the unit. Supplementation with this learning unit made learning significantly more effective than the traditional lecture by itself. The students also showed positive attitude toward the learning unit.

  13. Microbial-based inoculants impact nitrous oxide emissions from an incubated soil medium containing urea fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Pamela; Watts, Dexter B; Ames, Robert N; Kloepper, Joseph W; Torbert, H Allen

    2013-01-01

    There is currently much interest in developing crop management practices that will decrease NO emissions from agricultural soils. Many different approaches are being investigated, but to date, no studies have been published on how microbial inoculants affect NO emissions. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that microbial-based inoculants known to promote root growth and nutrient uptake can reduce NO emissions in the presence of N fertilizers under controlled conditions. Carbon dioxide and CH fluxes were also measured to evaluate microbial respiration and determine the aerobic and anaerobic conditions of the incubated soil. The microbial-based treatments investigated were SoilBuilder (SB), a metabolite extract of SoilBuilder (SBF), and a mixture of four strains of plant growth-promoting spp. Experiments included two different N fertilizer treatments, urea and urea-NHNO 32% N (UAN), and an unfertilized control. Emissions of NO and CO were determined from soil incubations and analyzed with gas chromatography. After 29 d of incubation, cumulative NO emissions were reduced 80% by SB and 44% by SBF in soils fertilized with UAN. Treatment with spp. significantly reduced NO production on Days 1 and 2 of the incubation in soils fertilized with UAN. In the unfertilized treatment, cumulative emissions of NO were significantly reduced 92% by SBF. Microbial-based treatments did not reduce NO emissions associated with urea application. Microbial-based treatments increased CO emissions from soils fertilized with UAN, suggesting a possible increase in microbial activity. Overall, the results demonstrated that microbial-based inoculants can reduce NO emissions associated with N fertilizer application, and this response varies with the type of microbial-based inoculant and fertilizer.

  14. Research Update: Cu-S based synthetic minerals as efficient thermoelectric materials at medium temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suekuni, Koichiro; Takabatake, Toshiro

    2016-10-01

    Synthetic minerals and related systems based on Cu-S are attractive thermoelectric (TE) materials because of their environmentally benign characters and high figures of merit at around 700 K. This overview features the current examples including kesterite, binary copper sulfides, tetrahedrite, colusite, and chalcopyrite, with emphasis on their crystal structures and TE properties. This survey highlights the superior electronic properties in the p-type materials as well as the close relationship between crystal structures and thermophysical properties. We discuss the mechanisms of high power factor and low lattice thermal conductivity, approaching higher TE performances for the Cu-S based materials.

  15. Coastal flood protection by a combined nature-based and engineering approach: Modeling the effects of marsh geometry and surrounding dikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jeroen; Plancke, Yves; Ides, Stefaan; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2016-06-01

    As ecosystem-based adaptation to global change is gaining ground, strategies to protect coastal and estuarine areas from increasing flood hazards are starting to consist of natural tidal wetland conservation and restoration in addition to conventional coastal defense structures. In this study, the capacity of tidal wetlands to locally attenuate peak water levels during storm tides is analyzed using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (TELEMAC2D) for a 3000 ha intertidal marsh (SW Netherlands). Model results indicate that peak water level reduction largely varies between individual flooding events and between different locations in the marsh. Model scenarios with variable dike positions show that attenuation rates can be minimized by blockage and set up of water levels against dikes or other structures confining the marsh size. This blockage only affects peak water level attenuation across wetlands if the duration of the flood wave is long compared to the marsh size. A minimum marsh width of 6-10 km is required to completely avoid blockage effects for the storm tidal cases assessed in this study. If blockage does not affect flood wave propagation, variations in attenuation rates between different locations in the marsh and between tides with varying high water levels can be explained with a single relationship based on the ratio between the water volume on the marsh platform and the total water volume on the platform and in the channels. Attenuation starts to occur when this ratio exceeds 0.2-0.4 and increases from there on up to a maximum of 29 cm/km for a ratio of about 0.85. Furthermore, model scenarios with varying marsh channel depth show that marsh scale attenuation rates increase by up to 4 cm/km if the channel elevation is raised by 0.7 m on average. Conversely, marsh scale attenuation rates decrease by up to 2 cm/km for scenarios in which the channels are lowered by 0.9 m on average. The marsh platform elevation has little effect on the maximum attenuation

  16. Prediction Model of Ground Settlement of Foundation Ditch Surrounding Based on LS-SVM%基于LS-SVM的基坑周边地表沉降预测模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋子房

    2014-01-01

    针对神经网络用于基坑变形预测存在结构难确定、训练易陷入局部最优及易过学习等问题,以已有的周边地表沉降为样本,利用最小二乘支持向量机(LS-SVM)建立基坑地表沉降预测模型,应用网格搜索算法优化模型参数,对基坑周边地表沉降进行连续滚动的多步预测。实例分析结果表明,LS-SVM用于基坑周边地表沉降预测效果较好,具有所需数据少、推广能力强等优点。%The problems that the structure is difficult to indentify, the training is easy to get in local opti-mization and overfitting are existing in using neural networks to forecast the deformation of foundation ditch. Given this, taking the ground settlement of foundation ditch surrounding as the sample, the predic-tion model of ground settlement of foundation ditch is established based on LS-SVM, the parameters of the model is optimized by mesh search algorithm, and continuous rolling multi-step forecasting of ground settlement of foundation ditch surrounding is implemented. The result of case analysis indicates that the effect of using LS-SVM to forecast the ground settlement of foundation ditch surrounding is preferable, meanwhile it has such advantages as requiring few data, the capacity of popularization is great.

  17. Improving forecasting accuracy of medium and long-term runoff using artificial neural network based on EEMD decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-chuan; Chau, Kwok-wing; Qiu, Lin; Chen, Yang-bo

    2015-05-01

    Hydrological time series forecasting is one of the most important applications in modern hydrology, especially for the effective reservoir management. In this research, an artificial neural network (ANN) model coupled with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is presented for forecasting medium and long-term runoff time series. First, the original runoff time series is decomposed into a finite and often small number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual series using EEMD technique for attaining deeper insight into the data characteristics. Then all IMF components and residue are predicted, respectively, through appropriate ANN models. Finally, the forecasted results of the modeled IMFs and residual series are summed to formulate an ensemble forecast for the original annual runoff series. Two annual reservoir runoff time series from Biuliuhe and Mopanshan in China, are investigated using the developed model based on four performance evaluation measures (RMSE, MAPE, R and NSEC). The results obtained in this work indicate that EEMD can effectively enhance forecasting accuracy and the proposed EEMD-ANN model can attain significant improvement over ANN approach in medium and long-term runoff time series forecasting.

  18. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica, U. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain and FISRAD S.A.S Carrera 64 a No 22-41, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M., E-mail: lallena@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Vilches, M. [Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario “San Cecilio”, Avda. Dr. Olóriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  19. In-medium quarkonium properties from a lattice QCD based effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seyong; Petreczky, Peter; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    In order to understand the experimental data on heavy quarkonium production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC it is necessary (though not sufficient) to pinpoint the properties of heavy Q Q ‾ bound states in the deconfined quark-gluon plasma, including their dissolution. Here we present recent results on the temperature dependence of bottomonium and charmonium correlators, as well as their spectral functions in a lattice QCD based effective field theory called NRQCD, surveying temperatures close to the crossover transition 140MeV < T < 249MeV. The spectra are reconstructed based on a novel Bayesian prescription, whose systematic uncertainties are assessed. We present indications for sequential melting of different quarkonium species with respect to their vacuum binding energies and give estimates on the survival of S-wave and P-wave ground states.

  20. In-medium quarkonium properties from a lattice QCD based effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seyong; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the experimental data on heavy quarkonium production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC it is necessary (though not sufficient) to pinpoint the properties of heavy $Q\\bar{Q}$ bound states in the deconfined quark-gluon plasma, including their dissolution. Here we present recent results on the temperature dependence of bottomonium and charmonium correlators, as well as their spectral functions in a lattice QCD based effective field theory called NRQCD, surveying temperatures close to the crossover transition $140 {\\rm MeV} < T< 249 {\\rm MeV}$. The spectra are reconstructed based on a novel Bayesian prescription, whose systematic uncertainties are assessed. We present indications for sequential melting of different quarkonium species with respect to their vacuum binding energies and give estimates on the survival of S-wave and P-wave ground states.

  1. Sleeping Cluster based Medium Access Control Layer Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Rangaswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks play a vital role in remote area applications, where human intervention is not possible. In a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN each and every node is strictly an energy as well as bandwidth constrained one. Problem statement: In a standard WSN, most of the routing techniques, move data from multiple sources to a single fixed base station. Because of the greater number of computational tasks, the existing routing protocol did not address the energy efficient problem properly. In order to overcome the problem of energy consumption due to more number of computational tasks, a new method is developed. Approach: The proposed algorithm divides the sensing field into three active clusters and one sleeping cluster. The cluster head selection is based on the distance between the base station and the normal nodes. The Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA mechanism is used to make the cluster remain in the active state as well as the sleeping state. In an active cluster 50% of nodes will be made active and the remaining 50% be in sleep state. A sleeping cluster will be made active after a period of time and periodically changes its functionality. Results: Due to this periodic change of state, energy consumption is minimized. The performance of the Low Energy Adaptive and Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH algorithm is also analyzed, using a network simulator NS2 based on the number of Cluster Heads (CH, Energy consumption, Lifetime and the number of nodes alive. Conclusion: The simulation studies were carried out using a network simulation tool NS2, for the proposed method and this is compared with the performance of the existing protocol. The superiority of the proposed method is highlighted.

  2. Viability of mycelial growth of Coprinus Comatus in culture medium based on organic residues

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, Lais Benes; Sales-Campos,Ceci; Melo de Carvalho, Cristiane Suely; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Nogueira de Andrade, Meire Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the mycelial growth of the Coprinus comatus strain CCO 01/01 in culture based on organic residues of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane bagasse), Citrus sinensis (orange bagasse), Ananas comosus (pineapple residues) and Musa sp. (banana leaf), supplemented with wheat bran in the proportions of 0, 10 and 20%, kept at 27 degrees C. The mycelial growth of C. comatus was evaluated daily by measurement of the diameter of the colony during seven days of incu...

  3. Design of a medium size x-ray mirror module based on thin glass foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Stefano; Civitani, Marta; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The hot slumping glass technology for X-ray mirror is under development and in the last years the results have been improved. Nustar is the first X-ray telescope based on slumped glass foils and it benefit is the low cost compared to the direct polishing of glass. With the slumping technique it is possible to maintain the glass mass to low values with respect to the direct polishing, but in general the angular resolution is worst. A further technique based on glass is the cold shaping of foils. The improved capabilities of manufacturing thin glass foils, pushed by the industrial application for screens, open new possibilities for X-ray mirror. The increase in strength of thin tempered glasses, the reduction of thickness errors and the good roughness of flat foils are potentially great advantages. In this paper a design of a mediumsize X-ray mirror module is analysed. It is based on integration of glass foils, stacked directly on a supporting structure that is part of the X-ray telescope using stiffening ribs as spacer between foils. The alignment of each stack is performed directly into the integration machine avoiding the necessity of the alignment of different stacked modules. A typical module (glass optic and metallic structure) provides an effective area of 10 cm2/kg at 1 keV (with a mass of about 50- 100 kg and a focal length of 10 m).

  4. [Contrast enhancement technique in brain 3D-CTA studies: optimizing the amount of contrast medium according to scan time based on TDC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Kazuaki; Hatcho, Atsushi

    2008-06-20

    In three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA), good reproducibility can be obtained by maintaining the maximum CT numbers (HU) at a specified level. However, the correlation between the scan time and the injection time showed that the maximum CT numbers increased and varied due to the additional contrast enhancement effect from recirculation of the injected contrast medium for longer injection times when the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit time (mgI/s) was maintained at a specified level based on the time-density curve (TDC) of the phantom. The amount of contrast medium employed at our hospital has been optimized based on an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time providing a contrast enhancement effect of 300 HU in the middle cerebral artery. Using this standard, a TDC phantom was employed to obtain an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time, permitting equivalent maximum CT values (used as standard values) to be obtained by changing the injection time. A contrast-enhancement technique that accounts for the variation in the scan time was evaluated. Strong correlations were observed between the scan time and the injection time (R2=0.969) and between the injection time and the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight (R2=0.994). We conclude that adjusting the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight per unit time according to the scan time permits optimization of the contrast-enhancement technique.

  5. Time gap for temporal cloak based on spectral hole burning in atomic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, M. S. Abdul; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of creating a time gap in the slow light based on spectral hole burning in a four-level Doppler broadened sodium atomic system. A time gap is also observed between the slow and the fast light in the hole burning region and near the burnt hole region, respectively. A cloaking time gap is attained in microseconds and no distortion is observed in the transmitted pulse. The width of the time gap is observed to vary with the inverse Doppler effect in this system. Our results may provide a way to create multiple time gaps for a temporal cloak. Project supported by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan.

  6. Broadband Impedance Transformer Based on Asymmetric Coupled Transmission Lines in Nonhomogeneous Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Krozer, Viktor; Meincke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A new broadband quarter-wavelength impedance transformer based on an asymmetric coupled line section is presented. The bandwidth of the coupled line transformer is extended with the help of an interconnecting transmission line. An analytical model for the transformer is developed. The analysis...... of the structure reveals that a fractional bandwidth of more than 100% at –20 dB reflection level can be achieved with such a structure. An experimental transformer circuit has been designed, fabricated and tested. Theoretical and experimental results are fair agreement and confirm the established theory...

  7. Medium Format Camera Evaluation Based on the Latest Phase One Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölg, T.; Kemper, G.; Kalinski, D.

    2016-06-01

    In early 2016, Phase One Industrial launched a new high resolution camera with a 100 MP CMOS sensor. CCD sensors excel at ISOs up to 200, but in lower light conditions, exposure time must be increased and Forward Motion Compensation (FMC) has to be employed to avoid smearing the images. The CMOS sensor has an ISO range of up to 6400, which enables short exposures instead of using FMC. This paper aims to evaluate the strengths of each of the sensor types based on real missions over a test field in Speyer, Germany, used for airborne camera calibration. The test field area has about 30 Ground Control Points (GCPs), which enable a perfect scenario for a proper geometric evaluation of the cameras. The test field includes both a Siemen star and scale bars to show any blurring caused by forward motion. The result of the comparison showed that both cameras offer high accuracy photogrammetric results with post processing, including triangulation, calibration, orthophoto and DEM generation. The forward motion effect can be compensated by a fast shutter speed and a higher ISO range of the CMOS-based camera. The results showed no significant differences between cameras.

  8. MEDIUM FORMAT CAMERA EVALUATION BASED ON THE LATEST PHASE ONE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tölg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In early 2016, Phase One Industrial launched a new high resolution camera with a 100 MP CMOS sensor. CCD sensors excel at ISOs up to 200, but in lower light conditions, exposure time must be increased and Forward Motion Compensation (FMC has to be employed to avoid smearing the images. The CMOS sensor has an ISO range of up to 6400, which enables short exposures instead of using FMC. This paper aims to evaluate the strengths of each of the sensor types based on real missions over a test field in Speyer, Germany, used for airborne camera calibration. The test field area has about 30 Ground Control Points (GCPs, which enable a perfect scenario for a proper geometric evaluation of the cameras. The test field includes both a Siemen star and scale bars to show any blurring caused by forward motion. The result of the comparison showed that both cameras offer high accuracy photogrammetric results with post processing, including triangulation, calibration, orthophoto and DEM generation. The forward motion effect can be compensated by a fast shutter speed and a higher ISO range of the CMOS-based camera. The results showed no significant differences between cameras.

  9. Is the activity based costing system a viable instrument for small and medium enterprises? The case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ríos-Manríquez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized firms (SMEs face serious challenges in order to be competitive, and they need to develop strategies enabling them to control their costs. This work aims to analyze and evaluate the impact, penetration and characteristics of Activity-Based Costs (ABC. This research is of a quantitative type descriptive design, with a sample of 180 SMEs. The results show low penetration of the ABC in SMEs using traditional systems, due to the lack of knowledge, and that there are enterprises that do not use any costing system at all. Finally the Mexican SMEs recognize the compatibility and usefulness of ABC, and that the most important fact is to understand the possible application of different costing methodologies for different purposes.

  10. Assessment for Production and Operation Ability of Medium and Small-sized Enterprises Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-hong; XU Jun; WANG Guan; ZENG Qi

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve production and operation ability of medium and small-sized enterprises, an assessment-index system of production and operation ability was proposed, and a corresponding assessment model was established based on BP neural network. The conjunction weights of the neural network were continuously modified from output layer to input layer in the process of neural network training to reduce the errors between the anticipated and actual outputs. The results from an example show that this method is reliable and feasible. The production and operation ability of an enterprise with assessed result of 0.833 is fairly powerful, and that with assessed result of 0.644 is average.

  11. Transmission-matrix-based point-spread-function engineering through a complex medium

    CERN Document Server

    Boniface, Antoine; Blochet, Baptiste; Piestun, Rafael; Gigan, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We report a method to design at will the spatial profile of transmitted coherent light after propagation through a scattering sample. We compute an operator based on the experimentally measured transmission matrix, obtained by numerically adding an arbitrary mask in the Fourier domain prior to focusing. We demonstrate the strength of the technique through several examples: propagating Bessel beams, thus generating foci smaller than the diffraction limited speckle grain, donut beams, and helical beams. We characterize the 3D profile of the achieved foci and analyze the fundamental limitations of the technique. Our approach generalizes Fourier optics concepts for random media, and opens in particular interesting perspectives for super-resolution imaging through turbid media.

  12. Accelerated Stress Testing of Hydrocarbon-Based Encapsulants for Medium-Concentration CPV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.; Moricone, T. J.; Kilkenny, M.; Zhang, J. Z.

    2011-02-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems have great potential to reduce photovoltaic (PV) electricity costs because of the relatively low cost of optical components as compared to PV cells. A transparent polymeric material is used to optically couple the PV cell to optical components and is thus exposed to the concentrated light source at elevated temperatures. In this work polymeric encapsulant materials are positioned close to a Xenon arc lamp to expose them to ultraviolet radiation (UV) that is about 42 times as intense as sunlight. Furthermore, different glass types are used as filters to modify the spectral distribution of light in the UV range. A strong sensitivity of non-silicone-based encapsulants to light below ~350 nm is demonstrated. Of all the materials examined in this study, the polydimethyl silicone samples performed the best. The next best material was an ionomer which maintained optical transmission but became photo-oxidized where exposed to the atmosphere.

  13. Retrospective validation of renewal-based, medium-term earthquake forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, R.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, some methods for scoring the performances of an earthquake forecasting probability model are applied retrospectively for different goals. The time-dependent occurrence probabilities of a renewal process are tested against earthquakes of Mw ≥ 5.3 recorded in Italy according to decades of the past century. An aim was to check the capability of the model to reproduce the data by which the model was calibrated. The scoring procedures used can be distinguished on the basis of the requirement (or absence) of a reference model and of probability thresholds. Overall, a rank-based score, information gain, gambling scores, indices used in binary predictions and their loss functions are considered. The definition of various probability thresholds as percentages of the hazard functions allows proposals of the values associated with the best forecasting performance as alarm level in procedures for seismic risk mitigation. Some improvements are then made to the input data concerning the completeness of the historical catalogue and the consistency of the composite seismogenic sources with the hypotheses of the probability model. Another purpose of this study was thus to obtain hints on what is the most influential factor and on the suitability of adopting the consequent changes of the data sets. This is achieved by repeating the estimation procedure of the occurrence probabilities and the retrospective validation of the forecasts obtained under the new assumptions. According to the rank-based score, the completeness appears to be the most influential factor, while there are no clear indications of the usefulness of the decomposition of some composite sources, although in some cases, it has led to improvements of the forecast.

  14. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  15. High-Performance Complementary Transistors and Medium-Scale Integrated Circuits Based on Carbon Nanotube Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingjun; Ding, Li; Han, Jie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2017-03-29

    Solution-derived carbon nanotube (CNT) network films with high semiconducting purity are suitable materials for the wafer-scale fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs) and integrated circuits (ICs). However, it is challenging to realize high-performance complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) FETs with high yield and stability on such CNT network films, and this difficulty hinders the development of CNT-film-based ICs. In this work, we developed a doping-free process for the fabrication of CMOS FETs based on solution-processed CNT network films, in which the polarity of the FETs was controlled using Sc or Pd as the source/drain contacts to selectively inject carriers into the channels. The fabricated top-gated CMOS FETs showed high symmetry between the characteristics of n- and p-type devices and exhibited high-performance uniformity and excellent scalability down to a gate length of 1 μm. Many common types of CMOS ICs, including typical logic gates, sequential circuits, and arithmetic units, were constructed based on CNT films, and the fabricated ICs exhibited rail-to-rail outputs because of the high noise margin of CMOS circuits. In particular, 4-bit full adders consisting of 132 CMOS FETs were realized with 100% yield, thereby demonstrating that this CMOS technology shows the potential to advance the development of medium-scale CNT-network-film-based ICs.

  16. Improving water resistance of wheat straw-based medium density fiberboards bonded with aminoplastic and phenolic resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laborie, M.-P. G.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A long standing problem in the manufacture of wheat-straw based composites with cost-effective formaldehyde-based resins is their poor water resistance as demonstrated by their large water thickness swell. In this study, wheat straw based medium density fiberboards were manufactured using 3 resin/wax systems: a melamine-urea-formalde-hyde resin with either low or high wax content, and a phenol-formal-dehyde resin with low wax content. The flexural properties, internal bond strength, and thickness swell of the resulting composites were evaluated and compared according to ASTM methods. The three MDF compos-ites passed the requirements for MDF in interior application, except for the MDF manufactured with the aminoplastic resin and low wax content that failed to provide acceptable thickness swell. Using the phenolic resin in combination with low wax content resulted in a higher grade MDF composite, grade 120, than with the aminoplastic and high wax content. This study demonstrates that wheat straw based MDF manu-factured with cost-effective aminoplastic and phenolic resins can have flexural properties, internal bond strength and thickness swell perfor-mance above the requirements from the American National Standards Institute.

  17. Energy cost based design optimization method for medium temperature CPC collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Pedro; Osório, Tiago; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    CPC collectors, approaching the ideal concentration limits established by non-imaging optics, can be designed to have such acceptance angles enabling fully stationary designs, useful for applications in the low temperature range (T concentration factors in turn requiring seasonal tracking strategies. Considering the CPC design options in terms of effective concentration factor, truncation, concentrator height, mirror perimeter, seasonal tracking, trough spacing, etc., an energy cost function based design optimization method is presented in this article. Accounting for the impact of the design on its optical (optical efficiency, Incidence Angle Modifier, diffuse acceptance) and thermal performances (dependent on the concentration factor), the optimization function integrates design (e.g. mirror area, frame length, trough spacing/shading), concept (e.g. rotating/stationary components, materials) and operation (e.g. O&M, tilt shifts and tracking strategy) costs into a collector specific energy cost function, in €/(kWh.m2). The use of such function stands for a location and operating temperature dependent design optimization procedure, aiming at the lowest solar energy cost. Illustrating this approach, optimization results will be presented for a (tubular) evacuated absorber CPC design operating in Morocco.

  18. Tensile behaviour of geopolymer-based materials under medium and high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, Costantino; Asprone, Domenico; Forni, Daniele; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Bozza, Anna; Prota, Andrea; Cadoni, Ezio

    2015-09-01

    Geopolymers are a promising class of inorganic materials typically obtained from an alluminosilicate source and an alkaline solution, and characterized by an amorphous 3-D framework structure. These materials are particularly attractive for the construction industry due to mechanical and environmental advantages they exhibit compared to conventional systems. Indeed, geopolymer-based concretes represent a challenge for the large scale uses of such a binder material and many research studies currently focus on this topic. However, the behaviour of geopolymers under high dynamic loads is rarely investigated, even though it is of a fundamental concern for the integrity/vulnerability assessment under extreme dynamic events. The present study aims to investigate the effect of high dynamic loading conditions on the tensile behaviour of different geopolymer formulations. The dynamic tests were performed under different strain rates by using a Hydro-pneumatic machine and a modified Hopkinson bar at the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The results are processed in terms of stress-strain relationships and strength dynamic increase factor at different strain-rate levels. The dynamic increase factor was also compared with CEB recommendations. The experimental outcomes can be used to assess the constitutive laws of geopolymers under dynamic load conditions and implemented into analytical models.

  19. Ultra-thin Low-Frequency Broadband Microwave Absorber Based on Magnetic Medium and Metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhi; He, Bo; Zhao, Jingcheng; Gong, Rongzhou

    2017-02-01

    An ultra-thin low-frequency broadband microwave absorber (MWA) based on a magnetic rubber plate (MRP) and cross-shaped structure (CSS) metamaterial (MM) was presented numerically and experimentally. The designed composite MWA is consisted of the MRP, CSS resonator, dielectric substrate and metallic background plane. The low-frequency absorption can be easily adjusted by tuning the geometric parameter of the CSS MM and the thickness of MPR. A bandwidth (i.e. the reflectance is below -10 dB) from 2.5 GHz to 5 GHz can be achieved with the total thickness of about 2 mm in experiments. The broadband absorption is attributed to the overlap of two resonant absorption peaks originated from MRP and CSS MM, respectively. More importantly, the thickness of the composite WMA is much thinner ( λ/40; λ is the operation center frequency), which could operate well at wide incidence angles for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves. Thus, it can be expected that our design will be applicable in the area of eliminating microwave energy and electromagnetic stealth.

  20. Tensile behaviour of geopolymer-based materials under medium and high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menna Costantino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are a promising class of inorganic materials typically obtained from an alluminosilicate source and an alkaline solution, and characterized by an amorphous 3-D framework structure. These materials are particularly attractive for the construction industry due to mechanical and environmental advantages they exhibit compared to conventional systems. Indeed, geopolymer-based concretes represent a challenge for the large scale uses of such a binder material and many research studies currently focus on this topic. However, the behaviour of geopolymers under high dynamic loads is rarely investigated, even though it is of a fundamental concern for the integrity/vulnerability assessment under extreme dynamic events. The present study aims to investigate the effect of high dynamic loading conditions on the tensile behaviour of different geopolymer formulations. The dynamic tests were performed under different strain rates by using a Hydro-pneumatic machine and a modified Hopkinson bar at the DynaMat laboratory of the University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland. The results are processed in terms of stress-strain relationships and strength dynamic increase factor at different strain-rate levels. The dynamic increase factor was also compared with CEB recommendations. The experimental outcomes can be used to assess the constitutive laws of geopolymers under dynamic load conditions and implemented into analytical models.

  1. Recognition of Gas Hydrate Using AVO-Attribute Crossplots Based on the Porous Medium Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYuwen; LiuXuewei; YaoChangli

    2005-01-01

    Gas hydrate is gradually considered as a potential energy resource. The presence of gas hydrate is commonly inferred from the appearance of “bottom simulating reflector”(BSR) on seismic section. Understanding the properties of hydrate-bearing sediments and studying the AVO characteristics of BSR are of great significance. Although more and more domestic and international studies have been conducted on the subjects mentioned above, they are still in the primary stage and need a long way to go to be appled in practice, especially in the field of gas hydrate. Aiming at the identification of gas hydrate, we studied the characteristics of the AVO attributes based on the Biot's theory when the sediments were bearing gas hydrate or free gas. The AVO attribute crossplots obtained from seismic sections with the forward simulation by means of staggered-grid finite-difference were compared with that of theoretic models. The coincidence shows that utilization of AVO attribute crossplots is an effective way to recognize gas hydrate and free gas.

  2. Dynamic Critical Rainfall-Based Flash Flood Early Warning and Forecasting for Medium-Small Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yang, D.; Hu, J.

    2012-04-01

    China is extremely frequent food disasters hit countries, annual flood season flash floods triggered by rainfall, mudslides, landslides have caused heavy casualties and property losses, not only serious threaten the lives of the masses, but the majority of seriously restricting the mountain hill areas of economic and social development and the people become rich, of building a moderately prosperous society goals. In the next few years, China will focus on prevention and control area in the flash flood disasters initially built "for the surveillance, communications, forecasting, early warning and other non-engineering measure based, non-engineering measures and the combinations of engineering measures," the mitigation system. The latest progresses on global torrential flood early warning and forecasting techniques are reviewed in this paper, and then an early warning and forecasting approach is proposed on the basis of a distributed hydrological model according to dynamic critical rainfall index. This approach has been applied in Suichuanjiang River basin in Jiangxi province, which is expected to provide valuable reference for building a national flash flood early warning and forecasting system as well as control of such flooding.

  3. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  4. Analyzing educational university students' conceptions through smartphone-based PDEODE*E tasks on magnetic field in several mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Aldi; Girsang, Denni Yulius; Saepuzaman, Duden; Samsudin, Achmad

    2017-05-01

    Conceptual understanding is one of the most important aspects in the study of Physics because of it useful to understand principles behind certain phenomenon which happened. An innovative method was needed to strengthen and enhance student's conceptual understanding, especially regarding the abstract subject such as magnetic field. For this reason, worksheet and exploration sheet based on PDEODE*E (Predict, Discuss, Explain, Observe, Discuss, Explore, and Explain) that uses Gauss Meter application as the smartphone technology has been designed to answer the problem. The magnetic field strength in different mediums is the physics subject which covered in this research. The research was conducted with the aim to know how effective smartphone technology-based PDEODE*E could be implemented as a physics learning strategy. The result of this research shows that students could show improvements in conceptual understanding that shown by the conclusion that was constructed during the learning process. Based on this result, PDEODE*E could become a solution to strengthen students' conceptual understanding regarding physics subject, especially those that requires abstract thinking. This result also has shown that the application ofsmartphone technology could be used to support physics learning processes in the classroom, such as Gauss Meter in this research which used to measure the magnetic field, Light Meter which could be used in the concept of light, and Harmonicity Meter for the context of the sound wave.

  5. Signal transmission in a human body medium-based body sensor network using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Jingwen; Jin, Xuefeng; Sun, He

    2012-11-30

    The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO) sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  6. Signal Transmission in a Human Body Medium-Based Body Sensor Network Using a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  7. Indirect lymph node lymphangiography using an iodine-based contrast medium and projection radiography following submucosal injection in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, A; Wuttke, M; Walter, F; De Leon, I; Kloeppel, R; Schoenfelder, M

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated the possibility of local lymph node detection and lymphatic mapping following submucosal injection of an iodine-based contrast medium. We established a contrast medium (oil/water emulsion on iodine basis) with a particle size of mainly 1.7+/-0.1 micro m. Ten rabbits received rectal submucosal injections of the contrast medium and underwent repeated projection radiography. Passage of the contrast medium into lymphatic vessels and storage in lymph nodes was seen in all ten animals. The best contrast was achieved within 24 and 48 h after injection. Lymph nodes were still seen in eight cases with the final radiograph on day 14. There were no clinical side effects observed. Injection sites showed mild signs of inflammation in histological examinations. Pathological signs were not detectable in lymph nodes containing the contrast media. This method appears useful when investigating local lymph nodes following submucosal injection due to its passage into lymphatic vessels and storage in lymph nodes.

