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Sample records for surrounding host villages

  1. Differences in HIV-related behaviors at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, Tanzania

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    Mbaruku Godfrey

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An HIV behavioral surveillance survey was undertaken in November 2005 at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, located near western Tanzania's border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Methods The sample size was 1,743 persons based on cluster survey methodology. All members of selected households between 15–49 years old were eligible respondents. Questions included HIV-related behaviors, population displacement, mobility, networking and forced sex. Data was analyzed using Stata to measure differences in proportions (chi-square and differences in means (t-test between gender, age groups, and settlement location for variables of interest. Results Study results reflect the complexity of factors that may promote or inhibit HIV transmission in conflict-affected and displaced populations. Within this setting, factors that may increase the risk of HIV infections among refugees compared to the population in surrounding villages include young age of sexual initiation among males (15.9 years vs. 19.8 years, p = .000, high-risk sex partners in the 15–24 year age group (40% vs. 21%, χ2 33.83, p = .000, limited access to income (16% vs. 51% χ2 222.94, p = .000, and the vulnerability of refugee women, especially widowed, divorced and never-married women, to transactional sex (married vs. never married, divorced, widowed: for 15–24 age group, 4% and 18% respectively, χ2 8.07, p = .004; for 25–49 age group, 4% and 23% respectively, χ2 21.46, p = .000. A majority of both refugee and host village respondents who experienced forced sex in the past 12 months identified their partner as perpetrator (64% camp and 87% in villages. Although restrictions on movements in and out of the camp exist, there was regular interaction between communities. Condom use was found to be below 50%, and expanded population networks may also increase opportunities for HIV transmission. Availability of refugee health services may be

  2. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Abstract. An assessment of fuel wood situation and the contribution of agroforestry and woodlot resources to the supply of household fuel wood requirements were carried out in ten villages surrounding Nyamure former refugee camp, Nyanza District in the Southern. Province. A total of 158 households were surveyed in ...

  3. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of fuel wood situation and the contribution of agroforestry and woodlot resources to the supply of household fuel wood requirements were carried out in ten villages surrounding Nyamure former refugee camp, Nyanza District in the Southern Province. A total of 158 households were surveyed in February ...

  4. Understanding local attitudes towards dogs in villages surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Exotic carnivores, particularly feral and domestic dogs, represent a serious threat to Madagascar's endemic fauna. We obtained information from the local community about dogs in villages in and around Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Madagascar. Sur- veys were conducted (N=359) to assess local ...

  5. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability ...

  6. The constraints of antiretroviral uptake in rural areas: the case of Thamaga and surrounding villages, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bene, Matlhogonolo; Darkoh, Michael B K

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the constraints of antiretroviral (ARV) uptake in the villages of Thamaga, Kumakwane, Mankgodi and Gakgatla which are in the Kweneng District of Botswana. The social interactionist approach and theories of health behaviour provided the theoretical basis of the study. Data were obtained by using interviewer-administered questionnaires which were applied to a sample of 145 respondents and 61 people living with HIV/AIDS in the four villages. The results of the study showed that people aged 30-39 years represented the highest proportion of the persons on ARV treatment in the villages. Some of the people living with HIV believed that ARV therapy could better their lives during the initial stages of introduction, but with time, they lost hope and gave up the treatment. Culturally, parents and children in the villages do not discuss sexual matters at home and it was found in the study that there was little communication between parents and children on AIDS and ARV issues. Some churches in the area discouraged the use of ARV. There were also traditional doctors who made their patients mix traditional herbs treatment with ARV treatment. Distance, travel costs, cultural beliefs, stigma and discrimination among others were found to be important socio-economic factors inhibiting ARV uptake. Even though there were constraints on ARV uptake in the villages, efforts were being made by Government and non-governmental organizations to overcome them. The Ministry of Health provided information and education to the public using its strategy known as Information, Education and Communication. Nurses, doctors and chiefs taught people at kgotlas (traditional courts) in the villages about the dangers of the epidemic. Free HIV testing, ARVs and condoms were provided to the villagers. The outlook for ARV uptake looks generally promising for the future. However, if HIV/AIDS is to be contained, sexual behaviour of people in the villages needs to change.

  7. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host communities in Uganda, 2006.

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    Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Claass, Johanna; Spiegel, Paul B; Bamuturaki, Judith; Patterson, Njogu; Muyonga, Michael; Tatwebwa, Lillian

    2009-03-01

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability sampling was used to conduct 800 interviews in each population. The BSS questionnaire adapted for displaced populations was administered to adults aged 15-59 years. It collected information on HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices; issues before, during and after displacement; level of interaction and sexual exploitation among the refugees and host communities (i.e., nationals). Population parameters were compared and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for core HIV indicators. The demographic characteristics were similar (except for educational achievement), and HIV awareness was very high (>95%) in both populations. The refugees reported more-accepting attitudes towards persons with HIV than did nationals (19% versus 13%; p refugees than nationals reported ever having had transactional sex (10% versus 6%; p refugees and nationals reported experiencing forced sex, which mostly occurred post-displacement and after the arrival of refugees, respectively. Nationals reported more frequent travel to refugee settlements than reported by refugees to national villages (22% versus 11%; p refugees may be at elevated risk for HIV infection, due to forced sex, transactional sex and other vulnerabilities, warrants further examination through qualitative research. The findings indicate a need for additional, focused HIV-prevention programmes, such as youth education, for both refugees and Ugandan nationals.

  8. Guest replacement in a flexible single-crystal host by mixing the surrounding gas.

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    Takamizawa, Satoshi; Miyake, Ryosuke

    2009-07-21

    The adsorption behavior of a single-crystal host [Cu2(bza)4(pyz)]n under vapor was studied by adsorption measurements and single-crystal X-ray analyses, demonstrating the sharp replacement of the included guest by mixing the surrounding vapor.

  9. Assessment of the Quality of Drinking water of Thari Mirwah Town and Surrounding villages, District Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan

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    Abdul Raheem Shar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ground water of Thari Mirwah town, Sindh, Pakistan and its surrounding villages was studied to check the chemical and physical suitability for drinking purpose. We measured several physico-chemical parameters; such as total dissolved salts (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC, chlorides, sulfate, phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, total hardness, alkalinity and total organic matter. The obtained results were in the range of: pH 6.9-8.1, temperature 25-30 0C, electrical conductivity 540-3140 µS/cm, total dissolved solids 362-2104 mg/L, chlorides 14.8-1657 mg/L, sulfate 69-308 mg/L, phosphate-phosphorus 0.003-0.56 mg/L, nitrate-nitrogen 0.00-9.9 mg/L, total hardness 58-760 mg/L, alkalinity 383-950 mg/L and total organic matter 0.022-0.89 mg/L. All these samples were analyzed using the standard methods of American Public Health Association (APHA by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. The concentration of analyzed metals was found in the range of: sodium (Na 2.57-1066.74 mg/L, calcium (Ca 8.35-329.33 mg/L, manganese (Mn 0.003-0.401 mg/L, nickel (Ni 0.006-0.154 mg/L, zinc (Zn 0.002-0.533 mg/L, copper (Cu 0.004-0.169 mg/L, cobalt (Co 0.00-0.040 mg/L, chromium (Cr 0.0054-0.0322 mg/L, iron (Fe 0.002-0.499 mg/L and cadmium (Cd 0.00-0.014 mg/L. Study reveals that above parameters are not within safe limits of WHO/EPA/EU guidelines and all ground water samples were not fit for drinking and irrigation purposes.

  10. The English Village in Emma: An Empirical Study of Heritage Dramas, Location Filming and Host Communities

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    Lavinia Brydon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers location filming for heritage dramas in rural England, focusing on the experiences of the communities that “host” television crews during production. The article specifically examines the filming of the 2009 BBC adaptation of Jane Austen’s Emma, for which the historic Kent village, Chilham, doubled as the fictional Highbury. In doing so, it interrogates two central aspects. First, it illuminates some of the practical issues and economic and cultural impact of location filming for heritage dramas within rural areas. Second, it reflects upon how a community experiences and responds to its status as the host of such a series, considering the impact this has upon questions of identity and heritage. The article draws upon original empirical research, oral history interviews and community archive building conducted within the Chilham community and with Kent Film Office. It explores the memories and experiences of the local population involved in the television location filming process, as both spectators and participants. We thus consider the significance of location from the point of view of those who solicit, resist, profit from, and are caused problems by the temporary transformation of their local space into a television drama shooting space, forging new connections between production practices, location shooting and heritage series and national television/cinema.

  11. Variations of Heavy Metals from Geothermal Spring to Surrounding Soil and Mangifera Indica–Siloam Village, Limpopo Province

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    Olatunde S. Durowoju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of seasonal variation in concentration of heavy metals–As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from the Siloam Geothermal Spring and their impacts on surface soils and Mangifera indica were undertaken during winter and summer seasons in South Africa. This was done to determine the environmental pollution status of surface soils and Mangifera indica around the geothermal spring. The geothermal spring water, surface soil (0–15 cm and Mangifera indica (bark and leaves samples were collected during 2014 winter and summer seasons. Soil and Mangifera indica samples were treated and digested using microwave and block digestion methods, respectively. The heavy metal concentrations were determined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS (Agilent 7700. The result from this study showed that levels of heavy metals were higher in summer compared to winter season for geothermal spring water, surface soil, and Mangifera indica (barks and leaves. In two-tailed tests (Mann–Whitney U-test, geothermal spring water alone showed significant differences (Z = −2.1035, p < 0.05, whereas the surface soil and barks and leaves of Mangifera indica showed no significant differences (Z = 0.053; 0; −0.524, p > 0.05 in both seasons. Some heavy metals concentrations were above the standard guidelines for drinking water and typical soil, making the soil contaminated. This is a cause for concern as it can affect the environment and the health of the inhabitants of Siloam village, who depend on the geothermal spring as their source of domestic water, irrigation, and other uses. This study also showed that Mangifera indica has a phytoremediative property, which lessens the heavy metal concentrations absorbed from the contaminated soil.

  12. Changes in the vascular flora of Khatanga village and its surrounding area, Taimyrsky Biosphere Reserve, over a long period

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    Elena B. Pospelova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of the floristic survey of Khatanga surroundings are given. A comparison of the flora's current state with the earlier changes in 1905–1955 and with data of regional floras is conducted. There are 58 species listed in these references, which we have not detected. We believe that they have disappeared from the flora, or there was confusion in determination of plant specimens, or there were errors in the geographical locations. We found 93 species, not mentioned in the cited sources. The total list includes currently 359 species of vascular plants. Changes in the flora are caused by natural processes (change of climate, the hydrological regime of rivers, etc. аs well as by human transformation of the landscape. An analysis of the flora is conducted, on the basis of which we regard it as belonging to the Asian hypoarctoboreal subtype of the Hypoarctic type.

  13. The impact of atmospheric dust deposition and trace elements levels on the villages surrounding the former mining areas in a semi-arid environment (SE Spain)

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    Sánchez Bisquert, David; Matías Peñas Castejón, José; García Fernández, Gregorio

    2017-03-01

    It is understood that particulate matter in the atmosphere from metallic mining waste has adverse health effects on populations living nearby. Atmospheric deposition is a process connecting the mining wasteswith nearby ecosystems. Unfortunately, very limited information is available about atmospheric deposition surrounding rural metallic mining areas. This article will focus on the deposition from mining areas, combined with its impact on nearby rural built areas and populations. Particle samples were collected between June 2011 and March 2013. They were collected according to Spanish legislation in ten specialised dust collectors. They were located near populations close to a former Mediterranean mining area, plus a control, to assess the impact of mining waste on these villages. This article and its results have been made through an analysis of atmospheric deposition of these trace elements (Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). It also includes an analysis of total dust flux. Within this analysis it has considered the spatial variations of atmospheric deposition flux in these locations. The average annual level of total bulk deposition registered was 42.0 g m-2 per year. This was higher than most of the areas affected by a Mediterranean climate or in semi-arid conditions around the world. Regarding the overall analysis of trace elements, the annual bulk deposition fluxes of total Zn far exceeded the values of other areas. While Mn, Cd and Pb showed similar or lower values, and in part much lower than those described in other Mediterranean mining areas. This study confirmed some spatial variability of dust and trace elements, contained within the atmospheric deposition. From both an environmental and a public health perspective, environmental managers must take into account the cumulative effect of the deposition of trace elements on the soil and air quality around and within the villages surrounding metallic mining areas.

  14. Health risk assessment through consumption of vegetables rich in heavy metals: the case study of the surrounding villages from Panasqueira mine, Central Portugal.

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    Ávila, Paula F; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Candeias, Carla

    2017-06-01

    Panasqueira mine is a tin-tungsten mineralization hosted by metasediments with quartz veins rich in ferberite. The mineralization also comprises wolframite, cassiterite, chalcopyrite, several sulfides, carbonates and silver sulfosalts. The mining and beneficiation processes produce arsenic-rich mine wastes laid up in huge tailings (Barroca Grande and Rio tailings). The contents of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were estimated in rhizosphere soils, irrigation waters, road dusts and in potatoes, cabbages, lettuces and beans, collected on local gardens of four neighborhood Panasqueira mine villages: S. Francisco de Assis (SFA) and Barroca suffering the influence of tailings; Unhais-o-Velho and Casegas considered as non-polluted areas. The mean concentrations of metals in rhizosphere soils and vegetables exceed the reference guidelines values and seem to be linked to the sulfides. The rhizosphere ecological risks were ranked in the order of Cd > As > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr and SFA > Barroca > Casegas > Unhais-o-Velho. Metal concentrations, in vegetables, were found in the order of lettuce > cabbage > potatoes and SFA > Barroca > Casegas > Unhais-o-Velho. For cabbages and lettuces, the tendency of contamination is roots > leaves and for potatoes is roots > leaves > tubers. The risk for residents, due to ingesting of metals/metalloid, by consuming vegetables grown around the sampling area, was calculated and the result indicates that the inhabitants of these villages are probably exposed to some potential health risks through the intake of heavy metals and metalloids via consuming their vegetables.

  15. Host choice and human blood index of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the Andean valleys of Bolivia

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    Bouchité Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Human Blood Index (HBI, proportion of bloodmeals of a mosquito population obtained from man is relevant to epidemiological assessment and to the modification of measures to interrupt malaria transmission since the vectorial capacity of the vector varies as the square of the HBI. Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is a main malaria vector in South America. Unfortunately, few data exist concerning HBI values in its range of distribution and none from Bolivia where this species is considered as an important malaria vector in the central Andes. Methods The host choice of An. pseudopunctipennis has been studied in Mataral, a characteristic village of the central Andes of Bolivia. Mosquito host feeding preference experiments (equal accessibility to host in homogenous environment were monitored using baited mosquito nets in latin square designs. Host feeding selection experiments (natural feeding pattern in heterogeneous environment was measured by bloodmeal analysis, using ELISA to determine the origin of blood. Mosquito bloodmeals were collected on various occasions, using various techniques in a variety of sampling sites. A survey of the possible blood sources has also been carried out in the village. Data were analysed with the forage ratio method. Results An. pseudopunctipennis chooses amongst hosts. Sheep, goats, donkeys and humans are the preferred hosts, while dogs, pigs and chicken are rarely bitten. An. pseudopunctipennis has an opportunistic behaviour, in particular within the preferred hosts. The HBI in Mataral is ≈40% and in the central Andes, may range from 30–50%, in accordance to other findings. A high proportion of mixed meals were encountered (8%, and cryptic meals are likely more numerous. There was no difference amongst the HBI from parous and nulliparous mosquitoes. Conclusion Forage ratio analysis is a powerful tool to interpret mosquito host choices. However, refinements in sampling strategies are still

  16. The impact of orally administered phages on host immune response and surrounding microbial communities.

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    Hong, Yingying; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Zhang, Jiayi; Collings, Clayton K; Bhide, Ketaki; Schmidt, Kyle; Ebner, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown the efficacy of phage therapy in reducing foodborne pathogen carriage in food animals. Fewer studies have focused on host reactions, especially in terms of phage-mediated acute immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Here we administered E. coli O157:H7 phages in low (single dose of 105 PFU) or high (single dose of 107 PFU) quantities to mice. While there were time points at which cytokine levels in different treatment groups differed from one another, all cytokine levels remained within normal ranges for mice regardless of treatment. Similarly, the patterns of these differences were not dose related, indicating that phage treatment did not result in a strong acute immune response as measured here. In separate experiments, 3-week-old pigs received a diet containing an in-feed antibiotic or daily phage treatment. After two weeks, microbial DNA of ileal, cecal, and fecal contents was characterized using 16S rRNA sequencing. There were no statistical differences in performance among the different groups. Compared to control pigs (no antibiotic, no phage), antibiotic treatment significantly altered ileal microbiome composition (P < 0.05), with Bacilli being most affected (antibiotic treated: 22%; control: 76%; FDR = 0.0572). No significant differences were observed in cecal and fecal microbiome composition between antibiotic-treated and control pigs, and there were no differences in gut microbiome composition between phage treated and control pigs in any intestinal compartment. Significant abundance differences were observed at the OTU level, with OTUs belonging to genera such as Lactobacillus and Streptococcus being over- or under-represented in either antibiotic or phage treated groups compared to control pigs. Determining whether these changes are deleterious to host, however, requires further study.

  17. Theoretical and Practical Approach of Connecting the Ecotourist Offer of the Special Nature Reserve of Zasavica (Serbia with the Tourist Offer of the Surrounding Village Settlements

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    Dragan Dolinaj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pannonian basin was once covered by vast alluvial plains with patches of marsh, swamp, pan and prairie. With Holocene changes in climate, marshes have withdrawn and in the last couple hundreds of years they were pushed out by developing agricultural areas. The Nature Reserve Zasavica keeps the remains of former marshes and swamps on the territory of Vojvodina. One of the ways for providing necessary financial support for the reserve protection is development of ecotourist activities in the Zasavica region. Its biodiversity and numerous endangered species (Umbra krameri, Nymphaca alba, Numphar luteum, Stratiotes aloides, Acorus calamus, Buteo butes, Haliateetus albicilla, Lutra lutra, Castor fiber... could be the basis for tourist valorization of the Reserve. It is also necessary to conduct analyses of the impact of tourism on endangered species and confirm sustainability of those activities. The lack of accommodation capacities could be supplemented by the development of the tourist offer of the nearby countryside. This way the village tourism would enrich its offer with visits to the nature reserve. Such tourism activities would contribute towards the development of local communities and the improvement of the standard of living. Since the villages and the reserve are already territorially intertwined, their further tourist cooperation would lead to knowledge transfer and local people would have a better understanding of the protection of the Special Nature Reserve Zasavica.

  18. RAIN VOLLEY APPLICATIONS IN UŞAK AND ITS SURROUNDINGS (EXAMLE OF TAKMAK VILLAGE UŞAK VE ÇEVRESİNDE YAĞMUR YAĞDIRMA UYGULAMALARI (TAKMAK KÖYÜ ÖRNEĞİ

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    Sami KILIÇ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Every society whose livelyhood is based on agriculture and livestock has developed a kind of belief and application around its culture so as to resolve drought, and people have applied these methods till present time and they stil continue them. In societies, for the rain volley applications, some terms of magic of the rain and prayer of rain have been used. Although there are some magical applications among them, this pratice is generally called as the prayer of rain in Turkish culture.As the livelihood of the people in Takmak village, Eşme, a town of Uşak is based on agriculture and livestock, some practices are held during the drought seasons. The subject of the article is based on description and analysis of the techniques of the rain volley applications today in Takmak village. That’s why, important phenomenons of description data applications of the rain volley applications in Takmak village gained with participant observation and detailed interview technques will be evaluated in terms of History of Religions and the history of the rain volley applications in this village will be put forward with their religious origins. Geçim kaynağı tarım ve hayvancılığa dayanan her toplum, kuraklığı gidermek amacıyla kendi kültürü çevresinde birtakım inanış ve uygulamalar geliştirmiş, bunları geçmişten günümüze kadar uygulamış, halen de uygulamaya devam etmektedir. Toplumlarda, yağmur yağdırma uygulamaları için yağmur büyüsü ve yağmur duası terimleri kullanılmaktadır. Türk kültüründe ise bu işlemlere, içerisinde birtakım büyüsel ve sihirsel uygulamalar bulundurmakla birlikte, genel olarak yağmur duası denilmektedir.Uşak ili Eşme ilçesine bağlı olan Takmak köyünde halkın geçim kaynağı genel olarak tarım ve hayvancılık olması sebebiyle, mevsimin kurak gittiği dönemlerde, yağmur yağdırmak için birtakım pratikler yapılmaktadır. Makalenin konusunu, günümüzde Takmak k

  19. Sustainability of fisherman village in urban area case study : untia fisherman village, makassar, indonesia

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    Noegroho, N.; Ardiani, Y. M.

    2017-12-01

    Major cities in Indonesia, many of which have a fisherman village in the city area. One of them is the village of Untia in Makassar which keeps the story about relocation history of fishermen’s settlement in Makassar city. Initially, this village is very ‘friendly’ for the fishermen, especially the existence of canals that can be passed by the fishing boat to the front of the each house. However, the sustainability of this fisherman village is threatened by the development of urban functions that are urging towards it. From day to day, this village is segregated with the surrounding area, not only from its function but also from social point of view. This condition will be more severe related to the local government plan to reclaim sea far to the west side, thus threatening the sustainability of fisherman life in this village. How does a fisherman village in an urban area have to survive? The research begins by highlighting the conditions and problems that exist, data was collected by field survey. This data combined with some literatures then analyzed to propose a direction how fisherman’s village respond to the surrounding development. Become a Tourism village is a one way for fisherman’s village to survive in urban area.

  20. Epidemic dynamics of a vector-borne disease on a villages-and-city star network with commuters.

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    Mpolya, Emmanuel A; Yashima, Kenta; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Sasaki, Akira

    2014-02-21

    We develop a star-network of connections between a central city and peripheral villages and analyze the epidemic dynamics of a vector-borne disease as influenced by daily commuters. We obtain an analytical solution for the global basic reproductive number R0 and investigate its dependence on key parameters for disease control. We find that in a star-network topology the central hub is not always the best place to focus disease intervention strategies. Disease control decisions are sensitive to the number of commuters from villages to the city as well as the relative densities of mosquitoes between villages and city. With more commuters it becomes important to focus on the surrounding villages. Commuting to the city paradoxically reduces the disease burden even when the bulk of infections are in the city because of the resulting diluting effects of transmissions with more commuters. This effect decreases with heterogeneity in host and vector population sizes in the villages due to the formation of peripheral epicenters of infection. We suggest that to ensure effective control of vector-borne diseases in star networks of villages and cities it is also important to focus on the commuters and where they come from. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Urban warming in villages

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    Lindén, J.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Esper, J.

    2015-07-01

    Long term meteorological records (> 100 years) from stations associated with villages are generally classified as rural and assumed to have no urban influence. Using networks installed in two European villages, the local and microclimatic variations around two of these rural-village sites are examined. An annual average temperature difference (Δ{T}) of 0.6 and 0.4 K was observed between the built-up village area and the current meteorological station in Geisenheim (Germany) and Haparanda (Sweden), respectively. Considerably larger values were recorded for the minimum temperatures and during summer. The spatial variations in temperature within the villages are of the same order as recorded over the past 100+ years in these villages (0.06 to 0.17 K/10 years). This suggests that the potential biases in the long records of rural-villages also warrant careful consideration like those of the more commonly studied large urban areas effects.

  2. Villages in landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    , and the physical appearance of many villages and detached farms can at best be characterized as shockingly inferior. It can be argued that the Danish society has grossly omitted to take care of the largest and most important part of its cultural heritage in the Danish landscape; 6-7,000 large and small villages...... dispersed in the Danish cultural landscape.These villages are crucial to the future of rural areas and are normally neglected....

  3. VT Boundaries - village polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BNDHASH dataset depicts Vermont villages, towns, counties, Regional Planning Commissions (RPC), and LEPC (Local Emergency Planning Committee)...

  4. Distributions of soil phosphorus in China's densely populated village landscapes

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    Jiaguo Jiao; Erle C. Ellis; Ian Yesilonis; Junxi Wu; Hongqing Wang; Huixin Li; Linzhang. Yang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Village landscapes, which integrate small-scale agriculture with housing, forestry and a host of other land use practices, cover more than 2x106 km2 across China. Village lands tend to be managed at very fine spatial scales (≤30 m), with managers altering soil fertility and even terrain by terracing,...

  5. Recording Village Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cromwell, Jennifer Adele

    Recording Village Life presents a close study of over 140 Coptic texts written between 724–756 CE by a single scribe, Aristophanes son of Johannes, of the village Djeme in western Thebes. These texts, which focus primarily on taxation and property concerns, yield a wealth of knowledge about social...... of late antique studies, papyrology, philology, early Islamic history, social and economic history, and Egyptology....

  6. Village Power `97. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinal, J.; Flowers, L.; Taylor, R.; Weingart, J. [eds.

    1997-09-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six key activities, including village application development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and an Internet-based village power project database. The current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. This document contains reports presented at the Proceedings of Village Power, 1997. Individual projects have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  7. The Moon Village Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  8. Village power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three different computer codes which have been written to model village power applications. The reasons which have driven the development of these codes include: the existance of limited field data; diverse applications can be modeled; models allow cost and performance comparisons; simulations generate insights into cost structures. The models which are discussed are: Hybrid2, a public code which provides detailed engineering simulations to analyze the performance of a particular configuration; HOMER - the hybrid optimization model for electric renewables - which provides economic screening for sensitivity analyses; and VIPOR the village power model - which is a network optimization model for comparing mini-grids to individual systems. Examples of the output of these codes are presented for specific applications.

  9. Stricken village. 1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marion

    2008-01-01

    An historical reprint, this account of a public health nurse's work with village residents during an outbreak of pneumonia related to tuberculosis was originally published in Public Health Nursing in December 1948. The author, Marion Curtis, was a public health nurse in the Territorial Health Department of Alaska called upon to respond to the rapid death of several victims of an unknown disease affecting a small outpost on Kodiak Island in the Territory of Alaska. Her narrative tells us about the settlement village and what happened from the time of the wire for help to the time she left the community for home. Her original spelling of names has been retained. Curtis's response to the emergency was quick and demonstrated experience. Her application of infection control principles helped quickly control the outbreak. At the end of her story, Curtis reflected on the impact of disease on communities and civilizations, predicting that villages like the one she had described might vanish within 20 years due to tuberculosis. Readers may reflect whether Curtis's view presents an etic or an emic perspective. Old Harbor, however, remains a small but vital community on Kodiak Island's southwestern shore.

  10. Towards A Moon Village: Vision and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    . Building on previous studies (EuroMoon, lunar polar lander) ESA should develop a mid-class lunar lander (affordable in cost 300 Meu class), demonstrating the expertise at system level for a platform, that could carry innovative competitive robotic payload contributed and already with advance development from member states and international or commercial partners. With teleoperations from Earth and cis-lunar orbit, this will advance progress towards the next steps of Moon Village and beyond. Recommendations: The participants encourage the design and operations of a Moon base simulation at EAC with facility and activities in the context of SpaceShip EAC, with the support of EAC, DLR, ESTEC, ISU and other partners, and collaborations with other Lunar Research Parks worldwide. It was also proposed to have an "ESTEC Moon Village pilot project" where 20 young professional in-terns could be hosted to work concurrently on various aspects (technology, science, instruments platforms, Moon base design, human factors, programmatics, outreach, community events) with links and support activities from ESTEC senior experts, and interactions with colleagues in member states, academia and industries . The workshop finalized with some hands-on experiments, organized with some students demonstrating their work on a lunar lander with tele-operated instruments and systems, and on the measuring spectra of Moon-Mars analogue minerals. The day ended with a refreshing lunar music session, and a networking event on ESTEC ESCAPE where the last informal conversations marked a great wrap up of such exciting day. Follow up Moon Village events are planned in 2016 at ESTEC, EAC and at international community venues. New means of outreach, communications and social media must be developed. You can follow Moon Village tweets, using #MoonVillage, and contribute to the virtual discussions. ESA is really looking forward to engage all stakeholders into the discussion, no matter of their background, nationality

  11. Village Power '98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinal, Julie; Flowers, Larry; Siegel, Judy; Taylor, Roger; Weingart, Jerome

    1999-03-24

    This is the fifth Village Power workshop sponsored by NREL. We have held these meetings every year since 1993, to focus, challenge, and provide a forum for interaction among practitioners working in the field of using renewable energy technologies as an economically viable pathway to electrification of rural populations throughout the world. Starting with a small group of 30 colleagues in 1993, this ''workshop'' has doubled in size every year. When the NREL staff was planning for this meeting, they were hoping for something around 400 participants. We are now looking at over 500, and we apologize for the somewhat cramped accommodations. This overwhelming response, however, shows that the use of renewable energy to solve some of the world's serious problems is coming of age. This meeting, this ''conference'' (it's clearly no longer a workshop) marks a transition. A transition from the viewpoint that renewables are, and forever will be a technology of the future; to the reality that renewables have come of age. We have technologies available today, at today's prices, that can make a substantive contribution to the pressing needs of environmentally sustainable development in the world. This is a collection of all the papers presented at the Village Power '98 conference.

  12. MODEL OF VILLAGE HEAD ELECTION ARRANGEMENT IN VILLAGE GOVERNANCE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekar Anggun Gading Pinilih

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the right model in the arrangement of village head elections after the stipulation of Law No. 6 year 2014 on Village. This research is a normative law research by laws, historical, and conceptual approach. The result shows that a direct and simultaneous election model shall be the solution for the next Village Head Election. Simultaneous election model is designed since it is philosophically considered to make efficiency of the Village Head Elections, in terms of efficiency of budget, time and effort. The principle of this policy is an attempt to create a more equitable simultaneous democratization to minimize the chances of cheating. Since if the elections were not held simultaneously, it would give chance to the outsider to involve. The simultaneous election requires a coherent policy. This coherence will produce an effective synchronization of all types of elections implementation in Indonesia. Keywords: head of village, model, election, arrangement

  13. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  14. IN VOZDVIZHENSKOE VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetyrina Natalya Arkadevna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers civil engineering in retrospect. The paper presents the records of the two contracts that date back to 1837 and 1838. The contracts cover the two stages of construction of a famous church in Vozdvizhenskoe Village in the Moscow Province. These documents were stored in the Central Historic Archive, namely, in the collection of the town hall of Sergievskij Possad. These records of the two agreements in the collection of the brokers notes (or in other books of the same type are of particular value, as the majority of authentic contracts have been lost. One of the contracts covers the organizational procedure and pre-construction works, while the other one covers the construction of the church. The first document gives the idea of environmental protection, employment of ecological technologies, and safe disposal and recycling of human biowaste in the course of dismantling of an old structure in Vozdvizhenskoe village. The second document that dates back to 1838 covers the sequence of construction works, starting from the foundation and ending with the arches, the types of building materials used, and peculiarities of stone masonry. The information recorded in the contract includes the names of the counterparties, day-to-day mode of life of seasonal workers, remuneration of labour and procedures that assure the quality of construction. This agreement makes it possible to outline the construction process that includes workers, bricklayers, the foreman, the contractor, the architect, and the customer. On the whole, both documents help us outline and assess some of the building practices of the 19th century. This issue is relevant nowadays, as our society has entered the phase of the market economy, while the experience accumulated by the past generations is of undeniable value.

  15. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  16. Surround 3-Dimensional Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbowski Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes original 3-dimensional structured light scanner used for medical application. Scanner kinematics is similar to the gantry mechanism of computed tomography apparatus. The unique feature of the presented scanner is a glass table for capturing image of a human body part. The scanner can acquire an object through the table. It gives the chance for surround scanning of the human body, using only one scanning head, without changing the body position. It is more cost effective scanner solution than multihead scanner configuration.

  17. A Rhetorical Analysis of Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2011-01-01

    The award-winning TV spot Village is a creative example of NGO advertising using condensed visual stprytelling. The spot is analysed using rhetorical concepts and communication theory, and potential effects are discused in relation to contexts, strategy and communication ethics.......The award-winning TV spot Village is a creative example of NGO advertising using condensed visual stprytelling. The spot is analysed using rhetorical concepts and communication theory, and potential effects are discused in relation to contexts, strategy and communication ethics....

  18. Multicultourism in Mexico’s Magical Village Cuetzalan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Casper

    into the identity and power configurations that are produced by and in relation to the program.Combining recent readings on the Foucauldian concept of governmentality and sociologist Erving Goffman's ideas on conceptual frames, the thesis shows how the MagicalVillages program conducts and organizes political...... capital Cuetzalan (Puebla) and surrounding indigenous Nahua communities and through analysis of government and program documents, press releases, newspaper articles, institutional interaction, public space and ritual, tourism magazine texts, field notes, and interviews, the analysis tunes...

  19. Communicating new ideas to traditional villagers (an Indonesian case).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muis, A

    1984-01-01

    Recent cases derived from a series of communication research projects conducted in remote villages on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, are presented. These cases, which indicate the tremendously complex problem of communicating new ideas to traditional villages, also reflect the equally complex problem of social marketing. Indonesian, villagers remain very traditional, but their communication environment has been undergoing marked changes over the past decade or so. Overwhelming media exposure has pushed these people towards a modern environment filled with new knowledge and experiences. In view of the importance of changing attitudes and behavior of traditional villagers -- to realize modernization for the rural society -- the government of Indonesia has been using a host of communication means and channels. These include all the viable traditional or indigenous communication systems, but mainly face-to-face communication. Traditional dances, story-telling, and music are no longer interesting to the rural people themselves, and, apparently, no real developmental message can be transmitted by traditional "mass media." Among the 50 respondents randomly selected from the isolated village of Gelang (Case I), only 17% claimed to have listened to news in addition to music and songs. 67% of the respondents explained that information carrying novel ideas or methods usually attract them, but they are always reluctant to accept the new ideas for real application. Case II is about the effect of movie exposure on traditional villagers. As many as 73% of 50 respondents explained that the knowledge of the peasant-fisherman has increased considerably with regard to the urban way of life, as a result of movie attendance. The informants indicated that many villagers were disgusted by feature films or theatrical ones and that 62% of the villagers had yet to go to a movie. Case III involved the communication of new methods of medication to rural societies, including traditional

  20. Newborn care practices and health seeking behavior in urban slums and villages of Anand, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Archana S; Shukla, Vivek V; Phatak, Ajay G; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M

    2013-04-01

    Health status of neonates in urban slums has not been studied in smaller towns. A questionnaire was administered to 154 families of 10 urban slums of Anand (population - 197351) and 160 families from 6 villages of Anand district. The socioeconomic and education status of the slum dwellers versus rural participants were significantly lower (Pslums, as compared to villages, Care seeking was low in urban slums, Hindus and illiterate mothers. Health care and socioeconomic status of neonates in slums of smaller cities is poorer than in surrounding villages.

  1. Renewables for sustainable village power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL`s RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal.

  2. Tackling malaria, village by village: a report on a concerted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Can an information intervention facilitated by information technology and carried out by an interdisciplinary ... In Mifumi village in Eastern Uganda, MIFUMI Project, Makerere University College of Health Sciences Community Based ... insecticide treated nets (ITNs) using a digital pen application.

  3. Welcome to The Green Village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A sustainable world can only be achieved by an open collaboration between science, business and the public. That is why we create the Green Village: an innovative, lively, interactive and challenging environment where entrepreneurs, innovators, companies, artists, teachers and visitors can meet,

  4. Renewables for Sustainable Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.; Baring-Gould, I.; Bianchi, J.; Corbus, D.; Drouilhet, S.; Elliott, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Jimenez, A.; Lilienthal, P.; Newcomb, C.; Taylor, R.

    2000-11-06

    This paper describes the efforts of NREL's Renewables for Sustainable Village Power team to match renewable energy technologies with rural energy needs in the international market. The paper describes the team's activities, updates the lessons learned, and proposes an integrated approach as a model for rural electrification with renewables.

  5. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  6. Surround articulation. II. Lightness judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirillo, J A

    1999-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that to achieve color constancy, lightness judgments require an estimate of the illuminant. A companion paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 793 (1999)] suggests that surround articulation enhances the likelihood that a global luminance edge will be interpreted as being due to changes in illumination rather than in reflectance. Articulation is the process of adding equally spaced incremental and decremental patches within a surround while preserving the surround's space-average luminance. Such a process results in lightness judgments that correlate perfectly with equal local ratio matches. For decrements, lightness constancy does not require articulation. These findings help explain why Arend and Goldstein [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 2281 (1987)] obtained color constancy with complex Mondrian surrounds but not with simple center surrounds.

  7. A Comparative Study on the Feng Shui Village Landscape and Feng Shui Trees in East Asia -A Case Study of Ryukyu and Sakishima Islands-

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bixia; 陳, 碧霞

    2008-01-01

    Feng Shui is based on empirical observations of the surrounding landform. Majority of researches on Feng Shui in Okinawa concern the historical study, or analyze village layout from perspectives of history, folklore, and architecture. However, a comparative study of Feng Shui in Okinawa with that in mainland topography is little reported. This study aims to clarify a Ryukyu village's features, focusing on Feng Shui trees and village landscape.(1) In China, and Korea, Feng Shui trees are commo...

  8. Xia Futou's public bathhouse--a sustainable urbanization experiment in a Chinese village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyi; Li, Limin; Zhang, Hua

    2008-04-01

    Xia Futou, a small Chinese village with a unique cultural landscape, consists of two unbalanced parts, an old village up the hill and a new one down the hill. In order to upgrade and preserve the unique cultural landscape of the older village and rebalance the dislocation of the two parts, a small public bathhouse project has been carried out according to sustainable architecture principles. Based on the current cultural landscape of the bathhouse and its surroundings, this approach is attempting to localize an informed, balance-seeking, design process in the village and in so doing develop a series of diverse possibilities and beneficial paths. The experiment of the public bathhouse's design and construction led to two key conceptual questions that need to be examined, the one is to research a village with a dynamic system conception instead of a static one; the other is to research a village with a self-organizing system conception1 instead of an organized one. Furthermore, we can give the sustainable path for the future that such naturally evolved Chinese villages evolve into sustainable towns and cities.

  9. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Purnomo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial resources of the village that are sourced from a country or a Regional Finance Financial based Law Number 6 Year 2014 of The Village is the mandate of the law that must be allocated to the village. The interconnectedness of the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or Region concerned the Financial administrative and territorial relations, and there is no setting directly regarding the finances of the village as part of the financial system of the country or the financial area. In respect of the elements of the crime of corruption deeds against financial irregularities of the village there are still disagreements on the interpretation of the law in trapping the perpetrators of corruption on the village chief that implies not satisfy the principle of legality and legal certainty in the ruling of the matter of financial irregularities. In fact, many of the village chief or Councilor caught the criminal offence of corruption over the use of financial irregularities. This research analyzes How the financial position of the village in the financial system of the country or region, as well as whether the financial resources of the village is derived from the state budget or region budget managed in village budget belongs to the category of village finances and whether tort against the financial management of the village can be categorized as a criminal act corruption. How To Cite: Purnomo, H. (2015. Financial Village Standing in Indonesian Financial System. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 121-140. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.81

  10. AHP 6: Stag rig Tibetan Village: Hair Changing and Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    'brug mo skyid འབྲུག་མོ་སྐྱིད།

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Marriage in Stag rig Village, Shar lung Township, Khri ka County, Mtsho lho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon Province, China is described in the context of the hair dressing ritual, rules of exclusion and inclusion, the process of marriage (spouse selection, free choice marriage, arranged marriage, engagement, drinking contract liquor, bride wealth discussion, choosing a date for the wedding ritual, wedding preparations at the bride and groom's homes, the wedding ritual and banquet, marrying a groom into the bride's home, divorce, and the atmosphere surrounding the bride's arrival.

  11. Tucson Solar Village: Project management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    The Tucson Solar Village is a Design/Build Project In Sustainable Community Development which responds to a broad spectrum of energy, environmental, and economic challenges. This project is designed for 820 acres of undeveloped State Trust Land within the Tucson city limits; residential population will be five to six thousand persons with internal employment provided for 1200. This is a 15 year project (for complete buildout and sales) with an estimated cost of $500 million. Details of the project are addressed with emphasis on the process and comments on its transferability.

  12. Astronomy Village Reaches for New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a set of complex, multimedia-based instructional modules emphasizing technical and scientific issues related to Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope project. The modules" pedagogy will be open-ended and problem-based to promote development of problem-solving skills. Problem- based-learning modules that emphasize work on open-ended complex real world problems are particularly valuable in illustrating and promoting a perspective on the process of science and engineering. Research in this area shows that these kinds of learning experiences are superior to more conventional student training in terms of gains in student learning. The format for the modules will be based on the award-winning multi-media educational Astronomy Village products that present students with a simulated environment: a mountaintop community surrounded by a cluster of telescopes, satellite receivers, and telecommunication towers. A number of "buildings" are found in the Village, such as a library, a laboratory, and an auditorium. Each building contains an array of information sources and computer simulations. Students navigate through their research with a mentor via imbedded video. The first module will be "Observatory Site Selection." Students will use astronomical data, basic weather information, and sky brightness data to select the best site for an observatory. Students will investigate the six GSMT sites considered by the professional site selection teams. Students will explore weather and basic site issues (e.g., roads and topography) using remote sensing images, computational fluid dynamics results, turbulence profiles, and scintillation of the different sites. Comparison of student problem solving with expert problem solving will also be done as part of the module. As part of a site selection team they will have to construct a case and present it on why they chose a particular site. The second module will address aspects of system engineering and optimization for a GSMT

  13. Dosimetry studies in Zaborie village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, J. E-mail: jtakada@ipc.hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Hoshi, M.; Endo, S.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Kondrashov, A.E.; Petin, D.; Skvortsov, V.; Ivannikov, A.; Tikounov, D.; Gavrilin, Y.; Snykov, V.P

    2000-05-15

    Dosimetry studies in Zaborie, a territory in Russia highly contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, were carried out in July, 1997. Studies on dosimetry for people are important not only for epidemiology but also for recovery of local social activity. The local contamination of the soil was measured to be 1.5-6.3 MBq/m{sup 2} of Cs-137 with 0.7-4 {mu}Sv/h of dose rate. A case study for a villager presently 40 years old indicates estimations of 72 and 269 mSv as the expected internal and external doses during 50 years starting in 1997 based on data of a whole-body measurement of Cs-137 and environmental dose rates. Mean values of accumulated external and internal doses for the period from the year 1986 till 1996 are also estimated to be 130 mSv and 16 mSv for Zaborie. The estimation of the 1986-1996 accumulated dose on the basis of large scale ESR teeth enamel dosimetry provides for this village, the value of 180 mSv. For a short term visitor from Japan to this area, external and internal dose are estimated to be 0.13 mSv/9d (during visit in 1997) and 0.024 mSv/50y (during 50 years starting from 1997), respectively.

  14. Emerging Transnational migration from Romanian villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Sandu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first results of a community census (December 2001 on temporary external migration at the level of all Romanian villages. Local key informants filled in the questionnaire on international temporary migration and its sociodemographic profile. As function of the key destinations, the Romanian villages cluster into six major migration fields: Germany, Hungary, Italy, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Spain. At a more detailed level, considering multiple destinations, those fields break into 15 regions of migration.Village-level analysis of the phenomenon indicates a strong selectivity of migration depending on village characteristics. About 4 percent of the total villages of the country account for more than 60 percent of the total return migration from abroad. These are villages of a high probability of transnationalism. Circular or transnational migration is shown to be connected with the basic characteristics of the migration system of the country: the villages where village to city commuting declined sharply after 1990 and where return migration from cities was high recorded a higher propensity for circular migration abroad. A set of about 2700 villages of high migration prevalence is described as «probable transnational communities».

