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Sample records for surrounding formations comprise

  1. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  2. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  3. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  4. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  5. Formation Mechanistism Study of TiO2 Film Comprising Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Yang; Yi-quan Wang; Guo-bin Ren; Shuai Feng; Yuan-yuan Chen; Wen-zhong Wang

    2012-01-01

    A novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) film comprising both nanotubes and nanopaticles was fabricated by an anodization process of the modified titanium.The local electric field at the anodized surface was simulated and its influence on the morphology of the TiO2 film was discussed.The results show that the electric field strength is enhanced by the covering.The growth rate of TiO2 increases with the assist of the local electric field.However,TiO2 dissolution is hindered since the local electric field prevents [TiF6]6- from diffusing.It means that the balance condition for the formation of nanotubes is broken,and TiO2 nanoparticles are formed.Moreover,the crystal structure of the TiO2 film was confirmed using X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis.The anatase is a main phase for the proposed film.

  6. Formation Mechanistism Study of TiO2 Film Comprising Nanotubes and Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Wang, Yi-quan; Ren, Guo-bin; Feng, Shuai; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Wen-zhong

    2012-02-01

    A novel titanium dioxide (TiO2) film comprising both nanotubes and nanopaticles was fabricated by an anodization process of the modified titanium. The local electric field at the anodized surface was simulated and its influence on the morphology of the TiO2 film was discussed. The results show that the electric field strength is enhanced by the covering. The growth rate of TiO2 increases with the assist of the local electric field. However, TiO2 dissolution is hindered since the local electric field prevents [TiF6]6- from diffusing. It means that the balance condition for the formation of nanotubes is broken, and TiO2 nanoparticles are formed. Moreover, the crystal structure of the TiO2 film was confirmed using X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis. The anatase is a main phase for the proposed film.

  7. Application of chimeric glucanase comprising mutanase and dextranase for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ryoko; Imai, Susumu; Murata, Takatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Tsumori, Hideaki; Kakuta, Erika; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Momoi, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) produced by mutans streptococci, an important cariogenic pathogen, plays an important role in the formation of dental biofilm and adhesion of biofilm to tooth surfaces. Glucanohydrolases, such as mutanase (α-1,3-glucanase) and dextranase (α-1,6-glucanase), are able to hydrolyze WIG. The purposes of this study were to construct bi-functional chimeric glucanase, composed of mutanase and dextranase, and to examine the effects of this chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm. The mutanase gene from Paenibacillus humicus NA1123 and the dextranase gene from Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were cloned and ligated into a pE-SUMOstar Amp plasmid vector. The resultant his-tagged fusion chimeric glucanase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and partially purified. The effects of chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm formed on a glass surface by Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 glucosyltransferases were then examined. This biofilm was fractionated into firmly adherent, loosely adherent, and non-adherent WIG fractions. Amounts of WIG in each fraction were determined by a phenol-sulfuric acid method, and reducing sugars were quantified by the Somogyi-Nelson method. Chimeric glucanase reduced the formation of the total amount of WIG in a dose-dependent manner, and significant reductions of WIG in the adherent fraction were observed. Moreover, the chimeric glucanase was able to decompose biofilm, being 4.1 times more effective at glucan inhibition of biofilm formation than a mixture of dextranase and mutanase. These results suggest that the chimeric glucanase is useful for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

  8. Structure formation in adsorbed overlayers comprising functional cross-shaped molecules: A Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperski, Adam; Nieckarz, Damian; Szabelski, Paweł

    2015-11-01

    Surface confined self-assembly of functional star-shaped organic molecules is a promising method to create nanoporous networks with tailorable structure and functions. In this work we use the Monte Carlo simulation method to demonstrate how the morphology of these supramolecular assemblies can be tuned by manipulating intrinsic parameters of the building blocks and modified by the presence of co-adsorbed metal atoms. To that purpose we study the 2D self-assembly of planar cruciform molecules modeled as collections of interconnected segments, some of which were activated to represent discrete interaction centers. We consider a few exemplary adsorbed systems in which the molecules with different size, aspect ratio and intramolecular distribution of active centers form superstructures stabilized by short-range segment-segment interactions or by metal-segment interactions. These two situations correspond to supramolecular assemblies sustained by, for example, hydrogen bonding and metal-organic ligand coordination, respectively. The simulated results show that proper encoding of intramolecular interactions into the cruciform building bricks allows for directing the self-assembly towards largely diversified structures ranging from nanoclusters to porous grids. The obtained findings can facilitate designing and optimization of molecular networks comprising cross-shaped units including functionalized porphyrins and phthalocyanines and they can be helpful in preliminary selection of these building blocks.

  9. Formation and structure of the first metal complexes comprising amidino-guanidinate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, Farid M; Liebing, Phil; Hrib, Cristian G; Gräsing, Daniel; Hilfert, Liane; Edelmann, Frank T

    2016-11-01

    The first metal complexes comprising amidino-guanidinate ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized, namely bis-[μ-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraisopropyl-1-(1-butyl-amidinato)guanidinato-κ(3)N(1),N(2):N(2)]bis-[(tetra-hydro-furan)lithium], [Li2(C18H37N4)2(C4H8O)2], (2), and [bis-(tetra-hydro-furan)-lithium]-di-μ-chlorido-{(N,N'-di-cyclo-hexyl-1-butyl-amidinato-κ(2)N(1),N(2))[N,N',N'',N'''-tetra-cyclo-hexyl-1-(1-butyl-amidinato)guanidinato-κ(2)N(1),N(2)]holmate(III)}, [HoLiCl2(C4H8O)2(C17H31N2)(C30H53N4)], (3). The novel lithium amidino-guanidinate precursors Li[ (n) BuC(=NR)(NR)C(NR)2] [1: R = Cy (cyclo-hex-yl), 2: R = (i) Pr) were obtained by treatment of N,N'-diorganocarbodi-imides, R-N=C=N-R (R = (i) Pr, Cy), with 0.5 equivalents of n-butyl-lithium under well-defined reaction conditions. An X-ray diffraction study of 2 revealed a ladder-type dimeric structure in the solid state. Reaction of anhydrous holmium(III) chloride with in situ-prepared 2 afforded the unexpected holmium 'ate' complex [ (n) BuC(=NCy)(NCy)C(NCy)2]Ho[ (n) BuC(NCy)2](μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2 (3) in 71% yield. An X-ray crystal structure determination of 3 showed that this complex contains both an amidinate ligand and the new amidino-guanidinate ligand.

  10. Formation and structure of the first metal complexes comprising amidinoguanidinate ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid M. Sroor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The first metal complexes comprising amidinoguanidinate ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized, namely bis[μ-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraisopropyl-1-(1-butylamidinatoguanidinato-κ3N1,N2:N2]bis[(tetrahydrofuranlithium], [Li2(C18H37N42(C4H8O2], (2, and [bis(tetrahydrofuranlithium]-di-μ-chlorido-{(N,N′-dicyclohexyl-1-butylamidinato-κ2N1,N2[N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetracyclohexyl-1-(1-butylamidinatoguanidinato-κ2N1,N2]holmate(III}, [HoLiCl2(C4H8O2(C17H31N2(C30H53N4], (3. The novel lithium amidinoguanidinate precursors Li[nBuC(=NR(NRC(NR2] [1: R = Cy (cyclohexyl, 2: R = iPr were obtained by treatment of N,N′-diorganocarbodiimides, R—N=C=N—R (R = iPr, Cy, with 0.5 equivalents of n-butyllithium under well-defined reaction conditions. An X-ray diffraction study of 2 revealed a ladder-type dimeric structure in the solid state. Reaction of anhydrous holmium(III chloride with in situ-prepared 2 afforded the unexpected holmium `ate' complex [nBuC(=NCy(NCyC(NCy2]Ho[nBuC(NCy2](μ-Cl2Li(THF2 (3 in 71% yield. An X-ray crystal structure determination of 3 showed that this complex contains both an amidinate ligand and the new amidinoguanidinate ligand.

  11. Formation and structure of the first metal complexes comprising amidino­guanidinate ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroor, Farid M.; Liebing, Phil; Hrib, Cristian G.; Gräsing, Daniel; Hilfert, Liane; Edelmann, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    The first metal complexes comprising amidino­guanidinate ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized, namely bis­[μ-N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetraisopropyl-1-(1-butyl­amidinato)guanidinato-κ3 N 1,N 2:N 2]bis­[(tetra­hydro­furan)lithium], [Li2(C18H37N4)2(C4H8O)2], (2), and [bis­(tetra­hydro­furan)­lithium]-di-μ-chlorido-{(N,N′-di­cyclo­hexyl-1-butyl­amidinato-κ2 N 1,N 2)[N,N′,N′′,N′′′-tetra­cyclo­hexyl-1-(1-butyl­amidinato)guanidinato-κ2 N 1,N 2]holmate(III)}, [HoLiCl2(C4H8O)2(C17H31N2)(C30H53N4)], (3). The novel lithium amidino­guanidinate precursors Li[nBuC(=NR)(NR)C(NR)2] [1: R = Cy (cyclo­hex­yl), 2: R = iPr) were obtained by treatment of N,N′-diorganocarbodi­imides, R—N=C=N—R (R = iPr, Cy), with 0.5 equivalents of n-butyl­lithium under well-defined reaction conditions. An X-ray diffraction study of 2 revealed a ladder-type dimeric structure in the solid state. Reaction of anhydrous holmium(III) chloride with in situ-prepared 2 afforded the unexpected holmium ‘ate’ complex [nBuC(=NCy)(NCy)C(NCy)2]Ho[nBuC(NCy)2](μ-Cl)2Li(THF)2 (3) in 71% yield. An X-ray crystal structure determination of 3 showed that this complex contains both an amidinate ligand and the new amidino­guanidinate ligand. PMID:27840700

  12. Molecular gas and triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

    2012-01-01

    The environments surrounding nine Wolf-Rayet stars were studied in molecular emission. Expanding shells were detected surrounding these WR stars (see left panels of Figure 1). The average masses and radii of the molecular cores surrounding these WR stars anti-correlate with the WR stellar wind velocities (middle panels of Figure 1), indicating the WR stars has great impact on their environments. The number density of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is enhanced in the molecular shells at $\\sim$5 arcmin from the central WR star (lower-right panel of Figure 1). Through detailed studies of the molecular shells and YSOs, we find strong evidences of triggered star formation in the fragmented molecular shells (\\cite[Liu et al. 2010]{liu_etal12}

  13. Polycondensation of Asparagine-comprising Dipeptides in Aqueous Media-A Simulation of Polypeptide Formation in Primordial Earth Hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munegumi, Toratane; Tanikawa, Naoya

    2017-07-01

    Asparagine and aspartic acid might have mutually transformed in the primordial hydrosphere of the earth, if ammonia and aspartic acid had existed in equilibrium. These amino acids seem to contribute to polypeptides, while the simple amino acids glycine and alanine easily form cyclic dipeptides and do not achieve long peptide chains. Asparagine-comprising dipeptides contribute some kinds of activation forms of dipeptides because these can polymerize faster than asparagine only. The new finding of polypeptide formation suggests a pathway of sequential polypeptides to evolve a diversity of polypeptides.

  14. Simulation of coupled THM process in surrounding rock mass of nuclear waste repository in argillaceous formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋中明; 陈永贵

    2015-01-01

    To investigate and analyze the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) coupling phenomena of a surrounding rock mass in an argillaceous formation, a nuclear waste disposal concept in drifts was represented physically in an in-situ test way. A transversely isotropic model was employed to reproduce the whole test process numerically. Parameters of the rock mass were determined by laboratory and in-situ experiments. Based on the numerical simulation results and in-situ test data, the variation processes of pore water pressure, temperature and deformation of surrounding rock were analyzed. Both the measured data and numerical results reveal that the thermal perturbation is the principal driving force which leads to the variation of pore water pressure and deformations in the surrounding rock. The temperature, pore pressure and deformation of rock mass change rapidly at each initial heating stage with a constant heating power. The temperature field near the heater borehole is relatively steady in the subsequent stages of the heating phase. However, the pore pressure and deformation fields decrease gradually with temperature remaining unchanged condition. It also shows that a transversely isotropic model can reproduce the THM coupling effects generating in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository in an argillaceous formation.

  15. CO Observations and Investigation of Triggered Star Formation toward the N10 Infrared Bubble and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, D. R. G.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Mendoza, E.; Wu, Y.; Yuan, J.

    2016-10-01

    We studied the environment of the dust bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by the GLIMPSE survey at 8.0 μm, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the H ii region on its surroundings and the eventual triggering of star formation at its borders. In this work, we present a multi-wavelength study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting because infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered on the edge of the H ii region. We carried out observations of 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7 m toward N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-millimeter emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding H ii region and the molecular gas. We also estimated the parameters of the denser cold dust condensation and the ionized gas inside the shell. Bright CO emission was detected and two molecular clumps were identified from which we have derived physical parameters. We also estimate the parameters for the densest cold dust condensation and for the ionized gas inside the shell. The comparison between the dynamical age of this region and the fragmentation timescale favors the “Radiation-Driven Implosion” mechanism of star formation. N10 is a case of particular interest with gas structures in a narrow frontier between the H ii region and surrounding molecular material, and with a range of ages of YSOs situated in the region, indicating triggered star formation.

  16. CO observations and investigation of triggered star formation towards N10 infrared bubble and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Diana; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jinghua; Mendoza, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We studied the environment of the Galactic bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by GLIMPSE at 8.0 $\\mu$m, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the HII region on its surroundings and the possibility of triggered star formation at the border of HII regions. In this work, we present a molecular study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting as it undergoes a burst of star formation while infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered, on the edge of the HII region. We carried out observations of $^{12}$CO(1-0) and $^{13}$CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7-m towards N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-mm emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding HII region and the molecular gas. Bright CO emission was detected. Two molecular clumps were identified, from which we have derived physical features. Star formation co...

  17. A Kinetic Model for Toluene Oxidation Comprising Benzylperoxy Benzoate Ester as Reactive Intermediate in the Formation of Benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Alsters, P.L.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    During the oxidation of toluene under semibatch conditions, the formation of benzyl alcohol is initially equal to the rate of formation of benzaldehyde. As the overall conversion increases the benzyl alcohol concentration at first decreases much faster than benzaldehyde, but this decrease slows down

  18. A kinetic model for toluene oxidation comprising benzylperoxy benzoate ester as reactive intermediate in the formation of benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Alsters, P. L.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    During the oxidation of toluene under semibatch conditions, the formation of benzyl alcohol is initially equal to the rate of formation of benzaldehyde. As the overall conversion increases the benzyl alcohol concentration at first decreases much faster than benzaldehyde, but this decrease slows down

  19. A kinetic model for toluene oxidation comprising benzylperoxy benzoate ester as reactive intermediate in the formation of benzaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, J.A.A.; Alsters, P. L.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    During the oxidation of toluene under semibatch conditions, the formation of benzyl alcohol is initially equal to the rate of formation of benzaldehyde. As the overall conversion increases the benzyl alcohol concentration at first decreases much faster than benzaldehyde, but this decrease slows down

  20. Mechanical and hydrological characterization of the near-field surrounding excavations in a geologic salt formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Clifford L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The technical basis for salt disposal of nuclear waste resides in salt’s favorable physical, mechanical and hydrological characteristics. Undisturbed salt formations are impermeable. Upon mining, the salt formation experiences damage in the near-field rock proximal to the mined opening and salt permeability increases dramatically. The volume of rock that has been altered by such damage is called the disturbed rock zone (DRZ).

  1. The Role of Amines, Hydrogen Sulfide and Carbon Dioxide in the Formation of Prebiotic Macromolecules Surrounded by Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajen, Gaurav

    2016-04-01

    Amphiphilic compounds are known to self-assemble into membranous structures when exposed to alternate dry and wet conditions. This paper presents a model of how such structures could form near hydrothermal vents while containing macromolecules such as amino acids. The formation of amino acids near deep ocean hydrothermal vents as precursors for the origins of life is problematic as amino acids degrade from thermal energy. In the model proposed here, amino acids would degrade into amines (near hydrothermal vents). Amines have an affinity to interact with carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), form weak heat-unstable salts, and then through exposure to thermal energy release the acid gases and regenerate back to amines. Amines carrying and releasing H2S and CO2 would help other macromolecules form along with amino acids within protected cell-like structures; the cyclical release and recapture of acid gases would subsequently help the amino acids form bonds; further thermal action would degrade some of the amines into polymers that provide more strength and rigidity to the membrane walls; and also enable escaping gases to form tubes within the surrounding membranes for inlet and outlet of chemicals. Consider that liquids and gases are undergoing thermal convection inside a porous medium, and the convecting liquids contain some amines. Consider now that an amine weak salt carrying H2S and another carrying CO2 is inside a vesicle that formed through self-assembly. As this vesicle moves around in the thermal convection cell it will come close to the heat source and release the H2S and CO2 inside the vesicle. As the vesicle moves away from the heat source, the gases would be reabsorbed into the amines. This process would create stability and a repeating set of reactions, reactants, and products forming and reforming - cyclical stability is a key criterion for more complex reactions to occur. Some of the amines present would reform into an amino acid (as occurs

  2. Sub-micron atmospheric aerosols in the surroundings of Marseille and Athens: physical characterization and new particle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Dal Maso, M.; Junninen, H.; Koponen, I. K.; Hussein, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Andronopoulos, S.; Robin, D.; Hämeri, K.; Bartzis, J. G.; Kulmala, M.

    2007-05-01

    The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles in Marseille and Athens were investigated. The studies were performed in Marseille, France, during July 2002 and in Athens, Greece, during June 2003. The aerosol size distribution and the formation and growth rates of newly formed particles were characterized using Differential Mobility Particle Sizers. Hygroscopic properties were observed using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. During both campaigns, the observations were performed at suburban, almost rural sites, and the sites can be considered to show general regional background behavior depending on the wind direction. At both sites there were clear pattern for both aerosol number concentration and hygroscopic properties. Nucleation mode number concentration increased during the morning hours indicating new particle formation, which was observed during more than 30% of the days. The observed formation rate was typically more than 1 cm-3 s-1, and the growth rate was between 1.2-9.9 nm h-1. Based on hygroscopicity measurements in Athens, the nucleation mode size increase was due to condensation of both water insoluble and water soluble material. However, during a period of less anthropogenic influence, the growth was to a larger extent due to water insoluble components. When urban pollution was more pronounced, growth due to condensation of water soluble material dominated.

  3. A formation mechanism for concentric ridges in ejecta surrounding impact craters in a layer of fine glass beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayako I.; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Kadono, Toshihiko; Wada, Koji; Yamamoto, Satoru; Arakawa, Masahiko

    2013-07-01

    Ejecta patterns are experimentally examined around craters formed in a layer of glass beads by vertical impacts at low velocities. The diameters of the constituent glass beads of three different targets range 53-63 μm, 90-106 μm, and 355-500 μm. The impact velocities and ambient pressures range from a few to 240 m s-1 and from 500 Pa to the atmospheric pressure, respectively. Various ejecta patterns are observed around craters and are classified into two major classes based on whether they have concentric ridges or not. We propose a possible formation model for the ridges in which the wake created by a projectile as it passes through the atmosphere causes the crater rim to collapse: The model can explain the observation that the degree of collapse of the resultant crater rim depends on the impact velocity and ambient pressure. Using the ratio between the hydrodynamic drag of the airflow induced by the wake and the gravitational force of the degraded part of the rim, we calculate the critical conditions of the impact velocity and ambient pressure necessary for the wake to erode the rim. The conditions turn out to be roughly consistent with the boundary between the two morphological classes. As a result, it is possible that the projectile wake triggers the collapse of the crater rim, leading to a ground-hugging flow that settles to form the distal ridge observed in this study. This mechanism may play a role in producing ejecta morphologies on planetary bodies with atmosphere.

  4. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes withi

  5. BALLISTIC RESISTANT ARTICLES COMPRISING TAPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VAN DER EEM, JORIS; HARINGS, JULES; JANSE, GERARDUS; TJADEN, HENDRIK

    2015-01-01

    The invention pertains to a ballistic-resistant moulded article comprising a compressed stack of sheets comprising reinforcing tapes having a tensile strength of at least 1.0 GPa, a tensile modulus of at least 40 GPa, and a tensile energy-to-break of at least 15 J/g, the direction of the tapes

  6. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David

    2010-11-16

    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  7. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  8. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  9. Geology of the Early Arikareean sharps formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and surrounding areas of South Dakota and Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas H; Dibenedetto, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8-20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group.

  10. Geology of the Early Arikareean Sharps Formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Surrounding Areas of South Dakota and Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas H.; DiBenedetto, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8–20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group. PMID:23110098

  11. Geology of the Early Arikareean sharps formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and surrounding areas of South Dakota and Nebraska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H McConnell

    Full Text Available Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8-20.6 million years ago Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group.

  12. Halpha3: an Halpha imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. II. The star formation properties of galaxies in the Virgo cluster and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Fossati, Matteo; Galardo, Vincenzo; Grossetti, Francesco; Boselli, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2013-01-01

    We present the analysis of Halpha3, an Halpha imaging survey of 409 galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo ALFALFA Survey in the Local Supercluster, including the Virgo cluster. We explore the relations between the stellar mass, the HI mass and the current, massive SFR of nearby galaxies in the Virgo cluster and we compare them with those of isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster, disentangling the role of the environment in shaping the star formation properties of galaxies at the present cosmological epoch. We investigate the relationships between atomic neutral gas and newly formed stars in different environments, across many morphological types, and over a wide range of stellar masses adopting an updated calibration of the HI deficiency parameter. Studying the mean properties of late-type galaxies in the Local Supercluster, we find that galaxies in increasing local galaxy density conditions (or decreasing projected angular separation from M87) show a significant decrease in the HI content and in the me...

  13. Formation of a robust and stable film comprising ionic liquid and polyoxometalate on glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Toward sensitive and fast detection of hydrogen peroxide and iodate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, Behzad, E-mail: haghighi@iasbs.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195 - 1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidi, Hassan [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, P.O. Box 45195 - 1159, Gava Zang, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gorton, Lo [Institute of Chemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-06-30

    A robust and stable film comprising n-octylpyridinum hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 8}Py][PF{sub 6}]) and 1:12 phosphomolybdic acid (PMo{sub 12}) was prepared on glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (GCE/MWCNTs) by dip-coating. The cyclic voltammograms of the GCE/MWCNTs/[C{sub 8}Py][PF{sub 6}]-PMo{sub 12} showed three well-defined pairs of redox peaks due to the PMo{sub 12} system. The surface coverage for the immobilized PMo{sub 12} and the average values of the electron transfer rate constant for three pairs of redox peaks were evaluated. The GCE/MWCNTs/[C{sub 8}Py][PF{sub 6}]-PMo{sub 12} showed great electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and iodate. The kinetic parameters of the catalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide and iodate at the electrode surface and analytical features of the sensor for amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide and iodate were evaluated.

  14. Hydrocarbon recovery comprising injecting a slug comprising oil soluble alkoxylated surfactants from lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naae, D.G.; DaGue, M.G.; Dunn, N.G.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described of recovering hydrocarbons from an underground hydrocarbon formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one production well, which comprises: injecting into the formation through an injection well a surfactant slug comprising about 0.1% to about 10% by weight of oil soluble surfactants produced from lignin, said oil soluble surfactants produced by placing lignin in contact with water, converting the lignin into relatively low molecular weight lignin phenols by reducing the lignin in the presence of a reducing agent of carbon monoxide or hydrogen, said reduction occurring at a temperature greater than about 200 C and a pressure greater than about 100 psi, recovering the oil soluble lignin phenols from the reaction mixture, alkoxylating the lignin phenols by reacting the lignin phenols with an a-olefin epoxide having about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms at about 100 to about 200 C for about 1 to about 3 hours in an organic solvent, and changing the alkoxylated lignin phenols into oil soluble lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of sulfonation, sulfation, and alkoxysulfation; injecting into the formation through the injection well a drive fluid to push the surfactant slug towards a production well; and recovering hydrocarbons at the production well.

  15. Planet Formation in Action? - Astronomers may have found the first object clearing its path in the natal disc surrounding a young star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    gap in the dust disc around T Cha was a smoking gun, and we asked ourselves: could we be witnessing a companion digging a gap inside its protoplanetary disc?" However, finding a faint companion so close to a bright star is a huge challenge and the team had to use the VLT instrument NACO in a novel and powerful way, called sparse aperture masking, to reach their goal [4]. After careful analysis they found the clear signature of an object located within the gap in the dust disc, about one billion kilometres from the star - slightly further out than Jupiter is within our Solar System and close to the outer edge of the gap. This is the first detection of an object much smaller than a star within a gap in the planet-forming dust disc around a young star. The evidence suggests that the companion object cannot be a normal star [5] but it could be either a brown dwarf [6] surrounded by dust or, most excitingly, a recently formed planet. Huélamo concludes: "This is a remarkable joint study that combines two different state-of-the-art instruments at ESO's Paranal Observatory. Future observations will allow us to find out more about the companion and the disc, and also understand what fuels the inner dusty disc." Notes [1] The transitional discs can be spotted because they give off less radiation at mid-infrared wavelengths. The clearing of the dust close to the star and the creation of gaps and holes can explain this missing radiation. Recently formed planets may have created these gaps, although there are also other possibilities. [2] T Cha is a T Tauri star, a very young star that is still contracting towards the main sequence. [3] The astronomers used the AMBER instrument (Astronomical Multi-BEam combineR) and the VLTI to combine the light from all four of the 8.2-metre VLT Unit Telescopes and create a "virtual telescope" 130 metres across. [4] NACO (or NAOS-CONICA in full) is an adaptive optics instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. Thanks to adaptive optics

  16. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  17. Energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to an energy system comprising an electrochemical energy source, wherein said electrochemical energy source comprises at least one assembly of a first electrode, a second electrode, and an intermediate solid-state electrolyte separating said first electrode and said second elec

  18. Pressurizable structures comprising different surface sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koussios, S.; Bergsma, O.K.; Beukers, A.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to composite pressurizable structures which are overwound with fibres or are braided. The pressurizable structures comprise axial sections which in turn comprise both concave and convex surfaces. The shape characteristics are related to geodesic as well as non-geodesic trajecto

  19. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  20. Composition comprising lignin and antidi arrheal component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising lignin and at least one compound selected from the group consisting of bromelain, papain, tannin, carvacrol, thymol, alliin, allicin, fenugreek seed, egg, poppy, poppy seeds, humic acid, roots, kaolin, catechu, cellulase, flavonoid...

  1. An optically guided microdevice comprising a nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a microdevice (100) for emitting electromagnetic radiation onto an associated object. Simultaneous non-contact spatial control over the microdevice in terms of translational movement in three dimensions, and rotational movement around at least two axes, preferably...... three axes, is possible. The microdevice further comprises a nanowire (150) being arranged for emitting electromagnetic radiation onto said associated object. This is advantageous for obtaining better spatial control of the microdevice comprising the nanowire, and this enables that light could more...

  2. Hearing aid comprising an array of microphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.M.; Berkhout, A.J.; Merks, I.L.D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Hearing aid for improving the hearing ability of the hard of hearing, comprising an array of microphones, the electrical output signals of which are fed to at least one transmission path belonging to an ear. Means are provided for deriving two array output signals from the output signals of the micr

  3. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  4. Biocatalytic material comprising multilayer enzyme coated fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungbae [Richland, WA; Kwak, Ja Hun [Richland, WA; Grate, Jay W [West Richland, WA

    2009-11-03

    The present invention relates generally to high stability, high activity biocatalytic materials and processes for using the same. The materials comprise enzyme aggregate coatings having high biocatalytic activity and stability useful in heterogeneous environment. These new materials provide a new biocatalytic immobilized enzyme system with applications in bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensors, and biofuel cells.

  5. Electrochemical cell comprising stable hydride-forming material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems, J. J. G. S. A.; van Beek, J. R. G. C. M.; Buschow, K. H. J.

    1984-12-11

    An electrochemical cell having a negative electrode comprising a compound derived from LaNi/sub 5/, in which La is optionally substituted by a plateau pressure-increasing element and in which Ni is substituted entirely or partly by a plateau pressure-reducing element, for example, Co and/or Cu, with the object of considerably reducing volume steps and hence crack formation of the intermetallic compound during charging and discharging. Moreover, the corrosion of the intermetallic compound is counteracted by adding small quantities of Al, Cr and/or Si, Which metals enhance the formation of a protecting oxide layer.

  6. Method of forming a nanocluster-comprising dielectric layer and device comprising such a layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochupurackal, J.B.P.; Besling, W.F.A.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Wolters, A.M.; Roozeboom, F.

    2012-01-01

    A method of forming a dielectric layer on a further layer of a semiconductor device is disclosed. The method comprises depositing a dielectric precursor compound and a further precursor compound over the further layer, the dielectric precursor compound comprising a metal ion from the group consistin

  7. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  8. Insulating Materials Comprising Polysilazane, Methods of Forming Such Insulating Materials, and Precursor Formulations Comprising Polysilazane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert S. (Inventor); Fuller, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods of forming an insulating material comprising combining a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound to form a reaction mixture, and curing the reaction mixture to form a modified polysilazane. The gas-generating compound may be water, an alcohol, an amine, or combinations thereof. The cross-linking compound may be an isocyanate, an epoxy resin, or combinations thereof. The insulating material may include a matrix comprising one of a reaction product of a polysilazane and an isocyanate and a reaction product of a polysilazane and an epoxy resin. The matrix also comprises a plurality of interconnected pores produced from one of reaction of the polysilazane and the isocyanate and from reaction of the polysilazane and the epoxy resin. A precursor formulation that comprises a polysilazane, a cross-linking compound, and a gas-generating compound is also disclosed.

  9. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  10. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  11. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  12. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  13. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  14. Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehmann, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following, a new conceptual framework for investigating nowadays’ “technical” phenomena shall be introduced, that of formats. The thesis is that processes of formatting account for our recent conditions of life, and will do so in the very next future. It are processes whose foundations have been laid in modernity and which will further unfold for the time being. These processes are embedded in the format of the value chain, a circumstance making them resilient to change. In addition, they are resilient in themselves since forming interconnected systems of reciprocal causal circuits.Which leads to an overall situation that our entire “Lebenswelt” became formatted to an extent we don’t fully realize, even influencing our very percep-tion of it.

  15. Compositions Comprising Nickel-Titanium, Methods Manufacture Thereof and Articles Comprising the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor); DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Disclosing herein is a method for manufacturing nickel-titanium compositions. The method includes disposing a powdered composition in a mold; the powdered composition comprising nickel and titanium; the titanium being present in an amount of about 38 to about 42 wt % and the nickel being present in an amount of about 58 to about 62 wt %; sintering the powdered composition to produce a sintered preform; compacting the preform; machining the preform to form an article; heat treating the article; the annealing being conducted at a temperature of about 1650.degree. F. to about 1900.degree. F. at a pressure of about 3 Torr to about 5 Kg-f/cm.sup.2 for a time period of about 10 minutes to about 5 hours; and quenching the article.

  16. Coupled gas flow/solid dynamics model for predicting the formation of fracture patterns in gas well simulation experiments. [Propellant mixture used instead of explosives to fracture rock surrounding borehole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.M.; Swenson, D.V.; Cooper, P.W.

    1984-07-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model for predicting fracture patterns obtained in high energy gas fracture experiments is presented. In these experiments, a mixture of propellants is used instead of explosives to fracture the rock surrounding the borehole. The propellant mixture is chosen to tailor the pressure pulse so that multiple fractures emanate from the borehole. The model allows the fracture pattern and pressure pulse to be calculated for different combinations of propellant mixture, in situ stress conditions, and rock properties. The model calculates the amount of gas generated by the burning propellants using a burn rate given by a power law in pressure. By assuming that the gas behaves as a perfect gas and that the flow down the fractures is isothermal, the loss of gas from the borehole due to flow down the cracks is accounted for. The flow of gas down the cracks is included in an approximate manner by assuming self-similar pressure profiles along the fractures. Numerical examples are presented and compared to three different full-scale experiments. Results show a good correlation with the experimental data over a wide variety of test parameters. 9 reference, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  18. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  19. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  20. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  1. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  2. Charge pump DC-DC converter comprising solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter comprises at least one solid-state rechargeable battery (B1, B2) for storing energy for the DC-DC conversion and an output capacitor (C2).

  3. Medical preparation container comprising microwave powered sensor assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical preparation container which comprises a microwave powered sensor assembly. The microwave powered sensor assembly comprises a sensor configured to measure a physical property or chemical property of a medical preparation during its heating in a microwave...

  4. DC high voltage to drive helium plasma jet comprised of repetitive streamer breakdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates and studies helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet comprised of series of repetitive streamer breakdowns, which is driven by a pure DC high voltage (auto-oscillations). Repetition frequency of the breakdowns is governed by the geometry of discharge electrodes/surroundings and gas flow rate. Each next streamer is initiated when the electric field on the anode tip recovers after the previous breakdown and reaches the breakdown threshold value of about 2.5 kV/cm. Repetition frequency of the streamer breakdowns excited using this principle can be simply tuned by reconfiguring the discharge electrode geometry. This custom-designed type of the helium plasma jet, which operates on the DC high voltage and is comprised of the series of the repetitive streamer breakdowns at frequency about 13 kHz, is demonstrated.

  5. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  6. An endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-directed fusion protein comprising a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-directed fusion protein comprising a bacterial subtilisin ... which are used for the commercial production of therapeutic proteins. ... expression platforms) to purify recombinant proteins in crude plant extracts.

  7. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Jeon, Sea Ho; Mack, Nathan H.

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  8. Dielectric electroactive polymers comprising an ionic supramolecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ionic interpenetrating polymer network comprising at least one elastomer and an ionic supramolecular structure comprising the reaction product of at least two chemical compounds wherein each of said compounds has at least two functional groups and wherein said ...... compounds are able to undergo Lewis acid-base reactions. The interpenetrating polymer network may be used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) having a high dielectric permittivity....

  9. Compositions, methods, and systems comprising fluorous-soluble polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Timothy M.; Lim, Jeewoo; Takeda, Yohei

    2015-10-13

    The present invention generally relates to compositions, methods, and systems comprising polymers that are fluorous-soluble and/or organize at interfaces between a fluorous phase and a non-fluorous phase. In some embodiments, emulsions or films are provided comprising a polymer. The polymers, emulsions, and films can be used in many applications, including for determining, treating, and/or imaging a condition and/or disease in a subject. The polymer may also be incorporated into various optoelectronic device such as photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors, or the like. In some embodiments, the polymers comprise pi-conjugated backbones, and in some cases, are highly emissive.

  10. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  11. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  12. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  13. DC-to-DC converter comprising a reconfigurable capacitor unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Bergveld, H.J.; Roozeboom, F.; Reefman, D.; Ruigrok, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a configurable trench multi-capacitor device comprising a trench in a semiconductor substrate. The trench has a lateral extension exceeding 10 micrometer and a trench filling includes a number of at least four electrically conductive capacitor-electrode layers. A

  14. Method of treating ammonia-comprising waste water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of treating ammonia-comprising waste water in which the bicarbonate ion is the counter ion of the ammonium ion present in the waste water. According to the invention half the ammonium is converted into nitrite, yielding an ammonia- and nitrite-containing solution, a

  15. Non-cementitious compositions comprising vaterite and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devenney, Martin; Fernandez, Miguel; Morgan, Samuel O.

    2015-09-15

    Non-cementitious compositions and products are provided. The compositions of the invention include a carbonate additive comprising vaterite such as reactive vaterite. Additional aspects of the invention include methods of making and using the non-cementitious compositions and products.

  16. Modelling of the effect of discontinuities on the extent of the fracture zone surrounding deep tunnels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sellers, EJ

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of physical and numerical model tests were performed to investigate the behaviour of the rock surrounding circular excavations under high confining pressures. The aim was to provide information on the formation of fractures around deep...

  17. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  18. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  19. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  20. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  1. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  2. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  3. Interactions of the Infrared bubble N4 with the surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Liu, Tie; Dubner, G; Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Molinari, Sergio; Huang, Maohai; Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with HII regions have been considered to be a good sample to investigate triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the HII region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with the surroundings and star formation histories therein, aiming at determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 $\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, mean volume density of about 4.4 $\\times10^{4}$ cm$^{-3}$, and a mean mass of 320 $M_{\\odot}$. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 $\\mu$m, ...

  4. A Contemporary Approach to Classify Ghost Cells Comprising Oral Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Narwal, Anjali; Devi, Anju

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells are swollen eosinophilic epithelial cells that have lost their nuclei but retain the cellular and nuclear outline. Pathologic ghost cell formation could be the process of aberrant keratinization or the result of coagulative necrosis. Ghost cells have been described in several odontogenic lesions, which include calcifying epithelial odontogenic cysts or tumours like odontomas, ameloblastic fibro-odontomas, and ameloblastomas. This article present a view on the formation of ghost cells with proposal/introduction of a classification for ghost cell lesions of the oral cavity in an attempt to organize these lesions for the better understanding and academic purpose. PMID:26501039

  5. Dynamical Configurations of Celestial Systems Comprised of Multiple Irregular Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript considers the main features of the nonlinear dynamics of multiple irregular celestial body systems. The gravitational potential, static electric potential, and magnetic potential are considered. Based on the three established potentials, we show that three conservative values exist for this system, including a Jacobi integral. The equilibrium conditions for the system are derived and their stability analyzed. The equilibrium conditions of a celestial system comprised of n irregular bodies are reduced to 12n minus 9 equations. The dynamical results are applied to simulate the motion of multiple-asteroid systems. The simulation is useful for the study of the stability of multiple irregular celestial body systems and for the design of spacecraft orbits to triple asteroid systems discovered in the solar system. The dynamical configurations of the five triple-asteroid systems 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, and 136617 1994CC, and the six-body system 134340 Pluto are calculated and...