  8. Displacement Monitoring and Analysis Platform for Highway Tunnel Surrounding Rock Based on Internet Technology%基于互联网技术的公路隧道围岩常规位移监测分析平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜锡宸; 孟陆波; 李天斌; 刘家民

    2015-01-01

    Informationization of tunnel construction management is a trend nowadays.A displacement monitoring and analysis platform for highway tunnel surrounding rocks based on internet technology is developed by using PHP (Personal Home Page)programming language and in conjunction with Mysql data storage function and analysis principles of the least square method and regression model,so as to meet the informationization requirement of highway tunnel monitoring.By using the mentioned platform,the recording and regression analysis of the monitoring data of the highway tunnel,the assessment of the stability of the surrounding rock and the estimation of the final displacement of the surrounding rock and the secondary lining time can be realized.Furthermore,by using the mentioned platform,the technical staffs that are not at the site can obtain the monitoring data and analysis results of the tunnel so that they can make timely adjustment on the lining structure.%信息化是当前隧道施工管理的必然趋势,针对公路隧道监控量测信息化建设要求,采用 PHP 编程语言,结合 Mysql 的数据存储功能、最小二乘法及回归模型的分析原理,研发基于互联网技术的公路隧道围岩常规位移监测分析平台。该平台实现了在网络上对公路隧道监测断面数据的录入存储、回归分析、围岩稳定性判别及隧道围岩最终位移变形量与二次衬砌时间预估等功能。通过网络访问该平台,可使不在现场的参建人员及时掌握隧道监测数据及分析结果,可为支护结构的调整和变更提供更有效率的依据,进而提高公路隧道的管理效率。

  9. Quantum chemical studies on the corrosion inhibition of some hector bases on mild steel in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khodaei-Tehrani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The density functional theory (DFT at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p basis set level method were performed on three hector bases used as corrosion inhibitors; namely, 3-anilino-5-imino-4-phenyl-1, 2,4-thiadiazoline (AIPT, 3-anilino-5-imino-4-tolyl-1, 2,4-thiadiazoline (AITT, and 4-(4-chlorophenyl-5-imino-N-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-thiadiazol-3-amine (AICT. They were used as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium in order to determine the relationship between molecular structure and their corresponding inhibition efficiency (%IE. The results of the quantum chemical calculations and experimental %IE were subjected to correlation analysis. This indicates that their inhibition effects are closely related to the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (EHOMO, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (ELUMO, the energy gap (ΔE, the hardness (η, the softness (σ, the electronegativity (χ, and the fraction of electrons transferred from the inhibitor molecule to the metal surface (ΔN. In addition, the local reactivity has been analyzed through the Fukui function. Two QSAR equations were developed and used to predict the corrosion inhibition efficiency for hector bases.

  10. Effect of medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion on leucocyte death and inflammatory gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury-Boaventura, M F; Gorjão, R; Martins de Lima, T; Fiamoncini, J; Godoy, A B P; Deschamphs, F C; Soriano, F G; Curi, R

    2011-01-01

    Lipid emulsion (LE) containing medium/ω-6 long chain triglyceride-based emulsion (MCT/ω-6 LCT LE) has been recommended in the place of ω-6 LCT-based emulsion to prevent impairment of immune function. The impact of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE on lymphocyte and neutrophil death and expression of genes related to inflammation was investigated. Seven volunteers were recruited and infusion of MCT/ω-6 LCT LE was performed for 6 h. Four volunteers received saline and no change was found. Blood samples were collected before, immediately afterwards and 18 h after LE infusion. Lymphocytes and neutrophils were studied immediately after isolation and after 24 and 48 h in culture. The following determinations were carried out: plasma-free fatty acids, triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid composition, neutral lipid accumulation in lymphocytes and neutrophils, signs of lymphocyte and neutrophil death and lymphocyte expression of genes related to inflammation. MCT/ω-6 LCT LE induced lymphocyte and neutrophil death. The mechanism for MCT/ω-6 LCT LE-dependent induction of leucocyte death may involve changes in neutral lipid content and modulation of expression of genes related to cell death, proteolysis, cell signalling, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and transcription. PMID:21682721

  11. Gold supported on zirconia polymorphs for hydrogen generation from formic acid in base-free aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Jian-Dong; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Huang, Fu-Qiang; Cao, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Formic acid (FA) has attracted considerable attention as a safe and convenient hydrogen storage material for renewable energy transformation. However, development of an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for selective FA decomposition for ultraclean H2 gas in the absence of any alkalis or additives under mild conditions remains a major challenge. Based on our previous work on Au/ZrO2 as a robust and efficient catalyst for FA dehydrogenation in amine system, we report here ZrO2 with different nanocrystal polymorphs supported Au nanoparticles can achieve near completion of FA dehydrogenation in base-free aqueous medium. Of significant importance is that an excellent rate of up to 81.8 L H2 gAu-1 h-1 in open system and highly pressurized gas of 5.9 MPa in closed one can be readily attained at 80 °C for Au/m-ZrO2. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and CO2-temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques revealed that Au/m-ZrO2 exhibits a higher density of surface basic sites than Au/t-ZrO2 and Au/a-ZrO2. Basic sites in surface can substantially facilitate crucial FA deprotonation process which appears to be a key factor for achieving high dehydrogenation activity. The H/D exchange between solvent of H2O and substrate of FA was observed by the kinetic isotope effect experiments.

  12. Response Surface Optimization of Rotenone Using Natural Alcohol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvent as Additive in the Extraction Medium Cocktail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetty Shafiqa Othman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone is a biopesticide with an amazing effect on aquatic life and insect pests. In Asia, it can be isolated from Derris species roots (Derris elliptica and Derris malaccensis. The previous study revealed the comparable efficiency of alcohol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES in extracting a high yield of rotenone (isoflavonoid to binary ionic liquid solvent system ([BMIM]OTf and organic solvent (acetone. Therefore, this study intends to analyze the optimum parameters (solvent ratio, extraction time, and agitation rate in extracting the highest yield of rotenone extract at a much lower cost and in a more environmental friendly method by using response surface methodology (RSM based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD. By using RSM, linear polynomial equations were obtained for predicting the concentration and yield of rotenone extracted. The verification experiment confirmed the validity of both of the predicted models. The results revealed that the optimum conditions for solvent ratio, extraction time, and agitation rate were 2 : 8 (DES : acetonitrile, 19.34 hours, and 199.32 rpm, respectively. At the optimum condition of the rotenone extraction process using DES binary solvent system, this resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in a rotenone concentration of 0.49 ± 0.07 mg/ml and yield of 0.35 ± 0.06 (%, w/w as compared to the control extract (acetonitrile only. In fact, the rotenone concentration and yield were significantly influenced by binary solvent ratio and extraction time (P<0.05 but not by means of agitation rate. For that reason, the optimal extraction condition using alcohol-based deep eutectic solvent (DES as a green additive in the extraction medium cocktail has increased the potential of enhancing the rotenone concentration and yield extracted.

  13. Love-wave bacteria-based sensor for the detection of heavy metal toxicity in liquid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoudi, I; Tarbague, H; Othmane, A; Moynet, D; Rebière, D; Kalfat, R; Dejous, C

    2010-12-15

    The present work deals with the development of a Love-wave bacteria-based sensor platform for the detection of heavy metals in liquid medium. The acoustic delay-line is inserted in an oscillation loop in order to record the resonance frequency in real-time. A Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip with a liquid chamber is maintained by pressure above the acoustic wave propagation path. Bacteria (Escherichia coli) were fixed as bioreceptors onto the sensitive surface of the sensor coated with a polyelectrolyte (PE) multilayer using a simple and efficient layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembly procedure. Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH cation) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS anion) were alternatively deposited so that the strong attraction between oppositely charged polyelectrolytes resulted in the formation of a (PAH-PSS)(n)-PAH molecular multilayer. The real-time characterization of PE multilayer and bacteria deposition is based on the measurement of the resonance frequency perturbation due to mass loading during material deposition. Real-time response to various concentrations of cadmium (Cd(2+)) and mercury (Hg(2+)) has been investigated. A detection limit as low as 10(-12) mol/l has been achieved, above which the frequency increases gradually up to 10(-3) mol/l, after a delay of 60 s subsequent to their introduction onto bacterial cell-based biosensors. Beyond a 10(-3) mol/l a steep drop in frequency was observed. This response has been attributed to changes in viscoelastic properties, related to modifications in bacteria metabolism.

  14. Antifungal effect of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil on a wheat flour-based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo-Ruiz, Martha Cristina; Sánchez, Raúl Avila-Sosa; Ramos, Sabina Viramontes; Muñoz, José Vinicio Torres; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia

    2012-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of oregano has been attributed mainly to the presence of volatile compounds found in its essential oil (EO), mainly carvacrol and thymol. The search for antimicrobial activity of oregano EO with different concentrations of thymol and carvacrol, can lead to products with a wider range of applications. The aim of this work was to describe the in vitro antifungal effect of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) EO fractions on the growth of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus sp. The Mexican oregano EO fractions studied had different concentrations of carvacrol, which decreased from fraction 1 to 5 (81% to 23%), while thymol content increased from 3% to 64%. Fungal inhibition was evaluated on a wheat flour-based medium with EO fractions concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/kg. Radial growth curves were fitted using the modified Gompertz model (R(2)(adj) = 0.989 ± 0.01). No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found with the different composition of the Mexican oregano EO fractions; nevertheless, fraction concentration presented significant (P oregano EO increased; mold growth inhibition were achieved at 150 mg/kg in fractions 1 to 4, and at 100 mg/kg for fraction 5. Aspergillus sp. (As6) and Penicillium sp. (Pe36) were inhibited at 150 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Results obtained suggest that Mexican oregano EO (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) compounds could be used as antimicrobial agents to prevent fungal growth in bakery products.

  15. Temperature insensitive prediction of glucose concentration in turbid medium using multivariable calibration based on external parameter orthogonalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tongshuai; Zhang, Ziyang; Sun, Cuiying; Guo, Chao; Sun, Di; Liu, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The measurement accuracy of non-invasive blood glucose concentration (BGC) sensing with near-infrared spectroscopy is easily affected by the temperature variation in tissue because it would induce an unacceptable spectrum variation and the consequent prediction deviation. We use a multivariable correction method based on external parameter orthogonalization (EPO) to calibrate the spectral data recorded at different temperature values to reduce the spectral variation. The tested medium is a kind of tissue phantom, the Intralipid aqueous solution. The calibration uses a projection matrix to get the orthogonal spectral space to the variable of external parameter, i.e. temperature, and then the useful spectral information relative to glucose concentration has been reserved. Even more, training the projection matrix can be separated to building the calibration matrix for the prediction of glucose concentration as it only uses the representative samples' data with temperature variation. The method presents a lower complexity than modeling a robust prediction matrix, which can be built from comprehensive spectral data involved the all variables both of BGC and temperature. In our test, the calibrated spectra with the same glucose concentration but different temperature values show a significantly improved repeatability. And then the glucose concentration prediction results show a lower root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) than that using the robust calibration model, which has considered the two variables. We also discuss the rationality of the representative samples chosen by EPO. This research may be referenced to the temperature calibration for in vivo BGC sensing.

  16. Understanding silence in problem-based learning: a case study at an English medium university in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has increasingly been employed as a teaching and learning approach in many disciplines in higher education. Since PBL might be regarded as a dramatic departure from what students have experienced before entry to undergraduate studies, it is necessary to examine how first year undergraduate students adapt to the high level of knowledge and communication demands that PBL entails. In particular, there is a need to examine Asian undergraduate students' silence in PBL tutorials. This article reports on a study that explored first year dental students' practices and perceptions of silence in PBL tutorials at an English medium university in Asia. Eight successive PBL tutorials sessions were videotaped. Significant episodes of silence in these tutorials were then identified, edited and extracted into one media file per tutorial. The participants were invited to attend stimulated recall interviews during which they viewed the edited excerpts. In the stimulated recall interviews, they were encouraged to freely recall about, and comment on, their own and their groups' interaction processes. Students' practices and perceptions of silence are likely to affect knowledge construction and group dynamics in PBL tutorials. Analysis revealed that students' silence can be regarded as a positive and constructive means of participation and learning contributing to the success of an ongoing PBL process. Interactional control (e.g. turn taking, exchange ideas and topic control) and non-verbal behavior in PBL tutorials can be highlighted to assist facilitators' understanding of silence.

  17. A complete assignment of the vibrational spectra of sucrose in aqueous medium based on the SQM methodology and SCRF calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, Alicia Beatriz; Castillo, María Victoria; Raschi, Ana Beatriz; Davies, Lilian; Romano, Elida; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2014-03-31

    In the present study, a complete assignment of the vibrational spectra of sucrose in aqueous medium was performed combining Pulay's Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology with self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) calculations. Aqueous saturated solutions of sucrose and solutions at different molar concentrations of sucrose in water were completely characterized by infrared, HATR, and Raman spectroscopies. In accordance with reported data of the literature for sucrose, the theoretical structures of sucrose penta and sucrose dihydrate were also optimized in gas and aqueous solution phases by using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The solvent effects for the three studied species were analyzed using the solvation PCM/SMD model and, then, their corresponding solvation energies were predicted. The presence of pure water, sucrose penta-hydrate, and sucrose dihydrate was confirmed by using theoretical calculations based on the hybrid B3LYP/6-31G(∗) method and the experimental vibrational spectra. The existence of both sucrose hydrate complexes in aqueous solution is evidenced in the IR and HATR spectra by means of the characteristic bands at 3388, 3337, 3132, 1648, 1375, 1241, 1163, 1141, 1001, 870, 851, 732, and 668cm(-1) while in the Raman spectrum, the groups of bands in the regions 3159-3053cm(-1), 2980, 2954, and 1749-1496cm(-1) characterize the vibration modes of those complexes. The inter and intra-molecular H bond formations in aqueous solution were studied by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Atoms in Molecules theory (AIM) investigation.

  18. Export Barriers for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: A Literature Review based on Leonidou’s Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Narayanan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to understand the barriers faced by small and medium-sized enterprises in their path to internationalization. The intention of this paper is to provide an overview about the barriers faced by SMEs in their path to internationalization and discuss in detail different approaches taken by SMEs to overcome these barriers. This article is a literature review on the barriers faced by SMEs in internationalization and new approaches in this domain based on Leonidou’s (1995, 1998, 2004 model of export barrier classification. Modern approaches by SMEs are effective in handling most of the traditional challenges posed in internationalization. Firms have evolved in handling internal barriers by finding dynamic solutions from within. SMEs need support from governmental and policy makers to overcome external barriers. Indications on the work to be done in overcoming certain barriers which impede the internationalization of SMEs are more in the context of external barriers. The originality of this work is in creating a framework of barriers and finding solutions to some of the identified barriers.

  19. Dielectric behaviour of emeraldine base polymer-ZnO nanocomposite film in the low to medium frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla, M. L., E-mail: singla_min@yahoo.co.in; Sehrawat, Rajeev; Rana, Nidhi [Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIR, New Delhi) (India); Singh, Kulvir [Thapar University (India)

    2011-05-15

    Emeraldine base (EB) polymer-ZnO nanoparticles composite films has been synthesized by solution casting technique on ITO-coated glass substrate and characterized by XRD, FTIR and TEM for their structure and morphology. Dielectric behaviour of these composite films has been investigated in the very low frequency region to medium frequency region (1 kHz-1 MHz). The dielectric constant of the composite with 30% nanoparticles is almost one-tenth of the pure EB. The dielectric value becomes constant in the frequency region greater than 400 kHz. The change in dielectric behaviour of the composite is explained on the basis of multilayered interface formed between the ZnO nanoparticles and emeraldine chains. Nanoparticles have high energy surface which is responsible for the decrease of free volume for the orientation of polymer chains consequently decrease in dielectric constant of the composite. TEM images shows about 10 nm ZnO particles embedded in the emeraldine matrix. From the XRD data it has been observed that the lattice parameters of ZnO have been modified due to the alignment of polymer chains along the basal planes of the nanoparticles. The shift of N=Q=N and N-B-N vibration bands to higher wave number in IR indicates that interaction between emeraldine chain and nanoparticles which provides stability to emeraldine matrix.

  20. Characterizing the Microenvironment Surrounding Phosphorylated Protein Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Cai Fan; Xue-Gong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in various cellular processes. Due to its high complexity, the mechanism needs to be further studied. In the last few years, many methods have been contributed to this field, but almost all of them investigated the mechanism based on protein sequences around protein sites. In this study, we implement an exploration by characterizing the microenvironment surrounding phosphorylated protein sites with a modified shell model, and obtain some significant properties by the rank-sum test, such as the lack of some classes of residues, atoms, and secondary structures. Furthermore, we find that the depletion of some properties affects protein phosphorylation remarkably. Our results suggest that it is a meaningful direction to explore the mechanism of protein phosphorylation from microenvironment and we expect further findings along with the increasing size of phosphorylation and protein structure data.

  1. Development of a fermentation process based on a defined medium for the production of pregallidermin, a nontoxic precursor of the lantibiotic gallidermin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medaglia, Giovanni; Panke, Sven

    2010-06-01

    In this work, a defined medium was developed and optimized for the mutant strain Staphylococcus gallinarum DeltaP, which produces pregallidermin (PGDM), a nontoxic precursor of the lantibiotic gallidermin (GDM). The availability of a defined medium is a prerequisite for a rational process development and the investigation of medium effects on final product concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity. We identified four vitamins and three metal ions as essential for growth and PGDM production with S. gallinarum DeltaP. The strain was capable of growing without any added amino acids, but the addition of proline had a strong growth-stimulatory effect. The concentrations of all essential compounds were balanced in a continuous culture using a medium-shift technique. Based on this balanced medium, a fed-batch process was developed in which S. gallinarum DeltaP was grown up to a biomass concentration of 67 g l(-1) and produced 1.95 g l(-1) PGDM, equivalent to 0.57 mM. In the fermentation broth, we identified other GDM precursors in addition to those with a 12 or 14-amino-acid-long leader peptide that had been observed previously. Including those precursors with shorter leader sequences, the final concentration would correspond to 0.69 mM. In molar terms, this represents a roughly fourfold or fivefold increase, respectively, over established, complex medium-based gallidermin production processes (Kempf et al. 2000). With the same medium and feed protocol, the maximum concentration of mature GDM produced by wild-type S. gallinarum Tü 3928 was only 0.08 mM.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix W to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Medium Base Compact Fluorescent Lamps W Appendix W to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF..., Subpt. B, App. W Appendix W to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the...

  3. Performance of static positioning for medium distances based on data from a virtual reference station and ASG-PL Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula, M.

    The use of a network of reference stations instead of a single reference station allows the modelling of some systematic errors in a region and allows a user to increase the distance between the rover receiver and reference stations. In some countries, GPS reference stations exist and GPS observations are available for users in real-time mode and in post-processing. Observations from several GPS reference stations in a regional network enable modelling spatially-correlated errors and their modelling on an epoch-by-epoch and satellite-by-satellite basis. As a result, observations of a virtual reference station can be created at a rover's approximate position and its observations can be used in the precise baseline positioning of the rover. This paper presents the performance of the static positioning of a rover station, its quality and reliability for two different baselines. Single-baseline and network static solutions are presented and compared. Network solutions are based on data from a virtual reference station (VRS) obtained by the Wasoft/Virtuall software. In both cases, the same strategy of ambiguity resolution was used. These approaches have been tested with the use of 24-hour GPS data from the Polish Active Geodetic Network (ASG-PL). The data from three reference stations with medium-range separation were used in the process of generating VRS data. GPS data of the rover station were divided into 20, 10 and 5-min. sessions with a sampling interval of 5 sec. Practical calculations and analyses of horizontal and vertical accuracy of coordinates clearly show the improvement of static positioning in terms of time observation span and ambiguity reliability.

  4. Rational design of medium supplementation strategy for improved influenza viruses production based on analyzing nutritional requirements of MDCK Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding; Xia-Hou, Kang; Liu, Xu-Ping; Zhao, Liang; Fan, Li; Ye, Zhaoyang; Tan, Wen-Song; Luo, Jian; Chen, Ze

    2014-12-12

    Influenza vaccine production using cell culture technology has become popular nowadays. However, to meet the ever increasing demand of influenza vaccine, it is prerequisite to improve the yield of influenza virus in cells. To achieve this, in the present study, the nutritional requirements of MDCK cells in the virus production process were analyzed and a nutrient-feeding strategy was developed accordingly. Based on the consumption rates and corresponding concentration optimization, glucose and fast metabolized amino acids were supplemented into the maintaining medium at the time of infection. Compared with the non-supplemented culture, the average cell specific death rate during 0-48 h post-infection was 0.013 h(-1), which was 40.91% lower in the nutrient-supplemented culture. Total virus titer, HA antigen protein concentration and cell-specific virus yield were (1.88±0.23)×10(3) HA units/50μL, 11.70±0.22 μg/mL and (10.06±1.16)×10(3) virions/cell, respectively, which were 84.04±22.50%, 31.46±2.87% and 86.64±25.81% higher than those in the control, respectively. These data showed that the appropriate supplementation of nutrients during virus production process could reduce cell death, and improve cell-specific virus yield and total influenza virus output. This study laid foundation for the development of cell culture technology for influenza vaccine production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid ambiguity resolution over medium-to-long baselines based on GPS/BDS multi-frequency observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaopeng; Lou, Yidong; Liu, Wanke; Zheng, Fu; Gu, Shengfeng; Wang, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Medium-long baseline RTK positioning generally needs a long initial time to find an accurate position due to non-negligible atmospheric delay residual. In order to shorten the initial or re-convergence time, a rapid phase ambiguity resolution method is employed based on GPS/BDS multi-frequency observables in this paper. This method is realized by two steps. First, double-differenced un-combined observables (i.e., L1/L2 and B1/B2/B3 observables) are used to obtain a float solution with atmospheric delay estimated as random walk parameter by using Kalman filter. This model enables an easy and consistent implementation for different systems and different frequency observables and can readily be extended to use more satellite navigation systems (e.g., Galileo, QZSS). Additional prior constraints for atmospheric information can be quickly added as well, because atmospheric delay is parameterized. Second, in order to fix ambiguity rapidly and reliably, ambiguities are divided into three types (extra-wide-lane (EWL), wide-lane (WL) and narrow-lane (NL)) according to their wavelengths and are to be fixed sequentially by using the LAMBDA method. Several baselines ranging from 61 km to 232 km collected by Trimble and Panda receivers are used to validate the method. The results illustrate that it only takes approximately 1, 2 and 6 epochs (30 s intervals) to fix EWL, WL and NL ambiguities, respectively. More epochs' observables are needed to fix WL and NL ambiguity around local time 14:00 than other time mainly due to more active ionosphere activity. As for the re-convergence time, the simulated results show that 90% of epochs can be fixed within 2 epochs by using prior atmospheric delay information obtained from previously 5 min. Finally, as for positioning accuracy, meter, decimeter and centimeter level positioning results are obtained according to different ambiguity resolution performances, i.e., EWL, WL and NL fixed solutions.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of medium and long range correlated density functionals in TD-DFT investigation of DNA bases and base pairs: gas phase and water solution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Manoj K.; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2010-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the performance of the TD-DFT method using different density functionals including recently developed medium and long-range correlation corrected density functionals have been carried out for lower-lying electronic singlet valence transitions of nucleic acid bases and the Watson-Crick base pairs in the gas phase and in the water solution. The standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set was used. Ground state geometries of bases and base pairs were optimized at the M05-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level. The nature of potential energy surfaces (PES) was ascertained through the harmonic vibrational frequency analysis; all geometries were found to be minima at the respective PES. Electronic singlet vertical transition energies were also computed at the CC2/def2-TZVP level in the gas phase. The effect of state-specific water solvation on TD-DFT computed transition energies was considered using the PCM model. For the isolated bases the performance of the B3LYP functional was generally found to be superior among all functionals, but it measurably fails for charge-transfer states in the base pairs. The CC2/def2-TZVP computed transition energies were also revealed to be inferior compared with B3LYP results for the isolated bases. The performance of the ωB97XD, CAM-B3LYP and BMK functionals were found to be similar and comparable with the CC2 results for the isolated bases. However, for the Watson-Crick adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine base pairs the performance of the ωB97XD functional was found to be the best among all the studied functionals in the present work in predicting the locally excited transitions as well as charge transfer states.

  7. Frozen-thawed spermatozoa from oligozoospermic ejaculates are susceptible to in situ DNA fragmentation in polyvinylpyrrolidone-based sperm-immobilization medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salian, Sujit Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumar, Pratap; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2012-08-01

    To elucidate the effect of sperm immobilization media that are and are not based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the DNA integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa during standard intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) conditions. Experimental prospective study. Embryology research laboratory. Forty-six ejaculates from normozoospermic and oligozoospermic men. Assessment of sperm DNA fragmentation by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. DNA integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa from normozoospermic and oligozoospermic ejaculates exposed to PVP-based and non-PVP-based media. Exposure of fresh and frozen thawed spermatozoa from normozoospermic and oligozoospermic ejaculates to PVP-based medium in an ICSI dish for 30 minutes statistically significantly increased the DNA fragmentation. In contrast, the extent of DNA fragmentation in non-PVP-based medium did not statistically significantly differ from control. A PVP-based medium can induce a statistically significant amount of sperm DNA fragmentation in an ICSI dish, and frozen-thawed sperm from oligozoospermic ejaculates are more susceptible to in situ DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. QUALITY TESTING OF HEAT TREATMENT OF MEDIUM-CARBON STEEL CONSTRUCTION ITEMS BASED ON THE BIPOLAR PULSED REMAGNETIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Matyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The features of bipolar pulsed remagnetization of construction medium-carbon steel items for testing the heat treatment temperature and structure of these items are discussed, the methods of bipolar pulse remagnetization providing testing of items of considered steels are suggested.

  9. Medium area, flexible single and tandem junction solar cells based on roll coated semi-random copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis; Burkhart, Beate

    2014-01-01

    We report on medium area (1 cm2) slot-die coated organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) of a recently developed semi-random copolymer of poly-3-hexylthiophene and diketopyrrolopyrrole (P3HTT–DPP- 10%) mixed with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester ([60]PCBM). The devices were prepared using a compa...

  10. The Impact of the Public Library on Business Success: An Analysis Based on Medium-Sized Businesses in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Liwen Qiu

    1997-01-01

    Describes a survey of Ontario (Canada) medium-sized businesses that was conducted to investigate the impact of the public library on business success and discusses results that found a significant relationship between public library use and business success. A copy of the questionnaire used is appended. (Author/LRW)

  11. Fine-Tuning Medium-of-Instruction Policy in Hong Kong: Acquisition of Language and Content-Based Subject Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Anita Y. K.; Lau, Connie M. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a dramatic decline in English standards over the past decade, the Hong Kong Government introduced the "Fine-tuning Medium of Instruction (MOI) policy" in 2010 to address the grievances arising from different sectors in the community. Integrating content and language has become popular in second/foreign language teaching in recent…

  12. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  13. Bockron as a Medium of Learning in The Process of Inquiry based Learning to Improve Science Process Skills of Junior High School Students in Growth and Development Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayasari, D.

    2017-02-01

    Investigative research on Influence of bockron as a medium of learning in process of inquiry-based learning to the development of science process skills on the concept of growth and development. This research was done in an effort to follow up underdeveloped skills of observing, communicating andconclude on students. This research was conducted using classroom action research (PTK), which consisted of 3 cycles. Cycle 1 students observe differences in growth and development, cycle 2 students measure the growth rate, cycle 3 students observe factors that influence growth and development, In these three cycles is used as a planting medium bocron (bottles and dacron). It involves 8th grade junior high-school students of 14-15 years old as research subjects in six meetings. Indicators of process skill include observation, communication, interpretation and inference. Data is collected through students’ work sheets, written tests and observation. Processing of the data to see N-Gain used Microsoft Excel 2007, and the results showed that an increase in science process skills with a value of medium N-Gain (0,63). Bokron learning medium easily and cheaply obtainable around the students, particularly those in urban areas is quite difficult to get land to be used as aplanting medium. In addition to observation of growth and development, bokron media can also be used to observe the motion in plants. The use bokron as a learning medium can train and develop science process skills, attitude and scientific method also gives students concrete experience of the process of growth and development in plants.

  14. Effective-medium tight-binding model for silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Chetty, N.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1994-01-01

    A method for calculating the total energy of Si systems, which is based on the effective-medium-theory concept of a reference system, is presented. Instead of calculating the energy of an atom in the system of interest, a reference system is introduced where the local surroundings are similar. Th...... and detailed description of the method is given together with test calculations of the energies of phonons, elastic constants, different structures, surfaces, and surface reconstructions. We compare the results to calculations using an empirical tight-binding scheme....

  15. Dense cultures of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in liquid medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, R; Hedén, C G

    1967-03-01

    Cultivation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was effected in a conical glass culture vessel surrounded by a constant-temperature water jacket, and with facilities for stirring, aeration, and pH measurement and control. With the use of an aerated peptone-based medium, containing polypropylene glycol to prevent foam build-up, the yields obtained over the pH range from 5.8 to 7.4 were determined. The greatest yield was obtained at pH 6.4 when the dry weight was 1.5 g/liter. At pH 7.2 to 7.6, lysis was extensive.

  16. Sustaining “Lilliputs” in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Prospects for Micro, Small, and Medium-Scale Enterprises in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Divina Gracia Z. Roldan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro, small, and medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs comprise bulk of business entities in the developing world. Their contribution is seen in terms of employment generation and capital formation. Seen as the engine of growth in present knowledge-based economies, MSMEs play a crucial role in the economic sustainability of Asian developing countries. This paper discusses the role of MSMEs in Asia, with the Philippines as a case in point. It examines issues and challenges these enterprises face, as well as, their role and impact in developing the Philippine economy and human capital. It explores mechanisms of European linkaging and assistance to the Philippine MSME sector. The paper posits that a supportive policy environment is necessary for these enterprises to achieve their potential for sustainable growth in a global knowledge-based economy. Keywords: Sustainability, micro, small & medium-scale enterprises, knowledge-based economy, European linkaging mechanisms

  17. Hybrid radiosity-SP{sub 3} equation based bioluminescence tomography reconstruction for turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xueli, E-mail: xlchen@xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: jimleung@mail.xidian.edu.cn; Zhang, Qitan; Yang, Defu; Liang, Jimin, E-mail: xlchen@xidian.edu.cn, E-mail: jimleung@mail.xidian.edu.cn [School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-01-14

    To provide an ideal solution for a specific problem of gastric cancer detection in which low-scattering regions simultaneously existed with both the non- and high-scattering regions, a novel hybrid radiosity-SP{sub 3} equation based reconstruction algorithm for bioluminescence tomography was proposed in this paper. In the algorithm, the third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP{sub 3}) was combined with the radiosity equation to describe the bioluminescent light propagation in tissues, which provided acceptable accuracy for the turbid medium with both low- and non-scattering regions. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated with digital mouse based simulations and a gastric cancer-bearing mouse based in situ experiment. Primary results demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of the proposed algorithm for the turbid medium with low- and non-scattering regions.

  18. Anisotropic surroundings effects on photo absorption of partially embedded Au nanospheroids in silica glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xuan; Shibayama, Tamaki, E-mail: shiba@qe.eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Watanabe, Seiichi [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060–8628 (Japan); Yu, Ruixuan; Ishioka, Junya [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060–8628 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    The influence of a directly adjacent or an anisotropic surrounding medium alters the plasmonic properties of a nanoparticle because it provides a mechanism for symmetry breaking of the scattering. Given the success of ion irradiation induced embedment of rigid metallic nanospheroids into amorphous substrate, it is possible to examine the effect of the silica glass substrate on the plasmonic properties of these embedded nanospheroids. In this work presented here, discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations for the Au nanospheroids’ optical properties were performed based on 3–dimensional (3D) configuration extracted from planar SEM micrographs and cross–sectional TEM micrographs of the Au nanospheroids partially embedded in the silica glass, and the well–matched simulations with respect to the experimental measurements could demonstrate the dielectric constant at the near surface of silica glass decreased after Ar–ion irradiation.