  15. Quality Management of Lontar Village Coastal Waters, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Rahmawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal waters of Lontar Village is located in Tirtayasa District, Banten. The coastal waters of Lontar Village is also used for fishing activities that become the livelihood of the surrounding community. Communities around the coast of Lontar village dispose of household waste directly into the waters so that the waters become dirty. The existence of these activities can cause the condition of the waters to decrease even can lead to contamination. Decrease in water conditions will affect the living biota inside. Waters quality can be determined by measuring physical, chemical, biological and heavy metal parameters. Physical parameters include brightness, turbidity, and temperature. Chemical parameters are salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, BOD, TSS. The biological parameter is total coliform. The parameters of heavy metals are lead and copper. The purpose of this study is to analyze the quality of coastal waters of Lontar Village based on physical, chemical, biological and heavy metal parameters. The results showed that most of the parameters of water quality (physics, chemistry, biology and heavy metals are still in accordance with the value of water quality standards (Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 51 of 2004 only the value of lead metals exceeding the standard quality. It must be overcome so as not to disrupt the life of biota in the waters. Management that can be done is utilize aquatic biota that can absorb heavy metal content such as green shell (shell should not be consumed, reducing oil spilled from the activity of motor boats (giving box shelter under motor boat engines so that oil does not directly spill into the waters.

  16. Perceptions of Village Dogs by Villagers and Tourists in the Coastal Region of Rural Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of the village dog-keeping system, and of perceptions of dog-related problems by villagers and tourists, in the coastal region of Oaxaca, Mexico. We conducted a survey of the inhabitants of three villages (Mazunte, Puerto Angel, and Río Seco),

  17. Institutional issues in Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents a view on renewable energy resource projects from one much closer to recipient of the services. The author argues that such programs aimed at development of village power situations need to keep certain points clearly in focus. These include the fact that electricity is not the goal, technology is not the problem, site selection involves more than just resource potential, the distinction between demonstration and pilot programs, and that such programs demand local involvement for success. The author recommends coordinating such projects with programs seeking competing funds such as health, education, and transportation. The projects must demonstrate a high economic benefit to justify the high economic cost, and one must use the benefits to leverage the program funding.

  18. Ecology and Demography of Free-Roaming Domestic Dogs in Rural Villages near Serengeti National Park in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryna, Anna M; Brown, Joel S; Bigambo, Machunde A; Whelan, Christopher J; Mehta, Supriya D; Santymire, Rachel M; Lankester, Felix J; Faust, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign. We examined the effects of body condition, sex, age and village on survivorship and reproduction. Furthermore, we compared sources of mortality among villages. We found that adult dogs (>12mos) had higher survival than puppies in all villages. We observed a male-biased sex ratio across all age classes. Overall survival in one non-vaccination village was lower than in the other three villages, all of which had similar survival probabilities. In all villages, dogs in poor body condition had lower survival than dogs in ideal body condition. Sickness and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) predation were the two main causes of dog death. Within vaccination villages, vaccinated dogs had higher survivorship than unvaccinated dogs. Dog population growth, however, was similar in all the villages suggesting village characteristics and ownership practices likely have a greater impact on overall dog population dynamics than vaccination. Free-roaming domestic dogs in rural communities exist in the context of their human owners as well as the surrounding wildlife. Our results did not reveal a clear effect of vaccination programs on domestic dog population dynamics. An investigation of the role of dogs and their care within these communities could provide additional insight for planning and implementing rabies control measures such as mass dog vaccination.

  19. Ecology and Demography of Free-Roaming Domestic Dogs in Rural Villages near Serengeti National Park in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Czupryna

    Full Text Available Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign. We examined the effects of body condition, sex, age and village on survivorship and reproduction. Furthermore, we compared sources of mortality among villages. We found that adult dogs (>12mos had higher survival than puppies in all villages. We observed a male-biased sex ratio across all age classes. Overall survival in one non-vaccination village was lower than in the other three villages, all of which had similar survival probabilities. In all villages, dogs in poor body condition had lower survival than dogs in ideal body condition. Sickness and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta predation were the two main causes of dog death. Within vaccination villages, vaccinated dogs had higher survivorship than unvaccinated dogs. Dog population growth, however, was similar in all the villages suggesting village characteristics and ownership practices likely have a greater impact on overall dog population dynamics than vaccination. Free-roaming domestic dogs in rural communities exist in the context of their human owners as well as the surrounding wildlife. Our results did not reveal a clear effect of vaccination programs on domestic dog population dynamics. An investigation of the role of dogs and their care within these communities could provide additional insight for planning and implementing rabies control measures such as mass dog vaccination.

  20. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S; Anderson, Elaine J; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Dakin, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target's appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  1. Population message from the village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, M

    1979-06-01

    According to a number of participants at the population conference in Ontario, sponsored by the School of Journalism of the Univesity of Western Ontario and the Canadian International Development Agency, the villages, in developing countries, have sent a message to population experts, declaring that the most effective way to motivate individuals toward reducing family size is to improve basic educational and health care services. It has been demonstrated that improvements in these areas, by providing women with educational opportunities and by reducing infant mortality, have a direct impact on fertility. Efforts should be directed toward discovering similar direct correlates. The message dismissed as irrelevant the battle raging between those who advocate that population growth must be halted before poverty can be eliminated, between the developmentalists, who believe that fundamental changes in economic and political conditions will automatically solve the population problem, and between those who declare that family planning and development must be dealt with simultaneously for either to be effective. Despite evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of the 'direct correlate' approach, most developing countries continue to accord top priority to family planning programs and neglect educational and health care services.

  2. Tele-economics of Village Telco

    OpenAIRE

    Innset, Marte Berg

    2014-01-01

    This master s thesis is written in collaboration with Village Telco. VillageTelco is a grass root solution for establishing communication whereno other can or are willing to do so. The business has developed theMeshPotato, a wireless access point, which uses standard Wi-Fi technologycombined with open-source telephony software and a state of the artmesh protocol, to provide low-cost telephony. Today, Village Telco serveas a hardware provider. The master s thesis provides a background studyof ...

  3. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Development Planning of Tourist Village Using Participatory Mapping (Case study: Mambal Village, Badung Regency, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arida, I. N. S.; Wiguna, P. P. K.; Narka, I. W.; Febrianti, N. K. O.

    2017-12-01

    Tourism sector is the highest source of income in Badung Regency so it is interesting to see the development of tourist village as one of the alternative tourist destinations in Badung Regency. Most of the village areas in Badung Regency do not have policies, vision and mission as an effort to develop the village into a tourist village. As a result the role of tourist village does not grow in terms of economic and social community. The purpose of this research is to determine and to map the tourism development plan using participatory mapping. The methodology used in this research is field surveys and interviews for data collection and participatory mapping to map the development plan to support tourism. Mambal village is located in Sub-district of Abiansemal, Badung Regency, Indonesia. Mambal village has the potential to become a tourism village because it is supported by the uniqueness of nature and tradition. Mambal village passed by Ayung river, where along the river there are beautiful cliffs which potential to develop as adventure tourism. There is also Senaung Pengibul Cave with a length of more than 15 meters and is wide enough to pass. Mambal village also has a spiritual tour of Pura Demung and Pancoran Pitu, which has a magical story. Currently farmers in Mambal Village are focusing on developing organic farming, of which 38% of the rice fields present in Mambal are pure organic that produces organic rice. Around the rice field area is also created a jogging track for visitors while enjoying the natural beauty of rice fields. Farmers also cultivate oyster mushrooms. In addition, Mambal Village Community also produces handicraft products that are woven in the form of symmetrical Endek (traditional fabrics) and processed products from used goods such as bags, wallets, pencil boxes and others.

  5. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Skin Test for Paragonimiasis among Schoolchildren and Villagers in Namback District, Luangprabang Province, Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Rim, Han-Jong; Youthanavanh, Vonghachack; Daluny, Bouakhasith; Sengdara, Vongsouvan; Virasack, Banouvong; Bounlay, Phommasak

    2008-01-01

    As a part of a broader effort to determine the status of Paragonimus species infection in Lao PDR, an epidemiological survey was conducted on villagers and schoolchildren in Namback District between 2003 and 2005. Among 308 villagers and 633 primary and secondary schoolchildren, 156 villagers and 92 children evidenced a positive reaction on a Paragonimus skin test. Only 4 schoolchildren out of 128 skin test-positive cases had Paragonimus sp. eggs in their sputum, all of which was collected on 1 day. Several types of crabs, which were identified as the second intermediate host of the Paragonimus species, were collected from markets and streams in a paragonimiasis endemic area for the inspection of metacercariae. Among the examined crabs, only "rock crabs" (Indochinamon ou) harbored Paragonimus sp. metacercariae, and it is speculated that the life cycle of Paragonimus sp. was maintained via rock crabs in Namback District, Lao PDR. PMID:18830059

  7. 25 CFR 91.11 - Domestic animals in village reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic animals in village reserves. 91.11 Section 91.11... VILLAGES, OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.11 Domestic animals in village reserves. (a) No livestock shall... owner of the animal, if known, by certified mail or by posting in the village square. The notice shall...

  8. Measuring the Development Patterns of Urban Villages in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban villages are widespread in many Chinese cities, providing affordable and accessible housing for rural migrants. These urban villages are developed by the indigenous village population base on a self-help approach and in an unauthorized style. Consequently, urban villages are characterized by

  9. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  10. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  11. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  12. The village as a ‘community of practice’ Constitution of village belonging through leisure sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Barlocco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the formation and display of a form of identification alternative to the national one, the belonging to the village, within the leisure practices of Kadazan villagers in Sabah, East Malaysia, both constituted by the regular meetings of peer groups and by festive events. The analysis of the paper applies the concept of ‘community of practice’ to the group of villagers who regularly invest most of their resources of free time, but also money, in interacting between themselves and in organising celebrations for various life-cycle events or for other occasions, and argues that a strong sense of belonging to the village is developed through this engagement. These practices are informed by a powerful and widely spread local ideology, positing the village as the central point of reference for its inhabitants’ sense of belonging and as the locus of a traditionalist ‘way of life’, based on cooperation, sharing and egalitarian principles, and rejecting the modern, multi-ethnic urban world from which the majority of the villagers derive their livelihood. This ideology defines the village as Kadazan and Christian, determining a rootedness in everyday life of ethnic identity as well as a general rejection of government-led nationalist propaganda and of its policies. This ideology is an essential part of the affirmation by the villagers of the primacy of the local and of direct involvement and participation over their sense of belonging to collective categories.

  13. A Comparative Study on the Feng Shui Village Landscape and Feng Shui Trees in East Asia : A Case Study of Ryukyu and Sakishima Islands

    OpenAIRE

    陳 碧霞

    2016-01-01

    Feng Shui is based on empirical observations of the surrounding landform. Majority of researches on Feng Shui in Okinawa concern the historical study, or analyze village layout from perspectives of history, folklore, and architecture. However, a comparative study of Feng Shui in Okinawa with that in mainland topography is little reported. This study aims to clarify a Ryukyu village’s features, focusing on Feng Shui trees and village landscape. (1) In China, and Korea, Feng Shui trees are comm...

  14. Optimal Time to Enter a Retirement Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the financial planning problem of a retiree wishing to enter a retirement village at a future uncertain date. The date of entry is determined by the retiree’s utility and bequest maximisation problem within the context of uncertain future health states. In addition, the retiree must choose optimal consumption, investment, bequest and purchase of insurance products prior to their full annuitisation on entry to the retirement village. A hyperbolic absolute risk-aversion (HARA utility function is used to allow necessary consumption for basic living and medical costs. The retirement village will typically require an initial deposit upon entry. This threshold wealth requirement leads to exercising the replication of an American put option at the uncertain stopping time. From our numerical results, active insurance and annuity markets are shown to be a critical aspect in retirement planning.

  15. Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey; Croft, Steven; McGee, Steven

    1998-04-01

    The Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System is a new product aimed at astronomy instructional materials for middle school audiences. This multimedia development, funded by the NSF, will be suitable for curriculum supplement, presentations, and public outreach in Earth and planetary science. The presentation will highlight one of the research paths from the Village: Is there life on Mars? Students using this curriculum will solve problems in a rich environment that includes images, hands on labs, simulations, presentations, articles, and web pages. The research questions will be presented using multiple working hypothesis format.

  16. The voluntary work based village activism in contemporary Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Kopoteva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the voluntary based village activism in contemporary Finland. The author sees the roots of nowadays village activism in the traditional voluntary work: cultivation of common fields called for cooperation, and decision making on common issues required organisation of village meetings to make a collective decision. As a large social movement the village activism started in 1970s in the course of protest actions driven by the diminishing rural population and abandonment of arable lands. A large-scale establishment of village committees was also determined by the reduction of importance of traditional rural productive cooperation and by the changing role of countryside in the era of industrialisation. Nowadays Finland has a well-developed system of village associations, and its structure consists of three levels: village level, regional level and national level. At the local level, there are more than 4200 villages. In 2013, about 3100 villages had a registered village association and about 930 villages had a non-registered village association. Approximately 200 villages in Finland still do not perform any village activities of the considered type. As a rule, village activism generates in response to the specific needs of the village and aims to guarantee its residents’ well-being. At the regional level, there are 19 regional village associations. The most important tasks for the regional rural organisations are to ensure the villages’ interests and to work as a cooperative body for the rural development at the regional level. The top of the system under consideration is the Village Association of Finland. It is an umbrella organisation for the state, regional and local rural actors. The current development of rural movement in Finland could be evaluated in the framework of several theoretical conceptions: social capital and networking, entrepreneurial culture, and institutionalisation.

  17. Empowering women in villages: all-women village councils in Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gala, C

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the impact of all-women panchayats (village councils) in three small villages in Maharashtra state in India on women's well-being. Field work was conducted during 1991-93 in the villages of Yenora, Metikheda, and Vitner. In 1989 there were nine all-women village councils, which were elected owing to the efforts of a large independent farmers' organization, the Shetkari Sanghatana (SS). Findings indicate that the all-women village councils made a significant difference in women's lives. The mix of male and female leaders varied between the villages and affected the outcomes. The author argues that the strategy for empowerment is more successful than enclave strategies that focus only on a poor minority or radical feminist strategies that insist on women's action and hostility toward male involvement. The legal mandate for the panchayat as a vehicle for development was adopted in Maharashtra in 1965. However, the participation of the community in panchayats was only an assumption. In 1988-89, the 73rd Constitutional Amendment was passed to give power to panchayats and to reserve 30% of the legislative seats for women and backward castes. Prior to 1986, women were appointed, but not elected, to panchayats. During 1986-91, women's interest in local political power increased. As a result of the all-women village councils, women's attitudes toward themselves and their daughters changed in all three villages. Panchayats improved the accessibility of fuel, water, and fodder, which relieved women of their burdens and allowed girls to attend schools. Women's mobility and assets increased. The number of wife-beating incidents declined. Women gained respect in their families and in their maternal homes. Women still had dual labor roles in the labor force and at home. Two of the villages illustrated effective women's leadership. The cases illustrate the effectiveness of a broad-based strategy for women's empowerment.

  18. THE PATEMBAYAN CONCEPT TO SPATIAL CHANGES OF CANDIREJO TOURISM VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARI Suzanna Ratih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Candirejo village is one of villages that had been neglected in Borobudur the famous Buddhist Temple in Indonesia. Since it began to be visited by tourists, the community responded by conducting tourism village space consolidation based on patembayan concept. The process of space consolidation is involving the whole tourist village community and rural assets. The participation of the community in supporting the space consolidation of tourism village has brought a change in the shape of social value and village spatial. The concept of social organization that experienced a shift from community groups into patembayan groups has changed the way people think.

  19. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Village chicken production was characterized using retrospective and crosssectional methods, where 280 households rearing local chickens in Halaba district of southern Ethiopia were used for data collection. The study revealed that the average flock size was 8.5 chickens (95% CI=7.98 – 9.08). The average number of ...

  20. Homesick vulture moves into retirement village

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-01

    Mar 1, 2007 ... Residents of Pietermaritzburg's. Evergreen Retirement Village had a bit of a turn recently when a rare and homesick vulture took up residence in a pine tree in their garden. Believing it to be a harbinger of bad news, one resident apparently turned to another and said,. “We had better do a head count to see.

  1. Space architecture for MoonVillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2017-10-01

    The concept of a multinational MoonVillage, as proposed by Jan Wörner of ESA, is analyzed with respect to diverse factors affecting its implementation feasibility: potential activities and scale as a function of location, technology, and purpose; potential participants and their roles; business models for growth and sustainability as compared to the ISS; and implications for the field of space architecture. Environmental and operations constraints that govern all types of MoonVillage are detailed. Findings include: 1) while technically feasible, a MoonVillage would be more distributed and complex a project than the ISS; 2) significant and distinctive opportunities exist for willing participants, at all evolutionary scales and degrees of commercialization; 3) the mixed-use space business park model is essential for growth and permanence; 4) growth depends on exporting lunar material products, and the rate and extent of growth depends on export customers including terrestrial industries; 5) industrial-scale operations are a precondition for lunar urbanism, which goal in turn dramatically drives technology requirements; but 6) industrial viability cannot be discerned until significant in situ operations occur; and therefore 7) government investment in lunar surface operations is a strictly enabling step. Because of the resources it could apply, the U.S. government holds the greatest leverage on growth, no matter who founds a MoonVillage. The interplanetary business to be built may because for engagement.

  2. Shrinking villages – trajectories for local development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    and services e.g. schools as well as investment. Rural municipalities are challenged due to shrinking villages but by focussing on place bound resources there is a risk of reinforcing disparities between ‘weak’ and ‘strong’ communities as placed bound resources are unevenly distributed. This paper will address...

  3. Spatial Evolution of Urban Villages in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.

    2012-01-01

    Post-reform China has experienced a huge influx of people into cities coupled with massive urban expansion. As a by-product of these processes, urban villages have emerged and evolved rapidly to satisfy the increasing demand for low-cost housing and a variety of social and economic activities. In

  4. Communicative and narrative sound in Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben

    2010-01-01

    The soundtrack of the TV spot Village tells a story of its own. Some of the sounds communicate meaning very close to the visuals, for example by creating an African soundscape. But the soundtrack also supplies narrative elements of its own, which is most remarkable when it adds a happy ending...

  5. Evaluation of Livonian Village Landscapes in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Nitavska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Latvian landscape identity is related to many territories, but as far as the coastal landscapes are concerned, they have some special features. It is important to note that due to storms and coastal erosion living conditions here are frustrating. However the coastal area has some positive magnetism, which is often related to unusual natural conditions, a special aura and unique feelings, because the coastal area is unique on the Latvian scale. One of such places is the Livonian coast. For detailed evaluation of eleven Livonian villages, the method of analysis of the existing situation has been chosen, which also includes the evaluation of the village yard, buildings and infrastructure. The quality and condition evaluation method for rural villages with low level of development by F. G. L. Gremliza (1965 has been also applied as a basis for this evaluation method. Then, according to the results obtained, the villages have been compared and classified. In addition to this, using the evaluation of each rural yard it is possible to mark valuable structures and typical rural yards in the schematic model of the Livonian coast.

  6. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Village chicken production was characterized using retrospective and cross- sectional methods, where 280 households rearing local chickens in Halaba district of southern Ethiopia were used for data collection. The study revealed that the average flock size was 8.5 chickens (95% CI=7.98 – 9.08). The average number of ...

  7. Autour de Montaillou, un village occitan

    OpenAIRE

    Guillot, Florence

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Occupation du sol au Moyen Âge en haute Ariège : naissance d'une forme d'habitat groupé particulière, les villages casaliers, densification des habitats groupés avant l'an Mil.

  8. Stable Isotopes Reveal Nitrogen Loading to Lake Tanganyika from Remote Shoreline Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brianne; Mtiti, Emmanuel; McIntyre, Peter B.; Vadeboncoeur, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Access to safe water is an ongoing challenge in rural areas in Tanzania where communities often lack access to improved sanitation. Methods to detect contamination of surface water bodies, such as monitoring nutrient concentrations and bacterial counts, are time consuming and results can be highly variable in space and time. On the northeast shore of Lake Tanganyika, Tanzania, the low population density coupled with the high potential for dilution in the lake necessitates the development of a sensitive method for detecting contamination in order to avoid human health concerns. We investigated the potential use of nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes of snail tissues to detect anthropogenic nutrient loading along the northeast shore of Lake Tanganyika. δ15N of snails was positively related to human population size in the nearest village, but only for villages with >4000 inhabitants. The areal footprint of villages within their watershed was also significantly correlated with snail δ15N, while agricultural land use and natural vegetation were not. Dissolved nutrient concentrations were not significantly different between village and reference sites. Our results indicate that nitrogen isotopes provide a sensitive index of local nutrient loading that can be used to monitor contamination of oligotrophic aquatic environments with low surrounding population densities.

  9. Village operator feasibility framework: A recommended method for assessing the viability of village operator sites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Staden, R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available guidelines for investigation. To provide a basis for decision-making and comparison, a Feasibility Scorecard is included. The scorecard compares the Village Operator against a standard set of statements that are considered universal characteristics of viable...

  10. PHYSICAL EDUCATION COURSE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN VILLAGE INSTITUTES: A CASE OF CIFTELER VILLAGE INSTITUTE

    OpenAIRE

    Bayrak, Coşkun; Çelik, Veli

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The current study aims at examining the content, objectives and applications of the course titled “Physical Education and National Folklore Dances”, one of the culture courses available in the curriculum of Village Institutes focusing on daily physical activities. For the purposes of the study, a qualitative study was designed, in which a number of interviews were carried out with six teachers who graduated from village institutes in various years and a t...

  11. All in a day's work -- women of village Kamad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, L; Devi, Y; Mendhapurkar, S

    1993-02-01

    The conditions of rural women in villages of Kamad, Dhandi, Kumarkot, and Brahmpuri in Uttar Pradesh in India are revealed in the responses of 3 women to questions about their life. Improvement in women's conditions can be accomplished by empowerment; the women agreed that having women's groups and open discussion would help women stand up to their husbands who beat them or take their money. Conversations with the women were initially blocked by the village men, but after 5 months, dialogues were conducted. The conversations reflect very labor-intensive activity every day regardless of the season. Jungle surrounds the villages and the climate is harsh with both monsoons and snow. Men do not care for their women very well, and health and reproductive functions are neglected. The women are hopeful that things will change. Minu Devi explained that she was bought for Rs.5000 by her husband when she was 6-7 years old, but most now marry at 12-14 years and the girl's father is paid Rs.20,000-30,000. The work day is 18-20 hours. If the husband is disobeyed or the wife refuses to work, the husband tells his wife that he has the right to beat her. Minu's first child was born when she was 13-14, but died within hours. There was no understanding of prenatal or postnatal care. The practice of childbirth was described: living in the cattle house on a bed of paddy husks, and giving birth with the help of a Dai. The mother cuts the umbilical cord with a sickle and heats water to bathe herself and baby. Cooking, squatting, and washing clothes are all performed in the cattle house. A ration of rice and ghee is provided. After 24 hours, the mother must walk to a crossroads and throw away the birth remains and bathe within 3 days. On day 5 she is allowed to go to the river to wash clothes. Others may not touch her clothes and her path is sprinkled with cow urine. Day 11 brings with it some salt for the rice portion. Thereafter she may move to another room although still without

  12. What Drives the Spatial Development of Urban Villages in China?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341235814; Hooimeijer, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073398578; Sliuzas, R.; Geertman, S.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924

    2013-01-01

    China’s dramatic urban expansion has encompassed many peri-urban villages and turned them into so-called urban villages that provide a niche housing market for rural migrants for whom the formal housing market is unaffordable. Yet urban villages are very distinct from informal settlements elsewhere,

  13. Spatial diversity of urban village development in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic urbanization in China during the reform period has led to the emergence and proliferation of so-called urban villages in many cities. The development of urban villages, based on a self-help approach of indigenous villagers, has been satisfying great demand for migrant housing and space for

  14. TOPOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCATION OF SPARSE VILLAGE AT AN ALLUVIAL FUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shuhei; Nii, Akiyoshi

    This paper aims to clarify the topographical characteristics of location of sparse village at an alluvial fan. For that purpose, using the map which can grasp microtopography, examined the relation between topographical location of head families and Shinto shrines, and their site devices. As a result, the following points are mainly clarified. 1) The way of catching called a geographical feature line is effective in an alluvial fan. 2) The head family tends to be located in advantageous topographical feature on prevention of floods. Especially head families chose the place which cannot suffer damage of a fl ood easily although it is lower than the surrounding land. 3) It suggested that the Shinto shrines were established in the position which protects a colony from a fl ood from the topographical location feature of them, spatial relationship with the village, and the tradition of them.

  15. Local Computation of Lightness on Articulated Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Sawayama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lightness of a grey target on a uniform light (or dark surround changes by articulating the surround (articulation effect. To elucidate the processing of lightness underlying the articulation effect, the present study introduced transparency over a dark surround and investigated its effects on lightness of the target. The transparency was produced by adding a contiguous external field to the dark surround while keeping local stimulus configuration constant. Results showed that the target lightness did not change on the articulated surround when a dark transparent filter was perceived over the target, although it did on the uniform surround. These results suggest that image decomposition into a transparent filter and an underlying surface does not necessarily change lightness of the surface if the surface is articulated. Moreover, the present study revealed that articulating the surround does not always enhance lightness contrast; it can reduce the contrast effect when the target luminance is not the highest within the surround. These findings are consistent with the theoretical view that lightness perception on articulated surfaces is determined locally within a spatially limited region, and they also place a constraint on how the luminance distribution within the limited region is scaled.

  16. The Eyam plague revisited: did the village isolation change transmission from fleas to pulmonary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, E; Coutinho, F A B; Burattini, M N; Lopez, L F

    2004-01-01

    Back in the 17th century the Derbyshire village of Eyam fell victim to the Black Death, which is thought to have arrived from London in some old clothes brought by a travelling tailor. The village population was 350 at the commencement of plague, of which only 83 survived. Led by the church leaders, the village community realized that the whole surrounding region was at risk from the epidemic, and therefore decided to seal themselves off from the other surrounding villages. In the first 275 days of the outbreak, transmission was predominantly from infected fleas to susceptible humans. From then onward, mortality sharply increased, which indicates a changing in transmission pattern. We hypothesize that the confinement facilitated the spread of the infection by increasing the contact rate through direct transmission among humans. This would be more consistent with pulmonary plague, a deadlier form of the disease. In order to test the above hypothesis we designed a mathematical model for plague dynamics, incorporating both the indirect (fleas-rats-humans) and direct (human-to-human) transmissions of the infection. Our results show remarkable agreement between data and the model, lending support to our hypotheses. The Eyam plague episode is celebrated as a remarkable act of collective self-sacrifice. However, to the best of our knowledge, there were no evidence before that the confinement actually increased the burden payed by the commoners. In the light of our results, it can be said that the hypothesis that confinement facilitated the spread of the infection by increasing the contact rate through direct transmission is plausible.

  17. Perspectives on renewable energy and Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    The author provides a brief overview of the role the Department of Energy has been playing in the area of renewable energy sources and their applications at a village level. Energy demand is rising sharply, and shortages are becoming more acute. Developing countries will present a large demand, and market opportunity over the next 40 years. Environmental concerns are a factor in the choice for what sources to promote and develop. The author touches on the features of renewable sources which makes them attractive to DOE for some applications, and what the goals of the department are in supporting this technology. Examples of applications at the level of village power are presented for both the US and abroad.

  18. Heterogeneity and Risk Sharing in Village Economies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappori, Pierre-André; Samphantharak, Krislert; Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam; Townsend, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    We show how to use panel data on household consumption to directly estimate households’ risk preferences. Specifically, we measure heterogeneity in risk aversion among households in Thai villages using a full risk-sharing model, which we then test allowing for this heterogeneity. There is substantial, statistically significant heterogeneity in estimated risk preferences. Full insurance cannot be rejected. As the risk sharing, as-if-complete-markets theory might predict, estimated risk preferences are unrelated to wealth or other characteristics. The heterogeneity matters for policy: Although the average household would benefit from eliminating village-level risk, less-risk-averse households who are paid to absorb that risk would be worse off by several percent of household consumption. PMID:24932226

  19. Heterogeneity and Risk Sharing in Village Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappori, Pierre-André; Samphantharak, Krislert; Schulhofer-Wohl, Sam; Townsend, Robert M

    2014-03-01

    We show how to use panel data on household consumption to directly estimate households' risk preferences. Specifically, we measure heterogeneity in risk aversion among households in Thai villages using a full risk-sharing model, which we then test allowing for this heterogeneity. There is substantial, statistically significant heterogeneity in estimated risk preferences. Full insurance cannot be rejected. As the risk sharing, as-if-complete-markets theory might predict, estimated risk preferences are unrelated to wealth or other characteristics. The heterogeneity matters for policy: Although the average household would benefit from eliminating village-level risk, less-risk-averse households who are paid to absorb that risk would be worse off by several percent of household consumption.

  20. Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses of village dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Ortolani, A.; Ortega-Pacheco, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisation of village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developed countries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responses towards familiar and

  1. SERVIR Town Hall - Connecting Space to Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel; Albers, Cerese

    2013-01-01

    SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID project, strives to improve environmental decision making through the use of Earth observations, models, and geospatial technology innovations. SERVIR connects these assets with the needs of end users in Mesoamerica, East Africa, and Hindu Kush-Himalaya regions. This Town Hall meeting will engage the AGU community by exploring examples of connecting Space to Village with SERVIR science applications.

  2. Encouraging girl child education in my village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Entongwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My critical reflection will be drawn from an experience I had just a year after my graduation from the university where I was appointed as one of the X-students to lead a student cultural week in my village with the theme “raising awareness on education”. At the university, I was a member of my association in which students from my tribe generally come together to promote unity and encourage others in education. My role was to present a discourse on girl child education all the entire villagers who were gathered at the village square that evening. A high dropout rate at school and illiteracy are major problems in my region, in which there is still a great deal of gender disparity when it comes to educating children, especially the girl child. This programme is in line with the government’s policy of promoting education in my country, whose priority is for education to reach the grass-roots communities.

  3. Organizational Characteristics Associated With the Predicted Sustainability of Villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Andrew E; Lehning, Amanda J; Davitt, Joan K; Greenfield, Emily A; Graham, Carrie L

    2017-02-01

    Guided by resource dependence theory, this mixed-methods study examined organizational characteristics contributing to the perceived sustainability of Villages, a rapidly proliferating grassroots approach for promoting social participation and service access for community-dwelling older adults. Surveys conducted with leaders of 86% of Villages in the United States in 2012 found that higher predicted confidence in their Village's 10-year survival was associated with greater financial reserves, human resources, number of Village members, formal policies and procedures, and formal collaboration agreements. Respondents' explanations of their confidence ratings revealed additional themes of organizational leadership and perceived community need. Member resource inputs were not found to be as salient for Village leaders' perceptions of sustainability as was anticipated given the Village model's emphasis on consumer involvement. Despite the lack of longitudinal prospective data, study findings suggest potential limitations of consumer-driven organizational models such as Villages, including the need for a more stable resource base.

  4. Indigenous utilization of termite mounds and their sustainability in a rice growing village of the central plain of Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivilay Sengdeaune

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the indigenous utilization of termite mounds and termites in a rain-fed rice growing village in the central plain of Laos, where rice production is low and varies year-to-year, and to assess the possibility of sustainable termite mound utilization in the future. This research was carried out from 2007 to 2009. Methods The termites were collected from their mounds and surrounding areas and identified. Twenty villagers were interviewed on their use of termites and their mounds in the village. Sixty-three mounds were measured to determine their dimensions in early March, early July and middle to late November, 2009. Results Eleven species of Termitidae were recorded during the survey period. It was found that the villagers use termite mounds as fertilizer for growing rice, vegetable beds and charcoal kilns. The villagers collected termites for food and as feed for breeding fish. Over the survey period, 81% of the mounds surveyed increased in volume; however, the volume was estimated to decrease by 0.114 m3 mound-1 year-1 on average due to several mounds being completely cut out. Conclusion It was concluded that current mound utilization by villagers is not sustainable. To ensure sustainable termite utilization in the future, studies should be conducted to enhance factors that promote mound restoration by termites. Furthermore, it will be necessary to improve mound conservation methods used by the villagers after changes in the soil mass of mounds in paddy fields and forests has been measured accurately. The socio-economic factors that affect mound utilization should also be studied.

  5. Monitoring of "urban villages" in Shenzhen, China from high-resolution GF-1 and TerraSAR-X data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunzhu; Blaschke, Thomas; Taubenböck, Hannes

    2015-10-01

    Urban villages comprise mainly low-rise and congested, often informal settlements surrounded by new constructions and high-rise buildings whereby structures can be very different between neighboring areas. Monitoring urban villages and analyzing their characteristics are crucial for urban development and sustainability research. In this study, we carried out a combined analysis of multispectral GaoFen-1 (GF-1) and high resolution TerraSAR-X radar (TSX) imagery to extract the urban village information. GF-1 and TSX data are combined with the Gramshmidt spectral sharpening method so as to provide new input data for urban village classification. The Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) approach was also applied to four directions to provide another four types (all, 0°, 90°, 45° directions) of TSX-based inputs for urban village detection. We analyzed the urban village mapping performance using the Random Forest approach. The results demonstrate that the best overall accuracy and the best producer accuracy of urban villages reached with the GLCM 90° dataset (82.33%, 68.54% respectively). Adding single polarization TSX data as input information to the optical image GF-1 provided an average product accuracy improvement of around 7% in formal built-up area classification. The SAR and optical fusion imagery also provided an effective means to eliminate some layover, shadow effects, and dominant scattering at building locations and green spaces, improving the producer accuracy by 7% in urban area classification. To sum up, the added value of SAR information is demonstrated by the enhanced results achievable over built-up areas, including formal and informal settlements.

  6. Factors associated with dengue prevention and control in two villages in a central Thai province: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakolwiboon, Smathorn; Benjatikul, Nattorn; Sathianvichitr, Kanchalika; Prapathrangsee, Kawintra; Tienmontri, Taniya; Ratanaamonsakul, Wirote; Assantachai, Prasert; Homsanit, Mayuree

    2013-08-01

    To study the factors associated with dengue prevention and control in Moo 6 (the 6th village) and Moo 7 of Tambon Kaeng-phak-kut, Thaluang District, Lopburi Province. The authors reviewed the raw data collected by public health officers and village health volunteers (VHVs) as their routine tasks. The authors analyzed the data, 30 dwellings per each village, to compare the demographics, knowledge, attitude, and practice of subjects from Moo 6, a dengue-outbreak community, with that from Moo 7, a control group, as well as larval indices between these 2 studied groups. The present retrospective study is approved by Siriraj Institutional Review Board, Certificate of Approval No. Si393/2012. Both groups of subjects had no statistically significant difference in basic dengue knowledge (p = 0.862), attitude towards dengue prevention and control, practical knowledge (p = 0.457), and actual practice to eliminate Aedes larvae and prevent it laying eggs, except for the practice of managing water container in bathroom or toilet (p = 0.015). On the other hand, dengue incidence and larval indices of both villages were apparently different. Although incorrect basic dengue and practical knowledge of subjects from both villages were similar dengue outbreak in Moo 6 of Tambon Kaeng-phak-kut was superior. It may be due to difference in actual practice on larval elimination in water container in bathroom or toilet as well as other factors other than personal factors such as public services, public places, and community surroundings.

  7. Thermal Performance of Traditional and New Concept Houses in the Ancient Village of San Pedro De Atacama and Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Palme

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Earth, wood and others traditional materials are still used in house constructions in many regions of the world, especially in the Andes. San Pedro de Atacama, for example, is a small town where earth blocks (adobes and rammed earth (tapial are important ways to construct, an art passed on through generations. Energy properties of earth are very interesting: thermal conductivity is low; heat storage capacity is high; color is variable and can be used to absorb or to reject solar radiation. However, nowadays the government social dwelling service is proposing a different type of construction, which does not maintain any relation with the tradition. This paper presents simulation studies and monitoring of four different San Pedro houses, constructed by using different techniques and materials. Results can be used to discuss the thermal performance needed in desert climate and the reliability of social dwelling service houses, under construction at this time in the town.

  8. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    A series of Moon Village Workshops were organised at ESTEC and at ILEWG community events in 2015 and 2016. They gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. Three working groups focused on 1) Moon Habitat Design; 2) science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and 3) engaging stake-holders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacuum. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community and creating social places for astronauts to interact and relax. The

  9. Millennium Global Village-Net: bringing together Millennium Villages throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Andrew S; Negin, Joel; Olayo, Bernard; Bukachi, Frederick; Johnson, Edward; Sachs, Sonia Ehrlich

    2009-12-01

    The Millennium Villages Project (MVP), based at The Earth Institute at Columbia University, is a bottom-up, community led approach to show how villages in developing countries can get out of the poverty trap that afflicts more than a billion people worldwide. With well-targeted, practical inputs can help the community invest in a path leading to self-sustaining development. There are 80 Millennium Villages clustered in 10 countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa. MVP is an important development process for empowering communities to invest in a package of integrated interventions aiming to increase food production, improve access to safe water, health care, education and infrastructure. The process benefits from synergies of the integrated approach and relies on community leadership as empowered by proven technological inputs. MVP is committed to a science-based approach to assess and monitor the progress of the communities towards clear objectives; the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to do so with mechanisms that are scalable and sustainable. This approach offers much more than simply collecting and analyzing data since the mechanism used for recording progress would provide a bridge over the divide which separates the haves and the have-nots (by facilitating the sharing of solutions from one community to another bidirectionally). By so doing, it allows people to enhance their own futures in a sustainable manner. Solutions found in one community are transferable to similar communities in other MVP villages. To achieve this goal, the MVP requires an information and communication system which can provide both necessary infrastructure for monitoring and evaluation, and tools for communicating among the villages, cities and countries. This system is called the Millennium Global Village-Net (MGV-Net). It takes advantage of the latest in open source software (OpenMRS), databases (MySQL), interface terminology, a centralized concept dictionary, and uses appropriate

  10. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  11. Phytophagy on phylogenetically isolated trees: why hosts should escape their relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yguel, B.; Bailey, R.; Everhart, D.; Vialatte, A.; Vasseur, C.; Vitrac, X.; Prinzing, A.

    2011-01-01

    Hosts belonging to the same species suffer dramatically different impacts from their natural enemies. This has been explained by host neighbourhood, that is, by surrounding host-species diversity or spatial separation between hosts. However, even spatially neighbouring hosts may be separated by many

  12. Lessons learned -- NREL Village Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, a workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to discuss the issues of applying renewable energy in a sustainable manner to international rural development. One of the summary recommendations was that NREL could assist in the renewable energy for rural electrification effort by developing and supplying six related activities: resource assessment, comparative analysis and modeling, performance monitoring and analysis, pilot project development, internet-based project data, communications, and training. In response to this recommendation, NREL launched its Village Power Program consisting of these activities that cut across NREL technologies and disciplines. Currently NREL is active in 20 countries, with pilot projects in 12 of those countries. At this time the technologies include photovoltaics, wind, biomass, and hybrids. The rural applications include home lighting and communications, water pumping, schools and health posts, battery charging stations, ecotourism, and village systems. These pilot projects are central to the renewable energy village power development through the demonstration of three aspects critical to replication and implementation of the projects on a significant scale. The three aspects are technical functionality, economic competitiveness, and institutional sustainability. It is important to note that the pilot projects from which NREL's experience has been gained were funded and, in many cases, developed by other organizations and agencies. NREL's role has been one of technical assistance or project management or both. The purpose of this paper is to describe the lessons NREL staff has gleaned from their participation in the various pilot projects. The author hopes that these lessons will help the Renewable Energy-Based Rural Electrification (RERE) community in implementing sustainable projects that lead to replication.

  13. Agricultural production in Kikwawila village, southeastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, A; Jeje, B; Tanner, M; Freyvogel, T A

    1987-06-01

    Food production, land utilisation and agricultural structures were surveyed at Kikwawila village, north of Ifakara (Kilombero District, Morogoro Region) in 1984. This study was part of a more comprehensive, longitudinal programme to investigate the health status of a rural community, aiming in particular at the interrelations between nutrition, parasitic infections, immunity and the environment. Out of 340 households, 100 were interviewed and their subsistence farming activities recorded. The soil was found to be of great variability, being fertile where it was of alluvial origin but of reduced potential where it was non-alluvial. In all, 70 plant species were registered as being cultivated, with rice, maize, cassava and beans providing the main staple food. Apart from a few exceptions, the fields were cultivated without any mechanization. The seasonal distribution of agricultural work is described, but no detailed workload analysis of the villagers with regard to age and sex has been performed. At the foot of the mountains, where artificial irrigation has been introduced, dry season cropping was practised in addition to the prevailing wet season farming, which rendered the cultivation of marketable crops (mainly tomatoes) possible. The farmers were found to be imaginative and capable of adapting to various conditions, irrespective of their tribal origins. Alternatively, the quality of the soil and the unreliable availability of water set limits to the potential of food production in the area. Although land is still available, it is becoming more scarce as the human population increases. The further impoverishment of the land represents an imminent danger. Therefore, top priority ought to be given to soil conservation, followed by intercropping and/or crop rotation, seed production and crop protection against game and pests. Means of implementing such measures are discussed. It is suggested that Community Agricultural Workers be installed, elected by the villagers

  14. Ritual Change in a Turkish Alevi Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas McElwain

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a documentation and analysis of change in ritual in the village of Sarilar, on the west bank of the Euphrates River near Yavuseli, Gaziantep. The research problem posed was identification of ritual change within the consultants' memory and some tentative ways of situating such change within the socio-economic context. The mysticism of the dervish lodge remains as a certain life attitude along with the new views of modernization that have been so well inculcated. Although modernization, at least in the Turkish Alevi context, tends to conflict with the mystical experience of the Bektashi dervish in some areas, a democratized inner core remains.

  15. Model strategy for village development in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav ROLÍNEK

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The model strategies discussed in this article represent different ways of possible village development in the Czech Republic. We used typologies of strategies from business strategic management for their definition. Twenty municipalities, where structured interviews were carried out with their mayors, were chosen randomly from among 100 villages where a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2012 (Faltová Leitmanová, et al., 2012. Based on the qualitative analysis of the structured interview summaries, eight model strategies were ascertained. These include integration strategy, service differentiation, spending cuts, usage of municipal property, stabilization of village population, business support, fundraising, and identification of the inhabitants with the village (village pride. The most commonly applied model strategy is integration, followed by village population stabilization.

  16. The Ohrberg solar village; Solarsiedlung am Ohrberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanoli, K.; Christoffers, D.; Rockendorf, G. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany). Abt. Systemtechnik von Solarenergieanlagen; Kranz, R. [Elektrizitaetswerke Wesertal GmbH, Hameln (Germany). Abt. Energieberatung/Energiekonzepte

    1998-02-01

    As an officially approved regional project of the EXPO 2000, the Ohrberg Solar Village will demonstrate an integrated energy concept - combining customer information and counseling, modern energy technologies and energy services rendered by utilities - which reduces the consumption of conventional energy ressources and the CO{sub 2}-emissions. The local utility Wesertal GmbH will equip the 82 low-energy solar houses of the village with reliable, cost-effective and innovative energy technologies and will provide energy services on the basis of a user-friendly contract. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Solarsiedlung am Ohrberg demonstriert als registriertes Regionalprojekt der EXPO 2000, wie ein integriertes Energiekonzept - bestehend aus umfassender Energieberatung, Einsatz moderner Energietechnologien und einem Nutz-Energie-Dienstleistungsangebot der Energieversorger - einen substantiellen Beitrag zur Ressourcenschonung und zur Reduzierung der klimarelevanten Umweltbelastung leisten kann. Das regionale Energieversorgungsunternehmen Wesertal GmbH wird innovative, erprobte, kostenguenstige, rationelle und regenerative Energieversorgungstechniken in den 82 solaren Niedrigenergiehaeusern dieser Siedlung installieren und die Waermeversorgung im Rahmen eines Waermedienstleistungskonzeptes uebernehmen. (orig.)

  17. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  18. International Lifestyle Migration and Social Marginalization on the Tourism Village

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kolopaking, Lala

    2016-01-01

    By conducting qualitative research that supported with quantitative data analysis, it has founded that International lifestyle migration which committed by Middle East citizens (Saudi Arabian and Qatar) at South Tugu Village, Cisarua in East Java Indonesia as the destination for village tourism - have been raising social unequality. International lifestyle migration process on this village had occured along with International refugee resettlement from Asian country (Pakistan, Afganistan, Moro...

  19. Related factors for defecation behaviour at Bandar Village

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiana, Anna; Herawaty, Lucky

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bandar Batauga village is the village which implements STBM program pillar 1 related stop open defecation but in practice has not been in line with expectations. Besides diarrhea cases recorded in Batauga health center is also very high, as many as 304 cases. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors associated with Community attitudes in defecation in Bandar Batauga village Batauga district South Buton Regency. Method: This study is study with mixed method, with conve...