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising laser micromachined porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han [Waltham, MA; LaConti, Anthony B [Lynnfield, MA; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K [Natick, MA; McCallum, Thomas J [Ashland, MA

    2011-01-11

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 5 microns, are made by laser micromachining and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  7. Complete Recycling of Composite Material Comprising Polybutylene Terephthalate and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Knappich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials comprising plastic and metal parts generate a large amount of waste containing valuable components that are difficult to separate and recycle. We therefore developed an economical solvent-based process for the recovery of costly manufactured composite materials comprising several copper panels over-moulded with a polymeric matrix of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT. We applied the CreaSolv® Process, which uses proprietary formulations with a low risk to user and environment, in order to dissolve the polymer and retain the inert copper. After separating the metal from the solution, solvent recovery was achieved by means of vacuum distillation and melt degassing extrusion. The recovered solvent was collected and recycled while maintaining its original properties. We tested two candidate solvents with PBT, measuring their impact on the molecular weight (Mw and polydispersity of the polymer at different residence times and dissolution temperatures. We found that increasing the temperature-time-load had a negative effect on the Mw. Both solvents we tested were able to dissolve the polymeric matrix within 30 min and with moderate energy consumption. Furthermore, we found that the exclusion of oxygen during dissolution significantly increases the quality of the recovered polymer and metal. We transferred the process from the laboratory scale to the small-technical scale and produced material for large analytical and mechanical quality evaluation, revealing no decline in the polymer quality by blending with new plastic. The recovered copper met virgin material properties. Therefore, both components of the original composite material have been recovered in a form suitable for reuse.

  8. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

    2013-08-06

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  9. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  10. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  11. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings - 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, Gerard; Burgwal, van de Marcel; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it provid

  12. STREPTOMYCES SPECIES COMPRISING THE BLUE-SPORE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TREJO, W H; BENNETT, R E

    1963-03-01

    Trejo, W. H. (Squibb Institute for Medical Research, New Brunswick, N.J.) and R. E. Bennett. Streptomyces species comprising the blue-spore series. J. Bacteriol. 85:676-690. 1963.-The objective of this study was to define and delimit the streptomycetes of the blue-spored (Viridochromogenes) series. The series, as defined in this study, includes 11 blue and blue-green species. The green-spored species were excluded on the basis of morphology as well as color. It was proposed that NRRL B-1511 be designated as the neotype strain of Streptomyces viridochromogenes (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici, and that IMRU 3761 be designated as the neotype for Streptomyces cyaneus (Krassilnikov) Waksman. Evidence was presented to show that physiological criteria cannot be used to differentiate these organisms below the series level. The major characteristics of the Viridochromogenes series are blue to blue-green spores borne in spirals, and chromogenicity (melanin-positive). Reverse color and spore morphology provide a basis for separation below the series level.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising plasma etched porous support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; LaConti, Anthony B.

    2010-10-05

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a rigid, non-electrically-conducting support, the support preferably being a sheet of polyimide having a thickness of about 7.5 to 15 microns. The support has a plurality of cylindrical pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores, which preferably have a diameter of about 0.1 to 5 microns, are made by plasma etching and preferably are arranged in a defined pattern, for example, with fewer pores located in areas of high membrane stress and more pores located in areas of low membrane stress. The pores are filled with a first solid polymer electrolyte, such as a perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer. A second solid polymer electrolyte, which may be the same as or different than the first solid polymer electrolyte, may be deposited over the top and/or bottom of the first solid polymer electrolyte.

  14. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  15. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  16. The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marco; Habazettl, Iris; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2008-11-01

    In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis. A recent study showed that phytocannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol reduce AANAT activity and attenuate NE-induced melatonin biosynthesis in rat pineal glands, raising the possibility that an endocannabinoid system is present in the pineal gland. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed cannabinoid (CB) receptors and specific enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis or catabolism in rat pineal glands and cultured pinealocytes. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptor proteins, of N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an enzyme catalyzing endocannabinoid biosynthesis and of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid catabolizing enzyme, in pinealocytes, and in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers identified by double immunofluorescence with an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase. The immunosignals for the CB2 receptor, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH found in pinealocytes did not vary under a 12 hr light:12 hr dark cycle. The CB1 receptor immunoreaction in pinealocytes was significantly reduced at the end of the light phase [zeitgeber time (ZT) 12]. The immunosignal for NAPE-PLD found in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers was reduced in the middle of the dark phase (ZT 18). Stimulation of cultured pinealocytes with NE affected neither the subcellular distribution nor the intensity of the immunosignals for the investigated CB receptors and enzymes. In summary, the pineal gland comprises indispensable compounds of the endocannabinoid system indicating that endocannabinoids may be involved in the control of pineal physiology.

  17. Identification of -SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond medium using weak Raman surface phonons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla; Harish Ojha; Vadali Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth

    2013-11-01

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its volume content when relatable, will affect the resultant Raman response of -SiC phase as seen in the present case of diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin films.

  18. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  19. A sound absorptive element comprising an acoustic resonance nanofibrous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinova, Klara

    2015-01-01

    As absorption of sound of lower frequencies is quite problematic with fibrous material made up of coarser fibers, development of highly efficient sound absorption material is called for. This is why this work deals with the development of new high sound absorption material. To absorb the low frequencies, especially the structures based on resonance principle of nanofibrous layers are used, when through resonance of some elements the acoustic energy is transferred into thermal energy. The goal of the invention is achieved by a sound absorbing means which contains resonance membrane formed by a layer of polymeric nanofibers, which is attached to a frame. For production of nanofibrous membranes, the cord electrospinning was used. The resonance membrane was then, upon impact of sound waves of low frequency, brought into forced vibrations, whereby the kinetic energy of the membrane was converted into thermal energy by friction of individual nanofibers, by the friction of the membrane with ambient air and possibly with other layers of material arranged in its proximity, and some of the energy was also transmitted to the frame, through which the vibrations of the resonance membrane were damped. The density and shape of the mesh of frame formations determine the resonance frequency of the acoustic means. The goal of the invention is therefore to eliminate or at least reduce the disadvantages of the present state of the art and to propose sound absorbing means that would be capable of absorbing, with good results sounds in as broadest frequency range as possible. Here, we also discussed some patents relevant to the topic.

  20. Characterizing the Microenvironment Surrounding Phosphorylated Protein Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Cai Fan; Xue-Gong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in various cellular processes. Due to its high complexity, the mechanism needs to be further studied. In the last few years, many methods have been contributed to this field, but almost all of them investigated the mechanism based on protein sequences around protein sites. In this study, we implement an exploration by characterizing the microenvironment surrounding phosphorylated protein sites with a modified shell model, and obtain some significant properties by the rank-sum test, such as the lack of some classes of residues, atoms, and secondary structures. Furthermore, we find that the depletion of some properties affects protein phosphorylation remarkably. Our results suggest that it is a meaningful direction to explore the mechanism of protein phosphorylation from microenvironment and we expect further findings along with the increasing size of phosphorylation and protein structure data.

  1. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  3. Nanoscale Cross-Point Resistive Switching Memory Comprising p-Type SnO Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hota, Mrinal Kanti

    2015-02-23

    Reproducible low-voltage bipolar resistive switching is reported in bilayer structures of p-type SnO films. Specifically, a bilayer homojunction comprising SnOx (oxygen-rich) and SnOy (oxygen-deficient) in nanoscale cross-point (300 × 300 nm2) architecture with self-compliance effect is demonstrated. By using two layers of SnO film, a good memory performance is obtained as compared to the individual oxide films. The memory devices show resistance ratio of 103 between the high resistance and low resistance states, and this difference can be maintained for up to 180 cycles. The devices also show good retention characteristics, where no significant degradation is observed for more than 103 s. Different charge transport mechanisms are found in both resistance states, depending on the applied voltage range and its polarity. The resistive switching is shown to originate from the oxygen ion migration and subsequent formation/rupture of conducting filaments.

  4. Bat-species richness in the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding uplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R; Fischer, E; Oliveira-Pissini, L F; Santos, C F

    2011-04-01

    We studied the bat fauna of the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding plateaus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, based on the scientific collection at Universidade Anhanguera-Uniderp and on the Projeto Morcegos do Pantanal data bank at UFMS, comprising 9,037 captures of 56 species recorded from 1994 to 2007. The Pantanal surveys were carried out in the Nhecolândia, Aquidauana, Miranda, and Paraguai sub-regions; the uplands surveys took place in the Maracaju, Bodoquena, and Urucum formations. Bat specimens were mist-netted over 376 nights in 35 sites, predominantly near fruiting trees, bat shelters, and forest patches. In the floodplain 46 species were recorded (n = 6,292 individuals), and 44 species were found in the uplands (n = 2,745 individuals). Six families were recorded: Phyllostomidae (30 species), Molossidae (12 species), Verpertilionidae (nine species) Noctilionidae (two species), Emballorunidae (two species) and Mormoopidae (one species). The bat fauna was predominantly composed of insectivore (32) and frugivore (15) species. The frugivorous Artibeus planirostris (n = 3,101 individuals) was the commonest species in floodplain and uplands. Other common species were Myotis nigricans (n = 762), Molossus molossus (n = 692), Noctilio albiventris (n = 681), Platyrrhinus lineatus (n = 633), Sturnira lilium (n = 461), Carollia perspicillata (n = 451), Glossophaga soricina (n = 436), Artibeus lituratus (n = 320), and Desmodus rotundus (n = 281). In the floodplain there were three insectivores among the most common species, contrasting with the uplands dominated by the frugivores. The diversity for the 35 sites assembled (H' = 2.5) is comparable to that recorded for tropical forests. The bat fauna presented here represents 34% of the Brazilian bat species, and 62% of species reported for the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Additionally, five species are reported for the first time in Mato Grosso do Sul.

  5. Representing the egocentric auditory space: relationships of surrounding region concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Marcella C; Hermann, Thomas; Schack, Thomas; Bläsing, Bettina

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the representation of azimuthal directions of sound sources under two different conditions. In the first experiment, we examined the participants' mental representation of sound source directions via similarity judgments. Auditory stimuli originating from sixteen loudspeakers positioned equidistantly around the participant were presented in pairs, with the first stimulus serving as the anchor, and thereby providing the context for the second stimulus. For each pair of stimuli, participants had to rate the sound source directions as either similar or dissimilar. In the second experiment, the same participants categorized single sound source directions using verbal direction labels (front, back, left, right, and combinations of any two of these). In both experiments, the directions within the front and back regions were more distinctively categorized than those on the sides, and the sides' categories included more directions than those of the front or back. Furthermore, we found evidence that the left-right decision comprises the basic differentiation of the surrounding regions. These findings illustrate what seem to be central features of the representation of directions in auditory space.

  6. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  7. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiulianoF.Panza; AntonellaPontevivo; GiordanoChimera; RenetaRaykova; AbdelkrimAoudia

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by sur-face wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion.Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithos-phere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, iden-tified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the prmctpat recent votca-noes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria, a lithospheric dou-bling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenos-phere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea,likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria.

  8. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  9. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  10. Contiguous metal-mediated base pairs comprising two Ag(I) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megger, Dominik A; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Hoffmann, Jan; Brutschy, Bernhard; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Müller, Jens

    2011-05-27

    The incorporation of transition-metal ions into nucleic acids by using metal-mediated base pairs has proved to be a promising strategy for the site-specific functionalization of these biomolecules. We report herein the formation of Ag(+)-mediated Hoogsteen-type base pairs comprising 1,3-dideaza-2'-deoxyadenosine and thymidine. By defunctionalizing the Watson-Crick edge of adenine, the formation of regular base pairs is prohibited. The additional substitution of the N3 nitrogen atom of adenine by a methine moiety increases the basicity of the exocyclic amino group. Hence, 1,3-dideazaadenine and thymine are able to incorporate two Ag(+) ions into their Hoogsteen-type base pair (as compared with one Ag(+) ion in base pairs with 1-deazaadenine and thymine). We show by using a combination of experimental techniques (UV and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, dynamic light scattering, and mass spectrometry) that this type of base pair is compatible with different sequence contexts and can be used contiguously in DNA double helices. The most stable duplexes were observed when using a sequence containing alternating purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations have been performed to provide insight into the structure, formation and stabilization of the twofold metalated base pair. They revealed that the metal ions within a base pair are separated by an Ag···Ag distance of about 2.88 Å. The Ag-Ag interaction contributes some 16 kcal mol(-1) to the overall stability of the doubly metal-mediated base pair, with the dominant contribution to the Ag-Ag bonding resulting from a donor-acceptor interaction between silver 4d-type and 4s orbitals. These Hoogsteen-type base pairs enable a higher functionalization of nucleic acids with metal ions than previously reported metal-mediated base pairs, thereby increasing the potential of DNA-based nanotechnology.

  11. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  12. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  13. A Stellar Stream Surrounds the Whale Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    that a dwarf satellite galaxy was disrupted to make that stream.To support their observations, the authors modeled the system using an N-body simulation. They were able to reproduce the appearance of the stream by sending a single, massive dwarf satellite onto a moderately eccentric orbit around the Whale galaxy. The team showed that, over the span of about 3.5 Gyr, the satellite became disrupted and spread into a structure very similar to the stellar tidal stream we now observe. In this simulation, the last remains of the dwarf satellite are contained within the northwest arm of the stream.The authors point out that the Whale galaxy has additional gaseous tidal features that likely originated from a more recent, gas-rich accretion event. There are also two bright regions that may be more dwarf satellites around the galaxy (labeled DW1 and DW2 in the header image). If the authors interpretation of the observed stellar stream is correct, then the Whale galaxy shows evidence for multiple recent mergers. This would support the idea that hierarchical formation models apply to other galaxies similar to the Milky Way.CitationDavid Martnez-Delgado et al 2015 AJ 150 116. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/4/116

  14. A keyboard for dynamic display and a system comprising the keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements, each key element comprises a transmitting part capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; an elastic mat comprising a plurality of elevated elements capable...... keyboard is able to provide a tactile feedback in response to a user action directed towards a key of the keyboard....

  15. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2017-09-05

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  16. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  17. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  18. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  19. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF COAL MINING ROADWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹喜正; 侯朝炯; 李华祥

    1996-01-01

    This introduces the calculation of opaper the deformationg .the Surroundings of coaowaysand the divisi of surroundings into 5 levels by means or !fuzzy integral assess mairrx, wnlcnserves-asthe scientific basis for selecting supporting pattern of roadways and determining the, pa-rameters of support.

  20. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....

  1. Acoustoelastic effects of Stoneley waves in a borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid

    OpenAIRE

    Jinxia Liu; Zhiwen Cui; Zhengliang Cao; Kexie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Stoneley wave in a fluid-filled pressurized borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid with nine independent third-order elastic constants in presence of biaxial stresses are studied. A simplified acoustoelastic formulation of Stoneley wave is presented for the parallelism of the borehole axis and the formation axis of symmetry. Sensitivity coefficients and velocity dispersions for Stoneley wave due to the presence of stresses are numerically investigated, respectively. The...

  2. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the fer

  3. Polymer coating comprising 2-methoxyethyl acrylate units synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012184029A The present invention relates to preparation of a polymer coating comprising or consisting of polymer chains comprising or consisting of units of 2-methoxyethyl acrylate synthesized by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (SI ATRP) such as ARGET SI ATRP...... or AGET SI ATRP and uses of said polymer coating....

  4. Method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, H.R.; Willemsen, J.H.A.; Starmans, D.A.J.; Hoving, H.D.; Winters, M.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Described is a method for recovering aroma concentrate from a caffeine- or theobromine-comprising food base material, such as coffee or tea, and in particular cocoa, at least comprising the steps of: introducing the food base material into an aqueous extractant and incubating the food base material

  5. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANGEL, WALTER, F; BLAINEY, PAUL; GRAZIANO, VITO; HERRMANN, ANDREAS; MCGRATH, WILLIAM, J; VAN OIJEN, ANTONIUS, MARTINUS; XIE, XIAOLIANG, SUNNEY

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  6. Ball bearings comprising nickel-titanium and methods of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher (Inventor); Glennon, Glenn N. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a friction reducing nickel-titanium composition. The nickel-titanium composition includes a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38. A bearing for reducing friction comprising a nickel-titanium composition comprising a first phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.45:0.55 to about 0.55:0.45; a second phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.70:0.30 to about 0.80:0.20; and a third phase that comprises nickel and titanium in an atomic ratio of about 0.52:0.48 to about 0.62:0.38; where the bearing is free from voids and pinholes.

  7. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  8. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2014-07-15

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  9. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the

  10. Black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we obtain uncharged∖charged Kiselev-like black holes as a new class of black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in the context of Rastall theory. Then, we study the specific cases of the uncharged∖charged black holes surrounded by regular matter like dust and radiation, or exotic matter like quintessence, cosmological constant and phantom fields. By comparing the Kiselev-like black hole solutions in Rastall theory with the Kiselev black hole solutions in GR, we find an effective perfect fluid behavior for the black hole's surrounding field. It is shown that the corresponding effective perfect fluid has interesting characteristic features depending on the different ranges of the parameters in Rastall theory. For instance, Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by regular matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by exotic matter in GR, or Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by exotic matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by regular matter in GR.

  11. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  12. DC-driven plasma gun: self-oscillatory operation mode of atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet comprised of repetitive streamer breakdowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Shashurin, Alexey

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents and studies helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet comprised of a series of repetitive streamer breakdowns, which is driven by pure DC high voltage (self-oscillatory behavior). The repetition frequency of the breakdowns is governed by the geometry of discharge electrodes/surroundings and gas flow rate. Each next streamer is initiated when the electric field on the anode tip recovers after the previous breakdown and reaches the breakdown threshold value of about 2.5 kV cm-1. One type of the helium plasma gun designed using this operational principle is demonstrated. The gun operates on about 3 kV DC high voltage and is comprised of the series of the repetitive streamer breakdowns at a frequency of about 13 kHz.

  13. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real‐world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  14. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  15. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. ... conception, pregnancy, birth and the early months ofparenthood. .... house attended by a traditional birth attendant of a ..... Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional.

  16. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  17. A morphological analysis on the osteocytic lacunar canalicular system in bone surrounding dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Maiko; Nozawa-Inoue, Kayoko; Li, Minqi; Oda, Kimimitsu; Yoshie, Sumio; Amizuka, Norio; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2011-06-01

    Osseointegration is the most preferable interface of dental implants and newly formed bone. However, the cavity preparation for dental implants often gives rise to empty lacunae or pyknotic osteocytes in bone surrounding the dental implant. This study aimed to examine the chronological alternation of osteocytes in the bone surrounding the titanium implants using a rat model. The distribution of the osteocytic lacunar canalicular system (OLCS) in bone around the titanium implants was examined by silver impregnation according to Bodian's staining. We also performed double staining for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), as well as immunohistochemistry for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23--a regulator for the serum concentration of phosphorus--and sclerostin, which has been shown to inhibit osteoblastic activities. Newly formed bone and the injured bone at the early stage exhibited an irregularly distributed OLCS and a few osteocytes positive for sclerostin or FGF23, therefore indicating immature bone. Osteocytes in the surrounding bone from Day 20 to Month 2 came to reveal an intense immunoreactivity for sclerostin. Later on, the physiological bone remodeling gradually replaced such immature bone into a compact profile bearing a regularly arranged OLCS. As the bone was remodeled, FGF23 immunoreactivity became more intense, but sclerostin became less so in the well-arranged OLCS. In summary, it seems likely that OLCS in the bone surrounding the dental implants is damaged by cavity formation, but later gradually recovers as bone remodeling takes place, ultimately inducing mature bone. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Huanxin Zou; Shilin Zhou; Cheng Wang; Naser El-Sheimy

    2013-01-01

    Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searc...

  19. Nanolipoprotein particles comprising a natural rubber biosynthetic enzyme complex and related products, methods and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeprich, Paul D.; Whalen, Maureen

    2016-04-05

    Provided herein are nanolipoprotein particles that comprise a biosynthetic enzyme more particularly an enzyme capable of catalyzing rubber or other rubbers polymerization, and related assemblies, devices, methods and systems.

  20. Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes Comprising Magnetically Sensitive Metal Oxides in Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G. P. " Bud" (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is a nanoparticle mixture or suspension or nanofluid comprising nonmagnetically sensitive nanoparticles, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles, and surfactant(s). The present invention also relates to methods of preparing and using the same.

  1. Thermally stable drilling fluid additive comprised of a copolymer of catechol-based monomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, A.D.

    1986-06-17

    A water soluble polymer is described having thermal stability and exhibiting utility as an aqueous drilling fluid additive comprising: (a) a major portion of a catechol based monomer; (b) a minor portion of a dicarboxylic acid monomer.

  2. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  3. Pharmaceutical compositions comprising lubricants for preventing or reducing aseptic loosening in a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising one or more amphiphilic polymer lubricants for use in association with artificial orthopaedic implants. Additionally, the invention relates to medical use of the lubricants of the invention in connection with conditions...... associated with artificial5 orthopaedic implants. The invention furthermore relates to artificial joint implants comprising the polymer lubricants according to the invention and methods for preparing such implants....

  4. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  5. Migraine increases centre-surround suppression for drifting visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Battista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of migraine is incompletely understood, but evidence points to hyper-responsivity of cortical neurons being a key feature. The basis of hyper-responsiveness is not clear, with an excitability imbalance potentially arising from either reduced inhibition or increased excitation. In this study, we measure centre-surround contrast suppression in people with migraine as a perceptual analogue of the interplay between inhibition and excitation in cortical areas responsible for vision. We predicted that reduced inhibitory function in migraine would reduce perceptual surround suppression. Recent models of neuronal surround suppression incorporate excitatory feedback that drives surround inhibition. Consequently, an increase in excitation predicts an increase in perceptual surround suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-six people with migraine and twenty approximately age- and gender-matched non-headache controls participated. The perceived contrast of a central sinusoidal grating patch (4 c/deg stationary grating, or 2 c/deg drifting at 2 deg/sec, 40% contrast was measured in the presence and absence of a 95% contrast annular grating (same orientation, spatial frequency, and drift rate. For the static grating, similar surround suppression strength was present in control and migraine groups with the presence of the surround resulting in the central patch appearing to be 72% and 65% of its true contrast for control and migraine groups respectively (t(44 = 0.81, p = 0.42. For the drifting stimulus, the migraine group showed significantly increased surround suppression (t(44 = 2.86, p<0.01, with perceived contrast being on average 53% of actual contrast for the migraine group and 68% for non-headache controls. CONCLUSIONS: In between migraines, when asymptomatic, visual surround suppression for drifting stimuli is greater in individuals with migraine than in controls. The data provides evidence for a

  6. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    : - the filter comprises a filter material (4) including a porous filter material and a microbial biomass, the filter material is either stationary relative to the volume or comprises a particulate material, the filter material (4) is inserted in a fluid flow path generated by water flowing in direction from...... the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial...

  7. Structural tensegrity module and two-layer structural mesh comprising said module

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Jáuregui, Valentín; Otero González, César Antonio; Arias Fernández, Rubén; Manchado del Val, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The invention relates to a structural tensegrity module contained in a prism defined by a lower base and an upper base having 2n sides, comprising 2n lower corner nodes aligned with the vertices of the lower base and 2n lower intermediate nodes aligned with the mid-point of each side of the lower base, and 2n upper corner nodes aligned with the vertices of the upper base and 2n upper intermediate nodes aligned with the mid-point of each side of the upper base. The module comprises a...

  8. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the ferrous scrap is conveyed and released into the waterbeam so as to cause that the ferrous scrap is allowed to fall and move further, subject to the forces of gravity and the waterbeam.

  9. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  10. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...

  11. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  12. New analytical threshold voltage model for halo-doped cylindrical surrounding-gate MOSFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Cong; Zhuang Yiqi; Han Ru, E-mail: cong.li@mail.xidan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Using an exact solution of two-dimensional Poisson's equation in cylindrical coordinates, a new analytical model comprising electrostatic potential, electric field, threshold voltage and subthreshold current for halo-doped surrounding-gate MOSFETs is developed. It is found that a new analytical model exhibits higher accuracy than that based on parabolic potential approximation when the thickness of the silicon channel is much larger than that of the oxide. It is also revealed that moderate halo doping concentration, thin gate oxide thickness and small silicon channel radius are needed to improve the threshold voltage characteristics. The derived analytical model agrees well with a three-dimensional numerical device simulator ISE. (semiconductor devices)

  13. The effect of the burial environment on adipocere formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Dent, Boyd B

    2005-11-10

    Adipocere is a decomposition product comprising predominantly of saturated fatty acids which results from the hydrolysis and hydrogenation of neutral fats in the body. Adipocere formation may occur in various decomposition environments but is chiefly dependent on the surrounding conditions. In a soil burial environment these conditions may include such factors as soil pH, temperature, moisture and the oxygen content within the grave site. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of these particular burial factors on the rate and extent of adipocere formation. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in an attempt to form adipocere from pig adipose tissue in model burial environments. Infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed to determine the lipid profile and fatty acid composition of the adipocere product which formed in the burial environments. The results suggest that adipocere can form under a variety of burial conditions. Several burial factors were identified as enhancing adipocere formation whilst others clearly inhibited its formation. This study acts as a preliminary investigation into the effect of the burial environment on the resultant preservation of decomposing tissue via adipocere formation.

  14. Changing carbonate chemistry in ocean waters surrounding coral reefs in the CMIP5 ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, K.; Schneider, K.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2012-12-01

    Coral reefs comprise some of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world. Today they are threatened by a number of stressors, including pollution, bleaching from global warming and ocean acidification. In this study, we focus on the implications of ocean acidification for the open ocean chemistry surrounding coral reefs. We use results from 13 Earth System Models included in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to examine the changing aragonite saturations (Ωa) of open ocean waters surrounding approximately 6,000 coral reefs. These 13 Earth System Models participating in CMIP5 each have interactive ocean biogeochemistry models that output state variables including DIC, alkalinity, SST, and salinity. Variation in these values were combined with values from the GLODAP database to calculate aragonite, the form of calcium carbonate that corals use to make their skeletons. We used reef locations from ReefBase that were within one degree (in latitude or longitude) of water masses represented both in the GLODAP database and in the climate models. Carbonate chemistry calculations were performed by Dr. James C. Orr (IPSL) as part of a separate study. We find that in preindustrial times, 99.9 % of coral reefs were located in regions of the ocean with aragonite saturations of 3.5 or more. The saturation threshold for viable reef ecosystems in uncertain, but the pre-industrial distribution of water chemistry surrounding coral reefs may nevertheless provide some indication of viability. We examine the fate of coral reefs in the context of several potential aragonite saturation thresholds, i.e., when Ωa_crit equals 3, 3.25, or 3.5. We show that under a business-as-usual scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, the specific value of Ωa_crit does not affect the long-term fate of coral reefs -- by the end of the 21st century, no coral reef considered is surrounded by water with Ωa> 3. However, under scenarios with significant CO2 emissions

  15. Numerical Simulation of Shear-Horizontal-Wave-Induced Electromagnetic Field in Borehole Surrounded by Porous Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhi-Wen; WANG Ke-Xie; SUN Jian-Cuo; ZHU Zheng-Ya; YAO Gui-Jin; HU Heng-Shan

    2007-01-01

    Seismoelectric field excited by purely torsional loading applied directJy to the borehole wall is considered.A brief formulation and some computed waveforms show the advantage of using shear-horizontal (SH) transverseelectric(TE) seismoelectric waves logging to measure shear velocity in a fluid-saturated porous lormation.By assuming that the acoustic field is not influenced by its induced electromagnetic field due to seismoelectric effect,the coupling governing equations for electromagnetic field are reduced to Maxwell equations with a propagation current source.It is shown that this simplification is valid and the borehole seismoelectric conversion effcient is mainly dependent on the electrokinetic coupling coeffcient.The receivers to detect the conversion electromagnetic field and to obtain shear veloeity can be set in the borehole fluid in the SH-TE seismoelectric wave log.

  16. Photomlxer for terahertz electromagnetic wave emission comprising quantum dots in a laser cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photomixer for generating terahertz electromagnetic radiation in response to illumination by a time-modulated optical signal. The photomixer (300) comprises a carrier substrate (310) with a plurality of quantum dots arranged in an emission region (308) thereof...

  17. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-​functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...

  18. Palladium catalyst system comprising zwitterion and/or acid-functionalized ionic liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention concerns a catalyst system in particular a catalyst system comprising Palladium (Pd), a zwitterion and/or an acid-functionalized ionic liquid, and one or more phosphine ligands, wherein the Pd catalyst can be provided by a complex precursor, such as Pd(CH3COO)2, PdCI2, Pd(CH3...

  19. Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers reference to related application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim; Yu Seung , Lee; Kwan-Soo , Rockward; Tommy Q. T.

    2012-08-07

    Compositions, and methods of making thereof, comprising from about 1% to about 5% of a perfluorinated sulfonic acid ionomer or a hydrocarbon-based ionomer; and from about 95% to about 99% of a solvent, said solvent consisting essentially of a polyol; wherein said composition is substantially free of water and wherein said ionomer is uniformly dispersed in said solvent.

  20. Combination Comprising Parthenolide For Use In The Treatment Of Alzheimer's Disease And Other Neurodegenerative Disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-18

    The present invention generally concerns particular methods and compositions for treatment of a neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer\\'s Disease. In particular embodiments, there is a composition comprising Parthenolide and a second agent, including an inhibitor of TLR4/MD-2/CD14, nAChR agonist, Resatorvid, Curcumin, Tilorone or a Tilorone analog, or a combination thereof.

  1. Polymer foam comprising a polymer and nanoparticles, and nanoparticles for the manufacture of such foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancso, Gyula J.; Duvigneau, Joost; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Wassing, T.

    2014-01-01

    A polymer foam is produced comprising a polymer and nanoparticles having a maximum dimensionof 750 nm, which foam has cells with an average cell size of at most 1 µm and a cell density of at least 1012 cells/ml, wherein polymeric grafts have been attached to the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may

  2. Polymer foam comprising a polymer and nanoparticles, and nanoparticles for the manufacture of such foam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancso, G.J.; Duvigneau, J.; Nederkoorn, P.H.J.; Wassing, T.

    2014-01-01

    A polymer foam is produced comprising a polymer and nanoparticles having a maximum dimensionof 750 nm, which foam has cells with an average cell size of at most 1 µm and a cell density of at least 1012 cells/ml, wherein polymeric grafts have been attached to the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles may

  3. Light source comprising a common substrate, a first led device and a second led device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Vi-En

    2010-02-23

    At least one stacked organic or polymeric light emitting diode (PLEDs) devices to comprise a light source is disclosed. At least one of the PLEDs includes a patterned cathode which has regions which transmit light. The patterned cathodes enable light emission from the PLEDs to combine together. The light source may be top or bottom emitting or both.

  4. The minimal essential unit for cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion comprises extracellular domains 1 and 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shan, Weisong; Yagita, Yoshiki; Wang, Zhaohui

    2004-01-01

    N-cadherin comprises five homologous extracellular domains, a transmembrane, and a cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domains of N-cadherin play important roles in homophilic cell adhesion, but the contribution of each domain to this phenomenon has not been fully evaluated. In particular, the ...

  5. New mesogenic Schiff base esters comprising benzothiazole moiety:Synthesis and mesomorphic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sie Tiong Ha; Teck Ming Koh; Guan Yeow Yeap; Hong Cheu Lin; Jun Kit Beh; Yip Foo Win; Peng Lim Boey

    2009-01-01

    A homologous series of Schiff base esters,6-methoxy-2-(2-hydroxy-4-alkanoyloxybenzylidenamino)benzothiazoles,comprising a benzothiazole moiety as the core was synthesized.All the members of this series exhibited an enantiotropic nematic phase.The azomethine linkage along with the lateral hydroxyl and terminal methoxyl groups were found to exert an effect on the mesomorphic properties.

  6. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  7. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  8. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  9. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  10. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  11. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear

  12. Microchannel apparatus comprising plural microchannels and methods of conducting unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2009-03-10

    Microchannel apparatus comprising a header and plural flow microchannels is described in which orifices connect the header and the flow microchannels. The orifices constrict flow. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of each of the orifices to the cross-sectional area of the flow microchannels connected to the orifices is between 0.0005 and 0.1. Also described is microchannel apparatus for conducting unit operations in which a device comprises two arrays of microchannels, and a unit operation is conducted on a fluid as it passes through the first set of microchannels and into a header where a second unit operation is performed, and then the fluid stream passes into the second array of microchannels where the first unit operation is again performed. Methods of conducting unit operations in the apparatuses are also described.

  13. A construction and a tension element comprising a cable and one or more strakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a construction comprising a structural element and at least one cable (101) arranged in tension to carry at least a part of the weight of the structural element. The cable defines an outer surface (102) onto which at least one strake (104) forms a protrusion for reducing rain...... and wind induced vibrations. The strake has a height being a distance from a strake root part connected to the outer surface of the cable and a strake end part terminating the strake outwards away from the cable, and the strake has a width being transverse to the height, the width decreasing...... in the direction from the strake root part towards the strake end part. The height is less than 5 percent of the diameter of the cable. Furthermore, the strake comprises a first strake surface portion facing away from the cable, which first strake surface portion is concave or straight....

  14. Energy storage systems having an electrode comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Shao, Yuyan; Yang, Zhenguo

    2016-08-02

    Improved lithium-sulfur energy storage systems can utilizes Li.sub.xS.sub.y as a component in an electrode of the system. For example, the energy storage system can include a first electrode current collector, a second electrode current collector, and an ion-permeable separator separating the first and second electrode current collectors. A second electrode is arranged between the second electrode current collector and the separator. A first electrode is arranged between the first electrode current collector and the separator and comprises a first condensed-phase fluid comprising Li.sub.xS.sub.y. The energy storage system can be arranged such that the first electrode functions as a positive or a negative electrode.

  15. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  16. Orifice plate for controlling solids flow, methods of use thereof and articles comprising the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen D.; Teigen, Bard C.

    2017-01-31

    Disclosed herein is an orifice plate comprising one or more plates having orifices disposed therein; the orifices being operative to permit the flow of solids from a moving bed heat exchanger to a solids flow control system; where the orifice plate is downstream of a tube bundle of the moving bed heat exchanger and upstream of the solids flow control system and wherein the orifice plate is operative to evenly distribute the flow of solids in the solids flow control system.

  17. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia V. Permyakova; Zagorskaya, Alla A.; Belavin, Pavel A.; Elena A. Uvarova; Nosareva, Olesya V.; Nesterov, Andrey E.; Novikovskaya, Anna A.; Evgeniy L. Zav’yalov; Mikhail P Moshkin; Deineko, Elena V.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This co...

  18. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm(2), and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  19. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's.

  20. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments.

  1. Study on Temperature Fieldof Surrounding Rock with BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyzed the characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face, setup its mathematic model, and got its numerical result with the boundary element method(BEM). To calculate in-tra-domain integral, it was transformed into boundary integration with the DRM method. Using the similitude the-ory, the dimensionless differential equation was educed. Finally, the authors calculated two drifting faces of San-hejian Coal Mine using the computer software developed by authors based on the above principium, and got the dis-tribution characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face and the periodic variation intemperature with its periodic moving forward. Comparing the calculated heat dissipating-capacity of surroundingrock with the measured data shows that the computer software is proper.

  2. Experimental Study of Deformation of Surrounding Rock with Infrared Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jun; AN Li-qian; REN Run-hou; FAN Shi-min; MA Nian-jie; LI Jian-hui; JI Yuan-ming

    2005-01-01

    According to the practical conditions of coal roadway in Changcun Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, the deformation of rock surrounding roadway was experimentally studied by means of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging system in the process of confined compressions. It is found that the model surface TIR temperature (TIRT) changes with the increase of load. Furthermore, TIRT changes non-synchronously in different ranges such as the roof, floor, wall, corners and bolted ranges. The TIRT is higher in the location of stress concentration and bolted ranges than that in the location of stress relaxation and broken ranges. The interaction ranges of bolt and rock are determined preliminarily according to the corresponding relationship of TIRT fields and the strain fields of the surrounding rock. The new method of TIR image processing has been proved to be effective for the study of bolt support and observation of roadway stability under mine pressure.

  3. High resolution bathymetry of China seas and their surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the oceanic lithospheric flexure and the worldwide bathymetric data ETOPO5, the high resolu tion bathymetry of the China seas and their surroundings is computed from altimeter derived gravity anomalies. The new bathymetry obtained by this study is higher resolution and accuracy than the widely used ETOPO5 data, mean while it shows clearly the seafioor, the tectonic characteristics and the geodynamical processes in the China seas.

  4. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic q...

  5. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  6. Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia by Surround Needling with Electric Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin; YANG Qin-hua

    2005-01-01

    运用电针围刺法治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛29例,获得较好疗效,总有效率为93.1%.%Twenty-nine cases of postherpetic neuralgia of herpes zoster were treated by the surround needling with electric stimulation, and the better therapeutic effect was obtained, the total effective rate was 93.1%.

  7. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  8. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  9. THE DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SIMULATION SYSTEM ON EARTHQUAKE SURROUNDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈毅力; 杨云; 李天石

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a system that can simulate earthquake surroundings. In the surroundings, people can be familiar with the omen, strong shock and aftershock of earthquake, thus make right choices and get away when the disaster occurs. Methods The system consists of an electro-hydraulic servo system, a whole-information sound system and some lighting device; By using the adaptive inverse control method and LMS algorithms, the inverse model (I.e. The controller) is convergent rapidly; The software based on LabVIEW makes the parameters can be modified easily; There is a double closed-loop structure in the system: an analog closed-loop and a digital closed-loop, and their parameters can be inspected in real time. Results The system is of very high reliability, and the desired vibration signal can be tracked exactly by output. Conclusion Earthquake surroundings is simulated vividly. Through the system, people can be familiar with earthquake phenomena, and know lots of knowledge of earthquake.

  10. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  11. Method of converting a carbon-comprising material, method of operating a fuel cell stack, and a fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of converting a carbon-comprising material at elevated temperature in the presence of a molecule that comprises at least one oxygen atom. According to the invention the carbon-comprising material in the fuel cell is converted substantially to carbon monoxide in a re

  12. Method of converting a carbon-comprising material, method of operating a fuel cell stack, and a fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of converting a carbon-comprising material at elevated temperature in the presence of a molecule that comprises at least one oxygen atom. According to the invention the carbon-comprising material in the fuel cell is converted substantially to carbon monoxide in a

  13. Cobalamin status during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 406 danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Bergholt, T

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) status during normal pregnancy and postpartum in a longitudinal setting. METHODS: This study was performed in 1995-1996. It comprised 406 healthy, pregnant Danish Caucasian women, living in Copenhagen County. Cobalamin status, i.e. plasma (P...... in late pregnancy. The recommendations for periconceptional vitamin B(12) supplementation should be reconsidered.......-) cobalamin, P-methylmalonic acid and P-homocysteine was measured at 18, 32 and 39 wk gestation and 8 wk postpartum during lactation. RESULTS: P-cobalamin showed a gradual, significant decline during pregnancy (P

  14. Composites comprising novel RTIL-based polymers, and methods of making and using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gin, Douglas; Carlisle, Trevor; Noble, Richard; Nicodemus, Garret; McDanel, William; Cowan, Matthew

    2017-06-27

    The invention includes compositions comprising curable imidazolium-functionalized poly(room-temperature ionic liquid) copolymers and homopolymers. The invention further includes methods of preparing and using the compositions of the invention. The invention further includes novel methods of preparing thin, supported, room-temperature ionic liquid-containing polymeric films on a porous support. In certain embodiments, the methods of the invention avoid the use of a gutter layer, which greatly reduces the overall gas permeance and selectivity of the composite membrane. In other embodiments, the films of the invention have increased gas selectivity and permeance over films prepared using methods described in the prior art.

