WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding femininity motherhood

  1. Motivations for Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Mary-Joan

    A multivariate exploration of the characteristics of women who want children and what women see as the benefits and costs of motherhood are presented. Among unmarried, childless female college undergraduates (N=184), positive memories of early childhood maternal love, traditional feminine sex role identification and anti-feminist sympathy were the…

  2. Disturbing Femininity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    as a performative speech act, i.e. an act that creates the trouble it names. Ruling out gender equality as relevant was, however, continually interrupted by comments on how Thorning-Schmidt and other female politicians perform gender in ways that fit or do not fit with “doing politician”. These com-ments tended...... it comes to femininity – in need of management. Based on an analysis of the newspaper coverage of the elec-tion, I argue that highlighting gender (in)equality as either an important political issue or as something that conditions the possibilities of taking up a position as politician was evaluated...

  3. Disturbing Femininity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hvenegård-Lassen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When Helle Thorning-Schmidt in 2011 became the first female Prime Minister in Denmark, this “victory for the women” was praised in highly celebratory tones in Danish newspapers. The celebration involved a paradoxical representation of gen-der as simultaneously irrelevant to politics and – when it comes to femininity – in need of management. Based on an analysis of the newspaper coverage of the elec-tion, I argue that highlighting gender (inequality as either an important political issue or as something that conditions the possibilities of taking up a position as politician was evaluated as a performative speech act, i.e. an act that creates the trouble it names. Ruling out gender equality as relevant was, however, continually interrupted by comments on how Thorning-Schmidt and other female politicians perform gender in ways that fit or do not fit with “doing politician”. These com-ments tended to concern the styling of bodies and behaviour and followed well known – or sticky – gendered scripts.

  4. Myths of motherhood. The role of culture in the development of postpartum depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ambrosini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This paper intends to offer a theoretical insight into the myths of motherhood and how these myths can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum depression. METHODS: From a man's view motherhood is conceptualized as a necessary stage in the progress towards the attainment of femininity. This view is impersonal and external to the experience of motherhood. From a female perspective, motherhood presents itself as a conflicting situation. We will then focus on the necessity to construct a discourse on motherhood by using a code which belongs to women rather than men. The analysis of a blog and a comedy show will provide evidence concerning the evolution of the female discourse on motherhood thus contributing to the debunking of the myths of motherhood. The final section discusses ways in which myths of motherhood can bear on the pathogenesis of postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Among "melancholic type" women, who tend to abide by social norms, play established social roles and hide their inner conflicts, myths of motherhood contribute to suppress the contradiction which is intrinsic to motherhood itself making this contradiction uncontrollable and potentially devastating.

  5. Writing the mother, the mother writing: the space of motherhood and feminine écriture in Alien and The Matrix = Escrevendo a mãe; a escrita da mãe: o lugar da maternidade e a escritura feminine em Alien e The Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Paulino Bueno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The series of films Alien (1979, Aliens (1986, Alien (1992, and Alien Resurrection (1997, and the 1999 movie The Matrix illustrate the present state of technological advances in reproductive areas, and posit the anxiety such advances represents. In all these filmic texts, two main aspects are raised: the displacement of the female body as the site of motherhood, and the possibility that human reproduction might no longer need males and females to make it viable. In addition, the films suggest that technology is surely taking over many aspects of reproduction.A série de filmes Alien (1979, Aliens (1986, Alien (1992, and Alien Ressurrection (1997, e Matrix (1999 ilustra o atual estado dos avanços tecnológicos em áreas da reprodução, e apresentam a ansiedade que tais avanços representam. Em todos estes textos fílmicos, dois aspectos principais são discutidos: a deslocação do corpo da mulher como o local da maternidade, e a possibilidade que areprodução humana não mais precise de homens e mulheres para torná-la viável. E, além disso, os filmes sugerem que a tecnologia está assumindo muitos aspectos da reprodução.