  20. The physical impoverishment and decay of Danish villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    For the latest 30 years the physical environment (buildings, gardens, roads and spaces, etc.) in the Danish villages has undergone drastic changes. Many villages near the large towns are drowned in growth and modern buildings, and other villages in the Danish outskirts are hit by decline and phys......, a regional and local authority level as well as the local level, including a discussion of the Danish rural district policy before and after the re-adjustment of the farm subsidypolicy in the EU....

  1. Implementation of village empower program in supporting form of institutions of village business institutions (BUMDes (Study on Dayang Suri Village Bungaraya Sub District Siak Regency Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiah Sufi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the implementation of village empowerment program in support of institutional formation of Village Owned Enterprise (BUMDes. The research carried out at Dayang Suri Village, Bungaraya Subdistrict, Siak Regency at UED-SP Karya Bersama. The data used consist of secondary data in the form of documents relating to the implementation of village empowerment program in support of the formation of BUMDes and primary data in the form of direct observation of research location and interview with key informant. Data analysis employed in descriptively qualitative. Based on the result, it mentioned that into the preparation stage, implementation and principles of management of UED-SP Karya Bersama program has been relatively good. However, there are still less maximal aspects such as lack of socialization conducted by village government, lack of transparency or clarity of information by village fund managers and lack of village facilitators as facilitators in decision making. Keywords: poverty, community empowerment, savings and loans, transparency

  2. Characterization of the Radiological Environment at J-Village during Operation Tomodachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    was built for Japan’s co-hosting of the World Cup in 2002 (Natakoji, 2011). The J-Village complex serves as the Japan Football Association’s National...alrcran. An air sample was collected over a 1 hr 15min period utllll:.lng a low now air pump on loan from Ute DOE. GPS coordlnates were obtained from the...air crew as Ute Trimble GPS could not obtain sateUite lock from Inside the helicopter. Upon return or DV’s to the helicopter, each PAX was scanned

  3. The Influence of Environmental Change on Village Safety in Mountain Area: A Case Study of Haucha Village in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Shang; Huang, Wen-Shun; Jan, Chyan-Deng; Yeh, Nai-Ching

    2015-04-01

    Haucha Village is an indigenous tribe of Rukai people in Pingtung County, Taiwan. Due to the difficulty of providing transportation, education, medical services and jobs, residents were migrated from "Kochapongan" to Haucha village by local authorities in 1980. The site of the relocation is located three km away from Haucha. The new residents in Haucha village lived safely and peacefully before 1996. However, Typhoon Herb brought the first debris flow hazard in 1996, and it caused four deaths. Then, several typhoons caused some damage to the village. Recently, Haucha village was destroyed during typhoon Morakot in 2009 when 128 buildings were buried by sediments. In this study, we used historical map, typhoon records, rainfall data, and the change of river bed elevation to determine the environmental change and the safety of Haucha village. Our results show that Haucha village was located on sand bar of Southern Ailiao stream before 1924, and formed a river terrace between 1925~1960 that was 30m higher than the river bed. Local authorities decided to move Rukai people from Kochapongan to Haucha in 1970. After 30 years, the elevation of Haucha village was equal to the river bed, in other words, the village formed a flood plain of Southern Ailiao stream after typhoon Morakot in 2009. The present landscape of Haucha village looks similar to the one 100 years ago. Morphological changes of mountain area is more rapid than plain changes, hence, we should considered larger temporal and spatial scales to evaluate the village`s safety in the mountain area.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Termiteria and Surrounding Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magashi

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Variations in the properties of termitaria and their surrounding soil properties within the University of ... and animals. Keywords: AAS, Heavy metals, Makurdi, Soils, Termites. INTRODUCTION. Termites are eusocial insects that live in colonies composed of individuals from ... Also, termite's effects resulted in.

  5. Surround-gated vertical nanowire quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Weert, M.H.M.; Den Heijer, M.; Van Kouwen, M.P.; Algra, R.E.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.; Zwiller, V.

    2010-01-01

    We report voltage dependent photoluminescence experiments on single indium arsenide phosphide (InAsP) quantum dots embedded in vertical surround-gated indium phosphide (InP) nanowires. We show that by tuning the gate voltage, we can access different quantum dot charge states. We study the

  6. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the religious persuasion on the social boundaries surrounding gender. Gender has been a contentious issue that is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. In the light of this, scholars' views on the subject matter were considered. Thus, this indicates ...

  7. Lighting: The Killer App of Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper looks at lighting systems as the major market for village level power generation. To the consumer it is something which is needed, could come from a much friendlier source, and the issues of affordability, convenience, and reliability are important. To the supplier lighting has an enormous range of potential customers, it opens the opportunity for other services, and even small demand can give big returns. Because the efficiency of the light source is critical to the number of lights which a fixed power supply can drive, it is important to pick the proper type of bulb to use in this system. The paper discusses test results from an array of fluorescent and incadescent lamps, compared with a kerosene lamp. Low wattage fluorescents seem to perform the best.

  8. BERCENI VILLAGE - A SOCIAL-ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina IORGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural modernization aims at maintaining rural societies through occupational diversification that will improvequality of life and avoid rural exodus. It aims to acquire some features of the modern world such as those related totechnical, increased productivity, infrastructure, whereby rural community enriches its identity, acquiring newmeanings.This study is a close social-economical analysis of the countryside households of Berceni village. Berceniis in the southern county of Ilfov near Bucharest. It is based on the statistical data provided by National Institute ofStatistics. The data have been processed into the following indicators:age structure and gender, births and deaths,feminization, migration .Considering that human resources is the main factor in developing and moderinization ofrural space, this study is aimed to investigate as well, the posibility of diversifying inhabitants’ occupationsaccording to pshicologycal, social and economical resources.

  9. Jesus the village psychiatrist: A summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Capps

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper was a response to a panel discussion on the author’s book, Jesus the village psychiatrist, published by Westminster John Knox Press, Louisville, KY, 2008 which formed part of the Society of Biblical Literature’s Psychology and Biblical Studies Section, 21–24 November 2009, New Orleans, LA. The response consisted of an explanation of somatoform disorders, a summary of the book and the following case studies: the case of Fraulein Elisabeth, the case of paralytics, the case of blind persons, the demon-possessed boy, the case of the woman with a haemorrhage, the healings of lepers and the woman who cared for Jesus. The paper concluded with a discussion on words and their power to cure. It illustrated how symptomatology had changed from paralysis in the 19th century to chronic fatigue in the first half of the 20th century to stress today.

  10. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is difficult to detect β-SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, β-SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/β-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in ...

  11. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its ...

  12. Moving Towards Eco Cultural Tourism Village (A Case Study of Pondok Cabe Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kurniawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies some eco-cultural tourism attraction potentials that exist in PondokCabeUdik Village Tangerang Selatan Indonesia. In addition, it investigates local people’s opinion on tourism development. The objective is to provide a preliminary overview of eco-tourism development. This study is a descriptive study that uses three types of instrument in data collection method, including questionnaire, interview and field observation. The data is then analyzed using SWOT analysis. The result indicated that natural potential include farming, lake and fish pond, and chicken hatchery. Cultural potentials include cultural diversity that depicted in praying houses and culinary. 194 respondents involved are the locals. The result showed thatthere is positive view from the local community on the availability of tourism potentials and development in the future. It is proposed that environmental awareness, education, ecotourism development, and consensus buildingare needed to implement eco cultural tourism concept. Keywords: Tourism, Eco-Cultural, Village, Planning and Development

  13. The basotho cultural village: Cultural tourism enterprise or custodian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent to which the Basotho Cultural Village manages to conserve indigenous knowledge systems was investigated. The research was conducted making use of a knowledge audit. Structured interviews were administered to employees as well as to visitors to the Basotho Cultural Village. The investigation was inspired ...

  14. The Village Green Project: Lesson Plans for K-8 Educators ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains lesson plans spanning kindergarten through 8th grade, that are written to connect next-generation science standards (USA) to the Village Green Project and related air quality topics. This document contains a series of classroom lesson plans to support connections between the Village Green Project and the USA National Science Standards at various education levels.

  15. Fertility Status of Fadama Soils in Gantsare Village, Wamakko Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Gantsare village, Wamakko local government, Sokoto state to determine the effect of cement dust emitted from Sokoto cement factory on the fertility of fadama soils. Soil samples were collected in June, 2008 from the eastern, northeastern, and southeastern parts of the village and Girabshi; ...

  16. Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    87 in~ividuals traced 2 years after hospital discharge were found well and active in their villages. 4 died in villages after hospital treatment. 3 relapsed and were readmitted to hospital. Sera from 160 game ranger volunteers and from 82 suspected cases_of Rhodesian sleeping sickness were tested by use of ELISA, IF AT ...

  17. Fertility Status of Fadama Soils in Gantsare Village, Wamakko Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: A study was conducted in Gantsare village, Wamakko local government, Sokoto state to determine the effect of cement dust emitted from Sokoto cement factory on the fertility of fadama soils. Soil samples were collected in June, 2008 from the eastern, northeastern, and southeastern parts of the village and ...

  18. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOREST VILLAGES IN ARTVIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devlet Toksoy

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest villages have been considered apart from the villagers who live on the other rural areas in Turkey since the last quarter of the XIX th century. This type of villagers is supported to the priority for the forest works and to purchase reduced prize for the forest products. On the other hand these villagers are also instructed and exhorted about the subjects like animal husbandry, carpet business etc. However, these villagers are the poorest part of the society at the moment. This study is based on a direct interview survey which was performed to 100 householders from 15 villages to determine the demographic, social, cultural, economic etc. characteristics of villagers and to assist in reaching positive results by using these characteristics in prepared various plans. According the results, the rate of university education is 4% and the active population corresponds to 70%. The 31% of forest villagers are get along with agriculture, only 1 % of the sampled people are get along with forestry. Furthermore, none of the people thinks that forestry is the first level job opportunity for their future.

  19. The land use diversity of urban villages in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.; Sliuzas, R.

    2012-01-01

    China’s dynamic urbanisation since 1978 has led to the proliferation of so-called ‘urban villages’ in many cities. Their development, via a self-help approach by indigenous villagers, delivers low-cost housing and various other social and economic activities. Consequently, urban villages are

  20. The Concept of Village Autonomy in Indonesia (Indonesian Constitution Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifqi Ridlo Phahlevy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia was introduced to the term, “village autonomy” in 1970s; however, throughout the past years of establishing autonomous villages in Indonesia, the legislators have not been able to provide any clarity about this concept. Villages, as a legal entity, do not have enough independence to represent themselves as an autonomous unit of community in the state administration system of Indonesia. Article 18B and 28I of the second amendment of The 1945 Constitution of The State of Republic of Indonesia (UUD 45 state that the villages can have independent governments, by giving the alternative of village autonomy. Implementation the Law No. 6 Year 2014 is a part of the effort to realize the message of constitution and hence conception of autonomous villages is expected to be the catalyst for this concept. The presence of this law had a considerable impact on the 2014 presidential elections. Because of this people are concerned that political interests may try to drive and turning the direction and purpose of the law. This study is a part of the research on the implementation of village autonomy policies in Indonesia, and is compiled by using statute and conceptual approach. How To Cite: Phahlevy, R. (2016. The Concept of Village Autonomy in Indonesia (Indonesian Constitution Perspective. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 27-40. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.151

  1. Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutebi, Francis; Krücken, Jürgen; Feldmeier, Hermann; Waiswa, Charles; Mencke, Norbert; Sentongo, Elizabeth; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda. Methods and Findings To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2) for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8%) for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3–37.3%). Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages) and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0–64.1%). Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (panimal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005) and household (rho = 0.4, panimals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, pAnimal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3–11.4, pAnimal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals. PMID:26473360

  2. VERSHINA – A POLISH VILLAGE IN SIBERIA. FACTORS INFLUENCING LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE UNDER CHANGING SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Głuszkowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses factors influencing language maintenance under changing social, cultural, economic and political conditions of Polish minority in Siberia. The village of Vershina was founded in 1910 by Polish voluntary settlers from Little Poland.During its first three decades Vershina preserved Polish language,traditions, farming methods and machines and also the Roman Catholic religion. The changes came to a village in taiga in the1930s. Vershina lost its ethnocultural homogeneity because of Russian and Buryat workers in the local kolkhoz. Nowadays the inhabitants of Vershina regained their minority rights: religious, educational and cultural. However, during the years of sovietization and ateization, their culture and customs became much more similar to other Siberian villages. Polish language in Vershina is under strong influence of Russian, which is the language of education,administration, and surrounding villages. Children from Polish-Russian families become monolingual and use Polish very rare, only asa school subject and in contacts with grandparents. The process of abandoning mother tongue in Vershina is growing rapidly. However,there are some factors which may hinder the actual changes:the activity of local Polish organisations and Roman Catholic parish as well as folk group “Jazhumbek”.

  3. Astronomy Village: Innovative Uses of Planetary Astronomy Images and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.

    2008-06-01

    Teaching and learning science is best done by hands-on experience with real scientific data and real scientific problems. Getting such experiences into public and home-schooling classrooms is a challenge. Here we describe two award-winning multimedia products that embody one successful solution to the problem: Astronomy Village: Investigating the Universe, and Astronomy Village: Investigating the Solar System. Each Village provides a virtual environment for inquiry-based scientific exploration of ten planetary and astronomical problems such as ``Mission to Pluto'' and ``Search for a Supernova.'' Both Villages are standards-based and classroom tested. Investigating the Solar System is designed for middle and early high school students, while Investigating the Universe is at the high school and introductory college level. The objective of both Villages is to engage students in scientific inquiry by having them acquire, explore, and analyze real scientific data and images drawn from real scientific problems.

  4. Patterns of tsetse abundance and trypanosome infection rates among habitats of surveyed villages in Maasai steppe of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonyoka, Anibariki; Gwakisa, Paul S; Estes, Anna B; Salekwa, Linda P; Nnko, Happiness J; Hudson, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2017-09-04

    Changes of land cover modify the characteristics of habitat, host-vector interaction and consequently infection rates of disease causing agents. In this paper, we report variations in tsetse distribution patterns, abundance and infection rates in relation to habitat types and age in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. In Africa, Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis negatively impacted human life where about 40 million people are at risk of contracting the disease with dramatic socio-economical consequences, for instance, loss of livestock, animal productivity, and manpower. We trapped tsetse flies in dry and wet seasons between October 2014 and May 2015 in selected habitats across four villages: Emboreet, Loiborsireet, Kimotorok and Oltukai adjacent to protected areas. Data collected include number and species of tsetse flies caught in baited traps, PCR identification of trypanosome species and extraction of monitored Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Our findings demonstrate the variation of tsetse fly species abundance and infection rates among habitats in surveyed villages in relation to NDVI and host abundance. Results have shown higher tsetse fly abundance in Acacia-swampy ecotone and riverine habitats for Emboreet and other villages, respectively. Tsetse abundance was inconsistent among habitats in different villages. Emboreet was highly infested with Glossina swynnertoni (68%) in ecotone and swampy habitats followed by G. morsitans (28%) and G. pallidipes (4%) in riverine habitat. In the remaining villages, the dominant tsetse fly species by 95% was G. pallidipes in all habitats. Trypanosoma vivax was the most prevalent species in all infected flies (95%) with few observations of co-infections (with T. congolense or T. brucei). The findings of this study provide a framework to mapping hotspots of tsetse infestation and trypanosomiasis infection and enhance the communities to plan for

  5. Relégation au village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Renahy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les thèses de l’individualisation des sociétés occidentales, ou de l’exclusion de ceux qui resteraient en marge d’une vaste classe moyenne aux modes de vie homogénéisés, ont sans doute permis de sortir d’une grille de lecture rigide héritée du marxisme. Mais elles résistent aujourd’hui mal aux faits et sont vivement contredites par le renouvellement des études sur les inégalités sociales pensées en termes de stratification. Enquêtant la population ouvrière d’un village industriel de Bourgogne au cours des années 1990, l’auteur a pu mesurer tout autant la force socialisatrice continue du groupe ouvrier sur sa jeunesse que le lent processus de délitement de ses cadres de références, longtemps stabilisés autour d’une mono-industrie métallurgique, provoquant une crise dans la reproduction de ce monde ouvrier. C’est cette crise de reproduction qui est évoquée ici. Dans un premier temps sont explicitées les formes passées de la présence industrielle au village, qui n’a jamais été celle d’un bastion de la grande industrie – la population locale n’est pas structurellement différenciée de celle de son environnement rural immédiat. L’exemple d’une lignée familiale d’artisans montre pour finir l’étroit maillage entre usine et structures sociales plus classiquement rurales, favorisant la constitution d’un capital d’autochtonie, déclinaison populaire du capital social.Relegation to the villageArguments demonstrating the individualisation of western societies, or the exclusion of those who stay on the margins of a vast middle class homogeneous life style, have no doubt allowed the move away from the rigid interpretations inherited from Marxism. However, these arguments resist today in spite of the facts and they are even keenly contradicted by the renewal of stratification studies on social inequalities. Analyzing the working population of an industrial village in Bourgogne during the

  6. How A Black Hole Lights Up Its Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    How do the supermassive black holes that live at the centers of galaxies influence their environments? New observations of a distant active galaxy offer clues about this interaction.Signs of CoevolutionPlot demonstrating the m-sigma relation, the empirical correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion of a galactic bulge and the mass of the supermassive black hole at its center. [Msigma]We know that the centers of active galaxies host supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of suns. One mystery surrounding these beasts is that they are observed to evolve simultaneously with their host galaxies for instance, an empirical relationship is seen between the growth of a black hole and the growth of its host galaxys bulge. This suggests that there must be a feedback mechanism through which the evolution of a black hole is linked to that of its host galaxy.One proposed source of this coupling is the powerful jets emitted from the poles of these supermassive black holes. These jets are thought to be produced as some of the material accreting onto the black hole is flung out, confined by surrounding gas and magnetic fields. Because the jets of hot gas and radiation extend outward through the host galaxy, they provide a means for the black hole to influence the gas and dust of its surroundings.In our current model of a radio-loud active galactic nuclei,a region of hot, ionized gas the narrow-line region lies beyond the sphere of influence of the supermassive black hole. [C.M. Urry and P. Padovani]Clues in the Narrow-Line RegionThe region of gas thought to sit just outside of the black holes sphere of influence (at a distance of perhaps a thousand to a few thousand light-years) is known as the narrow line region so named because we observe narrow emission lines from this gas. Given its hot, ionized state, this gas must somehow be being pummeled with energy. In the canonical picture, radiation from the black hole heats the gas directly in a process

  7. Spatial and temporal evolution of Lassa virus in the natural host population in Upper Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Ölschläger, Stephan; Strecker, Thomas; Koivogui, Lamine; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Camara, Amara Bongo; Soropogui, Barré; Magassouba, N'Faly; Günther, Stephan

    2016-02-25

    This study aimed at reconstructing the spatial and temporal evolution of Lassa virus (LASV) in the natural host population. To this end, we generated 132 partial nucleoprotein sequences of LASV from M. natalensis trapped in 12 villages around Faranah, Upper Guinea, over a period of 12 years. This study reveals two main features of LASV evolution in M. natalensis. First, the virus evolves in the reservoir with a molecular clock rate of 9 (7-11) × 10(-4) position(-1) year(-1) implying that contemporary LASV lineages circulate in the Faranah area since less than 100 years. Second, viruses circulating in a specific village are diverse and polyphyletic. We observed, however, there are monophyletic clusters at village and sub-village level at specific points in time. In conclusion, our data indicate that the temporal and spatial pattern of LASV evolution in the natural reservoir is characterized by a combination of stationary circulation within a village and virus movement between villages. The latter feature is relevant for rodent control strategies, as it implies that recurrence of the virus from neighbouring villages may occur in villages where the virus has previously been eradicated.

  8. New Energy Villages in Taiwan and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. S.; Wang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan locates in the active tectonic subdution and collision belts, therefore, the geothermal gradient is very high and have found 128 sites of high geothermal areas; 20% of them have the temperature between 75 - 200 degree C in which they can be directly used for the electricity generation; 50% of them are in 50 - 74 degree C and the rest 30% are below 50 degree C. These areas need the deep drillings to get into higher temperature for power energy. The first 20% high temperature areas are mostly located in the coastal or mountain regions. The government is interesting to develop these areas as the "New Energy Villages" so that they can not only become self-energy sufficient sites, but also to protect themself from being the loss of electricity and water during the typhoon and earthquake hazards. The multiple usages of hot water (such as the first power generation and then the hot spring utilization) have its merits. China, in the other hand, is not within the present-day active tectonic zone. However, the recent Sino Probe Experiments (Deep Exploration in China) have mapped the Cetaceous plate boundaries in the coast of China. The heat is still possibly migrating to near the surface through the existing structures. For example, the Feng Shun Geothermal Power Station in north of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, used the 96 degree C hot water from a well of 800 m producing a small amount of 300 KW power since 1984. The Guangdong Province is located in the edge of Mesozoic South China Plate. Further in land, the Huang Mountain, one of the world heritage sites, is located at the boundary of another Mesozoic Yangtze River Plate. There is not a geothermal power plant; however, a number of hot springs are in a booming tour business at the foot hill of the mountain. The electricity has to come from a long way of net working. If China develops the local, small, but sufficient power plants by using the modern geothermal exploration and drilling techniques. The "New Energy

  9. Biomass District Heat System for Interior Rural Alaska Villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, William A.; Parker, Charles R.

    2014-09-01

    Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) from the outset of the project had a goal of developing an integrated village approach to biomass in Rural Alaskan villages. A successful biomass project had to be ecologically, socially/culturally and economically viable and sustainable. Although many agencies were supportive of biomass programs in villages none had the capacity to deal effectively with developing all of the tools necessary to build a complete integrated program. AVI had a sharp learning curve as well. By the end of the project with all the completed tasks, AVI developed the tools and understanding to connect all of the dots of an integrated village based program. These included initially developing a feasibility model that created the capacity to optimize a biomass system in a village. AVI intent was to develop all aspects or components of a fully integrated biomass program for a village. This meant understand the forest resource and developing a sustainable harvest system that included the “right sized” harvest equipment for the scale of the project. Developing a training program for harvesting and managing the forest for regeneration. Making sure the type, quality, and delivery system matched the needs of the type of boiler or boilers to be installed. AVI intended for each biomass program to be of the scale that would create jobs and a sustainable business.

  10. TOURISM WAS BORN IN THE VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Liliana CIOBAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statistical data certifies that tourism is one of the most profitable and dynamic sectors of the economy, occupying the second position in international trade, after oil. By extrapolation results that rural tourism also has major implications for the economic, social and cultural development of the villages. This study presents an analysis of the factors contributing to the practice of rural tourism in Romania during 2000-2015. Using data provided by the National Statistics Institute was possible to analyze the number of employees and number of units specific to rural tourism. In the structure of this study, the methods of improving and developing rural tourism are defined by the concept of volunteer tourism by developing national portals presenting the vacant jobs in tourism and developing human capital by attracting European Funds 2014-2010. The importance of these methods have as a starting point the alignment with the current requirements of tourists and human resources due to the fact that workers in tourism are the main connection point between services and tourist.

  11. Biomass based energy system for a south Indian village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Chanakya, H.N.

    1986-01-01

    The biomass resources, existing utilization levels and the efficiency of its use have been analyzed for a South Indian village. A biomass based energy efficient strategy has been devised to meet all the energy needs of the village, including substitution of fuels such as electricity and kerosene used in specific activities. Results indicate that the potential as well as the technologies exist for such substitutions. The proposed strategy will lead to an increase in the efficiency of energy use, reduce human drudgery and make villages more self reliant. 19 references.

  12. Traditional and modern use of fuelwood in Indian villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Chanakya, H.N.

    1994-09-01

    Traditional methods of using fuelwood can be improved to benefit the quality of life of village inhabitants as well as the environment. Modern bioenergy systems offer potential to meet the heating (cooking) and shaft power (and electricity) requirements of villages through a combination of biogas and producer gas systems. These technologies are available indigenously in India and their feasibility in the villages has been demonstrated. Bioenergy options using locally produced feedstocks lead to self reliance, local employment generation, reclamation of degraded and waste lands, enhancing biodiversity, substitution of fossil fuels with concomitant reduction in carbon emissions, etc.

  13. Changing Traditions and Village Development in Kalotaszentkirály

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Kraft

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of village traditions depends on the stability and cohesion of village communities. Since the opening of Transylvania after the fall of Nicolae Ceauşescu, there has been a sort of revival of Hungarian village dance and music, on the one hand, but, on the longer term, the communities themselves are threatened by economic challenges and by consequent demographic changes. This essay is based on field research conducted in Kalotaszentkirály (Sincraiu from 1995 to 2010.

  14. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  18. Towards Semantic Understanding of Surrounding Vehicular Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of multiple low-cost visual sensors to obtain a surround view of the ego-vehicle for semantic understanding. A multi-perspective view will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies (NDS), by automating the task of data reduction of the observed sequences...... is tested on ten sequences of real-world data collected on U. S. highways. The results show the potential use of multiple low-cost visual sensors for semantic understanding around the ego-vehicle....

  19. Animal Reservoirs of Zoonotic Tungiasis in Endemic Rural Villages of Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Mutebi

    Full Text Available Animal tungiasis is believed to increase the prevalence and parasite burden in humans. Animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans differ among endemic areas and their role in the epidemiology of tungiasis had never been investigated in Uganda.To identify the major animal reservoirs of Tunga penetrans and their relative importance in the transmission of tungiasis in Uganda, a cross sectional study was conducted in animal rearing households in 10 endemic villages in Bugiri District. T. penetrans infections were detected in pigs, dogs, goats and a cat. The prevalences of households with tungiasis ranged from 0% to 71.4% (median 22.2 for animals and from 5 to 71.4% (median 27.8% for humans. The prevalence of human tungiasis also varied among the population of the villages (median 7%, range 1.3-37.3%. Pig infections had the widest distribution (nine out of 10 villages and highest prevalence (median 16.2%, range 0-64.1%. Pigs also had a higher number of embedded sand fleas than all other species combined (p < 0.0001. Dog tungiasis occurred in five out of 10 villages with low prevalences (median of 2%, range 0-26.9%. Only two goats and a single cat had tungiasis. Prevalences of animal and human tungiasis correlated at both village (rho = 0.89, p = 0.0005 and household (rho = 0.4, p < 0.0001 levels. The median number of lesions in household animals correlated with the median intensity of infection in children three to eight years of age (rho = 0.47, p < 0.0001. Animal tungiasis increased the odds of occurrence of human cases in households six fold (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.3-11.4, p < 0.0001.Animal and human tungiasis were closely associated and pigs were identified as the most important animal hosts of T. penetrans. Effective tungiasis control should follow One Health principles and integrate ectoparasites control in animals.

  20. Paradigms of rural tourism in Serbia in the function of village revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Medojevic

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural regions in Serbia differ considerably in social, economic and demographic characteristics. Basic problems and trends almost all the rural regions share are migrations, poor diversification of economic activities, extensive agriculture, high level of unemployment, lack of employment possibilities, poor and underdeveloped infrastructure, low GDP per capita in comparison to the urban regions and unpolluted environment faced with potential threats . The subject of this paper is to point to the potentials of the rural tourism in Serbia with the aim of village revitalization, as well as its prevention from dying out. Also, the aim of the paper is to stress the fact that the rural tourism is a sustainable model of development and preservation of Serbian village and Serbian peasant from more aspects: economic, tourist, sociological, the spatial planning and ecological ones. Finally, the aim of the paper is to emphasize that it is possible to save village identity by its transformation into ethno village adopting the idea of European ethno villages. Rural tourism in Serbia must become `main` industry` and a generator of sleeping national economy. The main benefits belong to the rural households. Tourist agencies must be engaged in enabling a dialogue between their employees and local representatives. Clients must not only be observers but also critics in the spirit of trust and transparency. A full and true comprehension of the rural tourism role is realized through revealing habits of the host, traditional values rooted in the existing culture, establishment of relations amongst population at the local level. Serbia has favourable conditions for developing rural tourism. It has, in the first place, preserved nature, mild climate, clean air, unpolluted rivers and lakes, rich flora and fauna. At the moment, 11 regional centres (comprising 10-15 municipal offices are engaged in collecting and spreading relevant information for respective target

  1. Hadiboh: From Peripheral Village to Emerging City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge D.Elie

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hadiboh is Soqotra Island's main urban formation. It was the capital until 1999, when the island was administratively divided into two districts: the Eastern District (mudîriyya sharqiya with Hadiboh as its capital, and the Western District (mudîriyya gharbiya with Qalansiyah as its capital. The article retraces the evolution of Hadiboh from the 1st century BC, when it was named Panara Tamara, as the main settlement of the island of Panchia, one of the many ancient names of Soqotra. Subsequently, the village of Suq (Shiq in Soqotri became the main settlement as well as anchorage point for all ships until the end of the 15th century. In early 16th century, when the Sultan of Mahra sought to establish a more permanent presence on the island, Hadiboh regained its status as main settlement. Henceforth Hadiboh was commonly known as Tamarida until the end of the British Protectorate in 1967. The constitution of Hadiboh as a mosaic town is discussed through different phases of immigration starting toward the end of the 19th century until the dawn of the 21st century. Its spatial configuration around three formally constituted neighborhoods symbolizing the town's attachment to the major events in Yemen's modern history is discussed. Its social organization into an ascriptive status hierarchy and the subsequent changes are described. The evolution of the economy from autarkic subsistence based on food bartering and minimal external trade to international ecotouristic desti-nation is explained. Finally, the article briefly highlights Hadiboh's pivotal role in the island's political history, and considers the dilemmas confronting its transformation as well as that of the island.

  2. Generating sustainable towns from Chinese villages: a system modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Richard S; Hughes, Michael T; Ryan Mather, Casey; Yanarella, Ernest J

    2008-04-01

    The great majority of China's developing towns will be extensions of already existing villages. With the prospect of hundreds of millions of Chinese farmers projected to leave their villages to become industrial workers in new and expanded towns within the next few years, new challenges will be faced. As expansion and modernization progress, this development moves from the traditional village model that operates not far from resource sustainability to increasingly unsustainable patterns of commerce, urban development, and modern life. With such an unprecedented mass migration and transformation, how can Chinese culture survive? What is to become of the existing million plus agricultural villages? How can these massively unsustainable new industrial towns survive? In the European Commission sponsored research program SUCCESS, researchers worked from the scale of the Chinese village to find viable answers to these questions. To address these issues, the Center for Sustainable Cities, one of the SUCCESS teams, studied the metabolism of several small villages. In these studies, system dynamics models of a village's metabolism were created and then modified so that inherently unsustainable means were eliminated from the model (fossil fuels, harmful agricultural chemicals, etc.) and replaced by sustainability-oriented means. Small Chinese farming villages are unlikely to survive in anything like their present form or scale, not least because they are too small to provide the range of life opportunities to which the young generation of educated Chinese aspires. As a response to this realization as well as to the many other threats to the Chinese village and its rural way of life, it was proposed that one viable path into the future would be to enlarge the villages to become full service towns with sufficient diversity of opportunity to be able to attract and keep many of the best and brightest young people who are now migrating to the larger cities. Starting with the

  3. PRIMARY MILK OFFER IN CASTRANOVA VILLAGE, DOLJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Castranova village is situated in the south-eastern county of Dolj on county road Leu - Visina (35 km from Craiova, limited in the north by the commune Leu, Apele Vii to the east of village, south and west by the commune Marsani and Bratovoieşti. Commune is composed of villages and wells Castranova. In the village there are 12 agricultural companies and two companies. Specific of the area is agriculture, mainly large crop: wheat and maize farming. Simultaneously develop livestock sector, and milling and bakery activities. Elucidating the communal potential, of milk production is based on use of an appropriate set of indicators: effective in exploitation (by species, total production and average yield per head. The study covers the period 2010-2012, taken as a starting point for developing a strategy of reviving the sector of production.

  4. Villages in Nepal prepare for weather extremes | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-03-22

    . Researchers are working with villagers to identify and meet the local challenges in six Nepali communities. Research focus To assess the vulnerability of rural communities in Nepal's diverse ecological regions to help them ...

  5. Notes on village economies and wildlife utilization in arctic Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Visits were made to 12 Eskimo villages in Arctic Alaska during the spring of 1954. At each settlement information was collected regarding the economy and the...

  6. Customary Right Compensation and Forest Villages Development Programs of Mangrove Company at Bintuni Bay Papua Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove at Bintuni bay offers various services to indigenous communities from ecology, social, and economic. Mangrove also could be harvested accordingly to optimize contributions to indigenous communities welfares. This paper highlights implementation of customary right compensation (CRC, and Forest Villages Development programs (FVDP of mangrove company at Bintuni Bay, Papua Barat. Company reports and documents related to CRC and FVDP from 1988 to June 2013 were reviewed and analyzed. Field works were conducted to examine the implementation of both programs at four villages of two districts. Sustained mangrove harvest for chipwood production in Bintuni bay for more than 25 years is the most outstanding achievement of mangrove utilization and management in Indonesia. Huge amount of expenditure have been spent out, and given to indigenous communities through the CRC and FVDP programs, respectively. These cover from economic, social, and environmental related programs, manufactured public facilities, scholarships, and others. However, the indigenous communities are remained poor, and failed of being self-sufficient community. It clearly impresses that the main goals to improve the welfare, prosperity of indigenous people are considerable failed. It is presumably that social culture systems, and subsistence agriculture practices contribute to the failing these programs. Mostly, forest communities in Papua are practicing subsistence agriculture, hunting, heavily relying on their surrounding natural resources, and spending all their cash or money instantly for consumption, not for saving, investments or even productive activities. Therefore, several program could be initiated to improve in achieving the CRC and FVDP missions, such as building capacity, providing counselors and strengthen local community governance, which could accelerate of being self-reliant community.Keywords: customary right compensation, forest villages development, mangrove

  7. Quasars Probing Quasars: the Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding z ~ 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie; Quasars Probing Quasars survey

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the circumgalactic medium--the gaseous halo surrounding a galaxy, is an integral part to understanding galaxy evolution. The z ~ 2-3 universe is interesting as this is when the star formation rate and AGN activity peak. My thesis concludes the decade-long Quasars Probing Quasars survey designed for studying massive galaxy formation and quasar feedback. I use background quasar sightlines that pass close to foreground quasars to study the circumgalactic medium of quasar-host galaxies in absorption. My sample of 149 quasar pairs involve spectra taken with 17 different optical and near IR instruments. I present results on the statistical and physical properties of the circumgalactic medium. The circumgalactic medium is enriched even beyond the virial radius. The alpha/Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting enrichment from core-collapse supernovae. The cool gas mass within the virial radius is enough to fuel star formation for another Gyr, and may account for 1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state increases with projected distance from the quasar, which implies the quasar does not dominate the ionizing radiation flux. However, detection of fluorescent Lyman-alpha emission and NV absorption imply these transverse absorbers are partially illuminated by the quasar. In one peculiar case, the absorbing clump has density >100 cm^-3 and sub-parsec size. The average absorption in the circumgalactic medium exhibits large velocity widths, and is asymmetric about the systemic redshift of the galaxies. The widths are consistent with gravitational motions and Hubble flow, and outflows are not required to explain them. The asymmetry can be explained if the ionizing radiation from the quasar is anisotropic or intermittent and the gas is not in inflow. My results pose challenges for cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to produce a substantial cool gas reservoir surrounding quasars, that is also enriched and shows extreme kinematics.

  8. Everyday burden of musculoskeletal conditions among villagers in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Hartvigsen, Jan; Myburgh, Corrie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the perspectives of villagers in rural Botswana about the everyday life burden and impact of their musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Ethnographic fieldwork for 8 months included 55 in-depth interviews with 34 villagers. Interviews were typically conducted in Setswana with ...... country settings. Community-engaged partnerships are needed to develop rehabilitation programmes to ease the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in rural Botswana....

  9. Energy sustainable cities. From eco villages, eco districts towards zero carbon cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaręba Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing energy consumption is the effect of sustainable design technics as among many others: designing buildings with solar access and natural ventilation, using climate responsive design materials and effective insulation. Contemporary examples of zero-carbon cities: Masdar City, United Arab Emirates and Dongtan, China, confirm technical feasibility of renewable energy by implementation of solar PV and wind technologies. The ecological city - medium or high density urban settlement separated by greenspace causes the smallest possible ecological footprint on the surrounding countryside through efficient use of land and its resources, recycling used materials and converting waste to energy. This paper investigates the concept of energy sustainable cities, examines, how urban settlements might affect building energy design in eco-villages, eco-districts (e.g. Vauban, Freiburg in Germany, Bo01 Malmo in Sweden, and discuss the strategies for achieving Zero Emission Cities principles in densely populated areas. It is focused on low energy architectural design solutions which could be incorporated into urban settlements to create ecological villages, districts and cities, designed with consideration of environmental impact, required minimal inputs of energy, water, food, waste and pollution.

  10. Amelioration of groundwater nitrate contamination following installation of a central sewage system in two Israeli villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avisar, Dror; Kronfeld, Joel; Siep Talma, A.

    2009-08-01

    This study traces both the long-term deterioration of the ground water supply in two neighboring villages that had relied upon cesspits/cesspools for waste disposal, as well as the subsequent progressive improvement to original water quality levels. The rapid improvement is attributed to the replacement of the cesspits by a central sewage disposal network. In each of the villages of Kefar Bara and Kefar Kassem, a single, relatively deep, community well supplies drinking water. These wells were drilled into the underlying carbonate Judea Group aquifer that initially provided very high quality potable water. Over time, large increases in the nitrate contamination, reaching to as high as 67 mg/L nitrate, paralleled the population growth. The higher dissolved nitrate concentrations were also marked by enrichments in the δ15 N (approximately +8 ‰(air)) values above those of the surrounding and regional uncontaminated background δ15 N values (in the range of +3 to +6 ‰ (air)). Within several years after the cesspit disposal was terminated the nitrate values declined to concentrations that were reported (approximately 25 mg/L-NO3) decades prior, when the water quality monitoring had just commenced. This study demonstrates not only how water quality can degrade but also how it can be restored once the problem is identified and countered. This simple method of ameliorating a water quality problem that was tending towards reaching serious proportions would seem to be quite efficacious for any area lacking economic alternative water resources.

  11. Energy sustainable cities. From eco villages, eco districts towards zero carbon cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaręba, Anna; Krzemińska, Alicja; Łach, Janusz

    2017-11-01

    Minimizing energy consumption is the effect of sustainable design technics as among many others: designing buildings with solar access and natural ventilation, using climate responsive design materials and effective insulation. Contemporary examples of zero-carbon cities: Masdar City, United Arab Emirates and Dongtan, China, confirm technical feasibility of renewable energy by implementation of solar PV and wind technologies. The ecological city - medium or high density urban settlement separated by greenspace causes the smallest possible ecological footprint on the surrounding countryside through efficient use of land and its resources, recycling used materials and converting waste to energy. This paper investigates the concept of energy sustainable cities, examines, how urban settlements might affect building energy design in eco-villages, eco-districts (e.g. Vauban, Freiburg in Germany, Bo01 Malmo in Sweden), and discuss the strategies for achieving Zero Emission Cities principles in densely populated areas. It is focused on low energy architectural design solutions which could be incorporated into urban settlements to create ecological villages, districts and cities, designed with consideration of environmental impact, required minimal inputs of energy, water, food, waste and pollution.

  12. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used in villages around Kimboza forest reserve in Morogoro, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amri Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document medicinal plants used in the treatment of ailments in villages surrounding Kimboza forest reserve, a low land catchment forest with high number of endemic plant species. Methods Ethnobotanical interviews on medicinal plants used to treat common illnesses were conducted with the traditional medical practitioners using open-ended semi -structured questionnaires. Diseases treated, methods of preparation, use and habitat of medicinal plants were recorded. Results A total of 82 medicinal plant species belonging to 29 families were recorded during the study. The most commonly used plant families recorded were Fabaceae (29%, Euphorbiaceae (20%, Asteraceae and Moraceae (17% each and Rubiaceae (15% in that order. The most frequently utilized medicinal plant parts were leaves (41.3%, followed by roots (29.0%, bark (21.7%, seeds (5.31%, and fruits (2.6%. The study revealed that stomach ache was the condition treated with the highest percentage of medicinal plant species (15%, followed by hernia (13%, diarrhea (12, fever and wound (11% each, and coughs (10%. Majority of medicinal plant species (65.9% were collected from the wild compared to only 26.7% from cultivated land. Conclusions A rich diversity of medicinal plant species are used for treating different diseases in villages around Kimboza forest reserve, with the wild habitat being the most important reservoir for the majority of the plants. Awareness programmes on sustainable utilization and active involvement of community in conservation programmes are needed.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  14. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  15. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN HISTORICAL MARAMURES CASE STUDY: BREB VILLAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Berlingher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has become an extremely important issue for both the academic as well as the economic and political sectors during recent years. The concept of sustainable development has emerged in the context of the announced danger of planet and surrounding environment destruction as a result of the investments made in all areas of activity throughout the world. One of the concept objectives is to find a solution to reconcile three desiderata: economic growth, environmental quality and social justice. The specialists have introduced this concept in order to make investments and to create business environments able to bring about an economic growth in a strong connection with nature, without destroying the natural resources. Tourism comes from behind with a tremendous force, a new economic market orientation strongly connected to nature. It provides us with the opportunity to review the main challenges faced during recent years in relation to the environmental, cultural and interpersonal relationships, in order to develop, protect and preserve the touristic potential. The historical Maramures represents such a region with a strong touristic potential. A study performed by Pricewaterhouse Coopers Management Consultants on the attractiveness of Romania‟s development regions places it on the II-nd position and illustrates the capacity of the region to develop and attract investments able to support the sustainable development of the area without destroying its uniqueness and originality. The herein study focusses on one of the Maramures villages that has managed to fully retain its originality and cultural uniqueness through the wooden houses, the Maramures traditional gates, the local traditional vestments and the ancient customs. Foreign investors have come into this village to set up traditional accommodation facilities, true to the style of the area, to restore old wooden houses, thus becoming sometimes more fond of the area than

  18. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  20. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Socio-Cultural Impacts in the Formation of Urban Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, B. O. Y.

    2017-03-01

    In Indonesia, a group of village people tends to move from one place to another and develops a living space to create a settlement. This research is conducted by taking an example of a particular ethnic group that leaves the forestry area to a new place in the city. After some time, this group of people creates a similar or adapted socio-cultural system adapted from their origin place. The purpose of this research is to examine the socio-cultural aspects that significantly influence the emergence of urban village. This influence is interpreted as social and cultural relations with the establishment of space and significance of urban village. By focusing on this issue, this research will trace the process of how a new and unplanned settlement could emerge. The process and elements are indispensable from social and cultural factors. Essentially, the shape of bulit space is a non-physical manifestation of local people, which is established from time to time. In this case, the research’s challenge lies on the circumstance in Indonesia where society and culture influence the emergence of urban village. Physical appearance can be identified as a tipology of settlement and morphology of urban village.

  3. Host-bacterial interplay in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudrakshi Chickanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature search was performed using MEDLINE (PubMed and other electronic basis from 1991 to 2014. Search included books and journals based on the systematic and critical reviews, in vitro and in vivo clinical studies on molecular basis of host microbial interactions. Clearly, an understanding of the host susceptibility factor in addition to microbial factors by elucidating the molecular basis offers opportunity for therapeutic manipulation of advancing periodontal destruction. One of the hallmarks of pathogenesis is the ability of pathogenic organisms to invade surrounding tissues and to evade the host defence. This paper focuses the general overview of molecular mechanisms involved in the microbiota and host response to bacterial inimical behavior in periodontics.