  15. The Electrical Properties for Phenolic Isocyanate-Modified Bisphenol-Based Epoxy Resins Comprising Benzoate Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Yong; Chae, Il Seok; Park, Dongkyung; Suh, Hongsuk; Kang, Sang Wook

    2016-03-01

    Epoxy resin has been required to have a low dielectric constant (D(k)), low dissipation factor (Df), low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), low water absorption, high mechanical, and high adhesion properties for various applications. A series of novel phenolic isocyanate-modified bisphenol-based epoxy resins comprising benzoate group were prepared for practical electronic packaging applications. The developed epoxy resins showed highly reduced dielectric constants (D(k)-3.00 at 1 GHz) and low dissipation values (Df-0.014 at 1 GHz) as well as enhanced thermal properties.

  16. Quantum correlations and entanglement in a model comprised of a short chain of nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaga, J. K.; Kowalewska-Kudłaszyk, A.; Leoński, W.; Barasiński, A.

    2016-09-01

    We discuss a model comprised of a chain of three Kerr-like nonlinear oscillators pumped by two modes of external coherent field. We show that the system can be treated as nonlinear quantum scissors and behave as a three-qubit model. For such situation, different types of tripartite entangled states can be generated, even when damping effects are present in the system. Some amount of such entanglement can survive even in a long-time limit. The flow of bipartite entanglement between subsystems of the model and relations among first-order correlations, second-order correlations, and the entanglement are discussed.

  17. IDIOMS THAT COMPRISE THE PRESENCE OF TURKISH WORDS IN GREEK CYPRIOT LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Şevket ÖZNUR; Mahmut İSLÂMOĞLU

    2010-01-01

    In this communiqué again we preferred to present some examples from the effects of Turkish Cypriot Culture. For a few years, we have concentrated on our culture’s effect on other cultures in Cyprus. Bearing in mind that we have lived together for hundreds of years with other societies, we have seen fit to give examples of the cultural interaction between other cultures and Turkish Cypriot culture. Our communiqué mostly comprises the effects of Turkish Culture. We have found it convenient to p...

  18. Structures and Energetic Properties of Two New Salts Comprising the 5,5'-Azotetrazolate Dianion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raik Deblitz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new potentially energetic salts comprising the 5,5'-azotetrazolate dianion have been prepared and structurally characterized. The new azotetrazolates are tetraphenylphosphonium-5,5'-azotetrazolate (1 and 1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-carboxamidine-5,5'-azotetrazolate (2. The crystal structures of both compounds have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and their energetic properties have been tested. Due to its high nitrogen-content of 73.14%, compound 2 was found to be significantly impact-sensitive.

  19. HVDC Solution for Offshore Wind Park Comprising Turbines Equipped with Full-Range Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    of a HVDC transmission system. The power system under study includes an offshore wind farm comprising turbines equipped with full range converters. The collection network is a local AC grid. Power transmission is done through HVDC system. The grid side VSC (voltage source converter) controls the DC voltage...... a voltage drop is created at the collection grid, the wind turbines go into fault-ride-through mode. The power output from each of the wind turbines is thus reduced to balance the system power. The detailed explanation of the strategy is presented in the paper. Matlab simulation model was prepared and some...

  20. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.; Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2015-06-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e. the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the Solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD 46375b, HD 73256b, HD 102195b, HD 130322b and HD 179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9-8.0 × 10-13 M⊙ yr-1) and the wind properties at the position of the hot Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are supermagnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrounding these planets. Assuming planetary magnetic fields similar to Jupiter's, we estimate planetary magnetospheric sizes of 4.1-5.6 planetary radii. We also derive the exoplanetary radio emission released in the dissipation of the stellar wind energy. We find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy, which are challenging to be observed with present-day technology, but could be detectable with future higher sensitivity arrays (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Radio emission from systems having closer hot Jupiters, such as from τ Boo b or HD 189733b, or from nearby planetary systems orbiting young stars, are likely to have higher radio fluxes, presenting better prospects for detecting exoplanetary radio emission.

  1. Issues surrounding record keeping in district nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E E

    2000-07-01

    This article examines some aspects of nursing documentation following the publication of the document 'Guidelines for Records and Record Keeping' (UKCC, 1998). The importance of nursing documentation in patient care, in guiding practice and in providing information for members of the interprofessional healthcare team is highlighted. Record keeping forms an important part of the clinical governance initiative in terms of quality improvement and risk management. The issues surrounding the legal requirements of record keeping in district nursing practice are discussed. Suggestions are made for assessing the quality of nursing documentation by audit and research, in order to establish the suitability of using the present systems in the community setting.

  2. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  3. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  4. Problems Surrounding Probation In The South African Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baloyi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate problems surrounding probation periods in the South African Public Service. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the views of both probationers and supervisors managing the probation process. Data was gathered by means of focus groups and individual interviews. Nine key areas were identified as being problematic, viz. clarity regarding the purpose of probation, lack of proper guidelines, the duration of probation, rotation during probation, lack of training, poor management of probation, performance management, anxiety and stress, power and authority. Recommendations are made concerning possible interventions.

  5. Pigmentation Effect of Rice Bran Extracted Minerals Comprising Soluble Silicic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jun Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation focused on identifying melanogenesis effect of soluble minerals in rice bran ash extract (RBE which include orthosilicic acid (OSA. Melanocytes were apparently normal in terms of morphology. It was, however, shown that they were stressed a little in the RBE and OSA added media in aspect of LDH activity. Melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase activity were increased by treatment of RBE which is similar to that of OSA. The Western blotting results showed that TRP-1, tyrosinase, and MITF expression levels were 2-3 times higher in the OSA and RBE groups compared to the control group which promoted melanin synthesis through CREB phosphorylation. Moreover, histology and immunohistochemistry were shown to have similar result to that of protein expression. As a result, minerals which comprise orthosilicic acid has the potential to promote melanogenesis and both RBE and OSA have similar cell viability, protein expression, and immunostaining results, suggesting that RBE comprises specific minerals which promote melanin synthesis through increasing of MITF and CREB phosphorylation. Therefore, RBE could be used as a novel therapeutic approach to combat melanin deficiency related diseases by stimulating melanocytes via its soluble Si and mineral components.

  6. Emergent ferroelectricity in disordered tri-color multilayer structure comprised of ferromagnetic manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Wei; Chen, Chang-Le; Dong, Xiang-Lei; Xing, Hui; Luo, Bing-Cheng; Jin, Ke-Xin

    2016-10-01

    Multiferroic materials, showing the coexistence and coupling of ferroelectric and magnetic orders, are of great technological and fundamental importance. However, the limitation of single phase multiferroics with robust magnetization and polarization hinders the magnetoelectric effect from being applied practically. Magnetic frustration, which can induce ferroelectricity, gives rise to multiferroic behavior. In this paper, we attempt to construct an artificial magnetically frustrated structure comprised of manganites to induce ferroelectricity. A disordered stacking of manganites is expected to result in frustration at interfaces. We report here that a tri-color multilayer structure comprised of non-ferroelectric La0.9Ca0.1MnO3(A)/Pr0.85Ca0.15MnO3(B)/Pr0.85Sr0.15MnO3(C) layers with the disordered arrangement of ABC-ACB-CAB-CBA-BAC-BCA is prepared to form magnetoelectric multiferroics. The multilayer film exhibits evidence of ferroelectricity at room temperature, thus presenting a candidate for multiferroics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471301, 61078057, 51172183, 51402240, and 51471134), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20126102110045), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015JQ5125), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 3102015ZY078).

  7. Residence time distribution for electrokinetic flow through a microchannel comprising a bundle of cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Ting, Chung-Chieh; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tseng, Shiojenn; Chen, Chur-Jen; Su, Ay

    2007-03-01

    The electrokinetic flow of an electrolyte solution through a microchannel that comprises a bundle of cylinders is investigated for the case of constant surface potential. The system under consideration is simulated by a unit cell model, and analytical expressions for the flow field and the corresponding residence time distribution under various conditions are derived. These results are readily applicable to the assessment of the performance of a microreactor such as that which comprises a bundle of optical fibers. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the influences of the key parameters, including the thickness of the double layer, the strength of the applied electric field, the magnitude of the applied pressure gradient, and the characteristic sizes of a microchannel, on the residence time distribution. We show that the following could result in a shorter residence time: thin double layer, strong applied electric field, large applied pressure gradient, and small number of cylinders. Based on the thickness of the double layer, criteria are proposed for whether the flow field can be treated as a laminar flow or as a plug flow, two basic limiting cases in reactor design.

  8. Storage fading of a commercial 18650 cell comprised with NMC/LMO cathode and graphite anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, She-huang; Lee, Po-Han

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the storage capacity fade of a commercial 18650 lithium ion cell comprised with a composite cathode of LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (NMC) and Li1.1Mn1.9O4 (LMO) and graphite anode at various depths-of-discharge (DoDs) and temperatures have been investigated. The results manifest that the capacity fading is strongly affected by the storage temperature and becomes prominent as temperatures higher than 45 °C. Results of the incremental capacity analysis of the charging/discharging curves cycled at C/25 rate under 25 °C after cells been stored at various DoDs at 60 °C for various durations are used to reveal the factors of storage capacity fade of this commercial cell in company with the results of post-mortem studies on the electrodes harvested from the 12 month storage-aged cells with SEM, EDX, XPS, XRD, and electrode capacity retention study with those of a fresh commercial cell for comparison. The contributions of these factors are also estimated quantitatively. The losses of active electrode materials are the main reasons of the storage capacity fade of the commercial cell comprised with composite NMC/LMO cathode and graphite anode, while the loss of lithium inventory is less influential. The degradation of the electrodes and the loss the lithium inventory are strongly DoD dependent.

  9. Simulation of a Drivetrain of a Vehicle comprising Continuously Variable Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Sanchawat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the constant hike in fuel prices on a day to day basis, maximum performance with minimum compromise on the front of fuel economy and emissions is highly desirable and expected from a vehicle’s drivetrain. In this context, a drivetrain comprising a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT plays the role to the best extent possible. CVT facilitates a continuous change in gear ratiosbetween the driver and the driven shaft. CVTs are superior to automatic transmissions with a fixed number of gear ratios in that it offers greater acceleration and more efficient fuel economy.In this paper, we propose to model a drivetrain of a vehicle comprising CVT. A detailed mathematical model based on the geometry of the components has been formulated and also, equations of theirrespective motions representing their behaviour have been derived. Furthermore, a dynamic model of a drivetrain, using bond graph method, is prepared which captures the behaviour of the CVT during thetransient shift ratio condition and the complete simulation is implemented in MATLAB Simulink. The results substantiate the effect of mass of flyweights and spring constant of torsion springs on theperformance of CVT.

  10. Antigenicity of peptides comprising the immunosuppressive domain of the retroviral envelope glycoprotein [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Jenkins

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To achieve persistent infection of the host, viruses often subvert or suppress host immunity through mechanisms that are not entirely understood. The envelope glycoprotein of several retroviruses is thought to possess potent immunosuppressive activity, mapped to a 17-amino acid residue conserved domain. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this immunosuppressive domain can inhibit lymphocyte activation, whereas mutation of key domain residues can increase the lymphocyte response to linked antigenic epitopes. Using three T cell receptors (TCRs of defined specificity, we examine the effect of the immunosuppressive domain on the T cell response to their respective antigenic peptides. We find that fusion of a T cell epitope to the immunosuppressive domain can greatly modulate its potency. However, the effects heavily depend on the particular combination of TCR and peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHC II, and are mimicked by sequence-scrambled peptides of similar length, suggesting they operate at the level of pMHC formation or TCR-pMHC interaction. These results offer an alternative explanation for the immunogenicity of T cell epitopes comprising the putative immunosuppressive domain, which is more consistent with an effect on peptide antigenicity than true immunosuppressive activity.

  11. THE CLUSTER OF BLUE STARS SURROUNDING THE M31 NUCLEAR BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Bender, Ralf; Kormendy, John [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstrasse 1, Muenchen D-81679 (Germany); Rosenfield, Philip [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Green, Richard F. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We obtained U{sub 330}- and B-band images of the M31 nucleus using the High Resolution Camera of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The spatial resolution in the U{sub 330} band, 0.''03 FWHM, or 0.1 pc at M31, is sufficient to resolve the outskirts of the compact cluster (P3) of UV-bright stars surrounding the M31 black hole. The center of the cluster is marked by an extended source that is both brighter and redder than the other point sources within P3; it is likely to be a blend of several bright stars. We hypothesize that it marks the location of the M31 black hole. Both stellar photometry and a surface brightness fluctuation analysis show that the P3 stellar population is consistent with early-type main-sequence stars formed in a {approx}100-200 Myr old starburst population. Evolutionary tracks of post early asymptotic giant branch (PEAGB) stars, associated with late-stage evolution of an old population, also traverse the U and U - B domain occupied by the P3 stars; but we argue that only a few stars could be accounted for that way. PEAGB evolution is very rapid, and there is no progenitor population of red giants associated with P3. The result that P3 comprises young stars is consistent with inferences from earlier HST observations of the integrated light of the cluster. Like the Milky Way, M31 harbors a black hole closely surrounded by apparently young stars.

  12. Fluoroquinolones and Tetracycline Antibiotics in a Portuguese Aquaculture System and Aquatic Surroundings: Occurrence and Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Meisel, Leonor M; Pena, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture over the past few years is widely recognized as one of the main sources of antibiotics, mainly fluoroquinolones (FQ) and tetracyclines (TC), in the aquatic environment, consequently, increasing the risk of the emergence of antibiotic bacterial resistance and promoting the spread of resistant genes. This study aimed to (1) develop and validate a multiresidue method for determination and quantification of ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIFL), enrofloxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR), sarafloxacin (SARA), and oxytetracycline (OXY) in aquaculture waters and surrounding water bodies and (2) provide the first Portuguese data to utilize in assessment of risk of adverse effects. In addition, the potential environmental impact posed by these antibiotics to aquatic organisms, belonging to different trophic levels, when exposed to the studied aquaculture waters was also assessed. The analytical strategy comprised of solid-phase extraction (SPE) through Oasis HLB cartridges, and detection and quantification by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS(n)). Method detection limits (MDL) and method quantification limits (MQL) were in the range of 0.7-3 ng/L and 2.4-10 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries varied between 57.4 and 122.8%. The method was applied to 31 water samples collected from an aquaculture and surrounding water bodies located in north of Portugal. Residues of all antibiotics, except SARA and DIFL, were detected at concentrations ranging from 3 to 75.1 ng/L. Norfloxacin was the antibiotic present at highest frequency and concentration. Regarding the environmental impact assessment (EIA), a risk quotient higher than 1 was observed for NOR.

  13. Radio observations of Supernova Remnants and the surrounding molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, G

    2011-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the main source of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The strong SNR shocks provide ideal acceleration sites for particles of at least 10^14 eV/nucleon. Radio continuum studies of SNRs carried out with good sensitivity and high angular resolution convey information about three main aspects of the SNRs: morphology, polarization and spectrum. Based on this information it is possible to localize sites of higher compression and particle acceleration as well as the orientation and degree of order of the magnetic fields, and in some cases even its intensity. All this information, when complemented with the study of the distribution and kinematics of the surrounding interstellar gas, results in a very useful dataset to investigate the role of SNRs as cosmic ray accelerators. In this presentation, I analyze the radio observations of SNRs and surrounding molecular clouds, showing the contribution of these studies to the understanding of the role of SNRs as factories of CRs.

  14. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Moutou, C; Donati, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e., the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9 to 8.0 $\\times 10^{-13} M_{\\odot}$/yr) and the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are super-magnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrou...

  15. Methods for estimating properties of hydrocarbons comprising asphaltenes based on their solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2016-10-04

    Disclosed herein is a method of estimating a property of a hydrocarbon comprising the steps of: preparing a liquid sample of a hydrocarbon, the hydrocarbon having asphaltene fractions therein; precipitating at least some of the asphaltenes of a hydrocarbon from the liquid sample with one or more precipitants in a chromatographic column; dissolving at least two of the different asphaltene fractions from the precipitated asphaltenes during a successive dissolution protocol; eluting the at least two different dissolved asphaltene fractions from the chromatographic column; monitoring the amount of the fractions eluted from the chromatographic column; using detected signals to calculate a percentage of a peak area for a first of the asphaltene fractions and a peak area for a second of the asphaltene fractions relative to the total peak areas, to determine a parameter that relates to the property of the hydrocarbon; and estimating the property of the hydrocarbon.

  16. MOLECULAR FIELD THEORY FOR NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMER COMPRISING FLEXIBLE SPACER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaogong; LIU Deshan; ZHOU Qixiang

    1993-01-01

    Based on the new model and concept of intramolecular orientational order parameter, a molecular field theory was built up for main chain liquid crystalline polymer (MC-LCPs) with flexible spacers. The theory takes account of orientational correlation among all mesogens in a polymer chain and the relationship between the intramolecular orientation and spatial orientation of the mesogens. The free energy, temperature and entropy of the nematic-isotropic transition were determined with the theory and compared with experiments in current work. It was found that many unique transition properties of the MC-LCPs comprising flexible spacer are correctly predicted by the theory and the agreement of the theory with the experiments is impressive.

  17. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITES COMPRISING MODIFIED HARDWOOD AND WOOD POLYMERS/POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxanda Bodîrlău

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of hardwood sawdust from ash-tree species was carried out with a solution of maleic anhydride in acetone. Wood polymers, lignin, and cellulose were isolated from the wood sawdust and modified by the same method. Samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, providing evidence that maleic anhydride esterifies the free hydroxyl groups of the wood polymer components. Composites comprising chemically modified wood sawdust and wood polymers (cellulose, lignin-as variable weight percentages-, and poly (vinyl chloride were obtained and further characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal behavior of composites was investigated by using the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. In all cases, thermal properties were affected by fillers addition.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Cylindrical Light Diffusers Comprised of Shape Memory Polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small IV, W; Buckley, P R; Wilson, T S; Loge, J M; Maitland, K D; Maitland, D J

    2007-01-29

    We have developed a technique for constructing light diffusing devices comprised of a flexible shape memory polymer (SMP) cylindrical diffuser attached to the tip of an optical fiber. Devices were fabricated by casting an SMP rod over the cleaved tip of an optical fiber and media blasting the SMP rod to create a light diffusing surface. The axial and polar emission profiles and circumferential (azimuthal) uniformity were characterized for various blasting pressures, nozzle-to-sample distances, and nozzle translation speeds. The diffusers were generally strongly forward-directed and consistently withstood over 8 W of incident infrared laser light without suffering damage when immersed in water. These devices are suitable for various endoluminal and interstitial biomedical applications.

  19. Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of Optimised Cocoyam-Based Composite Flour Comprising Cassava Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awolu Olugbenga Olufemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite flour comprising cocoyam (Colocassia esculenta, bambara groundnut and cassava starch was produced. The proximate and minerals compositions and functional properties were optimized using optimal mixture design of response surface methodology. The antinutritional, pasting and farinograph analyses of the optimum blends were evaluated. Bambara groundnut improved protein, fibre, ash and minerals contents; cassava starch improved swelling capacity, least gelation and pasting characteristics. The optimum blends CBC1 (70% cocoyam flour, 18.33% bambara groundnut flour, 11.67% cassava starch and CBC2 (69.17% cocoyam flour, 16.67% bambara groundnut flour, 14.17% cassava starch. were comparable to wheat–based flour samples (60% wheat, 30% cocoyam, 10% bambara groundnut flours and (72% wheat, 19% cocoyam, 9% bambara groundnut flours in terms of pasting and farinograph analyses.

  20. Optical modulation of nano-gap tunnelling junctions comprising self-assembled monolayers of hemicyanine dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhossein, Parisa; Vijayaraghavan, Ratheesh K.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.

    2016-06-01

    Light-driven conductance switching in molecular tunnelling junctions that relies on photoisomerization is constrained by the limitations of kinetic traps and either by the sterics of rearranging atoms in a densely packed monolayer or the small absorbance of individual molecules. Here we demonstrate light-driven conductance gating; devices comprising monolayers of hemicyanine dyes trapped between two metallic nanowires exhibit higher conductance under irradiation than in the dark. The modulation of the tunnelling current occurs faster than the timescale of the measurement (~1 min). We propose a mechanism in which a fraction of molecules enters an excited state that brings the conjugated portion of the monolayer into resonance with the electrodes. This mechanism is supported by calculations showing the delocalization of molecular orbitals near the Fermi energy in the excited and cationic states, but not the ground state and a reasonable change in conductance with respect to the effective barrier width.

  1. Nucleic acids encoding phloem small RNA-binding proteins and transgenic plants comprising them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, William J.; Yoo, Byung-Chun; Lough, Tony J.; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2007-03-13

    The present invention provides a polynucleotide sequence encoding a component of the protein machinery involved in small RNA trafficking, Cucurbita maxima phloem small RNA-binding protein (CmPSRB 1), and the corresponding polypeptide sequence. The invention also provides genetic constructs and transgenic plants comprising the polynucleotide sequence encoding a phloem small RNA-binding protein to alter (e.g., prevent, reduce or elevate) non-cell autonomous signaling events in the plants involving small RNA metabolism. These signaling events are involved in a broad spectrum of plant physiological and biochemical processes, including, for example, systemic resistance to pathogens, responses to environmental stresses, e.g., heat, drought, salinity, and systemic gene silencing (e.g., viral infections).

  2. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  3. Infrared absorption on a complex comprising three equivalent hydrogen atoms in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, F.; Hupfer, A.; Johansen, K. M.; Svensson, B. G.; Koch, S. G.; Lavrov, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    A hydrogen-related defect in ZnO which causes two broad IR absorption bands at 3303 and 3321 cm-1 is studied by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy and first-principles theory. In deuterated samples, the defect reveals two sharp absorption lines at 2466 and 2488 cm-1 accompanied by weaker sidebands at 2462 and 2480 cm-1. Isotope substitution experiments with varying concentrations of H and D together with polarization-sensitive measurements strongly suggest that these IR absorption lines are due to stretch local vibrational modes of a defect comprising three equivalent hydrogen atoms. The zinc vacancy decorated by three hydrogen atoms, VZnH3 , and ammonia trapped at the zinc vacancy, (NH3)Zn, are discussed as a possible origin for the complex.

  4. Superhydrophobic, diatomaceous earth comprising bandages and method of making the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, John T.; D' Urso, Brian R.

    2017-01-10

    A bandage comprising a substrate having a first surface with a plurality of superhydrophobic particles attached to the first surface. The plurality of superhydrophobic particles can be porous diatomaceous earth particles having a hydrophobic layer conforming to the surfaces of the DE particles, where the hydrophobic layer is bound to the DE particles. The plurality of attached superhydrophobic particles can render the first surface superhydrophobic, while a second surface opposite the first surface can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic. The substrate can be breathable in order to maintain skin health for the tissue underlying the bandage. The substrate can be selected from porous films, apertured films, textiles, nonwoven materials, impregnated composites thereof, and combinations thereof.

  5. A construction and a tension element comprising a cable and a plurality of strakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a construction comprising a structural element and at least one cable (100) arranged in tension to carry at least a part of the weight of the structural element. The cable defines an outer surface (102) onto which a plurality of strakes (104) form protrusions for reducing...... rain and wind induced vibrations. Each strake has a height being a distance from a strake root part connected to the outer surface of the cable and a strake end part terminating the strake outwards form the cable, a width being transverse to the height, and a length transverse to the height and width...... and along which length the strake is connected to the cable. The length of each strake is shorter than the circumference of the outer surface, and the height is less than 5 percent of the diameter of the cable....

  6. Analysis and Design of Ultra Thin Electromagnetic Absorbers Comprising Resistively Loaded High Impedance Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Filippo; Manara, Giuliano; 10.1109/TAP.2010.2044329

    2010-01-01

    High-Impedance Surfaces (HIS) comprising lossy Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) are employed to design thin electromagnetic absorbers. The structure, despite its typical resonant behavior, is able to perform a very wideband absorption in a reduced thickness. Losses in the frequency selective surface are introduced by printing the periodic pattern through resistive inks and hence avoiding the typical soldering of a large number of lumped resistors. The effect of the surface resistance of the FSS and dielectric substrate characteristics on the input impedance of the absorber is discussed by means of a circuital model. It is shown that the optimum value of surface resistance is affected both by substrate parameters (thickness and permittivity) and by FSS element shape. The equivalent circuit model is then used to introduce the working principles of the narrowband and the wideband absorbing structure and to derive the best-suited element for wideband absorption. Finally, the experimental validation of the prese...

  7. Cobalamin status during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 406 danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Bergholt, T;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) status during normal pregnancy and postpartum in a longitudinal setting. METHODS: This study was performed in 1995-1996. It comprised 406 healthy, pregnant Danish Caucasian women, living in Copenhagen County. Cobalamin status, i.e. plasma (P......-) cobalamin, P-methylmalonic acid and P-homocysteine was measured at 18, 32 and 39 wk gestation and 8 wk postpartum during lactation. RESULTS: P-cobalamin showed a gradual, significant decline during pregnancy (P ... and 8 wk postpartum median values were 225, 172, 161 and 319 pmol/L, respectively. P-methylmalonic displayed a gradual, significant increase during pregnancy as well as postpartum (P homocysteine demonstrated...

  8. Crystal structures of two ytterbium(III complexes comprising alkynylamidinate ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sida Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two ytterbium(III complexes comprising alkynylamidinate ligands, namely bis(η5-cyclopentadienyl(3-cyclopropyl-N,N′-diisopropylpropynamidinato-κ2N,N′ytterbium(III, [Yb(C5H52(C12H19N2] or Cp2Yb[(iPr2N2C—C[triple-bond]C—c-C3H5] (1 and tris(3-phenyl-N,N′-dicyclohexylpropynamidinato-κ2N,N′ytterbium(III, [Yb(C21H27N23] or Yb[(CyN2C—C[triple-bond]C—Ph]3 (Cy = cyclohexyl (2 have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Both complexes are monomers; for complex 2, the contribution to the scattering from highly disordered toluene solvent molecules in these voids was removed with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] in PLATON. The stated crystal data for Mr, μ etc. do not take these into account.

  9. Transgenic Carrot Expressing Fusion Protein Comprising M. tuberculosis Antigens Induces Immune Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Permyakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L. genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  10. Kinetic analysis of overlapping multistep thermal decomposition comprising exothermic and endothermic processes: thermolysis of ammonium dinitramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyev, Nikita V; Koga, Nobuyoshi; Meerov, Dmitry B; Pivkina, Alla N

    2017-01-25

    This study focused on kinetic modeling of a specific type of multistep heterogeneous reaction comprising exothermic and endothermic reaction steps, as exemplified by the practical kinetic analysis of the experimental kinetic curves for the thermal decomposition of molten ammonium dinitramide (ADN). It is known that the thermal decomposition of ADN occurs as a consecutive two step mass-loss process comprising the decomposition of ADN and subsequent evaporation/decomposition of in situ generated ammonium nitrate. These reaction steps provide exothermic and endothermic contributions, respectively, to the overall thermal effect. The overall reaction process was deconvoluted into two reaction steps using simultaneously recorded thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) curves by considering the different physical meanings of the kinetic data derived from TG and DSC by P value analysis. The kinetic data thus separated into exothermic and endothermic reaction steps were kinetically characterized using kinetic computation methods including isoconversional method, combined kinetic analysis, and master plot method. The overall kinetic behavior was reproduced as the sum of the kinetic equations for each reaction step considering the contributions to the rate data derived from TG and DSC. During reproduction of the kinetic behavior, the kinetic parameters and contributions of each reaction step were optimized using kinetic deconvolution analysis. As a result, the thermal decomposition of ADN was successfully modeled as partially overlapping exothermic and endothermic reaction steps. The logic of the kinetic modeling was critically examined, and the practical usefulness of phenomenological modeling for the thermal decomposition of ADN was illustrated to demonstrate the validity of the methodology and its applicability to similar complex reaction processes.

  11. NEURONS COMPRISING A HETEROTOPIA INDUCED BY DEVELOPMENTAL HYPOTHYROIDISM ARE BORN LATE IN GESTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously described an abnormal cluster of neurons, a heterotopia, located in the corpus callosum in rat pups born to dams exposed to the goitrogen, propylthiouracil (PTU, Goodman et al., SfN 2004). In this study we determined 1) whether the formation of the heterotopia was u...

  12. The epidermis comprises autonomous compartments maintained by distinct stem cell populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Page, Mahalia E; Lombard, Patrick; Ng, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    populations. In contrast, upon wounding, stem cell progeny from multiple compartments acquire lineage plasticity and make permanent contributions to regenerating tissue. We further show that oncogene activation in Lrig1(+ve) cells drives hyperplasia but requires auxiliary stimuli for tumor formation...

  13. Ground-water-quality data for Albany and surrounding areas, Southwest Georgia, 1951-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Debbie; Easoz, Jamie A.; Priest, Sherlyn

    2002-01-01

    This report presents ground-water-quality data from the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Upper Cretaceous aquifers in the Albany and surrounding areas of southwest Georgia. Water-quality data from about 186 wells in Baker, Calhoun, Dougherty, Lee, Mitchell, Terrell, and Worth Counties are presented for the period from 1951 through 1999. The data include field water-quality parameters collected during 1951-99, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds collected during 1981-97, inorganic compounds collected during 1951-99, trace metals collected during 1964-99, radiochemicals collected during 1993-95, herbicides and insecticides collected during 1980-97, and recovery data for laboratory surrogate compounds (used for quality control and quality assurance for organic samples) collected during 1993-97. Ground-water quality data are presented in tables by data type and arranged by well number. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, well location, stratigraphy, and formation water-bearing properties. Ground-water-quality data are presented in text files and in a data base that includes geographic and tabular data. Data presented in this report provide a base with which to better define and interpret the quality of ground water in Albany, Ga., and surrounding areas. Although some of these data may have been published in previous reports associated with water-resources investigations, water-quality data are compiled as a useful resource.

  14. The interplay between the young stellar super cluster Westerlund 1, and the surrounding interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the multi-band (CO, HI and Spitzer maps, large-scale (150 pc gaseous structure around Westerlund 1, the most massive known superstar cluster in the Milky Way, with the intention of exploring the effect of feedback from massive stars in this young (age < 5 Myr cluster on the surrounding interstellar medium. We find no traces of the parental molecular cloud in the immediate vicinity of the cluster, instead this volume is partially filled by HI gas. On the other hand, there are two giant molecular clouds, both moving away from the cluster at 5–10 km s−1, at distances of around 50–150 pc. There are several ultra-compact HII regions associated with these giant molecular clouds. All these events suggest that the cluster has played an important role in re-structuring the ISM, in the form of ejecting the molecular gas, as well as triggering secondary star formation.

  15. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  16. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Abu-Qarn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  17. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  18. The nature of plerions surrounding soft gamma-ray repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    1995-01-01

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  19. Casimir Effect in the Kerr Spacetime Surrounded by Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, V B; Freitas, L F F; Muniz, C R

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the Casimir energy of a massless scalar field in a cavity formed by nearby parallel plates orbiting a rotating spherical body surrounded by quintessence, investigating the influence of the gravitational field on that energy, at zero temperature. This influence includes the effects due to the spacetime dragging caused by the source rotation as well as those ones due to the quintessence. We show that the energy depends on all the involved parameters, as source mass, angular momentum and quintessence state parameter, for any radial coordinate and polar angle. We show that at the north pole the Casimir energy is not influenced by the quintessential matter. At the equatorial plane, when the quintessence is canceled, the result obtained in the literature is recovered. Finally, constraints in the quintessence parameters are obtained from the uncertainty in the current measurements of Casimir effect.

  20. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  1. Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Martirosian, J. R.

    2003-04-01

    Results from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objects surrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample of Kazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of the Kazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% of binary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazarian galaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-ray sources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for complete samples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higher than the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies.

  2. On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.

  3. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O`Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-09-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  4. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O' Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  5. Rotation of the Warm Molecular Gas Surrounding Ultracompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations towards five massive star forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each HII region (as traced by SO_2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the HII region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.

  6. A 500 Parsec Halo Surrounding the Galactic Globular NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, Edward W; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows four magnitudes of main sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (>250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of $r^{-1.24}$. It contains approximately 0.1% of the dynamical mass of NGC 1851. There is no evidence for tidal tails. Current models of globular cluster evolution do not explain this feature, although simulations of tidal influences on dwarf spheroidal galaxies qualitatively mimic these results. Given the state of published models it is not possible to decide between creation of this halo from isolated cluster evaporation, or from tidal or disk shocking, or from destruction of a dwarf galaxy in which this object may have once been embedded.

  7. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there is a great deal of difference on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  8. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2017-06-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence ω _q is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there are several differences on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  9. Impact-Generated Dust Clouds Surrounding the Galilean Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, H; Grün, E; Kr\\"uger, Harald~; Krivov, Alexander V.; Gr\\"un, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Tenuous dust clouds of Jupiter's Galilean moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto have been detected with the in-situ dust detector on board the Galileo spacecraft. The majority of the dust particles have been sensed at altitudes below five radii of these lunar-sized satellites. We identify the particles in the dust clouds surrounding the moons by their impact direction, impact velocity, and mass distribution. Average particle sizes are 0.5 to $\\rm 1 \\mu m$, just above the detector threshold, indicating a size distribution with decreasing numbers towards bigger particles. Our results imply that the particles have been kicked up by hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids onto the satellites' surfaces. The measured radial dust density profiles are consistent with predictions by dynamical modeling for satellite ejecta produced by interplanetary impactors (Krivov et al., PSS, 2003, 51, 251--269), assuming yield, mass and velocity distributions of the ejecta from laboratory measurements. The dust clouds of the th...

  10. Coupling Between the Climate Variables of Amazonia and its Surrounding Oceans During Drought Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antônio M. de T.; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Teleconnection patterns between different climate systems have been seen as a feature of the internal dynamics of atmosphere and ocean. However several questions about this non-linear dynamics remain open, especially the interplay of the warming of Oceans and the anomaly precipitation in the Amazon region. For this reason, we investigate how the coupling between the ocean's temperature and the precipitation in Amazon evolve in time. In particular, how does this coupling behave during an anomalous drought period in Amazonia. Here a data-driven approach is applied to detect the coupling time scale between the precipitation in the North/South Amazonia and its surrounding oceans. The framework comprises statistical and information theory approaches that can reveal directional links between the different regional domains. The method is applied on a daily resolution data sets, the variables are average over regional domains well studied in the literature. Finally, the outcomes are systematically analysed seeking patterns that may reveal the underlying dynamics between these climate systems. Also, the study sheds light into the elementary form of the climate network between these systems.

  11. A Chandra HETG Observation of the Quasar H 1821+643 and Its Surrounding Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, T; Lee, J C; Marshall, H L; Bryan, G L; Canizares, C R

    2001-01-01

    We present the high-resolution X-ray spectrum of the low-redshift quasar H 1821+643 and its surrounding hot cluster observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). An iron emission line attributed to the quasar at ~6.43 keV (rest frame) is clearly resolved, with an equivalent width of ~100 eV. Although we cannot rule out contributions to the line from a putative torus, the diskline model provides an acceptable fit to this iron line. We also detect a weak emission feature at ~6.9 keV (rest frame). We suggest that both lines could originate in an accretion disk comprised of a highly ionized optically thin atmosphere sitting atop a mostly neutral disk. We search for absorption features from a warm/hot component of the intergalactic medium along the ~1.5Gpc/h line of sight to the quasar. No absorption features are detected at or above the 3 sigma level while a total of six OVI intervening absorption systems have been detected with HST and FUSE. Based on the lack of OVII and OVIII ...

  12. Capturing of the internal mechanics of liquid-granular flows comprised of polydisperse spherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a series of flume experiments designed to examine the motion and arrest of concentrated granular-fluid flows, with a view to understanding the role of polydispersity in debris flows. A non-intrusive technique is used to investigate the internal behaviour of small scale experimental flows. Three different particle size distributions comprised of polydisperse spherical particles and one with the finer component made of angular particles were analysed. The choice of using spherical shaped particles was made to improve the visualization of the internal mechanics without reducing overmuch the complexity involved in the study of these flows. We examined and compared the internal velocities of the flows and their depositional spreads. While the optical performance of the non-intrusive technique was improved, some of the characteristics commonly seen in these types of granular flows were not observed. Velocity profiles obtained in the body of the flows were similar in shape but with differences in velocity magnitude depending on the amount of fines and the angularity of the particle in one case. Depositional runouts between flows were similar at low inclinations when little internal energy was supplemented to the system or when the viscous effects dominated the mechanics at steeper angles.

  13. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  14. Solid dispersion matrix tablet comprising indomethacin-PEG-HPMC fabricated with fusion and mold technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesnukul A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to fabricate the polyethylene glycol matrix tablet by mold technique. Indomethacin and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were used as model drug and polymer, respectively, in PEG matrix system. The physical and drug release characteristics of developed matrix tablet were studied. This inert carrier system comprising 7:3 polyethylene glycol 4000: polyethylene glycol 400 could effectively enhance the solubility of indomethacin and an addition of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose could sustain the drug release. Scanning electron microscope photomicrograph indicated the drug diffusion outward through the porous network of this developed matrix tablet into the dissolution fluid. Least square fitting the experimental dissolution data to the mathematical expressions (power law, first-order, Higuchi′s and zero-order indicated the drug release kinetics primarily as Fickian diffusion. Both the enhancement of drug dissolution and the prolongation of the drug release could be achieved for aqueous insoluble drug such as, indomethacin, by using polyethylene glycol-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose matrix system prepared with melting and mold technique.