  6. Regulating Lesbian Motherhood: Gender, Sexuality and Medically Assisted Reproduction in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses juridical discourses about Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR in Portugal, focusing specifically on the access of lesbians to this type of intervention. Empirical data refer to an exploratory research that combined the analysis of legislation with non-directive interviews to five judges from Family and Juvenile Courts of Law of the Northern Region of Portugal. One argues that the representation of motherhood present in the law reinforces and reproduces normative sexuality and femininity while simultaneously justifies the exclusion of lesbians from MAR. As such, although Portuguese legislation emerges as a mechanism of partial deregulation of the gender regime since it appears to weaken the practical and causal association between sexuality and procreation, in fact, it ends up reinforcing dominant ideas of femininity and family. As for the judges who were interviewed, their representations of motherhood are broad enough to encompass medically assisted motherhood and/or motherhood accomplished within a lesbian couple. This is achieved through a process of normalisation of the lesbian and/or of lesbian motherhood, which may resort to five different assumptions: (i parenthood as a desire inherent to every human being; (ii motherhood as a defining element of femininity; (iii motherhood as a project framed by a stable conjugal relationship; (iv lesbian motherhood as something that can be accomplished through “natural” means; (v parenthood as a mechanism of social reproduction of the gender regime. These assumptions are differently combined and support different positions regarding lesbian motherhood: although some judges seem to concur with the preservation of heteronormativity, most favour legal changes to encompass other models of sexuality and family.

  7. Relationship of motivation for motherhood with some sociodemographic variables and gender identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuletić Georgije M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Main goal of the research was to explore the relationship between motivation for motherhood and some of the sociodemographic variables which have been noticed as significant in the similar researches of other authors, as well as relation to the gender roles and gender identity, according to the model proposed by Sandra Bem. The study was conducted on the sample consisting of 571 female students in Belgrade. Statistically significant correlations are confirmed between motivation for motherhood and number of siblings, age of subject's mother and age of subject's mother at first birth. The highest correlation is found between motivation for motherhood and femininity. It is also proposed a preliminary questioner, as the first step of constructing an adequate instrument for measuring motivation for motherhood. The questioner is used for estimation of motivation for motherhood in this research.

  8. The Motherhood Inventory: A Questionnaire for Studying Attitudes Toward Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.; Broderick, Patricia C.

    The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects…

  9. Making motherhood work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Thomson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood can be a critical moment in the making of gendered biographies, and in the negotiation of a gendered division of labour within a household. This paper draws on the 'Making of Modern Motherhoods' study, which combined interviews with a diverse group of expectant first time mothers and family case studies in order to build an intergenerational and longitudinal perspective on contemporary mothering situations within the UK. In this paper, the category 'work' is used as a lens through which to encounter new motherhood. After contextualising working motherhood in relation to a sociological literature the paper draws on interviews undertaken with women towards the end of their pregnancy with their first child to reveal something of the emergent collision of working and maternal identities, women's experiences of being pregnant at work including the anticipation and managing of maternity leave. The second part presents a case study, which animates the personal drama involved in reconciling working and maternal commitments, tracing how a woman's feelings about work change over time in negotiation with partner, family and the market. As Sue Sharpe observed in her 1984 book on working mothers, 'full-time mothering has never been accessible to all women in the same way at the same time' (1984: 22. Social class, locality and migration shape a range of cultures of mothering within which work features very differently. Divisions exist between women who share a generational location as well as between women of different generations. This complexity is revealed through a juxtaposition of the voices of mothers and grandmothers, which show how work may both, divide and unite women in the project of motherhood.

  10. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A

    1996-12-01

    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  11. [The paradox of motherhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaidou, N G

    1990-08-01

    All Sahelian countries are working to define their population policies. A population policy document avoids dispersion and duplication. It opens the path to efficiency. It makes it easier to achieve governmental socioeconomic objectives. Various recent population-related meetings have at least two points in common: they aim to overstep and improve a given situation and are at the same time some examples of implementing the Ndjamena action program, adopted in January 1989. All these population-centered actions return to the problem of adolescent fertility--a poignant problem. Adolescent pregnancy is a major source of family and social break-ups. This paradox of motherhood makes a violent storm burst in the skies ordinarily serene with joy and hope. It is an enemy perverse to economic development and social progress. Adolescent motherhood is a phenomenon which complicates and aggravates population problems and is taboo to the point it is still imperceptible, unknown. It is a problem of premier importance in the Sahel. Pregnancy strikes a woman so very unprepared for motherhood and its demands. It risks the life of a being which is preparing itself to enter the world. Adolescent pregnancy has equally tragic health effects: poorly performed underground abortions and maternal and infant deaths. Adolescent fertility is a burning problem regardless of the perspective (demographic, economic, social, or health). In Sahelian countries, one is beginning to be interested in and to speak about it. It will be necessary to search for solutions. Schools must be a top target for all activities aiming to check adolescent fertility. The emphasis must be on information, education, and responsibility of girls, boys, teachers, and parents. Education and training are of capital importance for socioeconomic development of the Sahel. All activities implemented in the education sector should include a large place for family life education in pregnancy prevention.