  4. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  5. Institutional Diversity in Collective Action: Investigating Successful Village Level Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Brian Anthony

    Providing clean water to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. Unsanitary and distant water sources cause a host of health and humanitarian problems. A common means of remedying this situation has been the donation of improved water sources, fitted with low-cost hand pumps. Due donor capacity and/ or policy most hand pumps are donated under the guise of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM). This premises the notion that recipient communities will take ownership of the new pump and as such will ensure its maintenance. To assist with this many donors carry out programs of technical repair training and the structuring of in-village leadership and management groups. The reality is that a high proportion of these pumps break down after donation and cease to work thereafter. Measures to redress technical elements of these failures through increased training or adequate distribution of spares has seen some success but failure rates remains high. This has led to a call for more attention to demand side issues, focusing on the communal aspects that may influence a village to act collectively in the maintenance of its hand pump. This thesis researched five Malawian villages where the community had maintained their hand pumps for a period of 10 or more years. These hand pumps were treated as shared resources and the literature on common-pool resources and social institutions was used as a theoretical framework. Applying these theories proved to be appropriate for analyzing the norms, conventions and forms of cooperative conduct. This allowed the research to gain insights into institutional diversity and the relationship between 'formal institutions', most often exogenous in nature, and informal' or customary collective action institutions embedded within the communities. Findings showed the emergence of three predominant themes within these successful case studies: 1) the role of leadership at varying levels and how it is embodied

  6. Village demonstration of biogas technology: an Egyptian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Halwagi, M.M.; Abdel Dayem, A.M.; Hamad, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Biomass is among the principal renewable energy resources available to Egyptian villages; in addition to converting wastes into useful energy (biogas), the anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes produces a slurry that can be used as a fertilizer, improves sanitation, and can be easily adapted using locally available materials and labor. After a preliminary sociological survey, the NRC selected Al Manawat, a traditional Egyptian village, for the first demonstration site. Concomitant with the family energy requirements, availability of digester feed materials, and site characteristics, a modified Indian-type family size unit was designed and erected. The digester, with an effective volume of 320 ft/sub 3/, is connected to both a latrine and an animal shed. A preliminary technoeconomic appraisal and an assessment of the social impact indicate that under village conditions and particularly with the heavily subsidized fuel prices, the digester's main benefit to the farmer is the considerable saving in manure transport.

  7. World Heritage Site Designation Impacts on a Historic Village: A Case Study on Residents’ Perceptions of Hahoe Village (Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonki Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between World Heritage Site (WHS designation and the community sustainability of a historic village, focusing on Hahoe Village, Korea, which was inscribed in 2010. It examines residents’ perceptions of increasing tourism at Hahoe Village by adopting a questionnaire and using an interview as research methods. This study examined both the positive and negative impacts that Hahoe Village’s WHS designation has had on its sustainability. Of all of the impacts examined in this research, the three most noteworthy issues are identified: (1 the acceleration of the change of the village’s industrial base and the influx of strangers; (2 the degradation of quality of life (in the physical aspects caused by increasing tourism; and (3 the collision predicated by the tension between conserving the village’s historic environments and developing tourism. In conclusion, the WHS designation impacts on Hahoe Village, which local residents perceived, have both positive and negative aspects. WHS designation needs to be accompanied by a management plan that is more concerned about the impact from tourism after the designation. In this context, Hahoe Village must not only have a comprehensive preservation plan that balances with the demand for tourism development, but also secure the village’s community sustainability as a living place other than a tourist destination.

  8. Sexual networks in Uganda: mixing patterns between a trading town, its rural hinterland and a nearby fishing village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, H; Okongo, M; Ojwiya, A; Yirrell, D; Whitworth, J

    1997-08-01

    The study was based in south-west Uganda where significant differences in HIV prevalence have been found between urban and rural areas. Longitudinal data collected in a diary format was used to determine the extent to which high-risk men and women living in a truck stop/trading town had sexual contact with people from surrounding rural areas and a nearby fishing village. Study participants were 143 men, 75 of whom were resident in the town, 40 in a fishing village and 28 in rural areas, and 81 women, of whom 47 were resident in the town, 25 in the fishing village and 9 in a rural area. During 1687 man weeks the 143 men made 3149 trips and had 5189 sexual contacts. Ninety-two per cent of these sexual contacts occurred in the man's current place of residence and 21% were with a new partner. The 81 women participated for 1280 women weeks during which they recorded 6378 sexual contacts. Women who lived in the fishing village and the rural area had around 90% of their contacts with local men while those who lived in the town fell into 3 categories: women who charged a relatively high price for commercial sex had only 11% of contacts with men living in the town, while those who charged a tenth of the price had 71% of contacts with town men. The small number of women who fell into an intermediate category, in terms of price, had sexual contact with a wide variety of men. These findings show that there is little scope for HIV infection to spread between different residential or occupational groups. This may help to explain how large differences in HIV seropositivity between neighbouring localities can be maintained for long periods, despite considerable social and economic mixing between groups and high levels of sexual partner change within groups.

  9. Rural architectural state in Sfântu Gheorghe village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORUNCIA Alina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of cultural patrimony regarding the rural landscape in Danube Delta's localities focus on cultural landscape that reflects traditional lifestyle of local people, activities that confer sustainable use of natural resources, all these aspects creating visual elements for rural landscape. For this research, traditionalarchitecture represents the main assumption in order to identify and preserve traditional architecture line, generally in Danube Delta localities and especially in Sfântu Gheorghe village. Field research enabled us to distinguish favourable and restrictive factors that leaded to the architectural transformation in Sfântu Gheorghe village, and also to know in what measures the traditional architecture is preserved.

  10. Village Fund in the Light of New Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wójcik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses legal conditionality particular form of participatory budgeting which is village fund. His five-year term of office gave rise to a positive evaluation of the project and to make specific legislative changes in this area. This was done in the new law of the village fund of 21 February 2014, which regulates the formation of the fund and reimbursement of expenses. This work research to both the old and the new provisions of the act and the exegesis of the regulations of the year.

  11. Lessons learned from the NREL village power program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Renewable energy solutions for village power applications can be economical, functional, and sustainable. Pilot projects are an appropriate step in the development of a commercially viable market for rural renewable energy solutions. Moreover, there are a significant number of rural electrification projects under way that employ various technologies, delivery mechanisms, and financing arrangements. These projects, if properly evaluated, communicated, and their lessons incorporated in future projects and programs, can lead the way to a future that includes a robust opportunity for cost-effective, renewable-based village power systems. This paper summarizes some of NREL`s recent experiences and lessons learned.

  12. EcoVillage: A Net Zero Energy Ready Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Faakye, O. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-02-01

    CARB is working with the EcoVillage co-housing community in Ithaca, New York, on their third neighborhood called the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience (TREE). This community scale project consists of 40 housing units --15 apartments and 25 single family residences. The community is pursuing certifications for DOE Zero Energy Ready Home, U.S. Green Building Council Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold, and ENERGY STAR for the entire project. Additionally, seven of the 25 homes, along with the four-story apartment building and community center, are being constructed to the Passive House (PH) design standard.

  13. Tempe as Language: An Indonesian Village Revitalisation Mini-project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Bradley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Kandangan, a village in the Temmanggung Regency (Kabupaten Temanggung in the Province of Central Java, tempe bunguk used to be a daily food—using locally grown bunguk beans—and made in many households. But imported blocks of tempe from China made with industrially grown soy beans have slowly crept in and replaced it. As part of her food skills mapping (a part of the Spedagi Project, Francisca Callista (Siska went searching for what used to be eaten in her village, and for those who could remember how to make it.

  14. Lessons Learned from the NREL Village Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.

    1998-07-01

    Renewable energy solutions for village power applications can be economical, functional, and sustainable. Pilot projects are an appropriate step in the development of a commercially viable market for rural renewable energy solutions. Moreover, there are a significant number of rural electrification projects under way that employ various technologies, delivery mechanisms, and financing arrangements. These projects, if properly evaluated, communicated, and their lessons incorporated in future projects and programs, can lead the way to a future that includes a robust opportunity for cost-effective, renewable-based village power systems. This paper summarizes some of NRELs recent experiences and lessons learned.

  15. A Resilience Pattern in Village level: The Case Babalan Village, Pati, Central Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahyudi Ragil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Indonesia Disaster Prone Index 2013, Pati Regency is a high risk area of disaster and is ranked 11th level Central Java province while nationally ranked 156. Babalan Village located on the edge of Juwana River has disaster history from 2006-2014 shows flood disaster Giving the greatest probability and impact followed by rat pest, tornado, drought, fire. The public recognizes the signs of a continuous flooding of heavy rains accompanied by clouds all over the edge, the continuous rise of the Juwana River surface to overflow, ants, isoptera, and animals out of its nest, “Yuyu Bule”, earthworms out, clear water for “Rowo floods ”, Brownish water for the flash floods. Most residents have boats and can make rafts from makeshift materials (jerry cans, bamboo, banana stems. Make “Ranggon” at home for those who do not evacuate for a place to stay during the flood. Citizens elevate the kitchen (to evacuate people and goods / household furniture. Breeding Tyto Alba owl for rats pest control post-flood and controllers in the fields. Develop vegetable crops in the yard with viticulture pattern (upstairs if flood can be moved and can eat vegetables during flood. Have food reserves for stock before outside help comes. Citizens initiate “Water Bath honesty” to meet the water needs during the dry season.

  16. A Resilience Pattern in Village level: The Case Babalan Village, Pati, Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwahyudi, Ragil; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Based on the Indonesia Disaster Prone Index 2013, Pati Regency is a high risk area of disaster and is ranked 11th level Central Java province while nationally ranked 156. Babalan Village located on the edge of Juwana River has disaster history from 2006-2014 shows flood disaster Giving the greatest probability and impact followed by rat pest, tornado, drought, fire. The public recognizes the signs of a continuous flooding of heavy rains accompanied by clouds all over the edge, the continuous rise of the Juwana River surface to overflow, ants, isoptera, and animals out of its nest, "Yuyu Bule", earthworms out, clear water for "Rowo floods ", Brownish water for the flash floods. Most residents have boats and can make rafts from makeshift materials (jerry cans, bamboo, banana stems). Make "Ranggon" at home for those who do not evacuate for a place to stay during the flood. Citizens elevate the kitchen (to evacuate people and goods / household furniture). Breeding Tyto Alba owl for rats pest control post-flood and controllers in the fields. Develop vegetable crops in the yard with viticulture pattern (upstairs) if flood can be moved and can eat vegetables during flood. Have food reserves for stock before outside help comes. Citizens initiate "Water Bath honesty" to meet the water needs during the dry season.

  17. An HST study of three very faint GRB host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaunsen, A.O.; Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.

    2003-01-01

    . (2002). We obtain a revised and much higher probability that the galaxies identified as hosts indeed are related to the GRBs (P(n(chance))=0.69, following Bloom et al. 2002), thereby strengthening the conclusion that GRBs are preferentially located in star-forming regions in their hosts. Apart from......As part of the HST/STIS GRB host survey program we present the detection of three faint gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies based on an accurate localisation using ground-based data of the optical afterglows (OAs). A common property of these three hosts is their extreme faintness. The location...... at which GRBs occur with respect to their host galaxies and surrounding environments are robust indicators of the nature of GRB progenitors. The bursts studied here are among the four most extreme outliers, in terms of relative distance from the host center, in the recent comprehensive study of Bloom et al...

  18. Impact of differences in land cover on the urban heat island in villages - case studies from Northern, Middle and Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienst, Manuel; Lindén, Jenny; Esper, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The urbanization of an area alters the landscape, implying a gradual replacement of vegetation and bare soil by buildings and paved surfaces. Since the newly introduced structure and materials amplify warming, an urban heat island (UHI) originates, referring to the cooler temperatures in the rural surroundings. This phenomenon has been studied in various great cities throughout the world, whereas there is limited work on small urban settlements like villages. In order to address this issue, our study focusses on the impact of land cover on urban temperatures in three similar sized European villages (Spain, Germany, Sweden). Temperature loggers were installed in representative locations throughout the villages and the rural surroundings to assess spatial differences for one year. Since several studies proved land cover to be important for local temperatures within a 1000m radius, digitization was performed for each measurement spot in accordance to that distance. In all three villages, the highest values could be assessed for locations with the most buildings and paved surfaces in its vicinity in summer, especially if minimum temperatures were regarded. In that case, the UHI intensity in the centre exceeds 1°C in comparison to a rural reference. Significantly lower temperatures could be observed if the amount of vegetation was increased. A separation in low and high vegetation seemed necessary since open fields tended to show higher maximum but lower minimum temperatures in comparison to forested areas. A very prominent cooling effect could be found when taking into account the sensor data from the dense vegetation near the river in the Spanish village during the summer heat at night (approx. 5°C cooler than centre). Even though the rivers in the German as well as in the Swedish village are by far bigger than the Spanish counterpart, less cooling could be observed, suggesting either the vegetation to be a more important factor than water bodies or an amplification

  19. A Wiki-based Key to Garden and Village Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Trilar, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    A Wiki-based Key to Garden and Village Birds is available in two versions: a dichotomous, hyperlinked and printable version, and as step-bystep identification version. It is supported by jKey Player in English, Slovenian, Spanish, Romanian and German.

  20. Appraisal of Village Chickens Potential in Egg Production | Bebora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameter of egg-production capacity was estimated by the pliability of bones, especially the pubic bone spread and the space between the pubic bone and ... This observation indicates that, with a little extra effort in management and genetic selection, these village birds have a potential of increasing their egg yields.

  1. STUDY ON INTESTINAL PROTOZOA IN SEVEN VILLAGES OF BANDARABASS

    OpenAIRE

    J.Sheiban; M.Rezaian

    1981-01-01

    A survey was carried out in seven villages around Bandarabass, on Persion Gulf, to determine the prevalence of the intestinal protozoa infections. Out of the 835 stool specimens examined, 676 samples were positive with single and multiple infections. The most prevalent of intestinal protozoa in Bandarabass were Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lambia and Iodamoeba butschlii.

  2. Review and assessment of mechanic village potentials for small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    importation of used motor vehicles to Nigeria from less than 500 in 1988 to about 30,000 in 2000. The degree of ... on the total vehicle registrations in the country. Data from the Federal Road Safety Commission ... in oil change such as motorcycle and electrical generator mechanics to mechanic villages. It is time also for ...

  3. The Role of Libraries in the Global Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Donna Weiss

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the introduction and evolution of the term "global village" by author Marshall McLuhan, and presents findings from literature that associate libraries and education with society's technological advancements such as telecommunication and computerized services. Examines the role of libraries, librarians, commerce, and global…

  4. Ekspansif soil solution in the villages at Trenggalek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, Nusa Setiani

    2017-11-01

    District 2/3 hills with easy sliding and land survey results showed the soil because it consists of expansive soil Survey some villages who experience insatiability or failure, a secondary analysis of the data gathered from the expert on geology, Trenggalek geological map, Trenggalek geography. Ground location researched several villages, the Terbis village of focus discussion of the landslides and plan of relocation. In the watching a black. Colored soil and easily slide, showed very expansive soil due to montmorrelite. While soil relocation contour relative is more stable because the land of kaolin and invisible water sources that could push the land. Expansive soil in the village of solution should be cheap, easily obtainable, not damaging the fertility of the soil, groundwater should be awake to the source of life, ease of implementation, utilizing local materials and use modest tools and equipment. Under the soil surface do not get there water stored in the soil until deep the water because it will slide the ground. The analysis must meet the 7 items above and steady the contour. Design of building installed sub drain, the shallow bore foundations tied tie beam, floor plate into the unity of the structure.

  5. MoonVillage: Frame & Opportunity for Space Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2017-09-01

    We shall discuss the frame and opportunity for space economy in the context of elaborating the concept of a Moon Village with the goal of a sustainable human presence and activity on the lunar surface as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. This enterprise can federate all interested Nations and partners, in particular from terrestrial and non space commercial sectors .

  6. Morphological diversity in fourteen cultivars Tiron village, Kediri, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azis Fuad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tiron village, Kediri is one of central mangoes in Indonesia. Many cultivar of mangoes encountered at this location. This study aims to look at the diversity of mango cultivars in the Tiron Village, Kediri, Indonesia. Mangoes diversity is based on qualitative and quantitative character of each cultivar. The diversity among cultivar indicated by the standard deviation and variance in the eleven quantitative characters of mango. Mango cultivars categorized by phylogeny morphological characters. The method used for phylogeny analysis is an UPGMA method (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Phylogenic analysis is based by the qualitative character of the plant. The results showed there were fourteen cultivars of mango in the village of Tiron Kediri have high diversity. Fourteen mango cultivars were categorized four groups. Based on a qualitative character, there are four classes of mango. The first group is the Katul, Podang Urang, and Podang Lumut. The second group is the Gadung, Jaran, Madu, Endog, Pakel, Dodonilo, Ireng, Lanang and Cantek. Santok Kapur into groups to form groups of three and Kopyor fourth. The high diversity in the village mango Tiron Kediri potential for resource in situ germplasm.

  7. An information needs assessment in Oribi Village, Pietermaritzburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... also examined. The results of the study indicated a significant need for information concerning fundamental issues such as housing, health and education. Finally, a few suggestions are made as to ways to improve the information availability and general information literacy of Oribi Village. Innovation No.29 2004: 13-23 ...

  8. Entrepreneurial Management Coastal Muslim In The Village Bongo Gorontalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahmat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research activities to proving the entrepreneurial management of the coastal Muslim community in the village of Bongo. Experimental design used in this research is quasi experiment with the design of "The One-group pre-test - Post-test Design". The results showed that the model of functional skills for women of fishermen in the village of Bongo district of Gorontalo, can be seen from several aspects, namely: (1 The control / understanding of learners (female fisherman in the village of Bongo of the learning materials functional skills wives of the fishermen in the form of entrepreneurship, practice makes kolombengi taste of fish, practice makes fish nuggets and practice makes sticks corn fish. (2 understanding wives of the fishermen village of Bongo towards community empowerment programs and Improved skills of students in the field of entrepreneurship, especially in terms of business development and business administration, and (3 the ability of learners work together in a business group that can produce a product with the criteria and processes in place.

  9. Burkina Faso: Managing conflict at the village handpump and beyond

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-09

    Feb 9, 2011 ... These conflicts become visible when clay water jugs are smashed or women get into shoving matches. At other times, the conflict remains invisible, but is felt nonetheless, says Karidia Sanon, an economist on the project team. She cites the case of a village chief's wife who went to the head of the line while ...

  10. Votian Village Feasts in the Context of Russian Orthodoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergo-Hart Västrik

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Votian village feasts that evidently belong to the sphere of Christian folk religion. Village feasts are analysed as expressions of collective activity in pre-industrial rural society that enclosed certain religious, social and economic functions. This phenomenon of celebrating collectively certain days of church calendar, which included ritual activities in village chapels or other local sanctuaries, common meals and heavy drinking as well singing and dancing in the course of 3–4 days, was a part of common Russian Orthodox tradition shared by several ethnic groups throughout North-West Russia in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Despite the fact that this phenomenon was familiar to the wider community of Russian Orthodox believers, there were obviously certain local characteristics and variation typical to Votian tradition. However, Votain village feasts are studied in the article in the context of Russian Orthodoxy, without favouring assumed pre-Christian elements of the Finno-Ugric religions.

  11. Votian Village Feasts in the Context of Russian Orthodoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergo-Hart Västrik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Votian village feasts that evidently belong to the sphere of Christian folk religion. Village feasts are analysed as expressions of collective activity in pre-industrial rural society that enclosed certain religious, social and economic functions. This phenomenon of celebrating collectively certain days of church calendar, which included ritual activities in village chapels or other local sanctuaries, common meals and heavy drinking as well singing and dancing in the course of 3–4 days, was a part of common Russian Orthodox tradition shared by several ethnic groups throughout North-West Russia in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Despite the fact that this phenomenon was familiar to the wider community of Russian Orthodox believers, there were obviously certain local characteristics and variation typical to Votian tradition. However, Votain village feasts are studied in the article in the context of Russian Orthodoxy, without favouring assumed pre-Christian elements of the Finno-Ugric religions.

  12. Medicinal plant use of villagers in the Mopani district, Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The results of the survey indicate that plants play a significant role in primary healthcare of the community of Mashishimale Village. It would seem that a number of major diseases/ailments are treated by traditional methods. Scientific investigation is therefore needed to isolate active compounds and to determine ...

  13. Assessment of Services Provided By Village Alive Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Services Provided By Village Alive Women Association to Rural Women in Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. ... hardworking Rural women of Nigeria by different NGOs and Voluntary organizations so that they can increase their productivity those government organs or agencies (ADP, ...

  14. Village Health Volunteers: Key Issues Facing Agencies in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cruitment, support and supervision, working conditions, and hours for village health volunteers. There is a sound public health policy established in Malawi although there are not enough trained people (or other resources) to teach, counsel, treat, and motivate the community to good health. It has been shown elsewhere that ...

  15. Assessment of Population Density and Disparity of Village ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of Village weaverbirds Ploceus cucullatus along the roads was necessary in order to provide prospect of their population, density and platform for monitoring their distribution. Data were collected through on-site observations and pointcount method at thirty-four (34) point-count stations. Collected data were subjected ...

  16. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plants remain an integral part of the lives of people in rural areas. The aim of this study was to document information about the medicinal plants used by Shangaan people in villages under Jongilanga tribal council, Bushbuckridge municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Materials and ...

  17. Conceptualizing responsible innovation in craft villages in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voeten, J.; de Haan, J.A.C.; Roome, N.; de Groot, G.A.; Nguyen Thi, Huong; van den Hoven, J.; Doorn, N.; Swierstra, T.; Koops, B.-J.; Romijn, H.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research by the authors has explored small-scale innovations in poor craft producers’ clusters in villages in the Red River Delta in northern Vietnam. Although these innovations resulted in value creation and increased incomes, they also often gave rise to negative environmental or social

  18. Comparison of photovoltaic energy systems for the solar village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercefrench, Eric C.

    1988-08-01

    Three different solar photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are compared to determine if the electrical needs of a solar village could be supplied more economically by electricity generated by the sun than by existing utility companies. The solar village, a one square mile community of 900 homes and 50 businesses, would be located in a semi-remote area of the Arizona desert. A load survey is conducted and information on the solar PV industry is reviewed for equipment specifications, availability, and cost. Three specific PV designs, designated as Stand-Alone, Stand-Alone with interconnection, and Central Solar Plant, were created and then economically compared through present worth analysis against utility supplied electrical costs. A variety of technical issues, such as array protection, system configuration and operation, and practicability, are discussed for each design. The present worth analysis conclusively shows none of the solar PV designs could supply electricity to the solar village for less cost than utility supplied electricity, all other factors being equal. No construction on a solar village should begin until the cost of solar generated electricity is more competitive with electricity generated by coal, oil, and nuclear energy. However, research on ways to reduce solar PV equipment costs and on ways to complement solar PV energy, such as the use of solar thermal ponds for heating and cooling, should continue.

  19. Expanding Global Mindedness through a 4-H International Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.; Peterson, Donna J.; Iwata, Chieko; Kobia, Caroline; Reddy, Raja

    2017-01-01

    With expanding global interdependence, it is vital that 4-H youths learn more about the ever-increasing diverse cultures in their own communities as well as expand their global mindedness and understanding of globalization. The 4-H International Village (a) offers a comfortable yet engaging avenue for youths to expand their knowledge of and…

  20. Analysis of Edible Mushroom Marketing in Three Villages in Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the marketing of edible mushroom in three villages (Alesi, Ekukunela and Ohon) in Central Cross River State, Nigeria. The marketing of edible mushroom in the state offers job opportunities for both skilled and unskilled rural population at farm gate and offers market employment opportunities for ...

  1. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.E.

    1997-04-01

    An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

  2. Sleeping sickness surveys: game reserve adjacent villages in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis -. CAIT, Indirect ... and treatment; hospital record cards were com- pleted and updated regularly. ... sickness were diag- nosed. The low prevalence of the disease in the villages at this survey time contrasts with the high prevalence of T. brucei species in game animals 5. Yes. No.

  3. Forest product use at an upper elevation village in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, John J.

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes forest product use at Chimkhola, an upper elevation village of west central Nepal. Villagers have large herds of livestock that they use to fertilize agricultural fields by holding the animals on cropland for one to several weeks prior to planting. Herds are moved sequentially from one group of fields to another until all are planted, and then families take animals into the forests. Herders, therefore, live in temporary shelters away from the homestead throughout the year, and for much of the year feed their livestock fodder cut from forest trees. By combining repeated interviews of sample households, one-time interviews with a large sample of village families, and direct measurements of forest products being used, I found that livestock maintenance consumes 74% of the hand-harvested wild biomass: 26.4% for green fodder, 32.3% for fuelwood at the herder's hut, and 13.8% for construction of the herder's hut. Fuelwood burned at the homestead is the next largest consumer, 17.6%. Villagers also use small amounts of forest materials for house construction, charcoal, agricultural implements, and bamboo for baskets and mats. The large amounts used by herders and livestock at Chimkhola mean that wild vegetation use there far exceeds the measurements made by previous reliable studies at other communities. This system of forest use is, however, degrading Chimkhola's forests and gradually converting them to shrublands.

  4. Slavic Village: incorporating active living into community development through partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily K; Scofield, Jennifer L

    2009-12-01

    The Slavic Village neighborhood in Cleveland, Ohio, is a diverse community of 30,524 residents that is struggling economically yet strong in tradition. The neighborhood is located just south of downtown and adjacent to the city's industrial valley. Slavic Village Development (SVD) works with local and state partners to improve the quality of life for its residents, including low-income and market-rate housing developments, economic development, community organizing, and greenspace planning. Using the Active Living by Design framework (ALbD), SVD developed strong partnerships to address preparation, promotions, programs, policy, and physical projects. Efforts were focused on Safe Routes to School, neighborhood activities, asset mapping, worksite wellness, and social marketing. The ALbD project changed both the physical environment of Slavic Village and its marketed image. The initiative built cross-disciplinary partnerships that leveraged individual strengths to implement strategies to make Slavic Village a vibrant, healthy, family-friendly neighborhood that promotes active living. There is a strong connection between health and community development. When partners from multiple disciplines work together on a common goal, it is easier to leverage resources and create change. Resource development will always be a challenge. Through the leadership of SVD and its strong ties in the community, the ALbD initiative has re-engaged residents and businesses in efforts to restore the vitality of the community. The partnership in Cleveland has successfully incorporated health into community development, a model of collaboration that can be replicated in other communities.

  5. 427 knowledge, attitude and perceptions of village residents on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-07-04

    Jul 4, 2013 ... education programmes for the general population on the dangers of uncontrolled waste disposal sites. ... improperly managed waste sites are affected the .... Separated. 15. 4.6. Windowed. 7. 2.2. Total. 323. 100. Number of years lived in the village.  ...

  6. Evaluation of oral vaccination of village chickens against newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess the suitability of soaked parboiled cracked maize as a carrier of I-2 vaccine for oral immunization of village chickens. Chickens were vaccinated once via ocular route and orally with cracked maize at the second and fifth weeks of the experiment. Post vaccination serum was collected 4, 7, ...

  7. Human Trichostrongylus colubriformis Infection in a Rural Village in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Megumi; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phimmayoi, Inthava; Phanhanan, Vilayphone; Boupha, Boungnong; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-01-01

    In Lahanam Village, Savannakhet Province, Laos, 125 of 253 villagers (49.4%) were found by fecal examination to harbor hookworm eggs. The eggs were heterogeneous in morphology and size, suggesting infections of mixed nematode species. To confirm the hookworm egg species, on a voluntary basis, 46 hookworm egg–positive participants were treated with albendazole, and post-treatment adult worms were collected from purged fecal samples. The common human hookworm was found in only 3 participants; 1 case of Necator americanus, and 2 cases of Ancylostoma duodenale. In contrast, adult Trichostrongylus worms were expelled from most participants (43 of 46, 93.5%). The Trichostrongylus species were confirmed by morphology and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences; all worms were of the same species (T. colubriformis). In addition, some Trichostrongylus worms were obtained from a goat in the same village and identified as T. colubriformis. The results suggested that T. colubriformis was the main zoonotic species causing hookworm infections in the village. PMID:21212201

  8. Ethnomedicinal plants and their utilization by villagers in Kumaragiri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation deals with the ethnomedicinal plants of Kumaragiri Hills of Salem district, Tamilnadu. The indigenous knowledge of the village dwellers, the herbal medicine practitioners and other traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal value were collected through questionnaire and personal ...

  9. Control of morbidity in lymphatic filariasis patients in Indian villages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    flyers, a BEP information sheet and checklist, yoga checklist, yoga information sheet/ book, patients' feedback form, video CDs demonstrating pre-Indian manual lymph drainage (IMLD) yoga ... as NGO/CBO office bearers. Establishing village units. We hired an old house for implementing the project in AK. District health ...

  10. Review and assessment of mechanic village potentials for small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is suggested because developing countries are yet to enforce environmentally friendly automobile workshops and mechanic practice. If all automobile repair works in different cities are confined to mechanic villages, collection, preservation, recycling and reuse of spent oil will become effective. The goal is to stop the ...

  11. Sustainability Literacy of Older People in Retirement Villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With many developed countries experiencing the aging of the population, older people play a large role in contributing to environmental problems but also to environmental solutions. The purpose of this research is to understand the awareness and behavior of current older people living in retirement villages towards sustainability development. To achieve this, a sustainability literacy survey was conducted with 65 older residents of a private retirement village located 10 Km outside the Brisbane, Australia’s central business district (CBD. Most of residents recognized the importance of environment protection and would like to lead a more environmentally friendly lifestyle. In addition, the majority were willing to pay higher prices for a living environment with sustainable features. The importance of positive social communications was emphasized with most residents having established good relationships with others in the village. The findings provide an important insight into consumer perspectives regarding the sustainable features that should and can be incorporated into the village planning and development.

  12. Studies on Urinary Schistosomiasis in Selected Villages around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available online at http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njbas/index. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (September, 2012), 20(3): 189-194. ISSN 0794-5698. Studies on Urinary Schistosomiasis in Selected Villages around Gusau Dam Site, Zamfara State,. Nigeria. *1M.U Ladan, 1U. Abubakar, 1K. Abdullahi, 1M.

  13. Pennsylvania Village to Get Safe, Reliable Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pennsylvania village whose unfiltered, contaminated water source made it the top violator of federal and state drinking water laws will be connected to a public water system in 2015 with $2.2 million from EPA’s Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

  14. Marin Solar Village: feasibility study and technical analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-31

    The energy needs of Hamilton Air Force Base's Solar Village for electricity and heating and cooling of buildings are considered and alternative ways of meeting the Village's requirements for these forms of energy are evaluated. First, Solar Village's energy demand is calculated and compared to a base case representing calculations for typical energy usage for a development of similar size and density that is in conformance with current state and local ordinances. The potential of selected alternative technologies to meet the Solar Village projected demand for electrical power and natural gas is evaluated. Scenarios were developed to reduce demand, particularly in the building sector. Four alternative on-site energy technologies have been evaluated: wind, solar thermal electric, biomass conversion, photovoltaics. Each alternative is analyzed in detail. Of the four alternatives considered, the one with the greatest present potential is biomass conversion. Two technologies have been incorporated into the design. A 3-acre land fill is covered with a mantle of soil. A network of pipes carries off the methane gas which is a natural product of anaerobic decomposition of the materials in the land fill. The second technology involves the planting of rapidly-growing trees on denuded and unused portions of the site; 50 acres devoted to tree production could yield 12% of the back-up energy required for home heating on a sustainable basis.

  15. Environmental status at Samunge Village (Tanzania) following a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study made some quantification on environmental status in the village during the peak visitor days in March 2011. ... green hills and lowlands became bisected by a long chain of different types of vehicles including large and small lorries, large and small buses, Land Cruisers, Land Rovers and saloon cars.

  16. Self-reliance in health among village women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M L; Chen, P C

    1991-01-01

    A project in a remote region in Sarawak, Malaysia, in which village women were mobilized to plan and implement a kindergarten and child feeding program, illustrates the potential of carefully conceptualized community participation. Permission was obtained from village elders to train 18 mothers (all of whom has at least 4 years of education) to conduct a community needs survey. III health among children emerged as the problem of greatest concern to villagers and a health committee was formed to plan an intervention. Although a team of outside professionals was available for technical support, the emphasis from he onset was on developing self-reliance and community involvement in all decisions. To build confidence and develop leadership, a month-long participatory training course in promotive health care was organized by village health volunteers. Preparation for the project included conversion of an unused hut into a kindergarten and construction of furniture by village men, registration of preschool children, preparation of educational materials, and organization of a kitchen and duty roster for the feeding program. Project funding came from local bake sales and kindergarten subscriptions. Monitoring during the initial phase identified several problems, such as food shortages brought about by drought, some parents' inability to pay for kindergarten services, and a lack of trust in the teacher's abilities. These problems were corrected by the field team, but subsequent supervisory visits focused on teaching problem-solving skills to the local women. An evaluation conducted 1 year after program implementation revealed dramatic increases in the proportion of households producing fruits and vegetables, a higher percentage of breastfeeding mothers, and improvements in weight-for-age among kindergartners.

  17. THE COMPLEXITY IN COPING CONFLICTING GROUPS IN SURROUNDING NUSAKAMBANGAN ISLANDS CENTRAL JAVA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairu Roojiqien Sobandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores social and political conflicts in grassroots level, specifically, the challenge of natural degradations on a mangrove-fringed lagoon in Central Java, Indonesia. Segara Anakan is a significant environmental zone, with many unique ecosystem features, all of which are under threat from illegal land reclamation and timber theft, which have caused great damage. This study analyses how conflict arises between groups and how the rulers interact with villagers in Kampung Laut sur-rounding Nusakambangan Island. The result shows, as Reichel et al. (2009 notes, population growth and lagoon sedimentation indeed have directing to crucial conflicts between groups. However, histori-cal and the rulers approach factors also contribute to Kampung Laut conflicts. Long historical journey contribute to the formation of Kampung Laut villagers’ characters. It is the history of Galuh and Mata-ram Kingdoms’ networks through Babad Pasirluhur and Tanah Jawi in conquering Nusakambangan. More importantly, rulers’ policies and state apparatuses approaches also contribute to the creation of Kampung Laut villagers’ identity. The policies are often inconsistent and create more problems than solutions. Thus, dissatisfaction has directing to the creation of Kampung Laut identity marker as rebel-lions. In short, this hard situation led to conflicts between villagers and rulers. Our study suggest that it is very important to bring the state back in on the isolated and poor area like Kampung Laut Sub-District through more affirmative regional public policies and more over create additional income re-sources, for example eco-tourism that could support its sustainable outcomes.

  18. Customary Right Compensation and Forest Villages Development Programs of Mangrove Company at Bintuni Bay Papua Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove at Bintuni bay offers various services to indigenous communities from ecology, social, and economic. Mangrove also could be harvested accordingly to optimize contributions to indigenous communities welfares. This paper highlights implementation of customary right compensation (CRC, and Forest Villages Development programs (FVDP of mangrove company at Bintuni Bay, Papua Barat. Company reports and documents related to CRC and FVDP from 1988 to June 2013 were reviewed and analyzed. Field works were conducted to examine the implementation of both programs at four villages of two districts. Sustained mangrove harvest for chipwood production in Bintuni bay for more than 25 years is the most outstanding achievement of mangrove utilization and management in Indonesia. Huge amount of expenditure have been spent out, and given to indigenous communities through the CRC and FVDP programs, respectively. These cover from economic, social, and environmental related programs, manufactured public facilities, scholarships, and others. However, the indigenous communities are remained poor, and failed of being self-sufficient community. It clearly impresses that the main goals to improve the welfare, prosperity of indigenous people are considerable failed. It is presumably that social culture systems, and subsistence agriculture practices contribute to the failing these programs. Mostly, forest communities in Papua are practicing subsistence agriculture, hunting, heavily relying on their surrounding natural resources, and spending all their cash or money instantly for consumption, not for saving, investments or even productive activities. Therefore, several program could be initiated to improve in achieving the CRC and FVDP missions, such as building capacity, providing counselors and strengthen local community governance, which could accelerate of being self-reliant community.

  19. Developing Method Use Of Tbm To User Information Literacy In Six Tbm Sambikerep Villages Surabaya City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriyah Fahriyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Community Library in Six PAUD Sambikerep Village,  Sambikerep District Surabaya City expected can closer of resources in the community, causing exasperation reading (literacy for PAUD mothers and parents of early childhood education, broaden knowledge in public life and certainly indirectly educate and improve lives the surrounding community. The purpose of this study to analyze the influence of the use of community library and information literacy of the PAUD Mother and Parent of  early childhood of in the Sambikerep Village, Surabaya City. The population in this study were all Mother and Parents PAUD as Community Library users totaling 292 people. A sample of 64% from the population that found as many as 186 respondents. The sampling technique used in this study is the probability sampling is using simple random sampling. On average respondents about the use of TBM is 3.687 and the information literacy of users is 3,853. The reliably of the questionnare was calculated to be between 0.951 and 0.882 using the Cronbach's Alpha. The analysis Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test is Significant mean score of 0,000 that each variable were normal distribution. Hyphotesis test shows α (0.05> Significancy (0.000 were significant and simultaneous relationship. Analysi Cooeficient using Product Moment Correlation Correlations scores was r = 0.669 with significant ρ = 0.000 <α = 0.05 were medium correlations. Significant correlations tcount Test score of 12.196 and Ttable at significantion score of 0.05 with 185 hp 2.34667 (R2 = 0,447 were positive and significant correlation between the use of TBM and the information literacy of users.

  20. Research on the localization method of protecting traditional village landscape: a case study on Tangyin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available China has over 271 million villages and less than the number in ten years ago in which there are 363 million villages. New rural construction indeed do some good for common villages but still destroy hundreds and thousands traditional village which contain great cultural, science, artistic values. In addition, traditional villages can't meet the increasing needs in more convenient and comfortable living conditions. Increasing population also makes traditional villages out of control in construction. With the background of this, we have to set up in traditional village protection. This article put forward an idea in protection which make use of landscape localization to pursue the sustainable development and vernacular landscape protection. Tangyin Town is a famous trade center in history and left many cultural heritage, especially historical buildings. Take Tangyin as a case study to apply the localization method which could guide other similar villages to achieve same goals.

  1. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR11429

    OpenAIRE

    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements (\\acoustic-power halos") at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency \\acoustic-emission halo", or \\seismic glory" surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the "acoustic halos" ...

  2. Teacher Leadership: Everyday Practices Surrounding Work- Related Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiweshe Nigel

    2015-01-01

    This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes...

  3. Village context and health-seeking behaviour in the Fatick region of Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélien Franckel; Frédéric Arcens; Richard Lalou

    2008-01-01

    In the dense literature on health-seeking behaviour in the African rural environment, contextual aspects, and, more especially, differences between villages, are rarely studied. This article therefore considers the village or group of villages as an aggregate level of analysis, based on a study conducted in the Fatick region in Senegal. The descriptive results show significant variations in therapeutic practices, disease management and health care planning strategies from one village to the n...

  4. SOCIO-POLITICAL DYNAMICS TAKING PLACE AT KUTA TRADITIONAL VILLAGE, BALI: FROM DESA ADAT (TRADITIONAL VILLAGE TO DESA PEKRAMAN (ANOTHER TYPE OF TRADITIONAL VILLAGE IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Wesna Astara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the socio-political dynamics taking place at KutaTraditional Village, Bali: from desa adat (traditional village to desa pekraman (anothertype of traditional village in the perspective of cultural studies. There are three problemsformulated in this research. The first problem is how the socio-political dynamics fromdesa adat (traditional village to desa pekraman (another type of traditional village tookplace at Kuta? The next problem is how the traditional village interacted with theadministrative village at Kuta? And the last problem, which is the third, is what were theimpacts and meanings of the change from desa adat to desa pekraman? In this studyqualitative method was employed. And the data needed was obtained by employing thetechnique of in-depth interview, the technique of participatory observation, anddocumentation study. To give responses to the problems mentioned above, the theory ofhegemony, the theory of deconstruction, the theory of conflict, the theory of power andknowledge and the theory of eclectically symbolic interaction were applied.The findings show that the socio-political dynamics taking place Kuta TraditionalVillage resulted in turbulence among the villagers. This is indicated by the Local Rulesand Regulations (Perda issued by Desa Pekraman of Number 3 of Year 2001. Thiscould be responsible for the factors of pro’s and con’s in various aspects. Clause (6 ofArticle 3 of the Perda of Number 3 of Year 2001 was reversed by the leaders of KutaTraditional Village. They did not agree that non-Hindu people were included as thetraditional village members.As far as the interaction between the traditional village and the administrativevillage is concerned, the governmental hegemony took place. The government appliedhegemony to the traditional village through the administrative village in the form of rulesand regulations. The local rules and regulations issued by the desa pekraman, as a legalproduct in Bali

  5. Poverty and Basic Education in Rural China: Villages, Households, and Girls' and Boys' Enrollment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Emily

    2003-01-01

    Against a backdrop of educational decentralization and market transition, China demonstrates how local community resources condition educational inequality. Analysis of 1992 national survey data on 7,550 villages and nearly 78,000 rural children aged 12-14 revealed that household income, village income, and village provision of junior high schools…

  6. Gezin tussen verleden en toekomst, 1960-1972 [Family in the changing village, 1960-1972

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Contacts with inhabitants of second houses / opinion on different aspects of village / necessary facilities in village / preference of living near the town / use of car / opinion on future of village / attitude towards renovated old houses and their owners. Background variables: basic

  7. Building an image of Villages-in-the-City: a clarification of China's distinct urban spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Him

    2010-01-01

    Villages-in-the-city (chengzhongcun) as distinct urban spaces in Chinese cities have attracted a lot of scholarly attention, and the term has been variously interpreted. The term "urban village" was initially borrowed and applied to describe this urban phenomenon. While the term in a Western context refers to a planned neighbourhood that features good urban planning and design, the question posed in this essay is: are villages-in-the-city the Chinese equivalent of urban villages? Furthermore, within China, villages-in-the-city are always regarded as migrant enclaves, no different from Zhejiang village or Xinjiang village in Beijing. Are they the same kind of settlement? A primary aim of this essay is to reassert the differences between villages-in-the-city and urban villages that have developed in the United Kingdom. A secondary objective is to explore the variations between villages-in-the-city and Zhejiang village. Through investigating the variations between these urban morphologies, this study attempts to fill gaps in the current literature and hence clarify the misconceptions and confusion about Chinese villages-in-the-city.

  8. REDD+ piloting in Tanzania: The village as an arena for defining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brokers between state agencies and local communities. The governance structures at village level play a key role in regulating forest use and implementation of any project. Since communities have a higher trust on their village governments, the villages remain core area for protecting interests of REDD+ and conservation

  9. Comparative Analysis of Termiteria and Surrounding Soil Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of Termiteria and Surrounding Soil Properties in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. IS Eneji, R Sha'Ato, SE Ejembi. Abstract. Variations in the properties of termitaria and their surrounding soil properties within the University of Agriculture Makurdi were investigated using routine soil analysis ...

  10. The bird species of pandam wildlife park and the surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the bird species abundance and diversity of the Pandam wildlife park and the surrounding farmlands. The effect of time of day as well as vegetation variables on bird species diversity in the park and surrounding farmlands was also conducted. 10 transects in each study site were surveyed twice ...