  15. Control-Oriented Model of a Generating Set Comprising a Diesel Engine and a Synchronous Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaz Tuffaha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A generating set (Genset comprises a prime mover such as a Diesel Engine, and a synchronous generator. The most important controllers of such systems are the speed governor to regulate the engine or shaft speed and the automatic voltage regulator (AVR to regulate the terminal voltage. The speed governor is a PID controller that uses the difference between the speed and its desired value as a feedback signal to change the fuel mass input by changing the fuel rack position. AVR is also a PID that uses the difference between the terminal voltage of the generator and its desired value, and changes it by manipulating the voltage of the field excitation circuit. Thus, the two controllers act separately. That is to say, if the speed varies from the desired value, the speed governor will react, while the AVR will not react as long as the voltage is stable, and vice versa. In this work, a control-oriented model is suggested for a Genset, and then a controller, that regulates the shaft speed and the terminal voltage, is designed by feedback linearisation. The proposed controller has two inputs: the fuel mass and the field circuit voltage. Simulations show that the proposed controller makes the two inputs act, simultaneously. Thus, any change of the speed e.g., forces the two input controls to react, in contrast to the ordinary PID controllers. Further, we discuss the robustness of the proposed controller to uncertainties and time delay.

  16. Stability Assessment of a System Comprising a Single Machine and Inverter with Scalable Ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Yashen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    From the inception of power systems, synchronous machines have acted as the foundation of large-scale electrical infrastructures and their physical properties have formed the cornerstone of system operations. However, power electronics interfaces are playing a growing role as they are the primary interface for several types of renewable energy sources and storage technologies. As the role of power electronics in systems continues to grow, it is crucial to investigate the properties of bulk power systems in low inertia settings. In this paper, we assess the properties of coupled machine-inverter systems by studying an elementary system comprised of a synchronous generator, three-phase inverter, and a load. Furthermore, the inverter model is formulated such that its power rating can be scaled continuously across power levels while preserving its closed-loop response. Accordingly, the properties of the machine-inverter system can be assessed for varying ratios of machine-to-inverter power ratings and, hence, differing levels of inertia. After linearizing the model and assessing its eigenvalues, we show that system stability is highly dependent on the interaction between the inverter current controller and machine exciter, thus uncovering a key concern with mixed machine-inverter systems and motivating the need for next-generation grid-stabilizing inverter controls.

  17. Polyionic hybrid nano-engineered systems comprising alginate and chitosan for antihypertensive therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Taskeen; Nasir, Habib; Shabbir, Saima; Rehman, Asma; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophobic nature of virtually all antihypertensive (AHT) drugs is the major hindrance towards their oral administration. Current study focuses on the development of polyionic hybrid nano drug delivery systems comprising sodium alginate and chitosan, loaded with distinct AHT drugs (captopril, amlodipine and valsartan). Encapsulation efficiency of hybrid NCS increased in the order of amlodipine>valsartan>captopril with average value of 42±0.9%, 91±1.5% and 96±1.9%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed hybrid NCS with smooth topography and round appearance in case of captopril. FTIR analysis confirmed the cross-linking between amino and carboxylate group of chitosan and alginate to form polyionic structures at nano-scale. Zeta-sizer experiments revealed that particle size distribution had increased from 197±12nm to 341±15nm for void and captopril loaded NCS. However, highly positive zeta potential of +32±1.6mV was not decreased significantly. In vitro sustained release assays reflected excellent retention of AHT drug in hybrid nanoparticles at 4°C and 37°C in physiological buffer, as less than 8% of the total drug was released in first 24h. Thus, carbohydrate-based hybrid NCS offering high loading capacity, stability and sustained release of hydrophobic drugs can be excellent alternative to current AHT therapeutics.

  18. Crystal structures of two ytterbium(III) complexes comprising alkynylamidinate ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sida; Sroor, Farid M; Liebing, Phil; Lorenz, Volker; Hilfert, Liane; Edelmann, Frank T

    2016-09-01

    Two ytterbium(III) complexes comprising alkynylamidinate ligands, namely bis-(η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)(3-cyclo-propyl-N,N'-diiso-propyl-propynamidinato-κ(2)N,N')ytterbium(III), [Yb(C5H5)2(C12H19N2)] or Cp2Yb[( (i) Pr2N)2C-C≡C-c-C3H5] (1) and tris-(3-phenyl-N,N'-di-cyclo-hexyl-propynamidinato-κ(2)N,N')ytterbium(III), [Yb(C21H27N2)3] or Yb[(CyN)2C-C≡C-Ph]3 (Cy = cyclo-hex-yl) (2) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Both complexes are monomers; for complex 2, the contribution to the scattering from highly disordered toluene solvent molecules in these voids was removed with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18] in PLATON. The stated crystal data for Mr, μ etc. do not take these into account.

  19. IDIOMS THAT COMPRISE THE PRESENCE OF TURKISH WORDS IN GREEK CYPRIOT LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şevket ÖZNUR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this communiqué again we preferred to present some examples from the effects of Turkish Cypriot Culture. For a few years, we have concentrated on our culture’s effect on other cultures in Cyprus. Bearing in mind that we have lived together for hundreds of years with other societies, we have seen fit to give examples of the cultural interaction between other cultures and Turkish Cypriot culture. Our communiqué mostly comprises the effects of Turkish Culture. We have found it convenient to present idioms rather than words. As it can be seen from the examples, in every Greek saying there is a Turkish word. For that reason, we have chosen our title as “Turkish Idioms in Greek Cypriot Language”. These idioms which have the clear evidence of the effect of Turkish Culture have been limited with only 71 examples due to shortage of time. We are happy to be able to contribute to our culture. Now with our best regards we would like to start presenting the examples.

  20. Hybrid Layered Crystal Comprising Polyoxometalate and Surfactant Synthesized from Reduced Mo-Blue Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Mikurube

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid layered crystal containing polyoxomolybdate was successfully synthesized from reduced Mo-blue species as starting material. The hybrid crystal, [C5H5N(C16H33]2[β-H2Mo8O26]·2C2H5OH (C16py-H2Mo8, was obtained as a single phase by the gradual oxidation of hexadecylpyridinium-Mo-blue (C16py-Mo-blue hybrid. The X-ray structure analysis revealed that C16py-H2Mo8 comprised β-type octamolybdate anion with two protons (β-H2Mo8. The β-H2Mo8 anions and ethanol molecules of crystallization formed two-dimensional anionic layers. The pyridine rings of C16py did not attend to form the two-dimensional inorganic layers, and the interdigitated C16py bilayers were sandwiched by the β-H2Mo8 anionic layers with periodicity of 18.2 Å. These C16py-H2Mo8 hybrid layered crystals possibly work as a new class of proton conductor.

  1. FGF4 and FGF8 comprise the wavefront activity that controls somitogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiche, L A; Holder, Nakisha; Lewandoski, Mark

    2011-03-08

    Somites form along the embryonic axis by sequential segmentation from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and differentiate into the segmented vertebral column as well as other unsegmented tissues. Somites are thought to form via the intersection of two activities known as the clock and the wavefront. Previous work has suggested that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activity may be the wavefront signal, which maintains the PSM in an undifferentiated state. However, it is unclear which (if any) of the FGFs expressed in the PSM comprise this activity, as removal of any one gene is insufficient to disrupt early somitogenesis. Here we show that when both Fgf4 and Fgf8 are deleted in the PSM, expression of most PSM genes is absent, including cycling genes, WNT pathway genes, and markers of undifferentiated PSM. Significantly, markers of nascent somite cell fate expand throughout the PSM, demonstrating the premature differentiation of this entire tissue, a highly unusual phenotype indicative of the loss of wavefront activity. When WNT signaling is restored in mutants, PSM progenitor markers are partially restored but premature differentiation of the PSM still occurs, demonstrating that FGF signaling operates independently of WNT signaling. This study provides genetic evidence that FGFs are the wavefront signal and identifies the specific FGF ligands that encode this activity. Furthermore, these data show that FGF action maintains WNT signaling, and that both signaling pathways are required in parallel to maintain PSM progenitor tissue.

  2. Extensive projections of myenteric serotonergic neurons suggest they comprise the central processing unit in the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Barton, M J; Hennig, G W; Birch, G C; Grainger, N; Corrigan, R D; Koh, S D; Sanders, K M; Smith, T K

    2014-04-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is an important regulator of colonic motility and secretion; yet the role of serotonergic neurons in the colon is controversial. We used immunohistochemical techniques to examine their projections throughout the enteric nervous system and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) networks in the murine proximal to mid colon. Serotonergic neurons, which were mainly calbindin positive, occurred only in myenteric ganglia (1 per 3 ganglia). They were larger than nNOS neurons but similar in size to Dogiel Type II (AH) neurons. 5-HT neurons, appeared to make numerous varicose contacts with each other, most nNOS neurons, Dogiel Type II/AH neurons and glial cells. 5-HT, calbindin and nNOS nerve fibers also formed a thin perimuscular nerve plexus that was associated with ganglia, which contained both nNOS positive and negative neurons, which lay directly upon the submucosal pacemaker ICC network. Neurons in perimuscular ganglia were surrounded by 5-HT varicosities. Submucous ganglia contained nNOS positive and negative neurons, and calbindin positive neurons, which also appeared richly supplied by serotonergic nerve varicosities. Serotonergic nerve fibers ran along submucosal arterioles, but not veins. Varicosities of serotonergic nerve fibers were closely associated with pacemaker ICC networks and with intramuscular ICC (ICC-IM). 5-HT2B receptors were found on a subpopulation of non-5-HT containing myenteric neurons and their varicosities, pacemaker ICC-MY and ICC-IM. Myenteric serotonergic neurons, whose axons exhibit considerable divergence, regulate the entire enteric nervous system and are important in coordinating motility with secretion. They are not just interneurons, as regularly assumed, but possibly also motor neurons to ICC and blood vessels, and some may even be sensory neurons. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Targeting of the prostacyclin specific IP1 receptor in lungs with molecular conjugates comprising prostaglandin I2 analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Johannes; Aneja, Manish K; Hasenpusch, Günther; Yüksekdag, Gülnihal; Kummerlöwe, Grit; Luy, Burkhard; Romer, Tina; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Rudolph, Carsten

    2010-04-01

    Molecular conjugates comprising targeting ligands hold great promise for site-specific gene delivery to distant tumors and individual organs including the lung. Here we show that prostaglandin I2 analogues can be used to improve gene transfer efficiency of polyethylenimine (PEI) gene vectors on bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells in vitro and lungs of mice in vivo. Prostacyclin (IP1) receptor expression was confirmed in pulmonary epithelial cell lines by western blot. Iloprost (ILO) and treprostinil (TRP), two prostaglandin I2 analogues, were conjugated to fluorescein-labeled BSA (FLUO-BSA) and compared for IP1 receptor binding/uptake in different lung cell lines. Binding of FLUO-BSA-ILO was 2-4-fold higher than for FLUO-BSA-TRP and could be specifically inhibited by free ILO and IP1 receptor antagonist CAY10449. Internalization of FLUO-BSA-ILO was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Molecular conjugates of PEI and ILO (PEI-g-ILO) were synthesized with increasing coupling degree (F(ILO) (ILO:PEI) = 2, 5, 8, 16) and analyzed for DNA binding, particle formation and transfection efficiency. At optimized conditions (N/P 4, F(ILO) = 5), gene expression using PEI-g-ILO was significantly up to 46-fold higher than for PEI gene vectors and specifically inhibited by CAY10449. Gene expression in the lungs of mice after aerosol delivery was 14-fold higher with PEI-g-ILO F(ILO) = 5 than for PEI. We suggest that targeting of IP1 receptor using ILO represents a promising approach to improve pulmonary gene transfer.

  4. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  5. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...

  6. Mineralogical and microstructural investigations of fractures in Permian z2 potash seam and surrounding salt rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertineit, Michael; Grewe, Wiebke; Schramm, Michael; Hammer, Jörg; Blanke, Hartmut; Patzschke, Mario

    2017-04-01

    Fractures occur locally in the z2 potash seam (Kaliflöz Staßfurt). Most of them extend several centimeter to meter into the surrounding salt rocks. The fractures are distributed on all levels in an extremely deformed area of the Morsleben salt mine, Northern Germany. The sampling site is located within a NW-SE trending synclinal structure, which was reverse folded (Behlau & Mingerzahn 2001). The samples were taken between the -195 m and - 305 m level at the field of Marie shaft. In this area, more than 200 healed fractures were mapped. Most of them show opening widths of only a few millimeters to rarely 10 cm. The fractures in rock salt are filled with basically polyhalite, halite and carnallite. In the potash seam, the fractures are filled with kainite, halite and minor amounts of carnallite and polyhalite. In some cases the fracture infill changes depending on the type of surrounding rocks. There are two dominant orientations of the fractures, which can be interpreted as a conjugated system. The main orientation is NE-SW trending, the dip angles are steep (ca. 70°, dip direction NW and SE, respectively). Subsequent deformation of the filled fractures is documented by a strong grain shape fabric of kainite, undulatory extinction and subgrain formation in kainite, and several mineral transformations. Subgrain formation in halite occurred in both, the fracture infill and the surrounding salt rocks. The results correlate in parts with investigations which were carried out at the close-by rock salt mine Braunschweig-Lüneburg (Horn et al. 2016). The development of the fractures occurred during compression of clayey salt rocks. However, the results are only partly comparable due to different properties (composition, impurities) of the investigated stratigraphic units. Further investigations will focus on detailed microstructural and geochemical analyses of the fracture infill and surrounding salt rocks. Age dating of suitable minerals, e.g. polyhalite (Leitner et al

  7. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  8. The water exchange between Chinchorro Bank and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Julio; Ochoa, Jose Luis; Sheinbaum, Julio; Lopez, Manuel; Cornado, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Chinchorro Bank is a relatively large (~500 km^ 2) atoll situated 33 km in front of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Caribbean coast of Mexico. Two years of continuous measurements of the subsurface pressure field inside and around Chinchorro Bank, along with currents and waves observed outside, suggest four major processes governing the water exchange of the Bank with its surroundings: 1) surface wave pumping of water into the Bank through its eastern edge, 2) the large scale circulation in the region that drives the sea level changes through geostrophy, 3) the tidal pumping with imposed cyclic flows into and out of the Bank and 4) the imposed drift by the wind. Waves impinging all along the eastern barrier reef induce water inflows (from overtopping the reef) and generate a pressure gradient that drives a drift from east to west throughout the Bank. This western drift can normally replenish the water over the Bank with a time scale of ~10 days. However, extreme wave events, lasting around 24 hours, can replenish the whole Bank's water in the order of day. The region's large scale circulation is dominated by the zonal Cayman Current impinging on the Yucatan Peninsula becoming the Yucatan Current as it turns northward. Variability in the strength and impacting latitude of this current causes sea level gradients within the Bank, i.e., a Yucatan Current increase of 1 m/s, over a period of a couple of weeks, sets up a zonal sea level gradient within that can replenish the whole Bank's water in a time scale of ~14 days. At such times, the large scale current around the Bank is at a maximum thus ensuring an effective removal and dispersal of the exported waters. The Bank has a micro-tidal regime with a semidiurnal amplitude of ~12 cm during spring tides and a diurnal of ~2 cm, these imply that the Bank is exchanging ~10% of its waters with its surroundings daily. However small, this tidal pumping is effective for the ventilation of the Banks' waters in ~10 days due to the

  9. An enhanced linkage map of the sheep genome comprising more than 1000 loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, J F; Davies, K P; Crawford, A M; Hulme, D J; Vaiman, D; Cribiu, E P; Freking, B A; Beh, K J; Cockett, N E; Kang, N; Riffkin, C D; Drinkwater, R; Moore, S S; Dodds, K G; Lumsden, J M; van Stijn, T C; Phua, S H; Adelson, D L; Burkin, H R; Broom, J E; Buitkamp, J; Cambridge, L; Cushwa, W T; Gerard, E; Galloway, S M; Harrison, B; Hawken, R J; Hiendleder, S; Henry, H M; Medrano, J F; Paterson, K A; Schibler, L; Stone, R T; van Hest, B

    2001-07-01

    A medium-density linkage map of the ovine genome has been developed. Marker data for 550 new loci were generated and merged with the previous sheep linkage map. The new map comprises 1093 markers representing 1062 unique loci (941 anonymous loci, 121 genes) and spans 3500 cM (sex-averaged) for the autosomes and 132 cM (female) on the X chromosome. There is an average spacing of 3.4 cM between autosomal loci and 8.3 cM between highly polymorphic [polymorphic information content (PIC) > or = 0.7] autosomal loci. The largest gap between markers is 32.5 cM, and the number of gaps of > 20 cM between loci, or regions where loci are missing from chromosome ends, has been reduced from 40 in the previous map to 6. Five hundred and seventy-three of the loci can be ordered on a framework map with odds of > 1000 : 1. The sheep linkage map contains strong links to both the cattle and goat maps. Five hundred and seventy-two of the loci positioned on the sheep linkage map have also been mapped by linkage analysis in cattle, and 209 of the loci mapped on the sheep linkage map have also been placed on the goat linkage map. Inspection of ruminant linkage maps indicates that the genomic coverage by the current sheep linkage map is comparable to that of the available cattle maps. The sheep map provides a valuable resource to the international sheep, cattle, and goat gene mapping community.

  10. Amyloid β Ion Channels in a Membrane Comprising Brain Total Lipid Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Kim, Young Hun; T Arce, Fernando; Gillman, Alan L; Jang, Hyunbum; Kagan, Bruce L; Nussinov, Ruth; Yang, Jerry; Lal, Ratnesh

    2017-02-20

    Amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers are the predominant toxic species in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The prevailing mechanism for toxicity by Aβ oligomers includes ionic homeostasis destabilization in neuronal cells by forming ion channels. These channel structures have been previously studied in model lipid bilayers. In order to gain further insight into the interaction of Aβ oligomers with natural membrane compositions, we have examined the structures and conductivities of Aβ oligomers in a membrane composed of brain total lipid extract (BTLE). We utilized two complementary techniques: atomic force microscopy (AFM) and black lipid membrane (BLM) electrical recording. Our results indicate that Aβ1-42 forms ion channel structures in BTLE membranes, accompanied by a heterogeneous population of ionic current fluctuations. Notably, the observed current events generated by Aβ1-42 peptides in BTLE membranes possess different characteristics compared to current events generated by the presence of Aβ1-42 in model membranes comprising a 1:1 mixture of DOPS and POPE lipids. Oligomers of the truncated Aβ fragment Aβ17-42 (p3) exhibited similar ion conductivity behavior as Aβ1-42 in BTLE membranes. However, the observed macroscopic ion flux across the BTLE membranes induced by Aβ1-42 pores was larger than for p3 pores. Our analysis of structure and conductance of oligomeric Aβ pores in a natural lipid membrane closely mimics the in vivo cellular environment suggesting that Aβ pores could potentially accelerate the loss of ionic homeostasis and cellular abnormalities. Hence, these pore structures may serve as a target for drug development and therapeutic strategies for AD treatment.

  11. Microvascular oxygen pressures in muscles comprised of different fiber types: Impact of dietary nitrate supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Scott K.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Wright, Jennifer L.; Fees, Alex J.; Allen, Jason D.; Jones, Andrew M.; Musch, Timothy I.; Poole, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3−) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR) preferentially improves vascular conductance and O2 delivery to contracting skeletal muscles comprised predominantly of type IIb + d/x (i.e. highly glycolytic) fibers following its reduction to nitrite and nitric oxide (NO). To address the mechanistic basis for NO3− to improve metabolic control we tested the hypothesis that increased NO bioavailability via BR supplementation would elevate microvascular PO2 (PO2mv) in fast twitch but not slow twitch muscle. Twelve young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered BR ([NO3−] 1 mmol/kg/day, n=6) or water (control, n=6) for 5 days. PO2mv (phosphorescence quenching) was measured at rest and during 180s of electrically induced 1-Hz twitch contractions (6–8 V) of the soleus (9% type IIb +d/x) and mixed portion of the gastrocnemius (MG, 91% type IIb + d/x) muscles. In the MG, but not the soleus, BR elevated contracting steady state PO2mv by ~43% (control: 13.7 ± 0.5, BR: 19 ± 1.6 mmHg, (P<0.05). This higher PO2mv represents a greater blood-myocyte O2 driving force during muscle contractions thus providing a potential mechanism by which NO3− supplementation via BR improves metabolic control in fast twitch muscle. Recruitment of higher order type II muscle fibers is thought to play a role in the development of the V.O2 slow component which is inextricably linked to the fatigue process. These data therefore provide a putative mechanism for the BR-induced improvements in high-intensity exercise performance seen in humans. PMID:25280991

  12. The Histone Code of Toxoplasma gondii Comprises Conserved and Unique Posttranslational Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Sheila C.; Che, Fa-Yun; Silmon de Monerri, Natalie C.; Xiao, Hui; Nieves, Edward; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Angel, Sergio O.; Sullivan, William J.; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epigenetic gene regulation has emerged as a major mechanism for gene regulation in all eukaryotes. Histones are small, basic proteins that constitute the major protein component of chromatin, and posttranslational modifications (PTM) of histones are essential for epigenetic gene regulation. The different combinations of histone PTM form the histone code for an organism, marking functional units of chromatin that recruit macromolecular complexes that govern chromatin structure and regulate gene expression. To characterize the repertoire of Toxoplasma gondii histone PTM, we enriched histones using standard acid extraction protocols and analyzed them with several complementary middle-down and bottom-up proteomic approaches with the high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We identified 249 peptides with unique combinations of PTM that comprise the T. gondii histone code. T. gondii histones share a high degree of sequence conservation with human histones, and many modifications are conserved between these species. In addition, T. gondii histones have unique modifications not previously identified in other species. Finally, T. gondii histones are modified by succinylation, propionylation, and formylation, recently described histone PTM that have not previously been identified in parasitic protozoa. The characterization of the T. gondii histone code will facilitate in-depth analysis of how epigenetic regulation affects gene expression in pathogenic apicomplexan parasites and identify a new model system for elucidating the biological functions of novel histone PTM. PMID:24327343

  13. Neuroplasticity in dynamic neural networks comprised of neurons attached to adaptive base plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joghataie, Abdolreza; Shafiei Dizaji, Mehrdad

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a learning algorithm is developed for Dynamic Plastic Continuous Neural Networks (DPCNNs) to improve their learning of highly nonlinear time dependent problems. A DPCNN is comprised of a base medium, which is nonlinear and plastic, and a number of neurons that are attached to the base by wire-like connections similar to perceptrons. The information is distributed within DPCNNs gradually and through wave propagation mechanism. While a DPCNN is adaptive due to its connection weights, the material properties of its base medium can also be adjusted to improve its learning. The material of the medium is plastic and can contribute to memorizing the history of input-response similar to neuroplasticity in natural brain. The results obtained from numerical simulation of DPCNNs have been encouraging. Nonlinear plastic finite element modeling has been used for numerical simulation of dynamic behavior and wave propagation in the medium. Two significant differences of DPCNNs with other types of neural networks are that: (1) there is a medium to which the neurons are attached where the medium can contribute to the learning, (2) the input layer is not made of nodes but it is an edge terminal which is capable of receiving a continuous function over the input edge, though it is discretized in the finite element model. A DPCNN is reduced to a perceptron if the medium is removed and the neurons are connected to each other only by wires. Continuity of the input lets the discretization of data take place intrinsically within the DPCNN instead of being applied by the user.

  14. The structural feature surrounding glycated lysine residues in human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Nakahari, Takashi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2011-06-01

    Complications derived from diabetes mellitus are caused by nonenzymatic protein glycation at the specific sites. LC/MS/MS was performed for the identification of the tryptic peptides of glycated hemoglobins using glyceraldehyde. After the identification of the glycation or non-glycation site, computer analysis of the structure surrounding the sites was carried out using PDB data (1BZ0). Five glycated lysine residues (Lys-16(α), -56(α), -8(β), -82(β), and -144(β)) and four non-glycated lysine residues (Lys-7(α), -40(α), -99(α), and -132(β)) were identified. The non-glycated lysine residues, Lys-7(α), -40(α), and -132(β), are most likely to form electrostatic interactions with the β carboxyl group of Asp-74(α), C-terminal His-146(β), and Glu-7(β) by virtue of their proximity, which is 2.67-2.91 Å (N-O). Additionally, there are histidine residues within 4.55-7.38 Å (N-N) around eight sites except for Lys-7(α). We conclude that the following factors seem to be necessary for glycation of lysine residues: (i) the apparent absence of aspartate or glutamate residues to inhibit the glycation reaction by forming an electrostatic interaction, (ii) the presence of histidine residues for acid-base catalysis of the Amadori rearrangement, and (iii) the presence of an amino acid residue capable of stabilizing a phosphate during proton transfer.

  15. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  16. Zonal disintegration phenomenon in rock mass surrounding deep tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FANG Qin; GUO Zhi-kun

    2008-01-01

    Zonal disintegration is a typical static phenomenon of deep rock masses. It has been defined as alternating regions of fractured and relatively intact rock mass that appear around or in front of the working stope during excavation of a deep tunnel. Zonal disintegration phenomenon was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory with 3D tests on analogous gypsum models, two circular cracked zones were observed in the test. The linear Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was used with a constitutive model that showed linear softening and ideal residual plastic to analyze the elasto-plastic field of the enclosing rock mass around a deep tunnel. The results show that tunneling causes a maximum stress zone to appear between an elastic and plastic zone in the surrounding rock. The zonal disintegration phenomenon is analyzed by considering the stress-strain state of the rock mass in the vicinity of the maximum stress zone. Creep instability failure of the rock due to the development of the plastic zone, and transfer of the maximum stress zone into the rock mass, are the cause of zonal disintegration. An analytical criterion for the critical depth at which zonal disintegration can occur is derived. This depth depends mainly on the character and stress concentration coefficient of the rock mass.

  17. Beliefs and practices surrounding postpartum period among Myanmar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2013-11-01

    to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of 'dirty lochia' was identified. traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women's close social network. the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unilateral lung agenesis--detrimental roles of surrounding vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, An-Kou; Huang, Shu-Chien; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Pei-Ming; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chang, Chung-I; Chiu, Ing-Sh; Wu, En-Ting

    2007-03-01

    Unilateral lung agenesis is a rare congenital defect and could be associated with multiple abnormalities. The patients usually have poor long-term outcomes especially in those with right lung agenesis. We reviewed the 10-year experience in our hospital to describe special clinical features and try to delineate the causes of poor outcomes. From 1995 to 2005, 14 patients less than 18 years of age with unilateral lung agenesis (4 with left agenesis, 10 with right agenesis) were enrolled. Medical records reviewed included diagnosis, presentation, chromosome anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies and interventions, outcomes. We found that the mechanisms of severe airway disease in right lung agenesis included (1) trachea compression by the aortic arch, (2) the presence of "pseudo-ring-sling complex," (3) distended pulmonary artery due to left to right shunt which impinged the only bronchus, and finally (4) the persistent LSVC that restricts the growth of trachea. The etiologies of airway complication in left lung agenesis included anomalous aortic arch compression on trachea and the coexisting heart disease with significant left to right shunt, which impinged on the bronchus. In conclusion, unilateral lung agenesis has frequently associated airway problems due to its surrounding vessels. Satisfactory airway intervention remains challenging. This disease still requires great effort to improve patient outcomes.

  19. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun -- a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium around the Sun (LISM) made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar medium, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of MgII, FeII and HI. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the LISM consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions per...

  20. Dense Ionized and Neutral Gas Surrounding Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Hemant; Scoville, N Z

    2004-01-01

    We present high resolution H41a hydrogen recombination line observations of the 1.2' (3 pc) region surrounding Sgr A* at 92 GHz using the OVRO Millimeter Array with an angular resolution of 7" x 3" and velocity resolution of 13 km/s. New observations of H31a, H35a, H41a, and H44a lines were obtained using the NRAO 12-m telescope, and their relative line strengths are interpreted in terms of various emission mechanisms. These are the most extensive and most sensitive observations of recombination line to date. Observations of HCO+ (1 - 0) transition at 89 GHz are also obtained simultaneously with a 40% improved angular resolution and 4-15 times improved sensitivity over previous observations, and the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas in the circumnuclear disk (CND) are mapped and compared with those of the ionized gas. The line brightness ratios of the hydrogen recombination lines are consistent with purely spontaneous emission from 7000 K gas with n_e = 20,000 cm$^{-3}$ near LTE condition...

  1. Instability of Magnetized Ionization Fronts Surrounding H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm M2} \\leq 1$. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor $\\alpha$ by a factor of $1+1/(2\\beta_1)$ compared to the unmagnetized case, with $\\beta_1$ denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations due to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber as well as the upstream flow ...

  2. An insight in the surroundings of HR4796

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, A -M; Boccaletti, A; Lacour, S; Thebault, P; Chauvin, G; Mouillet, D; Augereau, J C; Bonnefoy, M; Ehrenreich, D; Kral, Q

    2012-01-01

    HR4796 is a young, early A-type star harbouring a well structured debris disk, shaped as a ring with sharp inner edges. It forms with the M-type star HR4796B a binary system, with a proj. sep. ~560 AU. Our aim is to explore the surroundings of HR4796A and B, both in terms of extended or point-like structures. Adaptive optics images at L'-band were obtained with NaCo in Angular Differential Mode and with Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM). We analyse the data as well as the artefacts that can be produced by ADI reduction on an extended structure with a shape similar to that of HR4796A dust ring. We determine constraints on the presence of companions using SAM and ADI on HR4796A, and ADI on HR4796B. We also performed dynamical simulations of a disk of planetesimals and dust produced by collisions, perturbed by a planet located close to the disk outer edge. The disk ring around HR4796A is well resolved. We highlight the potential effects of ADI reduction of the observed disk shape and surface brightness distribution,...

  3. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  4. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  5. Expression of zebrafish nos2b surrounds oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kar-Lai; Richardson, Michael; Korzh, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), and is one of the factors establishing innate immunity. In zebrafish, Nos2 is represented by nos2a and nos2b. Here, we report the cloning and expression pattern of the zebrafish nos2b gene, which does not seem to participate in induced immune response. nos2b was mapped to zebrafish linkage group 15. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of nos2b in embryonic zebrafish was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. nos2b is expressed constitutively in two primordia located along the ventral midline. The first group of cells contributes to the neurohypophysis. Initially at the level of the ventral hindbrain, the second group of cells migrates closely with the thyroid primordium to its final position at the basihyal by 3 dpf. Thus, the analysis of expression pattern of nos2b reveals complex morphogenetic movements resulting in its expression surrounding the oral cavity.

  6. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  7. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Method of improving formation permeability using chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, L.A.; Williams, D.A.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a method of treating a sandstone formation containing clays or silicates. It comprises injection a treating liquid into the formation comprising an aqueous solution of: from 50 to 4,200 ppm chlorine dioxide and from 1 to 85 volume percent of carbon dioxide; permitting the chlorine dioxide to react with material in the formation; and thereafter injecting into the formation an acid solution capable of dissolving the reaction products of chlorine dioxide and the clays and silicates.

  9. Control of microvascular oxygen pressures in rat muscles comprised of different fibre types

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Paul; Behnke, Brad J; Padilla, Danielle J; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2005-01-01

    In response to an elevated metabolic rate , increased microvascular blood–muscle O2 flux is the product of both augmented O2 delivery and fractional O2 extraction. Whole body and exercising limb measurements demonstrate that and fractional O2 extraction increase as linear and hyperbolic functions, respectively, of . Given the presence of disparate vascular control mechanisms among different muscle fibre types, we tested the hypothesis that, in response to muscle contractions, would be lower and fractional O2 extraction (as assessed via microvascular O2 pressure, PmvO2) higher in fast- versus slow-twitch muscles. Radiolabelled microsphere and phosphorescence quenching techniques were used to measure and PmvO2, respectively at rest and across the transition to 1 Hz twitch contractions at low (Lo, 2.5 V) and high intensities (Hi, 4.5 V) in rat (n = 20) soleus (Sol, slow-twitch, type I), mixed gastrocnemius (MG, fast-twitch, type IIa) and white gastrocnemius (WG, fast-twitch, type IIb) muscle. At rest and for Lo and Hi (steady-state values) transitions, PmvO2 was lower (all P < 0.05) in MG (mmHg: rest, 22.5 ± 1.0; Lo, 15.3 ± 1.3; Hi, 10.2 ± 1.6) and WG (mmHg: rest, 19.0 ± 1.3; Lo, 12.2 ± 1.1; Hi, 9.9 ± 1.1) than in Sol (rest, 33.1 ± 3.2 mmHg; Lo, 19.0 ± 2.3 mmHg; Hi, 18.7 ± 1.8 mmHg), despite lower and in MG and WG under each set of conditions. These data suggest that during submaximal metabolic rates, the relationship between and O2 extraction is dependent on fibre type (at least in the muscles studied herein), such that muscles comprised of fast-twitch fibres display a greater fractional O2 extraction (i.e. lower PmvO2) than their slow-twitch counterparts. These results also indicate that the greater sustained PmvO2 in Sol may be important for ensuring high blood–myocyte O2 flux and therefore a greater oxidative contribution to energetic requirements. PMID:15637098

  10. Novel metabolic attributes of the genus cyanothece, comprising a group of unicellular nitrogen-fixing Cyanothece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Elvitigala, Thanura; Welsh, Eric; Stöckel, Jana; Liberton, Michelle; Min, Hongtao; Sherman, Louis A; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Cyanothece comprises unicellular cyanobacteria that are morphologically diverse and ecologically versatile. Studies over the last decade have established members of this genus to be important components of the marine ecosystem, contributing significantly to the nitrogen and carbon cycle. System-level studies of Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142, a prototypic member of this group, revealed many interesting metabolic attributes. To identify the metabolic traits that define this class of cyanobacteria, five additional Cyanothece strains were sequenced to completion. The presence of a large, contiguous nitrogenase gene cluster and the ability to carry out aerobic nitrogen fixation distinguish Cyanothece as a genus of unicellular, aerobic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Cyanothece cells can create an anoxic intracellular environment at night, allowing oxygen-sensitive processes to take place in these oxygenic organisms. Large carbohydrate reserves accumulate in the cells during the day, ensuring sufficient energy for the processes that require the anoxic phase of the cells. Our study indicates that this genus maintains a plastic genome, incorporating new metabolic capabilities while simultaneously retaining archaic metabolic traits, a unique combination which provides the flexibility to adapt to various ecological and environmental conditions. Rearrangement of the nitrogenase cluster in Cyanothece sp. strain 7425 and the concomitant loss of its aerobic nitrogen-fixing ability suggest that a similar mechanism might have been at play in cyanobacterial strains that eventually lost their nitrogen-fixing ability. The unicellular cyanobacterial genus Cyanothece has significant roles in the nitrogen cycle in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 was extensively studied over the last decade and has emerged as an important model photosynthetic microbe for bioenergy production. To expand our understanding of the distinctive metabolic capabilities of

  11. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Polar Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a polar projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above. The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The lander's meteorology mast extends above the southwest horzon and is topped by the telltale wind gauge. The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. This view in approximately true color comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Phoenix Lander on Mars with Surrounding Terrain, Vertical Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This view is a vertical projection that combines more than 500 exposures taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander and projects them as if looking down from above. The black circle on the spacecraft is where the camera itself is mounted on the lander, out of view in images taken by the camera. North is toward the top of the image. The height of the lander's meteorology mast, extending toward the southwest, appears exaggerated because that mast is taller than the camera mast. This view in approximately true color covers an area about 30 meters by 30 meters (about 100 feet by 100 feet). The landing site is at 68.22 degrees north latitude, 234.25 degrees east longitude on Mars. The ground surface around the lander has polygonal patterning similar to patterns in permafrost areas on Earth. This view comprises more than 100 different Stereo Surface Imager pointings, with images taken through three different filters at each pointing. The images were taken throughout the period from the 13th Martian day, or sol, after landing to the 47th sol (June 5 through July 12, 2008). The lander's Robotic Arm is cut off in this mosaic view because component images were taken when the arm was out of the frame. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. GIANT Hα NEBULA SURROUNDING THE STARBURST MERGER NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Tanaka, Hisashi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: yoshidam@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ∼90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to L{sub Hα} ≈ 1.6 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −5} and ∼5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ∼10{sup 2} Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240.

  14. IRIS Observation of a Sunspot and the Surrounding Plage Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIAN, H.; DeLuca, E. E.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Weber, M.; Saar, S.; Golub, L.; Testa, P.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's IRIS mission is providing high-cadence and high-resolution observations of the solar transition region and chromosphere. We present preliminary results from IRIS observation of a sunspot and the surrounding plage region. The major findings in this observation can be summarized as following: (1) The slit jaw images in the filters of 1400Å and 1330Å reveal the presence of many rapidly evolving fibril-like structures in the transition region for the first time. These thin and long structures mainly reside in the plage region. They could be strands of low-lying cool transition region loops or the transition region counterpart of chromospheric spicules. (2) The C II and Mg II line profiles are almost Gaussian in the sunspot umbra and clearly exhibit a deep reversal at the line center in the plage region, suggesting a greatly reduced opacity in the sunspot atmosphere. (3) Bidirectional jets are frequently occurring mainly in the plage region immediately outside the sunspot throughout the observation. Triple or double Gaussian fit to the line profiles of Si IV suggests a velocity as high as 100 km/s. These velocity values are of the same order of the Alfven speed in the transition region. (4)Three-minute oscillation is clearly present in the sunspot umbra. The oscillation is identified in not only the slit jaw images of 2796Å, 1400Å and 1330Å, but also in spectra of the bright Mg II, C II and Si IV lines. Strong non-linearity is clearly seen in the intensity and Doppler shift oscillations. Interestingly, the obvious increase of the line width only occurs at the times of largest blue shift. The correlated change of the intensity and Doppler shift suggests an upward propagating magneto-acoustic shock wave.