  12. Masculinity-Femininity in school

    OpenAIRE

    三上, 英子

    2013-01-01

    IMFT (Independent Masculinity Femininity Test) was developed based on a constructive concept of BSRI (Bem Sex Role Inventry) and used to investigate the relation of masculinity-femininity to personality for students and mothers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the masculinity–femininity of teachers. 70 male and 12 female teachers were asked to answer IMFT. Analysis of the results indicates that classifications were considered to be it by individual difference in the reality, and t...

  13. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... teenage mothers. The purpose is to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation during adolescence and low education are causes of teen childbearing but also childlessness among elder women in the age group 32 to 37 years old. Could childlessness as well...... pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion. Quite the opposite pattern is disclosed for late motherhood....

  14. Thinking Intergenerationally about Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Thomson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on The Making of Modern Motherhoods study, which explores how a contemporary generation of women are creating motherhood, and how intergenerational dynamics of mother daughter relationships can provide insight into the interplay of historical, biographical and generational processes. The study combines an intergeneration and longtitudinal research design, building 12 case studies from an initial interview sample of 62 expectant first time mothers. The paper begins with a review of the conceptual tools employed within the study in order to make sense of rich empirical data, including memory, generation, co-existence and configuration. These themes are then realised through a detailed case history of the Calder family – tracing the impact of the arrival of a new generation. This thick description enables us to see beyond the individual towards the historically contingent configuration that is a ‘family’. By counter posing the horizontal dimensions of the generation against the vertical dimension of historical process and intergenerational change it is possible to capture a sense of how people live, creating change in order to establish continuity. The paper concludes by exploring the contingency of formations of mothering and their connectedness over time, through reflections on the interplay of historical, generational and biographical temporalities.

  15. Gender Legacies of Jung and Freud as Epistemology in Emergent Feminist Research on Late Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Barone-Chapman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While conducting doctoral research in social science on late motherhood, two analytical engagements with the feminine came to my attention as evidence of a patriarchal bias toward the realm of womanhood. Jung’s mythopoetic tension between symbolism and enactments with the feminine and Freud’s supposition that a denial of the feminine was necessary for psychological and emotional development appeared to be perpetuating a social problem continuing in current times. Across affective behavior and narrative within stories of late procreative desire, dream journals and Word Association Tests of eight participants was the memory of a male sibling who had enjoyed primacy of place in the parental home over the daughter. The female body with a voice was missing in the one-sided perspectives of Analytical Psychology and Psychoanalysis on the subject of the feminine, until a whole view of psyche’s discontents in Feminist inspired Psychoanalytic theories from both schools on the female body were included. Freud and Jung’s views became evidence of patriarchy as background while extension of Feminist inspired psychoanalytical thinking, Queer theories and Creation Myth allowed new meanings of the embodied feminine to emerge through a recapitulation of a union of opposites as a union of epistemology and ethos. The essence of Jung’s mid-life theories, altered by modernity and eclipsed by female advancement, remains replicatable and paradigmatic outside of essentialist gender performance.

  16. The Cultural Voice of Immigrant Latina Women and the Meaning of Femininity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Greer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study investigates the cultural meaning of femininity to immigrant Latina women and its significance in the consideration of decisions related to maintaining breast health. Theories of culture and health promotion support the concern for women’s need for access to health care in relation to breast health and the cultural barriers that interface between the connections of femininity, body image, and mental health. For Hispanic women, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer generating distress for the individual, partner, and family. The importance of best practices in health promotion and risk reduction strategies in the early screening of women is emphasized in the literature. However, the voice of immigrant Latina women in describing their perspective of femininity and breast health and how it may affect choice and decision making related to breast self-care practices has not been studied. Five themes emerged from the data analysis conducted with Giorgi’s phenomenological method leading to an unfolded description of femininity: power of feminine identity through motherhood, hardiness is sustainability to overcoming adversity, connection to self and others, satisfaction meeting cultural gender-role expectations, and contemplative prevention to maintain breast integrity. The findings of this study will contribute to the increasing body of evidence-based practice related to understanding the impact of culture related to breast health. While the concept of femininity can be challenged not only by a diagnosis of breast cancer but also by other diseases and life conditions, understanding the cultural meaning of femininity to Latina women is pivotal to health care professionals as they partner with Latina women and community support groups to develop empowerment strategies and programs that promote choice and decision making involving breast health.