  11. "The Moon Village and Journey to Mars enable each other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    NASA has proposed the Journey to Mars, a multi-decade collaborative international effort to establish permanent manned operations on the Martian surface as well as in orbit, most likely on the Martian moons. NASA's proposed the Journey to Mars has come under politically motivated attack as illusory, as beyond NASA's capabilities and anticipated NASA budgets in the foreseeable future. [1]. Other concerns come from various communities of researchers concerned about securing sustaining funding for their largely robotic research missions. ESA's Director General Dietrich Woerner's proposed Moon Village faces challenges ESA member states concerned about sustaining funding for projects already underway or in planning. Both the Journey to Mars and Moon Village raise the question - who will or who can pay for it? The 2013 US Research Council study suggested potential benefits to a mission to Mars from activities on the Moon [2]. The NASA funded Flexible Lunar Architecture study came to similar conclusions using a different methodology [3]. A logistics analysis by an MIT team suggested the possibility of cost savings through use of lunar water for propellant to reach Mars [4]. The highly promising private-public financing approach has been examined for potential application to funding the costs of reaching Mars [5]. Insofar as the feasibility of utilization of lunar water has not been determined these conclusions are speculative. This study will examine the following alternative scenarios for establishing sustainable, manned operations on Mars and permanent manned operations on the Moon: A. NASA-led Journey to Mars without an ESA-led Moon Village B. ESA-led Moon Village without NASA-led Journey to Mars C. NASA-led Journey to Mars with an ESA-led Moon Village D. Shared Infrastructure scenario - NASA-led Journey to Mars with ESA-led Moon Village and with a potential JAXA-led space-based-solar power initiative E. Space Industrialization scenario - Shared Infrastructure scenario

  12. The impact of circular migration on a village economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, C B

    1989-04-01

    The author examines the economy of a rural village in Indonesia in which a high proportion of households rely on remittances from urban informal sector earnings. Household income and per capita income are analyzed according to whether or not households have at least one temporary migrant, and by the sex and age of the household head. Findings indicate that "remittances from short-term circular migration push many households into the middle and upper income ranges. However, the wealthiest households continue to rely on traditional high earning activities and do not depend on remittances. The poorest households are scattered among those who rely on remittances and those still totally dependent upon traditional low earning village activities, regardless of the sex and age of the household head." excerpt

  13. Preparing nursing students for education in the global village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Fulmer, Holly; Meedzan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Educating nurses for the 21st century requires a broad understanding of the health needs of local and global communities. With an increasingly diverse population, nursing students in the United States can gain a unique perspective on health disparities and challenges in providing healthcare for diverse populations. Nursing education has the opportunity to engage students in our global village by providing clinical and theory-based educational opportunities for undergraduate and graduate nursing students. Some nursing educational settings in schools of nursing provide global nursing opportunities to explore the social responsibility of nursing. This paper details a specific framework and opportunities for engaging undergraduate and graduate nursing students in caring for the underserved in our global village. Opportunities in the Fulbright Student Exchange Program and Fulbright Senior Scholar Award mechanisms are discussed, and partnerships with international nursing programs are explored.

  14. CERN’s role in the scientific global village

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    We’re proud of saying that there are over 100 nationalities at CERN, proof that people can overcome cultural boundaries in pursuit of common goals. We’re also proud of saying that our goals are noble ones: the understanding of the Universe, training of the highest quality, pushing the frontiers of technology and bringing nations together. For over 50 years, CERN has pursued these goals as part of the global scientific village. We have enjoyed healthy collaboration, and competition, with other laboratories in other regions of the world. The flow of scientists around the world has been balanced, enriching all regions. Today, however, the landscape is changing for particle physics, and as responsible citizens of our global village, we also have to evolve. The research facilities for CERN’s melting pot of nationalities are supported financially largely by the Organization’s 20 Member States. Other countries that make significant c...

  15. Targeting Villages for Rural Development Using Satellite Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Kush R; Chen, George H; Abelson, Brian; Nowocin, Kendall; Sakhrani, Vivek; Xu, Ling; Spatocco, Brian L

    2015-03-01

    Satellite imagery is a form of big data that can be harnessed for many social good applications, especially those focusing on rural areas. In this article, we describe the common problem of selecting sites for and planning rural development activities as informed by remote sensing and satellite image analysis. Effective planning in poor rural areas benefits from information that is not available and is difficult to obtain at any appreciable scale by any means other than algorithms for estimation and inference from remotely sensed images. We discuss two cases in depth: the targeting of unconditional cash transfers to extremely poor villages in sub-Saharan Africa and the siting and planning of solar-powered microgrids in remote villages in India. From these cases, we draw out some common lessons broadly applicable to informed rural development.

  16. Everyday burden of musculoskeletal conditions among villagers in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Hartvigsen, Jan; Myburgh, Corrie

    2016-01-01

    of independence and social identity to fulfil traditional roles held meaning as significance. Outmigration for wage labour and other shifts in family structure compounded everyday musculoskeletal burden. CONCLUSION: Uncovering burden is an important first step to address musculoskeletal care needs in developing......OBJECTIVE: To examine the perspectives of villagers in rural Botswana about the everyday life burden and impact of their musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Ethnographic fieldwork for 8 months included 55 in-depth interviews with 34 villagers. Interviews were typically conducted in Setswana...... for the consequences and significance of musculoskeletal burden related to 3 themes: (i) hard work for traditional lives; (ii) bearing the load of a rugged landscape; and, (iii) caring for others with disrupted lives. Physical labour with musculoskeletal symptoms had economic and subsistence consequences. The loss...

  17. A measure for the promotion of mountain ecological villages in South Korea: focus on the national mountain ecological village investigation of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Im; Kang, Hag Mo; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Chang Heon; Lee, Chong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Although South Korean mountain villages occupy 44 and 55 % of land and forest areas, respectively, these villages account for only 3 % of the national population and they suffer from a declining workforce owing to aging, wage inflation, and low forestry productivity. As a result, the South Korean government implemented a mountain ecological village development project from 1995 to 2013 in 312 of the 4972 mountain villages and investigated project performance in 2014. The present study establishes a measure for the promotion of mountain ecological villages by comparing the situation before and after the project. The analysis found a threefold increase in the inflow of farm/rural-returning and multicultural households compared with before the project, while the average income per farm, local product sales, and experience tourism revenue also grew remarkably every year. In addition, households utilizing forest resources increased by about 30 %, but 45.8 % of the 312 villages had no long-term plan for village development and villagers experienced low satisfaction with job creation and village income. A systematic revision of agroforestry production and forest administration is needed to define the characteristics of farm/rural-returning populations clearly, reorganize urban-rural exchange and experience programs, and reinforce tangible/intangible cultural assets and religious traditions.

  18. Results of Integrated Investigation of Collapse Sinkhole in Sarkayevo Village

    OpenAIRE

    O. N. Kovin; S. M. Blinov; P. A. Belkin; S. S. Vaganov; Bhavik Lodhia; Ruth Amey; Gan Yuqian

    2014-01-01

    The integrated investigations of karstic collapse sinkhole were conducted at the area of Sarkayevo village. The obtained hydrogeologic data show the local concentration of underground water flow at the investigated site, and high sulfate ion content in the water samples that suggests that a sinkhole is karstic in nature. Geophysical investigations allowed determining basic parameters of the site geological structure, to reveal the depth distribution of the disturbed ground in vicinity of the ...

  19. Benefits from a renewable energy village electrification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahnd, Alex [Kathmandu University, School of Mechanical Engineering, and RIDS-Nepal - ISIS Humla Project Director (Nepal); Kimber, Haddix McKay [University of Montana and The ISIS Foundation, Missoula, Montana (United States)

    2009-02-15

    More than 100 years after Edison's life changing discovery, 1.6-2 billion people around the globe still live without light, in dark and smoke filled homes. The remote and impoverished Himalayan villages of upper Humla, in north-west Nepal, belong to some of the 2.4 billion people who still depend on the use of traditional biomass for their daily energy services such as cooking, heating and light. These activities on open fireplaces have a direct chronic impact on the health and extremely low life expectancy of the women and children along with devastating deforestation. There is a strong relationship between prosperity and access to electricity. The more remote and isolated communities in Nepal generally live in great poverty. Eighty percent of Nepal's 28.5 million people live in rural areas, with around half of these so remote, that neither a road, nor the national grid is ever likely to reach them. While Nepal has no fossil fuel resources, it is a country that is rich in renewable energy resources such as hydropower and solar energy. These abundant and locally available renewable energy resources can be tapped into with appropriate locally developed technologies. Generating and storing electrical energy derived from these rich local energy resources can provide for appropriate and sustainable lighting, which brings potential health, education, social and economic benefits to the people who have previously lived in homes with excessive indoor air pollution. This paper describes the living conditions of some villages in upper Humla, and the possible benefits of a simple village electrification system that provides basic lighting for the homes and the consequent improvements in the living conditions of the villagers. (author)

  20. Are 'Village Doctors' in Bangladesh a curse or a blessing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahed Tania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bangladesh is one of the health workforce crisis countries in the world. In the face of an acute shortage of trained professionals, ensuring healthcare for a population of 150 million remains a major challenge for the nation. To understand the issues related to shortage of health workforce and healthcare provision, this paper investigates the role of various healthcare providers in provision of health services in Chakaria, a remote rural area in Bangladesh. Methods Data were collected through a survey carried out during February 2007 among 1,000 randomly selected households from 8 unions of Chakaria Upazila. Information on health-seeking behaviour was collected from 1 randomly chosen member of a household from those who fell sick during 14 days preceding the survey. Results Around 44% of the villagers suffered from an illness during 14 days preceding the survey and of them 47% sought treatment for their ailment. 65% patients consulted Village Doctors and for 67% patients Village Doctors were the first line of care. Consultation with MBBS doctors was low at 14%. Given the morbidity level observed during the survey it was calculated that 250 physicians would be needed in Chakaria if the patients were to be attended by a qualified physician. Conclusions With the current shortage of physicians and level of production in the country it was asserted that it is very unlikely for Bangladesh to have adequate number of physicians in the near future. Thus, making use of existing healthcare providers, such as Village Doctors, could be considered a realistic option in dealing with the prevailing crisis.

  1. CAN WE TREAT THEMATIC VILLAGES AS SOCIAL INNOVATIONS?

    OpenAIRE

    Kloczko-Gajewska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The term “social innovation” gained popularity within scholars, however its definitions differ to a large extent; the most promising one says about a change in attitudes and behaviour of a group of people that in relation to the group’s horizon leads to new and improved ways of collaborative action. This paper tries to answer the question whether thematic villages, where the inhabitants jointly decide on a topic and prepare unique tourist attractions based mainly on local cultural, natural, a...

  2. Village Stability Operations and the Afghan Local Police

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    total, were removed as a consequence of the revetting process.69 These precautions most likely prevented some insider attacks. But experience was...paperwork 69 Moyar: Village Stability Operations and the Afghan Local Police to the Ministry of Interior, which was demanding the paperwork as a safe ...US-Trained ‘ Neighborhood Militia’ A Force for Safety and Controversy,” McClatchy Newspapers, March 6, 2011. 27. Noor had asked the central government

  3. The eastern limit of the freeholder's villages in Bessarabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CIGOLEA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The freeholder's villages are spread in large part, to their old location in geographic space. This location is significant because it reflects the spread of the eastern part of Bessarabia in freeholders settlements. In other words, it tells us that were populated parts of the territory betweenthe Prut and Dniester, which was the "empty" during the nineteenth century.

  4. Village Building Identification Based on Ensemble Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present the Ensemble Convolutional Neural Network (ECNN, an elaborate CNN frame formulated based on ensembling state-of-the-art CNN models, to identify village buildings from open high-resolution remote sensing (HRRS images. First, to optimize and mine the capability of CNN for village mapping and to ensure compatibility with our classification targets, a few state-of-the-art models were carefully optimized and enhanced based on a series of rigorous analyses and evaluations. Second, rather than directly implementing building identification by using these models, we exploited most of their advantages by ensembling their feature extractor parts into a stronger model called ECNN based on the multiscale feature learning method. Finally, the generated ECNN was applied to a pixel-level classification frame to implement object identification. The proposed method can serve as a viable tool for village building identification with high accuracy and efficiency. The experimental results obtained from the test area in Savannakhet province, Laos, prove that the proposed ECNN model significantly outperforms existing methods, improving overall accuracy from 96.64% to 99.26%, and kappa from 0.57 to 0.86.

  5. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Bell, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village is the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff, and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. These measures include increased wall and attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. The report discusses how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10-month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  6. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Bell, C.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village, the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. The energy efficiency measures that are incorporated into these apartments include increased wall & attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. Results discuss how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10 month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  7. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2012-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  8. Improving village poultry’s survival rate through community-based poultry health management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto D.

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of “poultry interest groups” in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due...... that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry...

  9. Data mining for clustering naming of the village at Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan Abdullah, Atje; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Hidayat, Akik; Akmal; Setiana, Deni

    2017-10-01

    Clustering of query based data mining to identify the meaning of the naming of the village in Java island, done by exploring the database village with three categories namely: prefix in the naming of the village, syllables contained in the naming of the village, and full word naming of the village which is actually used. While syllables contained in the naming of the village are classified by the behaviour of the culture and character of each province that describes the business, feelings, circumstances, places, nature, respect, plants, fruits, and animals. Sources of data used for the clustering of the naming of the village on the island of Java was obtained from Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) in the form of a complete village name data with the coordinates in six provinces in Java, which is arranged in a hierarchy of provinces, districts / cities, districts and villages. The research method using KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Database) through the process of preprocessing, data mining and postprocessing to obtain knowledge. In this study, data mining applications to facilitate the search query based on the name of the village, using Java software. While the contours of a map is processed using ArcGIS software. The results of the research can give recommendations to stakeholders such as the Department of Tourism to describe the meaning of the classification of naming the village according to the character in each province at Java island.

  10. The concept of cluster- villages as planning tool in the rural districts of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Møller, Jørgen

    villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together...... on economies of scale, or the decentralised model based on proximity. In the developments and debate relating to these matters, strategic and visionary planning is back in the municipal arena as the only tool capable of handling the many different challenges facing the municipalities. Mellem disse...... to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfold the concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks...

  11. Towards a Moon Village: Young Lunar Explorers Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard; Batenburg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The Moon Village Workshop at ESTEC on the 14th December 2015 was organized by ILEWG/ESTEC in conjunction with the Moon 2020-2030 Symposium. It gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. The workshop participants split in three working groups focusing on Moon Habitat Design, science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and engaging stakeholders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacu-um. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community

  12. Wioski tematyczne w powiecie tucholskim = Theme villages in powiat tucholski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawska Paulina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Kawska Paulina, Gotowski Rafał. Wioski tematyczne w powiecie tucholskim = Theme villages in powiat tucholski. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(11:46-53. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.163526 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3960 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 755 (23.12.2015. 755 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 © The Author (s 2016; This article is published with open access at Licensee Open Journal Systems of Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz, Poland Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s and source are credited. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ which permits unrestricted, non commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited. This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ which permits unrestricted, non commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Received: 02.10.2016. Revised 12.10.2016. Accepted: 27.10.2016. Wioski tematyczne w powiecie tucholskim Theme villages in powiat tucholski Paulina Kawska, Rafał Gotowski Uniwersytet Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy, Polska Słowa kluczowe: wioska tematyczna, odnowa wsi, specjalizacja. Key words: theme village, village renewal, specialization. Streszczenie Artykuł koncentruje się na zagadnieniu wiosek

  13. Impact of tropical forage seed development in villages in Thailand and Laos: Research to village farmer production to seed export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage varieties, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria, Cayman hybrid brachiaria, Mombasa guinea, Tanzania guinea, Ubon stylo and Ubon paspalum, are currently being produced by more than 1000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported overseas (95% and the remainder is sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of the Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs the seed producing and seed research group, Ubon Forage Seeds, to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper discusses in detail how the development in villages of a smallholder farmer seed production program has had positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed growers and enabled farmers in other countries to receive high quality forage seeds. The strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination, has had a large impact on tropical pastures in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America.

  14. On the way of Friuli "yellow villages": the use of a calcareous-dolomitic sandstone in the surroundings of the quarrying area through the centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangipane, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The role of local stone building material in cultural and technological heritage is based on the definition of the area of use, as related to ancient transportation networks, allowing the movement of heavy blocks from the quarries to the building sites. It is the case of the result of several surveys carried out for the detection of the architectural elements, dating from Middle Age to 20th century, made of a yellowish calcareous-dolomitic sandstone, which have been found, hidden among renovated buildings and new construction, in Friuli region (NE Italy). on the way between the quarrying piedmont western area and the towns of Udine and Spilimbergo. Starting from the definition of the quarrying area, the contribution give notice of such architectural elements (frames, columns, …), both in vernacular architecture and in relevant buildings, putting in evidence the period of their realisation and their technological features.

  15. Theoretical and Practical Approach of Connecting the Ecotourist Offer of the Special Nature Reserve of Zasavica (Serbia) with the Tourist Offer of the Surrounding Village Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Dolinaj; Milana Pašić; Vladimir Stojanović

    2009-01-01

    Pannonian basin was once covered by vast alluvial plains with patches of marsh, swamp, pan and prairie. With Holocene changes in climate, marshes have withdrawn and in the last couple hundreds of years they were pushed out by developing agricultural areas. The Nature Reserve Zasavica keeps the remains of former marshes and swamps on the territory of Vojvodina. One of the ways for providing necessary financial support for the reserve protection is development of ecotourist activities in the Za...

  16. Geological mapping and analysis in determining resource recitivity limestone rocks in the village of Mersip and surrounding areas, district Limun, Sorolangun Regency, Jambi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Obie Mario; Ibrahim, Eddy; Susilo, Budhi Kuswan

    2017-11-01

    The research objective is to describe potential, to analyze the quality and quantity of limestone, and to know the limit distribution of rocks based on the value of resistivity, the pattern of distribution of rocks by drilling, the influence mineral growing on rock against resistivity values, the model deposition of limestone based on the value resistivity of rock and drilling, and the comparison between the interpretation resistivity values based on petrographic studies by drilling. Geologic Formations study area consists of assays consisting of altered sandstone, phyllite, slate, siltstone, grewake, and inset limestone. Local quartz sandstone, schist, genealogy, which is Member of Mersip Stylists Formation, consists of limestone that formed in shallow seas. Stylists Formation consists of slate, shale, siltstone and sandstone. This research methodology is quantitative using experimental observation by survey. This type of research methodology by its nature is descriptive analysis.

  17. Cuscus (Phalangeridae Hunting by Biak Ethnic Group in Surrounding North Biak Strict Nature Reserve, Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY PATTISELANNO

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Study on cuscus hunting as a form of wildlife utilization by Biak ethnic group surrounding the North Biak Strict Nature Reserce (CABU was carried out through direct observation and interview with hunter respondents and other key respondents among four villages that purposively chosen i.e. Inswambesi, Kayomi, Wasani, dan Sansundi at the Warsa District of Biak Numfor, Papua. Two species of cuscus occurs in the study site were common cuscus (Phalanger orientalis and spotted cuscus (Spilocuscus maculatus and they were observed as hunting target in CABU. Hunting was performed partly as routine activity used various traditional tools (slash blade, trap, spear, and calling cuscus and modern weapon (firearm. Cuscus hunting was done to supply animal protein for households, inspite some hunting results raised for consumption and market purposes. For one period of hunting 3-4 cuscus were caught and it was lower than five years ago. It was indicated that the population condition was vulnerable on overharvest and at the present time cuscus population tend to decreased. Traditional wisdom of Biak ethnic group should be explored and practiced again as the form of local law in order to manage cuscus hunting for the future cuscus conservation program.

  18. Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present ethnozoological study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the inhabitants of villages surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park of India (Bawaria, Mogya, Meena, which is well known for its very rich biodiversity. The field survey was conducted from May to July 2005 by performing interviews through structured questionnaires with 24 informants (16 men and 8 women, who provided information regarding therapeutic uses of animals. A total of 15 animals and animal products were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including tuberculosis, asthma, paralysis, jaundice, earache, constipation, weakness, snake poisoning. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the collared dove (Streptopelia sp., hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources in the investigated area.

  19. High background radiation areas: the case of Villar de la Yegua village (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz, C; Quindós, L S; Fernández, P L; Gómez, J; Fuente, I; Quindós, L; Matarranz, J L

    2007-01-01

    The starting point of the Spanish experience in the study of High Background Radiation Areas is the development of a nationwide indoor radon survey carried out in 1988. This campaign, belonging to the first Spanish Radon Framework, consisted of approximately 2000 indoor radon measurements which represented a valuable basis to face rigorously the radon issue in Spain. Together but indepently from this survey, since 1991 the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, the National Uranium Company and several Universities have developed the so-called MARNA project with the aim of estimating potential radon emission from external gamma dose rates, radium concentrations in soil and geological parameters. During the last decade, several regional surveys have also been conducted to determine exposure to natural sources of radiation in different highly populated background radiation areas. Among them, the surroundings of the village of Villar de la Yegua Town, located in the western province of Salamanca, is the most important area of Spain from a radiological point of view, with the highest indoor radon concentrations, of up to 15,000 Bq m(-3) being found there. Until now, the main result of the study in this area showed a geometric mean radon concentration of 818 Bq m(-3), which is 18 times higher than the national average. In this article, the results of the last survey, carried out in Villar de la Yegua during 2004 are summarised. A geometric mean radon concentration of 1356 Bq m(-3) was found. Dose estimation coming from radon inhalation is also shown.

  20. Mosquito abundance, bed net coverage and other factors associated with variations in sporozoite infectivity rates in four villages of rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Nkya, Watoky M M; Mahande, Aneth M

    2008-01-01

    . Sporozoite infectivity rates, mosquito host blood meal source, bed net coverage and mosquito abundance were assessed in this study. METHODOLOGY: A longitudinal survey was conducted in four villages in two regions of Tanzania. Malaria vectors were sampled using the CDC light trap and pyrethrum spray catch......,628 (81.8%) Anopheles arabiensis, 1,100 (15.9%) Culex quinquefasciatus, 89 (1.4%) Anopheles funestus, and 66 (0.9%) Anopheles gambiae s.s. Of the total mosquitoes collected 3,861 were captured by CDC light trap and 3,022 by the pyrethrum spray catch method. The overall light trap: spray catch ratio was 1.......3:1. Mosquito densities per room were 96.5 and 75.5 for light trap and pyrethrum spray catch respectively. Mosquito infectivity rates between villages that have high proportion of bed net owners and those without bed nets was significant (P

  1. Host age modulates within-host parasite competition

    OpenAIRE

    Izhar, Rony; Routtu, Jarkko; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2015-01-01

    In many host populations, one of the most striking differences among hosts is their age. While parasite prevalence differences in relation to host age are well known, little is known on how host age impacts ecological and evolutionary dynamics of diseases. Using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa, we examined how host age at exposure influences within-host parasite competition and virulence. We found that multiply-exposed hosts...

  2. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population surrounding a multi-metal sulphide mine in Guangdong province: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dabaoshan mine in the southeast of Guangdong Province, China, is at high risk of multi-metal pollutant discharge into a local river (Hengshihe and the surrounding area. Following approximately 30 years of exposure to these metals, little is known regarding the subsequent health effects and risks for the local residents. In our present study, we have estimated the relationships between long-term environmental exposure to multiple heavy metals and the risk of cancer mortality in a Chinese population in the vicinity of Dabaoshan. Methods An ecologic study was performed. Between 2000-2007, a total population of 194,131 lived in the nine agricultural villages that surround the Hengshihe area. Heavy metals concentrations were determined in local environmental samples (water and crops and whole blood taken from 1152 local residents of both a high-exposure area (HEA and a low-exposure area (LEA. We calculated the rate ratio and standardized mortality ratios based on age- and gender-specific cancer mortality rates for the different reference populations (based on district, county and province. Simple, multiple linear and ridge regression models were used to evaluate the associations between exposure to multiple heavy metals and cancer mortality in the nine villages, after adjustment for age and sex. Results The geometric mean blood levels of cadmium and lead were measured at 24.10 μg/L and 38.91 μg/dL for subjects (n = 563 in the HEA and 1.87 μg/L and 4.46 μg/dL for subjects (n = 589 from the LEA, respectively (P Conclusions The findings of this study reveal probable associations between long-term environmental exposure to both cadmium and lead and an increased risk of mortality from all cancer, as well as from stomach, esophageal and lung-cancers.

  3. Culturally responsive engineering education: A case study of a pre-college introductory engineering course at Tibetan Children's Village School of Selakui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Marisol Mercado

    communities, and surroundings helped the students to relate to abstract concepts in familiar settings. Lastly, they appreciated that I brought to the course relevant information about technology and society in India (their host country), engineers' work in industry, technologies used in other contexts as well, and projects that show how engineers can help to alleviate poverty. The findings of my research can inform (a) educators who are interested in integrating culturally responsive activities in their teaching methods, (b) researchers or teachers in ethnic minority schools abroad, (c) educators interested in developing engineering activities or courses for underrepresented ethnic minorities, ethnic diasporas or refugee youth in the United States, and (d) facilitators at multicultural engineering summer camps in the United States.

  4. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  5. Demography and health of "village dogs" in rural Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeroba, David; Friant, Sagan; Acon, Johnson; Okwee-Acai, James; Goldberg, Tony L

    2017-02-01

    "Village dogs" in developing economies are assumed to be heavily burdened by infectious disease. We followed a cohort of 61 village dogs in rural western Uganda prospectively for fifteen months to measure changes in health and demographic outcomes, and to examine risk factors for morbidity and mortality. The mean (±standard deviation) number of dogs per household was 2.4 (±2.0), of which 56.0% were male and 44.0% female. For females, average age at first estrus was 1.7 (±0.6)years with a mean litter size of 3.8 (±1.5). In the first, second and third parities, average puppy mortality per litter was 3.2 (±2.5), 2.4 (±2.1) and 3.4 (±2.9), respectively. The main causes of morbidity and mortality were infectious disease (46.1%), culling (euthanasia) by owners (30.8%), and attacks by baboons, Papio anubis (23.1%). Cox proportional hazard regression showed that a clinical diagnosis of anemia significantly predicted morbidity (HR=4.3 (95% CI: 1.1-17.8); p<0.05), and younger age significantly predicted mortality (HR=3.6 (95% CI: 1.2-10.6); p<0.05). Our results indicate that infectious disease is indeed important to the health and survival in village dogs in this setting, but that cultural practices related to ownership and interactions with wildlife also contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  7. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remans, Roseline; Flynn, Dan F B; DeClerck, Fabrice; Diru, Willy; Fanzo, Jessica; Gaynor, Kaitlyn; Lambrecht, Isabel; Mudiope, Joseph; Mutuo, Patrick K; Nkhoma, Phelire; Siriri, David; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl A

    2011-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD), has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are generated and strategies for future research are suggested calling for

  8. Results of Integrated Investigation of Collapse Sinkhole in Sarkayevo Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Kovin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The integrated investigations of karstic collapse sinkhole were conducted at the area of Sarkayevo village. The obtained hydrogeologic data show the local concentration of underground water flow at the investigated site, and high sulfate ion content in the water samples that suggests that a sinkhole is karstic in nature. Geophysical investigations allowed determining basic parameters of the site geological structure, to reveal the depth distribution of the disturbed ground in vicinity of the sinkhole, and delineate zones of different soil compaction. The recommendations for detail site study, aimed to the mitigation of further karst development hazards, are presented.

  9. Outbreak of vampire bat biting in a Venezuelan village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Caraballo H.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of 154 cases of vampire bat biting in a four-month period in the gold mine of Payapal, a Venezuelan village, is reported. All patients were bitten during the night and the most bites were on their toes. No complication attributed to the bite was reported. Diagnoses of rabies virus made by means of immunofluorescence were negative. A possible reason for this outbreak may been the development of mining areas, with the inhabitants providing an alternative food source for the bats.

  10. Outbreak of vampire bat biting in a Venezuelan village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caraballo H. Alejandro J.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of 154 cases of vampire bat biting in a four-month period in the gold mine of Payapal, a Venezuelan village, is reported. All patients were bitten during the night and the most bites were on their toes. No complication attributed to the bite was reported. Diagnoses of rabies virus made by means of immunofluorescence were negative. A possible reason for this outbreak may been the development of mining areas, with the inhabitants providing an alternative food source for the bats.

  11. Private sector village enterprise a new approach to sustainable financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, C.F.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an enterprise plan for introducing solar power in a rural market, while providing economic development, and hence the ability of the user to pay for the power source. This plan is based on a product called GEEP - a solar sewing machine conversion kit. This kit can be retrofit onto pedal sewing machines and marketed to village tailors in India, as part of a marketing program which includes increased demand for tailored products which will allow the tailors to be able to finance the conversion kits.

  12. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  13. Evaluation Of Drainage Channel Dimension Plan Based On Planned Discharge In Jalan Flamboyan Raya Of Tanjung Selamat Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basyarullah Lubis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the construction of public facilities and infrastructure attention should always be given to matters that are directly or indirectly related to the construction of such facilities and infrastructure. As in the construction of drainage there are several things that affect it one of which is most often used as a reference in the calculation of drainage channel dimension is maximum rainfall or maximum daily rainfall intensity. Tanjung Selamat is chosen for study because this road is a liaison route for the surrounding community activities and Tanjung Selamat area and Medan city or Pancur Batu District. Therefore it is necessary a review of the existing drainage channel of rapid development that occurred in Jalan Flamboyan Raya of Tanjung Selamat village both residential areas and places of business. This situation reduces the area of water catchment so that water is often abundant and make the existing drainage channel cannot accommodate it. This research is conducted in several stages and with Pearsons Log Distribution Method of Type III which aims to determine the magnitude of the peak flood discharge in a particular repetitive period. Based on the results of research and calculations that have been done know that the amount of existing drainage discharge is smaller than peak flood discharge in the area around Flamboyan Road Raya of Tanjung Selamat village. Other causes of the flooding that occurred in the location where the research that the authors do is human behavior that is not friendly to the environment such as littering haphazardly or into the drainage channel less attention to the maintenance of drainage channels around their dwelling soil-walled conditions so very vulnerable to changes that affect the ability of the channel to drain the water. Equally important is the development around Jalan Flamboyan Raya of Tanjung Selamat village especially the establishment of various buildings either for residences or for business places

  14. A geochronologic framework for the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Shannon; Gray, Harrison J.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Wilson, Jim; Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Paces, James B.; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    The Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado, provides a unique opportunity to reconstruct high-altitude paleoenvironmental conditions in the Rocky Mountains during the last interglacial period. We used four different techniques to establish a chronological framework for the site. Radiocarbon dating of lake organics, bone collagen, and shell carbonate, and in situ cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al ages on a boulder on the crest of a moraine that impounded the lake suggest that the ages of the sediments that hosted the fossils are between ~ 140 ka and > 45 ka. Uranium-series ages of vertebrate remains generally fall within these bounds, but extremely low uranium concentrations and evidence of open-system behavior limit their utility. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages (n = 18) obtained from fine-grained quartz maintain stratigraphic order, were replicable, and provide reliable ages for the lake sediments. Analysis of the equivalent dose (DE) dispersion of the OSL samples showed that the sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and low scatter suggests that eolian processes were likely the dominant transport mechanism for fine-grained sediments into the lake. The resulting ages show that the fossil-bearing sediments span the latest part of marine isotope stage (MIS) 6, all of MIS 5 and MIS 4, and the earliest part of MIS 3.

  15. Crime of the KLA: Shelling Serbian market in the village Bresje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Bojan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After completion of the NATO aggression on Yugoslavia started much suffering of the Serbian and other minority communities in Kosovo and Metohija. Members of the Albanian paramilitary formations were escorted planning organized violence and terror, and for ethnic cleansing and destruction of the Serbian people in this region. The agreement that was signed between KFOR and the so-called KLA 'The agreement K + 90' enabled the KLA carried out violence and terror against minority populations. One of the crimes that have taken place after the so-called the demilitarization of the KLA was an attack with explosives on the Serbian market in the village Bresje 28 September 1999. The crime was ethnically motivated to intimidate, pressure and the like oppression and ethnic cleansing of the Serbian population in Kosovo and Metohija. On the Serbian market in the village Bresje, where there were several hundred civilians were fired two grenades. This crime has produced three deaths and several dozen persons were injured. KFOR soon arrived at the scene and the injured persons drove in the Russian hospital in Kosovo Polje. The attack is the intention of the Albanian paramilitaries to kill large numbers of civilians of Serbian nationality, which would produce feelings of fear, anxiety, insecurity and inequality, and led to the displacement of a large number of people. When it comes to Serbian victims in Kosovo and Metohija justice remains blind, and so for this crime no one has been prosecuted. For the investigation of the crime was in charge of UNMIK police, with the assistance of KFOR. Immediately after the shelling of the market, were arrested two ethnic Albanians who were suspected of a crime, but were soon freed from detention. It is interesting also that this crime had expected, because the earlier sent anonymous reports of a possible attack, but that KFOR and UNMIK have failed to prevent his execution. Fear that appeared among the Serbian population in

  16. Host specificity of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) increases at maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V N; Pasternak, A F; Valtonen, E T

    2007-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that host specificity in ectoparasites does not depend exclusively on the features of the host but also on surrounding habitats, using 2 fish ectoparasites, Argulus coregoni and A. foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura), occurring sympatrically in Finnish lakes. Although these parasites are considered to be of low specificity, we found that the larger of the 2 species, A. coregoni developed a pronounced preference for salmonid hosts at the beginning of maturation (defined by the presence of copulating specimens). Argulus foliaceus infects a much wider range of fish hosts. We showed that specialization of A. coregoni on salmonids does not necessarily result from incompatibility with other fishes, but could instead reflect higher sensitivity of oxygen depletion compared with A. foliaceus. Adult A. coregoni may meet these demands by attaching to salmonids, the typical inhabitants of well-aerated waters. Young parasites of both species showed little host specificity and attached mainly to fishes with higher body reflectivity. In host choice experiments, A. coregoni of 4-5 mm length preferred salmonids (rainbow trout) to cyprinids (roach) irrespective of the type of fish host, on which it had been previously grown in the laboratory. We suggest that such an innate ontogenetic shift in host preference maintains the major part of the parasite population on its principal host, ensuring successful reproduction within suitable habitats.

  17. Design description of the Tangaye Village photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1982-01-01

    The engineering design of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) powered grain mill and water pump for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta is described. The socioeconomic effects of reducing the time required by women in rural areas for drawing water and grinding grain were studied. The suitability of photovoltaic technology for use in rural areas by people of limited technical training was demonstrated. The PV system consists of a 1.8-kW (peak) solar cell array, 540 ampere hours of battery storage, instrumentation, automatic controls, and a data collection and storage system. The PV system is situated near an improved village well and supplies d.c. power to a grain mill and a water pump. The array is located in a fenced area and the mill, battery, instruments, controls, and data system are in a mill building. A water storage tank is located near the well. The system employs automatic controls which provide battery charge regulation and system over and under voltage protection. This report includes descriptions of the engineering design of the system and of the load that it serves; a discussion of PV array and battery sizing methodology; descriptions of the mechanical and electrical designs including the array, battery, controls, and instrumentation; and a discussion of the safety features. The system became operational on March 1, 1979.

  18. Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in a Mexican village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti-Gutierrez, E J; Schantz, P M; Lara-Aguilera, R; Gomez Dandoy, H; Flisser, A

    1988-09-01

    One hundred and twenty-four persons, nearly the entire population of a rural village in Hidalgo State, were screened for intestinal parasites and clinical or serologic (ELISA) evidence of Taenia solium cysticercosis. Heads of households were questioned about dietary and other practices that might lead to pork tapeworm transmission, and soil samples were examined for helminth eggs. Twenty-five percent of local pigs had cysticerci visible by examination of the undersurface of their tongues. Four persons passed taeniid eggs, 7 were seropositive, and 10 gave medical histories suggestive of neurodysticercosis. Most seropositive persons were not symptomatic and the reverse was also true. The clustered distribution of infected pigs, tapeworm carriers, and persons with serologic or clinical evidence of cysticercosis suggested intrahousehold transmission. Dietary and sanitary practices were generally optimal for transmission of pork tapeworm. No cattle were kept in the village and beef was rarely eaten. This preliminary report attempts to characterize T. solium transmission in communities with endemic disease in rural Mexico and illustrates some of the methodological problems faced by epidemiologists who study this disease.

  19. THE LESUNG MUSIC IN THE VILLAGE OF LEDOK BLORA REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify in order to preserve traditional art lesung music in Blora Regency. This research use ethnomusicology approach. The subject of research is Blora people who still play lesung music as an expression of social and cultural activities in the community. The setting of the research took place in Ledok village. The technique of collecting data is observation and interview. The validity of data uses triangulation techniques. The data collected was analyzed with interactive type of Miles and Huberman. The result of research shows that the form of lesung music uses simple rhythms with elements of rhythm, melody, and harmony. Harmony in music is from the rhythmic beats of polyphonic arranged. This kind of music at first had any functions for the purposes of ritual, entertainment, welcoming guests, harvesting/offerings, a sign of the eclipse. Today, it serves as a means of musical entertainment at the village greeting, social interaction, and tourism. There is a shift of function due to the mindset of the people and the swift technology advances. Lesung music needs a modification in its presentation by adding songs and games. Another art element like dance can be added to make the show more interesting to be enjoyed.

  20. Hearing native voices: contraceptive use in Matemwe Village, East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keele, Jeremy Joseph; Forste, Renata; Flake, Dallan F

    2005-04-01

    Although fertility declines have been documented in various parts of Africa, fertility rates remain high in Tanzania. Widespread resistance to modern contraception is one factor associated with high fertility in Tanzania. The aim of this study was to identify cultural barriers to modem contraceptive use in Matemwe village, Zanzibar. In May 2003, more than 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with community leaders, health care workers and couples in Matemwe. Despite free and easy access to contraceptives, only 2% of Matemwe women participated in the village's family planning programme. Several factors were found to influence contraceptive use, including strong Muslim beliefs, male dominance over females (especially in polygynous relationships), and limited exposure to modern ideas via education and travel. Interviews indicated that in order to lower fertility in Matemwe, cultural barriers to family planning must be confronted. Successful implementation of a family planning programme hinges on the ability of policymakers to integrate modern ideas about contraception with Matemwe's traditional religious and political culture.

  1. Village chicken production in Turkey: Tokat province example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroglu, A; Aksimsek, S D

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to reveal the current form of village chicken production in Tokat province of Turkey. A survey was applied to 153 randomly selected farmers of 5 subdistricts in Tokat province. The ratios of domestic fowls in the survey region were as follows: hen 98.83%, goose 0.65%, turkey 0.29% and duck 0.16% (P < 0.01). Feather colours of laying hens were white (2.76%), brown (8.63%) and mixed color (88.60%). The hen farms in this region consisted of native breeds (91.42%), commercial breeds (5.71%) and their crosses (2.85%). The mean egg weight of the village hens was between 30 and 40 g. Wheat (65.73%) and mixed (wheat, barley, maize and kitchen refuse) feed (34.22%) were used to supplement the hens (P < 0.01). For producing natural chicks, the hens were brooded between 1.10 and 1.46 times/year, 1.31 on average. For each brooding, the number of placed eggs under the broody hens was between 11.39 and 12.42 (P < 0.05).

  2. Design description of the Tangaye Village photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1982-06-01

    The engineering design of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) powered grain mill and water pump for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta is described. The socioeconomic effects of reducing the time required by women in rural areas for drawing water and grinding grain were studied. The suitability of photovoltaic technology for use in rural areas by people of limited technical training was demonstrated. The PV system consists of a 1.8-kW (peak) solar cell array, 540 ampere hours of battery storage, instrumentation, automatic controls, and a data collection and storage system. The PV system is situated near an improved village well and supplies d.c. power to a grain mill and a water pump. The array is located in a fenced area and the mill, battery, instruments, controls, and data system are in a mill building. A water storage tank is located near the well. The system employs automatic controls which provide battery charge regulation and system over and under voltage protection. This report includes descriptions of the engineering design of the system and of the load that it serves; a discussion of PV array and battery sizing methodology; descriptions of the mechanical and electrical designs including the array, battery, controls, and instrumentation; and a discussion of the safety features. The system became operational on March 1, 1979.

  3. La gestion des conflits sur les pompes à main dans les villages du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 févr. 2011 ... Les jeunes gens de Silmiougou, village du centre du Burkina Faso, aimeraient bien se trouver des compagnes parmi les femmes des villages voisins. Ils ont toutefois un sérieux handicap qui n'a rien à voir avec leur qualité de futurs maris : leur village ne possède qu'une pompe à main pour 3 000 ...

  4. A Tale of Two Villages. Coerced Modernization in the East European Countryside

    OpenAIRE

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina

    2010-01-01

    A non-fiction book about the social engineering operated in rural Eastern Europe by the Communist regime, based on the history of two villages in Romania. One of the two villages is the birthplace of Nicolae Ceausescu, the former Communist dictator, Scornicesti, which received massive investment during communist years and was turned into a mixture of underdeveloped village and industrial town. The other is Nucsoara, the Carpathian cradle of peasants' resistance against Communism, where half t...

  5. Circular Economy in New Village Construction—A Case of Qinhuangdao City, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Tao; Lin, Peng; Zhao, Meng

    2011-01-01

    On the strength of the theory of agricultural circular economy, the mutual relation between the development of agricultural circular economy and new village construction is analyzed. The results show that developing agricultural circular economy and constructing new village is the mutual promotion; realizing agricultural circular economy is the main aim of new agricultural construction and developing agricultural circular economy is the way of realizing new village construction. The major pro...

  6. Thesis looks at how childhood in the SOS children's village affecrts the life in adulhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaňová, Jitka

    2009-01-01

    Thesis looks at how childhood in the SOS children's village affects the life in adulthood. It is dividend into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes the SOS children's villages, alternative family care in the Czech Republic, the family as an institution and the laws related to these topics. In the practical part of the research is influencing the respondents living in the SOS children's village. Investigation groups are the biological children of parents guardia...

  7. The Application of Three-Dimensional Visualization Technology in Village Information Service Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Liang, Yong; Jia, Song

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Recently Three-Dimensional (3D) Visualization Technology has been widely used in several industries. This is about the application of 3D visualization technology into the construction of village information service platform. Because village has small scope of management, the existing large-scale 3D visualization technology can’t be used in the construction of village information service platform. By the use of high-resolution remote sensing image and high precision DEM...

  8. Malaysia's ageing population : Viability of employment trust fund for retirement village

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chwee Tin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the Feasibility of Retirement Village for Malaysia.s Ageing Population. The analysis process involves assessing the level of awareness and opinion in the respondents of the demand for Retirement Village in Malaysia using survey method. At the macro level perspective, an overview analysis of the social, economic, political and technical knowhow of implementing and operating a Retirement Village has been taken into consideration to verify the advantages and disadvanta...

  9. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  10. The Role of Urban Villages in China: Case study from Shenzhen

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    Concerning the role of urban village in the rental market, early renewal damages the immigration of the lower income groups, thus affect the supply of the primary labor force. Therefore, a right time of urban village renewal play an important role in labor flow which is a critical attribute to economy growth. Previous studies mostly focus on the urban planning and social problems in these areas. But this thesis will regard the urban villages as an indispensible part of the housing market espe...

  11. Risk factors for house-entry by culicine mosquitoes in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasseh Momodou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening doors, windows and eaves of houses should reduce house entry by eusynanthropic insects, including the common African house mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and other culicines. In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against mosquito house entry, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors influencing house entry by culicines of nuisance biting and medical importance. These factors were house location, architecture, human occupancy and their mosquito control activities, and the number and type of domestic animals within the compound. Results 40,407 culicines were caught; the dominant species were Culex thalassius, Cx. pipiens s.l., Mansonia africanus, M. uniformis and Aedes aegypti. There were four times more Cx. pipiens s.l. in Farafenni town (geometric mean/trap/night = 8.1, 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 7.2–9.1 than in surrounding villages (2.1, 1.9–2.3, but over five times more other culicines in the villages (25.1, 22.1–28.7 than in town (4.6, 4.2–5.2. The presence of Cx. pipiens s.l. was reduced in both settings if the house had closed eaves (odds ratios, OR town = 0.62, 95% CIs = 0.49–0.77; OR village = 0.49, 0.33–0.73, but increased per additional person in the trapping room (OR town = 1.16, 1.09–1.24; OR village = 1.10, 1.02–1.18. In the town only, Cx. pipiens s.l. numbers were reduced if houses had a thatched roof (OR = 0.70, 0.51–0.96, for each additional cow tethered near the house (OR = 0.73, 0.65–0.82 and with increasing distance from a pit latrine (OR = 0.97, 0.95–0.99. In the villages a reduction in Cx. pipiens s.l. numbers correlated with increased horses in the compound (OR = 0.90, 0.82–0.99. The presence of all other culicines was reduced in houses with closed eaves (both locations, with horses tethered outside (village only and with increasing room height

  12. From the management of the project, to the evidence of the results: the Olympic Village of Turin 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bosia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From 10 to 26 February 2006 Turin hosted the XX Olympic Winter Games. The building process of all the necessary infrastructure has been characterized, since the design phase, by exceptional measures for quality control and for environmental protection. The settlement of the "Olympic District" in Turin, in the Lingotto area has represented, since the beginning, an opportunity for the re-develop of an historical urban area. Ten years after the event, the Olympic Village area is in a state of strong urban decay, at the building and the social level. The re-conversion had a negative result. The contribution identifies the critical points that brought the project so far away from the original aims, despite the innovative methods of control and management of the process.