  15. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJin Wen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varGamma |}{4\\pi}\\sin\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggl[ \\csc \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\cot^{2} \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\ln \\biggl(\\tan \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\sec\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr \\biggr], \\\\& \\quad \\forall p\\leqslant -2. \\end{aligned}$$ As an application of the inequality in space science, we obtain the best lower bounds of the mean λ-gravity norm ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ $\\overline{\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\Vert }$ as follows: ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ ≜ 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ 1 ∥ A − P ∥ λ ⩾ ( 2 π | Γ | λ , ∀ λ ⩾ 2 . $$\\overline{\\bigl\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\bigr\\Vert } \\triangleq\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\frac{1}{\\|A-P\\|^{\\lambda }}\\geqslant \\biggl(\\frac{2\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr^{\\lambda},\\quad \\forall \\lambda\\geqslant2. $$

  16. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gry, Cécile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium, made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar gas, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of Mg II, Fe II, and H I. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the local interstellar medium consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like a squashed balloon. Average H I volume densities inside the cloud vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm-3 over different directions. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in depletion from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Secondary absorption components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume occupied by the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about -7.2 km s-1 with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of a shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

  17. DEFORMATION OF MOISTURE FLUX CIRCULATION SURROUNDING THE LANDFALL TYPHOON "BILIS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Ling-kun; YANG Wen-xia; HONG Yan-chao

    2009-01-01

    The deformation parameter (DP), which is defined as the product of shear deformation and stretching deformation of moisture flux circulation, is introduced. The tendency equation of DP is derived in pressure coordinates. Furthermore, DP is used to diagnose the deformation character of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis. The analysis showed that before Bilis landed, DP presented eight abnormal areas, which distributed alternately and closely encircled the low-pressure center. This indicated that the moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis rotated counterclockwise and stretched longitudinally and latitudinally to deform. After Bilis landed, DP weakened gradually and its regular pattern of horizontal distribution loosened. The shear and stretching deformations of moisture flux circulation surrounding Bilis weakened after the typhoon landed. The deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis mainly appeared in the middle-lower troposphere. There existed 1/2 phase difference between the shear and stretching deformations in the vertical-latitudinal cross section and a π/4 phase difference between them on the horizontal plane. As Bilis landed and further moved inland of China, the intensities of DP, shear and stretching deformations decreased, meanwhile their vertical and horizontal structures became irregular. The chief dynamic factors responsible for the deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis were the three terms associated with the three-dimensional advection transportation of DP, square difference between shear and stretching deformations coupling with Coriolis parameter, and horizontal gradient of geopotential height before Bilis landed. The last two dynamic factors impacted jointly on the deformation of moisture flux circulation after Bilis landed.

  18. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  19. An estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sharmista; Seagrave, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The technique adopted here is based on an evaluation of the 'lost work' within each functional unit of the subsystem. Pertinent information for our analysis is obtained from a user interactive integrated model of an ECLSS. The model was developed using ASPEN. A potential benefit of this analysis is the identification of subsystems with high entropy generation as the most likely candidates for engineering improvements. This work has been motivated by the fact that the design objective for a long term mission should be the evaluation of existing ECLSS technologies not only the basis of the quantity of work needed for or obtained from each subsystem but also on the quality of work. In a previous study Brandhorst showed that the power consumption for partially closed and completely closed regenerable life support systems was estimated as 3.5 kw/individual and 10-12 kw/individual respectively. With the increasing cost and scarcity of energy resources, our attention is drawn to evaluate the existing ECLSS technologies on the basis of their energy efficiency. In general the first law efficiency of a system is usually greater than 50 percent. From literature, the second law efficiency is usually about 10 percent. The estimation of second law efficiency of the system indicates the percentage of energy degraded as irreversibilities within the process. This estimate offers more room for improvement in the design of equipment. From another perspective, our objective is to keep the total entropy production of a life support system as low as possible and still ensure a positive entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings. The reason for doing so is as the entropy production of the system increases, the entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings decreases, and the

  20. Effect of Situational Factors on Store Format Choice Behaviour in Food and Grocery Retailing in India - A Multiple Discriminant Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cherukuri Jayasankaraprasad

    2010-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of situational factors such as task definition, perceived risk, physical surroundings, social surroundings and temporal aspects on retail format...

  1. Forecasters Handbook for the Philippine Islands and Surrounding Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Baguio * RPUB 98328 Tacloban * RPVA 98550 Munoz * 98329 Guiuan * RPVG 98558 Cabanatuan * 98330 Puerto Princesa * RPVP 98618 Baler * RPUR 98333 Cuyo...likelihood of TC formation in the western Pacific. 9See Page B-2 of Appendix B. 2-12 so,00 sol S40i 10, 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Direction of...PALAWAN C-6 CATARMAN C-14 PORT AREA MANILA C-6 CATBALOGAN C-14 PUERTA PRINCESA C-7 CEBU CITY C-14 ROMBLON C-7 CORON C-14 ROXAS CITY C-7 COTABATO C-15 SAN

  2. Determination of the mineral stability field of evolving groundwater in the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yvonne Sena Akosua; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Addai, Millicent Obeng; Asiedu, Daniel Kwadwo

    2016-09-01

    Conventional graphical techniques, mass balance geochemical modelling, and multivariate statistical methods were jointly applied to hydrogeochemical data of groundwater from the fractured rock aquifer system, and surface water in the Bosumtwi and surrounding areas to reveal evolutionary trends and the characteristics of evolving groundwater in the area. Four clusters distinguished from the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) comprised three main groundwater associations and one surface water group (lake water). Although both water resources are of low mineralization (TDS dolomite, gypsum, k-felspar and talc, and supersaturation with respect to gibbsite, kaolinite, Ca-montmorillonite and k-mica in the area. The PCA and other geochemical interpretation identify weathering of feldspars and carbonate mineral dissolution as predominantly influencing the hydrochemistry of the groundwater. Hydrolysis of the aluminosilicates causes the groundwater to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. In addition to dissolution of silicates, the chemical composition of the lake water has been influenced by evaporation and consequent carbonate saturation.

  3. Circumstances surrounding dying in the paediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plötz Frans B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Death is inevitable in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We aimed to describe the circumstances surrounding dying in a PICU. Method The chart records of all patients less than 18 years of age who died at the PICU between January first 2000 and July first 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Information regarding sex, age, length of stay, admission, diagnosis, and the way a patient died was registered. Post mortem information regarding natural versus unnatural death, autopsy and donation was obtained. Non-survivors were allocated in five groups: do-not-resuscitate (DNR, withholding and/or withdrawal of therapy (W/W, failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (failed CPR, brain death (BD, and terminal organ failure (TOF. Results During the study period 87 (4.4% of the 1995 admitted patients died. Non-survivors were more often admitted during the day (54% and the week (68%. W/W was found in 27.6%, TOF in 26.4%, BD in 23.0%, failed CPR in 18.4%, and DNR in 4.6%. Forty-three percent died in the first two days, of which BD (40.5% and failed CPR (37.8% were most common. Seventy-five children (86% died due to a natural cause. Autopsy permission was obtained in 19 of 54 patients (35%. The autopsies confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 11 patients, revealed new information in 5 patients, and in 3 patients the autopsy did not provide additional information. Nine patients were medically suitable for organ donation and 24 patients for tissue donation, whereas consent was only obtained in 2 cases in both groups. Conclusion We observed that 43% of the patients died within the first two days of admission due to BD and failed CPR, whereas after 4 days most patients died after W/W. Autopsy remains an useful tool to confirm clinical diagnoses or to provide new information. Only a small percentage of the deceased children is suitable for organ donation.

  4. Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Cylinders Surrounded by Various Reflector Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard Jones; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Monteirth

    2007-05-01

    A series of experiments was performed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1958 to determine critical masses of cylinders of Oralloy (Oy) reflected by a number of materials. The experiments were all performed on the Comet Universal Critical Assembly Machine, and consisted of discs of highly enriched uranium (93.3 wt.% 235U) reflected by half-inch and one-inch-thick cylindrical shells of various reflector materials. The experiments were performed by members of Group N-2, particularly K. W. Gallup, G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and R. H. White. This experiment was intended to ascertain critical masses for criticality safety purposes, as well as to compare neutron transport cross sections to those obtained from danger coefficient measurements with the Topsy Oralloy-Tuballoy reflected and Godiva unreflected critical assemblies. The reflector materials examined in this series of experiments are as follows: magnesium, titanium, aluminum, graphite, mild steel, nickel, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, natural uranium, tungsten, beryllium, aluminum oxide, molybdenum carbide, and polythene (polyethylene). Also included are two special configurations of composite beryllium and iron reflectors. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with six different parameters was evaluated; namely, extrapolation to the uranium critical mass, uranium density, 235U enrichment, reflector density, reflector thickness, and reflector impurities. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of the platen and diaphragm), two simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. First of all, since impurities in core and reflector materials are only estimated, they are not included in the benchmark models. Secondly, the room, support structure, and other possible surrounding equipment were not included in the model. Bias values that result from these two simplifications were determined and associated

  5. Reliability analysis of tunnel surrounding rock stability by Monte-Carlo method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jia-mi; YANG Geng-she

    2008-01-01

    Discussed advantages of improved Monte-Carlo method and feasibility aboutproposed approach applying in reliability analysis for tunnel surrounding rock stability. Onthe basis of deterministic parsing for tunnel surrounding rock, reliability computing methodof surrounding rock stability was derived from improved Monte-Carlo method. The com-puting method considered random of related parameters, and therefore satisfies relativityamong parameters. The proposed method can reasonably determine reliability of sur-rounding rock stability. Calculation results show that this method is a scientific method indiscriminating and checking surrounding rock stability.

  6. Clinical Observation of Vascular Dementia Treated by Surrounding-acupuncture of the CT-located Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Xin; FENG Bi-fang; RONG Li; YANG Wen-hui

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical effect of "Surrounding Needling Technigue through CT Location" in treating vascular dementia. Method Fifty cases of vascular dementia were randomly divided into surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups, 25 cases in each group,and were given surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture respectively. Results The effective rates in surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups were 88% and 60% respectively, and there was significant difference between the two groups, P < 0.01.Conclusion Therapeutic effect of surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location in treating vascular dementia was satisfactory, and better than that of routine acupuncture.

  7. Digital tabulation of stratigraphic data from oil and gas wells in Cuyama Valley and surrounding areas, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.; Langenheim, V.E.; Shumaker, Lauren E.; Scheirer, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Stratigraphic information from 391 oil and gas exploration wells from Cuyama Valley, California, and surrounding areas are herein compiled in digital form from reports that were released originally in paper form. The Cuyama Basin is located within the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges and north of the western Transverse Ranges, west of the San Andreas fault. Knowledge of the location and elevation of stratigraphic tops of formations throughout the basin is a first step toward understanding depositional trends and the structural evolution of the basin through time, and helps in understanding the slip history and partitioning of slip on San Andreas and related faults.

  8. Telomere Attrition in Isolated High-Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Surrounding Stroma Is Predictive of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Michael Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of early genomic events underlying the development of prostate cancer (CaP remain unclear. The onset of chromosomal instability is likely to facilitate the formation of crucial genomic aberrations both in the precursor lesion high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HPIN and in CaP. Instability generated by telomere attrition is one potential mechanism that could initiate chromosomal rearrangements. In this study, normalized telomere length variation was examined in a cohort of 68 men without CaP who had HPIN only on prostatic biopsies. Multiple significant associations between telomere attrition and eventual diagnosis of CaP in the HPIN and in the surrounding stroma were found. Kaplan-Meier analysis of telomere length demonstrated a significantly increased risk for the development of cancer with short telomeres in the surrounding stroma [P = .035; hazard ratio (HR = 2.12; 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.231-0.956], and a trend for HPIN itself (P = .126; HR = 1.72; 95% CI = 0.287-1.168. Cox regression analysis also demonstrated significance between the time from the original biopsy to the diagnosis of cancer and telomere length in HPIN and in the surrounding stroma. These analyses showed significance, both alone and in combination with baseline prostate-specific antigen, and lend support to the hypothesis that telomere attrition in prostatic preneoplasia may be fundamental to the generation of chromosomal instability and to the emergence of CaP.

  9. Inhibition of the dorsal premotor cortex does not repair surround inhibition in writer's cramp patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugen, Lidwien C; Hoffland, Britt S; Stegeman, Dick F; van de Warrenburg, Bart P

    2013-03-01

    Writer's cramp is a task-specific form of focal dystonia, characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand and arm during writing. Two consistent abnormalities in its pathophysiology are a loss of surround inhibition and overactivity of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). This study aimed to assess a possible link between these two phenomena by investigating whether PMd inhibition leads to an improvement of surround inhibition, in parallel with previously demonstrated writing improvement. Fifteen writer's cramp patients and ten controls performed a simple motor hand task during which surround inhibition was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Motor cortical excitability was measured of the active and surround muscles at three phases of the task. Surround inhibition and writing performance were assessed before and after PMd inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation. In contrast to healthy controls, patients did not show inhibition of the abductor digiti minimi muscle during movement initiation of the first dorsal interosseus muscle, confirming the loss of surround inhibition. PMd inhibition led to an improvement of writing speed in writer's cramp patients. However, in both groups, no changes in surround inhibition were observed. The results confirm a role for the PMd in the pathophysiology of writer's cramp. We show that PMd inhibition does not lead to restoration of the surround inhibition defect in writer's cramp, despite the improvement in writing. This questions the involvement of the PMd in the loss of surround inhibition, and perhaps also the direct link between surround inhibition and dystonia.

  10. Is the protein surrounding the active site critical for hydrogen peroxide reduction by selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase? An ONIOM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Rajeev; Vreven, Thom; Frisch, Michael J; Morokuma, Keiji; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2006-07-13

    In this ONIOM(QM:MM) study, we evaluate the role of the protein surroundings in the mechanism of H2O2 reduction catalyzed by the glutathione peroxidase enzyme, using the whole monomer (3113 atoms in 196 amino acid residues) as a model. A new optimization scheme that allows the full optimization of transition states for large systems has been utilized. It was found that in the presence of the surrounding protein the optimized active site structure bears a closer resemblance to the one in the X-ray structure than that without the surrounding protein. H2O2 reduction occurs through a two-step mechanism. In the first step, the selenolate anion (E-Se(-)) formation occurs with a barrier of 16.4 kcal/mol and is endothermic by 12.0 kcal/mol. The Gln83 residue plays the key role of the proton abstractor, which is in line with the experimental suggestion. In the second step, the O-O bond is cleaved, and selenenic acid (R-Se-OH) and a water molecule are formed. The calculated barrier for this process is 6.0 kcal/mol, and it is exothermic by 80.9 kcal/mol. The overall barrier of 18.0 kcal/mol for H2O2 reduction is in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured barrier of 14.9 kcal/mol. The protein surroundings has been calculated to exert a net effect of only 0.70 kcal/mol (in comparison to the "active site only" model including solvent effects) on the overall barrier, which is most likely due to the active site being located at the enzyme surface.

  11. Nodular osteochondrogenic activity in soft tissue surrounding osteoma in neurogenic para osteo-arthropathy: morphological and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys P

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenic Para-Osteo-Arthropathy (NPOA occurs as a consequence of central nervous system injuries or some systemic conditions. They are characterized by bone formation around the main joints. Methods In order to define some biological features of NPOAs, histological and immunohistological studies of the soft tissue surrounding osteoma and Ultrasound examination (US of NPOA before the appearance of abnormal ossification on plain radiographs were performed. Results We have observed a great number of ossifying areas scattered in soft tissues. US examination have also shown scattered ossifying areas at the early stage of ossification. A high osteogenic activity was detected in these tissues and all the stages of the endochondral process were observed. Mesenchymal cells undergo chondrocytic differentiation to further terminal maturation with hypertrophy, which sustains mineralization followed by endochondral ossification process. Conclusion We suggest that periosteoma soft tissue reflect early stage of osteoma formation and could be a model to study the mechanism of osteoma formation and we propose a mechanism of the NPOA formation in which sympathetic dystony and altered mechanical loading induce changes which could be responsible for the cascade of cellular events leading to cartilage and bone formation.

  12. Energy-Efficient Shaping of Contemporary Buildings and Their Surroundings as an Essential Element of Modernization of Built-Up Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocheński, Stanisław; Bocheńska-Skałecka, Anna; Kuczyński, Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive design of a building along with the development of a surrounding land may counterbalance the tendency of housing estates comprising houses built on the basis of "ready-made projects" - which have no references to the existing urban tissue and which do not create a new one. In the first place, the energy intensity of buildings using the so-called passive methods should be lowered, and only then active systems should be applied, considering economic balance. The problem should be considered from two different perspectives i.e. for intensively and for less urbanised areas. The article results in the formulation of guidelines for energy-efficient modernization of contemporary buildings and their surroundings.

  13. Energy-Efficient Shaping of Contemporary Buildings and Their Surroundings as an Essential Element of Modernization of Built-Up Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocheński Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive design of a building along with the development of a surrounding land may counterbalance the tendency of housing estates comprising houses built on the basis of “ready-made projects” - which have no references to the existing urban tissue and which do not create a new one. In the first place, the energy intensity of buildings using the so-called passive methods should be lowered, and only then active systems should be applied, considering economic balance. The problem should be considered from two different perspectives i.e. for intensively and for less urbanised areas. The article results in the formulation of guidelines for energy-efficient modernization of contemporary buildings and their surroundings.

  14. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  15. Geologic map of Oldonyo Lengai (Oldoinyo Lengai) Volcano and surroundings, Arusha Region, United Republic of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Magigita, Masota M.; Kwelwa, Shimba

    2013-01-01

    The geology of Oldonyo Lengai volcano and the southernmost Lake Natron basin, Tanzania, is presented on this geologic map at scale 1:50,000. The map sheet can be downloaded in pdf format for online viewing or ready to print (48 inches by 36 inches). A 65-page explanatory pamphlet describes the geologic history of the area. Its goal is to place the new findings into the framework of previous investigations while highlighting gaps in knowledge. In this way questions are raised and challenges proposed to future workers. The southernmost Lake Natron basin is located along the East African rift zone in northern Tanzania. Exposed strata provide a history of volcanism, sedimentation, and faulting that spans 2 million years. It is here where Oldonyo Lengai, Tanzania’s most active volcano of the past several thousand years, built its edifice. Six new radiometric ages, by the 40Ar/39Ar method, and 48 new geochemical analyses from Oldonyo Lengai and surrounding volcanic features deepen our understanding of the area. Those who prefer the convenience and access offered by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) may download an electronic database, suitable for most GIS software applications. The GIS database is in a Transverse Mercator projection, zone 36, New (1960) Arc datum. The database includes layers for hypsography (topography), hydrography, and infrastructure such as roads and trails.

  16. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  17. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Guang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  18. Acoustoelastic effects of Stoneley waves in a borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxia Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stoneley wave in a fluid-filled pressurized borehole surrounded by a transversely isotropic elastic solid with nine independent third-order elastic constants in presence of biaxial stresses are studied. A simplified acoustoelastic formulation of Stoneley wave is presented for the parallelism of the borehole axis and the formation axis of symmetry. Sensitivity coefficients and velocity dispersions for Stoneley wave due to the presence of stresses are numerically investigated, respectively. The acoustoelastic formulation explicitly shows that the velocity dispersions of Stoneley wave depend on seven independent third-order elastic constants in presence of biaxial stresses and on six independent third-order elastic constants in the presence of borehole pressurization alone. Numerical results of both sensitivity coefficients and velocity dispersions of Stoneley wave show that at low frequency the velocity change of Stoneley wave is sensitive to c111 and c112. Stoneley wave velocity at low frequencies can be simplified by 3 independent third order elastic constants (c111, c112 and c123 instead of nine constants. In presence of biaxial stresses, at low frequencies the speed of the Stoneley wave is similar to White’s formula.

  19. Quasars Probing Quasars VII. The Pinnacle of the Cool Circumgalactic Medium Surrounds Massive z~2 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    We survey the incidence and absorption strength of the metal-line transitions CII 1334 and CIV from the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding z~2 quasars, which act as signposts for massive dark matter halos M_halo~10^12.5 Msun. On scales of the virial radius (Mvir~160kpc), we measure a high covering fraction fC=0.73+/-0.10 to strong CII absorption (rest equivalent width W1334>0.2A), implying a massive reservoir of cool (T~10^4K) metal enriched gas. We conservatively estimate a metal mass exceeding 10^8 Msun. We propose these metals trace enrichment of the incipient intragroup/intracluster medium that these halos eventually inhabit. This cool CGM around quasars is the pinnacle amongst galaxies observed at all epochs, as regards covering fraction and average equivalent width of HI Lya and low-ion metal absorption. We argue that the properties of this cool CGM primarily reflect the halo mass, and that other factors such as feedback, star-formation rate, and accretion from the intergalactic medium are secondar...

  20. The IC 5146 star forming complex and its surroundings with 2MASS, WISE and Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, N. A.; Bonatto, C.; Bica, E.

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the last decade sensitive infrared observations obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope significantly increased the known population of YSOs associated with nearby molecular clouds. With such a census recent studies have characterized pre-main sequence stars (PMS) and determined parameters from different wavelengths. Given the restricted Spitzer coverage of some of these clouds, relative to their extended regions, these YSO populations may represent a limited view of star formation in these regions. We are taking advantage of mid-infrared observations from the NASA Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), which provides an all sky view and therefore full coverage of the nearby clouds, to assess the degree to which their currently known YSO population may be representative of a more complete population. We extend the well established classification method of the Spitzer Legacy teams to archived WISE observations. We have adopted 2MASS photometry as a "standard catalogue" for comparisons. Besides the massive embedded cluster IC 5146 we provide a multiband view of five new embedded clusters in its surroundings that we discovered with WISE. In short, the analysis involves the following for the presently studied cluster sample: (i) extraction of 2MASS/WISE/Spitzer photometry in a wide circular region; (ii) field-star decontamination to enhance the intrinsic Colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) morphology (essential for a proper derivation of reddening, age, and distance from the Sun); and (iii) construction of Colour-magnitude filters, for more contrasted stellar radial density profiles (RDPs).

  1. The tidally disturbed luminous compact blue galaxy Mkn 1087 and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Rodríguez, M; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R.; Esteban, Cesar; Rodriguez, Monica

    2004-01-01

    We present new broad-band optical and near-infrared CCD imaging together with deep optical intermediate-resolution spectroscopy of Mkn 1087 and its surrounding objects. We analyze the morphology and colors of the stellar populations of the brightest objects, some of them star-formation areas, as well as the kinematics, physical conditions and chemical composition of the ionized gas associated with them. Mkn 1087 does not host an Active Galactic Nucleus, but it could be a Luminous Compact Blue Galaxy. Although it was classified as a suspected Wolf-Rayet galaxy, we do not detect the spectral features of these sort of massive stars. Mkn 1087 shows morphological and kinematical features that can be explained assuming that it is in interaction with two nearby galaxies: the bright KPG 103a and a dwarf ($M_B\\sim-18$) star-forming companion. We argue that this dwarf companion is not a tidal object but an external galaxy because of its low metallicity [12+log(O/H) = 8.24] with respect to the one derived for Mkn 1087 [...

  2. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  3. Control valve and control valve system for controlling solids flow, methods of manufacture thereof and articles comprising the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen D.; Teigen, Bard C.

    2017-04-11

    Disclosed herein is a solids flow control valve comprising a standpipe; a shoe; and a transport pipe; wherein the standpipe is in operative communication with the shoe and lies upstream of the shoe; the standpipe comprising a first end and a second end, where the first end is in contact with a source that contains disposable solids and the second end is in fluid contact with the shoe; the shoe being operative to restrict the flow of the disposable solids; the transport pipe being disposed downstream of the shoe to receive and transport the solids from the shoe.

  4. Numerical analysis of tunnel reinforcing influences on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-jun; TANG Chun-an; ZHU Wan-cheng; LI Di-yuan; LI Shu-cai

    2008-01-01

    Based on mesoscopic damage mechanics, numerical code RFPA2D (dynamic edition) was developed to analyze the influence of tunnel reinforcing on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves. The results show that the propagation phenomenon of stress wave in the surrounding rock of tunnel and the failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves are reproduced realistically by using numerical code RFPAED; from the failure process of surrounding rock,the place at which surrounding rock fractures is transferred because of tunnel reinforcing, and the rockfall and collapse caused by failure of surrounding rock are restrained by tunnel reinforcing; furthermore, the absolute values of peak values of major principal stress, and the minimal principal stress and shear stress at center point of tunnel roof are reduced because of tunnel reinforcing, and the displacement at center point of tunnel roof is reduced as well, consequently the stability of tunnel increases.

  5. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  6. The cross-correlation of signals and spatial impression in surround sound reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the cross-correlation coefficients of feeding signals and auditory spatial impression(ASI) which are created by the left,right,left surround and right surround loudspeakers in 5.1 channel surround sound system is investigated by psychoacoustic experiments.The results show that for reproducing by the front left-right or left-right surround loudspeakers pair,the auditory source width(ASW) can be broadened by controlling the crosscorrelation coefficients of feeding signals to some e...

  7. Thermal-shock Resistance of a Ceramic Comprising 60 Percent Boron Carbide and 40 Percent Titanium Diboride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, C M; Hoffman, C A

    1953-01-01

    Thermal-shock resistance of a ceramic comprising 60 percent boron carbide and 40 percent titanium diboride was investigated. The material has thermal shock resistance comparable to that of NBS body 4811C and that of zirconia, but is inferior to beryllia, alumina, and titanium-carbide ceramals. It is not considered suitable for turbine blades.

  8. Comparison of Socioeconomic Factors between Surrounding and Non-Surrounding Areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway before and after Its Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s highest railway, and the longest highland railway, the Qinghai–Tibet Railway (QTR has been paid considerable attention by researchers. However, most attention has been paid to the ecological and environmental issues affecting it, and sustainable ecological, social, and economic development-related studies of the QTR are rare. In this study, by analyzing the passenger traffic, freight traffic, passenger-kilometers, and freight-kilometers of the QTR for the period 1982–2013 and the transport structure of the Tibetan Plateau (TP for 1990–2013, the evolutionary process of the transport system in the TP following the construction of the QTR has been revealed. Subsequently, by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP, population, industrial structure, and urbanization level at the county and 1 km scales between surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the QTR, the differences in socioeconomic performance before and after its construction were detected. The results show that (1 in the TP, the highway-dominated transport system will break up and an integrated and sustainable transport system will form; (2 at the county scale, the annual growth rates of GDP of counties surrounding the QTR were greater than those of non-surrounding counties for the period 2000–2010. At the 1 km scale, following the opening of the completed line, the GDP of surrounding areas had a greater growth rate than before; (3 analysis at the county and 1 km scales indicated that population was not aggregated into the surrounding areas of the QTR in the period 2000–2010; (4 in terms of industrial structure, the proportion of primary industry decreased continuously, while the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries increased overall in the period 1984–2012. The QTR had no obvious impact on changes in the urbanization level of its surrounding areas.

  9. Ester Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Garzon, C.S.; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of a process for producing an ester, such as a biobased ester, from an aqueous biomass comprising solution, batch wise or continuously, wherein use of raw material is limited and if possible re-used. The present invention is in the field of green technology.

  10. Ester Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Garzon, C.S.; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of a process for producing an ester, such as a biobased ester, from an aqueous biomass comprising solution, batch wise or continuously, wherein use of raw material is limited and if possible re-used. The present invention is in the field of green technology.

  11. The impact of a massive star cluster on its surrounding matter in the Antennae overlap region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C. N.; Boulanger, F.

    2017-04-01

    Super star clusters (SSCs), likely the progenitors of globular clusters, are one of the most extreme forms of star formation. Understanding how SSCs form is an observational challenge. Theoretical studies establish that, to form such clusters, the dynamical timescale of their parent clouds has to be shorter than the timescale of the disruption of their parent clouds by stellar feedback. However, due to insufficient observational support, it is still unclear how feedback from SSCs acts on the matter surrounding them. Studying feedback in SSCs is essential to understanding how such clusters form. Based on ALMA and VLT observations, we study this process in a SSC in the overlap region of the Antennae galaxies (22 Mpc), a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies. We analyze a unique massive ( 107M⊙) and young (1-3.5 Myr) SSC, still associated with compact molecular and ionized gas emission, which suggest that it may still be embedded in its parent molecular cloud. The cluster has two CO velocity components, a low-velocity one spatially associated with the cluster, and a high-velocity one distributed in a bubble-like shape around the cluster. Our results on the low-velocity component suggest that this gas did not participate in the formation of the SSC. We propose that most of the parent cloud has already been blown away, accelerated at the early stages of the SSC evolution by radiation pressure, in a timescale 1 Myr. The high-velocity component may trace outflowing molecular gas from the parent cloud. Supporting evidence is found in shock-heated H2 gas and escaping Brγ gas associated with this component. The low-velocity component may be gas that was near the SSC when it formed but not part of its parent cloud or clumps that migrated from the SGMC environment. This gas would be dispersed by stellar winds and supernova explosions. The existing data is inconclusive as to whether or not the cluster is bound and will

  12. Composition Comprising Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehregany, Mehran (Inventor); Zorman, Christian A. (Inventor); Fu, Xiao-An (Inventor); Dunning, Jeremy L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of depositing a ceramic film, particularly a silicon carbide film, on a substrate is disclosed in which the residual stress, residual stress gradient, and resistivity are controlled. Also disclosed are substrates having a deposited film with these controlled properties and devices, particularly MEMS and NEMS devices, having substrates with films having these properties.

  13. A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Greece and the surrounding region including site-specific considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mäntyniemi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A probabilistic approach was applied to map the seismic hazard in Greece and the surrounding region. The procedure does not require any specification of seismic sources or/and seismic zones and allows for the use of the whole seismological record, comprising both historical and instrumental data, available for the region of interest. The new seismic hazard map prepared for Greece and its vicinity specifies a 10% probability of exceedance of the given Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA values for shallow seismicity and intermediate soil conditions for an exposure time of 50 years. When preparing the map, the new PGA attenuation relation given by Margaris et al. (2001 was employed. The new map shows a spatial distribution of the seismic hazard that corresponds well with the features of shallow seismicity within the examined region. It depicts the level of seismic hazard in which the exceedance of the PGA value of 0.25 g may be expected to occur within limited areas. The highest estimated levels of seismic hazard inside the territory of Greece are found in the Northern Sporades Islands, where PGA values in excess of 0.50 g are reached at individual sites, and in the Zante Island in Western Greece, where PGA values in the range of 0.35 g to 0.40 g are obtained at more numerous localities. High values are also observed in the sea between the Karpathos and Rhodes islands, near the Island of Amorgos (Cyclades Archipelago and in the Southwestern Peloponnesus. The levels of seismic hazard at the sites of seven Greek cities (Athens, Jannena, Kalamata, Kozani, Larisa, Rhodes and Thessaloniki were also estimated in terms of probabilities that a given PGA value will be exceeded at least once during a time interval of 1, 50 and 100 years at those sites. These probabilities were based on the maximum horizontal PGA values obtained by applying the design earthquake procedure, and the respective median values obtained were 0.24 g for Athens, 0.28 g

  14. An oxygen-rich dust disk surrounding an evolved star in the Red Rectangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, LBFM; Waelkens, C; van Winckel, H; Molster, FJ; Tielens, AGGM; van Loon, JT; Morris, PW; Cami, J; Bouwman, J; de Koter, A; de Jong, T; de Graauw, T

    1998-01-01

    The Red Rectangle(1) is the prototype of a class of carbon-rich reflection nebulae surrounding low-mass stars in the final stages of evolution. The central star of this nebula has ejected most of its layers (during the red-giant phase), which now form the surrounding cloud, and is rapidly evolving t

  15. The Space of an Object: Object Attention Alters the Spatial Gradient in the Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight Jacob; Behrmann, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Although object-based attention enhances perceptual processing of information appearing within the boundaries of a selected object, little is known about the consequences for information in the object's surround. The authors show that distance from an attended object's center of mass determines reaction time (RT) to targets in the surround. Of 2…

  16. Different surrounding landscapes may result in different fish assemblages in East African seagrass beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Grol, M.G.G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have considered how seagrass fish assemblages are influenced by surrounding habitats. This information is needed for a better understanding of the connectivity between tropical coastal ecosystems. To study the effects of surrounding habitats on the composition, diversity and densities of

  17. Surround modulation characteristics of local field potential and spiking activity in primary visual cortex of cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available In primary visual cortex, spiking activity that evoked by stimulus confined in receptive field can be modulated by surround stimulus. This center-surround interaction is hypothesized to be the basis of visual feature integration and segregation. Spiking output has been extensively reported to be surround suppressive. However, less is known about the modulation properties of the local field potential (LFP, which generally reflects synaptic inputs. We simultaneously recorded spiking activity and LFP in the area 17 of anesthetized cats to examine and compare their modulation characteristics. When the stimulus went beyond the classical receptive field, LFP exhibited decreased power along the gamma band (30-100 Hz in most of our recording sites. Further investigation revealed that suppression of the LFP gamma mean power (gLFP depended on the angle between the center and surround orientations. The strongest suppression was induced when center and surround orientations were parallel. Moreover, the surround influence of the gLFP exhibited an asymmetric spatial organization. These results demonstrate that the gLFP has similar but not identical surround modulation properties, as compared to the spiking activity. The spatiotemporal integration of LFP implies that the oscillation and synchronization of local synaptic inputs may have important functions in surround modulation.

  18. Effects of surrounding elements on city image in the sample of Erzurum city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ozer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural elements which are the parts of city identities are shaped as the result of social and cultural characteristics and natural factors. In order to increase visual quality of cities and make cities more liveable landscape architects use not only living materials such as plants but also nonliving materials. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of surrounding elements which are vertical elements in landscape designs, on functional and city aesthetics. With this aim, materials used in surrounding elements around houses in Erzurum, houses surrounded by these elements and their harmony with their surroundings, aesthetics and functional effects were investigated and their contributions to city image were determined. While surrounding elements are mainly adequate in functions, they are lower quality in aesthetics. Some suggestions were offered for the city images that local councils should be careful on and due to Universiade in 2011.

  19. Catastrophe mechanism and disaster countermeasure for soft rock roadway surrounding rock in Meihe mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang⇑; Zhu Caikun; Chong Deyu; Liu Yang; Li Sichao

    2015-01-01

    The soft rock’s heterogeneity and nonlinear mechanical behavior cause extremely difficult maintenance on the soft rock roadway. Aiming at the asymmetric deformation and destruction phenomenon appearing after excavating and supporting the 7101 air return way in Meihe mine, this paper comprehensively adopted a variety of methods to analyze the roadway surrounding rock deformation rule, obtaining the roadway surrounding rock stress and plastic zone distribution rule under no supporting condition and the roadway surrounding rock deformation features under original symmetric supporting condition. Furthermore, this paper revealed the catastrophe mechanism, and proposed the concept of‘weak struc-ture’ and the disaster countermeasure of‘overall stabilizing the roadway and strengthening the support of weak structure’ . The industrial test shows that the disaster control technology can realize the coordination deformation of the supporting structure and roadway surrounding rock, thus significantly controlling the deformation of roadway surrounding rock.

  20. Effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in mining face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang-Xiang Xie; Lei Wang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-12-15

    The mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in longwall mining face were studied, based on the results of in-situ measurement combined with numerical simulation, and the effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell was discovered. The results show that the mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell are influenced by the length of the face. With an increase of mining face length, the level of concentration of shell stress located in the front face and surrounding rock of roadway is amplified and the three- dimensional stress is focused in the working face. The damage lies in the head entry corner of face and the vertical displacement is reduced but horizontal displacement is enlarged. The dynamic balance of surrounding rock stress shell is improved with rational adjustment of face length. It is effective in protecting the working face and controlling strata behavior. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  2. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Watson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.

  3. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovicheva, Anna A; Sheremata, Summer L; Rokem, Ariel; Landau, Ayelet N; Silver, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and receptive field size of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two phenomena that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Experiment 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: (1) surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel), (2) surround orthogonal to the center, or (3) no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS). Cholinergic enhancement decreased thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Experiment 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the targets and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement with donepezil had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early

  4. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kosovicheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and the receptive field sizes of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two tasks that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Exp. 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: 1 surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel, 2 surround orthogonal to the center, or 3 no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS. Cholinergic enhancement reduced thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Exp. 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the target and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early visual cortical

  5. Neural mechanisms of surround attenuation and distractor competition in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Carsten N; Tsotsos, John K; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2011-04-06

    Visual attention biases relevant processing in the visual system by amplifying relevant or attenuating irrelevant sensory input. A potential signature of the latter operation, referred to as surround attenuation, has recently been identified in the electromagnetic brain response of human observers performing visual search. It was found that a zone of attenuated cortical excitability surrounds the target when the search required increased spatial resolution for item discrimination. Here we address the obvious hypothesis that surround attenuation serves distractor suppression in the vicinity of the target where interference from irrelevant search items is maximal. To test this hypothesis, surround attenuation was assessed under conditions when the target was presented in isolation versus when it was surrounded by distractors. Surprisingly, substantial and indistinguishable surround attenuation was seen under both conditions, indicating that it reflects an attentional operation independent of the presence of distractors. Adding distractors in the target's surround, however, increased the amplitude of the N2pc--an evoked response known to index distractor competition in visual search. Moreover, adding distractors led to a topographical change of source activity underlying the N2pc toward earlier extrastriate areas. In contrast, the topography of reduced source activity due to surround attenuation remained unaltered with and without distractors in the target's surround. We conclude that surround attenuation is not a direct consequence of the attenuation of distractors in visual search and that it dissociates from attentional operations reflected by the N2pc. A theoretical framework is proposed that links both operations in a common model of top-down attentional selection in visual cortex.

  6. Concept for the generation of the model designated for the simulation of interaction between enterprises comprising one major construction company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovkina Alla Viktorovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author offers an original concept designated for the generation of the model designated to simulate interaction between the enterprises comprising one major construction company within the framework of the production and logistics chain, comprising production facilities, transport enterprises, construction and assembly companies. The author has identified the factors that may produce an adverse effect on construction operations or cause untimely commissioning of a construction facility. The author employed methods of mathematics to describe the operations performed by each constituent enterprise. A graphic model describing each operation was compiled through the integration of mathematical functions. The model binds specific operations, performed by constituent companies, to deadlines, drives attention to interaction bottlenecks, and makes adjustments to assure reliable attainment of the main goal, that is, the timely commissioning of a construction facility.

  7. Sealing device and method for sealing fractures or leaks in wall or formation surrounding tube-shaped channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    (11) arranged between the second annular flow barrier (8) and a third annular flow barrier (12) and including a sealing fluid activation device (13) adapted to at least initiate or accelerate curing of the sealing fluid (17). In operation, the elongated body may be displaced along the tube......-shaped channel until the sealing fluid activation section is placed at a position where sealing fluid has been ejected by the sealing fluid placement section, and the sealing fluid activation device may be activated. Thereby, sealing fluid may be cured at selected locations along the tube-shaped channel after...