  19. Affordances of students' using the World Wide Web as a publishing medium in project-based learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nathan Daniel

    This dissertation investigates the emerging affordance of the World Wide Web as a place for high school students to become authors and publishers of information. Two empirical studies lay groundwork for student publishing by examining learning issues related to audience adaptation in writing, motivation and engagement with hypermedia, design, problem-solving, and critical evaluation. Two models of student publishing on the World Wide Web were investigated over the course of two 11spth grade project-based science curriculums. In the first curricular model, students worked in pairs to design informative hypermedia projects about infectious diseases that were published on the Web. Four case studies were written, drawing on both product- and process-related data sources. Four theoretically important findings are illustrated through these cases: (1) multimedia, especially graphics, seemed to catalyze some students' design processes by affecting the sequence of their design process and by providing a connection between the science content and their personal interest areas, (2) hypermedia design can demand high levels of analysis and synthesis of science content, (3) students can learn to think about science content representation through engagement with challenging design tasks, and (4) students' consideration of an outside audience can be facilitated by teacher-given design principles. The second Web-publishing model examines how students critically evaluate scientific resources on the Web, and how students can contribute to the Web's organization and usability by publishing critical reviews. Students critically evaluated Web resources using a four-part scheme: summarization of content, content, evaluation of credibility, evaluation of organizational structure, and evaluation of appearance. Content analyses comparing students' reviews and reviewed Web documents showed that students were proficient at summarizing content of Web documents, identifying their publishing

  20. Creating Admirable Classroom Surroundings:Strategies based on the Self-Determination Theory%基于自我决定理论的良好课堂氛围创设策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红君

    2014-01-01

    自我决定理论由认知评价理论、有机整合理论、因果定向理论和基本需要理论等子理论组成,该理论建立在人是积极的有机体,具有与生俱来的心理成长和发展的动力这一基本假设上。按照自我决定理论的观点,教师要创设良好的课堂氛围,需要从自主、能力和归属三个基本心理需要出发,紧扣电大学生的心理特点,完成由外部动机向内部动机的转化,从而更好地服务于电大课堂教学。%The self-determination theory ( SDT) consists of 4 sub-theories, i.e.:the cognitive evaluation theory ( CET) , the organismic integration theory ( OIT) , the causality orientations theory ( COT) and the bas-ic needs theory ( BNT) .It is based on the hypothesis that humans are proactive organisms who have inherent tendency toward psychological growth development .According to SDT , in order to create admirable classroom surroundings for students of the open college , the teacher needs to start from their basic psychological needs for autonomy , competence and relatedness , understand their psychological characteristics and facilitate the trans-fer of extrinsic motivation to intrinsic , thereby improving the effect of the open-college classroom teaching .

  1. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  2. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  3. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  4. Evaluation of latex agglutination test and oxacillin resistant screening agar base (ORSAB medium for the detection of oxacillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (ORCoNS (Preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoekoer M. Dzen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS are recognized as an important cause of nosocomial infection, especially in neonates and patients with indwelling prosthetic devices. The CoNS resistance rate to oxacillin has been increasing. Therefore, rapid and accurate detection of oxacillin resistance is essential in order to determine the most appropriate antimicrobial therapy. This study aimed to prove that latex agglutination test and oxacillin resistant screening agar base (ORSAB medium can be used for rapid detection of oxacilllin resistant CoNS (ORCoNS. Latex agglutination test and ORSAB medium compared with the conventional method was conducted in this study toward 30 clinical isolates of CoNS for the detection of ORCoNS. Mc Nemar test was used to analyze the data. The study result revealed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05 in terms of ORCoNS detection between the latex agglutination test and ORSAB medium on the one hand, and the conventional method on the other. It is concluded that latex agglutination test and ORSAB medium can be used for rapid detection of ORCoNS. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:228-32Keywords: nosocomial infection, rapid detection, mecA gene

  5. A Kalman Filter-Based Method to Generate Continuous Time Series of Medium-Resolution NDVI Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sedano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A data assimilation method to produce complete temporal sequences of synthetic medium-resolution images is presented. The method implements a Kalman filter recursive algorithm that integrates medium and moderate resolution imagery. To demonstrate the approach, time series of 30-m spatial resolution NDVI images at 16-day time steps were generated using Landsat NDVI images and MODIS NDVI products at four sites with different ecosystems and land cover-land use dynamics. The results show that the time series of synthetic NDVI images captured seasonal land surface dynamics and maintained the spatial structure of the landscape at higher spatial resolution. The time series of synthetic medium-resolution NDVI images were validated within a Monte Carlo simulation framework. Normalized residuals decreased as the number of available observations increased, ranging from 0.2 to below 0.1. Residuals were also significantly lower for time series of synthetic NDVI images generated at combined recursion (smoothing than individually at forward and backward recursions (filtering. Conversely, the uncertainties of the synthetic images also decreased when the number of available observations increased and combined recursions were implemented.

  6. [THE DETECTION OF CONTENT OF DIAGNOSTICALLY SIGNIFICANT FATTY ACIDS AND INDIVIDUAL TRIGLYCERIDES IN BIOLOGICAL MEDIUMS BASED ON INFRARED SPECTROMETRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A V; Krasheninnikov, V N; Sviridov, A P; Titov, V N

    2015-11-01

    The content of clinically important fatty acids and individual triglycerides in food and biological mediums are traditionally detected by gas and fluid chromatography in various methodical modifications. The techniques are hard-to-get in laboratories of clinical biochemistry. The study was carried out to develop procedures and equipment for operative quantitative detection of concentration of fatty acids, primarily palmitic saturated fatty acid and oleic mono unsaturated fatty acid. Also detection was applied to sums ofpolyenoic (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) fatty acids in biological mediums (cod-liver oil, tissues, blood plasma) using spectrometers of short-range infrared band of different types: with Fourier transform, diffraction and combined scattering. The evidences of reliable and reproducible quantitative detection offatty acids were received on the basis of technique of calibration (regression) by projection on latent structures using standard samples of mixtures of oils and fats. The evaluation is implemented concerning possibility of separate detection of content of palmitic and oleic triglycerides in mediums with presence of water The choice of technical conditions and mode of application of certain types of infrared spectrometers and techniques of their calibration is substantiated

  7. A brief dataset on the model-based evaluation of the growth performance of Bacillus coagulans and l-lactic acid production in a lignin-supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Glaser

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Model-based characterization of growth performance and l-lactic acid production with high optical purity by thermophilic Bacillus coagulans in a lignin-supplemented mixed substrate medium (R. Glaser and J. Venus, 2016 [1]”. This data survey provides the information on characterization of three Bacillus coagulans strains. Information on cofermentation of lignocellulose-related sugars in lignin-containing media is given. Basic characterization data are supported by optical-density high-throughput screening and parameter adjustment to logistic growth models. Lab scale fermentation procedures are examined by model adjustment of a Monod kinetics-based growth model. Lignin consumption is analyzed using the data on decolorization of a lignin-supplemented minimal medium.

  8. Culture medium-associated physicochemical insights on the cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Huating; Wang, Lihua; Zhu, Ying; Huang, Qing; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-03-16

    Carbon nanomaterials are the most studied materials in nanotechnology. There have been numerous studies on cytotoxicity assessments of carbon nanomaterials, which, however, often lead to controversy. It is generally considered that chemical and physical properties of carbon nanomaterials should have specific biological outcomes. More recent studies have identified the significance of environmental factors surrounding nanomaterial-treated cells. In this perspective, we mainly review culture medium-associated physicochemical insights on the cytotoxicity of carbon nanomaterials, which are largely based on studies in our laboratory. These studies established the close relationship and interplay among the physicochemical properties of the nanomaterials, culture medium, and their toxicological responses.

  9. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector.The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three...

  10. Lactated Ringer-based storage solutions are equally well suited for the storage of fresh osteochondral allografts as cell culture medium-based storage solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Afif; von Horn, Alexander; Gocalek, Kornelia; Schäck, Luisa Marilena; Clausen, Jan; Krettek, Christian; Noack, Sandra; Neunaber, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Due to the rising interest in Europe to treat large cartilage defects with osteochondrale allografts, research aims to find a suitable solution for long-term storage of osteochondral allografts. This is further encouraged by the fact that legal restrictions currently limit the use of the ingredients from animal or human sources that are being used in other regions of the world (e.g. in the USA). Therefore, the aim of this study was A) to analyze if a Lactated Ringer (LR) based solution is as efficient as a Dulbecco modified Eagle's minimal essential medium (DMEM) in maintaining chondrocyte viability and B) at which storage temperature (4°C vs. 37°C) chondrocyte survival of the osteochondral allograft is optimally sustained. 300 cartilage grafts were collected from knees of ten one year-old Black Head German Sheep. The grafts were stored in four different storage solutions (one of them DMEM-based, the other three based on Lactated Ringer Solution), at two different temperatures (4 and 37°C) for 14 and 56days. At both points in time, chondrocyte survival as well as death rate, Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, and Hydroxyproline (HP) concentration were measured and compared between the grafts stored in the different solutions and at the different temperatures. Independent of the storage solutions tested, chondrocyte survival rates were higher when stored at 4°C compared to storage at 37°C both after short-term (14days) and long-term storage (56days). At no point in time did the DMEM-based solution show a superior chondrocyte survival compared to lactated Ringer based solution. GAG and HP content were comparable across all time points, temperatures and solutions. LR based solutions that contain only substances that are approved in Germany may be just as efficient for storing grafts as the USA DMEM-based solution gold standard. Moreover, in the present experiment storage of osteochondral allografts at 4°C was superior to storage at 37°C. Copyright © 2017

  11. The connection between AGN-driven dusty outflows and the surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.

    2016-04-01

    Significant reservoirs of cool gas are observed in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding galaxies. The CGM is also found to contain substantial amounts of metals and dust, which require some transport mechanism. We consider AGN (active galactic nucleus) feedback-driven outflows based on radiation pressure on dust. Dusty gas is ejected when the central luminosity exceeds the effective Eddington luminosity for dust. We obtain that a higher dust-to-gas ratio leads to a lower critical luminosity, implying that the more dusty gas is more easily expelled. Dusty outflows can reach large radii with a range of velocities (depending on the outflowing shell configuration and the ambient density distribution) and may account for the observed CGM gas. In our picture, dust is required in order to drive AGN feedback, and the preferential expulsion of dusty gas in the outflows may naturally explain the presence of dust in the CGM. On the other hand, the most powerful AGN outflow events can potentially drive gas out of the local galaxy group. We further discuss the effects of radiation pressure of the central AGN on satellite galaxies. AGN radiative feedback may therefore have a significant impact on the evolution of the whole surrounding environment.

  12. Discriminating between medium-sized Tridactyl Trackmakers: tracking Ornithopod tracks in the base of the Cretaceous (Berriasian, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Castanera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent work on the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition of the Iberian Range (Spain has opened a new window onto the interpretation of the trackmakers of some medium-sized tridactyl tracks. The ichnotaxon Therangospodus oncalensis has been described in the Huérteles Formation (Berriasian and is one of the classical tracks from the area assigned to medium-sized theropods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A review of the type locality of Therangospodus oncalensis (Fuentesalvo tracksite and other tracksites from the Huérteles Formation (Berriasian has yielded new information on the morphology, gait and trackmaker identity of the aforementioned ichnospecies. The new data suggest that the trackmaker is an ornithopod rather than a theropod on the basis of the length/width ratio, the anterior triangle length-width ratio, the short steps, the round to quadrangular heel pad impression and the probable manus impressions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: T. oncalensis shows similarities with various tracks from the Berriasian of Europe assigned to Iguanodontipus. The ichnotaxonomical status of this ichnospecies is here considered as Iguanodontipus? oncalensis due to the current state of knowledge of the ichnotaxonomy of medium-sized ornithopod tracks. This reassessment of I? oncalensis also has two significant implications for the palaeoecology of the faunas during the deposition of the Huérteles Formation: 1- the high number and percentage of theropod tracks would be lower than previous papers have suggested. 2- the gregarious behaviour described in the type locality (Fuentesalvo would be among ornithopods instead of theropods.

  13. Application of satellite-based rainfall and medium range meteorological forecast in real-time flood forecasting in the Mahanadi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Trushnamayee; Beria, Harsh; Sahoo, Bhabagrahi; Chatterjee, Chandranath

    2016-04-01

    Increasing frequency of hydrologic extremes in a warming climate call for the development of reliable flood forecasting systems. The unavailability of meteorological parameters in real-time, especially in the developing parts of the world, makes it a challenging task to accurately predict flood, even at short lead times. The satellite-based Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) provides an alternative to the real-time precipitation data scarcity. Moreover, rainfall forecasts by the numerical weather prediction models such as the medium term forecasts issued by the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are promising for multistep-ahead flow forecasts. We systematically evaluate these rainfall products over a large catchment in Eastern India (Mahanadi River basin). We found spatially coherent trends, with both the real-time TRMM rainfall and ECMWF rainfall forecast products overestimating low rainfall events and underestimating high rainfall events. However, no significant bias was found for the medium rainfall events. Another key finding was that these rainfall products captured the phase of the storms pretty well, but suffered from consistent under-prediction. The utility of the real-time TRMM and ECMWF forecast products are evaluated by rainfall-runoff modeling using different artificial neural network (ANN)-based models up to 3-days ahead. Keywords: TRMM; ECMWF; forecast; ANN; rainfall-runoff modeling

  14. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Fully Tetrahedral Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New Medium Fully Tetrahedral RSW Grid with viscous wind tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Medium Tet: Quad Surface Faces= 0...

  15. Ultrathin optical switch based on a liquid crystal/silver nanoparticles mixture as a tunable indefinite medium

    CERN Document Server

    Spinozzi, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    We predict that a liquid crystal/silver nanoparticles mixture can be designed so that, in a frequency range, its effective ordinary and extraordinary permittivities have real parts of different signs. We exploit this result to design a nano-photonic device obtained by sandwiching a few hundred nanometer thick slab of the proposed mixture between two silica layers. By resorting to full-wave simulations, we show that, by varying the direction of an externally applied electric field, the device can be used as an optical modulator since its transmissivity can be switched between 0.02 and 0.4 at a wavelength close to the frequency range where the medium is indefinite. The device functionality physically stems from the fact the orientation of the hyperbola characterizing extraordinary waves within the indefinite medium follows the applied electric field direction and therefore, if the hyperbola asymptote is nearly normal to the slab, full switch between evanescent and homogeneous propagating waves can be achieved w...

  16. Prolonging storage time of baby ginger by using a sand-based storage medium and essential oil treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji; Sui, Guoliang; He, Yongzhou; Liu, Dongjie; Yan, Jing; Liu, Shuxiang; Qin, Wen

    2014-04-01

    Wilt and rot occur readily during storage of baby ginger because of its tender skin and high moisture content (MC). A storage medium, which consisted of sand, 20% water, and 3.75% super absorbent polymers delayed weight loss and loss of firmness at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity. Microorganisms were isolated and purified from decayed rhizomes; among these, 3 fungi were identified as pathogens. The results of 18S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these fungi belonged to Penicillium, Fusarium, and Mortierella genera. The use of essential oil for controlling these pathogens was then investigated in vitro. Essential oils extracted from Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) completely inhibited the growth of all of the above pathogens at a concentration of 2000 ppm. Cinnamon oil showed higher antifungal activity in the drug sensitivity test with minimal fungicidal concentration (oil fumigation combined with medium storage at 12 °C as an integrated approach to baby ginger storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Network Surrounding and Cultivation of Citizenship Consciousness——Based on the Theories of Deliberative Democracy%网络围观与公民意识培育——基于“审议民主”的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2012-01-01

    As an emerging political participation way in the information age, network surrounding plays a positive role in cultivation of citizenship consciousness. But the virtual characteristic and case features of network surrounding cause lacking in discipline constrain of interact users' statements and actions and losing persistent power of cultivation of citizenship conscious- ness. Based on theories of Deliberative Democracy, there are three ways to eliminate adverse impact of network surrounding on the cultivation of citizenship consciousness. Firstly, "deliberative" should be encouraged in "Weak Public" to construct an ideal public expression space; Secondly, a communication platform should be built between "Strong Publics" and "Weak Publics" as to. absorb public opinions; Thirdly, "Strong Publics" should emphasize legitimacy and clarifying.

  18. Corner-based Stereo Vision System for Vehicular Surroundings Sensing%基于角点特征的立体视觉车辆环境感知系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜岩; 高峰; 徐国艳

    2011-01-01

    Results of range measurement test imply that calibration errors will degrade the accuracy of the stereo vision system as the sensing distance increases, and make the epipolar constraint invalid. Therefore, conventional stereo vision algorithms are not applicable when the sensing range is large. A corner-based stereo vision system is designed for vehicle surrounding sensing applications where the sensing range is up to 80 m. Errors in the range measurement are corrected by a secondary calibration. Based on loose epipolar constraint, stereo vision processing of the corners detected in the image is performed to improve the success rate of matching. Lane detection is integrated with the obstacle-detection system to estimate the vision system's pitch angle, which is indispensable in the transformation from the camera coordinates to the ground coordinate. For the purpose of real time processing, the sensing range is dynamically adjusted on the basis of the vehicle speed. Experimental results show that the system is able to reliably detect obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians from 3 m to 80 m in front in real time.%通过对立体视觉系统进行测距试验发现,标定误差将会导致远距离测距精度的下降,并使立体图像对不再严格的满足极线约束,这说明对于车辆环境感知这类大探测范围的应用不能直接使用传统的立体视觉算法.针对这些问题,设计出基于角点的立体视觉系统进行车辆环境感知.通过二次标定减小相机标定误差对测距精度的影响,使系统能够在有效探测范围内进行准确测距.使用弱化的极线约束对图像中检测到的角点进行立体视觉处理,提高匹配成功率.根据车道线检测结果在线标定相机俯仰角,消除行驶过程中相机俯仰角变化对远距离物体检测造成的影响.为实现大基线立体视觉系统在进行大范围障碍物检测时的实时性处理,根据车速动态调整检测范围以降低立体

  19. A Hybrid Approach for Co-Channel Speech Segregation based on CASA, HMM Multipitch Tracking, and Medium Frame Harmonic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Mohy Eldin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a hybrid approach for co-channel speech segregation. HMM (hidden Markov model is used to track the pitches of 2 talkers. The resulting pitch tracks are then enriched with the prominent pitch. The enriched tracks are correctly grouped using pitch continuity. Medium frame harmonics are used to extract the second pitch for frames with only one pitch deduced using the previous steps. Finally, the pitch tracks are input to CASA (computational auditory scene analysis to segregate the mixed speech. The center frequency range of the gamma tone filter banks is maximized to reduce the overlap between the channels filtered for better segregation. Experiments were conducted using this hybrid approach on the speech separation challenge database and compared to the single (non-hybrid approaches, i.e. signal processing and CASA. Results show that using the hybrid approach outperforms the single approaches.

  20. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings - 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, Gerard; Burgwal, van de Marcel; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it provid

  1. A low-cost wheat bran medium for biodegradation of the benzidine-based carcinogenic dye Trypan Blue using a microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-03-25

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L-1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm-1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  2. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  3. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64% and COD (88% of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%, NADH-DCIP reductase (264% and laccase (275% proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  4. 基于CMIP5资料的云南及周边地区未来50年气候预估%Climate Projection over Yunnan Province and the Surrounding Regions Based on CMIP5 Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀华; 肖子牛

    2014-01-01

    Based on high-resolution CRU (Climatic Research Unit) data and observations at 124 stations in Yunnan Province, the performance of seven global coupled ocean-atmosphere models (Coupled Model Intercomparison Program 5, CMIP5) from the IPCC AR5 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 5th Assessment Report) in simulating the climatology over Yunnan Province and the surrounding regions was evaluated. The projected change in climate over these regions under different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios from 2006-2055 was also studied. Results show that global coupled ocean-atmosphere models can simulate the spatial structure of temperature and precipitation climatology, the linear temperature rising trend, and the decadal oscillation characteristics of spring and summer precipitation. The multi-model ensemble (MME) shows better skill than the single model, and the temperature simulation results are better than the precipitation results. Spring and summer precipitation results are superior to those in other seasons, making the total annual mean precipitation simulation results better than those for autumn and winter. Future scenario projections indicate that the temperature over the study regions will show a significant linear rising trend. Precipitation will maintain its decadal oscillation characteristics, and increase over the next 50 years. A few regions, including Yunnan Province and its southern regions, will undergo a drought period before 2020.%利用CRU(Climatic Research Unit)高分辨率观测数据及云南省124站资料,检验了参与IPCC AR5(政府间气候变化专门委员会第5次评估报告)的7个全球海气耦合模式(Coupled Model Intercomparison Program 5, CMIP5)及模式集合平均对云南及周边地区气温和降水的模拟性能,同时进行该区域不同温室气体排放量情景下2006~2055年的气候预估。结果表明:全球海气耦合模式对该区域气温和降水气候场空间分布、气温的

  5. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Moutou, C; Donati, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e., the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9 to 8.0 $\\times 10^{-13} M_{\\odot}$/yr) and the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are super-magnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrou...

  6. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  7. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.; Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2015-06-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e. the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the Solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD 46375b, HD 73256b, HD 102195b, HD 130322b and HD 179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9-8.0 × 10-13 M⊙ yr-1) and the wind properties at the position of the hot Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are supermagnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrounding these planets. Assuming planetary magnetic fields similar to Jupiter's, we estimate planetary magnetospheric sizes of 4.1-5.6 planetary radii. We also derive the exoplanetary radio emission released in the dissipation of the stellar wind energy. We find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy, which are challenging to be observed with present-day technology, but could be detectable with future higher sensitivity arrays (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Radio emission from systems having closer hot Jupiters, such as from τ Boo b or HD 189733b, or from nearby planetary systems orbiting young stars, are likely to have higher radio fluxes, presenting better prospects for detecting exoplanetary radio emission.

  8. SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: A LINK BETWEEN MASSIVE STARS AND THE SURROUNDING MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dubner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrellas de gran masa mueren explotando como supernovas (SNs tras sufrir un catastrófico colapso gravitacional. Dicha explosión origina poderosos frentes de choque que modifican irreversiblemente la materia circundante, creando grandes burbujas, comprimiendo nubes circundantes, etc. Este trabajo repasa los mecanismos que conducen al colapso y explosión de las estrellas de alta masa y las posibles conexiones entre la estrella precursora, los mecanismos de explosión y los remanentes de supernovas (RSN. Se discute el desacuerdo existente en nuestra Galaxia entre el n´umero esperado y el observado de RSN y de estrellas de neutrones asociadas.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Circumgalactic medium surrounding z~2 quasars (Prochaska+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, J. X.; Lau, M. W.; Hennawi, J. F.

    2017-08-01

    The sample of quasar pairs analyzed here is a subset of the sample studied in QPQ6 (Cantalupo et al. 2014Natur.506...63C) for H I Lyα absorption. Specifically, we have restricted the current study to those pairs where the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) at H I Lyα exceeds 9.5 per rest-frame Å. This facilitates a more precise evaluation of H I Lyα and generally insures sufficient S/N redward of Lyα for the metal-line analysis. Quasar emission redshifts are taken directly from QPQ6 (Cantalupo et al. 2014Natur.506...63C), following the methodology described in that manuscript. Briefly, we adopt a custom line-centering algorithm to centroid one or more far-UV emission lines and adopt the analysis of Shen et al. (2007, J/AJ/133/2222) to combine these measurements and assess systematic uncertainty in the final value. The median emission redshift of the 427 pairs is zemmedian=2.35 and the median uncertainty in the redshift measurements is ~520 km/s. The impact parameters range from R{perp}=39 kpc to 1 Mpc, with 52 pairs having R{perp}<200 kpc. (3 data files).

  10. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  11. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  12. Comparison between two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions for the case of heat transfer equations arising in porous medium

    CERN Document Server

    Parand, K; Kazem, S; Rezaei, A R; 10.1016/j.cnsns.2010.07.011

    2010-01-01

    In this paper two common collocation approaches based on radial basis functions have been considered; one be computed through the integration process (IRBF) and one be computed through the differentiation process (DRBF). We investigated the two approaches on natural convection heat transfer equations embedded in porous medium which are of great importance in the design of canisters for nuclear wastes disposal. Numerical results show that the IRBF be performed much better than the common DRBF, and show good accuracy and high rate of convergence of IRBF process.

  13. Synthesizing metamaterials with angularly independent effective medium properties based on an anisotropic parameter retrieval technique coupled with a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Bossard, Jeremy A.; Wang, Xiande; Werner, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to retrieve the effective electromagnetic parameters of a slab of anisotropic metamaterial from reflection and transmission coefficients (or scattering parameters). In this retrieval method, calculated or measured scattering parameters are employed for plane waves incident obliquely on a metamaterial slab at different angles. Useful analytical expressions are derived for extracting the homogeneous anisotropic medium parameters of a metamaterial. To validate the method, the effective permittivity and permeability tensor parameters for a composite split-ring resonator-wire array are retrieved and shown to be consistent with observations previously reported in the literature. This retrieval method is further incorporated into a genetic algorithm (GA) to synthesize an infrared zero-index-metamaterial with a wide field-of-view, demonstrating the utility of the new design approach. The anisotropic parameter retrieval algorithm, when combined with a robust optimizer such as GA, can provide a powerful design tool for exploiting the anisotropic properties in metamaterials to achieve specific angle dependant or independent responses.

  14. MCDA-C Methodology Based Performance Evaluation of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses at the City of Lages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nascimento

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When employed in a focused manner, corporate performance evaluation has proven to be instrumental for entrepreneurs as an important tool that contributes with performance improvements at their organizations. The descriptive study herein, prepared as of a questionnaire comprising 46 queries, poses to analyse the performance of micro and small companies (MSEs by employing the multicriteria methodology for constructive decision aiding (MCDA-C. As of respondent replies, MCDA-C descriptors were formed, shaping six prime groups so as to identify relevant factors that drive or hinder MSE success. The questionnaire was applied to managers in charge administering 25 small and medium-sized companies of Lages, a city within the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Study findings provide evidence as to the fact that (i 24% of surveyed companies, tend to go bankrupt; (ii managerial functions at the MSEs are the prime source of influence on negative outcomes; (iii from a financial control standpoint, surveyed companies fall far shorter than the minimum level deemed necessary to qualify as satisfactory; (iv those that present the best results, operate both within the domestic and international markets; (v the study placed under the spotlight the group “Evolution Stage”, evidencing the trend of ever increasing MSE expansion. This study revealed that corporate failure contributing factors are intensely interconnected and largely depend on the entrepreneur´s own performance, the prime contribution of findings residing in demonstrating that MCDA-C can be employed to analyse the performance of micro and small businesses.

  15. Ability of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain cultured in milk whey based medium to bind aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bovo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare Lactobacillus rhamnosus growth in MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth and a culture medium containing milk whey (MMW and to evaluate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 adsorption capacity by bacterial cells produced in both culture media. L. rhamnosus cells were cultivated in MRS broth and MMW (37 °C, 24 hours, and bacterial cell concentration was determined spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. AFB1 (1 µg/ml adsorption assays were conducted using 1 x 10(10 non-viable L. rhamnosus cells (121 °C, 15 minutes at pHs 3.0 and 6.0 and contact time of 60 minutes. AFB1 quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Bacterial cell concentration in MMW was higher (9.84 log CFU/ml than that in MRS broth (9.63 log CFU/ml. There were no significant differences between AFB1 binding results at the same pH value (3.0 or 6.0 for the cells cultivated in MRS broth (46.0% and 35.8%, respectively and in MMW (43.7% and 25.8%, respectively, showing that MMW can adequately replace the MRS broth. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of L. rhamnosus cells cultivated in MMW offers advantages such as reduction in large scale production costs, improvement of environmental sustainability, and being a practicable alternative for decontamination of food products susceptible to aflatoxin contamination.

  16. Fluorimetric detection of Sn2 + ion in aqueous medium using Salicylaldehyde based nanoparticles and application to natural samples analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kishor S.; Mahajan, Prasad G.; Patil, Shivajirao R.

    2017-01-01

    The fluorescent 2-[(E)-(2-phenylhydrazinylidene)methyl]phenol nanoparticles (PHPNPs) were prepared by a simple reprecipitation method. The prepared PHPNPs examined by Dynamic Light Scattering show narrower particle size distribution having an average particle size of 93.3 nm. The Scanning Electron Microphotograph shows distinct spherical shaped morphology of nanoparticles. The blue shift in UV-absorption and fluorescence spectra of PHPNPs with respect to corresponding spectra of PHP in acetone solution indicates H- aggregates and Aggregation Induced Enhanced Emission (AIEE) for nanoparticles. The nanoparticles show selective tendency towards the recognition of Sn2 + ions by enhancing the fluorescence intensity preference to Cu2 +, Fe3 +, Fe2 +, Ni2 +, NH4+, Ca2 +, Pb2 +, Hg2 + and Zn2 + ions, which actually seem to quench the fluorescence of nanoparticles. The studies on Langmuir adsorption plot, fluorescence lifetime of PHPNPs, DLS-Zeta sizer, UV-visible and fluorescence titration with and without Sn2 + helped to propose a suitable mechanism of fluorescence enhancement of nanoparticles by Sn2 + and their binding ability during complexation. The fluorescence enhancement effect of PHPNPs induced by Sn2 + is further used to develop an analytical method for detection of Sn2 + from aqueous medium in environmental samples.

  17. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun -- a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium around the Sun (LISM) made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar medium, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of MgII, FeII and HI. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the LISM consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions per...

  18. Tunnel large deformation of surrounding rock research based on radar information and monitoring warning%基于雷达信息与监测预警的隧道围岩大变形研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董辉; 陈家博; 杨珺博; 侯俊敏

    2012-01-01

    针对公路隧道溶洞和孔洞的存在给围岩的稳定性控制带来不同程度的困难且围岩大变形极易发生而造成工程事故,采用探地雷达超前探测和监控量测,归纳分析隧道围岩大变形的异常特征,并进一步通过贵州省晴兴高速公路登攀隧道出口围岩大变形预警的工程实例进行验算,获得黔西南区强风化多孔玄武岩及下伏灰岩溶洞雷达图像特征:有充填物时反射波振幅在洞腔范围内衰减强烈,强弱相间;无充填物时反射波基本无衰减,存在中断、起伏和错动现象。围岩大变形监测以拱顶下沉为主,21d最大累计沉降值达到89.40mm,变形速率最大波动范围为14.66~0.64mm/d。应用此结论可以在围岩出现大变形时及时预警并采取控制措施,更好地为后续工程服务。%Aiming at the existence of caves and holes in high.way tunnel will cause difficulty for surrounding rock' s stability in varying degrees and it is prone to result in large deformation of surrounding rock, cause accident, the paper summarizes and analyzes the abnormal characteristics of tunnel large deformation of surrounding rock by advanced detection of ground penetrating radar and monitoring. Meanwhile, with the project of Qingxing highway Dengpan tunnel exit surrounding rock' s large deformation and warning, we obtain radar images' characteristics to highly weathered porous basalt and underlying limestone caves in southwest of Guizhou province: reflection amplitude attenuates strongly and strength of the white in filling caves and there is almost no attenuation but with the phenomenon of disruption, ups and downs and dislocation in inanition. On the other side, when large deformation of surrounding rock is mainly vault sedimentation, its maximum cumulative settlement is 89.40mm during 21 days and deformation rate fluctuates from 14.66mm to 0.64mm per day. With the conclusion, it should be warned and take control measures timely

  19. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  20. Improved pregnancy rate in human in vitro fertilization with the use of a medium based on the composition of human tubal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P; Kerin, J F; Warnes, G M

    1985-10-01

    Significantly more mouse zygotes developed to blastocysts in culture in a medium formulated on the composition of human tubal fluid (HTF) than in modified Tyrode's medium (T6). In a randomized 2 X 2 factorial trial of human in vitro fertilization that compared the two media and culture under oil versus culture in loosely capped tubes, significantly more clinical pregnancies (30% of 60 transfers) were obtained with HTF medium than with T6 medium (11% of 53 transfers). Decreasing the K+ content of HTF medium to that present in T6 medium significantly decreased the number of mouse zygotes that developed in culture. Modifying Ca++ levels had no effect. It is therefore likely that the higher K+ content in HTF medium is primarily responsible for the superiority of HTF medium over T6 medium, but other differences in the composition of the two media could contribute to the results observed.

  1. High resolution bathymetry of China seas and their surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the oceanic lithospheric flexure and the worldwide bathymetric data ETOPO5, the high resolu tion bathymetry of the China seas and their surroundings is computed from altimeter derived gravity anomalies. The new bathymetry obtained by this study is higher resolution and accuracy than the widely used ETOPO5 data, mean while it shows clearly the seafioor, the tectonic characteristics and the geodynamical processes in the China seas.