  13. Sustainability-based Study on the Development of Human Settlement in Traditional Villages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yali; Huang, Liping; Lu, Qi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze the status quo of the living environment in traditional villages, and to identify current issues and developing strategies based on data analysis. It is proposed that comprehensive sustainable strategies for land use should be designed, defined and used as guidelines for the constructions of traditional villages in the process of rapid urbanization. Such sustainable strategies should be applicable for remediation and development of traditional villages. This will promote the coordinated development in society, economy and environment in traditional villages.

  14. Host-range evolution in Aphidius parasitoids: fidelity, virulence and fitness trade-offs on an ancestral host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lee M; Roitberg, Bernard D; Gillespie, David R

    2008-03-01

    The diversity of parasitic insects remains one of the most conspicuous patterns on the planet. The principal factor thought to contribute to differentiation of populations and ultimately speciation is the intimate relationship parasites share with hosts and the potential for disruptive selection associated with using different host species. Traits that generate this diversity have been an intensely debated topic of central importance to the evolution of specialization and maintenance of ecological diversity. A fundamental hypothesis surrounding the evolution of specialization is that no single genotype is uniformly superior in all environments. This "trade-off" hypothesis suggests that negative fitness correlations can lead to specialization on different hosts as alternative stable strategies. In this study we demonstrate a trade-off in the ability of the parasitoid, Aphidius ervi, to maintain a high level of fitness on an ancestral and novel host, which suggests a genetic basis for host utilization that may limit host-range expansion in parasitoids. Furthermore, behavioral evidence suggests mechanisms that could promote specialization through induced host fidelity. Results are discussed in the context of host-affiliated ecological selection as a potential source driving diversification in parasitoid communities and the influence of host species heterogeneity on population differentiation and local adaptation.

  15. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma surrounding a squamous cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, S M; Gloster, E S; Heilman, E R; Chen, P C; Chen, C K; Anzil, A P; Pozner, J N; Reardon, M J

    1997-03-01

    A 91-year-old man presented with a 9.0 x 7.0 cm exophytic mass on the dorsum of the right foot, surrounded by a scaling hyperkeratotic plaque-like lesion that had been present for many years. He had similar long-standing hyperkeratotic plaque-like lesions on both legs. Histopathologic examination of the exophytic mass revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma surrounded by an eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA). Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy support this diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of ESFA being intimately associated with a malignant neoplasm.

  16. Study on effectiveness of flood control based on risk level: case study of Kampung Melayu Village and Bukit Duri Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia, experiences flood which causes activities disruption and losses almost every year. Many studies have been done to mitigate the impact of flooding. Most of them focus on reducing the inundated area as an indicator of the effectiveness of flood control. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of several flood control alternatives based on risk level reduction. The case study is located in Kampung Melayu Village and Bukit Duri Village which are densely populated with several economic area and almost every year experiencing severe flooding in Jakarta. Risk level analysis was carried out by the method based on guidelines issued by the Head of National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB No. 2/2012 with few modifications. The analysis is conducted on five alternatives of flood control which are diversion channel to East Flood Canal (KBT, diversion channel to the West Flood Canal (KBB in Pasar Minggu, river improvement, capacity enhancement on all components, and capacity enhancement focusing on one component. From the results, it is showed that enhancing capacity which focus on preparedness component by two levels are the best in terms of investment value to risk level reduction.

  17. Association and host selectivity in multi-host pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Malpica

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of multi-host pathogens over their host range conditions their population dynamics and structure. Also, host co-infection by different pathogens may have important consequences for the evolution of hosts and pathogens, and host-pathogen co-evolution. Hence it is of interest to know if the distribution of pathogens over their host range is random, or if there are associations between hosts and pathogens, or between pathogens sharing a host. To analyse these issues we propose indices for the observed patterns of host infection by pathogens, and for the observed patterns of co-infection, and tests to analyse if these patterns conform to randomness or reflect associations. Applying these tests to the prevalence of five plant viruses on 21 wild plant species evidenced host-virus associations: most hosts and viruses were selective for viruses and hosts, respectively. Interestingly, the more host-selective viruses were the more prevalent ones, suggesting that host specialisation is a successful strategy for multi-host pathogens. Analyses also showed that viruses tended to associate positively in co-infected hosts. The developed indices and tests provide the tools to analyse how strong and common are these associations among different groups of pathogens, which will help to understand and model the population biology of multi-host pathogens.

  18. CULTURAL CAPITAL AS TOURISM DEVELOPMENT BASIS IN TRADITIONAL VILLAGE OF KUTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sumadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a favourite sector in improving Bali revenue and kind of tourismdeveloped is cultural one. In cultural tourism, it takes place meaning modification ofcultural practice by krama (member of traditional village in order to cultural capitalcan survive in the middle of tourism dynamic condition. This research entitled“Cultural capital as tourism development basis in traditional village of Kuta”, byproposing three problems, namely how is the process of cultural capital as tourismdevelopment basis, what factors can motivate tourism capital as tourism developmentbasis, and what is the meaning of cultural capital as tourism development basis.The research is conducted using qualitative method and cultural studiesapproach, so data analysis is conducted in descriptive qualitative and interpretativeones. Selection of traditional village of Kuta as research location based onconsideration that traditional village of Kuta having integrated tourism facilities forfacilities addressed to member of traditional village. The review about culturalcapital as the tourism development basis in this traditional village of Kuta, eclecticstheories consisting of Hegemonic theory of Gramsci, co-modification theory of KarlMarx and Adorno, discourse-power/knowledge and truth theory of Foucoult anddeconstruction theory of Derrida.Based on the research output, it can be known: (1 Cultural capital process astourism development basis in traditional village of Kuta is inseparable fromforeigners arrival in traditional village of Kuta, the entrance of Military (TheCooperative Center of Arm Force in managing Kuta beach and the occurrence ofBali bombing tragedy on October 12th, 2002; (2 The factors that motivate culturalcapital as the tourism development basis in traditional village of Kuta, such asmotivation and the necessity of tourists visiting traditional village of Kuta, tourismhegemony, changing of life philosophy of member of traditional village fromidealism into

  19. A 500 PARSEC HALO SURROUNDING THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR NGC 1851

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows 4 mag of main-sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (> 250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of

  20. Influence of surroundings on photorefractive effect in lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarjanyi, Norbert, E-mail: tarjanyi@fyzika.uniza.sk [Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, Zilina, 01026 (Slovakia); Turek, Ivan [Berlinska 4, Zilina, 01008 (Slovakia)

    2012-11-01

    In the paper results of the investigation of the influence of electric properties of the environment surrounding LiNbO{sub 3} crystals on photorefractive effect induced in these crystals by Gaussian Ar{sup +} laser beam with various intensities are presented. We show spatial and temporal dependences of changes of the refractive index obtained experimentally in LiNbO{sub 3}: Fe and LiNbO{sub 3}: Fe:Mn samples surrounded by media with different electric conductivities and different permittivities (water, air, water solution of CaCl{sub 2}). The space and time dependences of the refractive index changes induced by the Ar{sup +} laser beam are observed by means of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer using light from HeNe laser. The experimentally obtained results are in a good agreement with those following from numerical calculations using the manifold mirroring method. The agreement between calculated and experimental results indicates that the polarization charge at the photorefractive crystal/surrounding medium boundary significantly influences the photorefractive process in the crystal. The experimentally observed slow spontaneous decrease of the refractive index change in a sample placed into a slightly conducting medium (air) after switching off the beam also indicates that the polarization charge in the sample's surroundings affects the photorefraction.

  1. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...

  2. Acrylate in Phaeocystis colonies does not affect the surrounding bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, DJB; Gieskes, WWC; Gottschal, JC; Forney, LJ; van Rijssel, M

    Acrylate accumulates to concentrations of 1.3-6.5 mM in the mucus of Phaeocystis colonies and may have an effect on the surrounding bacterial community, either as an inhibitor or as a carbon source. Both in the held and in the laboratory, effects of acrylate on bacterial growth and on its

  3. Traditional Indian customs surrounding birth A review | Chalmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1960, only a few studies have been made of traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. Very few of these have described customs followed by Indians in South Africa. A review of these publications is presented here. Customs described include religious, social and psychological aspects of behaviour in ...

  4. Smart Signs: Showing the way in Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijding, M.E.M.; Benz, H.P.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    This paper presents a context-aware guidance and messaging system for large buildings and surrounding venues. Smart Signs are a new type of electronic door- and way-sign based on wireless sensor networks. Smart Signs present in-situ personalized guidance and messages, are ubiquitous, and easy to

  5. Review of Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and his Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschwin de Wolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthony de Jasay is among the most important social thinkers of our time. His oeuvre offers a sustained critique of government and its defenders. In the book Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and His Surroundings, colleagues and friends pay tribute to the man in the form of an inspiring collection of essays.

  6. Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial attributes and toxic effects on Allium cepa root cells. ... High microbial load was observed in river water samples compared to the well water samples throughout the sampling periods with overall highest value observed at Late Rainy Season upstream water ...

  7. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...

  8. Parasite host range and the evolution of host resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, F.A.; Hall, A.R.; A., Buckling; P.D., Scanlan

    2015-01-01

    Parasite host range plays a pivotal role in the evolution and ecology of hosts
    and the emergence of infectious disease. Although the factors that promote
    host range and the epidemiological consequences of variation in host range
    are relatively well characterized, the effect of parasite

  9. Transport of one SC coil through the village of Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    1956-01-01

    In 1952, before CERN was officially founded, two accelerator projects were launched: one for an innovative accelerator to operate at an energy level unequalled at the time, the other for a more standard machine, a Synchro-Cyclotron (SC) to operate at 600 MeV. Design work on the SC was started in 1952 and carried out by teams scattered throughout Europe. Once construction began in 1954, CERN had to arrange road transport for the first of what has since been a long series of spectacular component deliveries, such as those of the machine's two magnetic coils each weighing 60 tonnes and measuring 7.2 metres in diameter. Above, one of them is seen passing through the village of Meyrin. The SC was commissioned in 1957 and was operational for 34 years!

  10. A Blueprint of an International Lunar Robotic Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalai, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Human civilization is destined to look, find and develop a second habitable destination in our Solar System, besides Earth: Moon and Mars are the two most likely and credible places based on proximity, available local resources and economics Recent international missions have brought back valuable information on both Moon and Mars. The vision is: A permanent presence on the Moon using advanced robotic systems as precursors to the future human settlement of the Moon is possible in the near-term. An international effort should be initiated to create a permanent robotic village to demonstrate and validate advanced technologies and systems across international boundaries, conduct broad science, explore new regions of the Moon and Mars, develop infrastructure, human habitats and shelters, facilitate development of commerce and stimulate public involvement and education.

  11. Design description of the Schuchuli Village photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, A. F.; Vasicek, R. W.; Delombard, R.

    1981-01-01

    A stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Schuchuli (Gunsight), Arizona, on the Papago Indian Reservation is a limited energy, all 120 V (d.c.) system to which loads cannot be arbitrarily added and consists of a 3.5 kW (peak) PV array, 2380 ampere-hours of battery storage, an electrical equipment building, a 120 V (d.c.) electrical distribution network, and equipment and automatic controls to provide control power for pumping water into an existing water system; operating 15 refrigerators, a clothes washing machine, a sewing machine, and lights for each of the homes and communal buildings. A solar hot water heater supplies hot water for the washing machine and communal laundry. Automatic control systems provide voltage control by limiting the number of PV strings supplying power during system operation and battery charging, and load management for operating high priority at the expense of low priority loads as the main battery becomes depleted.

  12. Mikrotoponymy of the village Ugljare near Priština

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jašović Golub M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes the analysis of micro-toponyms registered in the area of the Village of Ugljari, Serbian settlement on the riversides of the Prištevka, located within the Municipality of Kosovo Polje. Based on semantics and structure, recorded micro names of the subject settlement are classified in two groups. The first group includes micro-toponyms of appellative origin, while the other group includes micro-toponyms of anthroponymic origin. Recorded names are further classified to: micro names which have developed from other toponyms, micro-toponyms of phytonomic and zoonimic origin, while the names of foreign origin and hydro-names designating running and still water in the rural area of the place (wells, swamps, rivers, creeks are sorted out in a special group. Dictionary of micro-toponyms with around a hundred and fifty micro names is the integral part of the Paper.

  13. Attitudes towards health-care robots in a retirement village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Elizabeth; Tamagawa, Rie; Patience, Anna; Knock, Brett; Kerse, Ngaire; Day, Karen; MacDonald, Bruce A

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the attitudes and preferences of staff, residents and relatives of residents in a retirement village towards a health-care robot. Focus groups were conducted with residents, managers and caregivers, and questionnaires were collected from 32 residents, 30 staff and 27 relatives of residents. The most popular robot tasks were detection of falls and calling for help, lifting, and monitoring location. Robot functionality was more important than appearance. Concerns included the loss of jobs and personal care, while perceived benefits included allowing staff to spend quality time with residents, and helping residents with self-care. Residents showed a more positive attitude towards robots than both staff and relatives. These results provide an initial guide for the tasks and appearance appropriate for a robot to provide assistance in aged care facilities and highlight concerns. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2011 ACOTA.

  14. Pouvoir municipal et notables à Gruissan, village du littoral languedocien

    OpenAIRE

    Delupy, Irène

    2003-01-01

    L'analyse effectuée s'attache à mettre en évidence la composition des conseils municipaux à partir du début du xxe siècle. On peut isoler trois périodes principales marquant l'évolution de la stratification sociale et des activités économiques, en dépit d'une relative continuité dans le personnel et les étiquettes politiques. Dans une première période, le village, encore marqué par les activités traditionnelles -- pêche, marine marchande, salins, viticulture --, se donne des maires bén...

  15. Diseases of indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Mushi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available his study examined flock size and management, level of internal and external parasite burden and seroprevalence of antibodies to poultry pathogens in indigenous chickens in Bokaa village, Kgatleng district, Botswana. The mean flock size was 22.6±6.85 with a range of 11-34. The mean body weights of cocks and hens were 2.28±0.56 kg and 1.70 ±0.38 kg, respectively. Housing and commercial poultry feed were not provided. Ascaridia galli, Heterakis gallinarum and Syngamus trachea were found in some birds. Although the chickens were not vaccinated against any poultry diseases, serum antibodies to Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis were detected.

  16. Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julia C; Hechinger, R.F.; Wood, A.C.; Stewart, T.E.; Kuris, A.M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    Most species aggregate in local patches. High host density in patches increases contact rate between hosts and parasites, increasing parasite transmission success. At the same time, for environmentally-transmitted parasites, high host density can decrease infection risk to individual hosts, because infective stages are divided among all hosts in a patch, leading to safety in numbers. We tested these predictions using the California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica (=Cerithidea californica), which is the first intermediate host for at least 19 digenean trematode species in California estuaries. Snails become infected by ingesting trematode eggs or through penetration by free-swimming miracidia that hatch from trematode eggs deposited with final-host (bird or mammal) feces. This complex life cycle decouples infective-stage production from transmission, raising the possibility of an inverse relationship between host density and infection risk. In a field survey, higher snail density was associated with increased trematode (infected snail) density, but decreased trematode prevalence, consistent with either safety in numbers, parasitic castration, or both. To determine the extent to which safety in numbers drove the negative snail density-trematode prevalence association, we manipulated uninfected snail density in 83 cages at eight sites within Carpinteria Salt Marsh (CA, USA). At each site, we quantified snail density and used data on final-host (bird and raccoon) distributions to control for between-site variation in infective-stage supply. After three months, overall trematode infections per cage increased with snail-biomass density. For egg-transmitted trematodes, per-snail infection risk decreased with snail-biomass density in the cage and surrounding area, whereas per-snail infection risk did not decrease for miracidium-transmitted trematodes. Furthermore, both trematode recruitment and infection risk increased with infective-stage input, but this was

  17. Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, J C; Hechinger, R F; Wood, A C; Stewart, T E; Kuris, A M; Lafferty, K D

    2017-08-01

    Most species aggregate in local patches. High host density in patches increases contact rate between hosts and parasites, increasing parasite transmission success. At the same time, for environmentally transmitted parasites, high host density can decrease infection risk to individual hosts, because infective stages are divided among all hosts in a patch, leading to safety in numbers. We tested these predictions using the California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica (=Cerithidea californica), which is the first intermediate host for at least 19 digenean trematode species in California estuaries. Snails become infected by ingesting trematode eggs or through penetration by free-swimming miracidia that hatch from trematode eggs deposited with final-host (bird or mammal) feces. This complex life cycle decouples infective-stage production from transmission, raising the possibility of an inverse relationship between host density and infection risk at local scales. In a field survey, higher snail density was associated with increased trematode (infected snail) density, but decreased trematode prevalence, consistent with either safety in numbers, parasitic castration, or both. To determine the extent to which safety in numbers drove the negative snail-density-trematode-prevalence association, we manipulated uninfected snail density in 83 cages at eight sites within Carpinteria Salt Marsh (California, USA). At each site, we quantified snail density and used data on final-host (bird and raccoon) distributions to control for between-site variation in infective-stage supply. After three months, overall trematode infections per cage increased with snail biomass density. For egg-transmitted trematodes, per-snail infection risk decreased with snail biomass density in the cage and surrounding area, whereas per-snail infection risk did not decrease for miracidium-transmitted trematodes. Furthermore, both trematode recruitment and infection risk increased with infective

  18. Infestation of Tunga penetrans in villages near Zomba Central Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    invokes an inflammatory response in the surrounding tissue to encourage excoriation and release of eggs. Usually the remaining 'jigger' is expelled by the body or removed through scratching, although sometimes part or all may remain. As T. Penetrans is a notoriously poor jumper, areas of skin most at risk are the feet and, ...

  19. Pasture vegetation near the village of Iđoš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksa S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pasture on the solonchakic solonetz soil in the vicinity of the village of Iđoš (Banat, Serbia was found to harbor 137 plant taxa (129 species, 7 subspecies and 1 variety. The plant cover they formed was specific from the ecological, phytogeographical and phytocoenological points of view. The specific ecological feature of the surveyed plant cover was that 47 or 34.31% of the recorded taxa were rated with the ecological index S+ due to their ability to grow in saline soil. The specific phytogeographical feature of the surveyed plant cover was the presence of two Pannonian endemics, Plantago schwarzenbergiana Schur and Statice gmelini subsp. hungaricum (Klokov Soó, and two subendemics, Puccinellia limosa Holmb. and Roripa kerneri Menyh. The specific phytocoenological feature of the surveyed plant cover was the presence of two phytocoenoses from the class Phragmitetea Tx. et Prsg. 1942 (ass. Scirpo-Phragmitetum medioeuropaeum and ass. Bolboschoenetum maritimi continentale, one phytocoenose from the class Molinio- Arrhenatheretea Tx.1937 p.p., Br.-Bl. et Tx. 1943 p.p. (ass. Trifolio-Lolietum perennis and ten phytocoenoses from the class Festuco-Puccinellietea Soó 1968 (ass. Puccinellietum limosae, ass. Pholiuro-Plantaginetum tenuiflorae, ass. Hordeetum histricis, ass. Agrostio-Alopecuretum pratensis, ass. Agrostio-Beckmannietum, ass. Halo-Agropyretum repentis, ass. Poeto-Alopecuretum pratensis halophyticum, ass. Artemisio-Festucetum pseudovinae, ass. Trifolio-Festucetum pseudovinae and ass. Achilleo-Festucetum pseudovinae. The presence of 34.31% of taxa rated with the ecological index S+, the presence of two Pannonian and two sub-Pannonian floristic elements and the predominance of stands from the class Festuco-Puccinellietea Soó 1968 led us to conclusion that the pasture near the village of Iđoš (Banat, Serbia is a part of the halobiome of the Pannonian Plain. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31016: Improvement of

  20. Modeling grating contrast discrimination dippers: The role of surround suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Michelle P S; Chirimuuta, Mazviita; Tolhurst, David J

    2017-10-01

    We consider the role of nonlinear inhibition in physiologically realistic multineuronal models of V1 to predict the dipper functions from contrast discrimination experiments with sinusoidal gratings of different geometries. The dip in dipper functions has been attributed to an expansive transducer function, which itself is attributed to two nonlinear inhibitory mechanisms: contrast normalization and surround suppression. We ran five contrast discrimination experiments, with targets and masks of different sizes and configurations: small Gabor target/small mask, small target/large mask, large target/large mask, small target/in-phase annular mask, and small target/out-of-phase annular mask. Our V1 modeling shows that the results for small Gabor target/small mask, small target/large mask, large target/large mask configurations are easily explained only if the model includes surround suppression. This is compatible with the finding that an in-phase annular mask generates only little threshold elevation while the out-of-phase mask was more effective. Surrounding mask gratings cannot be equated with surround suppression at the receptive-field level. We examine whether normalization and surround suppression occur simultaneously (parallel model) or sequentially (a better reflection of neurophysiology). The Akaike Criterion Difference showed that the sequential model was better than the parallel, but the difference was small. The large target/large mask dipper experiment was not well fit by our models, and we suggest that this may reflect selective attention for its uniquely larger test stimulus. The best-fit model replicates some behaviors of single V1 neurons, such as the decrease in receptive-field size with increasing contrast.

  1. A village dog is not a stray : human-dog interactions in coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around human dwellings

  2. Moving into Adulthood: Implementation Findings from the Youth Villages Transitional Living Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Michelle; Jacobs, Erin; Alson, Julianna; Skemer, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The Youth Villages Transitional Living program is intended to help youth who were formerly in foster care or juvenile justice custody, or who are otherwise unprepared for adult life, to make the transition to independent living. Youth Villages, which serves emotionally and behaviorally troubled young people, operates a number of programs in…

  3. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  4. What do they do? Interactions between village doctors and medical representatives in Chakaria, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Hafizur; Agarwal, Smisha; Tuddenham, Susan; Peto, Heather; Iqbal, Mohammad; Bhuiya, Abbas; Peters, David H

    2015-07-01

    Informally trained village doctors supply the majority of healthcare services to the rural poor in many developing countries. This study describes the demographic and socio-economic differences between medical representatives (MRs) and village doctors in rural Bangladesh, and explores the nature of their interactions. This study was conducted in Chakaria, a rural sub-district of Bangladesh. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted, along with a quantitative survey to understand practice perceptions. Data analysis was performed using grounded theory and bivariate statistical tests. We surveyed 43 MRs and 83 village doctors through 22 focus group discussions and 33 in-depth interviews. MRs have a higher average per capita monthly expenditure compared to village doctors. MRs are better educated with 98% having bachelor's degrees whereas 84% of village doctors have twelfth grade education or less (p<0.001). MRs are the principal information source about new medications for the village doctors. Furthermore, incentives offered by MRs and credit availability influence the prescription practices of village doctors. MRs being the key player in providing information about drugs to village doctors might influence their prescription practices. Improvements in the quality of healthcare delivered to the rural poor in informal provider-based health markets require stricter regulations and educational initiatives for providers and MRs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Girls' Schooling Empowerment in Rural China: Identifying Capabilities and Social Change in the Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Vilma

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes an elaboration of the human development capability approach by theorizing empowerment capabilities as an essential aspect of the education of excluded village girls. Seeking to explain Chinese village girls' demand for schooling, the article identifies intangible and instrumental capabilities that have often been overlooked and…

  6. Economic Stratification Differentiates Home Gardens in the Maya Village of Pomuch, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot-Pool, W.S.; Wal, van der J.C.; Flores-Guido, S.; Pat-Fernández, J.M.; Esparza-Olguín, L.

    2012-01-01

    Economic Stratification Differentiates Home Gardens in the Maya Village of Pomuch, Mexico. In this paper, we analyze if economic stratification of peasant families in a Maya village in the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico influences species composition and structure of home gardens. Our general

  7. 78 FR 69844 - Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... phase synchronous generator, and switchgear for each turbine. Tailrace A tailrace structure and culvert... Energy Regulatory Commission Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, Inc.; Notice of Application Tendered.... b. Project No.: 13272-003. c. Date Filed: November 1, 2013. d. Applicant: Alaska Village Electric...

  8. Risk factors for malaria: a microepidemiological study in a village in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Dijkstra, D S

    1998-01-01

    Environmental and socioeconomic risk factors for malaria were studied in a village in Sri Lanka. Over a period of one year, all 49 households in the village were visited every alternate day to obtain information on malaria episodes. Information on risk factors was obtained through questionnaires...

  9. The role of Tilapia in food security of fishing villages in Niger state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the fish consumed in the fishing villages in Nigeria consists of freshwater species such as tilapia. Tilapia previously considered of little commercial value is now being considered a human food. The aim of the present study was to determine the importance of tilapia in the diet of fishing villages in Niger state, Nigeria ...

  10. Spatial analyses of the urban village development process in Shenzhen, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Pu; Geertman, S.; Hooimeijer, P.; Sliuzas, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    Urban villages are widespread in many Chinese cities, providing affordable and accessible housing for rural migrants. These urban villages develop rapidly over time to create more housing units and accommodate increasing numbers of residents. This article provides systematic analyses of urban

  11. The concept of participatory local sustainability projects in seven Chinese villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschalek, Ilse

    2008-04-01

    SUCCESS was a scientific, multi-disciplinary case study of seven selected villages in China, coordinated by the Viennese research institute Oikodrom in which I have been a team member for 6 years. We assembled an international team of researchers to work together with local team leaders with the aim of involving village dwellers in a sustainability negotiation process. The project had a strong bottom-up approach, combined with top-down elements. Using participatory research methods, village teams discussed and developed ideas for concrete sustainability-oriented projects in their villages. By the end of the 3-year study of SUCCESS, equipped with the seeds of a multiple-scenario building process and the appropriate funding, each of the seven case study villages had generated ideas for local sustainability-oriented projects and put them into practice. The outcome of this participatory process is manifold. One major impact of the implementation of local projects was their visibility which was crucial for the village dwellers' confidence and their motivation to become engaged in a decision making process. The experience of their successful participation in a decision making process empowered them for self-organisation processes or a civil society process. The small projects offered interesting theoretical insights into how local contexts impact upon village dweller's decision on appropriate sustainability interventions. How they are as well in line with characteristics of different types of villages that were carried out within the study will be shown in this article.

  12. Parvoviral host range and cell entry mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Parvoviruses elaborate rugged nonenveloped icosahedral capsids of approximately 260 A in diameter that comprise just 60 copies of a common core structural polypeptide. While serving as exceptionally durable shells, capable of protecting the single-stranded DNA genome from environmental extremes, the capsid also undergoes sequential conformational changes that allow it to translocate the genome from its initial host cell nucleus all the way into the nucleus of its subsequent host. Lacking a duplex transcription template, the virus must then wait for its host to enter S-phase before it can initiate transcription and usurp the cell's synthetic pathways. Here we review cell entry mechanisms used by parvoviruses. We explore two apparently distinct modes of host cell specificity, first that used by Minute virus of mice, where subtle glycan-specific interactions between host receptors and residues surrounding twofold symmetry axes on the virion surface mediate differentiated cell type target specificity, while the second involves novel protein interactions with the canine transferrin receptor that allow a mutant of the feline leukopenia serotype, Canine parvovirus, to bind to and infect dog cells. We then discuss conformational shifts in the virion that accompany cell entry, causing exposure of a capsid-tethered phospholipase A2 enzymatic core that acts as an endosomolytic agent to mediate virion translocation across the lipid bilayer into the cell cytoplasm. Finally, we discuss virion delivery into the nucleus, and consider the nature of transcriptionally silent DNA species that, escaping detection by the cell, might allow unhampered progress into S-phase and hence unleash the parvoviral Trojan horse.

  13. Detection of Leptospira in Rats Trapped from Households in Phraroj Village, Muang Sam Sip District, Ubon Ratchathani Province Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongbutdee, Jaruwan; Jittimanee, Jutharat

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease caused by Leptospira, has been a health problem in Thailand for several years. Rats are a major reservoir host for Leptospira, and the people who are usually in contact with environments contaminated with rats' urine are at risk of infection. The prevalence rate of Leptospira infection in rats may result in the spread of leptospirosis in humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate ofLeptospira infection in a total of 28 rats and develop a spatial database for leptospirosis surveillance in Phraroj village in Muang Sam Sip District, Ubon Ratchathani Province. The positions of the households and the rat-trapping area were tagged by using of a Global Positioning System (GPS). DNA samples were isolated fromn rats' kidneys. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used for the detection of 16s rRNA and LipL32 genes specific to genus and pathogenic Leptospira respectively. All of the data were used to develop a geo-data base by the connection of spatial data and attributed data to be used for query and retrieval. A map of the positions of the households and the rat-trapping area in Phraroj village was created. No rats were found to be infected in the Leptospira survey. There was no trapped rat infected with Leptospira in Phraroj village. This result may involve unreported leptospirosis in patients in this village. The Leptospira survey in rats and the geo-database will be used as a primary resource to support and make decisions about surveillance, prevention, and control of leptospirosis.

  14. Radon levels and doses in dwellings in two villages in Kosovo, affected by depleted uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafezi, G; Gregoric, A; Vaupotic, J; Bahtijari, M; Kuqali, M

    2014-01-01

    The radon ((222)Rn) activity concentration in 15 dwellings in the Planej village and 10 dwellings in the Gorozhup village has been measured with the aim to complement the national radon survey and to compare the results of two different measurement techniques. The radon concentration has been measured in winter and spring using alpha scintillation cells and in winter, spring and summer by exposing solid-state nuclear track detectors. Both methods gave similar results. Radon concentrations in both villages were similar, ranging from 82 to 432 Bq m(-3); the value of 400 Bq m(-3) was exceeded only in two dwellings. The resulting annual effective doses ranged from 1.78 to 6.40 mSv, with the average values of 3.28 mSv in the Planej village and 3.87 mSv in the Gorozhup village.

  15. SARS Pathogenesis: Host Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Lang (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile it is hypothesized that Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in humans is caused by a disproportional immune response illustrated by inappropriate induction of inflammatory cytokines, the exact nature of the host response to SARS coronavirus (CoV) infection causing severe

  16. Risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasseh Momadou

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the pre-intervention year of a randomized controlled trial investigating the protective effects of house screening against malaria-transmitting vectors, a multi-factorial risk factor analysis study was used to identify factors that influence mosquito house entry. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled using CDC light traps in 976 houses, each on one night, in Farafenni town and surrounding villages during the malaria-transmission season in The Gambia. Catches from individual houses were both (a left unadjusted and (b adjusted relative to the number of mosquitoes caught in four sentinel houses that were operated nightly throughout the period, to allow for night-to-night variation. Houses were characterized by location, architecture, human occupancy and their mosquito control activities, and the number and type of domestic animals within the compound. Results 106,536 mosquitoes were caught, of which 55% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, the major malaria vectors in the region. There were seven fold higher numbers of An. gambiae s.l. in the villages (geometric mean per trap night = 43.7, 95% confidence intervals, CIs = 39.5–48.4 than in Farafenni town (6.3, 5.7–7.2 and significant variation between residential blocks (p Conclusion This study demonstrates that the risk of malaria transmission is greatest in rural areas, where large numbers of people sleep in houses made of mud blocks, where the eaves are open, horses are not tethered nearby and where churai is not burnt at night. These factors need to be considered in the design and analysis of intervention studies designed to reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Kinetic theory of plasma sheaths surrounding electron-emitting surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J P; Hershkowitz, N; Kaganovich, I D; Wang, H; Raitses, Y; Barnat, E V; Weatherford, B R; Sydorenko, D

    2013-08-16

    A one-dimensional kinetic theory of sheaths surrounding planar, electron-emitting surfaces is presented which accounts for plasma electrons lost to the surface and the temperature of the emitted electrons. It is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. The sheath potential goes to zero as the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature, which can occur in the afterglow of an rf plasma and some low-temperature plasma sources. These results were validated by particle in cell simulations. The theory was tested by making measurements of the sheath surrounding a thermionically emitting cathode in the afterglow of an rf plasma. The measured sheath potential shrunk to zero as the plasma electron temperature cooled to the emitted electron temperature, as predicted by the theory.

  18. Trajectories and Maneuvers of Surrounding Vehicles with Panoramic Camera Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    of drive on US highways. The multiperspective tracker is tested in each view as well as for the ability to associate vehicles bet-ween views with a 92% recall score. A case study of vehicles approaching from the rear shows certain patterns in behavior that could potentially influence the ego-vehicle.......Vision-based research for intelligent vehicles have traditionally focused on specific regions around a vehicle, such as a front looking camera for, e.g., lane estimation. Traffic scenes are complex and vital information could be lost in unobserved regions. This paper proposes a framework that uses...... four visual sensors for a full surround view of a vehicle in order to achieve an understanding of surrounding vehicle behaviors. The framework will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies by automating the task of data reduction of the observed trajectories. To this end, trajectories...

  19. Circuits and Mechanisms for Surround Modulation in Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Alessandra; Bijanzadeh, Maryam; Nurminen, Lauri; Federer, Frederick; Merlin, Sam; Bressloff, Paul C

    2017-07-25

    Surround modulation (SM) is a fundamental property of sensory neurons in many species and sensory modalities. SM is the ability of stimuli in the surround of a neuron's receptive field (RF) to modulate (typically suppress) the neuron's response to stimuli simultaneously presented inside the RF, a property thought to underlie optimal coding of sensory information and important perceptual functions. Understanding the circuit and mechanisms for SM can reveal fundamental principles of computations in sensory cortices, from mouse to human. Current debate is centered over whether feedforward or intracortical circuits generate SM, and whether this results from increased inhibition or reduced excitation. Here we present a working hypothesis, based on theoretical and experimental evidence, that SM results from feedforward, horizontal, and feedback interactions with local recurrent connections, via synaptic mechanisms involving both increased inhibition and reduced recurrent excitation. In particular, strong and balanced recurrent excitatory and inhibitory circuits play a crucial role in the computation of SM.

  20. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Manu, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  1. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  2. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR 11429

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements ("acoustic-power halos") at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency "acoustic-emission halo", or "seismic glory" surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the "acoustic halos" and the "seismic glories" are prominent at high frequencies 5-8 mHz. We investigate morphological properties of acoustic-power and acoustic emission halos around an active region to see if they are spatially correlated. Details about the local magnetic field from vectormagnetograms of AR 11429 are included. We identify a 15" region of seismic deficit power (dark moat) shielding the white-light boundary of the active region. The size of the seismic moat is related to region of intermediate magnetic field strength. The acoustic moat is circled by the halo of enhanced seismic amplitude as well as enhanced seismic emission. Overall, the results suggest that features are related. However, if we narrow the frequency band to 5.5 - 6.5 mHz, we find that the seismic source density dominates over the local acoustic power, suggesting the existence of sources that emit more energy downward into the solar interior than upward toward the solar surface.

  3. Lymphocytes Subpopulation in Peripheral Blood and Spleen of Village Chickens Recognized by Monoclonal Antibodies (SUBPOPULASI LIMFOSIT PADA DARAH TEPI DAN LIMPA AYAM KAMPUNG YANG DIKENALI OLEH ANTIBODI MONOCLONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Mantik Astawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes play important role in host defence system against pathogenic agents both in mammalianand avian species. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been widely used to identify lymphocytessubpopulation in a host based on their surface cluster differentiation (CD markers. Currently, mAbsagainst lymphocytes surface markers of village chickens have been produced by fusion of myeloma withlymphocytes derived from spleen of mice immune to chicken lymphocytes. In two fusion experiments, 623clones of hybridomas were produced and four (BG4, CB1, DB2 and BB2 of which secreted mAbs againstchickens lymphocyte surface molecules. Two mAbs (BG4 and DB2 recognized protein of 32 kDa, one mAb(CB1 recognized protein of 64 kDa, and one mAb was unable to recognize any protein of chicken lymphocytesurface molecule. Three mAbs recognized lymphocyte subpopulation in spleen and peripheral blood ofvillage chickens. In peripheral blood, mAbs BG4, CB1 and DB2 recognized lymphocytes subpopulationwith the percentages of 11.2%, 21.4% and 7.4% respectively. In spleen those three mAbs recognizedlymphocytes subpopulations at the percentages of 38.2%, 51.54% and 31.5% respectively. Based on thoseresult, it is very likely that mAbs BG4 and DB2 recognized CD4 molecule and mAb CB1 recognized CD8molecule of village chickens lymphocytes.

  4. Livelihood and Common-Pool Resources. A Study of Thini Village, Mustang, Trans-Himalayan Region of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Dilli Prasad

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture and livestock rearing are the major livelihood earning activities of many people of Trans-Himalayan villages of Nepal, which are not possible without relying on the availability of and the accessibility to Common-Pool Resources (CPRs) such as forest, water and pastureland. Focusing on Thini village, Mustang district of Nepal’s Trans-Himalaya, this study aims to explore the livelihood situations of the villagers, which set a main objective as “how do villagers sustai...

  5. Characterization of exoplanet hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Jeff A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of exoplanet hosts and the stellar sample from which they are drawn provides abundances and other properties that quantitively constrain models of planet formation. The program Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME determines stellar parameters by fitting observed spectra, though line lists must be selected wisely. For giant planets, it is now well established that stars with higher metallicity are more likely to have detected companions. Stellar metallicity does not seem to affect the formation and/or migration of detectable planets less massive than Neptune, especially when considering only the most massive planet in the system. In systems with at least one planet less than 10 times the mass of Earth, the mass of the most massive planet increases dramatically with host star metallicity. This may reflect metallicity dependent timescales for core formation, envelope accretion, and/or migration into the detection zone.

  6. Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses ofvillage dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Ortolani, A.; Ortega-Pacheco, A.; Boer, I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    tIn Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisationof village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developedcountries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responsestowards familiar and

  7. The Strategy to Increase Women Farmer's Participation in the Program of Village Food Barn in East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliatia, Yayuk; Iskaskar, Riyanti

    2016-01-01

    Food Barn Village Programme is one of the government's efforts in achieving household food security which includes four components. The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy to increase women's participation in the Food Barn Village Programme. This research was conducted in three villages in the district of Malang, namely: Village…

  8. Family vs Village-Based: Intangible View on the Sustainable of Seaweed Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Yuliana K.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.

    2017-10-01

    Compare to other fishery activities for instance fish mariculture and catching fisheries, seaweed farming is considered easier. Also, the market for seaweed is wider and will keep growing. Thus, makes seaweed farming as one of the fastest commodity to improve the welfare of a coastal community. There are technical and non-technical factors in seaweed farming management, for non-technical on this intangible factors vary between family-based and village-based management, therefore aimed of this study was to simulate farmers decision to choose between family-based and village-based on seaweed managing system trigger by intangible factors. We conducted our study in Southeast Maluku, data collecting conducted from October to December 2016 by depth interview and questionnaires on seaweed farmers. We used logistic regression to compare each intangible factors on family and village-based seaweed farming management. The result showed that for family-based management farmers were willing to transfer their knowledge among each member in the household. For village-based revealed that farmers with higher education background tend to work on village-based, also, the result also stated that in village-based management member were those who have better capability and skill, at the same time village-based management had a small probability for conflict to occur compared to family-based.

  9. Research of Reconstruction of Village in the Urban Fringe Based on Urbanization Quality Improving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the process of urban-rural integration, it is an acute and urgent challenge for the destiny of farmers and the development of village in the urban fringe in the developed area. Based on the “urbanization quality improving” this new perspective and through the analysis of experience and practice of Village renovation of Xi’nan Village of Zengcheng county, this article summarizes the meaning of urbanization quality in developed areas and finds the villages in the urban fringe’s reconstruction strategy. The study shows that as to the distinction of the urbanization of the old and the new areas, the special feature of the re-construction of the villages on the edge of the cities, the government needs to make far-sighted lay-out design and carry out strictly with a high standard in mind. The government must set up social security system, push forward the welfare of the residents, construct a new model of urban-rural relations, attaches great importance to sustainable development, promote the quality of the villagers, maintain regional cultural characters, and form a strong management team. All in all, in the designing and building the regions, great importance must be attached to verified ways and new creative cooperative development mechanism with a powerful leadership and sustainable village construction.

  10. A qualitative study of the food-related experiences of rural village shop customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpello, T; Poland, F; Lambert, N; Wakeman, T

    2009-04-01

    In the UK, although food choice in urban contexts has been widely studied, far less empirical information has been gathered from rural settings. With the closure of local services, some rural dwellers were believed to experience difficulties in meeting healthy eating recommendations. The present study aimed to explore perceptions of village store users. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted individually with 40 adults who were frequent users of rural village shops in Norfolk, UK. Participants were purposively selected to ensure that a wide demographic cross-section of customers was obtained. Interviews focused upon food choice strategies; attitudes towards rural food retail; and the provision of healthy foods. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed qualitatively, using an established interpretative phenomenological approach. Four main themes emerged as drivers of food choice in rural villages: (1) village store as icon, which described how the perceived centrality of village shops influenced food choices; (2) village store as a service provider, which described top-up shopping behaviours; (3) alternative food sources, which described store users desires for local foods and their attitudinal conflicts towards supermarkets; and (4) lifestyle factors, which described the influence of factors such as time pressures, access to cars and family structures. Food choices were strongly influenced by the distinctive characteristics of the rural environment. Village shops were seen as important for community identity ('rural idyll'), as well as providing access to food and services. However, desires were made apparent for a greater range of healthy, fresh and locally-sourced foods.

  11. Fishing effort and catch composition of urban market and rural villages in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

  12. Hosting a Katrina Evacuee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, David

    2008-03-01

    No individual or institution anticipated the impact on the academic research community of hurricane Katrina. When Tulane physicist Wayne Reed asked me to host his research group just a day or two after the disaster, with no authorization or understanding of the commitment, I agreed immediately and then pondered implications. Fortunately, colleagues helped in making the commitment real, only the bureaucracy of my public university posing small hindrances. Industry was remarkably generous in providing Reed with significant ``loaner'' equipment, and amazingly, a suite of custom Reed experiments was running within weeks. At the end, the most productive collaborations for Reed seemed not to have been with my group, with its similar research, but to other groups at my institution, particularly the synthetic chemists, who gained access to methods previously unique to Tulane while offering samples previously unique to UMass. Quickly designed projects exploiting this match turned out remarkably productive. Although begun with trepidation, hosting of Reed had huge positive benefits to me and UMass, and I believe, also to Reed and Tulane. Some key lessons for the future: (i) industry has capacity and willingness to help academic research during disruption (ii) commitment of a host institution must be immediate, without a wait for formal approvals or arrangement of special funding -- delay leads only to discouragement, (iii) continuing academic progress of displaced students must come first, and (iv) intellectual synergy rather than overlap should be the basis for seeking a host. Lastly, NSF or other funding agency should consider a program directly addressing the research needs of unexpectedly disrupted academic scientists, and most particularly, graduate students who face greatly extended studies.

  13. Allergic Host Defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Fur...

  14. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  15. Carcass composition of Venda indigenous scavenging chickens under village management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Raphulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Four Venda indigenous scavenging (VIS chickens (one young male and one young female of 10–16 weeks of age, a mature cockerel and a mature hen were randomly purchased from each of six adjacent rural villages during three different seasons (autumn, winter and spring to determine the meat yield and carcass chemical composition. A total of 72 chickens were slaughtered and feathers, head, neck, viscera, feet and lungs were removed. The live body weight, dressed carcass weight and also the mass of the breast without wings, thighs and drumsticks were recorded with bones and skin. The muscle tissues of the breast and both legs without tendons and fat were sampled for chemical analysis and were analysed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein and ash. The carcass weight, dressing %, mass of the breast, mass of the thighs, mass of the drumsticks, breast yield, thighs yield and drumsticks yield of both grower and adult VIS chickens were not influenced by season. The crude protein of the grower chickens breast muscles and fat content of the adult chicken leg muscles differed with season. The meat from VIS chickens provided a constant nutrient (crude protein supply throughout the year to the rural communities.

  16. Aksak Patterns and Entrained Interaction in Transylvanian Village Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this response to Filippo Bonini Baraldi, Emmanuel Bigand and Thierry Pozzo’s article ‘Measuring aksak rhythm and synchronization in Transylvanian village music by using motion capture’, I present supplementary analyses of (a the ratio between Short and Long beats, and (b the entrainment between the two musicians in the motion capture recordings. The main findings reported are: the mean S:L ratio is close to 1:√2, although there is some evidence for the role of 2:3 as an attractor ratio; the distribution of S:L ratios and other measures vary depending on whether the period is taken as S+L or L+S; and the S:L ratio varies with tempo. Since the viola part is much less variable than the violin part, the former should be taken as a reference; the violinist tends to play ahead of the beat articulated by the violist, significantly so except for the Short beat in one recording (Duo 14, in which the musicians exhibit a form of soft entrainment, alternating between small and large phase differences.