  17. Motherhood and the Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Nikolchina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In her conceptualization of the human as defined by the capacity for revolt Kristeva unavoidably touches upon issues of robotization, technology, and the virtual. The concepts of animal and machine, however, although they do appear occasionally and in important ways, are never at the focus of her inquiries and are absent in her “New Forms of Revolt.” Yet these two concepts to a large extent define the field of contemporary philosophical debates of the human giving rise to three major theoretical orientations. On the one hand, there is the trend which tries to come to terms with technological novelties and the merging of human and machine that they imply. This trend unfolds under the rubric of “transhuman” or “posthuman” and of the “enhancement” of man. The second trend predominates in animal studies. Mostly in an ethical perspective but also ontologically, this trend, to which Derrida’s later writing made a significant contribution, questions the idea of the “human exception” and the rigorous distinction between man and animal on which this exception rests. While apparently antagonistic, both trends align the human with the animal and oppose it to technology. The third trend collapses the distinctions on which the previous two rely through the lens of biopolitics: drawing on Heidegger, Kojève, and Foucault, it regards contemporary technological transformations as amounting to the animalization of man.  The human disappears in the animal, in the machine, or in the indistinguishability of the two, confirming what Agamben has described as the inoperativeness of the anthropological machine. The present text turns to Kristeva’s conceptions of motherhood and revolt as introducing a powerful inflection in this tripartite field. Remarkably, it is precisely new sagas of rebellious machines like Battlestar “Galactica” that foreground the relevance of Kristeva’s approach.

  18. De novo Families: Lesbian Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Brenda; Wilkes, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this recent Australian study was to explore the experiences of lesbian women choosing motherhood. Participants included 30 self-identifying lesbian mothers. Data were collected via interviews, data collection sheets, and online journaling. The interview and journaling data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis and subsequently illuminated three main themes: becoming mothers, constructing motherhood, and legitimizing our family. These papers described the journey to motherhood and specifically explored the various methods of conception and other decisions that participants made when planning their family, the challenge of heteronormativity in health care, and legitimizing the role of the non-birth mother in de novo families. This article aims to present the participants' experiences of motherhood that was a constant topic found woven throughout all three of the identified themes. Participants identified that they had a unique opportunity to create their own mothering roles in the absence of significant "lesbian mother" role models and that they were able to adjust and to adapt their roles depending on fluctuating circumstances.

  19. The Malawi Safe Motherhood Project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of the maternal health monitoring system is one of the rnaj or outputs of the Malawi Safe Motherhood Project. In. 1998, the Project ... Operations research was necessary to ensure the correct siting of the registers used for data ... certain defined obstetric functions per 500 000 population. 1.6 BEOC BEOC EEOC ...

  20. Gender and Work: Representations of Femininities and Masculinities in the View of Women Brazilian Executives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify and analyze social representations of femininity and masculinity, asreported by women business executives in Brazil. For that, the research resorted to semi-structured interviews of sixty-four executives from seven Brazilian cities. As a technique for data analysis, this research utilized the theoretical and conceptual basis of French discourse analysis. When gender issues become related to the specific qualities of being a woman and a business executive – or to the interfaces that gender may establish with an individual’s work – contradictions may emerge from the construction of a particular thematic. Also, positive and negative aspects of being a female executive exist, namely: (a representations of an executive; (b feminine competency and incompetency; (c dilemmas regarding sensitivity; (d conflicts involving seduction power; (e omissions, prejudice and violence suffered by women at work; and (f motherhood.