  2. Time-domain simulation of ultrasound propagation in a tissue-like medium based on the resolution of the nonlinear acoustic constitutive relations

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Noé; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Hou, Yi; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-01-01

    A time-domain numerical code based on the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics for simulating ultrasound propagation is presented. To model frequency power law attenuation, such as observed in biological media, multiple relaxation processes are included and relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation and empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. A computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the numerical method and to improve stability when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high order finite difference schemes, leading to fast calculations. The numerical code is especially suitable to study high intensity and focused axisymmetric acoustic beams in tissue-like medium, as it is based on the full constitutive relations that overcomes the limitations of the parabolic approximations, while some specific effects not cont...

  3. Multi-signaling thiocarbohydrazide based colorimetric sensors for the selective recognition of heavy metal ions in an aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momidi, Bharath Kumar; Tekuri, Venkatadri; Trivedi, Darshak R.

    2017-06-01

    A series of colorimetric chemosensors R1-R6 have been developed from thiocarbohydrazide derivatives, for the selective detection of heavy metal ions. The structures of the receptors R1-R6 were well characterized by standard spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, 1H NMR, and ESI-MS. The solid structure of receptor R1 and R2 were derived by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD). The cation reorganization abilities of receptors R1-R6 were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The receptors R1, R3 and R4 acts as a tremendous sensitive probe for heavy metal ions (Hg2 +, Cd2 + and Pb2 +) with the μM detection (R1 for Hg2 +, 2.72, R3 for Cd2 +, 3.22, R4 for Hg2 +, Cd2 + & Pb2 +, 0.70, 0.20 & 0.30 μM) and the receptors R2, R5 &R6 are sensitive towards Cu2 + ions with the μM detection (3.34, 0.90 & 1.20 μM) in an aqueous medium among all other tested cations. The receptor R4 shows a multi-color response towards Hg2 +, Cu2 +, Cd2 + and Pb2 + ions. The recognition mechanism, stoichiometric binding ratio and detection limit (DL) have been examined by UV-Visible spectroscopic titration experiments and Benesi-Hildebrand (B-H) plot, receptor R1-R6 sowed 1:1 binding ratio with good binding constant range of 103 to 105 M- 1 with Hg2 +, Cu2 +, Cd2 + and Pb2 + ions metal ions.

  4. Application of a paper based device containing a new culture medium to detect Vibrio cholerae in water samples collected in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquaire, Romain; Colwell, Rita R; Boncy, Jacques; Rossignol, Emmanuel; Dardy, Aline; Pandini, Isabelle; Villeval, François; Machuron, Jean-Louis; Huq, Anwar; Rashed, Shah; Vandevelde, Thierry; Rozand, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Cholera is now considered to be endemic in Haiti, often with increased incidence during rainy seasons. The challenge of cholera surveillance is exacerbated by the cost of sample collection and laboratory analysis. A diagnostic tool is needed that is low cost, easy-to-use, and able to detect and quantify Vibrio cholerae accurately in water samples within 18-24h, and perform reliably in remote settings lacking laboratory infrastructure and skilled staff. The two main objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a new culture medium embedded in a new diagnostic tool (PAD for paper based analytical device) for detecting Vibrio cholerae from water samples collected in Haiti. The intent is to provide guidance for corrective action, such as chlorination, for water positive for V. cholerae epidemic strains. For detecting Vibrio cholerae, a new chromogenic medium was designed and evaluated as an alternative to thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar for testing raw water samples. Sensitivity and specificity of the medium were assessed using both raw and spiked water samples. The Vibrio cholerae chromogenic medium was proved to be highly selective against most of the cultivable bacteria in the water samples, without loss of sensitivity in detection of V. cholerae. Thus, reliability of this new culture medium for detection of V. cholerae in the presence of other Vibrio species in water samples offers a significant advantage. A new paper based device containing the new chromogenic medium previously evaluated was compared with reference methods for detecting V. cholerae from spiked water sample. The microbiological PAD specifications were evaluated in Haiti. More precisely, a total of 185 water samples were collected at five sites in Haiti, June 2014 and again in June 2015. With this new tool, three V. cholerae O1 and 17 V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains were isolated. The presence of virulence-associated and regulatory genes, including ctxA, zot, ace, and tox

  5. Optimization of Milk-Based Medium for Efficient Cultivation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 Using Face-Centered Central Composite-Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilah Abdul Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to optimize skim milk and yeast extract concentration as a cultivation medium for optimal Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulatum G4 (G4 biomass and β-galactosidase production as well as lactose and free amino nitrogen (FAN balance after cultivation period. Optimization process in this study involved four steps: screening for significant factors using 23 full factorial design, steepest ascent, optimization using FCCD-RSM, and verification. From screening steps, skim milk and yeast extract showed significant influence on the biomass production and, based on the steepest ascent step, middle points of skim milk (6% wt/vol and yeast extract (1.89% wt/vol were obtained. A polynomial regression model in FCCD-RSM revealed that both factors were found significant and the strongest influence was given by skim milk concentration. Optimum concentrations of skim milk and yeast extract for maximum biomass G4 and β-galactosidase production meanwhile low in lactose and FAN balance after cultivation period were 5.89% (wt/vol and 2.31% (wt/vol, respectively. The validation experiments showed that the predicted and experimental values are not significantly different, indicating that the FCCD-RSM model developed is sufficient to describe the cultivation process of G4 using skim-milk-based medium with the addition of yeast extract.

  6. Optimization of Milk-Based Medium for Efficient Cultivation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 Using Face-Centered Central Composite-Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Khalil, Khalilah; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Bin Ariff, Arbakariya; Shaari, Yamin; Abdul Manap, Yazid; Dahalan, Farrah Aini

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to optimize skim milk and yeast extract concentration as a cultivation medium for optimal Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulatum G4 (G4) biomass and β-galactosidase production as well as lactose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) balance after cultivation period. Optimization process in this study involved four steps: screening for significant factors using 23 full factorial design, steepest ascent, optimization using FCCD-RSM, and verification. From screening steps, skim milk and yeast extract showed significant influence on the biomass production and, based on the steepest ascent step, middle points of skim milk (6% wt/vol) and yeast extract (1.89% wt/vol) were obtained. A polynomial regression model in FCCD-RSM revealed that both factors were found significant and the strongest influence was given by skim milk concentration. Optimum concentrations of skim milk and yeast extract for maximum biomass G4 and β-galactosidase production meanwhile low in lactose and FAN balance after cultivation period were 5.89% (wt/vol) and 2.31% (wt/vol), respectively. The validation experiments showed that the predicted and experimental values are not significantly different, indicating that the FCCD-RSM model developed is sufficient to describe the cultivation process of G4 using skim-milk-based medium with the addition of yeast extract. PMID:24527457

  7. Use of Video-Based Cases as a Medium to Develop Critical Thinking Skills in Health Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Maher, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    One learning strategy that, at present, has not been widely used in graduate Physical Therapy education is "video based cases". The use of visually unfolding case-base experience provides students a unique opportunity to experience real patient scenarios in their classroom environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide data on student…

  8. Color enhanced pipelines for reality-based 3D modeling of on site medium sized archeological artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio I. Apollonio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a color enhanced processing system - applied as case study on an artifact of the Pompeii archaeological area - developed in order to enhance different techniques for reality-based 3D models construction and visualization of archaeological artifacts. This processing allows rendering reflectance properties with perceptual fidelity on a consumer display and presents two main improvements over existing techniques: a. the color definition of the archaeological artifacts; b. the comparison between the range-based and photogrammetry-based pipelines to understand the limits of use and suitability to specific objects.

  9. Study on Temperature Fieldof Surrounding Rock with BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyzed the characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face, setup its mathematic model, and got its numerical result with the boundary element method(BEM). To calculate in-tra-domain integral, it was transformed into boundary integration with the DRM method. Using the similitude the-ory, the dimensionless differential equation was educed. Finally, the authors calculated two drifting faces of San-hejian Coal Mine using the computer software developed by authors based on the above principium, and got the dis-tribution characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face and the periodic variation intemperature with its periodic moving forward. Comparing the calculated heat dissipating-capacity of surroundingrock with the measured data shows that the computer software is proper.

  10. Numerical analysis of tunnel reinforcing influences on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-jun; TANG Chun-an; ZHU Wan-cheng; LI Di-yuan; LI Shu-cai

    2008-01-01

    Based on mesoscopic damage mechanics, numerical code RFPA2D (dynamic edition) was developed to analyze the influence of tunnel reinforcing on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves. The results show that the propagation phenomenon of stress wave in the surrounding rock of tunnel and the failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves are reproduced realistically by using numerical code RFPAED; from the failure process of surrounding rock,the place at which surrounding rock fractures is transferred because of tunnel reinforcing, and the rockfall and collapse caused by failure of surrounding rock are restrained by tunnel reinforcing; furthermore, the absolute values of peak values of major principal stress, and the minimal principal stress and shear stress at center point of tunnel roof are reduced because of tunnel reinforcing, and the displacement at center point of tunnel roof is reduced as well, consequently the stability of tunnel increases.

  11. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  12. Medium- and long-term electric power demand forecasting based on the big data of smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhanmeng; Li, Xiyuan; Li, Xizhong; Hu, Qinghe; Zhang, Haiyang; Cui, Pengjie

    2017-08-01

    Based on the smart city, this paper proposed a new electric power demand forecasting model, which integrates external data such as meteorological information, geographic information, population information, enterprise information and economic information into the big database, and uses an improved algorithm to analyse the electric power demand and provide decision support for decision makers. The data mining technology is used to synthesize kinds of information, and the information of electric power customers is analysed optimally. The scientific forecasting is made based on the trend of electricity demand, and a smart city in north-eastern China is taken as a sample.

  13. Ground-based remote sensing of O3 by high- and medium-resolution FTIR spectrometers over the Mexico City basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Medina, Eddy F.; Stremme, Wolfgang; Bezanilla, Alejandro; Grutter, Michel; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    We present atmospheric ozone (O3) profiles measured over central Mexico between November 2012 and February 2014 from two different ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) solar absorption experiments. The first instrument offers very high-resolution spectra and contributes to NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). It is located at a mountain observatory about 1700 m above the Mexico City basin. The second instrument has a medium spectral resolution and is located inside Mexico City at a horizontal distance of about 60 km from the mountain observatory. It is documented that the retrieval with the high- and medium-resolution experiments provides O3 variations for four and three independent atmospheric altitude ranges, respectively, and the theoretically estimated errors of these profile data are mostly within 10 %. The good quality of the data is empirically demonstrated above the tropopause by intercomparing the two FTIR O3 data, and for the boundary layer by comparing the Mexico City FTIR O3 data with in situ O3 surface data. Furthermore, we develop a combined boundary layer O3 remote sensing product that uses the retrieval results of both FTIR experiments, and we use theoretical and empirical evaluations to document the improvements that can be achieved by such a combination.

  14. Ground-based remote sensing of O3 by high- and medium-resolution FTIR spectrometers over the Mexico City basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Plaza-Medina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present atmospheric ozone (O3 profiles measured over central Mexico between November 2012 and February 2014 from two different ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared solar absorption experiments. The first instrument offers very high-resolution spectra and contributes to NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. It is located at a mountain observatory about 1700 m above the Mexico City basin. The second instrument has a medium spectral resolution and is located inside Mexico City at a horizontal distance of about 60 km from the mountain observatory. It is documented that the retrieval with the high- and medium-resolution experiments provides O3 variations for four and three independent atmospheric altitude ranges, respectively, and the theoretically estimated errors of these profile data are mostly within 10 %. The good quality of the data is empirically demonstrated above the tropopause by intercomparing the two FTIR O3 data, and for the boundary layer by comparing the Mexico City FTIR O3 data with in situ O3 surface data. Furthermore, we develop a combined boundary layer O3 remote sensing product that uses the retrieval results of both FTIR experiments, and we use theoretical and empirical evaluations to document the improvements that can be achieved by such a combination.

  15. Developing a Methodology Based on Action Learning to Facilitate the Adoption of ICT in Small and Medium-sized Companies in Costa Rica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple ...... research context, considering a holistic approach needed in the SMEs and fostering the multi learning perspective claimed in the triple helix model (Etzkowitz, 2008)....... Helix Model) in order to support the SMEs sector. The concrete proposal of the research is to design collaborative project based on action learning approach (Revans, 1982) with partnership of the three sectors in order to address concrete ICT projects in SMEs. The project was carried out in the action......The aim of the thesis is to understand and explore better strategies to support the Small and Medium-sized companies sector in Costa Rica in the ICT adoption process. A strategy has been proposed which focuses on learning process and the interaction of university, industry and government (Triple...

  16. The Inhibitive Potential of Arecaceae Extract on the Corrosivity of Aluminium based Matrix Composite and Medium Carbon Steel in Different Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aondona IHOM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research study, the inhibitive potential of Arecaceae extract on the corrosivity of aluminium based matrix composite and medium carbon steel in different media have been undertaken. The composite and the carbon steel were exposed in 0.5M NaOH and 0.5M HCl solutions as the control solutions. The Arecaceae extract from the fruit juice was added in volume percentages of 5%v/v and 10%v/v. The exposure time covered 12 days, and the monitored temperature range during the exposure time was 25-39°C. The result indicated that the most corrosive media were those without the Arecaceae inhibitor; where corrosion rate ranged from 0.106mpy to 0.409mpy. The medium carbon steel did not show any sign of corrosion in the 0.5M NaOH solution. Arecaceae inhibitor addition of 5%v/v gave optimum corrosion rate reduction; the corrosion rate was in the range of 0.018mpy to 0.199mpy. Although the lowest range of 0.013mpy to 0.192mpy was obtained with 10%v/v of Arecaceae, however on the overall performance the 5%v/v of Arecaceae was better. The inhibition of corrosion by Arecaceae was as a result of adsorption and phase layers on the surface of the metals.

  17. Impact of the Local Public Hospital Reform on the Efficiency of Medium-Sized Hospitals in Japan: An Improved Slacks-Based Measure Data Envelopment Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Tone, Kaoru; Lu, Yingzhe

    2017-03-06

    To assess the change in efficiency and total factor productivity (TFP) of the local public hospitals in Japan after the local public hospital reform launched in late 2007, which was aimed at improving the financial capability and operational efficiency of hospitals. Secondary data were collected from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications on 213 eligible medium-sized hospitals, each operating 100-400 beds from FY2006 to FY2011. The improved slacks-based measure nonoriented data envelopment analysis models (Quasi-Max SBM nonoriented DEA models) were used to estimate dynamic efficiency score and Malmquist Index. The dynamic efficiency measure indicated an efficiency gain in the first several years of the reform and then was followed by a decrease. Malmquist Index analysis showed a significant decline in the TFP between 2006 and 2011. The financial improvement of medium-sized hospitals was not associated with enhancement of efficiency. Hospital efficiency was not significantly different among ownership structure and law-application system groups, but it was significantly affected by hospital location. The results indicate a need for region-tailored health care policies and for a more comprehensive reform to overcome the systemic constraints that might contribute to the decline of the TFP. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Optimized Carrier Based Multilevel Generated Modified Dual Three-Phase Open-Winding Inverter for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padmanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wheeler, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel carrier based multilevel modulation for modified dual three-phase open-winding inverter applicable for low-voltage/high-current applications. A standard three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) is connected across the open-winding of both ends of the motor. Each VSI i...

  19. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  20. Research on Impact on Plastic Zone of Roadway Surrounding Rock Based on Different Yield Criteria%不同屈服条件对巷道围岩塑性区的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪涛; 尤春安; 王绪勇

    2011-01-01

    基于Drucker-Prager 准则,推导了巷道围岩塑性区的解析解,以某工程为例分析比较了基于不同屈服准则的巷道围岩塑性区的解答,并结合数值软件分析的计算结果,探究了不同屈服条件对巷道围岩塑性区的影响规律.结果表明,Drucker-Prager系列准则考虑了中间主应力的影响,计算结果更符合实际,外交点圆DP1准则用于工程设计计算稍显危险,内切圆DP5准则用于工程设计计算偏于安全,而MC等面积圆DP3准则与MC准则计算结果较接近,为巷道围岩支护设计计算屈服准则的选取与应用提供了依据.%The analytic solution of plastic zone of roadway surrounding rock is deduced from the Drucker-Prager criterion. Taking a practical project for an example, the solutions are compared and analyzed in terms of the different yield criteria. Then, combination of results with numerical analysis software, the impact rules of plastic zone of roadway surrounding rock is studied in this paper. The results show that the it is more realistic for considering the influence of intermediate principal stress in DP series criteria; the result with DP1 criterion is a little dangerous in project design, DP5 criterion is the most conservative and a little safe in project design; while the result with MC criterion is close to it under its equivalent area circle criterion. Thus, it provides basis for selection and application of yield criteria in supporting design of roadway.

  1. 基于Hoek-Brown准则的隧洞围岩变形研究%Study of deformations of surrounding rock of tunnel based on Hoek-Brown criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温森; 杨圣奇

    2011-01-01

    In many practical situations, for instance, in jointed rock mass, linear M-C yield criterion may not be justified and a nonlinear Hoek-Brown yield criterion would be more appropriate, so it is necessary to attempt to calculate deformation of tunnel by the criterion.The surrounding rock is divided into three zones: elastic zone, strain softening zone and plastic flow zone.Theoretical derivation on deformation is carried out by Hoek-Brown criterion and non-associated flow rule.Parameters of surrounding rock in strain softening zone are variable and they depend on the plastic deformation of this zone, so it's difficult to derive the analytical solution for stress in this zone.Runge-Kutta method is used to carry out numerical calculation and the radiuses of strain softening zone and plastic flow zone are calculated.Finally, the deformations of tunnel are calculated.It is demonstrated by an example that the results calculated by the method in this paper and Carranza-Torres's method are almost the same when strain softening zone and plastic flow zone are not be considered.Furthermore, it is demonstrated by the other example that dilation angle affects deformation more severely when in-situ stress becomes greater.%由于在许多实际条件下,比如节理岩体中,线性的M-C准则不太适用,非线性的Hoek-Brown比较适用,因此,可以尝试使用这一非线性屈服准则对洞室变形进行研究.研究隧洞变形时,将围岩分为弹性区、应变软化区、塑性流动区.采用Hoek-Brown准则和非关联流动法则对洞室变形进行了理论推导:软化区域围岩参数随着塑性变形增加而变化,解析法难以求得应力,采用龙格一库塔方法进行数值计算,求解得到塑性软化区和流动区半径,并最终求得洞室变形.通过算例计算表明,在不考虑软化区和流动区时,方法和Carranza-Torres计算结果相差甚小;随着原岩应力的增加,膨胀角对洞室变形的影响增大.

  2. The Space of an Object: Object Attention Alters the Spatial Gradient in the Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight Jacob; Behrmann, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Although object-based attention enhances perceptual processing of information appearing within the boundaries of a selected object, little is known about the consequences for information in the object's surround. The authors show that distance from an attended object's center of mass determines reaction time (RT) to targets in the surround. Of 2…

  3. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in 1M H2SO4 Medium by Benzimidazole Mannich bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Dasami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition behaviour of two synthesized Mannich bases has been investigated for mild steel in 1M H2SO4 by weight loss and electrochemical techniques.The inhibition efficiency depends on concentration of the inhibitor and temperature. The inhibitors function by adsorption on mild steel surface and obey Langmuir isotherm indicating monolayer adsorption on the surface. Thermodynamic parameters show that the adsorption of the inhibitors occurs through electrostatic interaction. Polarization studies reveal that the inhibitors behave as mixed type in 1M H2SO4 affecting both anodic metal dissolution and cathodic hydrogen evolution. SEM studies show the formation of surface adsorptive film of the Mannich bases on the mild steel surface.

  4. Remarkable swelling capability of amino acid based cross-linked polymer networks in organic and aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saswati Ghosh; Haldar, Ujjal; De, Priyadarsi

    2014-03-26

    This work reports design and synthesis of side chain amino acid based cross-linked polymeric gels, able to switch over from organogel to hydrogel by a simple deprotection reaction and showing superabsorbancy in water. Amino acid based methacrylate monomers, tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-l/d-alanine methacryloyloxyethyl ester (Boc-l/d-Ala-HEMA), have been polymerized in the presence of a cross-linker via conventional free radical polymerization (FRP) and the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) technique for the synthesis of cross-linked polymer gels. The swelling behaviors of these organogels are investigated in organic solvents, and they behave as superabsorbent materials for organic solvents such as dichloromethane, acetone, tetrahydrofuran, etc. Swollen cross-linked polymer gels release the absorbed organic solvent rapidly. After Boc group deprotection from the pendant alanine moiety, the organogels transform to the hydrogels due to the formation of side chain ammonium (-NH3(+)) groups, and these hydrogels showed a significantly high swelling ratio (∼560 times than their dry volumes) in water. The morphology of organogels and hydrogels is studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Amino acid based cross-linked gels could find applications as absorbents for oil spilled on water as well as superabsorbent hydrogels.

  5. THE DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SIMULATION SYSTEM ON EARTHQUAKE SURROUNDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈毅力; 杨云; 李天石

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a system that can simulate earthquake surroundings. In the surroundings, people can be familiar with the omen, strong shock and aftershock of earthquake, thus make right choices and get away when the disaster occurs. Methods The system consists of an electro-hydraulic servo system, a whole-information sound system and some lighting device; By using the adaptive inverse control method and LMS algorithms, the inverse model (I.e. The controller) is convergent rapidly; The software based on LabVIEW makes the parameters can be modified easily; There is a double closed-loop structure in the system: an analog closed-loop and a digital closed-loop, and their parameters can be inspected in real time. Results The system is of very high reliability, and the desired vibration signal can be tracked exactly by output. Conclusion Earthquake surroundings is simulated vividly. Through the system, people can be familiar with earthquake phenomena, and know lots of knowledge of earthquake.

  6. The Internationalization Process of UK based Small and Medium Enterprise : The Implementation of Global Marketing Program

    OpenAIRE

    CIRAK, HANDE; CHAALAN, GHUSEN NABIL

    2010-01-01

    The effects of globalization have changed the global market rules which encourage many firms to expand their sales to foreign markets with the aim of entering new and potential profitable market. OnDemand Group (ODG) ‚ UK Based Company that focuses on content management on the platforms of operators’ music and video‚ has already seen the advantages by entering 24 different country markets and now by entering to Dubai market which is the opportunity for ODG to move to Middle East market. Howev...

  7. Effects of particle size and surrounding media on optical radiation efficiencies of spherical plasmonic metal nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinayak A Dhumale; Preeti V Shah; Rishi B Sharma; Katsuaki Tanabe

    2012-04-01

    The optical radiation efficiency (), the ratio of scattering cross-section to extinction cross-section, of spherical metal nanoparticles (M= Al, Ag, Au and Cu) surrounded by glass and water was calculated using classical electrostatics. The effect of varying particle diameter (∼100 nm) on was also studied for free space wavelengths in the range of 400–1200 nm. The variations in the value of with the diameter () of the metal nanoparticles were calculated on the basis of quasi-static approximation. The increases with the size of metal nanoparticles. Corresponding to a metal nanoparticle, was found to exhibit a sharp dip (dip) at a characteristic wavelength ()M in a particular medium ( = air, glass and water). ()M was independent of particle size. The (medium)M was found to be slightly blue shifted for all metal nanoparticles surrounded by glass or water with respect to those in the air.

  8. Exploration of a mechanism for the production of highly unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. at low temperature grown on oil crop residue based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Kun; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang

    2017-11-01

    The ability of algae to produce lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids varies with strains and culture conditions. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the production of unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. grown on oil crop residue based medium. At low temperature (10°C), synthesis of lipids compromising of high contents of unsaturated fatty acids took place primarily in the early stage while protein accumulation mainly occurred in the late stage. This stepwise lipid-protein synthesis process was found to be associated with the contents of acetyl-CoA and α-KG in the algal cells. A mechanism was proposed and tested through simulation experiments which quantified the carbon flux allocation in algal cells at different cultivation stages. It is concluded that low culture temperature such as 10°C is suitable for the production of lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Perfect Dispersive Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Shulabh

    2015-01-01

    Dispersion is at the heart of all ultrafast real-time signal processing systems across the entire electromagnetic spectrum ranging from radio-frequencies to optics. However, following Kramer-Kronig relations, these signal processing systems have been plagued with the parasitic amplitude distortions due to frequency dependent, and non-flat amplitude transmission of naturally dispersive media. This issue puts a serious limitation on the applicability and performance of these signal processing systems. To solve the above mentioned issue, a perfect dispersive medium is proposed in this work, which artificially violates the Kramer-Kronig relations, while satisfying all causality requirements. The proposed dispersive metamaterial is based on loss-gain metasurface pairs and exhibit a perfectly flat transmission response along with arbitrary dispersion in a broad bandwidth, thereby solving a seemingly unavoidable issue in all ultrafast signal processing systems. Such a metamaterial is further shown using sub-waveleng...

  10. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  12. Regional ecological compensation based on ecosystem service value in the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin%基于生态系统服务价值的环京津地区生态补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭年冬; 李恒哲; 李超; 陈召亚; 许皞

    2015-01-01

    Hebei Province, 73 counties (cities), into 7 sub-ecological regions. Then the paper calculated the per-unit area ecosystem service value and the sequence of priority of ecological compensation (ECPS) of 73 counties (cities) in the region surrounding Beijing and Tianjin. The ECPS can be used to quantify the priority of ecological compensation, and is the basis of regional compensation. The areas with priority for regional ecological compensation in the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin were analyzed at three spatial scales — the whole region, the sub-ecological region and the county/city scale. The results showed that the ECPS of the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin was high in totality, and that of the regions around the western mountains and hills was significantly higher than that of the areas in the central and southeast plains. The per-unit area ecosystem service values of different ecological sub-regions were not significantly different. On the contrary, it varied considerably for different counties/cities — 2 440 Yuan·hm-2 for Laishui County (the lowest) in the west mountain area and 10 060 Yuan·hm-2 for Luannan (the highest) County in the east plain. The results also showed that at sub-ecological scale, the grassland and agro-ecological area in Bashang Plateau, the upper reaches of Yongding River and the deciduous broad-leaved forest areas of Jibei and Yanshan mountains needed high priority in terms of ecological compensation. At the county/city scale, Fengning, Weichang and other seven counties/cities in the northern region of the study area had higher priority level in terms of ecological compensation. Then Sanhe, Dachang and other 47 counties/cities in eastern and southern regions of the study area was the first to pay for the ecological compensation. Compared with previous economic compensation intensity models, a relatively simple and reliable evaluation method for priority areas and regional ecological compensation were established in this

  13. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gry, Cécile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium, made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar gas, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of Mg II, Fe II, and H I. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the local interstellar medium consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like a squashed balloon. Average H I volume densities inside the cloud vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm-3 over different directions. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in depletion from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Secondary absorption components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume occupied by the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about -7.2 km s-1 with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of a shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

  14. Effects of Surrounding Information and Line Length on Text Comprehension from the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess McMullin

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web (Web is becoming a popular medium for transmission of information and online learning. We need to understand how people comprehend information from the Web to design Web sites that maximize the acquisition of information. We examined two features of Web page design that are easily modified by developers, namely line length and the amount of surrounding information, or whitespace. Undergraduate university student participants read text and answered comprehension questions on the Web. Comprehension was affected by whitespace; participants had better comprehension for information surrounded by whitespace than for information surrounded by meaningless information. Participants were not affected by line length. These findings demonstrate that reading from the Web is not the same as reading print and have implications for instructional Web design.

  15. Resonance scattering of canonical elastic shells in absorbing fluid medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO Linkai; FAN Jun; TANG Weilin

    2008-01-01

    Resonance scattering of elastic spherical shell and cylindrical shell while the sur-rounding fluid medium has absorption is studied. The normal mode solution derived using exact elastic theory and the separation of variables is still applicable. However, the scattering form function has to be modified for the absorbing medium, otherwise the unreasonable resul twould be obtained. The backscattering form function in the absorbing medium is redefined, and the form function of elastic spherical and cylindrical shell with vacuum or solid matter filled is calculated in various absorption conditions. The results show that the absorption of surround-ing fluid leads to notable attenuation of the coincidence resonances in the mid-frequency, but it has a little in fluence on the low-frequency resonance scattering induced by the filler inside the shell.

  16. Medium Resolution SAR Image Time-series Built-up Area Extraction Based on Multilayer Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Kangning

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy and stability of built-up area extraction from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR image time series, in this paper, we propose a multilayer neural-network-based built-up area extraction method that combines the characters of time-series images. The proposed method coarsely tags single images and obtains a large number of samples from time-series images that have been processed by a histogram specification procedure. To generate a training sample dataset, we use samples generated from one image to determine network depth and select samples with higher accuracy from the sample set taken from the timeseries images. The final model is trained by the selected large and high quality training dataset. We perform two comparison experiments with 38 25-m resolution ENVISAT ASAR images. Using the proposed method, we achieved 90.2% minima accuracy and a 0.725 minima Kappa coefficient, which are much higher than those of the three conventional methods. Thus, the accuracy and stability of built-up area extraction are significantly improved. In addition, the method proposed in this paper has the advantages of requiring minimal manual operation, well generalization, and training efficiency.

  17. Charmonium propagation through a dense medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeliovich B.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.

  18. Solubility and acid-base properties of concentrated phytate in self-medium and in NaCl{sub aq} at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigala, Rosalia Maria; Crea, Francesco; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio [Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Messina, Via Ferdinando Stagno d' Alcontres, 31, I-98166 Messina (Vill. S. Agata) (Italy); Sammartano, Silvio, E-mail: ssammartano@unime.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Universita di Messina, Via Ferdinando Stagno d' Alcontres, 31, I-98166 Messina (Vill. S. Agata) (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The acid-base properties of concentrated phytic acid were studied in self-medium and in NaCl{sub aq} (0.5 {<=} I/mol . L{sup -1} {<=} 4.0) by ISE-H{sup +} potentiometry and by direct calorimetry, at T = 298.15 K. At ligand concentrations c{sub (Phy)} > 0.012 mol . L{sup -1}, the formation of several binuclear H{sub i}(Phy){sub 2} (2 {<=} i {<=} 10) species was observed, in addition to the mononuclear H{sub i}Phy (1 {<=} i {<=} 7) ones. The solubility of phytate dodecasodium salt was studied in pure water and in NaCl{sub aq} at different ionic strengths; the total solubility in pure water is S{sub 0}{sup T}=(0.300{+-}0.004)mol.L{sup -1} and it decreases markedly with increasing ionic strength; for example the total solubility of Na{sub 12}Phy at I = 3.0 mol . L{sup -1} is 0.008 mol . L{sup -1}. By the dependence on ionic strength (salt concentration) of the solubility, it was possible to calculate the activity coefficients of phytate as a function of medium concentration. Direct calorimetric titrations were also carried out on Na{sub 12}Phy aqueous solutions at different phytate concentrations (0.025 {<=} c{sub (Phy)}/mol . L{sup -1} {<=} 0.100) and without addition of supporting electrolyte, in order to calculate the enthalpy changes for the protonation equilibria in self-medium of the binuclear H{sub i}(Phy){sub 2} species, at T = 298.15 K. It was observed that the {Delta}H/kJ . mol{sup -1} of the binuclear species are, within the experimental error, independent of the ionic strength; for example for the H{sub 2}(Phy){sub 2} species we obtained: {Delta}H{sub 22} = (-23.6 {+-} 0.6) kJ . mol{sup -1}, and (-23.7 {+-} 0.2) kJ . mol{sup -1} at I = 0.50 and 2.0 mol . L{sup -1}, respectively.