  17. Macro Study of Spatial Development Area on Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhianthini Widhianthini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro study is one approach that combines the rational method based on the results of previous studies by the authority with the empirical method utilizing the survey techniques. The purpose of this macro study is to identify and analyze the potentials, problems, and the limiting factors, and the needs of the regency; and to recommend the programs and models required by the community to achieve the sustainable development. This research uses the Participatory Rural Appraisal method, the  interview techniques (Semi Structured Interview, the technique of focused group discussion (FGD, the Rapid District Appraisal (RDA, then it is analyzed by the empirical and dynamical systems. The overview of macro studies is particularly relevant in developing the regions, especially the rural areas, based on the existing advantages, such as in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency is a granary in Bali Province and the zoning of agricultural commodities in quadrant III,which is the rural farming area with combined functions between the cultivated and rural areas supported by the tourism department. The studies of the areas in the form of potential analysis, problem analysis, requirement analysis become the guidelines for preparing the development scenarios and program formats. The studies will then constitute the factors driving the realization of sustainable development of tourism villages in supporting the sustainable agriculture.

  18. ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF OAK GROVE IN VILLAGE V’YACHESLAVKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vel'cheva L. G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the actuality of the realization of environmental monitoring of forests is considered in this article. The main task is to monitor and control the dynamics of the state of the forest plantations under the influence of anthropogenic factors and warning of critical situation, harmful or threatening their normal functioning and also the prediction of the changes in them. Oak grove of village Vyacheslavka of Primorsky district of Zaporozhye region is the object of the study. The main trees of oak groves, bonitas class, age class, completeness of the main trees, the average height and diameter of trees and also the number of trees to 1 ha are determined during the study. It was also analyzed condition of the soil factors and studied the degree of natural regeneration of oak groves, defined forest type and condition of soil cover. We have scientifically grounded the necessity of development of conservation area «Oak Grove» by comparing the factors of monitoring studies and developed the plan of measure for the conservation and natural regeneration of this natural object.

  19. Cooperative behaviour and prosocial reputation dynamics in a Dominican village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Quinlan, Robert; Remiker, Mark

    2013-06-22

    Prosocial reputations play an important role, from the evolution of language to Internet transactions; however, questions remain about their behavioural correlates and dynamics. Formal models assume prosocial reputations correlate with the number of cooperative acts one performs; however, if reputations flow through information networks, then the number of individuals one assists may be a better proxy. Formal models demonstrate indirect experience must track behaviour with the same fidelity as direct experience for reputations to become viable; however, research on corporate reputations suggests performance change does not always affect reputation change. Debate exists over the cognitive mechanisms employed for assessing reputation dynamics. Image scoring suggests reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in need, while standing strategy claims reputations fluctuate relative to the number of times one fails to assist others in good standing. This study examines the behavioural correlates of prosocial reputations and their dynamics over a 20-month period in an Afro-Caribbean village. Analyses suggest prosocial reputations: (i) are correlated with the number of individuals one assists in economic production, not the number of cooperative acts; (ii) track cooperative behaviour, but are anchored across time; and (iii) are captured neither by image scoring nor standing strategy-type mechanisms.

  20. Foreign Language Acquisition Of Souvenir Seller In Bawomataluo Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniago Dakhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is addresses language functional and lexical acquisition domains of souvenir seller in Bawomataluo village, South Nias, North Sumatera. The reasons of lexical items acquired by souvenir seller is regarded as the function of language acquisition. On the contrary, form and process of lexical items acquired are totally viewed as language lexical domains. To obtain the whole accurate data of these research problems interview and observation were conducted. The research finding indicates four specified language lexical acquisition reasons: internal motivation, external motivation, access to native speaker and experience. In addition, eight English part of speech are acquired.It is discovered that lexical items acquired are dominated by noun. Verb and adjective posites at the next level of the amount of lexicals acquired. Adverb, conjunction, pronoun are less acquired. Interjection is more easily acquired by souvenir sellers. The processes involved to acquire the lexical consist of social, memory, compensation, and affective process. Finally, the research finding is thoroughly expected to be language teacher’s consideration in employing material selection and determining natural, contextual and situational language teaching model. Language leaners are highly advised to recall the language competence theoretically mastered in naturall setting in attempt to obtain practical competence.

  1. Matching renewable energy systems to village-level energy needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J.H.; Neuendorffer, J.W.

    1980-06-01

    This report provides a five step process for matching alternative renewable energy technologies with energy needs in rural villages of developing countries. Analytic tools are given for each of the five steps as well as information that can be expected. Twelve characterization criteria are developed to assist in the matching process. Three of these criteria, called discrimination criteria, are used for preliminary screening of technology possibilities for each need. The other criteria address site-specific temporal, climatic, social, cultural, and environmental characteristics of the energy need, technology, and cost considerations. To illustrate the matching process, seven basic human needs for energy are matched with seven potential renewable energy technologies. The final portion of the paper discusses the advantages of such a matching process and the resources required to initiate such an effort within a development project. Specific recommendations are given for field-testing this process and actions that could be taken immediately in basic research and development, applied research and technology modification, demonstrations, and commercialization to assist in the future diffusion of renewable energy technologies to rural areas of developing countries.

  2. Application of OpenStreetMap (OSM) to Support the Mapping Village in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swasti Kanthi, Nurin; Hery Purwanto, Taufik

    2016-11-01

    Geospatial Information is a important thing in this era, because the need for location information is needed to know the condition of a region. In 2015 the Indonesian government release detailed mapping in village level and their Parent maps Indonesian state regulatory standards set forth in Rule form Norm Standards, Procedures and Criteria for Mapping Village (NSPK). Over time Web and Mobile GIS was developed with a wide range of applications. The merger between detailed mapping and Web GIS is still rarely performed and not used optimally. OpenStreetMap (OSM) is a WebGIS which can be utilized as Mobile GIS providing sufficient information to the representative levels of the building and can be used for mapping the village.Mapping Village using OSM was conducted using remote sensing approach and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), which's to interpret remote sensing imagery from OSM. The study was conducted to analyzed how far the role of OSM to support the mapping of the village, it's done by entering the house number data, administrative boundaries, public facilities and land use into OSM with reference data and data image Village Plan. The results of the mapping portion villages in OSM as a reference map-making village and analyzed in accordance with NSPK for detailed mapping Rukun Warga (RW) is part of the village mapping. The use of OSM greatly assists the process of mapping the details of the region with data sources in the form of images and can be accessed for Open Source. But still need their care and updating the data source to maintain the validity of the data.

  3. Social network analysis of food sharing among households in opisthorchiasis endemic villages of Lawa Lake, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phimpraphai, Waraphon; Tangkawattana, Sirikachorn; Sereerak, Piya; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Sripa, Banchob

    2017-05-01

    Consumption of raw fish is a well-documented risk factor for Opisthorchis viverrini infection. Sharing of food, especially raw fish recipes may influence the spread of disease through a community. Using social network analysis of an ego network, we investigated food sharing among households in an Opisthorchis-endemic area. Network centrality properties were used to explain the differences in O. viverrini transmission and control between villages with a low and high prevalence of infection. Information on demography and O. viverrini infection in 2008 from villagers in the Lawa Lake area was extracted from the Tropical Disease Research Center database. The two villages that had the lowest and the highest O. viverrini infection at the household level were recruited. Ten percent of households of each village were randomly sampled. Participatory epidemiology and face-to-face structured interviews guided by a social network questionnaire were used to collect data on livelihood, agricultural patterns, food sources, raw fish eating habits, and other food sharing during daily life and social gatherings. The number of contacts including in-degree and out-degree varied from 0 to 7 in the low-infection village and 0 to 4 in the high-infection village. The mean number of contacts for the food-sharing network among the low- and high-infection villages was 1.64 and 0.73 contacts per household, respectively. Between these villages, the mean number of out-degree (p=0.0125), but not in-degree (p=0.065), was significantly different. Food-sharing differed in numbers of sharing-in and sharing-out between the two villages. Network analysis of food sharing may be of value in designing strategies for opisthorchiasis control at the community level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Actualizing Communities of Practice (COPs and Situated Learning for A Sustainable Eco-Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Pineda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An eco-village as defined by Robert Gilman is a “human-scale, full-featured settlement where you feel you know the others, and human activities are integrated with natural, biological systems.” Roland Mayerl argued that this maybe ideal, but there are huge challenges. He claims the challenges are at different levels—there is the physical layer that constitutes food production, animals, water and wastewater treatment. Other layers will be the built environment, the economic system and the governance in the village.This paper argues that one of the challenging layers is the human layer that was excluded in the modeling of many eco-village works. While there are many good models of an eco-village, sustainability will primarily be laid on the shoulders of the members of the community or the village for that matter. Sustainability should be espoused by the members of the eco-village. But how can sustainability be attained? What sustainability approach or strategy can be employed?“Communities of practice (COP are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor.“ (Wenger, 2004 COPs are concepts commonly applied in organizations and virtual communities. Using this approach together with periphery participation and situated learning, this paper presents a human-based model of a sustainable eco-village and some useful examples.The paper also argues that an eco-village necessitates the support of technology in enhancing and preserving the shared practices. Hence, use of social media deployed in the web is one of the recommended ways that also permit collective action among members of the eco-village.

  5. Entrepreneurship in tourism on the example of good practice: Ethno villages Latkovac in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become a generator of economic development in many countries of the world. Serbia is becoming increasingly requested destination on the tourist map of Europe. The aim of this paper is to show on the example of a good business practice - Ethno village Latkovac, that entrepreneurship in tourism Serbia should be based on the concept of economic, sociological and social sustainable development with achieving the full satisfaction of the consumers - tourists. The subject of the paper is original and diverse content offers as an example of creative entrepreneurship that has helped to accelerate the development of the local villages. Method of the work - Case Study 'Ethno Village Latkovac'.

  6. Natural gamma radioactivity in the villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Jeni Chandar; Basil Rose, M R

    2013-01-01

    In situ radiometric survey carried out in 81 revenue villages of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India, using a portable radiation dosemeter/detector, revealed the existence of radiation hotspots along the coastal belt. A close observation of the coastal villages specifically revealed high background radioactivity in 14 coastal villages. A very high intrinsic anomalous radioactivity of 41.03 μSv h(-1) was observed, in a famous tourist spot in the coastal belt of Kanyakumari District. This is the highest level of radiation registered in South India, which is extremely higher than the permissible world average and is suggestive of causing severe clinical problems on continuous and prolonged exposure.

  7. Study on environmental characteristics of Hong Village in Huizhou and its environmental satisfaction evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mei; Zhuang, Xiaolin; Jin, Hexian; Wei, Yunlong; Li, Xianchun

    2017-01-01

    Hong Village is one of the famous historic and cultural heritages in the world. Based on the previous literature and field research, this paper discusses the environmental characteristics of Hong Village from the aspects of the overall layout, water system planning, architectural construction and plant landscape. The environment of Hong Village also be evaluated and analyzed by questionnaire designed for inhabitant and visitors. It is surveyed that people are highly satisfactory with the environment. The environment model could provide reference for our project and planning research related to environment in the future.

  8. High risk of birth defects with PKU in Mast-e Ali village, Kermanshah province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Moradi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the study conducted on phenylketonuria (PKU patients in Kermanshah province, there were at least 10 PKU patients in Firuzabad district. The prevalence of the disease and frequency of carriers among the population of Mast-e Ali village, a village in Firuzabad district, were calculated to be 1 in 80 and 1 in 5, respectively. This is one of the highest frequencies reported for the prevalence of PKU to date. These findings introduce Mast-e Ali village as a small region in the high risk of birth defects with PKU. It seems that consanguinity has had a major impact on these findings.

  9. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  10. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  13. Current leakage for low altitude satellites. [to surrounding plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, J. E.; Konradi, A.; Garriott, O. K.

    1979-01-01

    Ionospheric plasma densities exceeding 1,000,000 per cu cm exist around satellites in low earth orbit. Operation of large solar arrays at high voltage may drive substantial leakage currents through this surrounding plasma. Power losses exceeding solar cell output have been observed for small arrays biased above +2,000 V. Estimates of these effects for very large power systems are developed. Recent large scale (10 meter) lab tests are reported. Estimates based on calculations of space charge limited sheath dimensions are identified as a good working model, leading to projected power losses for large arrays increasing much more slowly than for small arrays.

  14. The science and questions surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Vin Shen; Madden, Christopher J; Bailes, Julian E; Hunt Batjer, H; Lonser, Russell R

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the pathobiology, causes, associated factors, incidence and prevalence, and natural history of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have been debated. Data from retrospective case series and high-profile media reports have fueled public fear and affected the medical community's understanding of the role of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the development of CTE. There are a number of limitations posed by the current evidence that can lead to confusion within the public and scientific community. In this paper, the authors address common questions surrounding the science of CTE and propose future research directions.

  15. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  16. Epidemiology in mixed host populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garrett, K A; Mundt, C C

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although plant disease epidemiology has focused on populations in which all host plants have the same genotype, mixtures of host genotypes are more typical of natural populations and offer...

  17. Can host density attenuate parasitism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magalhães, L; Freitas, R; Dairain, A; De Montaudouin, X

    .... Considering that these parasites infect cockles through filtration activity, our first hypothesis was that high host density will have a dilution effect so that infection intensity decreases with host density...

  18. Research on the strategies to optimize traditional Korean nationality village residential environment -- Taking the transformation of Chatiao Village in Antu County, Yanbian Korean Nationality Autonomous Prefecture as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoyang, Sun; Xin, Sui; Mo, Li; Yongqiang, Wang

    2017-04-01

    This research is aimed to make an in-depth research into the strategies and methods to protect and develop the residential environment in the villages and towns with minority group characteristics. In the research on the construction mode and optimization strategy of the residential environment of the original residents in Chatiao Village, Antu County, Korean Nationality Autonomous Prefecture, the contents of architecture and planning were used comprehensively with the philosophy of green design, sociology and economics being combined simultaneously to drive the humanistic and economic development in the minority areas at the same time of providing new employment opportunities and a comfortable residential environment for people, thus realizing the complete development of the characteristic villages in Chinese minority areas.

  19. Miracle et espace social au village nahua de La Esperanza, Mexique Miracle and Social Space in the Nahua Village of La Esperanza, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anath Ariel de Vidas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le récit d’un miracle dans la montagne proche du village nahua de La Esperanza, dans la Huastèque veracruzaine au Mexique, constitue la seule narration rapportée dans ce village au sujet de sa fondation. Cette narration, loin d’être ancrée dans des temps immémoriaux, se situe explicitement au milieu du xxe siècle et relate les offrandes à la montagne qui ont mis fin à plusieurs années de sécheresse. Or, l’analyse de cette seule histoire, mythique, permet finalement de mettre au jour celle, historique, du village. Elle révèle ainsi de manière simultanée l’éclatement et la délimitation des frontières sociales et politiques de ce groupe indien local.The story of a miracle on the mountain near the Nahua village of La Esperanza, in the Veracruzan Huasteca in Mexico, constitutes the only narrative offered in this village on the subject of its foundation. This narrative, far from being rooted in ancient times, is explicitly set in the middle of the 20th century and tells of offerings to the mountain, ending several years of drought. And yet, the analysis of this single mythical story ultimately helps shed light on the historical story of the village. It simultaneously reveals the fragmentation and delimitation of the social and political boundaries of the local Indian group.

  20. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G

    2015-10-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises.

  1. Microbial communities associated with ferromanganese nodules and the surrounding sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin John Tully

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation and maintenance of deep-sea ferromanganese/polymetallic nodules still remains a mystery 140 years after their discovery. The wealth of rare metals concentrated in these nodules has spurred global interest in exploring the mining potential of these resources. The prevailing theory of abiotic formation has been called into question and the role of microbial metabolisms in nodule development is now an area of active research. To understand the community structure of microbes associated with nodules and their surrounding sediment, we performed targeted sequencing of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene from three nodules collected from the central South Pacific. Results have shown that the microbial communities of the nodules are significantly distinct from the communities in the surrounding sediments, and that the interiors of the nodules harbor communities different from the exterior. This suggests not only differences in potential metabolisms between the nodule and sediment communities, but also differences in the dominant metabolisms of interior and exterior communities. We identified several operational taxonomic units (OTUs unique to both the nodule and sediment environments. The identified OTUs were assigned putative taxonomic identifications, including two OTUs only found associated with the nodules, which were assigned to the α-Proteobacteria. Finally, we explored the diversity of the most assigned taxonomic group, the Thaumarchaea MG-1, which revealed novel OTUs compared to previous research from the region and suggests a potential role as a source of fixed carbon for ammonia oxidizing archaea in the environment.

  2. REMOTE SENSING EFFICIENCY FOR URBAN ANALYSIS OF MECCA AND SURROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  3. Remote Sensing Efficiency for Urban Analysis of Mecca and Surrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Ayman; Alhaddad, Bahaa; Roca, Josep

    2016-06-01

    Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC) since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD) analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC) changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  4. Comparing mechanisms of host manipulation across host and parasite taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.

    2013-01-01

    Parasites affect host behavior in several ways. They can alter activity, microhabitats or both. For trophically transmitted parasites (the focus of our study), decreased activity might impair the ability of hosts to respond to final-host predators, and increased activity and altered microhabitat choice might increase contact rates between hosts and final-host predators. In an analysis of trophically transmitted parasites, more parasite groups altered activity than altered microhabitat choice. Parasites that infected vertebrates were more likely to impair the host’s reaction to predators, whereas parasites that infected invertebrates were more likely to increase the host’s contact with predators. The site of infection might affect how parasites manipulate their hosts. For instance, parasites in the central nervous system seem particularly suited to manipulating host behavior. Manipulative parasites commonly occupy the body cavity, muscles and central nervous systems of their hosts. Acanthocephalans in the data set differed from other taxa in that they occurred exclusively in the body cavity of invertebrates. In addition, they were more likely to alter microhabitat choice than activity. Parasites in the body cavity (across parasite types) were more likely to be associated with increased host contact with predators. Parasites can manipulate the host through energetic drain, but most parasites use more sophisticated means. For instance, parasites target four physiological systems that shape behavior in both invertebrates and vertebrates: neural, endocrine, neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory. The interconnections between these systems make it difficult to isolate specific mechanisms of host behavioral manipulation.

  5. Exsolution halos surrounding ruptured inclusions in garnets from UHT and UHP rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axler, Jennifer; Ague, Jay

    2015-04-01

    Distinctive halos of rutile ± apatite needles and/or plates centered on quartz or multiphase inclusions with radial cracks in garnet are investigated. The quartz is likely former coesite and the multiphase inclusions are interpreted to be decrepitated fluid inclusions. We study samples from two localities: (1) ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metapelitic gneisses from the Central Maine Terrane in Connecticut, USA (Ague et al., 2013) (rutile halos only) and (2) ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) diamondiferous saidenbachite from the Saxonian Erzgebirge (Massonne, 2003) (rutile and apatite halos). The rutile and apatite needles in the halos are typically oriented in three directions. Within the halos, garnet is depleted in Ti (and P if apatite is present). The halos extend about three inclusion radii away from the central quartz or multiphase inclusions. We propose that the inclusion halos of rutile ± apatite formed by exsolution out of garnet due to rupturing of the central inclusions. The internal pressure of an inclusion in garnet can be larger than the surrounding lithostatic pressure if the entrapment pressure is maintained or if a large positive volume phase change occurs. A large pressure difference between an inclusion and host strains the host and causes deformation, which in turn produces dislocations and other defects. During exhumation the pressure difference between inclusions and the surrounding rock matrix can become so great that rupturing of the garnet occurs. The rupturing creates more dislocations and defects in the garnet with the dislocation density highest around the inclusion. The defects in the crystal structure are ideal nucleation sites for exsolved precipitates. Another factor assisting exsolution is the drop in pressure in the surrounding garnet caused by the rupturing which should in turn decrease the solubility of Ti and P in garnet. To test the exsolution hypothesis, chemical reintegration of the Ti or P contents of the garnet in the halos plus the

  6. "What do you know?"--knowledge among village doctors of lead poisoning in children in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruixue; Ning, Huacheng; Baum, Carl R; Chen, Lei; Hsiao, Allen

    2017-11-23

    This study evaluates the extent of village doctors' knowledge of lead poisoning in children in rural China and assesses the characteristics associated with possessing accurate knowledge. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey of 297 village doctors in Fenghuang County, Hunan Province, China was conducted. All village doctors were interviewed face-to-face using a "What do you know" test questionnaire focusing on prevention strategies and lead sources in rural children. A total of 287 (96.6%) village doctors completed the survey in full. Most village doctors had an appropriate degree of general knowledge of lead poisoning; however, they had relatively poor knowledge of lead sources and prevention measures. Village doctors with an undergraduate level education scored an average of 2.7 points higher than those who had a junior college level education (p = 0.033). Village doctors with an annual income ≤ 10,000 RMB yuan scored 1.03 points lower than those whose income was >10,001 RMB yuan. Ethnic Han village doctors scored 1.12 points higher, on average, than ethnic Tujia village doctors (p = 0.027). This study identified important gaps in knowledge concerning lead poisoning in children among a rural population of village doctors. There is a clear need for multifaceted interventions that target village doctors to improve their knowledge regarding lead poisoning in children. The "What do you know" questionnaire is a new tool to evaluate lead poisoning knowledge and education projects.

  7. Sarmatian Burials Near the Astanino Village in the Eastern Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropotov Viktor Valeryevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the materials of two Sarmatian burials that had been studied in 1966-1967 years by the Kerch expedition of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the chief of expedition – A.M. Leskov in the Astanino village in the Eastern Crimea. These burials had been made on small depth in embankments of barrows of the bronze epoch, therefore it is not possible to track contours of funeral constructions. The dead were laid on their backs, heads turned to the North and the North-West. The utensils buried in the same tombs included two ceramic gray-clay pelikes, two gray-clay bowls, a red-gloss vessel, a red-clay pottery, a set of glass and cornelian beads, and the Egyptian faience beads. These things allow to exactly date the investigated complexes within the second half of the 1st century BC – the beginnings of the 1st century AD. The main distinctive characteristics of Early-Sarmatian burials of Northern Pontic region consist in the use of already existing barrows for burial places, orientations of the dead in the Northern sector, the insignificant depth of burials. Therefore published monuments should be also referred to them. A small number of such complexes with their distribution on the quite big territory between the Don and Dnepr rivers testify to the low density of the nomadic population at that time. The antique sources of the end of the 2nd – 1st centuries BC mention the presence of Roxolani in the given region. The described complexes supplement our poor knowledge of Sarmatian antiquities of the Eastern Crimea and specify the direct contacts of nomads of Northern Pontic region to the antique centers, in immediate proximity from which they had been located.

  8. Occurrence of arsenicosis in a rural village of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, D N Guha; Majumdar, K K; Santra, S C; Kol, Hero; Vicheth, Chan

    2009-04-01

    Ninety-seven subjects belonging to 40 families in a village in Cambodia were examined in a health camp where all the cases with skin disease assembled. These people had evidences of chronic arsenic exposure from reports of testing of water samples and of hair and/or nail studied. Seventy cases were diagnosed to be suffering from arsenicosis (Clinically and laboratory confirmed according to WHO criteria) as all these cases had evidences of pigmentation and/or keratosis characteristic of arsenicosis and history of exposure of arsenic contaminated water and/or elevated level of arsenic in hair and/or in nail. Highest number of cases belonged to age group of 31 to 45 yrs, both the sexes are more or less affected equally. Evidence of both pigmentation and keratosis were found in 60 cases (85.7%) while only pigmentation and only keratosis was found in 6 (8.5%) and 4 (5.7%) cases respectively. It was interesting to find 37.04% of children below the age of 16 years had skin lesions of arsenicosis. The youngest child having definite evidence of keratosis and pigmentation was aged 8 years, though two children aged 4 and 5 yrs had feature of redness and mild thickening of the palms. The minimum and maximum arsenic values detected in the nails were 1.06 and 69.48 mg/Kg respectively and the minimum and maximum arsenic values in hair were 0.92 and 25.6 mg/Kg respectively. No correlation was observed between arsenic concentration in drinking water and arsenic level in nail and hair. This is the first report of clinical and laboratory confirmed cases of arsenicosis in Cambodia.

  9. Factors Affecting Completeness Basic Immunization Village District of North Krembangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adzaniyah Isyani Rahmawati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Each state issues have particular regard to infectious diseases, many ways to eradication of infectious diseases, one of them with the basic immunization. This study was conducted to determine the factors that affect the completeness of the basic immunization in infants or toddlers in the District of North Kembangan Village of Surabaya as PD3I disease prevention. The design used a case-control (case control by the number of sample cases as much as 22 respondents and the amount of control by 44 respondents. Research subjects are taken by simple random sampling. Dependent variable of this study is the age of the respondent, education level, income level, employment status, knowledge about immunization, traditions and beliefs, as well as family support, attendance officer, location and attitude of staff immunization. The results showed the influence of tradition on the completeness of immunization (p = 0.015 and family support (p = 0.001. Completeness of primary immunization in infants as efforts to prevent PD3I disease affected family tradition that used to immunize baby or toddler in a baby or toddler will likely get a complete immunization and family who support immunization infant or toddler chance to get a complete immunization. For that we need a health promotion approach to the public in order to change the traditions that are not used to immunize a support for immunization and to give sense to the decision makers benefit families that immunization in infants or toddler.  Keywords: immunization status, family tradition, family support

  10. Introduction to EGU session "Lunar Science and Exploration Towards Moon Village"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    The EGU PS2.2 session "Lunar Science and Exploration" Towards Moon Village" will address: - Recent lunar results: geochemistry, geophysics in the context of open planetary science and exploration - Synthesis of results from SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'e 1, 2 and 3, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LADEE, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and, Artemis and GRAIL - Goals and Status of missions under preparation: orbiters, Luna-Glob, Google Lunar X Prize, Luna Resurs polar lander, SLIM, Chandrayaan2, Chang'E 4 & 5, Lunar Resource Prospector, Future landers, Lunar sample return missions - Precursor missions, instruments and investigations for landers, rovers, sample return, and human cis-lunar activities and human lunar surface sorties - Preparation for International Lunar Decade: databases, instruments, missions, terrestrial field campaigns, support studies - ILEWG and Global Exploration roadmaps towards a global robotic/human Moon village - Strategic Knowledge Gaps, and key science Goals relevant to Lunar Global Exploration Lunar science and exploration are developing further with new and exciting missions being developed by China, the US, Japan, India, Russia, Korea and Europe, and with new stakeholders. The Moon Village is an open concept proposed by ESA DG with the goal of a sustainable human and robotic presence on the lunar surface as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. Multiple goals of the Moon Village include planetary science, life sciences, astronomy, fundamental research, resources utilisation, human spaceflight, peaceful cooperation, economical development, inspiration, training and capacity building. ESA director general has revitalized and enhanced the original concept of MoonVillage discussed in the last decade. Space exploration builds on international collaboration. COSPAR and its ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group (created in 1994) have fostered collaboration between lunar missions [4-8]. A flotilla of lunar orbiters has

  11. Village of Pender, Nebraska Wastewater Treatment Facility, Pender, Nebraska - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Village of Pender, Nebraska Wastewater Treatment Facility (“Respondent”) for alleged violations of Sections 301 and/or 404 of the Clean Water Act

  12. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  13. Siim Nestor soovitab : Viimane Teenage Kicks. Popidioti esitlusshow. Slum Village / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Üritustest: "Teenage Kicks" 17. veebr. Tallinnas Kinomajas, ansambli Popidiot heliplaadi "1111" esitlusest 17. veebr. Tartus restoran-klubis Maailm, ameerika ansambli Slum Village uue albumi "Detroit Deli" esitlusest 19. veebr. Tallinnas klubis Privé

  14. The origins of the Olympic Village: Los Angeles 1932 and Berlin 1936.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bortolotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the transformations produced by the housing projects for the Olympic Games, the construction and following reuse of the Olympic Villages is an interesting studying matter. During the hundred-year-old history of the modern Olympics the realization of the Olympic Village, which finds reference in the de Coubertin’s writings, and the town planning transformations, to this correlated, have revealed in different ways. The essay mainly concerns the origins of the Olympic Village and the first settlements which characterized the Games in the thirties: Los Angeles 1932 and Berlin 1936. In these two cities, even though with different motivations, politico-economical stimulus and different images, the prototypes of the modern Olympic sport facilities, which find in the village an in the stadium the symbol of the event, were born.

  15. The experience of implementing a 'TB village' for a pastoralist population in Cherrati, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayler-Smith, K; Khogali, M; Keiluhu, K; Jemmy, J-P; Ayada, L; Weyeyso, T; Issa, A M; De Maio, G; Harries, A D; Zachariah, R

    2011-10-01

    In Cherrati District, Somali Regional State (SRS), Ethiopia, despite a high burden of tuberculosis (TB), TB control activities are virtually absent. The majority of the population is pastoralist with a mobile lifestyle. TB care and treatment were offered using a 'TB village' approach that included traditional style residential care, community empowerment and awareness raising, provision of essential social amenities and essential food and non-food items. To describe 1) key aspects of the implementation of the TB village approach, 2) TB treatment outcomes and 3) the lessons learnt during implementation. Descriptive study. A total of 297 patients entered the TB village between September 2006 and October 2008; 271 (91%) patients were treated successfully, nine (3%) defaulted and 13 (4%) died. For pastoralist populations, a TB village approach may be effective for improving access to TB care, ensuring proper adherence to treatment and achieving good overall TB outcomes. The successes and challenges of this approach are discussed.

  16. Initiating the Pathway to Increase the Region's Income by Developing Tourism Village of Panglipuran Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bashori Imron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The head of regencies and cities needs to develop their imagination and inspiration in order to present the goal of region development and deliver the positive economic growth for the public. Initiating the tourism village program for the potential area may serve as a creative alternative. The aim of this research is to develop the idea of tourism village to improve the income of the region. In depth participation in the community and intensive interview with the tourism stakeholders have been chosen as the method of this study. The result of the research shows that the tourism village of Penglipuran has seven potentials as the main attractions as represented by the traditional architecture, artistic spatial arrangement, the bamboo forest, heroes cemetery, the beauty of Pura Panataran, remarkable village landscape, and Karang Memadu. The participation of local government may contribute the positive impact for the economic growth and improve the income of local community.

  17. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  18. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions...

  19. Urban Villages as Spaces of Cultural Identity: Urban Migrant Writers in the Pearl River Delta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li Lingling

    2013-01-01

      Through an analysis of a case study of urban migrant writers and urban villages in the Pearl River Delta, this article examines the relationship between migrants and urban spaces in contemporary China...

  20. The Use of Landscape Metrics and Transfer Learning to Explore Urban Villages in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hui Liu; Xin Huang; Dawei Wen; Jiayi Li

    2017-01-01

    Urban villages (UVs), the main settlements of rural migrant workers and low-income groups in metropolitan areas of China, have become of major concern to city managers and researchers due to the rapid urbanization in recent years...

  1. Astronomy Village: A Multimedia Educational Interface for Communicating New Results in Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; McGee, S. M.; Hornyak, J.; Coffield, J.; Stoffel, D.

    1999-03-01

    Astronomy Village is a multimedia educational interface for presenting new scientific results in a problemsolving format. Two content packages exist, one highlighting research problems and data in Earth and space science, and one in stellar and galactic astronomy.

  2. Evaluated of "Ideal Republic Village" rural development project of Atatürk from the point of space theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Atabeyoğlu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The villages are the base of the country's development. It is a national policy the villages are developed for the developed countries. There are the important steps about the villages in Turkiye. The important one of the steps is a village project prepared in first years of The Republic. The material of the study is the project of Ideal Republic Village. The project was drawn in 1937. Atatürk was interested and contributed to the project. The project has inspirational characteristics, as model both supports cultural and social structure and increases production and welfare in the villages. This and similar projects are important for development of urban and villages. The study contains analyzing of the project with space and design theories of Lynch, Norberg-Schulz and Gestault. With this way, space structure and design of the project were evaluated objectively.

  3. INVASIVE WEEDS IN BOGOR BOTANIC GARDENS, INDONESIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG. Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae, Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae, Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae, Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae, Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen (Fabaceae. These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L. Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.

  4. Marasti Village, 1918-1924 … A Neo-Romanian Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiceanu-Mathe, Dan; Carjan, Roxana

    2017-10-01

    Mărăști Village, 1918, a village on the front line of the First World War, the place where General Mackensen and General Averescu met face to face for 12 days. After the 12 days of heavy fighting at an altitude of 536 meters, the Romanians won the battle, but they lost 4800 people and the village was destroyed. The village was rehabilitated due to Mărăști Society; whose objective was to rebuild it as a “historical village in the Romanian style”. The place was in a building site for 6 years. A number of 73 houses were rehabilitated and 20 new houses, a church and a school were erected. The village was provided with a water supply system and an electricity grid with diesel-generators. All this was designed in the Neo-Romanian style by 6 architects. In a short period and on a large territory, the terrible consequences of the war were changed into a reconstruction and modernization theme, from the infrastructure in general to the dwellings in particular. It was a tremendous effort because of the isolated position of the village, which required an impressive logistic support for those times. The new architectural products were designed in the style that was already considered the Neo-Romania style in the 1910-1920 decade. The village is important because it was modernized from the urban point of view. It was a completely new manner characteristic of the urban development in an area where the last Middle Ages peasant upheaval took place in 1907. In the Romanian context, the execution is unique in dimension, scale and theme. At the International level, it is considered a very precise and rare architectural intervention.

  5. Comparative Economic and Gender, Labor Analysis of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Tribal Villages in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Cynthia; Chan, Catherine; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Shariq, Linsey; Roul, Pravat; Idol, Travis; Ray, Chittanrajan; Evensen, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Marginal land use and subsequent natural resource degradation is a common issue among tribal villages in the Kendujhar district of India. In this study, Conservation Agriculture (CA) technologies at an experimental site, specifically the practices of intercropping and minimum tillage, were compared to conventional tillage practices of three tribal villages (145 households total) in this district. The impacts of CA implementation on gender, labor, and economic (yield and profitability) factors...

  6. AHP 1: SEATING, MONEY, AND FOOD AT AN AMDO VILLAGE FUNERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rin chen rdo rje རིན་ཆེན་རྡོ་རྗེ།

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Seating, food, and money are discussed in the context of funerals held in the Amdo Tibetan village of Lo khog, located in Mar khu thang Town, Gcan tsha County, Rma lho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, PR China. An analysis of these three elements, combined with an intimate personal account of the funeral of the first author's close relative in 2005, offer insights into villagers' social status, and power and gender roles in their everyday lives.

  7. Natural Radioactivity in Soil and Water from Likuyu Village in the Neighborhood of Mkuju Uranium Deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Najat K.; Mazunga, Mohamed S.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of high concentration uranium deposit at Mkuju, southern part of Tanzania, has brought concern about the levels of natural radioactivity at villages in the neighborhood of the deposit. This study determined the radioactivity levels of 30 soil samples and 20 water samples from Likuyu village which is 54 km east of the uranium deposit. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K were determined using low level gamma spectrometry of the Tanzania Atomic Ener...

  8. Investigation of A Cholera Outbreak in Kanpur Village of Panchmahal, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff Bhavesh D, Mazumdar Vihang S

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Diarrhoeal disease outbreaks are causes of major public health emergencies in India. We investigated such outbreak in Kanpur village of Panchmahal district, Gujarat to identify the etiological agent, source of transmission and propose control measures. We also conducted case-control study to identify risk factors. Results: The outbreak was caused by V. cholera 01. Cases were not localized to any specific area but scattered in village depending on location of children who had eat...

  9. Comparison of the diagnostic results school readiness in town and village

    OpenAIRE

    Růžičková, Martina

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis titled The comparison of the diagnostic results of school readiness in the city and in the village is focused on the problems of the school age development. The object is to give the opinion on better readiness for school of the children in the city or in the village. The theoretical part contains the characteristics of preschool child's motor, cognitive, perceptual, social and emotional development. There is the concept of the school readiness and the individual parts of ...

  10. Entomopathogenic Fungi: New Insights into Host-Pathogen Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, T M; Coates, C J; Dubovskiy, I M; Ratcliffe, N A

    2016-01-01

    Although many insects successfully live in dangerous environments exposed to diverse communities of microbes, they are often exploited and killed by specialist pathogens. Studies of host-pathogen interactions (HPI) provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the highly aggressive coevolutionary arms race between entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and their arthropod hosts. The host defenses are designed to exclude the pathogen or mitigate the damage inflicted while the pathogen responds with immune evasion and utilization of host resources. EPF neutralize their immediate surroundings on the insect integument and benefit from the physiochemical properties of the cuticle and its compounds that exclude competing microbes. EPF also exhibit adaptations aimed at minimizing trauma that can be deleterious to both host and pathogen (eg, melanization of hemolymph), form narrow penetration pegs that alleviate host dehydration and produce blastospores that lack immunogenic sugars/enzymes but facilitate rapid assimilation of hemolymph nutrients. In response, insects deploy an extensive armory of hemocytes and macromolecules, such as lectins and phenoloxidase, that repel, immobilize, and kill EPF. New evidence suggests that immune bioactives work synergistically (eg, lysozyme with antimicrobial peptides) to combat infections. Some proteins, including transferrin and apolipophorin III, also demonstrate multifunctional properties, participating in metabolism, homeostasis, and pathogen recognition. This review discusses the molecular intricacies of these HPI, highlighting the interplay between immunity, stress management, and metabolism. Increased knowledge in this area could enhance the efficacy of EPF, ensuring their future in integrated pest management programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Promoting family planning work in Xiaqidu township by establishing a family planning association in each village].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C

    1987-07-01

    A family planning association was established in each village of Xiaqidu Township in Hunan Province, China in October 1986. The positive functions of each such association were so fully developed that family planning work reached new levels. For example, most villages are no longer experiencing early marriages or unplanned births. Some of the villages have established associations for individual work groups. The traditional method was for both township and village associations to rely upon the positive attitudes of officials to instill into fertile women Party policy, and to arouse their patriotism and initiative. By establishing family planning associations at the village level, however, the people can conduct their own affairs and educate themselves. Emphasis has been placed on attracting into the associations those who are of childbearing age, as well as older villagers of experience. The associations' raison d'etre was to serve the people. They did so through: propaganda (disseminating population theory, birth control and family planning information); helping the people overcome poverty, traditional thinking, and ignorance; assisting women with any problems and anxieties relating to child-bearing; delivering contraceptives to households; and providing the elderly with care and the young with education.

  12. Renaissance Possibilities Of The Village By Practicing Rural Tourism And Farm Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Petroman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rural and farm tourism has as coordinates three essential elements, rural area, people, and products offered for sale to the visitors and refers to all the activities caused by spending a determined period of time in rural area, the means for housing being both the pension as well as the farm or peasant household and other accommodation spaces, inns, stops. The village cans reborn being an important place for townspeople, because it means human dimension, social intimacy, and local animation. Villages with tourist vocation are preserving of traditions and a rich historical content, besides administrative, cultural and economic, functions through tourism can regenerate developing through the implementation of measures which to improve infrastructure, attracting young people in villages by creating new jobs in tourism activity, promoting traditional village. In developing strategies for the regeneration of villages do not have to start from the premise that the village should be a closed community, but a supplier of raw materials and human resources, producer of goods and services for urban communities.

  13. Dimensions of Community and Local Institutions’ Support: Towards an Eco-Village Kelurahan in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nany Yuliastuti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Global Eco-village Network (GEN is to create and promote sustainable human settlements that allow people to live more comfortably. However, an eco-village cannot exist without the support of the local government and the community. A village (kelurahan is expected to recognize and implement a settlement’s environmental management by maintaining environmentally friendly behavior in daily activities. Gayamsari is a kelurahan in Semarang City that has been implementing the eco-village concept. This study aims to explain, through quantitative descriptive analysis, the extent at which the eco-village aspects are achieved by local and institutional participation in Gayamsari. The idea of an eco-village is to bring harmony to the three pillars of sustainable development—the social, economic, and ecological components—to create a sustainable living environment. However, the results show that Gayamsari needs improvement, especially in terms of ensuring a safe and comfortable environment, which can be achieved through strengthening the participation of both the community and local institutions.

  14. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  15. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  16. MAPPING THE SURROUNDINGS AS A REQUIREMENT FOR AUTONOMOUS DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steininger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the hype around driverless cars and the challenges of the sensor integration and data processing, this paper presents a model for using a XBox One Microsoft Kinect stereo camera as sensor for mapping the surroundings. Today, the recognition of the environment of the car is mostly done by a mix of sensors like LiDAR, RADAR and cameras. In the case of the outdoor delivery challenge Robotour 2016 with model cars in scale 1:5, it is our goal to solve the task with one camera only. To this end, a three-stage approach was developed. The test results show that our approach can detect and locate objects at a range of up to eight meters in order to incorporate them as barriers in the navigation process.

  17. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2017-06-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence ω _q is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there are several differences on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  18. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (3-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This 360-degree stereo panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  19. A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Maynard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.

  20. Progress and controversy surrounding vaccines against Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark S; Edelman, Robert

    2003-10-01

    Less than 20 years elapsed between the 1982 report of the identification and isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi and the licensure and marketing in the USA of a prophylactic vaccine against this pathogen. However, the manufacturer removed the vaccine from the market under 4 years after its release. The low demand undoubtedly was the result of limited efficacy, need for frequent boosters, the high price of the vaccine, exclusion of children, fear of vaccine-induced musculoskeletal symptoms and litigation surrounding the vaccine. Second-generation polyvalent outer surface protein (Osp)C vaccines may overcome some of these concerns but the precise antigenic components required for efficacy are uncertain. The development of the next generation of Lyme disease vaccines is in its infancy.

  1. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  2. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  3. Controversies surrounding critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Jamie M Burkitt

    2015-01-01

    To describe the controversies surrounding critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) and the use of hydrocortisone in critically ill patients, and to present published diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in companion veterinary species. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency may be due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction, alterations in cortisol-plasma protein binding, target cell enzymatic changes, changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function, or a combination of these or other factors present during critical illness. Appropriate tests to diagnose CIRCI are unknown. The diagnosis in people is currently based on response to treatment with hydrocortisone. There is currently no consensus on appropriate diagnostic feature(s) in veterinary species. Low-dose hydrocortisone is the treatment of choice for patients with CIRCI. If the patient survives the critical illness, prognosis for resolution of CIRCI and hydrocortisone dependence is very good. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  4. Investigation of a Sudden Malaria Outbreak in the Isolated Amazonian Village of Saül, French Guiana, January–April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Franck; Flamand, Claude; Musset, Lise; Djossou, Félix; Rosine, Jacques; Sanquer, Marie-Anne; Dusfour, Isabelle; Legrand, Eric; Ardillon, Vanessa; Rabarison, Patrick; Grenier, Claire; Girod, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in French Guiana. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the predominant species responsible and Anopheles darlingi is described as the major vector. In mid-August 2008, an increase in malaria incidence was observed in Saül. A retrospective cohort survey was performed. In vitro susceptibility profiles to antimalarials were determined on P. falciparum isolates. Collections of mosquitoes were organized. The malaria attack rate reached 70.6/100. The risk of malaria increased for people between 40 and 49 years of age, living in a house not subjected to a recent indoor residual insecticide spraying or staying overnight in the surrounding forest. All isolates were susceptible. Anopheles darlingi females and larvae were collected in the village suggesting a local transmission. Our results strongly support a role of illegal mining activities in the emergence of new foci of malaria. Therefore, public health authorities should define policies to fight malaria at a transborder level. PMID:22492141

  5. Seismic anisotropy surrounding South China Sea and its geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mei; Le, Khanh Phon; Yang, Ting

    2013-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed for the opening of the South China Sea. Here, we use SKS splitting analysis to investigate the mantle flow surrounding the South China Sea. We use a total of 23 seismic stations and 87 events. We applied spectral analysis and cluster analysis to find a stable splitting solution for each event. The main conclusions are: (1) In northern Vietnam, the NW-SE fast direction is parallel to the absolute plate motion as well as GPS observations with splitting times larger than 1 s, indicating a coupled lithosphere and mantle. In contrast, in southern Vietnam, the NE-SW fast direction suggests that the lithosphere and asthenosphere are decoupled. (2) The fast directions beneath the South China Block and central Taiwan are NE-SW and NS respectively, both parallel to surface deformations with splitting times greater than 1 s, indicating that mantle flow and surface deformation are related. (3) The observed NW-SE fast directions beneath Hainan Island reflect the India-Eurasia collision, and show no signatures of an upwelling mantle plume directly underneath Hainan Island. This implies that Hainan Island is tectonically closely related to the Red River Fault, not the South China Block. (4) In Borneo, the observed NE-SW direction is parallel to the Palawan Trench, consistent with flow associated with the inactive proto-South China Sea subduction system. The SKS splitting observations surrounding South China Sea cannot be explained by a single geologic process, with either the collision-driven extrusion model or the slab pull model fitting the data presented here.