  1. Jungian Feminine Psychology and Adolescent Prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    1986-01-01

    Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)

  2. Jungian Feminine Psychology and Adolescent Prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    1986-01-01

    Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)

  3. Privileged Girls: The Place of Femininity and Femininity in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Johannah

    2014-01-01

    Constructions of femininity and attendant notions of feminism are being produced in different ways in different places around the world. This is a complicated global process that cannot be reduced to analyses that take place in nation states. This paper seeks to respond to and enhance Angela McRobbie's compelling argument about understandings…

  4. Privileged Girls: The Place of Femininity and Femininity in Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Johannah

    2014-01-01

    Constructions of femininity and attendant notions of feminism are being produced in different ways in different places around the world. This is a complicated global process that cannot be reduced to analyses that take place in nation states. This paper seeks to respond to and enhance Angela McRobbie's compelling argument about understandings of…

  5. Motherhood: From rights to choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salecl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood has been perceived as choice in the developed world after the liberalisation of abortion. However, this choice can be extremely anxiety provoking for women, especially in times when the ideology of choice dominates our lives in all possible ways. The paper shows how psychotherapy and psychoanalysis look at this anxiety, it reflects on how family relations are often the traumatic kernel behind this choice, and how the changes that women experience in today's times contribute to the increase of anxiety related to reproduction.

  6. [Surrogate Motherhood and Woman Dignity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparisi Miralles, Ángela

    2017-01-01

    Motherhood by subrogation is an issue that directly affects human rights and, ultimately, human dignity. Therefore, if we want to give an adequate response to this issue, it is essential to reflect on how this practice affects the dignity and rights of the people involved in it and, more specifically, the pregnant mother. This study tries to show how in relation to the latter, maternity by subrogation directly contradicts some basic requirements of human dignity, since it reifies, instrumentalizes, convert into an object of commerce, and disregards the personal uniqueness of pregnant women.

  7. THE SACRED FEMININE IN 'DA VINCI CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Souza Moreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyse the feminine in the “Da Vinci Code”, a novel written by Dan Brown, whose the mean theme is permeated by issues relating to the feminine, linking it to the art and religion.We use the notion of female seized by psychoanalysis, to take this reading of the book, placing the efforts of the author in his attempt to unravel the mysteries of the sacred feminine.

  8. THE SACRED FEMININE IN 'DA VINCI CODE

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila de Souza Moreira; Tânia Mara Silva Benfica; Tatiana Salzer Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the feminine in the “Da Vinci Code”, a novel written by Dan Brown, whose the mean theme is permeated by issues relating to the feminine, linking it to the art and religion.We use the notion of female seized by psychoanalysis, to take this reading of the book, placing the efforts of the author in his attempt to unravel the mysteries of the sacred feminine.

  9. THE SACRED FEMININE IN 'DA VINCI CODE

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila de Souza Moreira; Tânia Mara Silva Benfica; Tatiana Salzer Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse the feminine in the “Da Vinci Code”, a novel written by Dan Brown, whose the mean theme is permeated by issues relating to the feminine, linking it to the art and religion.We use the notion of female seized by psychoanalysis, to take this reading of the book, placing the efforts of the author in his attempt to unravel the mysteries of the sacred feminine.

  10. Mother Rights Aspects of Safe Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yanikkerem

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The safe motherhood is aimed to reduce deaths and illnesses among women and infants, maternal deaths in developing countries are often the ultimate tragic outcome of the cumulative denial of women’s human rights. Women and infants are dying because of preventable disease. Safe motherhood is now on the world agenda as one of eight millennium Development Goals. The global community of health professionals has a major responsibility to help make motherhood safer for all women. This article is aimed to identify the important critical women and child rights the aspect of safe motherhood. This article included human rights the aspect of safe motherhood, women’s human right and convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, International Conference on Population and Development the aspect of safe motherhood, reproduction and sexual rights declaration, child rights the aspect of safe motherhood, mother and child rights declaration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 179-186

  11. Mother Rights Aspects of Safe Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yanikkerem

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The safe motherhood is aimed to reduce deaths and illnesses among women and infants, maternal deaths in developing countries are often the ultimate tragic outcome of the cumulative denial of women’s human rights. Women and infants are dying because of preventable disease. Safe motherhood is now on the world agenda as one of eight millennium Development Goals. The global community of health professionals has a major responsibility to help make motherhood safer for all women. This article is aimed to identify the important critical women and child rights the aspect of safe motherhood. This article included human rights the aspect of safe motherhood, women’s human right and convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, International Conference on Population and Development the aspect of safe motherhood, reproduction and sexual rights declaration, child rights the aspect of safe motherhood, mother and child rights declaration. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 179-186