  19. In vitro release testing of matrices based on starch-methyl methacrylate copolymers: effect of tablet crushing force, dissolution medium pH and stirring rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, C; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

    2014-01-30

    Direct-compressed matrix tablets were obtained from a variety of potato starch-methyl methacrylate copolymers(1) as sustained-release agents, using anhydrous theophylline as a model drug. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the copolymer type, the tablet crushing force and dissolution variables such as the pH of the dissolution medium and the agitation intensity on the in vitro drug release behaviour of such matrices. Commercial sustained-release theophylline products (Theo-Dur(®) 100mg, Theolair(®) 175 mg) were used as standards. Test formulations were compacted into tablets at three different crushing force ranges (70-80, 90-100 and 110-120 N) to examine the effect of this factor on the porous network and drug release kinetics. In vitro release experiments were conducted in a pH-changing medium (1.2-7.5) with basket rotation speeds in the range 25-100 r.p.m. to simulate the physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. The release rate of theophylline was practically not affected by pH in the case of Theo-Dur(®) and HSMMA matrices. In contrast, Theolair(®) and CSMMA tablets demonstrated a biphasic drug release pattern, which appeared to be sensitive to the pH of the dissolution medium. An increase in the crushing force of the copolymer matrices was accompanied by a reduction of the matrix porosity, although the porous network depends markedly on the type of copolymer, having a strong influence on the drug release kinetics. Mathematical modelling of release data shows a Fickian diffusion or anomalous transport mechanism. Based on the similarity factor f2, FD-HSMMA, OD-CSMMA and FD-CSMMA at 90-100 N were selected for agitation studies. In general, all formulations showed an agitation speed-dependent release, with Theo-Dur(®) and FD-CSMMA matrices being the less susceptible to this factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hadrons in medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Mosel

    2006-04-01

    In these lectures I first give the motivation for investigations of in-medium properties of hadrons. I discuss the relevant symmetries of QCD and how they might affect the observed hadron properties. I then discuss at length the observable consequences of in-medium changes of hadronic properties in reactions with elementary probes, and in particular photons, on nuclei. Here I put an emphasis on new experiments on changes of the - and -mesons in medium.

  1. Design of a Visual System of Sports Facilities and Reception Capacity of the Surrounding Hotels Based on Electronic Map%基于电子地图的体育场馆及周边宾馆接待能力的可视化系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰筠; 赵靓; 冯璠

    2012-01-01

    通过对体育场馆设施、周边宾馆及宾馆的接待能力的调查与分析,利用G oog le Map sAPI进行基于电子地图的体育场馆及周边宾馆接待能力的可视化系统设计,在设计的系统中嵌入G oog le Map s,并在地图上叠加自己的数据,实现体育场馆及周边宾馆数据的标注、展示、叠加及统计等功能。%Through the survey and analysis of the sports facilities and the surrounding hotels and hotel reception capacity,the author,using Google Maps API,designed a visual system of sports facilities and the surrounding hotel reception capacity based on electronic map.Google Maps were inserted into the system.New data were added to the Map so as to realize the functions of data tagging,display,addition and statistics of sports facilities and the reception capacity of the surrounding hotels.

  2. 自主研制志贺氏菌显色培养基的应用效果评价%Evaluation of applications for Shigella chromogenic medium based on independent innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杨峰; 何艳玲; 刘沛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the application effect of the shigella chromogenic medium based on independent innovation. Methods A total of 30 standard strains were used to test the chromogenic medium, and SO food samples on sale were detected by shigella chromogenic medium based on independent innovation, R&F shigella chromogenic medium, XLD and MacConkey agar. Results Shigella spp. Could be effectively detected by Shigella chromogenic medium based on independent innovation, the detection rate of food samples was 10% by innovative products and R&F Shigella chromogenic medium. Conclusion The specialty,sensitivity and detection rate of innovative shigella chromogenic medium and R&F shigella chromogenic medium are consistency.%目的 探讨自主研制的志贺氏菌显色培养基的应用效果.方法 采用30株标准菌株及50份自然样品检测试验,比对自主研制的志贺氏菌显色培养基、梅里埃(R&F)志贺氏菌显色培养基、木糖-赖氨酸-去氧胆酸盐培养基(XLD培养基)和麦康凯琼脂培养基的选择性.结果 自主研制的志贺氏菌显色培养基能有效分离志贺氏菌属菌株,50份自然样品的检出率与R&F志贺氏菌显色培养基相同,均达到10%.结论 自主研制的志贺氏菌显色培养基与R&F志贺氏菌显色培养基在特异性及检出率达到一致.

  3. Detection of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida tropicalis in a High-Sugar Medium by a Metal Oxide Sensor-Based Electronic Nose and Comparison with Test Panel Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huxuan; Hu, Zhongqiu; Long, Fangyu; Guo, Chunfeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-11-01

    Osmotolerant yeasts are primarily responsible for spoilage of sugar-rich foods. In this work, an electronic nose (e-nose) was used to diagnose contamination caused by two osmotolerant yeast strains (Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida tropicalis) in a high-sugar medium using test panel evaluation as the reference method. Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the evolution of the volatile organic compound fingerprint in the contaminated samples during yeast growth. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis revealed that the e-nose could identify contamination after 48 h, corresponding to the total yeast levels of 3.68 (Z. rouxii) and 3.09 (C. tropicalis) log CFU/ml. At these levels, the test panel could not yet diagnose the spoilage, indicating that the e-nose approach was more sensitive than the test panel evaluation. Loading analysis indicated that sensors 8 and 6 were the most important for detection of these two yeasts. Based on the result obtained with the e-nose, the incubation time and total yeast levels could be accurately predicted by established multiple regression models with a correlation of greater than 0.97. In the sensory evaluation, spoilage was diagnosed after 72 h in samples contaminated with C. tropicalis and after 48 to 72 h for samples contaminated with Z. rouxii. GC-MS revealed that compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetone, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol contributed to spoilage detection by the e-nose after 48 h. In the high-sugar medium, the e-nose was more sensitive than the test panel evaluation for detecting contamination with these test yeast strains. This information could be useful for developing instruments and techniques for rapid scanning of sugar-rich foods for contamination with osmotolerant yeasts before such spoilage could be detected by the consumer.

  4. Sporulation of Clostridium cellulolyticum while grown in cellulose-batch and cellulose-fed continuous cultures on a mineral-salt based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvaux, M; Petitdemange, H

    2002-03-01

    Clostridium cellulolyticum sporulation was investigated during growth on cellulose fibers in a mineral-salt based medium which corresponds to conditions linked to its natural ecological niche. At steady state of the continuous cultures under limitation and with an excess of cellulose and/or ammonium, bacterial cells mainly sporulated at low dilution rates (D), at least 10% sporulation being observed at the lowest D tested. Increasing the cellulose concentration in the feed-medium reservoir increased the percentage of spores in the bioreactor. It appeared that the remaining undigested cellulose could serve as an exogenous carbon source supply at a continuous but limited rate throughout the sporulation process. In addition to the proportion of carbon and nitrogen, the influence of the environmental pH on spore formation was studied. In cellulose-fed continuous cultures at a constant D and a pH decreasing from 7.2 to 6.4, the percentage of spores increased to 14% at the lowest pH tested. When C. cellulolyticum was grown in batch culture, the level of sporulation was dramatically higher in unregulated-pH fermentation compared to pH-controlled growth conditions at pH 7.2 since in the former it reached 45% within 5 days of cultivation. It then appeared that a low specific growth rate and a low environmental pH in the presence of an insoluble carbon substrate were the major factors inducing sporulation in C. cellulolyticum. Furthermore, since the spores adhere to the carbon substrate (the cellulose) the bacteria gain advantages when the environment allows germination thanks to the recovery of suitable growth conditions. By allowing the maintenance and the integrity of the bacteria in the microbiota, spore formation could then explain the successful survival of C. cellulolyticum in cellulosic anaerobic habitats where low environmental pH conditions are often found.

  5. Novaprep(®) Vial Test is a suitable liquid-based cytology medium for high risk human papillomavirus testing by Hybrid Capture 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prétet, Jean-Luc; Vidal, Chrystelle; Le Bail Carval, Karine; Ramanah, Rajeev; Carcopino, Xavier; Cartier, Isabelle; Labouyrie, Eric; Kantelip, Bernadette; Coumes-Marquet, Sylviane; Riethmuller, Didier; Mougin, Christiane

    2010-12-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) for cervical cancer screening presents the advantage that cytological and virological investigations can be undertaken from the same specimen. Nevertheless, the fixative may alter DNA integrity and the sample may be inadequate for HPV DNA detection. The Novaprep(®) Vial Test (NVT) (Novacyt, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) is a new device dedicated to LBC which permits an automated cell spreading over slides and an automated cell sampling for molecular analyses. To determine whether the NVT was suitable for high risk (HR) HPV DNA detection with the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay (Qiagen, Courtaboeuf, France). Two cervical specimens were harvested. The first sample was taken with a Rovers Cervex Brush (Therapak Corporation, Buford, USA) placed in the NVT and the second sample was taken with a DNAPAP cervical sampler placed in the Specimen Transport Medium (STM) (Qiagen). This last sample served as gold standard for HPV detection. NVT and STM samples were analyzed for HR HPV DNA with HC2 assay. One hundred and thirty-one samples stored in NVT and STM were analyzed. The overall HC2 positivity determined from the 99 samples classified as satisfactory for cellularity (>5000 cells/slide) was 84% whatever the collection medium was. Agreement for HPV detection between NVT and STM was 94%, with a Kappa of 0.78. Moreover, we noted that HC2 values obtained from NVT samples were correlated to those obtained from STM samples. The Novaprep(®) Vial Test adequately preserves HPV DNA and is suitable for HPV testing with HC2 if cellularity is satisfactory. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pions in the nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, J P B C; El-Bennich, Bruno; Rojas, E; Frederico, T

    2014-01-01

    Using the light-front pion wave function based on a Bethe-Salpeter amplitude model, we study the properties of the pion in symmetric nuclear matter. The pion model we adopt is well constrained by previous studies to explain the pion properties in vacuum. In order to consistently incorporate the constituent up and down quarks of the pion immersed in symmetric nuclear matter, we use the quark-meson coupling model, which has been widely applied to various hadronic and nuclear phenomena in a nuclear medium with success. We predict the in-medium modifications of the pion lectromagnetic form factor, charge radius and weak decay constant in symmetric nuclear matter.

  7. Interaction of massive stars with their surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Due to their short lifetimes but their enormous energy release in all stages of their lives massive stars are the major engines for the comic matter circuit. They affect not only their close environment but are also responsible to drive mass flows on galactic scales. Recent 2D models of radiation-driven and wind-blown HII regions are summarized which explore the impact of massive stars to the interstellar medium but find surprisingly small energy transfer efficiencies while an observable Carbon self-enrichment in the Wolf-Rayet phase is detected in the warm ionized gas. Finally, the focus is set on state-of-the-art modelling of HII regions and its present weaknesses with respect to uncertainties and simplifications but on a perspective of the requested art of their modelling in the 21st century.

  8. Dynamic response of cylindrical lined cavity in elastic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高盟; 王滢; 高广运

    2013-01-01

    An analytical solution to the transient dynamic response of a cylindrical lining subjected to an internal loading was presented and the dynamic interaction between the lining and surrounding soil was considered. The lining structure and the soil were treated as a cylindrical elastic shell and an infinite elastic compressible medium, respectively. A two-dimensional axisymmetric wave equation was derived from the governing equation of displacement by introducing the potential functions. Shell equation of motion was established based on continuity conditions. The closed-form solution for dynamic response of the lining due to an impact loading was obtained in Laplace transforms and inverse transforms. Detailed parametric studies were also presented to illustrate the influences of the Poisson ratio of soil, the dynamic shear moduli of both soil and lining and the thickness of lining on dynamic response of the lining.

  9. A new perspective on the interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun from UV absorption line results

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    We offer a new, more inclusive, picture of the local interstellar medium, where it is composed of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions. Our study of velocities based on Mg II and Fe II ultraviolet absorption lines indicates that the cloud has an average motion consistent with the velocity vector of gas impacting the heliosphere and does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like the squashing of a balloon. The outer boundary of the cloud is in average 10 pc away from us but is highly irregular, being only a few parsecs away in some directions, with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. Average H I volume densities vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm-3 over different sight lines. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in this effect from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is...

  10. The connection between AGN-driven dusty outflows and the surrounding environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, W

    2016-01-01

    Significant reservoirs of cool gas are observed in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding galaxies. The CGM is also found to contain substantial amounts of metals and dust, which require some transport mechanism. We consider AGN (active galactic nucleus) feedback-driven outflows based on radiation pressure on dust. Dusty gas is ejected when the central luminosity exceeds the effective Eddington luminosity for dust. We obtain that a higher dust-to-gas ratio leads to a lower critical luminosity, implying that the more dusty gas is more easily expelled. Dusty outflows can reach large radii with a range of velocities (depending on the outflowing shell configuration and the ambient density distribution) and may account for the observed CGM gas. In our picture, dust is required in order to drive AGN feedback, and the preferential expulsion of dusty gas in the outflows may naturally explain the presence of dust in the CGM. On the other hand, the most powerful AGN outflow events can potentially drive gas out of ...

  11. A Chandra HETG Observation of the Quasar H 1821+643 and Its Surrounding Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, T; Lee, J C; Marshall, H L; Bryan, G L; Canizares, C R

    2001-01-01

    We present the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the low-redshift quasar H 1821+643 and its surrounding hot cluster observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). An iron emission line attributed to the quasar at ~6.43 keV (rest frame) is clearly resolved, with an equivalent width of ~100 eV. Although we cannot rule out contributions to the line from a putative torus, the diskline model provides an acceptable fit to this iron line. We also detect a weak emission feature at ~6.9 keV (rest frame). We suggest that both lines could originate in an accretion disk comprised of a highly ionized optically thin atmosphere sitting atop a mostly neutral disk. We search for absorption features from a warm/hot component of the intergalactic medium along the ~1.5Gpc/h line of sight to the quasar. No absorption features are detected at or above the 3 sigma level while a total of six OVI intervening absorption systems have been detected with HST and FUSE. Based on the lack of OVII and OVIII ...

  12. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  13. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiulianoF.Panza; AntonellaPontevivo; GiordanoChimera; RenetaRaykova; AbdelkrimAoudia

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by sur-face wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion.Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithos-phere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, iden-tified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the prmctpat recent votca-noes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria, a lithospheric dou-bling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenos-phere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea,likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria.

  14. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  15. Targeting Alzheimer's disease by investigating previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Greunen, DG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty seven acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as potential agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, were designed and synthesised based upon previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the molecular skeleton of the drug...

  16. Effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in mining face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang-Xiang Xie; Lei Wang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-12-15

    The mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in longwall mining face were studied, based on the results of in-situ measurement combined with numerical simulation, and the effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell was discovered. The results show that the mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell are influenced by the length of the face. With an increase of mining face length, the level of concentration of shell stress located in the front face and surrounding rock of roadway is amplified and the three- dimensional stress is focused in the working face. The damage lies in the head entry corner of face and the vertical displacement is reduced but horizontal displacement is enlarged. The dynamic balance of surrounding rock stress shell is improved with rational adjustment of face length. It is effective in protecting the working face and controlling strata behavior. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  17. An X-ray study of the supernova remnant G20.0-0.2 and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Petriella, Alberto; Giacani, Elsa

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We study the supernova remnant G20.0-0.2 and its surroundings in order to look for the high energy counterpart of the radio nebula and to find evidence of interaction between the shock front and the interstellar medium. Methods: We used Chandra archival observations to analyze the X-ray emission from the supernova remnant. The surrounding gas was investigated using data extracted from the Galactic Ring Survey, the VLA Galactic Plane Survey, the Galactic Legacy Infrared Midplane Survey Extraordinaire, and the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey. Results: G20.0-0.2 shows diffuse X-ray emission from the central region of the radio remnant. Although the current data do not allow us to distinguish between a thermal or non-thermal origin for the X-ray diffuse emission, based on the radio properties we suggest a synchrotron origin as the most favorable. The hard X-ray point source CXO J182807.4-113516 appears located at the geometrical center of the remnant and is a potential candidate to be the pulsar powering the ...

  18. Rigidity and resistance of larval- and adult schistosomes-medium interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliardo, Federica, E-mail: fmigliardo@unime.it [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina (Italy); Tallima, Hatem; El Ridi, Rashika [Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo 12613 (Egypt)

    2014-03-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Schistosoma larvae and worms are studied by neutron scattering. • Measurements on larvae were repeated after one day and by increasing temperature. • The flexibility properties of larvae and adult parasites are compared. • The parasite rigidity is related to their resistance to the hostile environment. • Insight into the parasite defense mechanisms to the immune system attack is achieved. - Abstract: Schistosomiasis is second only to malaria in prevalence and severity, and is still a major health problem in many tropical countries worldwide with about 200–300 million cases and with more than 800 million people at risk of infection. Based on these data, the World Health Organization recommends fostering research efforts for understanding at any level the mechanisms of the infection and then decreasing the social and economical impact of schistosomiasis. A key role is played by the parasite apical lipid membrane, which is entirely impervious to the surrounding elements of the immune system. We have previously demonstrated that the interaction between schistosomes and surrounding medium is governed by a parasite surface membrane sphingomyelin-based hydrogen barrier. In the present article, the elastic contribution to the total motion as a function of the exchanged wave-vector Q and the mean square displacement values for Schistosoma mansoni larvae and worms and Schistosomahaematobium worms have been evaluated by quasi elastic neutron scattering (QENS). The results point out that S. mansoni larvae show a smaller mean square displacement in comparison to S. mansoni and S. haematobium worms. These values increased by repeating the measurements after one day. These differences, which are analogous to those observed for the diffusion coefficient we previously evaluated, are interpreted in terms of rigidity of the parasite-medium interaction. S. mansoni larvae are the most rigid systems, while S. haematobium worms are the most

  19. Welsh-Medium Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Gareth

    1984-01-01

    Examines the effect in the primary and secondary school levels of teaching through the medium of Welsh and the response of the University of Wales. The media and the educational system are two formal social organizations which help the threatened Welsh language to survive. Another would be the establishment of a Welsh-medium university. (SED)

  20. Medium is the message

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Ritzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), in his book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). In this book, McLuhan examines the impact of media on societies and human relations, arguing for the primacy of the medium -

  1. Medium is the message

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.; Ritzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    "The medium is the message" is a phrase coined by Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), in his book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964). In this book, McLuhan examines the impact of media on societies and human relations, arguing for the primacy of the medium - understo

  2. Novel Schiff-base molecules as efficient corrosion inhibitors for mild steel surface in 1 M HCl medium: experimental and theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sourav Kr; Dutta, Alokdut; Ghosh, Pritam; Sukul, Dipankar; Banerjee, Priyabrata

    2016-07-21

    In order to evaluate the effect of the functional group present in the ligand backbone towards corrosion inhibition performances, three Schiff-base molecules namely, (E)-4-((2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazono)methyl)pyridine (L(1)), (E)-4-(2-(pyridin-4-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl)benzonitrile (L(2)) and (E)-4-((2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol (L(3)) were synthesized and used as corrosion inhibitors on mild steel in 1 M HCl medium. The corrosion inhibition effectiveness of the studied inhibitors was investigated by weight loss and several sophisticated analytical tools such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Experimentally obtained results revealed that corrosion inhibition efficiencies followed the sequence: L(3) > L(1) > L(2). Electrochemical findings showed that inhibitors impart high resistance towards charge transfer across the metal-electrolyte interface and behaved as mixed type inhibitors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also employed to examine the protective film formed on the mild steel surface. The adsorption as well as inhibition ability of the inhibitor molecules on the mild steel surface was investigated by quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. In quantum chemical calculations, geometry optimized structures of the Schiff-base inhibitors, electron density distribution in HOMO and LUMO and Fukui indices of each atom were employed for their possible mode of interaction with the mild steel surfaces. MD simulations revealed that all the inhibitors molecules adsorbed in parallel orientation with respect to the Fe(110) surface.

  3. Synthetic laser medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Stanley E.

    1989-01-01

    A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.

  4. Surface optical phonons in cylindrical ZnO nanoparticles: dielectric effect of outer medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassaing, P M [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, UPR 8011, CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig 31055 Toulouse (France) and Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne 31062 Toulouse (France); Demangeot, F [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, UPR 8011, CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig 31055 Toulouse (France) and Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne 31062 Toulouse (France); Paillard, V [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, UPR 8011, CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig 31055 Toulouse (France) and Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne 31062 Toulouse (France); Zwick, A [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, UPR 8011, CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig 31055 Toulouse (France) and Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne 31062 Toulouse (France); Combe, N [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, UPR 8011, CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig 31055 Toulouse (France) and Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne 31062 Toulouse (France); Pages, C [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, UPR 8241, CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne 31077 Toulouse (France); Kahn, M L [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, UPR 8241, CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne 31077 Toulouse (France); Maisonnat, A [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, UPR 8241, CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne 31077 Toulouse (France); Chaudret, B [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, UPR 8241, CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne 31077 Toulouse (France)

    2007-12-15

    Surface optical phonons in freestanding cylindrical ZnO nanoparticles surrounded by organic molecules have been theoretically investigated using a dielectric continuum model and experimentally with Raman spectrometry. From a theoretical point of view, we calculate surface optical phonons in the cases of cylindrical and planar surfaces of nanoparticles. We also investigate the dispersion of these modes regarding the dielectric constant of the outer medium. By modelling the organic shell of nanoparticles with a dielectric constant and based on experimental results of Raman spectrometry, we show that we observed a top surface mode of nanoparticles.

  5. Extinction Laws toward Stellar Sources within a Dusty Circimstellar Medium and Implications for Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, T; Nozawa, T

    2016-01-01

    Many astronomical objects are surrounded by dusty environments. In such dusty objects, multiple scattering processes of photons by circumstellar (CS) dust grains can effectively alter extinction properties. In this paper, we systematically investigate effects of multiple scattering on extinction laws for steady-emission sources surrounded by the dusty CS medium, using a radiation transfer simulation based on the Monte Carlo technique. In particular, we focus on whether and how the extinction properties are affected by properties of CS dust grains, adopting various dust grain models. We {\\bf confirm} that behaviors of the (effective) extinction laws are highly dependent on the properties of CS grains. Especially, the total-to-selective extinction ratio $R_{V}$, which characterizes the extinction law, can be either increased or decreased, compared to the case without multiple scattering. We find that the criterion for this behavior is given by a ratio of albedos in the $B$ and $V$ bands. We also find that eithe...

  6. eVerdEE: a web-based screening life-cycle assessment tool for European small and medium-sized enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldesi, Luciano; Buttol, Patrizia; Masoni, Paolo; Misceo, Monica; Sára, Balázs

    2004-12-01

    "eLCA" is a European Commission financed project aimed at realising "On line green tools and services for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)". Knowledge and use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) by SMEs are strategic to introduce the Integrated Product Policy (IPP) in Europe, but methodology simplification is needed. LCA requires a large amount of validated general and sector specific data. Since their availability and cost can be insuperable barriers for SMEs, pre-elaborated data/meta-data, use of standards and low cost solutions are required. Within the framework of the eLCA project an LCA software - eVerdEE - based on a simplified methodology and specialised for SMEs has been developed. eVerdEE is a web-based tool with some innovative features. Its main feature is the adaptation of ISO 14040 requirements to offer easy-to-handle functions with solid scientific bases. Complex methodological problems, such as the system boundaries definition, the data quality estimation and documentation, the choice of impact categories, are simplified according to the SMEs" needs. Predefined "Goal and Scope definition" and "Inventory" forms, a user-friendly and well structured procedure are time and cost-effective. The tool is supported by a database containing pre-elaborated environmental indicators of substances and processes for different impact categories. The impact assessment is calculated automatically by using the user"s input and the database values. The results have different levels of interpretation in order to identify the life cycle critical points and the improvement options. The use of a target plot allows the direct comparison of different design alternatives.

  7. In-Medium Pion Valence Distribution Amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Tsushima, K

    2016-01-01

    After a brief review of the quark-based model for nuclear matter, and some pion properties in medium presented in our previous works, we report new results for the pion valence wave function as well as the valence distribution amplitude in medium, which are presented in our recent article. We find that both the in-medium pion valence distribution and the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  8. In-Medium Pion Valence Distribution Amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, K.; de Melo, J. P. B. C.

    2017-03-01

    After a brief review of the quark-based model for nuclear matter, and some pion properties in medium presented in our previous works, we report new results for the pion valence wave function as well as the valence distribution amplitude in medium, which are presented in our recent article. We find that both the in-medium pion valence distribution and the in-medium pion valence wave function, are substantially modified at normal nuclear matter density, due to the reduction in the pion decay constant.

  9. Finite Element Model to Analyze an Installation Load-based Stress-Strain State of the Parts Forming Gas Joint of a Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Chainov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a developed computational model to study a stress-strain state of the assembly unit components of a medium-speed diesel engine of new generation, type CH26.5/31, which comprises a cylinder head, a sleeve, a gasket, a block, two mounting studs and four power studs.The developed three-dimensional finite element model presented in this article allows us to take into consideration all the components that make up a gas joint, regardless of their geometric complexity. Its use enables us to estimate the cylinder head - gasket - sleeve tightness of sealing when applying the mounting, temperature, and gas loads, to define the stress and strain components of parts, as well as to study the gasket condition, including pressure distribution across its surface.Based on the results obtained in the study the finite element model of the cylinder head was modified considering a more detailed description of its geometry, thus reducing the principal tensile stresses.

  10. Statistical evaluation and modeling of cheap substrate-based cultivation medium of Chlorella vulgaris to enhance microalgae lipid as new potential feedstock for biolubricant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Mirzaie, M A; Kalbasi, M; Mousavi, S M; Ghobadian, B

    2016-05-18

    Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) microalga was investigated as a new potential feedstock for the production of biodegradable lubricant. In order to enhance microalgae lipid for biolubricant production, mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was optimized using statistical analysis of Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodology (RSM). A cheap substrate-based medium of molasses and corn steep liquor (CSL) was used instead of expensive mineral salts to reduce the total cost of microalgae production. The effects of molasses and CSL concentration (cheap substrates) and light intensity on the growth of microalgae and their lipid content were analyzed and modeled. Designed models by RSM showed good compatibility with a 95% confidence level when compared to the cultivation system. According to the models, optimal cultivation conditions were obtained with biomass productivity of 0.123 g L(-1) day(-1) and lipid dry weight of 0.64 g L(-1) as 35% of dry weight of C. vulgaris. The extracted microalgae lipid presented useful fatty acid for biolubricant production with viscosities of 42.00 cSt at 40°C and 8.500 cSt at 100°C, viscosity index of 185, flash point of 185°C, and pour point of -6°C. These properties showed that microalgae lipid could be used as potential feedstock for biolubricant production.

  11. Screening of atmospheric short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in India and Pakistan using polyurethane foam based passive air sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaemfa, Chakra; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Hussain Syed, Jabir; Naseem Malik, Riffat; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2014-05-06

    Production and use of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have been increasing in India. Distribution of CPs in the area and vicinity have become a great concern due to their persistency and toxicity. Polyurethane foam based passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) was deployed in order to screen the presence of short- and medium- chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in the outdoor atmosphere at many sites in India (in winter 2006) and Pakistan (in winter 2011). Concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from not detected (ND) to 47.4 and 0 to 38.2 ng m(-3) with means of 8.11 and 4.83 ng m(-3), respectively. Indian concentrations showed higher average levels of both SCCPs and MCCPs India (10.2 ng m(-3) and 3.62 ng m(-3)than the samples from Pakistan (5.13 ng m(-3) and 4.21 ng m(-3)). Relative abundance patterns of carbon number are C10 > C11 > C12 ∼ C13 for SCCPs and C14 > C15 > C16 C17 for MCCP with similarity to the profiles of samples from China, the biggest CPs producer in the world. Principal Component Analysis suggested that detected SCCPs and MCCPs in this study originated from the same emission source.

  12. Using conjoint and cluster analysis in developing new product for micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) based on customer preferences (Case study: Lampung province's banana chips)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, Wilson; Salomon, Lithrone Laricha; Hutomo, Reynaldo

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of new products of Micro, Small and Medium Entreprises (SMEs) to identify what attributes are considered by consumers, as well as combinations of attributes that need to be analyzed into the main preferences of consumers. The purpose of this research is to increase the added value and competitiveness of SMEs through product innovation. The object of this study is banana chips produced by SMEs from the province of Lampung which it considered to be unique souvenirs of the province. The research data were collected by distributing questionnaires in Jakarta which has heterogeneous population, in order to develop banana chip's marketing and increase its market share in Indonesia. Data processing was performed using conjoint analysis and cluster analysis. Segmentation was performed using conjoint analysis based on the importance level of attributes and part-worth of level attributes of each cluster. Finally, characteristics and consumer preferences of each cluster will be a consideration in determining the product development and marketing strategies.

  13. Medium-energy ion-beam simulation of the effect of ionizing radiation and displacement damage on SiO{sub 2}-based memristive nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Alexey; Mikhaylov, Alexey; Korolev, Dmitry; Guseinov, Davud; Gryaznov, Eugeny; Okulich, Eugenia; Sergeev, Victor; Antonov, Ivan; Kasatkin, Alexandr; Gorshkov, Oleg [Lobachevsky University, 23/3 Gagarin prospect, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Tetelbaum, David, E-mail: tetelbaum@phys.unn.ru [Lobachevsky University, 23/3 Gagarin prospect, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kozlovski, Vitali [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, 29 Polytechnicheskaya street, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The principles of ion-beam simulation of the effect of fast (fission) neutrons and high-energy protons based on medium-energy ion irradiation have been developed for the Au/Zr/SiO{sub 2}/TiN/Ti capacitor-like memristive nanostructures demonstrating the repeatable resistive switching phenomenon. By using the Monte-Carlo approach, the irradiation fluences of H{sup +}, Si{sup +} and O{sup +} ions at the energy of 150 keV are determined that provide the ionization and displacement damage equivalent to the cases of space protons (15 MeV) and fission neutrons (1 MeV) irradiation. No significant change in the resistive switching parameters is observed under ion irradiation up to the fluences corresponding to the extreme fluence of 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} of space protons or fission neutrons. The high-level radiation tolerance of the memristive nanostructures is experimentally confirmed with the application of 15 MeV proton irradiation and is interpreted as related to the local nature of conducting filaments and high concentration of the initial field-induced defects in oxide film.

  14. Analytical Modeling of Electric Field Distribution in Dual Material Junctionless Surrounding Gate MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suveetha Dhanaselvam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, electric field distribution of the junctionless dual material surrounding gate MOSFETs (JLDMSG is developed. Junctionless is a device that has similar characteristics like junction based devices, but junctionless has a positive flatband voltage with zero electric field. In Surrounding gate MOSFETs gate material surrounds the channel in all direction , therefore it can overcome the short channel effects effectively than other devices. In this paper, surface potential and electric field distribution is modelled. The proposed surface potential model is compared with the existing central potential model. It is observed that the short channel effects (SCE is reduced and the performance is better than the existing method.

  15. Radio observations of Supernova Remnants and the surrounding molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, G

    2011-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the main source of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The strong SNR shocks provide ideal acceleration sites for particles of at least 10^14 eV/nucleon. Radio continuum studies of SNRs carried out with good sensitivity and high angular resolution convey information about three main aspects of the SNRs: morphology, polarization and spectrum. Based on this information it is possible to localize sites of higher compression and particle acceleration as well as the orientation and degree of order of the magnetic fields, and in some cases even its intensity. All this information, when complemented with the study of the distribution and kinematics of the surrounding interstellar gas, results in a very useful dataset to investigate the role of SNRs as cosmic ray accelerators. In this presentation, I analyze the radio observations of SNRs and surrounding molecular clouds, showing the contribution of these studies to the understanding of the role of SNRs as factories of CRs.