  6. Host language, integration language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos Reis Grosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of language research within the Council of Europe and in a context of a stronger multilingual and multicultural Europe, we are witnessing the emergence of terms that are imposed by the frequency of their usage or that (recreate and set re-interpreted concepts according to new social and educational situations. Such is the case of the host language, a concept which is object of analysis in this paper. The relevance of the issue is preceded by other issues related to concepts like native language, second language and foreign language, already comprised in Applied Linguistics and the Teaching of Modern Languages. Nowadays, the indispensability of studying these concepts is fundamental to the pedagogic practice as well as to the language syllabus and its planning. This idea is totally supported by the proposal of the "Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching Assessment (CEFR", which provides the appropriate guidelines at the discourse level.

  7. Spatial and multidimensional visualization of Indonesia's village health statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotch Matthew

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A community health assessment (CHA is used to identify and address health issues in a given population. Effective CHA requires timely and comprehensive information from a wide variety of sources, such as: socio-economic data, disease surveillance, healthcare utilization, environmental data, and health resource allocation. Indonesia is a developing country with 235 million inhabitants over 13,000 islands. There are significant barriers to conducting CHA in developing countries like Indonesia, such as the high cost of computing resources and the lack of computing skills necessary to support such an assessment. At the University of Pittsburgh, we have developed the Spatial OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing Visualization and Analysis Tool (SOVAT for performing CHA. SOVAT combines Geographic Information System (GIS technology along with an advanced multidimensional data warehouse structure to facilitate analysis of large, disparate health, environmental, population, and spatial data. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of SOVAT for facilitating CHA among developing countries by using health, population, healthcare resources, and spatial data from Indonesia for use in two CHA cases studies. Results Bureau of Statistics administered data sets from the Indonesian Census, and the Indonesian village statistics, were used in the case studies. The data consisted of: healthcare resources (number of healthcare professionals and facilities, population (census, morbidity and mortality, and spatial (GIS-formatted information. The data was formatted, combined, and populated into SOVAT for CHA use. Case study 1 involves the distribution of healthcare professionals in Indonesia, while case study 2 involves malaria mortality. Screen shots are shown for both cases. The results for the CHA were retrieved in seconds and presented through the geospatial and numerical SOVAT interface. Conclusion The case studies show the

  8. Application of Geo-Spatial Techniques for Precise Demarcation of Village/Panchayat Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Banu, V.; Tiwari, A.; Bahuguna, S.; Uniyal, S.; Chavan, S. B.; Murthy, M. V. R.; Arya, V. S.; Nagaraja, R.; Sharma, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    In order to achieve the overall progress of the country with active and effective participation of all sections of society, the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP) would bring Panchayats centre-stage and achieve the inclusive growth agenda through inclusive governance. The concept of 'democratic decentralization' in the form of a three-tier administration was introduced in the name of "Panchayat Raj". Horizontally, it is a network of village Panchayats. Vertically, it is an organic growth of Panchayats rising up to national level. The Ministry of Panchayati Raj has three broad agenda: Empowerment, Enablement and Accountability. Space based Information Support for Decentralized Planning (SIS-DP) is one of the initiatives taken by Govt. of India with ISRO/DOS for generation and dissemination of spatial information for planning at the grass root level. The boundary layer for villages across different states/district/block is available with line departments. Most of these data exist at a much generalized scale. These boundaries do not overlay exactly with that of ground realities and may not be suitable for accurate analysis in terms of area, shape, position, etc. To deal with this problem, a strategy is adopted, which makes use of High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) from Indian Remote sensing satellites and cadastral maps at 1:4000 scale integrated with GIS techniques to enhance the accuracy of geo-spatial depiction of Village/Panchayat boundaries. Cadastral maps are used to depict the boundaries of land parcels and other features at the village level. These maps are registered to ortho products of HRSI using Ground Control Points. The cadastral maps are precisely overlaid on ortho-rectified HRSI and each parcel vertex is tagged with the real-world geographical coordinates. Village boundaries are extracted from the geo-referenced village cadastral maps. These boundaries are fine-tuned by considering under lap and overlap of neighboring villages and a mosaic is generated at

  9. Recovering disrupted social capital: insights from Lao DPR rural villagers' perceptions of local leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Kim, Ji-Hye; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Kang, Minah

    2016-11-25

    Social capital is often believed to be one of the key prerequisites for successful implementation of community-based health programs. In less-developed countries, local leaders are positioned as major players in broad community health strategies and interventions, and their capacities and roles are expected to increase in prominence in future community-health-care promotions. In this study, we examined how local leaders' capacities could be related to social capital in rural villages in Lao PDR, and thus to villagers' willingness to participate in community-based health efforts. We adopted a qualitative approach, conducting semi-structured interviews for both individuals and focus groups. In 2012, 103 people from six villages in the Khoun and Phoukoud districts participated in the interviews. For the individual interviews, we interviewed 22 mothers who had given birth in the past 5 years. For the focus groups, we interviewed 30 women (six groups), 30 men (six groups), and 21 senior villagers (five groups). First, we noted large variations in the levels of community social capital across villages: four out of six study villages showed a high level of social capital, while two villages suffered greatly from a low level of social capital. In search of the reasons for the disrupted social capital in the latter two villages, interviews revealed that failed leadership, especially in regard to local resource allocations-lack of transparency and corrupt practices-were commonly cited reasons for disrupted social capital. The data also showed that the villagers' mistrust of these failed local leaders critically reduced their willingness to participate in community-based health efforts, and especially in those that involved resource mobilization and risk-sharing for healthcare. Finally, we found that good communication skills and participatory decision-making styles were attributes that rural villagers in Lao PDR expected of their local leaders. This study suggests that

  10. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources

  11. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Brown

    Full Text Available Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1 assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus and 2 compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog.

  12. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah K; Pedersen, Niels C; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L; Ahrens, Kristen D; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog.

  13. Quantifying Changes of Villages in the Urbanizing Beijing Metropolitan Region: Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has resulted in great changes in rural landscapes globally. Using remote sensing data to quantify the distribution of rural settlements and their changes has received increasing attention in the past three decades, but remains a challenge. Previous studies mostly focused on the residential changes within a grid or administrative boundary, but not at the individual village level. This paper presents a new change detection approach for rural residential settlements, which can identify different types of rural settlement changes at the individual village level by integrating remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS analyses. Using multi-temporal Landsat TM image data, this approach classifies villages into five types: “no change”, “totally lost”, “shrinking”, “expanding”, and “merged”, in contrast to the commonly used “increase” and “decrease”. This approach was tested in the Beijing metropolitan area from 1984 to 2010. Additionally, the drivers of such changes were investigated using multinomial logistic regression models. The results revealed that: (1 36% of the villages were lost, but the total area of developed lands in existing villages increased by 34%; (2 Changes were dominated by the type of ‘expansion’ in 1984–1990 (accounted for 43.42% and 1990–2000 (56.21%. However, from 2000 to 2010, 49.73% of the villages remained unchanged; (3 Both topographical factors and distance factors had significant effects on whether the villages changed or not, but their impacts changed through time. The topographical driving factors showed decreasing effects on the loss of rural settlements, while distance factors had increasing impacts on settlement expansion and merging. This approach provides a useful tool for better understanding the changes in rural residential settlements and their associations with urbanization.

  14. The current epidemiology and clinical decisions surrounding acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaas, Aimee K; Garner, Bronwen H; Tsalik, Ephraim L; Burke, Thomas; Woods, Christopher W; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a common diagnosis in outpatient and emergent care settings. Currently available diagnostics are limited, creating uncertainty in the use of antibacterial, antiviral, or supportive care. Up to 72% of ambulatory care patients with ARI are treated with an antibacterial, despite only a small fraction actually needing one. Antibiotic overuse is not restricted to ambulatory care: ARI accounts for approximately 5 million emergency department (ED) visits annually in the USA, where 52-61% of such patients receive antibiotics. Thus, an accurate test for the presence or absence of viral or bacterial infection is needed. In this review, we focus on recent research showing that the host-response (genomic, proteomic, or miRNA) can accomplish this task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  16. Mistletoes as parasites: Host specificity and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, D A; Carpenter, M A

    1998-03-01

    Recent research on parasite evolution has highlighted the importance of host specialization in speciation, either through host-switching or cospeciation. Many parasites show common patterns of host specificity, with higher host specificity where host abundance is high and reliable, phylogenetically conservative host specificity, and formation of races on or in different host species. Recent advances in our understanding of host specificity and speciation patterns in a variety of animal parasites provides valuable insights into the evolutionary biology of mistletoes.

  17. Host lipid droplets: An important source of lipids salvaged by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Sabrina J; Romano, Julia D; Coppens, Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    Toxoplasma is an obligate intracellular parasite that replicates in mammalian cells within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that does not fuse with any host organelles. One mechanism developed by the parasite for nutrient acquisition is the attraction of host organelles to the PV. Here, we examined the exploitation of host lipid droplets (LD), ubiquitous fat storage organelles, by Toxoplasma. We show that Toxoplasma replication is reduced in host cells that are depleted of LD, or impaired in TAG lipolysis or fatty acid catabolism. In infected cells, the number of host LD and the expression of host LD-associated genes (ADRP, DGAT2), progressively increase until the onset of parasite replication. Throughout infection, the PV are surrounded by host LD. Toxoplasma is capable of accessing lipids stored in host LD and incorporates these lipids into its own membranes and LD. Exogenous addition of oleic acid stimulates LD biogenesis in the host cell and results in the overaccumulation of neutral lipids in very large LD inside the parasite. To access LD-derived lipids, Toxoplasma intercepts and internalizes within the PV host LD, some of which remaining associated with Rab7, which become wrapped by an intravacuolar network of membranes (IVN). Mutant parasites impaired in IVN formation display diminished capacity of lipid uptake from host LD. Moreover, parasites lacking an IVN-localized phospholipase A2 are less proficient in salvaging lipids from host LD in the PV, suggesting a major contribution of the IVN for host LD processing in the PV and, thus lipid content release. Interestingly, gavage of parasites with lipids unveils, for the first time, the presence in Toxoplasma of endocytic-like structures containing lipidic material originating from the PV lumen. This study highlights the reliance of Toxoplasma on host LD for its intracellular development and the parasite's capability in scavenging neutral lipids from host LD.

  18. Fluid Production Induced Stress Analysis Surrounding an Elliptic Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Harshad Rajendra

    Hydraulic fracturing is an effective technique used in well stimulation to increase petroleum well production. A combination of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has led to the recent boom in shale gas production which has changed the energy landscape of North America. During the fracking process, highly pressurized mixture of water and proppants (sand and chemicals) is injected into to a crack, which fractures the surrounding rock structure and proppants help in keeping the fracture open. Over a longer period, however, these fractures tend to close due to the difference between the compressive stress exerted by the reservoir on the fracture and the fluid pressure inside the fracture. During production, fluid pressure inside the fracture is reduced further which can accelerate the closure of a fracture. In this thesis, we study the stress distribution around a hydraulic fracture caused by fluid production. It is shown that fluid flow can induce a very high hoop stress near the fracture tip. As the pressure gradient increases stress concentration increases. If a fracture is very thin, the flow induced stress along the fracture decreases, but the stress concentration at the fracture tip increases and become unbounded for an infinitely thin fracture. The result from the present study can be used for studying the fracture closure problem, and ultimately this in turn can lead to the development of better proppants so that prolific well production can be sustained for a long period of time.

  19. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  20. Beliefs and practices surrounding postpartum period among Myanmar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2013-11-01

    to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of 'dirty lochia' was identified. traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women's close social network. the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  2. Tuning structure and mobility of solvation shells surrounding tracer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmer, James; Jain, Avni; Bollinger, Jonathan A; van Swol, Frank; Truskett, Thomas M

    2015-03-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations and a stochastic Fokker-Planck equation based approach are used to illuminate how position-dependent solvent mobility near one or more tracer particle(s) is affected when tracer-solvent interactions are rationally modified to affect corresponding solvation structure. For tracers in a dense hard-sphere fluid, we compare two types of tracer-solvent interactions: (1) a hard-sphere-like interaction, and (2) a soft repulsion extending beyond the hard core designed via statistical mechanical theory to enhance tracer mobility at infinite dilution by suppressing coordination-shell structure [Carmer et al., Soft Matter 8, 4083-4089 (2012)]. For the latter case, we show that the mobility of surrounding solvent particles is also increased by addition of the soft repulsive interaction, which helps to rationalize the mechanism underlying the tracer's enhanced diffusivity. However, if multiple tracer surfaces are in closer proximity (as at higher tracer concentrations), similar interactions that disrupt local solvation structure instead suppress the position-dependent solvent dynamics.

  3. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  4. Global structure of static spherically symmetric solutions surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Miguel; Ganguly, Apratim; Gannouji, Radouane; Leon, Genly; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate all static spherically symmetric solutions in the context of general relativity surrounded by a minimally-coupled quintessence field, using dynamical system analysis. Applying the 1  +  1  +  2 formalism and introducing suitable normalized variables involving the Gaussian curvature, we were able to reformulate the field equations as first order differential equations. In the case of a massless canonical scalar field we recovered all known black hole results, such as the Fisher solution, and we found that apart from the Schwarzschild solution all other solutions are naked singularities. Additionally, we identified the symmetric phase space which corresponds to the white hole part of the solution and in the case of a phantom field, we were able to extract the conditions for the existence of wormholes and define all possible classes of solutions such as cold black holes, singular spacetimes and wormholes such as the Ellis wormhole, for example. For an exponential potential, we found that the black hole solution which is asymptotically flat is unique and it is the Schwarzschild spacetime, while all other solutions are naked singularities. Furthermore, we found solutions connecting to a white hole through a maximum radius, and not a minimum radius (throat) such as wormhole solutions, therefore violating the flare-out condition. Finally, we have found a necessary and sufficient condition on the form of the potential to have an asymptotically AdS spacetime along with a necessary condition for the existence of asymptotically flat black holes.

  5. A nebula of gases from Io surrounding Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hamilton, Douglas C; Dandouras, Jannis; Armstrong, Thomas P; Bolton, Scott J; Cheng, Andrew F; Gloeckler, George; Hsieh, K C; Keath, Edwin P; Krupp, Norbert; Lagg, Andreas; Lanzerotti, Louis J; Livi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H; McEntire, Richard W; Roelof, Edmond C; Wilken, Berend; Williams, Donald J

    2002-02-28

    Several planetary missions have reported the presence of substantial numbers of energetic ions and electrons surrounding Jupiter; relativistic electrons are observable up to several astronomical units (au) from the planet. A population of energetic (>30[?]keV) neutral particles also has been reported, but the instrumentation was not able to determine the mass or charge state of the particles, which were subsequently labelled energetic neutral atoms. Although images showing the presence of the trace element sodium were obtained, the source and identity of the neutral atoms---and their overall significance relative to the loss of charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere---were unknown. Here we report the discovery by the Cassini spacecraft of a fast (>103[?]km[?]s-1) and hot magnetospheric neutral wind extending more than 0.5[?]au from Jupiter, and the presence of energetic neutral atoms (both hot and cold) that have been accelerated by the electric field in the solar wind. We suggest that these atoms originate in volcanic gases from Io, undergo significant evolution through various electromagnetic interactions, escape Jupiter's magnetosphere and then populate the environment around the planet. Thus a 'nebula' is created that extends outwards over hundreds of jovian radii.

  6. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  7. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Issues surrounding lethal injection as a means of capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Frank; Whisman, Tyler; Fink, Joseph L

    2008-12-01

    Lethal injection as a method of state-sanctioned capital punishment was initially proposed in the United States in 1977 and used for the first time in 1982. Most lethal injection protocols use a sequential drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Lethal injection was originally introduced as a more humane form of execution compared with existing mechanical methods such as electrocution, toxic gassing, hanging, or firing squad. Lethal injection has not, however, been without controversy. Several states are considering whether lethal injection meets constitutional scrutiny forbidding cruel and unusual punishment. Recently in the case of Ralph Baze and Thomas C. Bowling, Petitioners, v John D. Rees, Commissioner, Kentucky Department of Corrections et al, the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the lethal injection protocol as carried out in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Most of the debate has surrounded the dosing and procedures used in lethal injection and whether the drug combinations and measures for administering the drugs truly produce a timely, pain-free, and fail-safe death. Many have also raised issues regarding the "medicalization" of execution and the ethics of health care professionals' participation in any part of the lethal injection process. As a result of all these issues, the future of lethal injection as a means of execution in the United States is under significant scrutiny. Outcomes of ongoing legislative and judicial reviews might result in cessation of lethal injection in totality or in alterations involving specific drug combinations or administration procedures.

  9. Schistosomiasis and intestinal parasites in rural villages in southwest Nigeria: an indication for expanded programme on drug distribution and integrated control programme in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewunmi, C O; Gebremedhin, G; Becker, W; Olurunmola, F O; Dörfler, G; Adewunmi, T A

    1993-09-01

    A cross sectional survey of schistosomiasis, intestinal parasite infections and pattern of schistosomiasis transmission was undertaken in four rural villages around the Erinle dam, Nigeria. The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium ranged from 10% to 60%. 30% of infected school children excreted over 50 eggs/10 ml urine and high rates of haematuria, proteinuria, leucocyturia and nitrites in urine were observed in infected children and the villagers. Prevalence of infection with S. mansoni ranged from 11.4% to 36.8%. Intensity of infection based on geometric mean eggs/gram of faeces ranged between 100 and 545.7 eggs/g. Malacological surveys showed that Biomphalaria pfeifferi was the predominant potential snail hosts recovered at all the contact sites. Higher infections with schistosome parasites were also recorded for B. pfeifferi than Bulinus globosus. The pattern of transmission of schistosomiasis by the snails is consistent and makes incorporation of community-based focal application of a molluscicide such as Tetrapleura tetraptera in integrated control of schistosomiasis feasible in the area. Prevalence and intensity with Ascaris lumbricoides was high. The highest prevalence was 68.9% while the highest intensity of infection was 2,440.9 eggs/gram of faeces. Multiple infections occured with various combinations of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, S. haematobium, Fasciola gigantica, S. mansoni, and Entamoeba histolytica (as double, triple or quadruple infections). The results suggest an integrated approach to the control of schistosomiasis and intestinal parasites in this part of the country.

  10. Qualilty, isotopes, and radiochemistry of water sampled from the Upper Moenkopi Village water-supply wells, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob; Beisner, Kimberly; Smith, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The Hopi Tribe Water Resources Program has granted contracts for studies to evaluate water supply conditions for the Moenkopi villages in Coconino County, Arizona. The Moenkopi villages include Upper Moenkopi Village and the village of Lower Moencopi, both on the Hopi Indian Reservation south of the Navajo community of Tuba City. These investigations have determined that water supplies are limited and vulnerable to several potential sources of contamination, including the Tuba City Landfill and a former uranium processing facility known as the Rare Metals Mill. Studies are ongoing to determine if uranium and other metals in groundwater beneath the landfill are greater than regional groundwater concentrations. The source of water supply for the Upper Moenkopi Village is three public-supply wells. The wells are referred to as MSW-1, MSW-2, and MSW-3 and all three wells obtain water from the regionally extensive N aquifer. The N aquifer is the principal aquifer in this region of northern Arizona and consists of thick beds of sandstone between less permeable layers of siltstone and mudstone. The relatively fine-grained character of the N aquifer inhibits rapid movement of water and large yields to wells. In recent years, water levels have declined in the three public-supply wells, causing concern that the current water supply will not be able to accommodate peak demand and allow for residential and economic growth. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, selected trace metals, stable and radioactive isotopes, and radiochemistry were performed on the groundwater samples from the three public-supply wells to describe general water-quality conditions and groundwater ages in and immediately surrounding the Upper Moenkopi Village area. None of the water samples collected from the public-supply wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards. The ratios of the major dissolved ions from the samples collected from MSW-1 and MSW-2 indicate

  11. The Differences of the Behavioral Factors of Midwifes in UCI village and non UCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fatma Wati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT 2-3 millions of people in all groups of age die every year caused by the diseases that can be prevented by immunization: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles. It is due to the UCI village target from year to year are not increased properly. One of the reasons of the unattainable UCI’s target is due to the factor of the officers. This research aims to determine the differences of the characteristic and the behavioral of the officers in UCI village as well as non-UCI in the District of Pasuruan (Kabupaten Pasuruan. The research is conducted by using the design of cross sectional. The samples in this study were 76 village midwifes. Sampling was stratified random sampling method. Data were analyzed using chi square statistical test. The independent variabel is the status of village UCI. The dependent variable is the characteristics of the village midwifes ( age, background of the knowledge, work experiences, employment status, training and double/dual duty, knowledge, action and attitude. There are significant differences in some variables of obstetricians such as the work experiences (p=0,023, the employment status (p=0,030, the double/dual duty (p=0,013, the knowledge (p=0,003, the action (p=0,017, and the behavior (p=0,045. Meanwhile, several variables have not significant differences, such as the age (p=0,193, the knowledge (p=0,185, the training activity (p=0,762, and the behavioral (0,219. Based on the brief explanation above, we can draw the conclusion that there are the differentiations in UCI village as well as non UCI village from the officers including the factors of the work experiences, the staffing, the double duty, the knowledge, the action and behavior. The policy so that the obstetricians will focus on running the programs in accordance with the skills. Keywords: the characteristic, the duty, the behavioral, the status of UCI                         villages, the village midwifes.

  12. Assessing village authenticity with satellite images: a method to identify intact cultural landscapes in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Boresjö-Bronge, Laine; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Sporrong, Ulf; Wästfelt, Anders

    2003-12-01

    The village with its characteristic zones of different land use from the center to the periphery is a basic unit of Europe's cultural landscapes. However, loss of the authentic pre-industrial village structure characterized by a fine-grained structure of arable land and wooded grasslands is a threat to both cultural heritage and biodiversity in many rural landscapes. Therefore, it is important that the extent and rate of change of such authentic villages in a landscape can be monitored. We studied to what extent loss of authenticity with increasing time after abandonment can be assessed by quantitative analysis and visual interpretation of satellite images. The study was carried out in the Bieszczady Mountains, SE Poland in 1999. Using Landsat Thematic Mapper data from 1998, both the grain size of landscape elements (size of fields) and land-cover composition (encroachment of shrub and forest) were quantitatively described 6 type villages representing different stages of deterioration of the authentic village structure. Historical maps were used to delineate the border of the villages and the former extension of forest and open land was measured. The present land use and the degree of abandonment expressed as grain size and forest encroachment were mapped using satellite data. Deterioration occurred along 2 transformation paths: abandonment and ultimately becoming forest, or intensified agriculture, respectively. To validate these results we classified 22 other villages in a 1000 km2 area by visual interpretation of the original satellite images into 1 of 4 types. We then collected historical data on human population changes over the past six decades. The classification of village authenticity was clearly related to the rate of human population decline. We address the importance of validating and applying this approach for rapid assessment of the authenticity of cultural landscapes in European regions being subject to ongoing as well as expected future change

  13. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eco-Cultural Tourism: A Tool for Environmental, Cultural and Economic Sustainability (A Case Study of Darap Village, West Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajee Laitpharlang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eco-cultural tourism is a concept where both ecological and cultural aspects of a landscape are combined together creating a tourist paradise. It is travel to destinations where both cultural and natural endowments are the prime attractions and thereby considered to be a potential strategy to support conservation of natural habitats along with economic sustainability particularly to indigenous communities. North Eastern Region of India is one of the most mesmerizing regions of the Indian subcontinent that mirrors a perfect blending of life, culture and ecology. It is a relatively unexplored and unique area in terms of both ecology and cultural diversity and is characterized by the abundance of natural endowments; pristine forests with a huge diversity of flora and fauna, enchanting hills, fast flowing streams and meandering rivers, cascading waterfalls, snowcapped mountain ranges etc. Approximately there are 65 indigenous tribes in the region along with a host of sub-tribes having their own distinctive cultures, customs and traditions preserved till today. This article tries to argue through a case study of village tourism at Darap in West Sikkim that eco-cultural tourism is a potent force for the overall economic, social and cultural development as well biodiversity conservation in the region.

  15. [Tuberculosis in compromised hosts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Recent development of tuberculosis in Japan tends to converge on a specific high risk group. The proportion of tuberculosis developing particularly from the compromised hosts in the high risk group is especially high. At this symposium, therefore, we took up diabetes mellitus, gastrectomy, dialysis, AIDS and the elderly for discussion. Many new findings and useful reports for practical medical treatment are submitted; why these compromised hosts are predisposed to tuberculosis, tuberculosis diagnostic and remedial notes of those compromised hosts etc. It is an important question for the future to study how to prevent tuberculosis from these compromised hosts. 1. Tuberculosis in diabetes mellitus: aggravation and its immunological mechanism: Kazuyoshi KAWAKAMI (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus). It has been well documented that diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major aggravating factor in tuberculosis. The onset of this disease is more frequent in DM patients than in individuals with any underlying diseases. However, the precise mechanism of this finding remains to be fully understood. Earlier studies reported that the migration, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of neutrophils are all impaired in DM patients, which is related to their reduced host defense to infection with extracellular bacteria, such as S. aureus and E. colli. Host defense to mycobacterial infection is largely mediated by cellular immunity, and Th1-related cytokines, such as IFN-gamma and IL-12, play a central role in this response. It is reported that serum level of these cytokines and their production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are reduced in tuberculosis patients with DM, and this is supposed to be involved in the high incidence of tuberculosis in DM. Our study observed similar findings and furthermore indicated that IFN-gamma and IL-12 production by BCG-stimulated PBMC was lower

  16. Grazalema revisitée : changement social et culturel dans un village de la sierra andalouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Campuzano

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Grazalema revisitée : changement social et culturel dans un village de la sierra andalouse. Nous essayons, dans cet article, de préciser le contexte intellectuel et scientifique de l’étude de Grazalema par J. Pitt-Rivers ainsi que les conditions dans lesquelles cette enquête a été réalisée. La dictature franquiste qui soupçonnait toute présence étrangère, a, en particulier, compliqué singulièrement la tâche de l’ethnologue. Nous nous sommes également intéressés à l’impact de l’œuvre dans le milieu universitaire espagnol. L’originalité de la pensée de Julian Pitt-Rivers, l’absence d’études anthropologiques en Espagne, à cette période ont probablement été à l’origine de polémiques, parfois assez violente autour de ses travaux, polémiques que nous exposons dans ce texte. Toutefois l’œuvre de Julian Pitt Rivers, plus de cinquante ans après sa parution garde tout son intérêt.Grazalema Revisited: Social and Cultural Change in a Sierra Andalusia Village. In this article we set out to specify the intellectual and scientific context of J. Pitt-Rivers’ study of Grazalema, as well as the conditions under which the survey was carried out. The Francoist dictatorship was suspicious of any foreigner’s presence and made the anthropologist’s task particularly complicated. We also take a look at the work’s impact on the Spanish academic environment. The originality of Julian Pitt-Rivers’ thought and the lack of anthropological studies in Spain at the time were no doubt responsible for the controversy – quite violent, at times – surrounding his work, controversy which we shall be discussing in this article. Nevertheless, even over fifty years after it first appeared, Julian Pitt Rivers’ work is still of great interest.

  17. Description of photovoltaic village power systems in the United States and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, A. F.; Bifano, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Photovoltaic power systems in remote villages in the United States and Africa are described. These projects were undertaken to demonstrate that existing photovoltaic system technology is capable of providing electrical power for basic domestic services for the millions of small, remote communities in both developed and developing countries. One system is located in the Papago Indian Village of Schuchuli in southwest Arizona (U. S.) and became operational 16 December 1978. The other system is located in Tangaye, a rural village in Upper Volta, Africa. It became operational 1 March 1979. The Schuchuli system has a 3.5 kW (peak) solar array which provides electric power for village water pumping, a refrigerator for each family, lights in the village buildings, and a community washing machine and sewing machine. The 1.8 kW (peak) Tangaye system provides power for community water pumping, flour milling and lights in the milling building. These are both stand-alone systems (i.e., no back-up power source) which are being operated and maintained by local personnel. Both systems are instrumented. Systems operations are being monitored by NASA to measure design adequacy and to refine designs for future systems.

  18. Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To combat malaria, the Kenya Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs for use over beds, with coverage for children under five years of age increasing rapidly. Nevertheless, residents of fishing villages have started to use these bed nets for drying fish and fishing in Lake Victoria. This study investigated the extent of bed net misuse in fishing villages. Methods Seven fishing villages along the lake were surveyed to estimate how widely bed nets were being used for fishing and drying fish. Villagers were asked why they used the bed nets for such purposes. Results In total, 283 bed nets were being used for drying fish. Of these, 239 were long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLIN and 44 were non-long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (NLLIN. Further, 72 of the 283 bed nets were also being used for fishing. The most popular reasons were because the bed nets were inexpensive or free and because fish dried faster on the nets. LLINs were preferred to NLLINs for fishing and drying fish. Conclusion There is considerable misuse of bed nets for drying fish and fishing. Many villagers are not yet fully convinced of the effectiveness of LLINs for malaria prevention. Such misuses may hamper the efforts of NGOs and governmental health organizations.

  19. Community-based wastewater treatment systems and water quality of an Indonesian village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H S; Lee, L Y; Bramono, S E

    2014-03-01

    This paper examines the impact of community-based water treatment systems on water quality in a peri-urban village in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Water samples were taken from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), irrigation canals, paddy fields and wells during the dry and wet seasons. The samples were tested for biological and chemical oxygen demand, nutrients (ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen and total phosphorus) and Escherichia coli. Water quality in this village is affected by the presence of active septic tanks, WWTP effluent discharge, small-scale tempe industries and external sources. We found that the WWTPs remove oxygen-demanding wastes effectively but discharged nutrients, such as nitrate and ammonia, into irrigation canals. Irrigation canals had high levels of E. coli as well as oxygen-demanding wastes. Well samples had high E. coli, nitrate and total nitrogen levels. Rainfall tended to increase concentrations of biological and chemical oxygen demand and some nutrients. All our samples fell within the drinking water standards for nitrate but failed the international and Indonesian standards for E. coli. Water quality in this village can be improved by improving the WWTP treatment of nutrients, encouraging more villagers to be connected to WWTPs and controlling hotspot contamination areas in the village.

  20. The Digital Competences and Agency of Older People Living in Rural Villages in Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Rasi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Older people’s digital competencies are a means to minimise their possible risks for being excluded from society. Therefore, the research in this field needs to be strengthened. This paper examines the digital competences and agency of older people who live in remote rural villages in Finnish Lapland. We argue that older people’s agency is the key factor that keeps them included in contemporary society. Hence, our theoretical viewpoint rests on the theory of the modalities of agency. Our data consist of three focus group interviews that were conducted in small, remote villages during the spring of 2015. We analysed our data deductively, and the results showed that elderly villagers interpret their digital competencies through their personal needs and desires. History, the present and the future are intertwined in the villagers’ conceptions. Our respondents’ digital competencies are diverse; older people living in villages are not a homogenous group. Based on our results, we argue that digital competence is very much a distributed competence of elderly dyads, families with three generations and informal networks of villagers and that it should not, therefore, be assessed solely as an individual characteristic.

  1. New energy vision drawn up for Hoshino Village; Hoshino shin energy vison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The energy that the village in Fukuoka Prefecture consumes every year, as converted into the number of drums of heavy oil, is 13,150 for electricity (lighting and motive power); 4410 for kerosene (heating); 4440 for heavy oil (tea manufacture, etc.); and 2580 for propane (cooking, etc.). As for new energy for substitution in existence, it is estimated, again in terms of the number of drums of heavy oil, that there is 53,315 for electricity (photovoltaic and wind power); 2041 for kerosene (solar heat); and 41,732 for heavy oil (utilizing thinnings out of forestry). As a whole, the amount of new energy in existence is far greater than the amount of energy that the village requires. Studies are conducted and a basic principle of village rebuilding is defined, full of ideals and vitality and reflecting the characteristics of the village. Under the short-term program, facilities relatively small in capacity and therefore easier to adopt will be introduced for collecting the results of their operation and for the construction of a base on which future efforts to diffuse new energy will be exerted. Under the medium- and long-term program, the cost of new energy and other circumstances will be reviewed for the execution of full-scale introduction, and further efforts to popularize new energy among the villagers will be exerted. (NEDO)

  2. Design and fabrication of a photovoltaic power system for the Papago Indian village of Schuchuli (Gunsight), Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifano, W. J.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Ice, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    A stand alone photovoltaic power system for installation in the Papago Indian village of Schuchuli is being designed and fabricated to provide electricity for village water pumping and basic domestic needs. The system will consist of a 3.5 kW (peak) photovoltaic array; controls, instrumentations, and storage batteries located in an electrical equipment building and a 120 volt dc village distribution network. The system will power a 2 HP dc electric motor.

  3. On the daily activity of the Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes in two village areas of Bulgaria: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGI DUDIN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out by digital camera traps in two village areas of South Bulgaria. Total of 99 photos of Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes were made in the villages of Byaga and Isperihovo. They were compared with 1133 photos made in “Sinite Kamani” Nature Park (published by Georgiev et al., 2015. It was evident that there was no any activity during daylight in the villages studied, compared with the natural habitats.

  4. Survey on Farming Culture of Ancient Villages and Tourism Development: A Case Study of Hongjiang City in Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    FANG, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The origin of human civilization is based on agriculture and settlement, and the ancient villages preserved up to now can be rated as "museum and historical library of rural lifestyle and rural culture", which are of important historical and cultural value. Through the field survey of farming culture resources of ancient villages in Hongjiang City of Hunan Province, this article classifies and evaluates the farming culture and ancient village resources, and sets forth the following recommenda...

  5. Intracellular accommodation of rhizobia in legume host cell: the fine-tuning of the endomembrane system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrin, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The symbiosis of legumes with rhizobia leads to the formation of root nodules. Rhizobia which are hosted inside specialized infected cells are surrounded by hostderived membranes, forming symbiosomes. Although it is known that symbiosome formation involves proliferation of membranes and changing of

  6. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Tamone, Amelie [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Varela, Jesus, E-mail: elena.ricciardelli@epfl.ch [Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Plaza San Juan 1, E-44001 Teruel (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R {sub void}, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3 σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  7. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Cava, Antonio; Varela, Jesus; Tamone, Amelie

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R void, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  8. GIANT Hα NEBULA SURROUNDING THE STARBURST MERGER NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Tanaka, Hisashi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: yoshidam@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ∼90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to L{sub Hα} ≈ 1.6 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −5} and ∼5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ∼10{sup 2} Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240.

  9. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  10. Stennis hosts 2010 Special Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sarah Johnson, 28, of Gulfport, carries in the Olympic torch to signal the start of the 2010 Area III Special Olympic games at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on March 27. Stennis volunteers hosted special needs athletes from across the area for the event. Stennis is an annual host of the games.

  11. A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jelšava plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanèu¾ák Jozef

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The area of Jelšava – Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jelšava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surrounding the plant. The negative visual look of the surrounding country has its origin in the past, when a 25-times higher quantity of the currently produced solid emissions was released into the air in some years, while the current value of the pollution does not exceed 200 tons per year. The devastated, deforested and degrassed surfaces of the area surrounding the plant and roads became a significant source of secondary dustiness in the given area.Since 1994 ÚGt SAV Košice in co-operation with SMZ, a.s. Jelšava has been focusing on the monitoring of solid emissions in the form of dust deposition. 18 sampling points situated in the vicinity of the plant, mainly in surrounding villages and city Jelšava were originally built for the purpose of sampling the dust deposition. The samples were taken monthly , analysed by the gravimetric method and the samples of dust deposition was determined in g.m-2.(30 days-1. To analyse all samples, they were cumulated for a certain period and then the selected elements were analysed using the AAS method. The results of the dust deposition were averaged for each individual year of the period from 1996 to 1999 to make a better interpretation of the results. The results of the chemical analysis represent an average for a given period. The main component of the dust deposition, i.e. MgO is stated as an average value in individual years.The processed results from 1996 to 1999 show a decreasing trend in the total dust deposition

  12. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  13. Two Democratic Traditions In The Election Of Head Of Village In Neglasari, Tasikmalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyep Saefulrahman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the working of two democratic traditions in the election of head of Neglasari Village in 2015. This aim based on the condition of Neglasari as a unity of law society that has its own tradition in implementing democracy. However, the state determines that liberal democratic tradition is the main traditions that applied in head of village election. The research uses qualitative research and case study as its research strategy. Data collecting is done by interview, observation and documentation. The working of both democratic traditions turns out to provide a positive contribution, to the village democracy to be more qualified because both traditions are supporting each other.

  14. Fruit Plants Species along Corridor in Kopendukuh Village as a Resource for Rural Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Kristiyanti Putri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify fruit plants species which is potential for tourism attraction, spatially describes fruit plants distribution and identify local people’s response for fruit plants as tourims attraction in Kopendukuh village, Banyuwangi. Survey was done along the villages corridors. The fruit plant species along corridors was identified and mapped using GPS. Furthermore, semi-structural interview was used to gain informations of local people response about fruit plants as tourism attraction. There were about 18 species and 162 individuals were found along corridor of Kopendukuh village. Fruit plants always found in local home gardens along rural corridor. Local peoples argue that fruit planst s important for numerous purposes. Local people support tourism development in rural area which based on the fruit plants richness (i.e. agrotourism. Keywords: fruit plants, mapping, corridor, rural tourism.

  15. Elementary Students’ View of Collaborative Knowledge Building in LearningVillages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Siu-yung Jong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available LearningVillages (LV is an online game-based virtual learning environment. It aims at facilitating elementary students to pursue social inquiry learning and hence attain collaborative knowledge building (CKB. LV operates in the form of massively multi-player online role-play gaming. Different villages in this “virtual world” represent different societal issues. To embark on the development of a village, students have to inquire collaboratively into the issue therein. Besides delineating the pedagogical design of LV, this paper also discusses our quantitative study on investigating the CKB affordance of this educational innovation from the student perspective (involving 229 elementary students in Hong Kong. Results showed that LV brought desirable CKB experience to the students in general. On top of that, we found the students with low academic achievement held a more positive perception (i.e. the affordance of LV in facilitating CKB than the students with high and moderate achievement did.

  16. Geospatial analysis of household spread of Ebola virus in a quarantined village - Sierra Leone, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, B L; Foster, S; Wilt, G E; Miles, B; Lewis, B; Cauthen, K; King, M; Bayor, F; Conteh, S; Sesay, T; Kamara, S I; Lambert, G; Finley, P; Beyeler, W; Moore, T; Gaudioso, J; Kilmarx, P H; Redd, J T

    2017-10-01

    We performed a spatial-temporal analysis to assess household risk factors for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in a remote, severely-affected village. We defined a household as a family's shared living space and a case-household as a household with at least one resident who became a suspect, probable, or confirmed Ebola case from 1 August 2014 to 10 October 2014. We used Geographic Information System (GIS) software to calculate inter-household distances, performed space-time cluster analyses, and developed Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Village X consisted of 64 households; 42% of households became case-households over the observation period. Two significant space-time clusters occurred among households in the village; temporal effects outweighed spatial effects. GEE demonstrated that the odds of becoming a case-household increased by 4·0% for each additional person per household (P spatial-temporal risk factors, which can inform prioritization of response activities in future outbreaks.

  17. Revisiting a Dramatic Triangle: The State, Villagers, and Social Activists in Chinese Rural Reconstruction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Thøgersen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the movement to “construct a new socialist countryside”, Chinese officials and social activists are experimenting with transforming rural social and economic relations. They often draw on discourses dating back to the Rural Reconstruction Movement of the 1920s and 1930s, which saw urban intellectuals making similar efforts to modernize the villages and their inhabitants. This paper analyses the different types of relationships between the state, social activists, and villagers in a number of rural reconstruction projects. The state is still the major player in this field, but traditional top-down procedures are often perceived to be unproductive when it comes to micro-level community building, so state actors are forced to find allies among village elites and social activists.

  18. Chinese villages and their sustainable future: the European Union-China-Research Project "SUCCESS".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumreicher, Heidi

    2008-04-01

    China has 800,000 villages-one person out of seven on the globe is living in a Chinese rural settlement. Yet the global discussions about the situation in China is currently characterised by a disproportionate focus on the development of towns and until now circumstances have generally been neglected in the rural areas, where 70% of the Chinese population is still living. Within the 5 years of the SUCCESS project research, this set of actual problems has been considered and analysed under the principle of sustainability: "What to maintain?" "What to change?" were the overall research questions asked in the SUCCESS project; the researchers were looking for answers under a sustainability regime, respecting the need to raise the quality of life in the villages. Several interweaving processes were used to achieve results: the inter-disciplinary research process between many areas of expertise, the trans-disciplinary process between the researchers and the Chinese villagers, and a negotiation process that made the connection between these two processes. The introduction describes the basic sustainability definition that was orienting the whole study. The innovation lays mostly in the methodology: the inter-disciplinary research co-operation related to practice and to involving the affected communities is needed to manage the significant and growing imbalances between urban and rural areas regarding their sustainability. In the transdisciplinary work, the project developed "village future sentences" that describe the local outcome of the research as one step towards better theoretical understanding of the mechanisms that could lead to a sustainable future, and they also managed to start sustainability processes in the case study sites. The integrated approach of the project helped generating future scenarios for these villages covering all aspects of their development, including urban design issues. Out of these scenarios, the villages developed small projects that could

  19. Perceptions of Group-Based Walks and Strategies to Inform the Development of an Intervention in Retirement Villages: Perspectives of Residents and Village Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Uren, Hannah; Stathi, Afroditi; Wold, Catrina; Hill, Keith D

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore perceptions of group-based walking and gather suggestions to inform the development of a group-based walking intervention among older adults in retirement villages. Twenty-four physically inactive residents (16 female, 8 male; age range: 69-88) and four managers from four retirement villages were interviewed. Inductive thematic analysis revealed six broad themes: lack of motivation, values versus constraints, fears and confidence, need for structure, creating a sense of belonging, and the physical environment as a double-edged sword. Proposed intervention strategies included using trained walk leaders, using small groups, planning for flexibility, setting attainable goals, creating a routine, creating opportunities for sharing experiences, and planning a variety of walks. Group-based walking programs may be used to promote physical activity but careful planning of such programs is needed to make them appealing and feasible to a diverse group of residents.

  20. Determination of Leisure Levels of Village Patronage UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta: Improving Governance Patronage towards Rural Green Village and Environmentally Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriatna Supriatna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study took place in the village of Patronage UIN Sunan Kalidjaga Yogyakarta that consist of 13 hamlets (Klidon, Banjarsari, Wonosalam, Dongkelsari, Puntuk, Tanjung Sari, Karang Lo, Purworejo, Tanjung, Banturejo, Nglengkong and Surirejo, Sukoharjo Village, District Ngaglik, DIY Sleman regency. Data are collect and analysed in order to obtain results in a level of comfort. The analysis was performed by using a formula based on the comfort level Temperature Humidity Index (THI. The results showed that Hamlet Klidon, Banjarsari, Wonosalam, and Dongkelsari shows Not Comfortable, whereas Hamlet Puntuk, Tanjung Sari, Karang Lo, Purworejo, Tanjung, Banturejo, Nglengkong, Surirejo and Mujen show Strongly Comfortable mainly on the clock 10:00 to 15:00.