  8. “Dermal dendritic cells” comprise two distinct populations: CD1+ dendritic cells and CD209+ macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa,Maria Teresa; Loncaric, Anya; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Becker, Todd C.; Modlin, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    A key cell type of the resident skin immune system is the dendritic cell, which in normal skin is located in two distinct microanatomical compartments: Langerhans cells (LC) mainly in the epidermis and dermal dendritic cells (DDC) in the dermis. Here, the lineage of dermal dendritic cells was investigated using monoclonal antibodies and immunohistology. We provide evidence that “dermal dendritic cells” comprise at least two major phenotypic populations of dendritic appearing cells: immature D...

  9. Mail-Order Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs): Designing Isoreticular MOF-5 Analogues Comprising Commercially Available Organic Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Richard L.; Lin, Li-Chiang; Jariwala, Kuldeep; Smit, Berend; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of porous materials, are of particular interest in gas storage and separation applications due largely to their high internal surface areas and tunable structures. MOF-5 is perhaps the archetypal MOF; in particular, many isoreticular analogues of MOF-5 have been synthesized, comprising alternative dicarboxylic acid ligands. In this contribution we introduce a new set of hypothesized MOF-5 analogues, constructed from commercially available organic molec...

  10. A Re-configurable On-line Learning Spiking Neuromorphic Processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQiao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm 2 , and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities.

  11. Formation of Massive Stars: Theoretical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Harold W.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews theoretical considerations of the formation of massive stars. It addresses the questions that assuming a gravitationally unstable massive clump, how does enough material become concentrated into a sufficiently small volume within a sufficiently short time? and how does the forming massive star influence its immediate surroundings to limit its mass?

  12. Air Quality in Mecca and Surrounding Holy Places in Saudi Arabia during Hajj: Initial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Barletta, B.; Blake, N. J.; Gartner, A.; Khwaja, H. A.; Meinardi, S.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula experiences severe air pollution yet is highly understudied in terms of surface measurements of ozone and its precursors. Every year the air pollution in Saudi Arabia is intensified by additional traffic and activities during Hajj, the world's largest religious pilgrimage that draws 3‒4 million pilgrims to Mecca (population of 2 million). Using whole air sampling and high-precision measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and 97 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), we performed an initial survey of air quality in Mecca, its tunnels, and surrounding holy sites during the 2012 Hajj (October 24-27; n = 77). This is the first time such a campaign has been undertaken. Levels of the combustion tracer CO and numerous VOCs were strongly elevated along the pilgrimage route, especially in the tunnels of Mecca, and are a concern for human health. For example CO reached 57 ppmv in the tunnels, exceeding the 30-min exposure guideline of 50 ppmv. Benzene, a known carcinogen, reached 185 ppbv in the tunnels, exceeding the 1-hr exposure limit of 9 ppbv. The gasoline evaporation tracer i-pentane was the most abundant VOC during Hajj, reaching 1200 ppbv in the tunnels. Even though VOC concentrations were generally lower during a follow-up non-Hajj sampling period (April, 2013), many were still comparable to other large cities suffering from poor air quality. Major VOC sources during Hajj included vehicular exhaust, gasoline evaporation, liquefied petroleum gas, and air conditioners. Of the measured compounds, reactive alkenes (associated with gasoline evaporation) and CO showed the strongest potential to form ground-level ozone. Therefore efforts to curb ozone formation likely require dual targeting of both combustive and evaporative fossil fuel sources. However, modeling and other measurements (e.g., nitrogen oxides) are also needed to fully understand Mecca's oxidative environment. We also present specific recommendations to reduce VOC emissions and exposure in

  13. THE COMPLEXITY IN COPING CONFLICTING GROUPS IN SURROUNDING NUSAKAMBANGAN ISLANDS CENTRAL JAVA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairu Roojiqien Sobandi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores social and political conflicts in grassroots level, specifically, the challenge of natural degradations on a mangrove-fringed lagoon in Central Java, Indonesia. Segara Anakan is a significant environmental zone, with many unique ecosystem features, all of which are under threat from illegal land reclamation and timber theft, which have caused great damage. This study analyses how conflict arises between groups and how the rulers interact with villagers in Kampung Laut sur-rounding Nusakambangan Island. The result shows, as Reichel et al. (2009 notes, population growth and lagoon sedimentation indeed have directing to crucial conflicts between groups. However, histori-cal and the rulers approach factors also contribute to Kampung Laut conflicts. Long historical journey contribute to the formation of Kampung Laut villagers’ characters. It is the history of Galuh and Mata-ram Kingdoms’ networks through Babad Pasirluhur and Tanah Jawi in conquering Nusakambangan. More importantly, rulers’ policies and state apparatuses approaches also contribute to the creation of Kampung Laut villagers’ identity. The policies are often inconsistent and create more problems than solutions. Thus, dissatisfaction has directing to the creation of Kampung Laut identity marker as rebel-lions. In short, this hard situation led to conflicts between villagers and rulers. Our study suggest that it is very important to bring the state back in on the isolated and poor area like Kampung Laut Sub-District through more affirmative regional public policies and more over create additional income re-sources, for example eco-tourism that could support its sustainable outcomes.

  14. Numerical Analysis of Advanced Displacement in Construction Progress of Tunnel Excavation with Weak Surrounding Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of advanced displacement in construction progress of tunnel excavation with weak surrounding rock is carried out by numerical method and comparison of model test result. In allusion to the problems of regional landslides and extruded large-deformation seriously impacting the stability of rock mass in construction process of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock, the elastic-plastic numerical simulation relying on Liangshui tunnel of Lan-Yu railroad is conducted on mechanical behaviors and deformation steric effect of tunnel construction and the calculation results are compared with the modeling data. The research results show that: the steric effect of excavation face is the dominant factor in the incidence of working face and the stress of surrounding rocks gradually releases from excavation face; the range of 0.5~1 times the cave diameter around rock mass in front of working face is the disturbance range and the key area of stabilization and reinforcement for wake surrounding rock. According to the analysis and construction practice, the supporting structure of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock should be established as soon as possible to control the displacement change of surrounding rock in the range of load-bearing ring, reduce disturbance and improve the self-bearing capability of surrounding rock. Because of the distinct excavation steric effect of weak surrounding rock, the secondary lining structure must be established in time to bear the later pressure and restrict the large displacement of surrounding rock. The research results can provide reliable basis for engineering stability control of analogous tunnels.

  15. Primary study on the "θ" letter type overlying multi-strata spatial structure of mining face surrounded by mined areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua-jun; JIANG Fu-xing

    2007-01-01

    The overlying strata spatial structure academic viewpoint thinks the primary factor which controls the stope presses is the overlying strata spatial structure movement; the spatial structure above the later period coal pillar surrounded by mined areas is the most complex overlying strata spatial structure and study on its evolution law has the important realistic project significance for strata movement control and production safety. The existing research results indicate that the special structure of the first working face of the mine begins to develop lengthways from stratum movement above mined areas and extends level in the exploitation direction. From existing overlying strata spatial structure fundamental research achievement, the spatial structure above the later period coal column surrounded by mined areas have following characteristic: The spatial structure formation is from the top to the lower and from large to small. According to the findings, a formula with the use of rock layer migration angle delta was put forward to estimate isolated island coal column width on which different stratum structure is gonging to form.

  16. Choosing to write the paper format thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, H M; Tipples, G

    1998-04-01

    Graduate students today may be faced with the option of writing either a traditional format thesis or a paper format thesis. In contrast to the traditional format in which the text body consists of four or five chapters, the body of the paper format thesis can be comprised of an introductory chapter, two or more papers written as publishable manuscripts, and a conclusion. In this article, an overview of the paper format thesis is presented and contrasted with the traditional format thesis. The description of the paper format thesis is followed by its advantages and disadvantages for writers and readers. It is by weighing all possible pros and cons, as well as considering one's individual situation, that the graduate student will be able to decide which format of thesis to write.

  17. Surrounding Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Steffensen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in insurance and finance was always intersecting although they were originally and generally viewed as separate disciplines. Insurance is about transferring risks between parties such that the burdens of risks are borne by those who can. This makes insurance transactions a beneficial activity for the society. It calls on detection, modelling, valuation, and controlling of risks. One of the main sources of control is diversification of risks and in that respect it becomes an issue in itself to clarify diversifiability of risks. However, many diversifiable risks are not, by nature or by contract design, separable from non-diversifiable risks that are, on the other hand, sometimes traded in financial markets and sometimes not. A key observation is that the economic risk came before the insurance contract: Mother earth destroys and kills incidentally and mercilessly, but the uncertainty of economic consequences can be more or less cleverly distributed by the introduction of an insurance market.

  18. Analytical Modeling of Electric Field Distribution in Dual Material Junctionless Surrounding Gate MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suveetha Dhanaselvam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, electric field distribution of the junctionless dual material surrounding gate MOSFETs (JLDMSG is developed. Junctionless is a device that has similar characteristics like junction based devices, but junctionless has a positive flatband voltage with zero electric field. In Surrounding gate MOSFETs gate material surrounds the channel in all direction , therefore it can overcome the short channel effects effectively than other devices. In this paper, surface potential and electric field distribution is modelled. The proposed surface potential model is compared with the existing central potential model. It is observed that the short channel effects (SCE is reduced and the performance is better than the existing method.

  19. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...

  20. Erythrocyte folate, plasma folate and plasma homocysteine during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 404 danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess folate and homocysteine status during normal pregnancy and postpartum in a longitudinal setting. METHODS: This study, performed in 1995-1996, comprised 404 healthy pregnant Danish Caucasian women residential in Copenhagen County. Women taking folic acid tablets or vitamin B12...... injections were not included. Dietary multivitamin supplements containing folic acid 100 microg or vitamin B12 1 microg, taken by 34%, were discontinued at inclusion. Participants had normal renal function. Folate status [erythrocyte (Ery-) folate, plasma (P-) folate, P-homocysteine] was measured at 18, 32....../L increased during pregnancy from 0.7% to 19.0% postpartum (P pregnancy from 0.5% to 17...

  1. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma comprise high numbers of T-cell clonotypes that are lost during in vitro culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, P; Kirkin, A F; Siim, E

    2000-01-01

    Melanoma is generally accepted as being an antigenic tumor capable of eliciting T-cell responses that, however, in most cases are inadequate to control tumor growth. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in melanoma lesions comprise clonotypic T cells, indicating the in situ recognition of melanoma......-associated peptide epitopes. Cultured TIL have been studied in order to unveil characteristics of TIL and the interactions of TIL and melanoma cells. Whether in vitro cultured TIL mirrors the in situ situation has, however, been questioned. In the present study we have taken advantage of T-cell receptor clonotype...

  2. 58 mJ burst comprising ultrashort pulses with homogenous energy level from an Yb-doped fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Sven; Klenke, Arno; Gottschall, Thomas; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2012-12-15

    We report on a laser system producing a burst comprising femtosecond pulses with a total energy of 58 mJ. Every single pulse within this burst has an energy between 27 and 31 μJ. The pump is able to rebuild the inversion fast enough between the pulses, resulting in an almost constant gain for every pulse during the burst. This causes a very homogenous energy distribution during the burst. The output burst has a repetition frequency of 20 Hz, is 200 μs long and, therefore, contains 2000 pulses at a pulse repetition rate of 10 MHz.

  3. Stresses and Shear Fracture Zone of Jinshazhou Tunnel Surrounding Rock in Rich Water Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jie; LOU Xiao-ming

    2008-01-01

    Field evidence has shown that large-scale and unstable discontinuous planes in the rock mass surrounding tunnels in rich water region are probably generated after excavation. The tunnel surrounding rock was divided into three zones, including elastic zone, plastic damage zone and shear fracture zone fof assessing the stability of the tunnel surrounding rock. By local hydrogeology, the stresses of surrounding rock of Jinshazhou circular tunnel was analyzed and the stress solutions on the elastic and plastic damage zones were obtained by applying the theories of fluid-solid coupling and elasto-plastic damage mechanics. The shear fracture zone generated by joints was studied and its range was determined by using Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. Finally, the correctness of the theoretical results was validated by comparing the scopes of shear fracture zones calculated in this paper with those from literature.

  4. Analysis of nonlinear dynamic character in the surrounding rock system for deep buried underground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; PENG Hai-you

    2010-01-01

    Combining the field monitoring results of a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing,the dynamic characteristics of the surrounding rock system under high in situ stress was analyzed by phase space reconstruction, calculating correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents. Both the Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents show that the surrounding rock system is a chaotic one. Based on this, a local model was applied to predict surrounding rock displacement, and a nonlinear dynamic model was derived to forecast the interaction of the surrounding rock and support structure. The local method was found to have an extremely small total error. Also, the nonlinear dynamic model forecasting curves agree with the monitoring ones very well. It is proved that the nonlinear dynamic characteristic study is very important in analyzing rock stability and predicting the evolution of rock systems.

  5. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  6. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Seif

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.

  7. Particulate capture efficiency of a vegetative environmental buffer surrounding an animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter emitted from tunnel-ventilated animal feeding operations (AFOs) is known to transport malodorous compounds. As a mitigation strategy, vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs) are often installed surrounding AFOs to capture particulates and induce lofting and dispersion. Currently, ...

  8. Hurricane Gustav Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Gustav made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  9. Hurricane Dennis Aerial Photography: Draft Image Mosaics of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Dennis made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  10. Review of roadway control in soft surrounding rock under dynamic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝炯

    2003-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the soft rock roadway under the dynamic pressure are analyzed. At the same time, the three fundamental approaches for controlling the surrounding rock are proposed, which are improving the surrounding rock strength, lowering the rock mass stress and selecting the reasonable supporting technology. The research results are elucidated, including the distribution of the surrounding rock plastic zone, the movement and damage of the surrounding rock under the dynamic pressure, controlling the floor heave through reinforcing the roadway walls and corners, the new route to develop the roadway metal supporting technique, the key theory and technique for the bolt supporting in the coal roadway, the performance and prospect of the ZKD high-water-content quick-setting material, and so on. Finally, some personally views are put forward about the roadway metal supporting, bolt supporting, new material and the stress-relief under the high stress condition.

  11. Targeting Alzheimer's disease by investigating previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Greunen, DG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty seven acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as potential agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, were designed and synthesised based upon previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the molecular skeleton of the drug...

  12. Divergence in cis-regulatory sequences surrounding the opsin gene arrays of African cichlid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Quin, Kelly E; Smith, Daniel; Naseer, Zan; Schulte, Jane; Engel, Samuel D; Loh, Yong-Hwee E; Streelman, J Todd; Boore, Jeffrey L; Carleton, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    .... We use phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing to examine divergence in conserved non-coding elements, promoter sequences, and 3'-UTRs surrounding each opsin in search of candidate cis-regulatory...

  13. Hurricane Ike Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Ike made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  14. Site Cleanup of Radioactive Isotope Container Rinsing Pool and Surrounding Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope container rinsing pool and surrounding environmental site was a place of fabrication of container, and package, transportation and storage of radioactive isotopes. A heavy contamination existed in this area for burying of some radioactive wastes.

  15. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Read, Jenny C. A.; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Bagney, Alexandra; Caballero-González, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Torresano, Javier; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy populations. One example is the class of effects known collectively as visual surround suppression. For example, the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should be relatively better than controls at detecting visual stimuli that are usually suppressed. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a four-alternative forced-choice detection task where the target was a grating within a 3∘ Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5∘ eccentricity. We compared three conditions, (a) target with no-surround, (b) target embedded within a surrounding grating of 20∘ diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation, and (c) target embedded within a surrounding grating with parallel (same) orientation. Previous results with healthy populations have shown that contrast thresholds are lower for orthogonal and no-surround (NS) conditions than for parallel surround (PS). The log-ratios between parallel and NS thresholds are used as an index quantifying visual surround suppression. Patients performed poorly compared to controls in the NS and orthogonal-surround conditions. However, they performed as well as controls when the surround was parallel, resulting in significantly

  16. Camouflaging in a Complex Environment—Octopuses Use Specific Features of Their Surroundings for Background Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Noam Josef; Piero Amodio; Graziano Fiorito; Nadav Shashar

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiment...

  17. Low-energy neutron flux measurement using a resonance absorption filter surrounding a lithium glass scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Hamidi, S.

    2007-06-01

    The resonance absorption filter technique has been used to determine the thermal/epithermal neutron flux. The main idea in this technique is to use an element with a high and essentially singular resonance in the neutron absorption cross section as a filter surrounding a miniature-type lithium glass scintillator. The count with and without the filter surrounding the detector gives the number of resonance-energy neutrons. Some preliminary results and a comparison with the MCNP code are shown.

  18. P1-13: Color Induction from Surround Color under Interocular Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Kuriki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of surround colors on color appearance is known to subserve color constancy in humans, but how multiple mechanisms in the visual system are involved in this effect is controversial. We used an interocular-suppression technique to examine how the effect occurs at the level higher than the interaction of binocular information. A test color chip (1.7 × 1.7 deg visual angle was presented in a static surround either with continuous-flash suppression in the dominant eye (CFS condition to make the surround inperceptible or without the suppression (no-CFS condition. The surround stimulus was either a Mondrian or a uniform field of the same mean chromaticity. Stimuli were simulated OSA color chips under red, white (D65, or green illuminant color and were presented on a CRT display. Unique yellows were measured by asking the subjects to judge whether the test stimulus appeared reddish or greenish. Two sizes of the surround stimuli (widths of 1 deg and 4 deg were used. Results showed significant shifts in unique yellow even under the CFS conditions, except for the 1 deg uniform-surround condition. Under the no-CFS condition, the shifts showed remarkable difference between subjects, except for the 4 deg Mondrian-surround condition. Interestingly, trends of the shifts showed high consistency within each subject, across conditions. These results indicate that mechanisms at both higher and lower levels than the neuronal site of interocular suppression are involved, and that the color shifts follow each subject's strategy in the higher-order mechanisms when only insufficient clues are available in the surround to estimate illuminant color.

  19. Deformation characteristics of surrounding rock of broken and soft rock roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-xi Wang; Ming-yue Lin; Duan-xin Tian; Cun-liang Zhao [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-03-15

    A similar material model and a numerical simulation were constructed and are described. The deformation and failure of surrounding rock of broken and soft roadway are studied by using these models. The deformation of the roof and floor, the relative deformation of the two sides and the deformation of the deep surrounding rock are predicted using the model. Measurements in a working mine are compared to the results of the models. The results show that the surrounding rock shows clear rheological features under high stress conditions. Deformation is unequally distributed across the whole section. The surrounding rock exhibited three deformation stages: displacement caused by stress concentration, rheological displacement after the digging effects had stabilized and displacement caused by supporting pressure of the roadway. Floor heave was serious, accounting for 65% of the total deformation of the roof and floor. Floor heave is the main reason for failure of the surrounding rock. The reasons for deformation of the surrounding rock are discussed based on the similar material and numerical simulations. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Preictal and ictal neurovascular and metabolic coupling surrounding a seizure focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingrui; Nguyen, John; Ma, Hongtao; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2011-09-14

    Epileptic events initiate a large focal increase in metabolism and cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the ictal focus. In contrast, decreases in CBF have been demonstrated surrounding the focus, the etiology of which is unknown (i.e., arising either from active shunting of blood or passive steal). The relationship between these events and neuronal activity and metabolism are also unknown. We investigated neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling in the ictal surround using optical imaging of light scattering and cerebral blood volume, autofluorescence flavoprotein imaging (AFI), direct measurements of the cortical metabolic rate of oxygen and two-photon imaging of blood vessel diameter in a rat model of ictal events elicited with focal injection of 4-aminopyridine. We discovered a novel phenomenon, in which ictal events are preceded by preictal vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the surround, occurring 1-5 s before seizure onset, which may serve to actively shunt oxygenated blood to the imminently hypermetabolic focus or may be due to small local decreases in metabolism in the surround. Early ictal hypometabolism, transient decreases in cell swelling and cerebral blood volume in the surround are consistent with early ictal surround inhibition as a precipitating event in seizure onset as well as shaping the evolving propagating ictal wavefront, although the exact mechanism of these cerebrovascular and metabolic changes is currently unknown. AFI was extremely sensitive to the ictal onset zone and may be a useful mapping technique with clinical applications.

  1. Fovea-periphery axis symmetry of surround modulation in the human visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Nurminen

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus activates different sized cortical area depending on eccentricity of the stimulus. Here, our aim is to understand whether the visual field size of a stimulus or cortical size of the corresponding representation determines how strongly it interacts with other stimuli. We measured surround modulation of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal and perceived contrast with surrounds that extended either towards the periphery or the fovea from a center stimulus, centered at 6° eccentricity. This design compares the effects of two surrounds which are identical in visual field size, but differ in the sizes of their cortical representations. The surrounds produced equally strong suppression, which suggests that visual field size of the surround determines suppression strength. A modeled population of neuronal responses, in which all the parameters were experimentally fixed, captured the pattern of results both in psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although the fovea-periphery anisotropy affects nearly all aspects of spatial vision, our results suggest that in surround modulation the visual system compensates for it.

  2. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-11-07

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e. 12 and 20 mm for coronary and peripheral sizing, respectively) for different vessel-tissue configurations: (i) blood vessel fully embedded in muscle tissue, (ii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue, and (iii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue with fat covering half of the arterial vessel (anterior portion). The simulations suggest that the parallel conductance and accuracy of measurement is dependent on the inhomogeneous/anisotropic configuration of surrounding tissue, including the asymmetric dimension and anisotropy in electrical conductivity of surrounding tissue. Specifically, the measurement was shown to be accurate as long as the vessel was superficial, regardless of the considerable total surrounding tissue dimension for coronary or peripheral arteries. Moreover, it was shown that the unfavourable impact of parallel conductance on the accuracy of conductance catheter measurement is decreased by the combination of a lower transverse electrical conductivity of surrounding muscle tissue, a smaller electrode spacing and a larger lumen diameter. The present findings confirm that the conductance catheter technique provides an accurate platform for sizing of clinically relevant (i.e. superficial and diseased) arteries.

  3. Plasmonic integrated circuits comprising metal waveguides, multiplexer/demultiplexer, detectors, and logic circuits on a silicon substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M.; Ota, M.; Sumimura, A.; Okahisa, S.; Ito, M.; Ishii, Y.; Ishiyama, T.

    2017-05-01

    A plasmonic integrated circuit configuration comprising plasmonic and electronic components is presented and the feasibility for high-speed signal processing applications is discussed. In integrated circuits, plasmonic signals transmit data at high transfer rates with light velocity. Plasmonic and electronic components such as wavelength-divisionmultiplexing (WDM) networks comprising metal wires, plasmonic multiplexers/demultiplexers, and crossing metal wires are connected via plasmonic waveguides on the nanometer or micrometer scales. To merge plasmonic and electronic components, several types of plasmonic components were developed. To ensure that the plasmonic components could be easily fabricated and monolithically integrated onto a silicon substrate using silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible processes, the components were fabricated on a Si substrate and made from silicon, silicon oxides, and metal; no other materials were used in the fabrication. The plasmonic components operated in the 1300- and 1550-nm-wavelength bands, which are typically employed in optical fiber communication systems. The plasmonic logic circuits were formed by patterning a silicon oxide film on a metal film, and the operation as a half adder was confirmed. The computed plasmonic signals can propagate through the plasmonic WDM networks and be connected to electronic integrated circuits at high data-transfer rates.

  4. Structure and Biophysical Properties of a Triple-Stranded Beta-Helix Comprising the Central Spike of Bacteriophage T4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, Sergey A; Menin, Laure; Shneider, Mikhail M; Engel, Jürgen; Boudko, Sergei P; Leiman, Petr G

    2015-08-18

    Gene product 5 (gp5) of bacteriophage T4 is a spike-shaped protein that functions to disrupt the membrane of the target cell during phage infection. Its C-terminal domain is a long and slender β-helix that is formed by three polypeptide chains wrapped around a common symmetry axis akin to three interdigitated corkscrews. The folding and biophysical properties of such triple-stranded β-helices, which are topologically related to amyloid fibers, represent an unsolved biophysical problem. Here, we report structural and biophysical characterization of T4 gp5 β-helix and its truncated mutants of different lengths. A soluble fragment that forms a dimer of trimers and that could comprise a minimal self-folding unit has been identified. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic core of the β-helix is small. It is located near the C-terminal end of the β-helix and contains a centrally positioned and hydrated magnesium ion. A large part of the β-helix interior comprises a large elongated cavity that binds palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in an extended conformation suggesting that these molecules might participate in the folding of the complete β-helix.

  5. Structure and Biophysical Properties of a Triple-Stranded Beta-Helix Comprising the Central Spike of Bacteriophage T4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Buth

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene product 5 (gp5 of bacteriophage T4 is a spike-shaped protein that functions to disrupt the membrane of the target cell during phage infection. Its C-terminal domain is a long and slender β-helix that is formed by three polypeptide chains wrapped around a common symmetry axis akin to three interdigitated corkscrews. The folding and biophysical properties of such triple-stranded β-helices, which are topologically related to amyloid fibers, represent an unsolved biophysical problem. Here, we report structural and biophysical characterization of T4 gp5 β-helix and its truncated mutants of different lengths. A soluble fragment that forms a dimer of trimers and that could comprise a minimal self-folding unit has been identified. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic core of the β-helix is small. It is located near the C-terminal end of the β-helix and contains a centrally positioned and hydrated magnesium ion. A large part of the β-helix interior comprises a large elongated cavity that binds palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in an extended conformation suggesting that these molecules might participate in the folding of the complete β-helix.

  6. Intelligent algorithms for persistent and pervasive sensing in systems comprised of wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors and mobile infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-04-01

    With the development of low-cost, durable unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it is now practical to perform persistent sensing and target tracking autonomously over broad surveillance areas. These vehicles can sense the environment directly through onboard active sensors, or indirectly when aimed toward ground targets in a mission environment by ground-based passive sensors operating wirelessly as an ad hoc network in the environment. The combination of the swarm intelligence of the airborne infrastructure comprised of UAVs with the ant-like collaborative behavior of the unattended ground sensors creates a system capable of both persistent and pervasive sensing of mission environment, such that, the continuous collection, analysis and tracking of targets from sensor data received from the ground can be achieved. Mobile software agents are used to implement intelligent algorithms for the communications, formation control and sensor data processing in this composite configuration. The enabling mobile agents are organized in a hierarchy for the three stages of processing in the distributed system: target detection, location and recognition from the collaborative data processing among active ground-sensor nodes; transfer of the target information processed on the ground to the UAV swarm overhead; and formation control and sensor activation of the UAV swarm for sustained ground-target surveillance and tracking. Intelligent algorithms are presented that can adapt to the operation of the composite system to target dynamics and system resources. Established routines, appropriate to the processing needs of each stage, are selected as preferred based on their published use in similar scenarios, ability to be distributively implemented over the set of processors at system nodes, and ability to conserve the limited resources at the ground nodes to extend the lifetime of the pervasive network. In this paper, the performance of this distributed, collaborative system concept for

  7. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...... them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply...

  8. Symbol Formation Reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    them vis-à-vis other research at Clark and in American psychology more generally. The second two articles analyse Werner and Kaplan’s notions of ‘distancing’ and ‘physiognomic metaphor’, showing their roots in naturphilosophie and comparing them with contemporary theories. The last four articles apply......Werner and Kaplan’s Symbol formation was published 50 years ago but its insights have yet to be adequately explored by psychology and other social sciences. This special issue aims to revisit this seminal work in search of concepts to work on key issues facing us today. This introductory article...... begins with a brief outline and contextualization of the book as well as of the articles that this special issue comprises. The first two articles were written by contributors who were part of the Werner era at Clark University. They explore the key concepts of the organismic and development, and situate...

  9. Explosions during galaxy formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Martel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As an idealized model of the e ects of energy release by supernovae during galaxy formation, we consider an explosion at the center of a halo which forms at the intersection of laments in the plane of a cosmological pancake by gravitational instability during pancake collapse. Such halos resemble the virialized objects found in N{body simulations in a CDM universe and, therefore, serve as a convenient, scale{free test{bed model for galaxy formation. ASPH=P3M simulations reveal that such explosions are anisotropic. The energy and metals are channeled into the low density regions, away from the pancake plane. The pancake remains essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas lo- cated inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding the pancake. Infall quickly replenishes this ejected gas and gradually restores the gas fraction as the halo mass continues to grow. Estimates of the collapse epoch and SN energy{release for galaxies of di erent mass in the CDM model can re- late these results to scale{dependent questions of blow{out and blow{away and their implication for early IGM heating and metal enrichment and the creation of dark{matter{dominated dwarf galaxies.

  10. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  11. Clustered granules present in the hippocampus of aged mice result from a degenerative process affecting astrocytes and their surrounding neuropil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manich, Gemma; Cabezón, Itsaso; Camins, Antoni; Pallàs, Mercè; Liberski, Pawel P; Vilaplana, Jordi; Pelegrí, Carme

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of pathological granular structures appear and progressively increase in number with age in the hippocampus of several mice strains, markedly in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 mice. In the present work, we performed an ultrastructural study of these granules paying special attention to the first stages of their formation, which have not been previously explored. The analysis of the immature granules allowed concluding that granules are not simple accumulations of molecular waste but the result of a degenerative process involving principally astrocytic processes, although nearby neuronal structures can be also affected. The granule generation includes the instability of the plasmatic membranes and the appearance of abnormal membranous structures that form intracellular bubbles or blebs of variable sizes and irregular shapes. These structures and some organelles degenerate producing some membranous fragments, and an assembly process of the resulting fragments generates the dense-core nucleus of the mature granule. Moreover, we found out that the neo-epitope recently described in the mature granules and localised abundantly in the membranous fragments of their dense-core nucleus emerges in the first stages of the granule formation. On the other hand, with this study, we increase the evidences that each cluster of granules is formed by the granules comprised in one astrocyte. A better knowledge of the causes of the granule formation and the function of the neo-epitope will help in both the interpretation of the physiological significance of the granules and their contribution to the degenerating processes in aging brain.

  12. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...... of GRB host galaxies is affected by the fact that GRBs appear mainly to happen in low-metallicity galaxies. Solving this problem will make it possible to derive the total cosmic star formation rate more reliably from number counts of GRBs....

  13. The Whangaehu Formation: Debris-avalanche and lahar deposits from ancestral Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keigler, Rébecca; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Hodgson, Katherine A.; Neall, Vincent E.; Lecointre, Jérôme A.; Procter, Jonathan N.; Cronin, Shane J.

    2011-10-01

    In the North Island of New Zealand, the andesitic Tongariro Volcanic Centre encompasses the Tongariro complex, the Mt. Ngauruhoe cone, and the country's largest stratovolcano, Mt. Ruapehu. This volcano is surrounded by an equally large volume of Late Quaternary volcaniclastic deposits, forming a circular 'ring plain'. In the southern portions of the ring plain, the Whangaehu Formation provides a critical record of the early Ruapehu activity because such deposits are not preserved on the present Mt. Ruapehu cone. We re-interpret the previously described Whangaehu Formation deposits and their emplacement mechanisms, providing new data to support this through the analysis of key stratigraphic sections, sedimentary structures and features, grain-size distributions, lithologic components, and SEM studies of volcaniclastic material. The Formation in the middle course of the Whangaehu River Valley comprises three principal stratigraphic units representing an estimated volume of c. 1 km 3. The Lower Member comprises a coarse, clast-supported, ungraded, megaclast-rich breccia, with oblique to sub-horizontal fractures indicating that shearing occurred at its base. The Lower Member also contains rip-up clasts from the underlying Tertiary siltstones. An indurated and sheared clast mixture of angular to subangular cobbles and pebbles supports large boulders at the base of the breccias, with fracturing concentrated near the base of this stratum. Pockets of shattered clasts representing monolithological domains, and boulders showing jigsaw fractures indicate collision effects during transportation from source. The breccia is interpreted as a debris-avalanche deposit resulting from a collapse of the southern flank of Ruapehu some time between 180 ka and 45 ka. The Middle Member suggests fluvial reworking of the debris-avalanche deposit interspersed with post-collapse lahar deposits on the ancestral Ruapehu ring plain. The Upper Member reflects an aggradation phase on the southern

  14. Sound velocity profiles (SVPs) in CSV format and PNG image format collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the nearshore surrounding the Elizabeth Islands, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  15. Sound velocity profiles (SVPs) in CSV format and PNG image format collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the nearshore surrounding the Elizabeth Islands, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were collected under a cooperative agreement between the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),...

  16. Thermal shutdown behavior of PVdF-HFP based polymer electrolytes comprising heat sensitive cross-linkable oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, M. S.

    PVdF-HFP (polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolytes comprising cross-linkable PEGDMA (polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) oligomers with thermal shutdown characteristic have been developed. In contrast to the melting mechanism of polyolefin, this new polymer electrolyte possesses a thermal shutdown characteristic by a rapid cross-linking reaction of PEGDMA. The cross-linked PEGDMA network inside the PVdF-HFP matrix can provide the mechanical strength for the electrolytes, while the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers serve as plasticizers for PVdF-HFP to improve the mobility of lithium ions at normal operation temperatures. In addition, the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers can initiate cross-linking upon a sudden rise of temperature and thus provide thermal shutdown protection at elevated temperatures.

  17. Synthesis of Nanoscale Heterostructures Comprised of Metal Nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes, and Metal Nanoparticles: Investigation of Their Structure and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Chopra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional nanoscale heterostructures comprised of multisegment gold-nickel nanowires, carbon nanotube, and nickel nanoparticles were fabricated in a unique approach combining top-down and bottom-up assembly methods. Porous alumina template was utilized for sequential electrodeposition of gold and nickel nanowire segments. This was followed by chemical vapor deposition growth of carbon nanotubes on multisegment gold-nickel nanowires, where nickel segment also acted as a carbon nanotube growth catalyst. The aligned arrays of these gold-nickel-carbon nanotube heterostructures were released from porous alumina template and then subjected to wet-chemical process to be decorated with nickel/nickel oxide core/shell nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were utilized for morphology, interface, defect, and structure characterization. The electrochemical performance of these heterostructures was studied using cyclic voltammetry method and the specific capacitance of various heterostructures was estimated and compared.

  18. An integrated production and inventory model for a system comprising an assembly supply chain and a distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Tsung; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the production and inventory problem for a system comprising an assembly supply chain and a distribution network. A uniform lot size is produced uninterruptedly with a single setup at each production stage. Equal-sized batch shipment policy is applied to the whole system and the number of batches can be varied. All retailers have agreed on a joint replenishment policy with a common replenishment cycle. The objective is to determine the optimal common replenishment cycle, the number of batches of each production stage and retailer, all of which minimises the integrated total cost. Moreover, a new concept is introduced; namely, critical replenishment cycle. The replenishment cycle division (RCD) and recursive tightening (RT) methods are then developed to obtain the optimal solutions to the subject problem. Two theorems are verified to ensure the solutions obtained by the RCD and RT methods reaching the global optimum. An example is presented to illustrate the procedures involved in the RCD and RT methods.

  19. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in melanoma comprise high numbers of T-cell clonotypes that are lost during in vitro culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    thor Straten, P; Kirkin, A F; Siim, E;

    2000-01-01

    -associated peptide epitopes. Cultured TIL have been studied in order to unveil characteristics of TIL and the interactions of TIL and melanoma cells. Whether in vitro cultured TIL mirrors the in situ situation has, however, been questioned. In the present study we have taken advantage of T-cell receptor clonotype...... mapping methodology to conduct a full and detailed analysis of the T-cell clonotypes in melanoma lesions and in corresponding lines of TIL established in vitro. All melanoma lesions and the corresponding TIL cultures comprised high numbers of T-cell clonotypes, typically in the range of 40 to more than 60...... that in situ T-cell clonotypes in melanoma are not readily expanded in vitro and that the majority of T-cell clonotypes present in cultured TIL are not present in situ....

  20. The singular point transition concept: A novel continuously variable transmission comprising planetary gear trains and a variator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà Ayats, J. R.; Diego-Ayala, U.; Artes, F. Fenollosa

    2012-01-01

    The singular point transition concept relates a novel type of continuously variable transmission. This transmission comprises a pair of planetary gear trains and a couple of electric motors, used to control the overall speed ratio. Its singularity lies in the topology of operation, with less than 10% of nominal power circulating through the electric path. This low power level is achieved by segmenting the range of operation of the transmission. To validate this technology, a test bed was built. The transmission presented here is able to provide any output/input speed ratio within the interval of 0:1.55, meaning that it also offers the function of an infinite variable transmission. Description of the system and results of experimental tests are presented. The results showed that the transmission is able to function in the whole range of operation. They also showed that under load conditions the fraction of power transmitted through the electric path is maintained around the design value.

  1. Erythrocyte folate, plasma folate and plasma homocysteine during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 404 danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Hvas, Anne-Mette;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess folate and homocysteine status during normal pregnancy and postpartum in a longitudinal setting. METHODS: This study, performed in 1995-1996, comprised 404 healthy pregnant Danish Caucasian women residential in Copenhagen County. Women taking folic acid tablets or vitamin B12...... status (defined as P-folate homocysteine >13 micromol/L) was 0%, 0%, 1.2%, and 8.4% at 18, 32 and 39 wk of gestation and 8 wk postpartum, respectively. CONCLUSION: Low folate status occurs among Danish pregnant women, especially in late pregnancy and postpartum during lactation. Despite...... injections were not included. Dietary multivitamin supplements containing folic acid 100 microg or vitamin B12 1 microg, taken by 34%, were discontinued at inclusion. Participants had normal renal function. Folate status [erythrocyte (Ery-) folate, plasma (P-) folate, P-homocysteine] was measured at 18, 32...

  2. [Endemic heteroresistant glycopeptide intermediate Staphylcoccus aureus (hGISA) comprising unrelated clonal types and not associated with vancomycin therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecaillon, E; Gueudet, P; Wooton, M; Walsh, T R; Macgowan, A P; Jones, M E

    2002-11-01

    The detection of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (SA) (MRSA) refractory to glycopeptides is a serious clinical issue. The prevalence of hetero-resistant GISA (hGISA) strains at H. Maréchal Joffre, France is reported.858 non-repeat SA were isolated during 1999. 367 (43%) of these, from 257 patients, were MRSA (mean incidence 11.9/1000 admissions). All MSRA detected during 1999 were screened for vancomycin (VAN) resistance (BHI+4 mg/l VAN). Isolates recovered were retested using Etest strips (2 McFarland inoculum on BHI) and population analysis profile/area under the curve (PAP-AUC) analysis with hGISA SA Mu3 as a comparator. 58 selected strains were screened for teicoplanin resistance(TEI) using SFM recommended screen (2 McFarland inoculum on MH+5 mg/L TEI) and MIC (0.5 MF inoculum swabbed on MH agar) methods. 188 (51.3%) grew on VAN screen agar (6.1/1000 admissions). 58 strains (7.6%) possessed Etest VAN MIC > 8 mg/l all others being VAN 8 mg/l). PAP-AUC showed 12 strains to have PAP-AUC ratios > 0.95 but < 1.5 (ie. hGISA, not GISA). All 7 isolates defined as hGISA by both Etest and PAP-AUC comprised 1 PFGE clone (< 3 bands difference). Additionally 2 distinct PFGE types were detected among the other 5 hGISA identified PAP-AUC. The 12 hGISAs, were derived from 12 patients with severe underlying disease. None were on glycopeptide therapy prior to hGISA isolation. This is the first report of endemic hGISA, comprising 3 clonal types. The isolation of hVISA seems not to be associated with patient-specific glycopeptide therapies.