  16. Diffraction of a Gaussian beam in a three-dimensional smoothly inhomogeneous medium: an eikonal-based complex geometrical-optics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczynski, Pawel; Bliokh, Konstantin Yu; Kravtsov, Yuri A; Stateczny, Andrzej

    2006-06-01

    We present an ab initio account of the paraxial complex geometrical optics (CGO) in application to scalar Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction in a 3D smoothly inhomogeneous medium. The paraxial CGO deals with quadratic expansion of the complex eikonal and reduces the wave problem to the solution of ordinary differential equations of the Riccati type. This substantially simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction as compared with full-wave or parabolic (quasi-optics) equations. For a Gaussian beam propagating in a homogeneous medium or along the symmetry axis in a lenslike medium, the CGO equations possess analytical solutions; otherwise, they can be readily solved numerically. As a nontrivial example we consider Gaussian beam propagation and diffraction along a helical ray in an axially symmetric waveguide medium. It is shown that the major axis of the beam's elliptical cross section grows unboundedly; it is oriented predominantly in the azimuthal (binormal) direction and does not obey the parallel-transport law.

  17. Traffic Optimization Research on Surrounding Roads of G6 Huilongguan Toll Station Based on Simulation%基于仿真的G6回龙观收费站周边交通优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴强; 熊钰冰; 左龙飞

    2011-01-01

    The expressway toll station near big cities, connecting main roads with side roads, is often traffic bottleneck. Based on analyzing the toll traffic efficiency model, VISSIM simulation software is a-dopted to study traffic conditions around G6 Huilongguan toll station. Firstly, the traffic attribute parameters are calibrated, and the travel time of vehicles through the toll station is simulated by the signal lights. Then, the traffic optimization simulation model, adopted for the expressway toll stations near big cities, is established. Finally, the simulation parameters of Huilongguan toll station are calibrated based on the real traffic conditions. By comparing simulation results, the mechanism of traffic congestion around the Huilongguan toll station is analyzed and the simulation model is optimized, to reduce vehicle delays and optimize the toll traffic efficiency.%大城市周边高速公路收费站是连接主辅路交通的瓶颈处,在分析收费站通行效率模型后,采用VISSIM仿真软件对G6回龙观收费站周边交通进行研究.首先对收费站交通属性参数进行标定,进而利用信号灯模拟车辆通过收费站的通行时间,建立适用于大城市周边高速公路收费站交通优化仿真模型.最后结合实测交通状况标定回龙观收费站仿真模型参数,对比分析仿真数据,探究回龙观收费站周边交通拥堵机理,优化仿真模型,达到减少车辆延误,优化收费站通行效率的目的.

  18. RNASeq Based Transcriptional Profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 after Short- and Long-Term Anoxic Cultivation in Synthetic Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Muralidhar; Wolfinger, Michael T; Amman, Fabian; Roschanski, Nicole; Dötsch, Andreas; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Häussler, Susanne; Bläsi, Udo

    2016-01-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can thrive under microaerophilic to anaerobic conditions in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. RNASeq based comparative RNA profiling of the clinical isolate PA14 cultured in synthetic cystic fibrosis medium was performed after planktonic growth (OD600 = 2.0; P), 30 min after shift to anaerobiosis (A-30) and after anaerobic biofilm growth for 96h (B-96) with the aim to reveal differentially regulated functions impacting on sustained anoxic biofilm formation as well as on tolerance towards different antibiotics. Most notably, functions involved in sulfur metabolism were found to be up-regulated in B-96 cells when compared to A-30 cells. Based on the transcriptome studies a set of transposon mutants were screened, which revealed novel functions involved in anoxic biofilm growth.In addition, these studies revealed a decreased and an increased abundance of the oprD and the mexCD-oprJ operon transcripts, respectively, in B-96 cells, which may explain their increased tolerance towards meropenem and to antibiotics that are expelled by the MexCD-OprD efflux pump. The OprI protein has been implicated as a target for cationic antimicrobial peptides, such as SMAP-29. The transcriptome and subsequent Northern-blot analyses showed that the abundance of the oprI transcript encoding the OprI protein is strongly decreased in B-96 cells. However, follow up studies revealed that the susceptibility of a constructed PA14ΔoprI mutant towards SMAP-29 was indistinguishable from the parental wild-type strain, which questions OprI as a target for this antimicrobial peptide in strain PA14.

  19. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  20. Medium Theory and Social Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    The  paper  first  gives  a  tentative  theoretical  explanation  of  the  concept  of media,  based  on  the  dichotomies  of  actual/potential  (meaning),  form/medium  (appearance),  and  substratum/material  content  (extension  in  time  and  space).  This  theoretical  explanation  presents......  the  possibility  for  observation both of a social micro and a social macro level from a medium perspective. In the next  section  the paper  frames  the macro  level by  a  tentative  synthesis of  the medium  theory  and  the  sociological systems theory briefly describing a socio......  seen as medium  for  formation. Finally  the  paper  takes  the micro  level  perspective  by  applying  the  theory  to  newsgroups,  interpreting  them as self-organizing interactive systems giving a differentiated and diversified scope for social  inclusion.  ...

  1. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  2. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, E; Heym, G A

    1986-10-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  3. Defined medium for Moraxella bovis.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    A defined medium (medium MB) for Moraxella bovis was formulated. Nineteen strains grew well on medium MB. One strain was auxotrophic for asparagine, and another was auxotrophic for methionine. Strains of M. equi and M. lacunata also grew on medium MB. All strains had an absolute requirement for thiamine and were stimulated by or actually required the other growth factors in the medium.

  4. Preparation and cooling characteristic of a new formula water-based quenching medium%新配方水基淬火介质的制备及冷却特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宇媛; 揭晓华; 卢国辉; 张留艳

    2016-01-01

    配制出一种新配方水基淬火介质,该淬火介质由聚烷撑乙二醇( PAG)、冷速调整添加剂、防锈剂、消泡剂、防腐剂和水组成;研究了新配方水基淬火介质的冷却特性并与水、淬火油和UCON E淬火介质进行了对比。结果表明,新配方水基淬火介质的冷却特性介于水和油之间,3%PAG淬火介质的最大冷却速度为322.5℃· s-1,300℃下的冷却速度为112.4℃· s-1,与5%UCON E淬火介质相当。%A new prescription of water-based quenching medium consisting of polyalkylene glycol( PAG) , cooling rate adjustment additive, rust preventive, antifoam, preservative and water was developed.The cooling characteristic of the water-based quenching medium was analyzed by comparing with that of water, quenching oil and UCON E quenching medium.The results show that the cooling characteristic of the water-based quenching medium is intermediate between water and quenching oil.The maximum cooling speed of the quenching medium with 3%PAG concentration is 322.5℃· s-1 , and the cooling speed at 300℃is 112.4℃· s-1 , which is comparable to that of 5%UCON E quenching medium.

  5. The Interaction of Type Ia Supernovae with their Surroundings The Exponential profile in 2D

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarkadas, V V

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of Type Ia supernovae in the surrounding medium is studied using 2-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations. The ejecta are assumed to be described by an exponential density profile, following the work of Dwarkadas & Chevalier (1998). The case of a circumstellar (CS) region formed by mass loss from the progenitor or a companion star is also considered. The decelerating contact discontinuity is found to be Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) unstable, as expected, and the nature of the instability is studied in detail for 2 cases: 1) a constant density ambient medium, and 2) a CS medium whose density goes as r^{-2}. The nature of the instability is found to be different in both cases. In the case of a CS medium the instability is much better resolved, and a fractal-like structure is seen. In the case of a constant density medium the extent of growth is less, and the R-T fingers are found to be limited by the presence of Kelvin-Helmholtz mushroom caps at the tips of the fingers. The unstable region is...

  6. Winter wheat yield estimation based on multi-source medium resolution optical and radar imaging data and the AquaCrop model using the particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiuliang; Li, Zhenhai; Yang, Guijun; Yang, Hao; Feng, Haikuan; Xu, Xingang; Wang, Jihua; Li, Xinchuan; Luo, Juhua

    2017-04-01

    Timely and accurate estimation of winter wheat yield at a regional scale is crucial for national food policy and security assessments. Near-infrared reflectance is not sensitive to the leaf area index (LAI) and biomass of winter wheat at medium to high canopy cover (CC), and most of the vegetation indices displayed saturation phenomenon. However, LAI and biomass at medium to high CC can be efficiently estimated using imaging data from radar with stronger penetration, such as RADARSAT-2. This study had the following three objectives: (i) to combine vegetation indices based on our previous studies for estimating CC and biomass for winter wheat using HJ-1A/B and RADARSAT-2 imaging data; (ii) to combine HJ-1A/B and RADARSAT-2 imaging data with the AquaCrop model using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to estimate winter wheat yield; and (iii) to compare the results from the assimilation of HJ-1A/B + RADARSAT-2 imaging data, HJ-1A/B imaging data, and RADARSAT-2 imaging data into the AquaCrop model using the PSO algorithm. Remote sensing data and concurrent LAI, biomass, and yield of sample fields were acquired in Yangling District, Shaanxi, China, during the 2014 winter wheat growing season. The PSO optimization algorithm was used to integrate the AquaCrop model and remote sensing data for yield estimation. The modified triangular vegetation index 2 (MTVI2) × radar vegetation index (RVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) × RVI had good relationships with CC and biomass, respectively. The results indicated that the predicted and measured yield (R2 = 0.31 and RMSE = 0.94 ton/ha) had agreement when the estimated CC from the HJ-1A/B and RADARSAT-2 data was used as the dynamic input variable for the AquaCrop model. When the estimated biomass from the HJ-1A/B and RADARSAT-2 data was used as the dynamic input variable for the AquaCrop model, the predicted yield showed agreement with the measured yield (R2 = 0.42 and RMSE = 0.81 ton/ha). These results show

  7. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O`Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-09-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  8. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O' Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  9. Using a non-image-based medium-throughput assay for screening compounds targeting N-myristoylation in intracellular Leishmania amastigotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paape

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have refined a medium-throughput assay to screen hit compounds for activity against N-myristoylation in intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. Using clinically-relevant stages of wild type parasites and an Alamar blue-based detection method, parasite survival following drug treatment of infected macrophages is monitored after macrophage lysis and transformation of freed amastigotes into replicative extracellular promastigotes. The latter transformation step is essential to amplify the signal for determination of parasite burden, a factor dependent on equivalent proliferation rate between samples. Validation of the assay has been achieved using the anti-leishmanial gold standard drugs, amphotericin B and miltefosine, with EC50 values correlating well with published values. This assay has been used, in parallel with enzyme activity data and direct assay on isolated extracellular amastigotes, to test lead-like and hit-like inhibitors of Leishmania N-myristoyl transferase (NMT. These were derived both from validated in vivo inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei NMT and a recent high-throughput screen against L. donovani NMT. Despite being a potent inhibitor of L. donovani NMT, the activity of the lead T. brucei NMT inhibitor (DDD85646 against L. donovani amastigotes is relatively poor. Encouragingly, analogues of DDD85646 show improved translation of enzyme to cellular activity. In testing the high-throughput L. donovani hits, we observed macrophage cytotoxicity with compounds from two of the four NMT-selective series identified, while all four series displayed low enzyme to cellular translation, also seen here with the T. brucei NMT inhibitors. Improvements in potency and physicochemical properties will be required to deliver attractive lead-like Leishmania NMT inhibitors.

  10. Direct blood culturing on solid medium outperforms an automated continuously monitored broth-based blood culture system in terms of time to identification and susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, E A; Grünastel, B; Peters, G; Becker, K

    2016-03-01

    Pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) should be available as soon as possible for patients with bloodstream infections. We investigated whether a lysis-centrifugation (LC) blood culture (BC) method, combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification and Vitek 2 AST, provides a time advantage in comparison with the currently used automated broth-based BC system. Seven bacterial reference strains were added each to 10 mL human blood in final concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 CFU/mL. Inoculated blood was added to the Isolator 10 tube and centrifuged at 3000 g for 30 min, then 1.5 mL sediment was distributed onto five 150-mm agar plates. Growth was observed hourly and microcolonies were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS and Vitek 2 as soon as possible. For comparison, seeded blood was introduced into an aerobic BC bottle and incubated in the BACTEC 9240 automated BC system. For all species/concentration combinations except one, successful identification and Vitek 2 inoculation were achieved even before growth detection by BACTEC. The fastest identification and inoculation for AST were achieved with Escherichia coli in concentrations of 100 CFU/mL and 10 CFU/mL (after 7 h each, while BACTEC flagged respective samples positive after 9.5 h and 10 h). Use of the LC-BC method allows skipping of incubation in automated BC systems and, used in combination with rapid diagnostics from microcolonies, provides a considerable advantage in time to result. This suggests that the usefulness of direct BC on solid medium should be re-evaluated in the era of rapid microbiology.

  11. Identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infection in honey bees: establishment of a medium throughput screening assay based on N. ceranae infected cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae.

  12. The Circumgalactic Medium of Andromeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Nicolas; Project AMIGA team

    2017-03-01

    Our view of galaxies has been transformed in recent years with diffuse halo gas surrounding galaxies that contains at least as many metals and baryons as their disks. While single sight lines through galaxy halos seen in absorption have provided key new constraints, they provide only average properties. Our massive neighbor, the Andromeda (M31) galaxy, provides an unique way to study its circumgalactic medium whereby we can study it using not one or two, but ~36 sightlines thanks to its proximity. With our Large HST program - Project AMIGA (Absorption Maps In the Gas of Andromeda), our goals are to determine the spatial distribution of the halo properties of a L* galaxy using 36 background targets at different radii and azimuths. In this brief paper, I discuss briefly the scientific rationale of Project AMIGA and some early science results. In particular, for the first time we have demonstrated that M31 has a gaseous halo that extends to R vir with as much as metal and baryonic masses than in its disk and has substantial change in its ionization properties with more highly ionized gas found at R ~ R vir than cooler gas found near the disk.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities in the Use of Marketing Tools and the Promotion of Non Wood Forest Products-Based Small and Medium Enterprises in the South East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makedonka Stojanovska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The South-east Europe (SEE region is facing a new market economy era where establishing new businesses is more than needed in all sectors. The forest sector, faced with new market emerging opportunities, is affected by the constant increase of a number of forest related enterprises. This paper describes the challenges and opportunities related to the use of marketing tools for improving business of the small and medium enterprises (SMEs dealing with non-wood forest products (NWFPs in SEE region. The research on this subject in the SEE region is scarce despite the rich biodiversity as a solid base for establishing eco-businesses. Materials and Methods: The method used in this paper is quantitative, based on survey data collected from enterprises in the NWFPs sector followed by statistical data analyses using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. The survey was conducted during 2011 and 2012 in four SEE countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia. Results: The results showed that developed channels of distribution, branding and advertising of NWFPs are recognized in all countries as important and very important, but these marketing tools are used only few times per year. The majority of respondents pointed out advertising as the most frequently used and as the most successful tool. Interviewees’ future investments are to be focused on improving equipment for drying, packing, refrigerating and transport. Several entrepreneurs from Macedonia pointed out that they would invest in increasing the number of buying points and herb plantations while almost all Croatian entrepreneurs will invest in advertising, branding and promotion. Majority of respondents from Serbia are also of the opinion that financial resources should be invested in new equipment. The reasons for these investments can be summarized in reducing costs and increasing profit or in faster turnover. Conclusions: The use of marketing

  14. Strategy Study of the Brand Operation of the Small and Medium-sized Clothing Enterprises Based on SPA Mode%基于SPA模式的中小型服装企业品牌运营战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温平则; 马骅; 冯旭敏

    2012-01-01

    By constructing the brand operation mode--SPA mode of the small and medium-sized clothing enterprises as the breakthrough point, the article explores the effective path of the brand exploitation and development of the small and medium-sized garment processing enterprise SPA mode. The article stresses that the brand operation management of the small and medium-sized clothing enterprises must perfect the enterprise brand operation mechanism, strengthen the management of the brand operation fast supply chain of the small and medium-sized clothing enterprises, further research the brand operation strategy of the small and medium-sized clothing enterprises based on SPA mode.%以构建中小型服装企业品牌运营模式——SPA模式为切入点,探索中小型服装加工企业SPA模式下的品牌开发与发展的有效路径。提出中小型服装加工企业品牌运营管理须完善企业品牌运营机制,加强中小型服装企业品牌运营快速供应链的管理,深入研究基于SPA模式的中小型服装企业品牌运营战略。

  15. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Mixed Element Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RSW Medium Mixed Element Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel Wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 18432 Tria Surface...

  16. Sharing perspectives on English-medium instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerley, Katherine; Helm, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    This volume gives voice to the views and experiences of researchers, lecturers, administrative staff, teacher trainers and students with regard to the implementation of English-medium instruction in a public university based in the north-east of Italy.

  17. Analysis of nonlinear dynamic character in the surrounding rock system for deep buried underground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; PENG Hai-you

    2010-01-01

    Combining the field monitoring results of a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing,the dynamic characteristics of the surrounding rock system under high in situ stress was analyzed by phase space reconstruction, calculating correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents. Both the Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents show that the surrounding rock system is a chaotic one. Based on this, a local model was applied to predict surrounding rock displacement, and a nonlinear dynamic model was derived to forecast the interaction of the surrounding rock and support structure. The local method was found to have an extremely small total error. Also, the nonlinear dynamic model forecasting curves agree with the monitoring ones very well. It is proved that the nonlinear dynamic characteristic study is very important in analyzing rock stability and predicting the evolution of rock systems.

  18. Imaging on the surfaces of an uneven thickness medium based on hybrid phase retrieval with the assistance of off-axis digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Panezai, Spozmai; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2017-10-01

    A hybrid phase retrieval method with the assistance of off-axis digital holography is proposed for imaging objects on the surfaces of a transparent medium with uneven thickness. The approximate phase distribution is obtained by a constrained optimization approach from the off-axis hologram, and it is used in an iterative procedure for retrieving the complex field of the object from the Gabor hologram. Furthermore, principal component analysis is introduced for compensating for phase aberrations caused by the medium. Numerical simulations and optical experiments were carried out to validate the proposed method. The quality of the reconstructed image is improved remarkably compared to only off-axis digital holography.

  19. Dust observations at orbital altitudes surrounding Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Weber, T D; Malaspina, D; Crary, F; Ergun, R E; Delory, G T; Fowler, C M; Morooka, M W; McEnulty, T; Eriksson, A I; Andrews, D J; Horanyi, M; Collette, A; Yelle, R; Jakosky, B M

    2015-11-01

    Dust is common close to the martian surface, but no known process can lift appreciable concentrations of particles to altitudes above ~150 kilometers. We present observations of dust at altitudes ranging from 150 to above 1000 kilometers by the Langmuir Probe and Wave instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft. Based on its distribution, we interpret this dust to be interplanetary in origin. A comparison with laboratory measurements indicates that the dust grain size ranges from 1 to 12 micrometers, assuming a typical grain velocity of ~18 kilometers per second. These direct observations of dust entering the martian atmosphere improve our understanding of the sources, sinks, and transport of interplanetary dust throughout the inner solar system and the associated impacts on Mars's atmosphere.

  20. 基于射频数字化的中短波广播监测系统探究%Exploration on Medium Short Wave Radio Monitoring System Based on RF Digitalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵静; 杨苏卫

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the rapid development of communication and broadcast, etc, make the medium short wave spectrum occupied, channel interference problem is increasingly serious, medium-wave radio in transmission, construction, use and other aspects, it is dififcult to give full play to the advantages of for intermediate frequency spectrum efifciency, reduce the interference between channels, people try to establish medium-wave radio monitoring system and application of radio frequency digital correlation technology, make long-distance medium-wave radio signal receiving, storage, reduction, etc. Articles on medium-wave radio monitoring system based on rf digitalization of cognition, the theoretical basis of medium short wave radio signal rf digitalization in and the present stage medium short wave radio monitoring system architecture on the basis of system analysis, the medium short wave radio monitoring system based on radio frequency digital architecture study.%近年来通信和广播等方面的快速发展,使中短波频谱被占用、频道受干扰的问题日益严重,中短波广播在传播、建设、使用等方面的优势难以充分发挥,为有效利用中短波频谱,降低频道之间的干扰,人们尝试建立中短波广播监测系统并应用射频数字化相关技术,使中短波广播信号异地接收、存储、还原等成为可能。文章对基于射频数字化的中短波广播监测系统产生较全面的认知,在对中短波广播信号射频数字化理论基础和现阶段中短波广播监测系统架构进行系统分析的基础上,对基于射频数字化的中短波广播监测系统架构展开研究。

  1. Towards a Guideline for Design of a Corporate Entrepreneurship Function for Business Development in Medium-Sized Technology-Based Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, Boaz; Broens, Lute; Groen, Aard J.

    2005-01-01

    The speed with which global high-technology markets evolve makes companies recognize that an effective innovation process is the best way to guarantee competitiveness. However, when (medium-sized) companies then wish to set up a corporate entrepreneurship function to enhance business development pro

  2. Dry aeolian dust accumulation in rocky deserts : a medium-term field experiment based on short-term wind tunnel simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosssens, D.

    2000-01-01

    The spatial pattern of medium-term (a few months) dry aeolian dust accumulation in rocky deserts is predicted using short-term deposition and erosion experiments in a wind tunnel. The predictions are tested in a field experiment set up in the northern Negev Desert of Israel. The results show that

  3. Concept medium program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectural...

  4. Efficient Distributed Medium Access

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Devavrat; Tetali, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among interfering nodes properly. Moreover, to be of practical use, such a mechanism is required to be totally distributed as well as simple. As the main result of this paper, we provide such a medium access algorithm. It is randomized, totally distributed and simple: each node attempts to access medium at each time with probability that is a function of its local information. We establish efficiency of the algorithm by showing that the corresponding network Markov chain is positive recurrent as long as the demand imposed on the network can be supp...

  5. Issues surrounding health claims for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

    2008-06-01

    Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices.

  6. Study on the Financing Model of Small - Medium Enterprises in Fujian Province Based on Supply Chain Finance%基于供应链金融的福建省中小企业融资模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林青

    2015-01-01

    目前融资难问题已经成为制约我国中小企业发展的一个重要因素。而供应链金融作为实现银行、核心企业、中小企业共赢的融资模式,在缓解中小企业融资困境上发挥了很大作用。为此,在简要归纳供应链金融模式在福建省中小企业实践情况的基础上,提出了促进供应链金融支持福建省中小企业发展的长效机制,以期为解决目前我国中小企业融资难问题提供一些参考依据。%At present,one important factor to restrict the development of small - medium enterprises is the difficulty of financing. But supply chain finance,as one all - win financing mode for banks,key enterprises,and small - medium enterprises,takes the significant role in the solution to the problem of financing for small - me-dium enterprises. Based on the brief summary of practical situation and problems about the financing mode of supply chain in small - medium enterprise of Fujian,some permanent mechanisms are presented in order to promote supply chain finance and support the development of small - medium enterprises,and thus provide some reference basis for the solution to the difficult problem in the financing of small - medium enterprises.

  7. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF COAL MINING ROADWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹喜正; 侯朝炯; 李华祥

    1996-01-01

    This introduces the calculation of opaper the deformationg .the Surroundings of coaowaysand the divisi of surroundings into 5 levels by means or !fuzzy integral assess mairrx, wnlcnserves-asthe scientific basis for selecting supporting pattern of roadways and determining the, pa-rameters of support.

  8. Green function of an electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric inhomogeneous medium

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorian, L S; Saharian, A A

    1995-01-01

    The Green function of classical electromagnetic field is derived for a medium consisting of an arbitrary number of coaxial cylindrical layers. As an application of the general formula the radiation intensity from a charged particle, rotating around the cylinder surrounded by a homogeneous medium, is calculated. 9 refs.

  9. Characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 based on error estimation from EPA PMF 5.0 model at a medium city in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshuang; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, Jiaying; Wang, Lu; Yang, Jiamei; Liang, Danni; Dai, Qili; Bi, Xiaohui; Feng, Yinchang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Qinxun

    2017-03-01

    Heze city, a medium-size city in Shandong province, Eastern China. Ambient PM2.5 samples were collected in urban area of Heze from August 2015 to April 2016, and chemical species and sources of PM2.5 were investigated in this paper. The results indicated that the average concentration of PM2.5 was 100.9 μg/m(3) during the sampling period, and the water-soluble ions, carbonaceous species included elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), as well as elements contributed 32.7-51.7%, 16.3% and 12.5%, respectively, to PM2.5. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the existing form of NH4(+) was more complex and diverse in spring/summer, and ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and ammonium hydrogen sulfate might be major form of NH4(+) in autumn/winter. Correlation analysis between PM2.5 and SO4(2-)/NO3(-), PM2.5 and OC/EC during different seasons suggested that mobile sources might make an important impact on the increase of PM2.5 concentrations in spring/summer, and stationary sources might play a critical role on the increase of PM2.5 concentrations in autumn/winter. Seven factors were selected in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) models analysis based on the Error Estimation (EE) diagnostics during different seasons. Secondary source had the highest contribution to PM2.5 in Heze for the whole year, and followed by coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, soil dust, construction dust, biomass burning and metal manufacturing, and their annual contributions to PM2.5 were 26.5%, 17.2%, 16.5%, 11.5%, 7.7%, 7.0% and 3.8%, respectively. The air masses that were originated from Mongolia reflected the features of large-scale and long-distance air transport; while the air masses that began in Jiangsu, Shandong and Henan showed the features of small-scale and short-distance. Shandong, Henan and Jiangsu were identified as the major potential sources-areas of PM2.5 by using potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) models

  10. Deformation characteristics of surrounding rock of broken and soft rock roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-xi Wang; Ming-yue Lin; Duan-xin Tian; Cun-liang Zhao [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-03-15

    A similar material model and a numerical simulation were constructed and are described. The deformation and failure of surrounding rock of broken and soft roadway are studied by using these models. The deformation of the roof and floor, the relative deformation of the two sides and the deformation of the deep surrounding rock are predicted using the model. Measurements in a working mine are compared to the results of the models. The results show that the surrounding rock shows clear rheological features under high stress conditions. Deformation is unequally distributed across the whole section. The surrounding rock exhibited three deformation stages: displacement caused by stress concentration, rheological displacement after the digging effects had stabilized and displacement caused by supporting pressure of the roadway. Floor heave was serious, accounting for 65% of the total deformation of the roof and floor. Floor heave is the main reason for failure of the surrounding rock. The reasons for deformation of the surrounding rock are discussed based on the similar material and numerical simulations. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Medium-to-high prevalence of screening-detected parkinsonism in the urban area of Tehran, Iran: data from a community-based door-to-door study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtehnejad SM

    2015-02-01

    age and sex adjustment based on the Tehran population, the prevalence of parkinsonism was calculated as 222.9 per 100,000. Using the World Health Organization’s World Standard Population, the standardized prevalence rate of parkinsonism was 285 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval 240–329. The male:female ratio of probable parkinsonism was calculated as 1.62, and there was a significant increase in the screening rate by advancing age.Conclusion: The calculated rates for the prevalence of parkinsonism in our study are closer to reports from some European and Middle Eastern countries, higher than reports from Eastern Asian and African populations, and lower than Australia. The prevalence rate of >200 in 100,000 for parkinsonism in Tehran, Iran could be considered a medium-to-high rate. Keywords: parkinsonism, Parkinson’s disease, prevalence, door-to-door survey, population-based

  12. A Stellar Stream Surrounds the Whale Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The -cold dark matter cosmological model predicts that galaxies are assembled through the disruption and absorption of small satellite dwarf galaxies by their larger hosts. A recent study argues that NGC 4631, otherwise known as the Whale galaxy, shows evidence of such a recent merger in the form of an enormous stellar stream extending from it.Stream SignaturesAccording to the -CDM model, stellar tidal streams should be a ubiquitous feature among galaxies. When satellite dwarf galaxies are torn apart, they spread out into such streams before ultimately feeding the host galaxy. Unfortunately, these streams are very faint, so were only recently starting to detect these features.Stellar tidal streams have been discovered around the Milky Way and Andromeda, providing evidence of these galaxies growth via recent (within the last 8 Gyr) mergers. But discovering stellar streams around other Milky Way-like galaxies would help us to determine if the model of hierarchical galaxy assembly applies generally.To this end, the Stellar Tidal Stream Survey, led by PI David Martnez-Delgado (Center for Astronomy of Heidelberg University), is carrying out the first systematic survey of stellar tidal streams. In a recent study, Martnez-Delgado and collaborators present their detection of a giant (85 kpc long!) stellar tidal stream extending into the halo of NGC 4631, the Whale galaxy.Modeling a SatelliteThe top image is a snapshot from an N-body simulation of a single dwarf satellite, 3.5 Gyr after it started interacting with the Whale galaxy. The satellite has been torn apart and spread into a stream that reproduces observations, which are shown in the lower image (scale is not the same). [Martnez-Delgado et al. 2015]The Whale galaxy is a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with a second spiral, NGC 4656. But the authors dont believe that the Whale galaxys giant tidal stellar stream is caused by its interactions with NGC 4656. Instead, based on their observations, they believe

  13. Seismic Zone of Craiova and its Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Laura-Simona

    2013-04-01

    The mapping of the Romanian area, based of the seismic range, put Craiova and the metropolitan zone, in seismic class C of level 8. This increased level is due to crustal fissure, oriented N-S on the Craiova meridian, which resonates with seismic waves from Vrancea epicenter. Craiova and the metropolitan zone is placed on the separated lithologic substrates, so, the effects of seism are not uniform between urban and peri-urban areas. The highest piedmont area and the terraces (V, IV, III), with a predominant substrate of conglomerate and sandstone, decrease effect of the earthquake. The first and the second terraces and the meadow, with a predominant content of marls and clays, are very elastic and increase the effect of earthquake. The most exposed are the villages placed on the right side of the Jiu River, where these landforms are very common and in case of earthquake, can be reactivated. In Romania there are just shallow depth and intermediate depth earthquakes. The frequency of earthquakes with a greater than 7.2 magnitude on the Richter scale is three times in a century. The most magnitude for a Romanian earthquake took place on 10 of November 1940 and it has a magnitude of 7.6 on the Richter scale. The 1977 Vrancea Earthquake occurred on March 4, 21:20 local time. It had a magnitude of 7.2 with an epicenter in Vrancea. The fracture occurred at a depth of 94 kilometers but it was a multishock earthquake with several outbreaks in the south-west part of Vrancea County. In 55 seconds the earthquake killed about 1,500 people in Romania (1,400 in Bucharest), wounded more than 11,300 and about 33,000 buildings and structures collapsed. The shock wave was felt in almost all countries in the Balkan Peninsula, as well as Ukraine and Moldova, but with a lower intensity. When the moving is vertically, in a time of 7-8 seconds, the next move is horizontally. The horizontally waves, shear waves, carry 75% of total energy. The poorly constructed buildings will fall even

  14. A polyamide receptor based benzothiazole derivative: highly selective and sensitive fluorescent sensor for Hg{sup 2+} ion in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Shubhra Bikash; Bharadwaj, Parimal K., E-mail: pkb@iitk.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    A water soluble benzothiazole derivative having polyamide arms has been designed and synthesized. The sensor selectively detects Hg{sup 2+} ion in aqueous medium in presence of alkali, alkaline earth, first row transition metal and heavy metal ions. The reversible behaviour of the sensor can be achieved in presence of iodide ion. - Highlights: • A benzothiazole derivative having polyamide arms has been designed and synthesized. • It selectively detects Hg{sup 2+} ion in presence of host of monovalent, divalent and trivalent ions in aqueous medium. • It works through a reversible way. • The detection limit for Hg{sup 2+} ion was found to be 7.15×10{sup −7} M.