  12. Attitudes to motherhood in different cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razina N.V.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of motherhood is a promising and relevant field of psychology. This article represents the results of a study in which a socio-psychological analysis of reproductive attitudes and demographic behaviour was conducted. The study also shows the relationship between attitudes related to motherhood and women’s cultural affiliations. The factors that contribute to the nature of attitudes towards motherhood and the interaction between these factors were studied. According to the results of this study, we distinguished the most significant characteristics of the attitudes to motherhood that influence the nature of the relationship between a mother and her unborn child. The model of the development of attitudes to motherhood proposed by R. V. Ovcharova was detailed. We considered the influence of factors on the nature of attitudes to motherhood as well as the influence of factors on each other. The results of this study allow us to describe the psychological portraits of women with different attitudes to motherhood.

  13. Motherhood and Sexuality in Flaubert's Madame Bovary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rooks, Amanda Kane

    2014-01-01

    In her article "Motherhood and Sexuality in Flaubert's Madame Bovary" Amanda Kane Rooks examines the narration of relationships in Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary between Emma's role as mother and her sexuality...

  14. Motherhood and Sexuality in Flaubert's Madame Bovary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rooks, Amanda Kane

    2014-01-01

    In her article "Motherhood and Sexuality in Flaubert's Madame Bovary " Amanda Kane Rooks examines the narration of relationships in Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary between Emma's role as mother and her sexuality...

  15. Balancing Motherhood and Career in STEM Jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Bhattacharyya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Proportion of women working in the hitherto male-dominated sectors such as Science, Technology, Engineering, and Maths (STEM jobs are primarily low because of gender stereotyping and motherhood roles. Using the findings of the article titled Entitled to a Sustainable Career? Motherhood in Science, Engineering, and Technology published in the Journal of Social Issues, this report attempts to explain as to how STEM jobs can retain more women.

  16. Midwifery education for safe motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Heir, J M

    1997-09-01

    To determine the useability (relevance, clarity and quality of content), applicability (ease of use) and accessibility (structure and form) of a series of new safe motherhood midwifery education modules. Questionnaire survey and focus group discussions, preceded by a two week clinical skills course and an eight day orientation to using the modules. Nursing and midwifery education institutions, regional training centres, acute-care hospital facilities and community settings in Ethiopia, Fiji, Lesotho, Mozambique and Nepal. Thirty-six teachers, 82 midwives, nurse-midwives and auxiliary nurse-midwives from practice settings, and 60 post basic midwifery students. Overall it was found that the introductory information and the technical content of the modules were easy to understand and use as were the instructions for both teachers and students. The presentation of the material was orderly and easy to follow; the language was comprehensible; and the illustrations were appropriate, clear and facilitated teaching. The teachers found that they were able to use most of the teaching/learning methods, teach most of the skills in the modules, and use the guidelines for assessing competence. The main difficulties encountered included adherence to the recommended time frame for some of the classroom sessions; the limited availability of clinical cases for teaching the specific skills in the modules and time limitations in the clinical area for practising the skills; and the provision of transport for community visits, data to complete community profiles, and time to complete other planned community activities. The students identified the need for a set of learning materials which they could take with them for future reference, and both teachers and students expressed concern about resources to support, and legislation to cover, the application of the skills taught/learned. The modules have the potential to strengthen and support the education of midwives in developing countries

  17. Associations between Femininity and Women's Political Behavior during Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elizabeth R.; Sabik, Natalie J.

    2010-01-01

    The contention that femininity makes women unsuited for political participation has roots in feminist theory and political science. This study investigated whether the desirable and undesirable dimensions of femininity, corresponding to Feminine Interpersonal Relations (FIR: warmth, nurturance, and interpersonal appeal) and Feminine Self-Doubt…

  18. The Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS): dimensions and its relationship to anxiety and feminine gender role stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Katherine; Levant, Ronald; Smalley, Bryant; Cook, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a confirmatory factor analytic investigation of the Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS) and to assess whether feminine gender role stress mediated the relationship between femininity ideology and anxiety. During the 2010-2011 academic year, a convenience sample of 606 college women were recruited from three universities and one college. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four- versus the hypothesized five-factor model, resulting in the elimination of the Dependency/Deference factor. Mediation analysis using structural equation modeling indicated no direct relationship between Femininity Ideology and Anxiety, although an indirect one was observed, mediated through Feminine Gender Role Stress. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes in contemporary notions of femininity, and the utility of using the FIS in applied therapeutic settings.