  3. Crystal Structure of DNA-PKcs Reveals a Large Open-Ring Cradle Comprised of HEAT Repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Bancinyane L.; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y.; Blundell, Tom L.

    2009-01-01

    Broken chromosomes arising from DNA double strand breaks result from endogenous events such as the production of reactive oxygen species during cellular metabolism, as well as from exogenous sources such as ionizing radiation1, 2, 3. Left unrepaired or incorrectly repaired they can lead to genomic changes that may result in cell death or cancer. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a holo-enzyme that comprises DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs)4, 5 and the heterodimer Ku70/Ku80, plays a major role in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the main pathway in mammals used to repair double strand breaks6, 7, 8. DNA-PKcs is a serine/threonine protein kinase comprising a single polypeptide chain of 4128 amino acids and belonging to the phosphotidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)- related protein family9. DNA-PKcs is involved in the sensing and transmission of DNA damage signals to proteins such as p53, setting off events that lead to cell cycle arrest10, 11. It phosphorylates a wide range of substrates in vitro, including Ku70/Ku80, which is translocated along DNA12. Here we present the crystal structure of human DNA-PKcs at 6.6Å resolution, in which the overall fold is for the first time clearly visible. The many α-helical HEAT repeats (helix-turn-helix motifs) facilitate bending and allow the polypeptide chain to fold into a hollow circular structure. The C-terminal kinase domain is located on top of this structure and a small HEAT repeat domain that likely binds DNA is inside. The structure provides a flexible cradle to promote DNA double-strand-break repair. PMID:20023628

  4. Development of a living membrane comprising a functional human renal proximal tubule cell monolayer on polyethersulfone polymeric membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schophuizen, Carolien M S; De Napoli, Ilaria E; Jansen, Jitske; Teixeira, Sandra; Wilmer, Martijn J; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Van den Heuvel, Lambert P W; Masereeuw, R.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The need for improved renal replacement therapies has stimulated innovative research for the development of a cell-based renal assist device. A key requirement for such a device is the formation of a "living membrane", consisting of a tight kidney cell monolayer with preserved functional organic ion

  5. Hippocampal formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; van Strien, N.M.; Witter, M.P.; Paxinos, G.

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal formation and parahippocampal region are prominent components of the rat nervous system and play a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Many new details regarding the entorhinal cortex have been discovered since the previous edition, and the growing interest in t

  6. Influence of Surrounding Acupuncture by Cranial MRI Location on Blood Rheology in Apoplectic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Gang-hui; LI Yan-hui; ZHUANG Zi-qi; HUANG Yong; LI Jian-ping; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To study the function of surrounding acupuncture located by cranial MRI on apoplexy. Method: Forty cases of the patients diagnosed as cerebral infarction were divided into the group of surrounding acupuncture by MRI location and the group of traditional scalp acupuncture, 20 cases in each group,and were treated respectively with surrounding acupunc -ture by MRI location and traditional scalp acupuncture,to determine the indexes of blood rheology before and after treatments. Results: There was significant diffe -fence (P<0.01) in comparison of various indexes in blood rheology between the apoplectic patients and healthy adults of same age. In comparison before and after the treatments in the group of surrounding acupunc -ture by MRI location there was significant difference (P<0.01) in various indexes of blood rheology, except ESR and ESR equation K value. In comparison before and after the treatments in the group of traditional scalp acupuncture, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in various indexes of blood rheology, except ESR, sclerosis index and ESR equation K value. Conclusion: The findings indicate that blood becomes thick and flows slowly and resistance increases in blood flow in the apoplectic patients. The two kinds of the needling techniques have an improving function in various indexes of blood rheology in the apoplectic patients and surrounding acupuncture by MRI location was better than traditional scalp acupuncture in improving blood rheology.

  7. Response suppression in v1 agrees with psychophysics of surround masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger-Landolt, Barbara; Heeger, David J

    2003-07-30

    When a target stimulus is embedded in a high contrast surround, the target appears reduced in contrast and is harder to detect, and neural responses in visual cortex are suppressed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and psychophysics to quantitatively compare these physiological and perceptual effects. Observers performed a contrast discrimination task on a contrast-reversing sinusoidal target grating. The target was either presented in isolation or embedded in a high-contrast surround. While observers performed the task, we also measured fMRI responses as a function of target contrast, both with and without a surround. We found that the surround substantially increased the psychophysical thresholds while reducing fMRI responses. The two data sets were compared, on the basis of the assumption that a fixed response difference is required for correct discrimination, and we found that the psychophysics accounted for 96.5% of the variance in the measured V1 responses. The suppression in visual areas V2 and V3 was stronger, too strong to agree with psychophysics. The good quantitative agreement between psychophysical thresholds and V1 responses suggests V1 as a plausible candidate for mediating surround masking.

  8. Enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography: comparison with pathological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; Schepper, A. de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Schelfout, K.; Colpaert, C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kersschot, E. [Department of Radiology, OLV Hospital, Aalst (Belgium); Tjalma, W.A. [Department of Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Weyler, J. [Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    The enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography is correlated with findings from pathological examination. We studied 194 patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MR mammography. Of all malignant lesions presenting with an enhancing surrounding area on MR mammography, morphologic features including long spicules, a ductal pattern, diffuse enhancement or nodules were evaluated and compared with histopathological examination. A double breast coil was used; we performed a 3D FLASH sequence with contiguous coronal slices of 2 mm, before and after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg GD-DTPA, and subtraction images were obtained. In total, 297 malignant lesions were detected at MR mammography and 101 of them had one or more types of enhancing surrounding area. In 49 of the 53 cancers with long spicules and in 49 of the 55 cancers with surrounding ductal pattern of enhancement, pathological examination showed in situ and/or invasive carcinoma. Multiple nodules adjacent to the carcinoma were seen in 20 patients and corresponded with six cases of invasive and ten cases of ductal in situ carcinoma. A diffuse enhancing area next to a mass was seen in ten patients and consisted of carcinoma in all cases: seven in situ and three invasive carcinomas. Enhancing areas including long spicules, a ductal pattern, noduli, or diffuse enhancement surrounding a carcinoma corresponded with in situ or invasive extension of the carcinoma in 92.5, 89, 80 and 100% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  9. Stress and deformation analysis on deep surrounding rock at different time stages and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming; Mao Xianbiao; Yu Yuanlin; Li Kai; Ma Chao; Peng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the deep circular tunnel,the surrounding rock was divided into three regions:the cracked region,the plastic region and the viscoelastic region.The process of rock stress deformation and change was divided into three stages after the roadway excavation.By using the elastic-plastic mechanics theory,the analytical solutions of the surrounding stress and displacement at different stages and the radii of cracked and plastic regions were formulated.We additionally explained the surrounding rock stress and displacement which appeared in practical project.Simultaneously,based on the problem which emerged from a mine in Xuzhou during the excavating process of rock roadway's transport,we got the theoretical solutions for the stress and displacement in the process of rock roadway's excavation and considered that the broken area of rock roadway was largely loosing circle.The results indicate that according to the rheological characteristics of surrounding rock,in the primeval excavation of rock roadway,we should increase the length of anchor bolt and cooperate it with anchor nets cable-U steel supporting frame.In addition,when the deformation rate of the surrounding rock is descending after the 15 days' excavation,we should use the "three anchor" supporting method (anchor bolt spray,anchor note and anchor rope) and set aside about 20 cm as the reserved deformation layer.

  10. Cooperatively surrounding control for multiple Euler-Lagrange systems subjected to uncertain dynamics and input constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Ming; Lv, Yue-Yong; Li, Chuan-Jiang; Ma, Guang-Fu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate cooperatively surrounding control (CSC) of multi-agent systems modeled by Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations under a directed graph. With the consideration of the uncertain dynamics in an EL system, a backstepping CSC algorithm combined with neural-networks is proposed first such that the agents can move cooperatively to surround the stationary target. Then, a command filtered backstepping CSC algorithm is further proposed to deal with the constraints on control input and the absence of neighbors’ velocity information. Numerical examples of eight satellites surrounding one space target illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB720000) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61304005 and 61403103).

  11. Macro mechanical parameters' size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya project's underground power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-hua; ZHOU Chuang-bing; ZHOU Huo-ming; SHENG Qian; LENG Xian-lun

    2005-01-01

    Scale effect is one of the important aspects in the macro mechanical parameters' research of rock mass, from a new point of view, by means of lab and field rock mechanics test, establishment of E~Vp relation, classification of engineering rock mass, numerical simulation test and back analysis based on surrounding rock's displacement monitoring results of Shuibuya Project's underground power station, rock mass deformation module's size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undegroud power station was studied. It's shown that rock mass deformation module's scale effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undeground power station is obvious, the rock mass deformation module to tranquilization is 20% of intact rock's. Finally the relation between rock mass deformation modules and the scale of research was established.

  12. Idea of tourist management of the Radojewo palace park and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mikołajczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a proper tourist trails in the palace park in Radojewo and surrounding areas, according to protected areas requirements, local space management plan, as well as with harmony with natural and landscape values. The ecotourism was found as the only possible kind of tourism in this area. The present areas management is not sufficient, hence the proposition of supplementation presented here, such as information tables and small architecture elements. Radojewo and its surroundings are a high tourism potential areas. The new bicycle trail is proposed in the neighbourhood of the park. It is meant to create a better communication with surrounding areas. Two kinds of pedestrian trails are suggested on the park area together with proper tourist infrastructure. There is also a necessity to assign the palace as a historical object.

  13. ANALYSIS ON INCREMENTAL COHESION OF SURROUNDING ROCK DUE TO PRESTRESSED CABLE ANCHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建中; 闫莫明; 滕年保; 李方政

    1998-01-01

    A new method for determining the incremental cohesion △Cm of surrounding rock due toprestressed cable anchor is presented, and the formulas for △Cm are deduced and ACredistributions also are discussed, based on the two anchorage effects, one is the effect with theprestressed value △Q3 of cable anchor improving the stress state of surrounding rock andincreasing the surrounding rock strength, the other is the fully encapsulated effect. Thedetermined incremental cohesion △Cm is subjected to the model test and field measurement in thereferences, and coincides well with those tested results. The formulas for △Cm can be used indesigning supoport parameters and related numerical analyses of prestressed cable anchor.

  14. Confronting, Confirming, and Dispelling Myths Surrounding ERP-in-the-Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaulieu, Tanya; C. Martin, Todd; Sarker, Saonee

    2015-01-01

    on the topic, there is substantial uncertainty surrounding the benefits and challenges of ERP cloud computing. Consequently, as often is the case with new technologies, popular myths surrounding the technology are used to make adoption and implementation decisions. As a first step toward providing an informed...... with stakeholders related to an ERP cloud-based solution. Our results dispel some of the myths, while supporting others, and highlight how ERP vendors work around the different types of challenges surrounding this technology. Our study also helps understand the benefits of ERP cloud computing, and informs about how...... cloud-based ERP systems will free organizations from the information system “iron cage” and lead to agile organizations....

  15. Context-Adaptive Arithmetic Coding Scheme for Lossless Bit Rate Reduction of MPEG Surround in USAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungyong; Pang, Hee-Suk; Sung, Koeng-Mo

    We propose a new coding scheme for lossless bit rate reduction of the MPEG Surround module in unified speech and audio coding (USAC). The proposed scheme is based on context-adaptive arithmetic coding for efficient bit stream composition of spatial parameters. Experiments show that it achieves the significant lossless bit reduction of 9.93% to 12.14% for spatial parameters and 8.64% to 8.96% for the overall MPEG Surround bit streams compared to the original scheme. The proposed scheme, which is not currently included in USAC, can be used for the improved coding efficiency of MPEG Surround in USAC, where the saved bits can be utilized by the other modules in USAC.

  16. Motion detection, noise reduction, texture suppression, and contour enhancement by spatiotemporal Gabor filters with surround inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Subramanian, Easwar

    2007-12-01

    We study the orientation and speed tuning properties of spatiotemporal three-dimensional (3D) Gabor and motion energy filters as models of time-dependent receptive fields of simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). We augment the motion energy operator with surround suppression to model the inhibitory effect of stimuli outside the classical receptive field. We show that spatiotemporal integration and surround suppression lead to substantial noise reduction. We propose an effective and straightforward motion detection computation that uses the population code of a set of motion energy filters tuned to different velocities. We also show that surround inhibition leads to suppression of texture and thus improves the visibility of object contours and facilitates figure/ground segregation and the detection and recognition of objects.

  17. Effects of Surrounding Information and Line Length on Text Comprehension from the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess McMullin

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web (Web is becoming a popular medium for transmission of information and online learning. We need to understand how people comprehend information from the Web to design Web sites that maximize the acquisition of information. We examined two features of Web page design that are easily modified by developers, namely line length and the amount of surrounding information, or whitespace. Undergraduate university student participants read text and answered comprehension questions on the Web. Comprehension was affected by whitespace; participants had better comprehension for information surrounded by whitespace than for information surrounded by meaningless information. Participants were not affected by line length. These findings demonstrate that reading from the Web is not the same as reading print and have implications for instructional Web design.

  18. Research on the stability analysis and design of soil tunnel surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yingren; Qiu Chenyu; Xiao Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The paper first analyzes the failure mechanism and mode of tunnel according to model experiments and mechanical calculation and then discusses the deficiency of taking the limit value of displacement around the tunnel and the size of the plastic zone of surrounding rock as the criterion of stability.So the writers put forward the idea that the safety factor of surrounding rock calculated through strength reduction FEM(finit element method)should be regarded as the criterion of stability,which has strict mechanical basis and unified standard and would not be influenced by other factors.The paper also studies the safety factors of tunnel surrounding rock(safety factors of shear and tension failure)and lining and some methods of designing and calculating tunnels.At last,the writers take the loess tunnel for instance and show the design and calculation results of two-lane railway tunnel.

  19. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive model for rock mass subjected to blasting shock load was established. Then by using the fast Lagrange analysis codes (FLAC3D, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were analyzed by applying the blasting shock loads obtained from the VCR mining and the damage zone is obtained. At last, the relationship between the amount of explosives and the radius of damaged surrounding rock mass was discussed, and its formula was also derived. The research provides a theoretical basis for rationally controlling stope boundaries and optimizing mining blasting parameters.

  20. Settlement behavior of coal mine waste in different surrounding rock conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-de; LI Xi-bing; HU Bing-nan; CHEN Feng; XU Ji-cheng; LI Di-yuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of complex conditions of in-situ surrounding rocks on the settlement behavior of nubbly coal mine waste subjected to high gravity pressure, four kinds of loading chambers made of different similar materials with different elastic moduli in experiments were used to simulate the deformation features of in-site rocks, including soft, moderate hardness, hard and extra-hard rocks. The results show that all the settlement-axial load (or axial strain-stress) curves obtained under four different surrounding rock conditions present power-exponential function feature. The final settlement of coal mine waste under the same axial load is closely related to the lumpiness gradations and the deformation behavior of chamber materials used to simulate behaviors of different in-situ surrounding rocks. In the same surrounding rock condition, the final settlement under the same maximum axial load decreases with the decrease of the proportion of larger gradation of coal mine waste. While for the same lumpiness gradation case, the settlement increases with the decrease of elastic modulus of simulated surrounding rocks and the lateral pressure induced by axial load increases with the increase of elastic modulus of loading chambers that are used to simulate different surrounding rocks. The test results also reveal that both the compaction curve and lateral pressure curve show a three-stage behavior, and the duration of each stage, which is closely related to gradations and the deformation feature of loading chamber materials, decreases with the increase of the proportion of the small size of coal mine waste and elastic modulus of the simulated rock materials.

  1. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  2. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  3. Galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  4. Galaxy formation through hierarchical clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon D. M.; Frenk, Carlos S.

    1991-01-01

    Analytic methods for studying the formation of galaxies by gas condensation within massive dark halos are presented. The present scheme applies to cosmogonies where structure grows through hierarchical clustering of a mixture of gas and dissipationless dark matter. The simplest models consistent with the current understanding of N-body work on dissipationless clustering, and that of numerical and analytic work on gas evolution and cooling are adopted. Standard models for the evolution of the stellar population are also employed, and new models for the way star formation heats and enriches the surrounding gas are constructed. Detailed results are presented for a cold dark matter universe with Omega = 1 and H(0) = 50 km/s/Mpc, but the present methods are applicable to other models. The present luminosity functions contain significantly more faint galaxies than are observed.

  5. Formation of polar ring galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, F

    2003-01-01

    Polar ring galaxies are peculiar systems in which a gas rich, nearly polar ring surrounds an early-type or elliptical host galaxy. Two formation scenarios for these objects have been proposed: they are thought to form either in major galaxy mergers or by tidal accretion of the polar material from a gas rich donor galaxy. Both scenarios are studied through N-body simulations including gas dynamics and star formation. Constraints on physical parameters are drawn out, in order to determine which scenario is the most likely to occur. Polar ring galaxies from each scenario are compared with observations and we discuss whether the accretion scenario and the merging scenario account for observational properties of polar ring galaxies. The conclusion of this study is that the accretion scenario is both the most likely and the most supported by observations. Even if the merging scenario is rather robust, most polar ring galaxies are shown to be the result of tidal gas accretion events.

  6. The physics of positively biased conductors surrounded by dielectrics in contact with a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Chang, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The physics of a positively biased conductor surrounded by dielectrics in contact with plasma is investigated. It is shown that because of the presence of secondary emission from the surrounding dielectrics, the voltage of the surfaces near the conductor has three solutions. The high- and low-voltage solutions are stable, while the intermediate-voltage solution is unstable. This theory is applied to explain the snapover effect observed on high-voltage solar arrays that involve the use of highly biased surfaces in contact with the space environment.

  7. Conservation and Utilization of a Ramsar Site“ Kabukuri-numa and the Surrounding Rice Paddies"

    OpenAIRE

    淺野, 敏久; 光武, 昌作; 林, 健児郎; 榎本, 隆明

    2012-01-01

    “Kabukuri-numa and the surrounding rice paddies" is the first case bearing the name of “rice paddy" in the Ramsar site of Japan. The residents around this site are aiming at community development and the coexistence of agriculture and geese. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of interviews about the efforts here before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake. And then we consider the problems related to wise use of the Ramsar site including the surrounding rice paddies in...

  8. Study on mechanism and practice of surrounding rock control of high stress coal roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-jun; YANG Lei; OUYANG Guang-bin

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical principle and surrounding rock deformation feature of high stress coal roadway was analyzed. The condition of stress balance of the kind of the roadway was put forward. The surrounding rock control principle and supporting technique of high stress coal roadway were discussed. It was very important to control early days deformation of coal sides. The supporting strength is should increased, so the strength loss of coal sides is decreased. The range of plastic fluid zone is reduced. The above mention-ned principle is applied in industrial test, and the new supporting technique is applied successfully.

  9. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GASTRIC AND COLORECTAL CANCER AND SURROUNDING TISSUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen; ZHANG Qiao; WAN De-sen; CUN Ling-yun; WU Cheng-qiu; PAN Zhi-zhong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the telomerase activities in human gastric and colorectal tumors. Methods: The telomerase activity was assayed by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) technique. Forty human tumor samples including 9 colonic, 20 rectal and 11gastric carcinomas and their surrounding tissues were used for the detection. Results: Thirty-six out of 40human tumor samples exhibited telomerase activity regardless of the stages or the differentiation of the tumors. However, only 1 out of 39 tumor surrounding tissues showed telomerase activity. Conclusion: Telomerase may be a good diagnosis biomarker for tumor detection.

  10. Explanations for preferences in Denmark for surroundings and location of the home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    This paper is based on a survey made in Denmark asking a random selection of the population about their preferences for surroundings and location of the dwelling. The paper tries to explain these preferences by background variables on the respondents and their housing situation and by the interde......This paper is based on a survey made in Denmark asking a random selection of the population about their preferences for surroundings and location of the dwelling. The paper tries to explain these preferences by background variables on the respondents and their housing situation...

  11. Cloud Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  12. The Lymantria dispar IPLB-Ld652Y Cell Line Transcriptome Comprises Diverse Virus-Associated Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced viral susceptibility of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar-derived IPLB-Ld652Y cell line has made it a popular in vitro system for studying virus-related phenomena in the Lepidoptera. Using both single-pass EST sequencing and 454-based pyrosequencing, a transcriptomic library of 14,368 putatively unique transcripts (PUTs was produced comprising 8,476,050 high-quality, informative bases. The gene content of the IPLB-Ld652Y transcriptome was broadly assessed via comparison with the NCBI non‑redundant protein database, and more detailed functional annotation was inferred by comparison to the Swiss-Prot subset of UniProtKB. In addition to L. dispar cellular transcripts, a diverse array of both RNA and DNA virus-associated transcripts was identified within the dataset, suggestive of a high level of viral expression and activity in IPLB-Ld652Y cells. These sequence resources will provide a sound basis for developing testable experimental hypotheses by insect virologists, and suggest a number of avenues for potential research.

  13. Characterization of a spontaneous nonmagnetic mutant of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense reveals a large deletion comprising a putative magnetosome island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schübbe, Sabrina; Kube, Michael; Scheffel, André; Wawer, Cathrin; Heyen, Udo; Meyerdierks, Anke; Madkour, Mohamed H; Mayer, Frank; Reinhardt, Richard; Schüler, Dirk

    2003-10-01

    Frequent spontaneous loss of the magnetic phenotype was observed in stationary-phase cultures of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1. A nonmagnetic mutant, designated strain MSR-1B, was isolated and characterized. The mutant lacked any structures resembling magnetosome crystals as well as internal membrane vesicles. The growth of strain MSR-1B was impaired under all growth conditions tested, and the uptake and accumulation of iron were drastically reduced under iron-replete conditions. A large chromosomal deletion of approximately 80 kb was identified in strain MSR-1B, which comprised both the entire mamAB and mamDC clusters as well as further putative operons encoding a number of magnetosome-associated proteins. A bacterial artificial chromosome clone partially covering the deleted region was isolated from the genomic library of wild-type M. gryphiswaldense. Sequence analysis of this fragment revealed that all previously identified mam genes were closely linked with genes encoding other magnetosome-associated proteins within less than 35 kb. In addition, this region was remarkably rich in insertion elements and harbored a considerable number of unknown gene families which appeared to be specific for magnetotactic bacteria. Overall, these findings suggest the existence of a putative large magnetosome island in M. gryphiswaldense and other magnetotactic bacteria.

  14. Antigenicity of peptides comprising the immunosuppressive domain of the retroviral envelope glycoprotein [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Jenkins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve persistent infection of the host, viruses often subvert or suppress host immunity through mechanisms that are not entirely understood. The envelope glycoprotein of several retroviruses is thought to possess potent immunosuppressive activity, mapped to a 17-amino acid residue conserved domain. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this immunosuppressive domain can inhibit lymphocyte activation, whereas mutation of key domain residues can increase the lymphocyte response to linked antigenic epitopes. Using three T cell receptors (TCRs of defined specificity, we examine the effect of the immunosuppressive domain on the T cell response to their respective antigenic peptides. We find that fusion of a T cell epitope to the immunosuppressive domain can greatly modulate its potency. However, the effects heavily depend on the particular combination of TCR and peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II (pMHC II, and are mimicked by sequence-scrambled peptides of similar length, suggesting they operate at the level of TCR-pMHC interaction. These results offer an alternative explanation for the immunogenicity of T cell epitopes comprising the putative immunosuppressive domain, which is more consistent with an effect on peptide antigenicity than true immunosuppressive activity.

  15. Preparation and characterization of biopolymers comprising chitosan-grafted-ENR via acid-induced reaction of ENR50 with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. H. Mas Haris

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first detailed tailored-approach for the preparation of biopolymers comprising chitosan (CTS grafted onto the backbone of epoxidized natural rubber (CTS-g-ENR. In a typical experiment, appropriate amount of CTS and AlCl3•6H2O was added to a specified amount of ENR50 (ENR with about 50% epoxy content dissolved in a dual-solvent consisting of 1,4-dioxane and water (97.5:2.5% v/v and the resulting mixture refluxed with continuous stirring for 6 hours. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectral analysis of a biocomposite, CTS-g-ENR-P1, revealed that its epoxy content is 22.36% which is considerably lower than 44.93% as determined for ENR50-control (ENR50 derivative obtained under similar experimental condition but in the absence of CTS. This means that the grafting of CTS onto the backbone of ENR had occurred. The revelation is affirmed by the presence of the characteristic absorption bands of CTS and ENR, and the appearance of new bands at 1219, 902 and 733 cm–1 in the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrum of CTS-g-ENR-P1. Further evidence that CTS had been successfully grafted onto the backbone of ENR can be deduced and described in this paper from the data obtained by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetric analysis, Thermogravimetric analysis and Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  16. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p=0.004 to 34.6% (p=0.05 in the APAP and 46.3% (p<0.001 to 29.9% (p=0.02 in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage.

  17. Exhaustive Analysis of a Genotype Space Comprising 10(15 Central Carbon Metabolisms Reveals an Organization Conducive to Metabolic Innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Rzgar Hosseini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available All biological evolution takes place in a space of possible genotypes and their phenotypes. The structure of this space defines the evolutionary potential and limitations of an evolving system. Metabolism is one of the most ancient and fundamental evolving systems, sustaining life by extracting energy from extracellular nutrients. Here we study metabolism's potential for innovation by analyzing an exhaustive genotype-phenotype map for a space of 10(15 metabolisms that encodes all possible subsets of 51 reactions in central carbon metabolism. Using flux balance analysis, we predict the viability of these metabolisms on 10 different carbon sources which give rise to 1024 potential metabolic phenotypes. Although viable metabolisms with any one phenotype comprise a tiny fraction of genotype space, their absolute numbers exceed 10(9 for some phenotypes. Metabolisms with any one phenotype typically form a single network of genotypes that extends far or all the way through metabolic genotype space, where any two genotypes can be reached from each other through a series of single reaction changes. The minimal distance of genotype networks associated with different phenotypes is small, such that one can reach metabolisms with novel phenotypes--viable on new carbon sources--through one or few genotypic changes. Exceptions to these principles exist for those metabolisms whose complexity (number of reactions is close to the minimum needed for viability. Increasing metabolic complexity enhances the potential for both evolutionary conservation and evolutionary innovation.

  18. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  19. A ternary complex comprising transportin1, Rab8 and the ciliary targeting signal directs proteins to ciliary membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madugula, Viswanadh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The sensory functions of cilia are dependent on the enrichment of cilium-resident proteins. Although it is known that ciliary targeting signals (CTSs) specifically target ciliary proteins to cilia, it is still unclear how CTSs facilitate the entry and retention of cilium-resident proteins at the molecular level. We found that non-ciliary membrane reporters can passively diffuse into cilia through the lateral transport pathway, and the translocation of membrane reporters through the ciliary diffusion barrier is facilitated by importin binding motifs and domains. Screening known CTSs of ciliary membrane residents uncovered that fibrocystin, photoreceptor retinol dehydrogenase, rhodopsin and retinitis pigmentosa 2 interact with transportin1 (TNPO1) through previously identified CTSs. We further discovered that a new ternary complex, comprising TNPO1, Rab8 and a CTS, can assemble or disassemble under the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of Rab8. Our study suggests a new mechanism in which the TNPO1–Rab8–CTS complex mediates selective entry into and retention of cargos within cilia. PMID:27633000

  20. Design, analysis, and characterization of stress-engineered 3D microstructures comprised of PECVD silicon oxide and nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Chia-Hsing; Turner, Kevin T.

    2016-06-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are typically 2D or quasi-3D structures fabricated using surface and bulk micromachining processes. In this work, an approach for 3D structure fabrication based on stress engineering is demonstrated. Specifically, sub-mm 3D spherical cage-like structures are realized through the deformation of bilayers of residually-stressed silicon oxide and silicon nitride with micrometer-scale thicknesses. Analytical and finite models to predict the shape of stress-engineered structures based on geometry and residual stress are described and used for structure design. A systematic experimental study was performed to quantify residual stresses in silicon nitride films made by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The measurements show that the residual stress of PECVD silicon nitride can be tuned over a wide range of tensile stresses through the control of deposition parameters, such as flow rate and power. Stress engineered 3D cage-like structures comprised of PECVD silicon nitride and oxide films were fabricated. 3D structures with a range of curvatures were demonstrated. The measured geometry of the fabricated structures are in good agreement with predictions from analytical and finite element models.

  1. Thermal Resistance across Interfaces Comprising Dimensionally Mismatched Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Junctions in 3D Carbon Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungkyu Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is employed to study thermal resistance across interfaces comprising dimensionally mismatched junctions of single layer graphene floors with (6,6 single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT pillars in 3D carbon nanomaterials. Results obtained from unit cell analysis indicate the presence of notable interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction (along the longitudinal axis of the SWCNTs but negligible resistance in the in-plane direction along the graphene floor. The interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction is understood to be due to the change in dimensionality as well as phonon spectra mismatch as the phonons propagate from SWCNTs to the graphene sheet and then back again to the SWCNTs. The thermal conductivity of the unit cells was observed to increase nearly linearly with an increase in cell size, that is, pillar height as well as interpillar distance, and approaches a plateau as the pillar height and the interpillar distance approach the critical lengths for ballistic thermal transport in SWCNT and single layer graphene. The results indicate that the thermal transport characteristics of these SWCNT-graphene hybrid structures can be tuned by controlling the SWCNT-graphene junction characteristics as well as the unit cell dimensions.

  2. Maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence in mice: transcriptome analysis of non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) and surrounded nucleolus (SN) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun-Yu; Li, Mo; Luo, Yi-Bo; Song, Shuhui; Tian, Dongmei; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Liu, Zhonghua; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2013-06-15

    During mouse antral follicle development, the oocyte chromatin gradually transforms from a less condensed state with no Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (NSN) to a fully condensed chromatin state with a Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (SN). Compared with SN oocytes, NSN oocytes display a higher gene transcription activity and a lower rate of meiosis resumption (G2/M transition), and they are mostly arrested at the two-cell stage after in vitro fertilization. To explore the differences between NSN and SN oocytes, and the maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence, we compared the whole-transcriptome profiles between NSN and SN oocytes. First, we found that the NSN and SN oocytes were different in their metabolic pathways. In the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, the SN oocytes tend to produce diacylglycerol, whereas the NSN oocytes tend to produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. For energy production, the SN oocytes and NSN oocytes differed in the gluconeogenesis and in the synthesis processes. Second, we also found that the key genes associated with oocyte meiosis and/or preimplantation embryo development were differently expressed in the NSN and SN oocytes. Our results illustrate that during the NSN-SN transition, the oocytes change their metabolic activities and accumulate maternal factors for further oocyte maturation and post-fertilization embryo development.

  3. Characterization and in vitro phase I microsomal metabolism of designer benzodiazepines - an update comprising adinazolam, cloniprazepam, fonazepam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam, metizolam and nitrazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Bisel, Philippe; Franz, Florian; Huppertz, Laura M; Auwärter, Volker

    2016-11-01

    Designer benzodiazepines represent an emerging class of new psychoactive substances. While other classes of new psychoactive substances such as cannabinoid receptor agonists and designer stimulants are mainly consumed for hedonistic reasons, designer benzodiazepines may also be consumed as 'self-medication' by persons suffering from anxiety or other psychiatric disorders or as stand-by 'antidote' by users of stimulant and hallucinogenic drugs. In the present study, five benzodiazepines (adinazolam, cloniprazepam, fonazepam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam and nitrazolam) and one thienodiazepine (metizolam) offered as 'research chemicals' on the Internet were characterized and their main in vitro phase I metabolites tentatively identified after incubation with pooled human liver microsomes. For all compounds, the structural formula declared by the vendor was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight MS analysis. The detected in vitro phase I metabolites of adinazolam were N-desmethyladinazolam and N-didesmethyladinazolam. Metizolam showed a similar metabolism to other thienodiazepines comprising monohydroxylations and dihydroxylation. Cloniprazepam was metabolized to numerous metabolites with the main metabolic steps being N-dealkylation, hydroxylation and reduction of the nitro function. It has to be noted that clonazepam is a metabolite of cloniprazepam, which may lead to difficulties when interpreting analytical findings. Nitrazolam and fonazepam both underwent monohydroxylation and reduction of the nitro function. In the case of 3-OH-phenazepam, no in vitro phase I metabolites were detected. Formation of licensed benzodiazepines (clonazepam after uptake of cloniprazepam) and the sale of metabolites of prescribed benzodiazepines (fonazepam, identical to norflunitrazepam, and 3-hydroxyphenazepam) present the risk of incorrect interpretation of

  4. Repairing rabbit radial defects by combining bone marrow stroma stem cells with bone scaffold material comprising a core-cladding structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Liu, G H; Wu, Q; Yu, B

    2015-10-05

    We prepared a bone scaffold material comprising a PLGA/β-TCP core and a Type I collagen cladding, and recombined it with bone marrow stroma stem cells (BMSCs) to evaluate its potential for use in bone tissue engineering by in vivo and in vitro experiments. PLGA/β-TCP without a cladding was used for comparison. The adherence rate of the BMSCs to the scaffold was determined by cell counting. Cell proliferation rate was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The osteogenic capability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase activity. The scaffold materials were recombined with the BMSCs and implanted into a large segmental rabbit radial defect model to evaluate defect repair. Osteogenesis was assessed in the scaffold materials by histological and double immunofluorescence labeling, etc. The adherence number, proliferation number, and alkaline phosphatase expression of the cells on the bone scaffold material with core-cladding structure were significantly higher than the corresponding values in the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold material (P cladding structure completely degraded at the bone defect site and bone formation was completed. The rabbit large sentimental radial defect was successfully repaired. The degradation and osteogenesis rates matched well. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure exhibited better osteogenic activity and capacity to repair a large segmental bone defect compared to the PLGA/β-TCP composite scaffold. The bone scaffold with core-cladding structure has excellent physical properties and biocompatibility. It is an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  5. A hybrid protein comprising ATF domain of pro-UK and VAS, an angiogenesis inhibitor, is a potent candidate for targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiming; Xu, Qian; Dong, Xiangbai; Cao, Lin; Huang, Xiaofeng; Hu, Qingang; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2008-08-15

    Directional and controllable degradation of extracellular matrix mediated by the uPA-uPA receptor (uPAR) system is ubiquitously implicated in tumor establishment, invasion and metastasis. Targeting the excessive activation of this system as well as the proliferation of the tumor vascular endothelial cell would be expected to prevent tumor neovasculature and halt the tumor development. In this study, we created a fusion protein (ALV), comprising the aminoterminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase and VAS, the antiangiogenic functional domain of vasostatin. The antitumor activity of this hybrid molecule was evaluated with both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Cell adhesion and motility assays demonstrated that ALV, owing to its ATF moiety, could interact with uPAR on the tumor cell surface with high affinity and specificity, and thereby might competitively inhibit the plasmin activation by localized urokinase and contribute to the suppression of tumor invasion. These results and speculations were validated by zymography assay and Matrigel invasion assay. In addition, ALV exhibited an improved inhibitory efficacy against endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and capillary vessel formation in a 3D angiogenesis model, proving that ATF and VAS, when fused into a chimeric molecule, cooperatively inhibited angiogenesis by targeting both the interaction of uPA and uPAR on cell surface (by ATF) and EC proliferation (mainly by VAS). Animal model confirmed that, at the same molar dose, ALV produced significantly higher therapeutic benefit than VAS and ATF in terms of tumor growth delay and mice survival prolongation. Conclusively coupling VAS with the uPAR ligand ATF resulted in an improved antineoplastic activity, which may show a novel avenue for the design of tumor therapeutic drugs. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Method for Covering Particles, Especially a Battery Electrode Material Particles, and Particles Obtained with Such Method and a Battery Comprising Such Particle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, E.M.; Van Ommen, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    A method for covering particles having a diameter of maximally 60 mum by means of atomic layer deposition, whereby said method comprises the step of fluidizing said particles in a fluidized bed reactor using a first reactant gas comprising a first reactant for substantially completely covering said

  7. Formation mechanism and model for sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin, East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Pilong; PANG; Xiongqi; CHEN; Dongxia; ZHANG; Shanwen

    2004-01-01

    The Bohai Bay basin comprises some very important and well documented subtle traps known in China, which have been the major exploration focus and have become a major petroleum play since the 1990s. However, recent exploration showed that the oil-bearing properties of some sand lens reservoirs may vary significantly and the accumulation mechanisms for these lithological subtle traps are not well understood. Based on statistical analysis of oil-bearing properties for 123 sand lens reservoirs in the Jiyang Sub-basin and combined with detailed anatomy of typical sand lens reservoirs and NMR experiments, it has been shown that the structural and sedimentary factors, hydrocarbon generation and expulsion conditions of the surrounding source rocks, as well as the petrophysical properties of sand lens reservoirs are the main controlling factors for the formation of sand lens reservoirs. The formation of a sand lens reservoir depends on the interaction between the hydrocarbon accumulation driving force and the resistance force. The driving force is made up of the differential capillary pressure between sandstones and sources rocks and the hydrocarbon diffusion force, and as well as the hydrocarbon expansion force. The resistance force is the friction resistance force for hydrocarbons and water to move through the pore throats of the sand lens. The sedimentary environment, source rock condition and sand reservoir properties can change from unfavorable to favorable depending on the combination of these factors. When these three factors all reach certain thresholds, the sand lens reservoirs may begin to be filled by hydrocarbons. When all of these conditions become favorable for the formation of sand lens reservoirs, the reservoir would have high oil saturation. This approach has been applied to evaluating the potential of petroleum accumulation in the sand lens reservoirs in the third member of the Neogene Shahejie Formation in the Jiyang Sub-basin.