  15. 大型体育场馆周边地区产业开发研究--基于西安市的个案研究%Study on Development of Industry Surrounding Area of Large Gyms and Stadiums--Based on the Case Study of Xi’an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成彦开; 张金桥

    2013-01-01

    运用文献综述、实地调查、逻辑分析等方法,以西安市的三大体育场馆--陕西省体育场、西安城市运动公园、陕西省体育训练中心为例,对大型体育场馆周边地区产业开发情况进行研究。研究发现:大型体育场馆周边产业开发存在着一些相同之处,但在开发的种类、规模、侧重点上也表现出明显区别。大型体育场馆周边地区产业开发出现差异与场馆的地理位置、周边活动人群、功能定位等有着密切关系。在以上分析的基础上,结合各大场馆自身的特点,提出了相应的对策建议。%The use of literature data, Field investigations, Logical analysis and other methods, Analysis of study on development of industry surrounding area of large gyms and stadiums, In the paper, take Shaanxi Province Stadium, Xi’An City Sport Park, The sports training center in Shanxi province as examples. The results show, the development of industry surrounding area of large gyms and stadiums has some similarities, But in the development of the type, scale, Emphasis showed obvious difference. The differences has close relation with geographic location of the venue, Peripheral activity groups, and function orientation and so on. Based on the above analysis, According to each big venue's own characteristics put forward the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

  16. Pilot-scale production of butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 using a low-cost fermentation medium based on corn steep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, M.; Formanek, J.; Blaschek, H.P. [Illinois Univ., Urbana (United States). Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition

    1999-10-01

    To improve the economic competitiveness of the acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation process, glucose/corn steep water (CSW) medium was used on a pilot scale for the production of solvents. The production of butanol by the Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 parent strain and the solvent-hyperproducing BA101 mutant was compared. In a 20-l fermentation using 5% glucose/CSW medium, C. beijerinckii 8052 produced 8.5 g butanol/l and 5 g acetone/l, while C. beijerinckii BA101 produced 16 g butanol/l and 7.5 g acetone/1. Further studies were carried out on a larger scale using an optimized 6% glucose/CSW medium. In a 200-l pilot-scale fermentor, C. beijerinckii 8052 produced 12.7 g butanol/l and 6 g acetone/l following 96 h of fermentation. C. beijerinckii BA101 produced 17.8 g/l and 5.5 g/l butanol and acetone respectively, following 130 h of fermentation. These results represent a 40% increase in final butanol concentration by the C. beijerinckii BA101 mutant strain when compared to the 8052 parent strain. The total solvents (acetone, butanol, and ethanol) produced by C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 and BA101 in a 200-l fermentation were 19.2 g/l and 23.6 g/l respectively. This is the first report of pilot-scale butanol production by the solvent-hyperproducing C. beijerinckii BA101 mutant employing an inexpensive glucose/CSW medium. (orig.)

  17. Design, Implementation, and Improvement of a Methodology for Strategic Planning for Small and Medium Companies, Based on the Imaginary Construction of Concurrent Competitors

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santos

    2012-01-01

    This article shows the results of five (5) research studies carried out in the western extreme of Santa Catarina, financed with the resources of the Fund to Support Research at the Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina – Unoesc or by participating companies. Such research had as its central objective the construction, application, and improvement of a strategic planning methodology adjusted to small and medium enterprises, for which conventional methods have proved to have complex, expensiv...

  18. Explanations for preferences in Denmark for surroundings and location of the home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    This paper is based on a survey made in Denmark asking a random selection of the population about their preferences for surroundings and location of the dwelling. The paper tries to explain these preferences by background variables on the respondents and their housing situation and by the interde......This paper is based on a survey made in Denmark asking a random selection of the population about their preferences for surroundings and location of the dwelling. The paper tries to explain these preferences by background variables on the respondents and their housing situation...

  19. Black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we obtain uncharged∖charged Kiselev-like black holes as a new class of black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in the context of Rastall theory. Then, we study the specific cases of the uncharged∖charged black holes surrounded by regular matter like dust and radiation, or exotic matter like quintessence, cosmological constant and phantom fields. By comparing the Kiselev-like black hole solutions in Rastall theory with the Kiselev black hole solutions in GR, we find an effective perfect fluid behavior for the black hole's surrounding field. It is shown that the corresponding effective perfect fluid has interesting characteristic features depending on the different ranges of the parameters in Rastall theory. For instance, Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by regular matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by exotic matter in GR, or Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by exotic matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by regular matter in GR.

  20. The impact of water and temperature interactions on lag phase, growth and potential ochratoxin A production by two new species, Aspergillus aculeatinus and A. sclerotiicarbonarius, on a green coffee-based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Asya; Magan, Naresh

    2014-10-01

    Two new species of Aspergillus (A. aculeatinus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius) were previously isolated from coffee in Thailand. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of interacting environmental factors of water availability (water activity, aw) and temperature on lag phases prior to growth, growth and potential for ochratoxin A (OTA) production by three strains of each species on a green coffee-based medium for the first time. This showed that overall the growth of the three strains of each species was similar over the 20-37°C and 0.85-0.99 aw ranges. The lag phase prior to growth was coffee-based medium. This information is important as these species are part of the mycobiota of coffee and may influence OTA contamination by other ochratoxigenic species during coffee processing.

  1. Charmonium in Hot Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xingbo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate charmonium production in the hot medium created by heavy-ion collisions by setting up a framework in which in-medium charmonium properties are constrained by thermal lattice QCD (lQCD) and subsequently implemented into kinetic approaches. A Boltzmann transport equation is employed to describe the time evolution of the charmonium phase space distribution with the loss and gain term accounting for charmonium dissociation and regeneration (from charm quarks), respectively. The momentum dependence of the charmonium dissociation rate is worked out. The dominant process for in-medium charmonium regeneration is found to be a 3-to-2 process. Its corresponding regeneration rates from different input charm-quark momentum spectra are evaluated. Experimental data on $J/\\psi$ production at CERN-SPS and BNL-RHIC are compared with our numerical results in terms of both rapidity-dependent inclusive yields and transverse momentum ($p_t$) spectra. Within current uncertainties from (interpreting) lQCD data and fr...

  2. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  3. Confronting, Confirming, and Dispelling Myths Surrounding ERP-in-the-Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaulieu, Tanya; C. Martin, Todd; Sarker, Saonee

    2015-01-01

    on the topic, there is substantial uncertainty surrounding the benefits and challenges of ERP cloud computing. Consequently, as often is the case with new technologies, popular myths surrounding the technology are used to make adoption and implementation decisions. As a first step toward providing an informed...... with stakeholders related to an ERP cloud-based solution. Our results dispel some of the myths, while supporting others, and highlight how ERP vendors work around the different types of challenges surrounding this technology. Our study also helps understand the benefits of ERP cloud computing, and informs about how...... cloud-based ERP systems will free organizations from the information system “iron cage” and lead to agile organizations....

  4. Hydrodynamical interaction of mildly relativistic ejecta with an ambient medium

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Hydrodynamical interaction of spherical ejecta freely expanding at mildly relativistic speeds into an ambient cold medium is studied in semi-analytical and numerical ways to investigate how ejecta produced in energetic stellar explosions dissipate their kinetic energy through the interaction with the surrounding medium. We especially focus on the case in which the circumstellar medium is well represented by a steady wind at a constant mass-loss rate having been ejected from the stellar surface prior to the explosion. As a result of the hydrodynamical interaction, the ejecta and circumstellar medium are swept by the reverse and forward shocks, leading to the formation of a geometrically thin shell. We present a semi-analytical model describing the dynamical evolution of the shell and compare the results with numerical simulations. The shell can give rise to bright emission as it gradually becomes transparent to photons. while it is optically thick. We develop an emission model for the expected emission from th...

  5. Stress and deformation analysis on deep surrounding rock at different time stages and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming; Mao Xianbiao; Yu Yuanlin; Li Kai; Ma Chao; Peng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the deep circular tunnel,the surrounding rock was divided into three regions:the cracked region,the plastic region and the viscoelastic region.The process of rock stress deformation and change was divided into three stages after the roadway excavation.By using the elastic-plastic mechanics theory,the analytical solutions of the surrounding stress and displacement at different stages and the radii of cracked and plastic regions were formulated.We additionally explained the surrounding rock stress and displacement which appeared in practical project.Simultaneously,based on the problem which emerged from a mine in Xuzhou during the excavating process of rock roadway's transport,we got the theoretical solutions for the stress and displacement in the process of rock roadway's excavation and considered that the broken area of rock roadway was largely loosing circle.The results indicate that according to the rheological characteristics of surrounding rock,in the primeval excavation of rock roadway,we should increase the length of anchor bolt and cooperate it with anchor nets cable-U steel supporting frame.In addition,when the deformation rate of the surrounding rock is descending after the 15 days' excavation,we should use the "three anchor" supporting method (anchor bolt spray,anchor note and anchor rope) and set aside about 20 cm as the reserved deformation layer.

  6. 基于矢量波场分离的TI介质逆时偏移%Reverse-time migration for TI medium based on vector wavefield separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任丽娟; 李振春; 王延光; 刘兴达; 孙小东

    2015-01-01

    Two⁃step separation was conducted for anisotropy vector wavefield.The first step is to make the anisotropic elastic wave equa⁃tion in the polarization direction of the projection isotropic so that it has clear and intuitive kinematic and dynamic characteristics;the second step is to calculate anisotropic medium propagator wavefield separation waveform correction based on the correction of the projec⁃ted direction of the wavefield in the isotropic direction back to the anisotropic direction, and ultimately the anisotropic wavefield separa⁃tion can be achieved.First of all,the test of VTI media proves its feasibility.In addition,the authors put forward the surface data decom⁃position,namely,data decomposition is conducted for collected multicomponent seismic data before the migration imaging.In order to get the pure qP wave,qSH wave and qSV wave data the authors conducted the surface data input control to obtain the satisfactory imaging results of components and make imaging decomposition of the surface data performed in a controlled process,thus reducing unnecessary computation.The authors conducted decomposition of Hess forward modeling shot record data and reverse⁃time migration imaging.%基于两步法分离各向异性矢量波波场,第一步,将各向异性波动方程进行相似变换(使其具有明确直观的运动学和动力学特征),使其投影在各向同性方向上;第二步,各向异性介质传播算子波场分离基础上的波形校正,将投影于各向同性方向上的波场校正回各向异性方向上,最终达到各向异性波场分离的结果。笔者首先对VTI介质进行试算,以证明其可行性;此外,将地表数据进行分解,即所采集到的多分量地震数据在进行偏移成像之前先进行数据分解,得到纯净的qP波数据、qSV波数据以及qSH波数据,通过地表数据的分解将成像过程变成一个可控过程,通过对地表数据输入的控制得

  7. The contribution of medium-modified color flow to jet quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Beraudo, A; Wiedemann, U A

    2012-01-01

    Multiple interactions between parton showers and the surrounding QCD matter are expected to underlie the strong medium-modifications of jet observables in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and at the LHC. Here, we note that such jet-medium interactions alter generically and characteristically the color correlations in the parton shower. We characterize these effects in a color-differential calculation of the medium-induced gluon radiation spectrum to first and second order in opacity. By interfacing simple branching histories of medium-modified color flow with the Lund hadronization model, we analyze how the medium modification of color correlations can affect the distribution of hadronic fragments in jets. Importantly, we observe that jet-medium interactions give rise to the medium-induced color decoherence of gluons from the parton shower. Since hadronization respects color flow and since each color singlet in a parton shower is hadronized separately, this medium-induced color decoherence leav...

  8. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real‐world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  9. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  10. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. ... conception, pregnancy, birth and the early months ofparenthood. .... house attended by a traditional birth attendant of a ..... Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional.

  11. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  12. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  13. The structural feature surrounding glycated lysine residues in human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Nakahari, Takashi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2011-06-01

    Complications derived from diabetes mellitus are caused by nonenzymatic protein glycation at the specific sites. LC/MS/MS was performed for the identification of the tryptic peptides of glycated hemoglobins using glyceraldehyde. After the identification of the glycation or non-glycation site, computer analysis of the structure surrounding the sites was carried out using PDB data (1BZ0). Five glycated lysine residues (Lys-16(α), -56(α), -8(β), -82(β), and -144(β)) and four non-glycated lysine residues (Lys-7(α), -40(α), -99(α), and -132(β)) were identified. The non-glycated lysine residues, Lys-7(α), -40(α), and -132(β), are most likely to form electrostatic interactions with the β carboxyl group of Asp-74(α), C-terminal His-146(β), and Glu-7(β) by virtue of their proximity, which is 2.67-2.91 Å (N-O). Additionally, there are histidine residues within 4.55-7.38 Å (N-N) around eight sites except for Lys-7(α). We conclude that the following factors seem to be necessary for glycation of lysine residues: (i) the apparent absence of aspartate or glutamate residues to inhibit the glycation reaction by forming an electrostatic interaction, (ii) the presence of histidine residues for acid-base catalysis of the Amadori rearrangement, and (iii) the presence of an amino acid residue capable of stabilizing a phosphate during proton transfer.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  15. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  16. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Huanxin Zou; Shilin Zhou; Cheng Wang; Naser El-Sheimy

    2013-01-01

    Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searc...

  18. A Cost Analysis for Life-Cycle Preventive Maintenance, Administrative Storage, and Condition-Based Maintenance for the U.S. Marine Corps Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    MTTR mean time to repair MTVR Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement NMC not mission capable NPV net present value OMB Office of Management and...capable ( NMC ) status and given a reason. A vehicle can be NMC while it is waiting for repair parts. It can also be designated as NMC because of a lack...coolant overflow tank and coolant level 0.1 Inspect fuel/water separator 0.2 Inspect radiator and coolant hoses 0.2 Inspect batteries /box 1.0

  19. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  20. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  1. Nuclear medium effects in $\

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    We study the nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ in the deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in nuclei. We use a theoretical model for the nuclear spectral functions which incorporates the conventional nuclear effects, such as Fermi motion, binding and nucleon correlations. We also consider the pion and rho meson cloud contributions calculated from a microscopic model for meson-nucleus self-energies. The calculations have been performed using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Our results are compared with the experimental data of NuTeV and CDHSW.

  2. Air Flow Measurements During Medium-Voltage Load Current Interruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Aanensen, Nina Sasaki; Runde, Magne

    2015-01-01

    Air has been considered a good alternative to SF6 as arc quenching medium for load break switchgear at medium voltage ratings. In this work, the air flow characteristics and influence from the electric arc have been studied for typical currents and over-pressures. The cooling air velocity is typically in the range 150 - 200 m/s and thus well below supersonic speed. The arc and the surrounding hot air severely affect the air flow pattern by causing clogging in the contact and nozzle region.

  3. Histamine release and endothelial leakage from an intravascular contrast medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raininko, R.

    1981-04-01

    The endothelial injury produced by meglumine iodamide was studied in the rat aorta. A mixture of blood and contrast medium was more toxic to the endothelium than the pure contrast agent. This difference disappeared after premedication with antihistamine, which did not affect the injury produced by the pure contrast agent. Meglumine iodamide appears to cause a release of histamine from blood but not from the aortic endothelium nor from surrounding tissues in amounts demonstrable by this method. Leucocytes are a source of histamine after intravascular contrast medium administration.

  4. A new experimental and theoretical investigation on the structures of aminoethyl phosphonic acid in aqueous medium based on the vibrational spectra and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, María L.; Ledesma, Ana E.; Raschi, Ana B.; Castillo, María V.; Romano, Elida; Brandán, Silvia A.

    2013-06-01

    A new study on the structural and vibrational properties of the aminoethylphosphonic acid was performed in aqueous solution phase by using the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method. We have studied and characterized it by infrared and Raman spectroscopies in solid and aqueous solution phases. The Density Functional Theory (DFT) method with Pople's basis set show that three stable zwitterions for the title molecule have been theoretically determined in aqueous solution and that probably they are present in it medium. Here, the solvent effects were studied by means of the self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method with the polarized continuum model (PCM). The harmonic vibrational frequencies for the optimized geometries of the three zwitterions were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G∗ level of the theory. A complete assignment of the IR and Raman spectra of the compound in aqueous solution was performed combining the DFT calculations with Pulay's Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology in order to fit the theoretical frequency values to the experimental ones. Moreover, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and topological properties calculations were performed to analyze the energies and geometrical parameters of its three zwitterions in aqueous medium as well as the magnitude of the intramolecular interactions. The bond orders, atomic charges, solvation energies, dipole moments, molecular electrostatic potentials and force constants parameters calculated for zwitterions in aqueous solution, may be used to gain chemical and vibrational insights into related compounds.

  5. The Research on Definition and Classification Standard of Technology-Based Small and Medium Enterprises in China%我国科技型中小企业定义及划型标准的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志军; 温洲; 李享

    2016-01-01

    Through analyzing and comparing the classification standards of technology-based companies, hi-tech companies, and small and medium enterprises, this paper proposes the definition of technology-based small and medium enterprises (hereinafter shortened as SMEs). Three key factors of the technology-based SMEs are identified and examined: the personnel engaged in science and technology activities, input into science and technology activities and the science and technology output. Finally, the paper goes on to propose the classification standards of technology-based SMEs in China, based on the threshold evaluation methodology. Furthermore, the classification standards of technology-based SMEs are differentiated between national level and provincial level, according to actual conditions respectively.%本文通过对科技型企业、高新技术企业和中小企业的界定指标进行研究分析,提出科技型中小企业的定义,重点分析了科技型中小企业的三大核心要素(科技人员、科技投入和科技产出)。在此基础上,研究提出基于划线评价法的我国科技型中小企业划型标准,并明确细分为国家级和省级科技型中小企业划型标准。

  6. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  7. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the

  8. Perils to pregnancies: on social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Notermans, C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon—a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the

  9. Tidal propagation in the Gulf of Khambhat, Bombay High, and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    -diurnal and diurnal constituents at forty-two ports in the Gulf and surrounding areas is sued to define characteristics of the tides. A barotropic numerical model based on shallow water wave equations to simulate the sea level and circulation in the region is used...

  10. Perils to pregnancies: on social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Notermans, C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon—a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the count

  11. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the count

  12. Macro mechanical parameters' size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya project's underground power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-hua; ZHOU Chuang-bing; ZHOU Huo-ming; SHENG Qian; LENG Xian-lun

    2005-01-01

    Scale effect is one of the important aspects in the macro mechanical parameters' research of rock mass, from a new point of view, by means of lab and field rock mechanics test, establishment of E~Vp relation, classification of engineering rock mass, numerical simulation test and back analysis based on surrounding rock's displacement monitoring results of Shuibuya Project's underground power station, rock mass deformation module's size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undegroud power station was studied. It's shown that rock mass deformation module's scale effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undeground power station is obvious, the rock mass deformation module to tranquilization is 20% of intact rock's. Finally the relation between rock mass deformation modules and the scale of research was established.

  13. ANALYSIS ON INCREMENTAL COHESION OF SURROUNDING ROCK DUE TO PRESTRESSED CABLE ANCHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建中; 闫莫明; 滕年保; 李方政

    1998-01-01

    A new method for determining the incremental cohesion △Cm of surrounding rock due toprestressed cable anchor is presented, and the formulas for △Cm are deduced and ACredistributions also are discussed, based on the two anchorage effects, one is the effect with theprestressed value △Q3 of cable anchor improving the stress state of surrounding rock andincreasing the surrounding rock strength, the other is the fully encapsulated effect. Thedetermined incremental cohesion △Cm is subjected to the model test and field measurement in thereferences, and coincides well with those tested results. The formulas for △Cm can be used indesigning supoport parameters and related numerical analyses of prestressed cable anchor.

  14. Context-Adaptive Arithmetic Coding Scheme for Lossless Bit Rate Reduction of MPEG Surround in USAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungyong; Pang, Hee-Suk; Sung, Koeng-Mo

    We propose a new coding scheme for lossless bit rate reduction of the MPEG Surround module in unified speech and audio coding (USAC). The proposed scheme is based on context-adaptive arithmetic coding for efficient bit stream composition of spatial parameters. Experiments show that it achieves the significant lossless bit reduction of 9.93% to 12.14% for spatial parameters and 8.64% to 8.96% for the overall MPEG Surround bit streams compared to the original scheme. The proposed scheme, which is not currently included in USAC, can be used for the improved coding efficiency of MPEG Surround in USAC, where the saved bits can be utilized by the other modules in USAC.

  15. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive model for rock mass subjected to blasting shock load was established. Then by using the fast Lagrange analysis codes (FLAC3D, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were analyzed by applying the blasting shock loads obtained from the VCR mining and the damage zone is obtained. At last, the relationship between the amount of explosives and the radius of damaged surrounding rock mass was discussed, and its formula was also derived. The research provides a theoretical basis for rationally controlling stope boundaries and optimizing mining blasting parameters.

  16. Cherenkov radiation in moving medium

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cherenkov radiation in uniformly moving homogenous isotropic medium without dispersion is studied. Formula for the spectrum of Cherenkov radiation of fermion was derived for the case when the speed of the medium is less than the speed of light in this medium at rest. The properties of Cherenkov spectrum are investigated.

  17. Fermion dispersion in axion medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of a fermion with the dense axion medium is investigated for the purpose of finding an axion medium effect on the fermion dispersion. It is shown that axion medium influence on the fermion dispersion under astrophysical conditions is negligible small if the correct Lagrangian of the axion-fermion interaction is used.

  18. Modelling microbial metabolic rewiring during growth in a complex medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondi, Marco; Bosi, Emanuele; Presta, Luana; Natoli, Diletta; Fani, Renato

    2016-11-24

    In their natural environment, bacteria face a wide range of environmental conditions that change over time and that impose continuous rearrangements at all the cellular levels (e.g. gene expression, metabolism). When facing a nutritionally rich environment, for example, microbes first use the preferred compound(s) and only later start metabolizing the other one(s). A systemic re-organization of the overall microbial metabolic network in response to a variation in the composition/concentration of the surrounding nutrients has been suggested, although the range and the entity of such modifications in organisms other than a few model microbes has been scarcely described up to now. We used multi-step constraint-based metabolic modelling to simulate the growth in a complex medium over several time steps of the Antarctic model organism Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. As each of these phases is characterized by a specific set of amino acids to be used as carbon and energy source our modelling framework describes the major consequences of nutrients switching at the system level. The model predicts that a deep metabolic reprogramming might be required to achieve optimal biomass production in different stages of growth (different medium composition), with at least half of the cellular metabolic network involved (more than 50% of the metabolic genes). Additionally, we show that our modelling framework is able to capture metabolic functional association and/or common regulatory features of the genes embedded in our reconstruction (e.g. the presence of common regulatory motifs). Finally, to explore the possibility of a sub-optimal biomass objective function (i.e. that cells use resources in alternative metabolic processes at the expense of optimal growth) we have implemented a MOMA-based approach (called nutritional-MOMA) and compared the outcomes with those obtained with Flux Balance Analysis (FBA). Growth simulations under this scenario revealed the deep impact of

  19. [Effect of a strong constant magnetic field and a hypomagnetic surrounding medium on histochemical indices of albino rat liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shust, I V; Kostinik, I M

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents histochemical measurements of the liver of white rats exposed to strong and weak constant magnetic fields. A repeated influence (30 min a day) of the strong magnetic field of 912 ersted for 16 days inhibits synthetic processes in the liver tissue. A more prolonged (30 days) exposure to the field produces insignificant histochemical changes which seem to be induced by the occuring compensatory reaction. It is shown that a month long stay of animals in the environment shielded from the geomagnetic field may enhance synthetic processes in some cells and inhibit them in others.

  20. Enhancement and suppression of surface plasmon resonance in Ag aggregate by optical gain and absorption in surrounding dielectric medium

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, M A; Bahoura, M; Drachev, V P; Ritzo, B A; Shalaev, V M; Small, C; Zhu, G

    2005-01-01

    We have observed the compensation of loss in metal by gain in interfacing dielectric in the mixture of aggregated silver nanoparticles and rhodamine 6G dye. The demonstrated six-fold enhancement of the Rayleigh scattering is the evidence of the increase of the quality factor of the surface plasmon (SP) resonance. The reported experimental observation paves the road to many practical applications of nanoplasmonics. We have also predicted and experimentally observed a suppression of the surface SP resonance in metallic nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric host with absorption.

  1. Influence of the neutron star 1E 161348-5055 in RCW 103 on the surrounding medium

    CERN Document Server

    Reynoso, E M; Johnston, S; Goss, W M; Dubner, G M; Giacani, E B

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out a study of the neutral hydrogen in the direction of the X-ray source 1E 161348-5055, a compact central object (CCO) located in the interior of the supernova remnant (SNR) RCW 103. The HI 21 cm line observations were carried out using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, complemented with single dish data from the Parkes radio telescope to recover information at all spatial scales. We derive a distance to RCW 103 of 3.3 kpc, in agreement with previous distance measurements. We have also detected a small hole in the HI emission which is positionally and kinematically coincident with the location of the CCO which confirms the association between the SNR and the CCO. This is the third case of a depression in HI emission seemingly associated with CCOs in SNRs. The characteristic parameters of the holes such as their size, eccentricity and evacuated mass are similar in all three cases. We estimate the absorbing HI column density towards 1E 161348-5055 to be ~6 x 10^{21} cm^{-2}, a value compat...

  2. Variable Ly alpha sheds light on the environment surrounding GRB 090426

    CERN Document Server

    Thöne, C C; Lazzati, D; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Fynbo, J P U; Christensen, L; Levan, A J; Aloy, M A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Levesque, E M; Malesani, D; Milvang-Jensen, B; Roming, P W A; Tanvir, N R; Wiersema, K; Gladders, M; Wuyts, E; Dahle, H

    2011-01-01

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts are commonly associated with the deaths of massive stars. Spectroscopic studies using the afterglow as a light source provide a unique opportunity to unveil the medium surrounding it, probing the densest region of their galaxies. This material is usually in a low ionisation state and at large distances from the burst site, hence representing the normal interstellar medium in the galaxy. Here we present the case of GRB 090426 at z=2.609, whose optical spectrum indicates an almost fully ionised medium together with a low column density of neutral hydrogen. For the first time, we also observe variations in the Ly alpha absorption line. Photoionisation modeling shows that we are probing material from the vicinity of the burst (~80 pc). The host galaxy is a complex of two luminous interacting galaxies, which might suggest that this burst could have occurred in an isolated star-forming region outside its host galaxy created in the interaction of the two galaxies.

  3. 城市绿地对周边热环境影响遥感研究--以北京为例%Effect of urban green land on thermal environment of surroundings based on remote sensing:A case study in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾庆祖; 叶彩华; 刘勇洪; 李书严; 高燕虎

    2014-01-01

    间范围、降温幅度以及绿地景观参数与降温幅度的相关关系,可为城市规划建设及环境评价等提供科学参考。%Urban green land (UGL) is one of the key factors that mitigate urban thermal environment effect. Not only in macro scale it has influence on urban weather condition, but also in the scale of community, it has direct impact on thermal environment of its surroundings. In this paper, from the view of landscape of UGL, we chose UGL in main urban zone as study target and buildings around them as bearing agent influenced by them. By employing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technology, we analyzed dominant landscape feature parameters of UGL that impact thermal environment of buildings, and studied how far UGL could affect surrounding thermal environment and correlation between landscape coefficients of UGL and cooling range caused by UGL. First of all, we mapped 26 UGL patches artificially and extracted their neighbor buildings from TM image. Then, we retrieved canopy temperature of UGL and top roof temperature of buildings around UGL based on quantitative remote sensing theory, and computed UGL’s landscape information using GIS tools. Finally, spatial range that UGL affect its neighbor buildings’ thermal environment was inferred through both spatial statistic method and isotherm perimeter-temperature curve breakpoint method, and meanwhile, correlation between UGL’s temperature and its neighbor buildings’ temperature was explored. Studies showed that, at the scale of spatial resolution of 100 m, most UGL patches had a role in cooling effect on their surrounding buildings within 100 m range. All UGL patches over 0.5 km2 acted significant cooling effect on buildings near patches within 100 m, and the temperature drop ranged from 0.46 ℃ to 0.83 ℃, with average 0.72 ℃. Also UGL patches below 0.5 km2 with high fractional vegetation cover played a cooling role, while UGL patches below 0.5km2

  4. Migraine increases centre-surround suppression for drifting visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Battista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of migraine is incompletely understood, but evidence points to hyper-responsivity of cortical neurons being a key feature. The basis of hyper-responsiveness is not clear, with an excitability imbalance potentially arising from either reduced inhibition or increased excitation. In this study, we measure centre-surround contrast suppression in people with migraine as a perceptual analogue of the interplay between inhibition and excitation in cortical areas responsible for vision. We predicted that reduced inhibitory function in migraine would reduce perceptual surround suppression. Recent models of neuronal surround suppression incorporate excitatory feedback that drives surround inhibition. Consequently, an increase in excitation predicts an increase in perceptual surround suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-six people with migraine and twenty approximately age- and gender-matched non-headache controls participated. The perceived contrast of a central sinusoidal grating patch (4 c/deg stationary grating, or 2 c/deg drifting at 2 deg/sec, 40% contrast was measured in the presence and absence of a 95% contrast annular grating (same orientation, spatial frequency, and drift rate. For the static grating, similar surround suppression strength was present in control and migraine groups with the presence of the surround resulting in the central patch appearing to be 72% and 65% of its true contrast for control and migraine groups respectively (t(44 = 0.81, p = 0.42. For the drifting stimulus, the migraine group showed significantly increased surround suppression (t(44 = 2.86, p<0.01, with perceived contrast being on average 53% of actual contrast for the migraine group and 68% for non-headache controls. CONCLUSIONS: In between migraines, when asymptomatic, visual surround suppression for drifting stimuli is greater in individuals with migraine than in controls. The data provides evidence for a

  5. Medium-Term Stability of the Photon Beam Energy of An Elekta CompactTM Linear Accelerator Based on Daily Measurements of Beam Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, we aimed to assess the medium-term energy stability of a 6MV Elekta CompactTM linear accelerator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published article to evaluate this linear accelerator in terms of energy stability. As well as investigating the stability of the linear accelerator energy over a period of several weeks, the results will be useful for estimation of the required tolerance values for the beam quality factor (BQF of the PTW QUICKCHECK weblineTM (QCW daily checking device. Materials and Methods Over a 13 week period of routine clinical service, 52 daily readings of BQF were taken and then analyzed for a 10×10 cm2 field. Results No decreasing or increasing trend in BQF was observed over the study period. The mean BQF value was estimated at 5.4483 with a standard deviation (SD of 0.0459 (0.8%. The mean value was only 0.1% different from the baseline value. Conclusion The results of this medium-term stability study of the Elekta Compact linear accelerator energy showed that 96.2% of the observed BQF values were within ±1.3% of the baseline value. This can be considered to be within the recommended tolerance for linear accelerator photon beam energy. If an approach of applying ±3 SD is taken, the tolerance level for BQF may be suggested to be set at ±2.5%. However, further research is required to establish a relationship between BQF value and the actual changes in beam energy and penetrative quality.

  6. Nuclear medium effects in $\

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, H; Athar, M Sajjad; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medium effects in the weak structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$ and $F_3(x,Q^2)$ have been studied for deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino reactions in iron nucleus by taking into account Fermi motion, binding, pion and rho meson cloud contributions, target mass correction, shadowing and anti-shadowing corrections. The calculations have been performed in a local density approximation using relativistic nuclear spectral functions which include nucleon correlations. Using these structure functions we have obtained the ratio $R_{F2,F3}^A(x,Q^2)= \\frac{2F_{2,3}^A(x,Q^2)}{AF_{2,3}^D(x,Q^2)}$, the differential scattering cross section $\\frac{1}{E}\\frac{d^2\\sigma}{dxdy}$ and the total scattering cross section $\\sigma$. The results of our numerical calculations in $^{56}Fe$ are compared with the experimental results of NuTeV and CDHSW collaborations.

  7. New culture medium concepts for cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Kim, B Y; Yeo, J E; Nemeno, J G; Jo, Y H; Yang, W; Nam, B M; Namoto, S; Tanaka, S; Sato, M; Lee, K M; Hwang, H S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Before cell or tissue transplantation, cells or tissues have to be maintained for a certain period in vitro using culture medium and methods. Most culture media contain substances such as pH indicators and buffers. It is not known whether some of these substances are safe for subsequent application in the transplantation of cells or tissues into the human body. We investigated culture media and methods with respect to the safety of the components in future transplantation applications. A modified culture medium--medical fluid-based culture medium (FCM)--was designed by using various fluids and injectable drugs that are already currently permitted for use in clinical medicine. Medium components necessary for optimal cell growth were obtained from approved drugs. FCM was manufactured with adjusted final concentrations of the medium components similar to those in commercial Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM). In particular, 1029.40 mg/L amino acids, approximately 88.85 mg/L vitamins, 13,525.77 mg/L inorganic salts, and 4500 mg/L D-glucose comprise the high-glucose FCM. Next, human fat synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and rat H9c2 (2-1) cells were cultured under 2 conditions: (1) DMEM-high glucose (HG), an original commercial medium, and (2) optimized FCM-HG. We assessed the morphologies and proliferation rates of these cells. We observed that FCM-HG was able to induce the growth of FS-MSC and commercially available H9c2 cell. The morphologies and proliferation patterns of these cells cultured under FCM-HG showed no differences compared with cells grown in DMEM-HG. Our data suggest that FCM, which we developed for the first time according to the concept of drug repositioning, was a useful culture medium, especially in cultured cells intended for human cell transplantation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Yield Forecast of Big-medium-sized Tractors Based on Fractal Theory%基于分形理论的大中型拖拉机产量预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕锋; 杨印生; 卢苇

    2016-01-01

    大中型拖拉机产量是一个复杂的非线性系统。为了探讨大中型拖拉机产量的变化规律及趋势预测,在分析分形理论原理和大中型拖拉机产量时间序列分形特性的基础上,构建了 R/S 分形模型,该模型具有较高的拟合度。最后,应用该模型预测了河南省2013-2015年大中型拖拉机的产量,可为农机企业调整产品结构和河南省农机部门制定农机动力发展规划提供参考。%The yield of large-medium-sized tractors is a complicated nonlinear system .In order to investigate the change law and trend prediction of big-medium-sized tractors yield , R/S fractal method is built based on the introduction of fractional theory and analyzing the fractal characteristic of large-medium-sized tractors yield time series , this prediction model could efficiently improve prediction accuracy .Finally , the model is used to predict the yield of large-medium-sized tractors in Henan province from 2013 to 2015 , the result will provide reference to adjust product structure and de-velop agriculture machinery power development plan .

  9. Study on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Service Resource Integration Based on Cloud Computing%基于云计算的中小企业服务资源整合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旨竞

    2015-01-01

    The application of cloud computing in the enterprise operation actually is the combination of enterprise needs and busi?ness model innovation. The development and application of this technology will change the traditional made of life and work. Fu?sion of cloud computing and other technical service platform can promote the rapid development of small and medium-sized enter?prises. Because this platform is based on the development needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, innovation service mode of resources, and expanding the service depth for small and medium-sized enterprises. At the same time, the platform gives full play to the bridge and link,and for development of small and medium-sized enterprises to integrate more excellent service resourc?es. So it is very important to study the technology of cloud computing.%云计算在企业运营中的应用实际上是企业需求和商业创新模式的结合,它的开发及应用必将改变传统的生活和工作模式.融合云计算等技术的中小企业公共服务平台,以中小企业的发展需求为导向,创新各类资源服务模式,扩大为中小企业的服务深度,充分发挥服务平台的桥梁、纽带作用,整合更多优质的服务资源促进中小企业的快速发展.所以研究应用云计算技术对服务资源进行整合,使之更能满足中小企业发展的需要,具有非常重要的现实意义.

  10. [Medium energy meson research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    The activities of this group are primarily concerned with experiments using the Crystal Barrel Detector. This detector is installed and operating at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. QCD, the modem theory of the strong interaction, is reasonably well understood at high energies, but unfortunately, low-energy QCD is still not well understood, and is far from being adequately tested. The Crystal Barrel experiments are designed to provide some of the tests. The basic line of research involves meson spectroscopy, analyses bearing on the quark and/or gluon content of nuclear states, and the exploration of mechanisms and rules which govern p[bar p] annihilation dynamics. The Crystal Barrel Detector detects and identifies charged and neutral particles with a geometric acceptance close to 100%. The principal component of the detector is an array of 1,380 CsI(TI) crystals. These crystals surround a Jet Drift Chamber (JDC), located in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, which measures the momentum and dE/dx of charged particles. One of the very interesting physics goals of the detector is a search for exotic mesonic states -- glueballs and hybrids. Annihilation at rest will be studied with both liquid and gaseous hydrogen targets. The gaseous target offers the possibility of triggering on atomic L-shell X rays so that specific initial angular momentum states can be studied.These topics as well as other related topics are discussed in this report.

  11. [Medium energy meson research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, K.M.

    1992-12-01

    The activities of this group are primarily concerned with experiments using the Crystal Barrel Detector. This detector is installed and operating at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. QCD, the modem theory of the strong interaction, is reasonably well understood at high energies, but unfortunately, low-energy QCD is still not well understood, and is far from being adequately tested. The Crystal Barrel experiments are designed to provide some of the tests. The basic line of research involves meson spectroscopy, analyses bearing on the quark and/or gluon content of nuclear states, and the exploration of mechanisms and rules which govern p{bar p} annihilation dynamics. The Crystal Barrel Detector detects and identifies charged and neutral particles with a geometric acceptance close to 100%. The principal component of the detector is an array of 1,380 CsI(TI) crystals. These crystals surround a Jet Drift Chamber (JDC), located in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field, which measures the momentum and dE/dx of charged particles. One of the very interesting physics goals of the detector is a search for exotic mesonic states -- glueballs and hybrids. Annihilation at rest will be studied with both liquid and gaseous hydrogen targets. The gaseous target offers the possibility of triggering on atomic L-shell X rays so that specific initial angular momentum states can be studied.These topics as well as other related topics are discussed in this report.

  12. GIANT Hα NEBULA SURROUNDING THE STARBURST MERGER NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Tanaka, Hisashi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: yoshidam@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ∼90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to L{sub Hα} ≈ 1.6 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −5} and ∼5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ∼10{sup 2} Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240.

  13. Turbulence driven by structure formation in the circum-galactic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Iapichino, Luigi; Borgani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The injection of turbulence in the circum-galactic medium at redshift z = 2 is investigated using the mesh-based hydrodynamic code Enzo and a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for unresolved turbulence. Radiative cooling and heating by a uniform Ultraviolet (UV) background are included in our runs and compared with the effect of turbulence modelling. Mechanisms of gas exchange between galaxies and the surrounding medium, as well as metal enrichment, are not taken into account, and turbulence is here driven solely by structure formation (mergers and shocks). We find that turbulence, both at resolved and SGS scales, impacts mostly the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), with temperature between 10^5 and 10^7 K, mainly located around collapsed and shock heated structures, and in filaments. Typical values of the ratio of turbulent to thermal pressure is 0.1 in the WHIM, corresponding to a volume-weighted average of the SGS turbulent to thermal Doppler broadening b_t / b_therm = 0.26, on length scales below the grid res...

  14. 7 CFR 1412.49 - Apportionment of long and medium grain rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. 1412.49... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.49 Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. (a) Rice base...) Medium grain rice. Medium grain rice includes short grain rice. (c) Owners on a farm will elect rice base...

  15. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  16. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...

  17. Design of a phased array for the generation of adaptive radiation force along a path surrounding a breast lesion for dynamic ultrasound elastography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeom, Didace; Hadj Henni, Anis; Cloutier, Guy

    2013-03-01

    This work demonstrates, with numerical simulations, the potential of an octagonal probe for the generation of radiation forces in a set of points following a path surrounding a breast lesion in the context of dynamic ultrasound elastography imaging. Because of the in-going wave adaptive focusing strategy, the proposed method is adapted to induce shear wave fronts to interact optimally with complex lesions. Transducer elements were based on 1-3 piezocomposite material. Three-dimensional simulations combining the finite element method and boundary element method with periodic boundary conditions in the elevation direction were used to predict acoustic wave radiation in a targeted region of interest. The coupling factor of the piezocomposite material and the radiated power of the transducer were optimized. The transducer's electrical impedance was targeted to 50 Ω. The probe was simulated by assembling the designed transducer elements to build an octagonal phased-array with 256 elements on each edge (for a total of 2048 elements). The central frequency is 4.54 MHz; simulated transducer elements are able to deliver enough power and can generate the radiation force with a relatively low level of voltage excitation. Using dynamic transmitter beamforming techniques, the radiation force along a path and resulting acoustic pattern in the breast were simulated assuming a linear isotropic medium. Magnitude and orientation of the acoustic intensity (radiation force) at any point of a generation path could be controlled for the case of an example representing a heterogeneous medium with an embedded soft mechanical inclusion.

  18. The Intergalactic Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Madau, P

    2000-01-01

    About half a million years after the Big Bang, the ever-fading cosmic blackbody radiation cooled below 3000 K and shifted first into the infrared and then into the radio, and the smooth baryonic plasma that filled the Universe became neutral. The Universe then entered a ``dark age'' which persisted until the first cosmic structures collapsed into gravitationally-bound systems, and evolved into stars, galaxies, and black holes that lit up the Universe again. Some time between redshift of 7 and 15, stars within protogalaxies created the first heavy elements; these systems, together perhaps with an early population of quasars, generated the ultraviolet radiation that reheated and reionized the cosmos. The history of the Universe during and soon after these crucial formative stages is recorded in the all-pervading intergalactic medium (IGM), which is believed to contain most of the ordinary baryonic material left over from the Big Bang. Throughout the epoch of structure formation, the IGM becomes clumpy and acqui...

  19. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  20. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  1. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  2. Interaction of a magnetized pulsar wind with its surroundings. MHD simulations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaluw, E

    2003-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamical simulations are presented of a magnetized pulsar wind interacting directly with the interstellar medium, or, in the case of a surrounding supernova remnant, with the associated freely expanding ejecta of the progenitor star. In both cases the simulations show that the pulsar wind nebula will be elongated due to the dynamical influence of the toroidal magnetic fields, which confirm predictions from a semi-analytical model presented by Begelman & Li. The simulations follow the expansion of the pulsar wind nebula when the latter is bounded by a strong shock and show that the expansion can be modeled with a standard power-law expansion rate. By performing different simulations with different magnetization parameters, I show that the latter weakly correlates with the elongation of the pulsar wind nebula. The results from the simulations are applied to determine the nature of the expansion rate of the pulsar wind nebula 3C58. It is shown that there is both observational and theoretical evi...

  3. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear

  4. 基于社区老年人创造力开发的参与式载体设计策略%DESIGN STRATEGIES OF PARTICIPATORY MEDIUM BASE ON THE EXPLOITATION OF COMMUNITY ELDERLY’S CREATIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜家轩; 曹鸣

    2016-01-01

    为了应对我国人口老龄化问题,提出对社区老年人创造力进行开发的重要性,并对其开发过程中使用的辅助产品载体进行设计探究,为该创新活动提供普遍适用的工具和方式。通过分析社区老年人的特点和社区环境下老年人创造力开发活动开展的优势,引入参与式设计方法和参与式载体的概念,从产品设计角度切入,对社区老年人创造力开发活动中的参与式载体进行设计研究。通过最终分析研究,提出基于社区老年人创造力开发的参与式载体的产品设计原则。%In order to respond to the aging problem in China, this article proposed the importance of the exploitation of community elderly's creativity, advocating to do research on the auxiliary products used for the process, to provide a universal tool or method for this innovation activity. By analyzing the characteristics of the community elderly and the advantages of the community environment for the creativity development activity,the concept of participatory design method and participatory medium are introduced, studying the participatory medium in the creativity development activity of the elder people. Finaly, based on the analysis, put forward the product design principles of participatory medium based on the creativity development of the elder people.

  5. Nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.

    1984-03-01

    A model of the N-N potential, at medium energies, in the frame work of the BB-πBB equations, is presented. The derivation is based on the Cloudy Bag Model Hamiltonian. Recent N-N calculations are reviewed in the frame work of the model. Theoretical methods for the analysis of dibaryon resonances are compared.

  6. Nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afnan, I.R. (Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park. School of Physical Sciences)

    1984-03-26

    A model of the N-N potential, at medium energies, in the framework of the BB-..pi..BB equations, is presented. The derivation is based on the Cloudy Bag Model Hamiltonian. Recent N-N calculations are reviewed in the framework of the model. Theoretical methods for the analysis of dibaryon resonances are compared. 30 refs.

  7. Application of phase space reconstruction and v-SVR algorithm in predicting displacement of underground engineering surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Chao; CHEN Yi-feng; YU Zhi-xiong; YANG Kun

    2006-01-01

    A new method for predicting the trend of displacement evolution of surrounding rock was presented in this paper. According to the nonlinear characteristics of displacement time series of underground engineering surrounding rock, based on phase space reconstruction theory and the powerful nonlinear mapping ability of support vector machines, the information offered by the time series datum sets was fully exploited and the non-linearity of the displacement evolution system of surrounding rock was well described.The example suggests that the methods based on phase space reconstruction and modified v-SVR algorithm are very accurate, and the study can help to build the displacement forecast system to analyze the stability of underground engineering surrounding rock.

  8. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang-xiang Xie; Ke Yang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Safety and Efficiently Caving of Ministry of Education

    2009-06-15

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the macro stress shell, (MSS) distribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteristics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide theoretic references to the surrounding rocks stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc. 13 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; YANG Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the MSS dis-tribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteris-tics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide lots of theoretic references to the surrounding rocks' stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc.

  10. A systematic analysis of the influence of the surrounding media in the photothermal beam deflection signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeren, A; Prior, P; Macedo, F, E-mail: fmacedo@fisica.uminho.p [Physics Department, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2010-03-01

    The photothermal beam deflection (PDS) technique was tested for low thermal diffusivity materials. The effect of using different liquids as surrounding media was studied in a systematic way. The fundamental experimental parameters, like the pump beam power and the modulation frequency were also studied in order to find out the best combination that still allows us to get good signals. Due to the complexity of the optical alignment required, the usual mirage setup was adapted in order to allow the decoupling of the alignment of the cell containing the liquid and the sample holder. Simple, straightforward methods (like e.g. the phase method) were used for the thermal diffusivity determination of solids once the thermal diffusivity of the liquids used is always much lower than that of solids. The obtained values for the thermal diffusivity of test samples allow us to conclude that besides being possible to use any of the studied liquids as surrounding medium, ethanol is clearly the best choice, avoiding health problems related to CCl{sub 4}, which is the standard choice for PDS and PDS spectroscopy experiments, and technical/physical problems related to water and acetone. Modulation frequencies around 8 Hz combined with a pump beam power below 15 mW were proved to be the ideal conditions for this kind of experiment. The very low pump beam power required is also an important issue when talking about non-destructive analysis.

  11. Alternating sequential operators from center-surround top-hat transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi

    2013-06-01

    Constructing alternating sequential operators is the important way of improving the efficiency of morphological operations for image processing. And, the alternating sequential filters (ASFs), which are constructed by using the morphological opening and closing, have been the important alternating sequential operators of mathematical morphology. However, because the morphological opening and closing operations have the defect of image detail smoothing, ASFs could not perform very well for some detail preserving image processing applications. Center-surround top-hat transform has been proposed through reconstructing the used structuring elements following the properties of image regions, which ensures that the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform could protect some image details; and, the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform achieve the similar function as opening and closing for bright and black feature extraction. Therefore, based on center-surround top-hat transform, some new and effective alternating sequential operators may be constructed. In light of this, a new class of alternating sequential operators with improved performance based on the center-surround top-hat transform is proposed in this paper. The definition and properties of the new alternating sequential operators are given and analyzed. Also, an application of impulsive noise suppression is used to show the improved performance of the new alternating sequential operators comparing with ASFs. Moreover, because the new alternating sequential operators constructed in this paper have some superiorities over ASFs, they could be also widely used in different applications in which the ASFs perform well, which indicates that the new alternating sequential operators may be also a class of useful morphological operators for image analysis.

  12. Graphene plasmons embedded in a gain medium: layer and ribbon plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altares Menendez, Galaad; Rosolen, Gilles; Maes, Bjorn

    2016-12-01

    Graphene plasmonics has attracted much attention due to its remarkable properties such as tunable conductivity and extreme confinement. However, losses remain one of the major drawbacks to developing more efficient devices based on graphene plasmons. Here we show that when a gain medium is introduced around a 1D graphene sheet, lossless propagation can be achieved for a critical gain value. Both numerics and analytics are employed; and with the Drude approximation the analytical expression for this critical gain becomes remarkably simple. Furthermore, we examine a single 2D graphene nanoribbon within a gain environment. We report that the plasmonic resonant modes exhibit a spasing effect for a specific value of the surrounding gain. This feature is indicated by an absorption cross section that strongly increases and narrows. Finally, we manage to connect the ribbon results to the 1D sheet critical gain, by taking external coupling into account.

  13. Alternative input medium development for wheelchair user with severe spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan, Izzat Aqmar; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    Quadriplegia or tetraplegia patients have restricted four limbs as well as torso movement caused by severe spinal cord injury. Undoubtedly, these patients face difficulties when operating their powered electric wheelchair since they are unable to control the wheelchair by means of a standard joystick. Due to total loss of both sensory and motor function of the four limbs and torso, an alternative input medium for the wheelchair will be developed to assist the user in operating the wheelchair. In this framework, the direction of the wheelchair movement is determined by the user's conscious intent through a brain control interface (BCI) based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal. A laser range finder (LFR) is used to perceive environment information for determining a safety distance of the wheelchair's surrounding. Local path planning algorithm will be developed to provide navigation planner along with user's input to prevent collision during control operation.

  14. Fluid-particle dynamics for passive tracers advected by a thermally fluctuating viscoelastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, Christel; McKinley, Scott A.

    2017-07-01

    Many biological fluids, like mucus and cytoplasm, have prominent viscoelastic properties. As a consequence, immersed particles exhibit subdiffusive behavior, which is to say, the variance of the particle displacement grows sublinearly with time. In this work, we propose a viscoelastic generalization of the Landau-Lifschitz Navier-Stokes fluid model and investigate the properties of particles that are passively advected by such a medium. We exploit certain exact formulations that arise from the Gaussian nature of the fluid model and introduce analysis of memory in the fluid statistics, marking an important step toward capturing fluctuating hydrodynamics among subdiffusive particles. The proposed method is spectral, meshless and is based on the numerical evaluation of the covariance matrix associated with individual fluid modes. With this method, we probe a central hypothesis of passive microrheology, a field premised on the idea that the statistics of particle trajectories can reveal fundamental information about their surrounding fluid environment.

  15. Plastic zone distribution laws and its types of surrounding rock in large-span roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chong; Xu Jinhai; Pan Jianzhong; Ma Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the distribution laws and types of plastic zone of surrounding rock in large-span roadway,we analyzed the distribution laws with different spans and lateral pressures using FLAC3D numerical calculation software.Based on the roadway support difficulty and distribution laws of the plastic zone of surrounding rock,we defined the large-span roadway and classified the types of large-span rectangular roadways.As a result,the distribution laws of the plastic zone on surrounding rock in a rectangular roadway with different spans and lateral pressures were obtained.The results show that the area of the plastic zone on surrounding rock increased with the increase of the spans and lateral pressures,and the plastic zone was symmetrical to the center line of roadway.At λ =0.5,1.0,1.5,and 2.0,the plastic zone presented "addleshape" distribution,"ellipse" distribution."thin and high" distribution and "inverse trapezium" distribution,respectively.In addition,we classified the roadways into four types according to the different lateral pressures and spans,including small-span,moderate-span,large-span and extreme-large-span roadways.

  16. Development of fractures in soft rock surrounding a roadway and their control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuehua; Yao Qiangling; Man Jiankang; Chen Chaoqun; He Lihui

    2011-01-01

    As the excavation of roadway,new fractures will be formed and the pre-existing fractures extend with the redistribution of stress in surrounding rocks.Eventually,fracture zone and bed separation are formed in rocks because of the developed fractures.Therefore,mastering the fracture evolution of surrounding rocks is very important to maintain the stability of roadway.The surrounding rocks of main haulage roadway in a certain coal mine is so broken and loose that the supporting is very difficult.Based on comprehensive analysis of the engineering geological conditions,a sight instrument was used to observe the fractures of internal surrounding rocks.Four indices,i.e.,the width of fracture zone W,the number of fractures n,the width of fractures d and rock fracture designation RFD,are put forward to evaluate the fracture development.According to the evolution rules of the soft rock roadway from this paper,control principles by stages and by regions are presented through the research.At the same time,the best time of grouting reinforcement is determined on the basis of fracture saturation.Field practice shows that the roadway can satisfy normal production during service periods by suitable first support and grouting reinforcement.

  17. Control over Surrounding Rocks Deformation of Soft Floor and Whole-Coal Gateways with Trapezoidal Supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xin-xian; LI De-Quan; SHAO Qiang; SUN Yu-feng

    2005-01-01

    In Gengcun Colliery, Yima Coal Group Co. Ltd.the characteristics of the gateways of thick coal seam and the coal seam is with fully mechanized sublevel caving mining are that the thickness of roof coal seam of gateways is larger, their surrounding rocks are the whole-coal mass and the coal seam is prone to Spontaneous Combustion. With the natural equilibrium arch theory, the reasonable adjacent distance of No.11 mine-type metal supports was calculated in trapezoidal gateways based on these characteristics. Then, in-situ supporting experiments were carried out. The results indicate that under the action of virgin rock stress, the width of broken rocks zone of surrounding rocks is 1.7-2.0 m in return heading and 1.1-1.3 m in going headway. And their surrounding rocks belong to the Ⅳ-type soften rock and the Ⅲ-type common surrounding rock respectively. Therefore, under the movable abutment pressure, the gateways deformation is serious. It is suggested that the designed gateways have to use pre-broadened cross section to suit their deformation. At the same time, the accumulated water on gateway floor must be drained in time. These measures were taken in the 1302 and 1304 coal faces in Gengcun Colliery, and the satisfactory results have been obtained.

  18. Characterizations of PSD Fractal of Porous Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国强; 徐世民; 李鑫钢

    2003-01-01

    A volume-based method for measuring particle-size distribution (PSD) fractal dimensions of porous mediums was developed by employing laser size-analyzing technology. Compared with conventional approaches of using hydrometer or screen to determine PSD, this method can avoid calculation errors and measure smaller size-scale porous medium. In this paper the experimental porous mediums were brown soil, kaolin and sand soil. A micro-order of magnitude (10-5 m) in particle-size interval could be shown in PSD results of brown soil and kaolin. The experiments indicated that brown soil had a nearly mono-fractal PSD character, while kaolin and sand soil showed multi-fractal PSD characters. By the adsorption isotherm experiments, the PSD fractal dimensions of the sand soil were also found to keep a linearly increasing relation with the linear adsorptive parameters of the soils in different intervals to adsorb benzene from aqueous solution.

  19. Medium for Children’s Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Nanna; Kristensen, Kasper; Petersson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates 16 elementary school children’s interaction with two different mediums for creativity, LEGO® bricks and paper collages, drawing on the previous creativity assessment test carried out by Amabile [1]. The study is based in a playful...... learning theoretical framework that is reflected in the means for analyzing the video material inspired by Price, Rogers, Scaife, Stanton and Neale [2]. The findings showed that the children explored the two mediums to the same degree, but that they were more structured in their planning and division...... on labor when working with LEGO bricks. It was also evident that the children assigned preconceived affordances to the two mediums. The results from this study should feed into to a technology enhanced playful learning environment and these are the initial steps in the design process....

  20. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France) measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Viatte; B. Gaubert; Eremenko, M.; Hase, F.; Schneider, M; Blumenstock, T.; Ray, M; P. Chelin; J.-M. Flaud; Orphal, J

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscop...

  1. Tropospheric and total ozone columns over Paris (France) measured using medium-resolution ground-based solar-absorption Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy [Discussion paper

    OpenAIRE

    C. Viatte; B. Gaubert; Eremenko, M.; Hase, F.; Schneider, M; Blumenstock, T.; Ray, M; P. Chelin; J.-M. Flaud; Orphal, J

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique providing information on the vertical distribution of various atmospheric constituents. This work presents the first evaluation of a mid-resolution ground-based FTIR to measure tropospheric ozone, independently of stratospheric ozone. This is demonstrated using a new atmospheric observatory (named OASIS for "Observations of the Atmosphere by Solar absorption Infrared Spectroscop...

  2. Upper medium segment cooling down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The sluggish growth of the passenger car market in top provinces was also reflected in a depression of the upper medium segment. In Jan-Apr, 2008, the top 3 upper medium models accounting for nearly 40% of this segment performed poorly, with the Passat-Lingyu and the Accord decreasing. The Camry also saw a decrease in three top provinces: Guangdong,

  3. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments.

  4. Experimental Study of Deformation of Surrounding Rock with Infrared Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jun; AN Li-qian; REN Run-hou; FAN Shi-min; MA Nian-jie; LI Jian-hui; JI Yuan-ming

    2005-01-01

    According to the practical conditions of coal roadway in Changcun Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, the deformation of rock surrounding roadway was experimentally studied by means of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging system in the process of confined compressions. It is found that the model surface TIR temperature (TIRT) changes with the increase of load. Furthermore, TIRT changes non-synchronously in different ranges such as the roof, floor, wall, corners and bolted ranges. The TIRT is higher in the location of stress concentration and bolted ranges than that in the location of stress relaxation and broken ranges. The interaction ranges of bolt and rock are determined preliminarily according to the corresponding relationship of TIRT fields and the strain fields of the surrounding rock. The new method of TIR image processing has been proved to be effective for the study of bolt support and observation of roadway stability under mine pressure.

  5. Mechanical analysis on deformation of surrounding rock with road-in packing of gob-side entry retaining in fully-mechanized sub-level caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chuan-qu; MIAO Xie-xing; LIU Ze

    2008-01-01

    Based on the movement regularity of surrounding rock with road-in packing of gob-side entry retaining in fully-mechanized sub-level caving face (RPGERFCF), the me-chanical model of its surrounding rock was established and the calculating formulas of the deformation of the roof, coal wall and filling body were attained. By the mechanical analy-sis to the deformation of the surrounding rock of RPGERFCF, the major factors influencing the deformation of the surrounding rock were found out and the technologic approaches reduced the deformation and enhanced the stability of the surrounding rock were put for-ward. Consequently, the scientific bases were provided for the stability control of the sur-rounding rock of RPGERFCF.

  6. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic q...

  7. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  8. Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia by Surround Needling with Electric Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin; YANG Qin-hua

    2005-01-01

    运用电针围刺法治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛29例,获得较好疗效,总有效率为93.1%.%Twenty-nine cases of postherpetic neuralgia of herpes zoster were treated by the surround needling with electric stimulation, and the better therapeutic effect was obtained, the total effective rate was 93.1%.

  9. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  10. Analysis for interaction of supports and surrounding rock of gateways in Iongwall minging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍永平

    2001-01-01

    Gateway supporting in long-wall mining has been a problem that restricts the mine production and safety, the paper sets up an interaction model between support and surrounding rock ( rock mass structure) and probes the elementary t.heory about ground pressure behaviors of gateway. Based on the analysis of supporting theories, some new viewpoints about gateways supporting and ground pressure controlling are put forward.

  11. Analysis for interaction of supports and surrounding rock of gateways in longwall minging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yong-ping

    2001-01-01

    Gateway supporting in long-wall mining has been a problem that restri cts the mine production and safety, the paper sets up an interaction model betwe en support and surrounding rock (rock mass structure) and probes the elementary theory about ground pressure behaviors of gateway. Based on the analysis of supp orting theories, some new viewpoints about gateways supporting and ground pressu re controlling are put forward.

  12. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Jiang; Chuanbo Zhou; Xuedong Luo; Shiwei Lu

    2015-01-01

    For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR) mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive mode...

  13. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  14. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  15. Micellar and vesicular nanoassemblies of triazole-based amphiphilic probes triggered by mercury(II) ions in a 100% aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inhye; Lee, Na-Eun; Jeong, Yoo-Jeong; Chung, Young-Ho; Cho, Byoung-Ki; Lee, Eunji

    2014-11-21

    ABA-type amphiphiles bearing a triazole-based aromatic block were easily synthesized using click chemistry, which act as fluorescent turn-off Hg(2+)-chemoprobes in an aqueous solution. Interestingly, the metal-binding process of amphiphiles induced nanoassemblies even below the CMCs, and the binding stoichiometry affected the morphologies of the resultant nanostructures.

  16. Disentangling location based mobile advertising: the effects of location congruence and type of the medium on consumers' ad-recall and buying behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernritter, S.; Ketelaar, P.; van Woudenberg, T.J.; Vantriet, J.; Huhn, A.; Janssen, L.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging body of research focuses on location-based advertising (LBA). This literature suggests that the merits of LBA rely on the fact that consumers can be targeted with location-congruent ads on their personal mobile devices. However, it has not yet been taken into account that LBA consists of

  17. Linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the "greenness" of school surroundings using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; McNeely, Eileen; Cedeño-Laurent, J G; Pan, Wen-Chi; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Dominici, Francesca; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Su, Huey-Jen; Spengler, John D

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported the physical and mental health benefits from exposure to "green" neighborhoods, such as proximity to neighborhoods with trees and vegetation. However, no studies have explicitly assessed the association between exposure to "green" surroundings and cognitive function in terms of student academic performance. This study investigated the association between the "greenness" of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school's student body based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Researchers used the composite school-based performance scores generated by the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) to measure the percentage of 3rd-grade students (the first year of standardized testing for 8-9 years-old children in public school), who scored "Above Proficient" (AP) in English and Mathematics tests (Note: Individual student scores are not publically available). The MCAS results are comparable year to year thanks to an equating process. Researchers included test results from 2006 through 2012 in 905 public schools and adjusted for differences between schools in the final analysis according to race, gender, English as a second language (proxy for ethnicity and language facility), parent income, student-teacher ratio, and school attendance. Surrounding greenness of each school was measured using satellite images converted into the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in March, July and October of each year according to a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1,000-meter, and 2000-meter circular buffer around each school. Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) estimated the impacts of surrounding greenness on school-based performance. Overall the study results supported a relationship between the "greenness" of the school area and the school-wide academic performance. Interestingly, the results showed a consistently positive significant association between the

  18. Changes In Company’s Management Accounting Systems: Case Study on ActivityBased Costing Implementation and Operation in Medium-Sized Production Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz WNUK-PEL

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore factors, which influence the process of activity-based costing (ABC implementation, as well as analyze and explain the changes in the area of methodology and organization of a company, after activity-based costing implementation. The research findings are of both theoretical and practical importance. From the practical point of view, companies considering implementation of ABC should be aware of the positive and negative factors conditioning the process of implementation; in addition, they should be familiar with methodological and organizational changes, which might stem from the ABC implementation. From the theoretical point of view, this research might be helpful in determining a more general tendency: although modifications in cost accounting systems and implementation of modern methods of management accounting in Polish companies come later than in more developed economies, the tendency heads in the same direction.

  19. Static stability analysis of smart magneto-electro-elastic heterogeneous nanoplates embedded in an elastic medium based on a four-variable refined plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a nonlocal four-variable refined plate theory is developed to examine the buckling behavior of nanoplates made of magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) materials resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation. Material properties of nanoplate change in spatial coordinate based on power-law distribution. The nonlocal governing equations are deduced by employing the Hamilton principle. For various boundary conditions, the analytical solutions of nonlocal MEE-FG plates for buckling problem will be obtained based on an exact solution approach. Finally, dependency of buckling response of MEE-FG nanoplate on elastic foundation parameters, magnetic potential, external electric voltage, various boundary conditions, small scale parameter, power-law index, plate side-to-thickness ratio and aspect ratio will be figure out. These results can be advantageous for the mechanical analysis and design of intelligent nanoscale structures constructed from magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded materials.

  20. Strategies for medium-sized value-based food chains during growing process with a particular focus on the business logic and management concept

    OpenAIRE

    Münchhausen, von, Susanne; Schulz, Kristin; Haering, Anna Maria; Llamas Vacas, Rocio

    2014-01-01

    Growth of values-based food chains holds particular challenges. The disconnection between producers and consumers require strategies that maintain and communicate values throughout the food chain. The objective of this paper is to analyze strategies organic food businesses have chosen to deal with growth, and in particular, strategies that focus on consumers’ expectations and producers’ business strategies. A literature review on the challenges of growing organic food chains provided the conc...