  8. Developmental Changes during Childhood in Single-Letter Acuity and Its Crowding by Surrounding Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Taek; Hamid, Joshua; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Crowding refers to impaired target recognition caused by surrounding contours. We investigated the development of crowding in central vision by comparing single-letter and crowding thresholds in groups of 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. The task was to discriminate the orientation of a Sloan letter E. Single-letter thresholds,…

  9. Inhibitory surround and grouping effects in human and computational multiple object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozgur; Guler, Sadiye; Ogmen, Haluk

    2008-02-01

    Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) experiments show that human observers can track over several seconds up to five moving targets among several moving distractors. We extended these studies by designing modified MOT experiments to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of human visuo-cognitive mechanisms for tracking and applied the findings and insights obtained from these experiments in designing computational multiple object tracking algorithms. Recent studies indicate that attention both enhances the neural activity of relevant information and suppresses the irrelevant visual information in the surround. Results of our experiments suggest that the suppressive surround of attention extends up to 4 deg from the target stimulus, and it takes at least 100 ms to build it. We suggest that when the attentional windows corresponding to separate target regions are spatially close, they can be grouped to form a single attentional window to avoid interference originating from suppressive surrounds. The grouping experiment results indicate that the attentional windows are grouped into a single one when the distance between them is less than 1.5 deg. Preliminary implementation of the suppressive surround concept in our computational video object tracker resulted in less number of unnecessary object merges in computational video tracking experiments.

  10. ALTERNATING METHOD STUDY ON STRESS ANALYSIS OF SURROUNDING ROCK FOR TWO RANDOM GEOMETRY TUNNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱钟; 张路青

    1997-01-01

    The stress analysis of surrounding rock for two random geometry tunnels is studied inthis paper by using Schwarz's alternating method. The simple and effective alternating algorithm is found, in which the surplus surface force is approximated by Fourier series, thus the iteration derivation can be conducted according to the precision required, finally, the stress results with high precision are obtained.

  11. Plastic zone distribution laws and its types of surrounding rock in large-span roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chong; Xu Jinhai; Pan Jianzhong; Ma Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the distribution laws and types of plastic zone of surrounding rock in large-span roadway,we analyzed the distribution laws with different spans and lateral pressures using FLAC3D numerical calculation software.Based on the roadway support difficulty and distribution laws of the plastic zone of surrounding rock,we defined the large-span roadway and classified the types of large-span rectangular roadways.As a result,the distribution laws of the plastic zone on surrounding rock in a rectangular roadway with different spans and lateral pressures were obtained.The results show that the area of the plastic zone on surrounding rock increased with the increase of the spans and lateral pressures,and the plastic zone was symmetrical to the center line of roadway.At λ =0.5,1.0,1.5,and 2.0,the plastic zone presented "addleshape" distribution,"ellipse" distribution."thin and high" distribution and "inverse trapezium" distribution,respectively.In addition,we classified the roadways into four types according to the different lateral pressures and spans,including small-span,moderate-span,large-span and extreme-large-span roadways.

  12. Development of fractures in soft rock surrounding a roadway and their control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuehua; Yao Qiangling; Man Jiankang; Chen Chaoqun; He Lihui

    2011-01-01

    As the excavation of roadway,new fractures will be formed and the pre-existing fractures extend with the redistribution of stress in surrounding rocks.Eventually,fracture zone and bed separation are formed in rocks because of the developed fractures.Therefore,mastering the fracture evolution of surrounding rocks is very important to maintain the stability of roadway.The surrounding rocks of main haulage roadway in a certain coal mine is so broken and loose that the supporting is very difficult.Based on comprehensive analysis of the engineering geological conditions,a sight instrument was used to observe the fractures of internal surrounding rocks.Four indices,i.e.,the width of fracture zone W,the number of fractures n,the width of fractures d and rock fracture designation RFD,are put forward to evaluate the fracture development.According to the evolution rules of the soft rock roadway from this paper,control principles by stages and by regions are presented through the research.At the same time,the best time of grouting reinforcement is determined on the basis of fracture saturation.Field practice shows that the roadway can satisfy normal production during service periods by suitable first support and grouting reinforcement.

  13. Temporal properties of centre-surround interactions in human motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perge, J.A.; Kanai, R.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A recent electrophysiological study revealed that the response to the antagonistic surround of macaque area MT receptive fields is delayed (15 - 20 ms) relative to the centre (Perge et al, 2002 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 43 E-Abstract 3931). We investigated whether this phenomenon,

  14. On the transition to the normal phase for superconductors surrounded by normal conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Kachmar, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    For a cylindrical superconductor surrounded by a normal material, we discuss transition to the normal phase of stable, locally stable and critical configurations. Associated with those phase transitions, we define critical magnetic fields and we provide a sufficient condition for which those...

  15. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the

  16. Perils to pregnancies: on social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Notermans, C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon—a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the

  17. On Sedna and the cloud of comets surrounding the Solar System in Milgromian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Paučo, R

    2016-01-01

    We reconsider the hypothesis of a vast cometary reservoir surrounding the Solar System - the Oort cloud of comets - within the framework of Milgromian Dynamics (MD or MOND). For this purpose we build a numerical model of the cloud, assuming the theory of modified gravity QUMOND. Adopting popular pair $\

  18. Center-surround antagonism in spatial vision: retinal or cortical locus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Mach and Hering had early advanced a model of spatial visual processing featuring an antagonistic interaction between adjoining areas in the visual field. Spatial opponency was one of the first findings when single-unit studies of the retina were begun. Not long afterwards psychophysical experiments revealed a center-surround organization closely matching that found in the mammalian retina. It hinged on the demonstration of reduction of sensitivity in a small patch of the visual field when its surround was changed from dark to bright. Because such patterns inevitably produce borders, well-known phenomena of border interaction could be seen as providing alternative explanations, whose substrate would most likely be in the visual cortex. These competing viewpoints are discussed especially as they pertain to the recent demonstration of spatial differences in the center/surround organization between the normal and affected eyes of amblyopes. To the extent that most findings favor a retinal site for the psychophysically measured antagonism, and that evidence is accumulating for a direct effect on the mammalian retina of stimulus manipulation during visual development, the difference in spatial parameters of center/surround antagonism in amblyopia suggests that the dysfunction in amblyopia begins already in the retina.

  19. Tidal propagation in the Gulf of Khambhat, Bombay High, and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    -diurnal and diurnal constituents at forty-two ports in the Gulf and surrounding areas is sued to define characteristics of the tides. A barotropic numerical model based on shallow water wave equations to simulate the sea level and circulation in the region is used...

  20. Momentum Budget of the atmospheric boundary layer over the Greenland ice sheet and its surrounding seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Angelen, J.H.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van de Berg, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric circulation patterns over the Greenland ice sheet and its surrounding seas are studied by explicitly calculating the momentum budget components, using data of a high‐resolution regional atmospheric climate model. In winter (DJF), the katabatic pressure gradient force (PGF) dominates

  1. Mechanism of zonal disintegration in surrounding rock mass around deep rock engineering and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical behaviors of deep rock mass are different from those of shallow rock mass.Through cases of Jinping II Hydropower Station,the special phenomenon of zonal disintegration in the surrounding rock mass around the diversion tunnels,is analyzed.On the basis of fracture mechanics,a new strength criterion for deep rock mass is derived.The new nonlinear strength criterion that is relative to the rock mass rating classification can be applied to the study of the tensile failure of deep rock mass.Subsequently,zonal disintegration model is established,and the radius of fractured zone and none-fractured zone of deep surrounding rock mass around cylindrical tunnel are obtained,their exact positions and the evolution law of zonal disintegration of surrounding rock mass is determined.To validate the present model,comparison between calculation results and the experiment observation on facture and failure around underground openings is carried out.It is found that the numerical simulation result is in good agreement with the experimental one on failure modes around the hole.Through sensitivity analysis,the effects of stress condition,cohesion and the angle of internal friction on the phenomenon of zonal disintegration are determined.Finally,the present model is adopted in the analysis of the zonal disintegration in the surrounding rock mass around the diversion tunnels in Jinping II Hydropower Station.Meanwhile,the magnitude and distributions of fractured zones are determined by numerical simulation.

  2. Greenhouse Effect: Temperature of a Metal Sphere Surrounded by a Glass Shell and Heated by Sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc H.; Matzner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We study the greenhouse effect on a model satellite consisting of a tungsten sphere surrounded by a thin spherical, concentric glass shell, with a small gap between the sphere and the shell. The system sits in vacuum and is heated by sunlight incident along the "z"-axis. This development is a generalization of the simple treatment of the…

  3. Can Centre Surround Model Explain the Enhancement of Visual Perception through Stochastic Resonance?

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Ajanta

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of centre surround model for simulating the enhancement of contrast sensitivity through stochastic resonance observed in psychophysical experiments. We also show that this model could be used to simulate the contrast sensitivity function through stochastic resonance. The quality of the fit of measured contrast sensitivity function to the simulated data is very good.

  4. The Geomorphology of the surroundings of the Ría de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, A.J.

    1966-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a geomorphological introduction to a series of papers on the sedimentology and weathering phenomena of the Ría de Arosa area. The area contains a large mass of coarse-grained porphyritic granite surrounded by other crystalline rocks. The granite is deeply weathered

  5. Do personal conditions and circumstances surrounding partner loss explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarsen, B.; Smit, J.H; Snijders, T.A.B.; Knipscheer, K.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults, taking into account personal and circumstantial conditions surrounding the partner's death. A distinction is made between emotional and social loneliness. Data were gathered both before and after partner loss. Results

  6. The impact of circumstances surrounding the death of a child on parents' grief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek; Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk; Van den Bout, Jan; Van Der Heijden, Peter G M; Dijkstra, Iris

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted among bereaved parents to examine the relationship between the circumstances surrounding the death of their child and psychological adjustment. Two hundred nineteen couples participated at 6, 13, and 20 months post-loss. Examination was made of two categories of fa

  7. Perils to pregnancies: on social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sijpt, E.; Notermans, C.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon—a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the count

  8. Perils to pregnancies: On social sorrows and strategies surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijpt, E. van der; Notermans, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the local perceptions and practices surrounding pregnancy loss in Cameroon-a topic that has long been neglected in international reproductive health debates. Based on extended periods of anthropological fieldwork in an urban and a rural setting in the East province of the count

  9. Control over Surrounding Rocks Deformation of Soft Floor and Whole-Coal Gateways with Trapezoidal Supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xin-xian; LI De-Quan; SHAO Qiang; SUN Yu-feng

    2005-01-01

    In Gengcun Colliery, Yima Coal Group Co. Ltd.the characteristics of the gateways of thick coal seam and the coal seam is with fully mechanized sublevel caving mining are that the thickness of roof coal seam of gateways is larger, their surrounding rocks are the whole-coal mass and the coal seam is prone to Spontaneous Combustion. With the natural equilibrium arch theory, the reasonable adjacent distance of No.11 mine-type metal supports was calculated in trapezoidal gateways based on these characteristics. Then, in-situ supporting experiments were carried out. The results indicate that under the action of virgin rock stress, the width of broken rocks zone of surrounding rocks is 1.7-2.0 m in return heading and 1.1-1.3 m in going headway. And their surrounding rocks belong to the Ⅳ-type soften rock and the Ⅲ-type common surrounding rock respectively. Therefore, under the movable abutment pressure, the gateways deformation is serious. It is suggested that the designed gateways have to use pre-broadened cross section to suit their deformation. At the same time, the accumulated water on gateway floor must be drained in time. These measures were taken in the 1302 and 1304 coal faces in Gengcun Colliery, and the satisfactory results have been obtained.

  10. Climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems in metropolitan Chicago and its surrounding, multi-state region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica J. Hellmann; Knute J. Nadelhoffer; Louis R. Iverson; Lewis H. Ziska; Stephen N. Matthews; Philip Myers; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the potential impacts of warming temperatures and changing precipitation on plants, wildlife, invasive species, pests, and agricultural ecosystems across the multi-state region centered on Chicago, Illinois. We examine a geographic area that captures much of Lake Michigan, including a complex mosaic of urbanization and agriculture surrounding...

  11. On the Optimal Radiation Bandwidth of Printed Slot Antennas Surrounded by EBGs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Llombart, N.; Gerini, G.; Maagt, P. de

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a design strategy to achieve the maximum bandwidth and efficiency for a printed slot antenna surrounded by EBGs. First the dielectric constant and the thickness of the dielectric slab that guarantees an acceptable front to back radiation ratio is identified. Then electromagnetic

  12. Rheological properties of surrounding rock in deep hard rock tunnels and its reasonable support form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 陈卫忠; 王清标; 郑朋强

    2016-01-01

    Second lining stability, which is the last protection in tunnel engineering, is critically important. The rheological properties of the surrounding rock heavily affect second lining stability. In this work, we used laboratory triaxial compressive rheological limestone tests to study nonlinear creep damage characteristics of surrounding rock mass in construction projects. We established a nonlinear creep damage constitutive model for the rock mass, as well as a constitutive model numerical implementation made by programming. Second, we introduced a new foam concrete with higher compression performance and good ductility and studied its mechanical properties through uniaxial and triaxial tests. This concrete was used as the filling material for the reserved deformation layer between the primary support and second lining. Finally, we proposed a high efficiency and accuracy staged optimization method. The minimum reserved deformation layer thickness was established as the optimization goal, and the presence of plastic strain in the second lining after 100 years of surrounding rock creep was used as an evaluation index. Reserved deformation layer thickness optimization analysis reveals no plastic strain in the second lining when the reserved deformation minimum thickness layer is 28.50 cm. The results show that the new foam concrete used as a reserved deformation layer filling material can absorb creep deformation of surrounding rock mass, reduce second lining deformation that leads to plastic strain, and ensure long-term second lining stability.

  13. Motion detection, noise reduction, texture suppression, and contour enhancement by spatiotemporal Gabor filters with surround inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Subramanian, Easwar

    2007-01-01

    We study the orientation and speed tuning properties of spatiotemporal three-dimensional (3D) Gabor and motion energy filters as models of time-dependent receptive fields of simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). We augment the motion energy operator with surround suppression to

  14. Discovery of an ammonia shell surrounding the LBV nebula G79.29+0.46

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, J R; Jimenez-Esteban, F M; Henkel, C

    2014-01-01

    The surroundings of Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars are excellent laboratories to study the effects of their high UV radiation, powerful winds, and strong ejection events onto the surrounding gas and dust. The LBV G79.29+0.46 powered two concentric infrared rings which may interact with the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G79.3+0.3. The Effelsberg 100m telescope was used to observe the NH_3 (1,1), (2,2) emission surrounding G79.29+0.46 and the IRDC. In addition, we observed particular positions in the (3,3) transition toward the strongest region of the IRDC. We report here the first coherent shell-like structure of dense NH_3 gas associated with an evolved massive star. The shell, two or three orders of magnitude more tenuous than the IRDC, is well traced in both ammonia lines, and surrounds the ionized nebula. The NH_3 emission in the IRDC is characterized by a low and uniform rotational temperature (T_rot ~ 10 K) and moderately high opacities in the (1,1) line. The rest of the observed field is spotted by war...

  15. Homogamy and Intermarriage of Japanese and Japanese Americans with Whites Surrounding World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Berg, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Although some sociologists have suggested that Japanese Americans quickly assimilated into mainstream America, scholars of Japanese America have highlighted the heightened exclusion that the group experienced. This study tracked historical shifts in the exclusion level of Japanese and Japanese Americans in the United States surrounding World War…

  16. Do personal conditions and circumstances surrounding partner loss explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baarsen, B.; Smit, J.H; Snijders, T.A.B.; Knipscheer, K.P.M.

    This longitudinal study aims to explain loneliness in newly bereaved older adults, taking into account personal and circumstantial conditions surrounding the partner's death. A distinction is made between emotional and social loneliness. Data were gathered both before and after partner loss. Results

  17. The Geomorphology of the surroundings of the Ría de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, A.J.

    1966-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a geomorphological introduction to a series of papers on the sedimentology and weathering phenomena of the Ría de Arosa area. The area contains a large mass of coarse-grained porphyritic granite surrounded by other crystalline rocks. The granite is deeply weathered

  18. The Didactical Contract Surrounding CAS When Changing Teachers in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Misfeldt, Morten; Marcussen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses three empirical examples of Computer Algebra System (CAS) use in a Danish upper secondary school mathematics class that had experienced a recent change of teacher. All examples lead to didactical problems surrounding the situation and unclear expectations between teacher and students, involving loss of students' mathematical…

  19. Bird community in an Araucaria forest fragment in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Scherer-Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of the bird community in a small forest fragment was evaluated along seven years in relation to changes in the surrounding landscape. The study area is an Araucaria forest fragment in Southern Brazil (state of Paraná. The sampling period covered the years 1988 through 1994 and the mark-release-recapture method was utilized. The landscape analysis was based on Landsat TM images, and changes in exotic tree plantations, native forest, open areas (agriculture, pasture, bare soil, and abandoned field, and "capoeira"(native vegetation < 2 m were quantified. The relationship between landscape changes and changes in abundance diversity of forest birds, open-area birds, forest-edge birds, and bamboo specialists was evaluated. Richness estimates were run for each year studied. The richness recorded in the study area comprised 96 species. The richness estimates were 114, 118 and 110 species for Chao 1, Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap, respectively. The bird community varied in species richness, abundance and diversity from year to year. As for species diversity, 1991, 1993 and 1994 were significantly different from the other years. Changes in the landscape contributed to the increase in abundance and richness for the groups of forest, open-area and bamboo-specialist species. An important factor discussed was the effect of the flowering of "taquara" (Poaceae, which contributed significantly to increasing richness of bamboo seed eaters, mainly in 1992 and 1993. In general, the results showed that landscape changes affected the dynamics and structure of the bird community of this forest fragment over time, and proved to have an important role in conservation of the avian community in areas of intensive forestry and agricultural activities.

  20. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  1. The Therapeutic role of Magnesium in different depressive syndromes of the male population comprising of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *N. Bano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic and fundamental role of Mg as being the second most abundant intercellular cation is established in various studies. It is identified as a divalent metal cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions involving energy metabolism and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. The biological function is identified in neuromuscular excitability. Mg ion regulates calcium ion flow in neuronal channels, helping to regulate neuronal Nitric Oxide production1. Mg deficiency causes NMDA coupled Calcium channels to be biased towards opening, causing neuronal injury & neurological dysfunction, which may appear to humans as major depression. The present study confirms a reduction in the symptoms of depression found in the male population comprising of different age group by Mg treatment. CSF Mg has been found low in treatment resistant suicidal depression. Brain Mg is also low in TRD using phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance Spectroscopy2. A 2009 randomized clinical trial shows that Mg therapy was an effective as TCAs in depressed diabetics. Increase in brain Mg enhances both short term synaptic facilitation and long term potentiation and improves learning and memory function3 The present study is based on findings that male subjects diagnosed as depressed showed a marked reduction in behavioral and somatic features of the disease after administration of Magnesium supplement. Physiological and somatic anxiety was also alleviated in a certain age group which displayed recovery from Insomnia and agitation. Suicidal tendency was also negative in all age groups. This study focuses on the behavioral and somatic responses pertaining to brain biochemical changes induced by Magnesium therapy.

  2. Influence on Learning of a Collaborative Learning Method Comprising the Jigsaw Method and Problem-based Learning (PBL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kayoko; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masukawa, Hiroyuki; Shimamori, Yoshimitsu

    2017-01-01

     Recently, the practice of active learning has spread, increasingly recognized as an essential component of academic studies. Classes incorporating small group discussion (SGD) are conducted at many universities. At present, assessments of the effectiveness of SGD have mostly involved evaluation by questionnaires conducted by teachers, by peer assessment, and by self-evaluation of students. However, qualitative data, such as open-ended descriptions by students, have not been widely evaluated. As a result, we have been unable to analyze the processes and methods involved in how students acquire knowledge in SGD. In recent years, due to advances in information and communication technology (ICT), text mining has enabled the analysis of qualitative data. We therefore investigated whether the introduction of a learning system comprising the jigsaw method and problem-based learning (PBL) would improve student attitudes toward learning; we did this by text mining analysis of the content of student reports. We found that by applying the jigsaw method before PBL, we were able to improve student attitudes toward learning and increase the depth of their understanding of the area of study as a result of working with others. The use of text mining to analyze qualitative data also allowed us to understand the processes and methods by which students acquired knowledge in SGD and also changes in students' understanding and performance based on improvements to the class. This finding suggests that the use of text mining to analyze qualitative data could enable teachers to evaluate the effectiveness of various methods employed to improve learning.

  3. The Alternaria genomes database: a comprehensive resource for a fungal genus comprised of saprophytes, plant pathogens, and allergenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ha X; Pryor, Barry; Peever, Tobin; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2015-03-25

    Alternaria is considered one of the most common saprophytic fungal genera on the planet. It is comprised of many species that exhibit a necrotrophic phytopathogenic lifestyle. Several species are clinically associated with allergic respiratory disorders although rarely found to cause invasive infections in humans. Finally, Alternaria spp. are among the most well known producers of diverse fungal secondary metabolites, especially toxins. We have recently sequenced and annotated the genomes of 25 Alternaria spp. including but not limited to many necrotrophic plant pathogens such as A. brassicicola (a pathogen of Brassicaceous crops like cabbage and canola) and A. solani (a major pathogen of Solanaceous plants like potato and tomato), and several saprophytes that cause allergy in human such as A. alternata isolates. These genomes were annotated and compared. Multiple genetic differences were found in the context of plant and human pathogenicity, notably the pro-inflammatory potential of A. alternata. The Alternaria genomes database was built to provide a public platform to access the whole genome sequences, genome annotations, and comparative genomics data of these species. Genome annotation and comparison were performed using a pipeline that integrated multiple computational and comparative genomics tools. Alternaria genome sequences together with their annotation and comparison data were ported to Ensembl database schemas using a self-developed tool (EnsImport). Collectively, data are currently hosted using a customized installation of the Ensembl genome browser platform. Recent efforts in fungal genome sequencing have facilitated the studies of the molecular basis of fungal pathogenicity as a whole system. The Alternaria genomes database provides a comprehensive resource of genomics and comparative data of an important saprophytic and plant/human pathogenic fungal genus. The database will be updated regularly with new genomes when they become available. The

  4. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 2, Big Hill Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-08-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 2 focuses on the Big Hill SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  5. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  6. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 4, West Hackberry site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 4 focuses on the West Hackberry SPR site, located in southwestern Louisiana. Volumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  7. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 1, Bayou Choctaw site, Louisiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-10-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 1 focuses on the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, located in southern Louisiana. Volumes 2, 3, and 4, respectively, present images for the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, the Bryan Mound SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  8. Nitration of Norcorrolatonickel(II): First Observation of a Diatropic Current in a System Comprising a Norcorrole Ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhihong; Li, Xiaofang; Stępień, Marcin; Chmielewski, Piotr J

    2016-03-14

    A one-pot reaction of 5,14-bis(mesityl)-norcorrolatonickel(II) with isoamyl nitrite under mild reaction conditions resulted in the consecutive formation of 3-nitro-, 3,12-dinitro- and 3,16-dinitro-, 3,7,12-trinitro-, and 3,7,12,16-tetranitro-norcorrolatonickel(II) in 50-80% yield. The substituted macrocycles retained their antiaromatic character. The observed regioselectivity of the substitution was analyzed by comparing the relative energies of the DFT energy-optimized models of the radical or arenium cationic intermediates that can be formed upon reaction with NO2. The nitrated systems were characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry, NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, cyclic voltammetry, and DFT calculations. A significant and systematic cathodic shift of the redox couples was observed to correlate with an increasing number of the NO2 group. A decrease of the LUMO energies in the tri- and tetra-nitrated products stabilizes mono- and bis-reduced complexes of these ligands. The reduction takes place on the macrocycle rather than on the metal ion leading to the consecutive formation of stable paramagnetic monoanion radicals and water-soluble diamagnetic dianions with an aromatic character, which were revealed by ESR and (1)H NMR measurements, respectively. The electronic structures of the reduced forms were analyzed by extensive TD-DFT calculations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Relationship between the number of cells surrounding oocytes and energy states of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Yasuhisa; Ichinose, Tomoya; Ogawa, Kaori; Itami, Nobuhiko; Tasaki, Hidetaka; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-10-15

    Lipid content, ATP content, and histone acetylation are thought to reflect the energy state of cells. In addition, the energy state closely associates with growth and developmental ability of oocytes. Oocyte growth is accompanied by active proliferation of the surrounding granulosa cells (GCs), and GCs play a key role in the provision of energy substrates to the oocytes. In the present study, we first examined the relationship among the average number of GCs per follicle, the average number of cumulus cells (CCs) per oocyte, and the average lipid content in oocytes that developed in vivo within individual donor gilts. Second, we validated the relationship between the number of cells surrounding oocytes and the energy states of oocytes by using an IVC system of oocyte granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) derived from early antral follicles. We collected cumulus cells and oocyte complexes (COCs) from antral follicles (3-5 mm in diameter) and found that average lipid content in oocytes significantly correlated with the average number of both GCs/follicle and CCs/oocyte (P cell number of OGCs, as well as the lipid content, ATP content, and acetylation level of H4K12 in oocytes grown in vitro. In addition, glucose consumption by OGCs was calculated from the sample media collected at Days 13 and 14. The lipid content of oocytes grown in vitro, significantly correlated with the number of cells surrounding the oocytes (P number of cells surrounding the oocytes (P number of cells surrounding the oocytes, and glucose uptake by OGCs is crucial for lipid content and ATP content, and H4K12 acetylation in oocytes.

  10. Alternating sequential operators from center-surround top-hat transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi

    2013-06-01

    Constructing alternating sequential operators is the important way of improving the efficiency of morphological operations for image processing. And, the alternating sequential filters (ASFs), which are constructed by using the morphological opening and closing, have been the important alternating sequential operators of mathematical morphology. However, because the morphological opening and closing operations have the defect of image detail smoothing, ASFs could not perform very well for some detail preserving image processing applications. Center-surround top-hat transform has been proposed through reconstructing the used structuring elements following the properties of image regions, which ensures that the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform could protect some image details; and, the main operations in center-surround top-hat transform achieve the similar function as opening and closing for bright and black feature extraction. Therefore, based on center-surround top-hat transform, some new and effective alternating sequential operators may be constructed. In light of this, a new class of alternating sequential operators with improved performance based on the center-surround top-hat transform is proposed in this paper. The definition and properties of the new alternating sequential operators are given and analyzed. Also, an application of impulsive noise suppression is used to show the improved performance of the new alternating sequential operators comparing with ASFs. Moreover, because the new alternating sequential operators constructed in this paper have some superiorities over ASFs, they could be also widely used in different applications in which the ASFs perform well, which indicates that the new alternating sequential operators may be also a class of useful morphological operators for image analysis.

  11. Visual Population Receptive Fields in People with Schizophrenia Have Reduced Inhibitory Surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elaine J; Tibber, Marc S; Schwarzkopf, D Sam; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Rees, Geraint; Dakin, Steven C

    2017-02-08

    People with schizophrenia (SZ) experience abnormal visual perception on a range of visual tasks, which have been linked to abnormal synaptic transmission and an imbalance between cortical excitation and inhibition. However, differences in the underlying architecture of visual cortex neurons, which might explain these visual anomalies, have yet to be reported in vivo Here, we probed the neural basis of these deficits using fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) mapping to infer properties of visually responsive neurons in people with SZ. We employed a difference-of-Gaussian model to capture the center-surround configuration of the pRF, providing critical information about the spatial scale of the pRFs inhibitory surround. Our analysis reveals that SZ is associated with reduced pRF size in early retinotopic visual cortex, as well as a reduction in size and depth of the inhibitory surround in V1, V2, and V4. We consider how reduced inhibition might explain the diverse range of visual deficits reported in SZ.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People with schizophrenia (SZ) experience abnormal perception on a range of visual tasks, which has been linked to abnormal synaptic transmission and an imbalance between cortical excitation/inhibition. However, associated differences in the functional architecture of visual cortex neurons have yet to be reported in vivo We used fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) mapping to demonstrate that the fine-grained functional architecture of visual cortex in people with SZ differs from unaffected controls. SZ is associated with reduced pRF size in early retinotopic visual cortex largely due to reduced inhibitory surrounds. An imbalance between cortical excitation and inhibition could drive such a change in the center-surround pRF configuration and ultimately explain the range of visual deficits experienced in SZ.

  12. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio eSerrano-Pedraza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy population. In visual science it is known that the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should perform better than controls in visual suppression tasks. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a 4AFC detection task where the target was a grating within a 3 deg Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5 deg eccentricity. We compared three conditions, a target with no surround (NS, b target on top of a surrounding grating of 20 deg diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation (OS, and c target on top of a surrounding grating with parallel (same orientation (PS. Our results show significantly lower thresholds for controls than for patients in NS and OS conditions. We also found significant lower suppression ratios PS/NS in patients. Our results support the hypothesis that inhibitory lateral connections in early visual cortex are impaired in schizophrenia patients.

  13. Effects of surrounding powder in sintering process on the properties of Sb and Mn- doped barium-strontium titanate PTCR ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsuda Bomlai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of surrounding powder used during sintering of Sb and Mn doped bariumstrontium titanate (BST ceramics were studied. The ceramic samples were prepared by a conventional mixed-oxide method and placed on different powders during sintering. Phase formation, microstructure and PTCR behavior of the samples were then observed. Microstructures and PTCR behavior varied with the type of surrounding powder, whereas the crystal structure did not change. The surrounding powder has more effects on the shape of the grain than on the size. The grain size of samples was in the range of 5-20 μm. The most uniform grain size and the highest increase of the ratio of ρmax/ρRT were found to be about 106 for samples which had been sintered on Sb-doped BST powder. This value was an order of magnitude greater than for samples sintered on a powder of the equivalent composition to that of the sample pellet.

  14. Programmatic Formation: Practical Applications of Parametric Design

    OpenAIRE

    Madkour, Yehia; Erhan, Halil; Neumann, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Programmatic Formation explores design as a responsive process.The study we present engages the complexity of the surroundings using parametric and generative design methods. It illustrates that responsiveness of designs can be achieved beyond geometric explorations.The parametric models can combine and respond simultaneously to design and its programmatic factors, such as performance-sensitive design-decisions, and constraints.We demonstrate this through a series of case st...

  15. Soil microbial activities beneath Stipa tenacissima L. and in surrounding bare soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novosadová, I.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Záhora, J.; Fišerová, H.

    2010-05-01

    Open steppes dominated by Stipa tenacissima L. constitute one of the most representative ecosystems of the semi-arid zones of Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Iberian Peninsula, North of Africa). These steppes show a higher degree of variability in composition and structure. Ecosystem functioning is strongly related to the spatial pattern of grass tussocks. Soils beneath S. tenacissima grass show higher fertility and improved microclimatic conditions, favouring the formation of "resource islands" (Maestre et al., 2007). On the other hand in "resource islands" and in surrounding bare soil exists the belowground zone of influence. The competition for water and resources between plants and microorganisms is strong and mediated trough an enormous variety of exudates and resource depletion intended to regulate soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere, control herbivory, encourage beneficial symbioses, and change chemical and physical properties in soil (Pugnaire et Armas, 2008). Secondary compounds and allelopathy restrict other species growth and contribute to patchy plant distribution. Active root segregation affects not only neighbourś growth but also soil microbial activities. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Stipa tenacissima on the key soil microbial activities under controlled incubation conditions (basal and potential respiration; net nitrogen mineralization). The experimental plots were located in the province Almería in Sierra de los Filabres Mountains near the village Gérgal (southeast Spain) in the small catchment which is situated between 1090 - 1165 m a.s.l. The area with extent of 82 000 m2 is affected by soil degradation. The climate is semiarid Mediterranean. The mean annual rainfall is of about 240 mm mostly concentrated in autumn and spring. The mean annual temperature is 13.9° C. The studied soil has a loam to sandy clay texture and is classified as Lithosol (FAO-ISRIC and ISSS, 1998). The vegetation of these areas is an

  16. Organic photovoltaic devices comprising solution-processed substituted metal-phthalocyanines and exhibiting near-IR photo-sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Dominic V.; Mayukh, Mayank; Placencia, Diogenes; Armstrong, Neal R.

    2016-11-29

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are disclosed. An exemplary device has first and second electrodes and an organic, photovoltaically active zone located between the first and second electrodes. The photovoltaically active zone includes an organic electron-donor material and an organic electron-acceptor material. The electron-donor material includes one or more trivalent- or tetravalent-metal phthalocyanines with alkylchalcogenide ring substituents, and is soluble in at least one organic solvent. This solubility facilitates liquid-processability of the donor material, including formation of thin-films, on an unlimited scale to form planar and bulk heterojunctions in organic OPVs. These donor materials are photovoltaically active in both visible and near-IR wavelengths of light, enabling more of the solar spectrum, for example, to be applied to producing electricity. Also disclosed are methods for producing the metalated phthalocyanines and actual devices.

  17. Evaluation of recombinant fusion protein comprising dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 and Izumo and individual fragments as immunogens for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Abhinav; Wadhwa, Neerja; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-23

    Vaccines based on gamete specific proteins have been proposed for fertility inhibition. In the present study, immunogenicity and contraceptive potential of E. coli-expressed recombinant fusion protein TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz, comprising promiscuous T cell epitope of tetanus toxoid (TT) followed by dilysin linker (KK), a fragment of dog zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 (ZP3), triglycine spacer (GGG) and a fragment of dog Izumo (Iz) without any affinity tag has been evaluated in female FvB/J mice. In addition, recombinant TT-KK-ZP3 and Izumo linked to the promiscuous T cell epitope of bovine RNase (bRNase-KK-Iz) and their physical mixture were also used. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot studies revealed ∼32kDa band corresponding to TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz, ∼22kDa band of TT-KK-ZP3 and ∼11kDa band of bRNase-KK-Iz. Groups of mice immunized with the above recombinant proteins led to the generation of high antibody titres against the respective proteins. Immunization with recombinant TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz generated higher antibody titre as compared to mice immunized with physical mixture of TT-KK-ZP3 and bRNase-KK-Iz. Antibodies against TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz and TT-KK-ZP3 recognized mouse and dog ZP and those against TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz and bRNase-KK-Iz recognized mouse and dog acrosome-reacted sperm in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Immune sera from groups of mice immunized with the above recombinant proteins led to a significant reduction in mouse in vitro fertilization. Mating studies revealed significant reduction in fertility as compared to adjuvant control group. Highest infertility was observed in group of mice immunized with TT-KK-ZP3 followed by TT-KK-ZP3-GGG-Iz. Infertility was associated with the antibody titres against ZP3, whereas no association in the inhibition of fertility and antibody titres against Izumo was observed. In conclusion, these studies revealed the contraceptive potential of ZP3, which could not be further enhanced by the inclusion of Izumo.

  18. Identification, Functional Characterization and Regulon Prediction of a Novel Two Component System Comprising BAS0540-BAS0541 of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalani, Monisha; Kandari, Divya; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Two component systems (TCSs) can be envisaged as complex molecular devices that help the bacteria to sense its environment and respond aptly. 41 TCSs are predicted in Bacillus anthracis, a potential bioterrorism agent, of which only four have been studied so far. Thus, the intricate signaling network contributed by TCSs remains largely unmapped in B. anthracis and needs comprehensive exploration. In this study, we functionally characterized one such system composed of BAS0540 (Response regulator) and BAS0541 (Histidine kinase). BAS0540-BAS0541, the closest homolog of CiaRH of Streptococcus in B. anthracis, forms a functional TCS with BAS0541 displaying autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphotransfer to BAS0540. BAS0540 was also found to accept phosphate from physiologically relevant small molecule phosphodonors like acetyl phosphate and carbamoyl phosphate. Results of qRT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated that BAS0540 exhibits a constitutive expression throughout the growth of B. anthracis. Regulon prediction for BAS0540 in B. anthracis was done in silico using the consensus DNA binding sequence of CiaR of Streptococcus. The predicted regulon of BAS0540 comprised of 23 genes, which could be classified into 8 functionally diverse categories. None of the proven virulence factors were a part of the predicted regulon, an observation contrasting with the regulon of CiaRH in Streptococci. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to show direct binding of purified BAS0540 to the upstream regions of 5 putative regulon candidates- BAS0540 gene itself; a gene predicted to encode cell division protein FtsA; a self–immunity gene; a RND family transporter gene and a gene encoding stress (heat) responsive protein. A significant enhancement in the DNA binding ability of BAS0540 was observed upon phosphorylation. Overexpression of response regulator BAS0540 in B. anthracis led to a prodigious increase of ~6 folds in the cell length, thereby conferring it a filamentous

  19. Theory and technique of permeability enhancement and coal mine gas extraction by fracture network stimulation of surrounding beds and coal beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Geng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing reservoir stimulating technologies are only applicable to hard coal but helpless for soft coal, which is one of the main factors hindering the CBM industrialization in China. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a universal stimulating technology which can increase the permeability in various coal reservoirs. Theoretical analysis and field tests were used to systematically analyze the mechanical mechanisms causing the formation of various levels and types of fractures, such as radial tensile fractures, peripheral tensile fractures, and shear fractures in hydraulic fracturing, and reveal the mechanism of permeability enhancement by fracture network stimulating in surrounding beds and coal reservoirs. The results show that multi-staged perforation fracturing of horizontal wells, hydraulic-jet staged fracturing, four-variation hydraulic fracturing and some auxiliary measures are effective technical approaches to fracture network stimulation, especially the four-variation hydraulic fracturing can stimulate the fracture network in vertical and cluster wells. It is concluded that the fracture network stimulating technology for surrounding beds has significant advantages, such as safe drilling operation, strong stimulation effect, strong adaptability to stress-sensitive and velocity-sensitive beds, and is suitable for coal reservoirs of any structure. Except for the limitation in extremely water-sensitive and high water-yield surrounding beds, the technology can be universally used in all other beds. The successful industrial tests in surface coal bed methane and underground coal mines gas extraction prove that the theory and technical system of fracture network stimulating in surrounding beds and coal reservoirs, as a universally applicable measure, will play a role in the CBM development in China.

  20. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rubio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwavelenghts studies of massive star formation regions in the LMC and SMC reveal that a second generation of stars is being formed in dense molecular clouds located in the surroundings of the massive clusters. These dense molecular clouds have survive the action of massive star UV radiation elds and winds and they appear as compact dense H2 knots in regions of weak CO emission. We present results of observations obtained towards massive star forming regions in the low metallicity molecular clouds in the Magellanic Clouds and investigate its implication on star formation in the early universe.