  19. Intimate violence, family, and femininity: women's narratives on their construction of violence and self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Nishi

    2013-10-01

    In the context of a high threshold for violence in everyday living and the cultural value of the institution of family, this article looks at women's narratives from counseling settings in India to comment on the cultural processes of explaining and rationalizing domestic violence that silence women. Definitions of femininity, marriage, and motherhood in India that are hinged on women's responsibility toward holding a family together have obstructed an understanding of women's individual rights and of violations of these rights. There is need to address both the public and professionals on the specific nature of domestic violence, and its ideological and structural context for creating recognition of the issue as a major social problem.

  20. Masculinity Femininity, Personality and Sexual Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    1971-01-01

    The study suggests that sexuality constitutes a continuum which is largely colinear with P (psychoticism) and with masculinity. The P Scale appears to be closely related with the masculinity femininity dimension. (Author)

  1. Teen motherhood in cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L; Lancaster, Jane B

    2010-01-01

    Teen motherhood is the prevalent childbearing pattern in most traditional populations. Yet early motherhood is associated with negative biological and social outcomes in the developed world. We review the teen pregnancy literature in light of this discrepancy, emphasizing two core debates. The first debate centers on whether teens have poor pregnancy outcomes compared to older women, and whether negative outcomes are biologically based. Second, we consider the debate over the confounding effects of socio-economic conditions associated with being young. When teens are considered as a group, results are inconsistent across studies. When teens are disaggregated by age, the strongest finding across studies is that biological risk is concentrated in only the youngest of mothers. Negative consequences are associated with teen motherhood not because of chronological age per se, but because of relative developmental maturity and the availability of non-maternal support. In most traditional societies as well as in some sectors of developed societies, teen motherhood occurs within the context of extended kin networks and is subsidized through reliable economic and childcare assistance. Child-rearing practices, rather than pregnancy per se, may explain much of the discrepancy in the prevalence, success and attitudes toward teen motherhood in traditional and developed societies.

  2. (MOthering: Feminist Motherhood, Neoliberal Discourses and the Other’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Leite

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Feminist theory often gravitates around the rejection and recuperation of motherhood. The recuperation of feminist motherhood demonstrates the importance of understanding the duality between feminist motherhood and the patriarchal concept of motherhood. Here, I will argue that in recuperating motherhood, feminists and non-feminists alike should also acknowledge the coexisting realities that reject it. I am specifically thinking of feminist non-motherhood but also of feminist notions of pregnancy that reject motherhood. The mother without the maternal bond or even the 'falling out of motherhood after motherhood'. These, I think, as opposed to submissive realities and resistance strategies, represent a move away from patriarchal values and create a social reality that uses something else as a parameter. In order support my argument, I will rely on a case study analysing maternal health policies and strategies, in particular feminist activists' discourses related to maternal mortality in Brazil. The data collected during this fieldwork demonstrates the importance of acknowledging non-motherhood as crucial to radical constructions of feminist motherhood. The article concludes that, sadly, there is not such thing as a post-feminist society in Brazil. The Brazilian case study demonstrates that, in fact, public policies, and the discourses built around them, are still oriented towards a neoliberal re-packaging of patriarchy that partially co-opts feminist motherhood. That is, neoliberalism partially accepts feminist motherhood as a way to reject all other feminist claims. In this sense, it its crucial for feminists and non-feminists alike to acknowledge and accept all concepts of motherhood, positive and negative. That is, it is absolutely necessary to recognise '''the 'other' ' in order not to contribute to further marginalisation of non-motherhood attitudes as promoted by neoliberal policies and discourses.

  3. Motherhood transition through an existential lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange

    2015-01-01

    Motherhood transition is a significant life event. Research from various disciplines outlines pregnancy, birth and the initial period of motherhood as a period of life in which a woman might experience disruption and gain new perspectives in a bodily, psychological, social and existential way....... No Danish studies were found during the literature search. The questionnaire survey among Danish mothers was thus conducted in 2011 and had a response rate of 57%. There were no statistically significant differences between the responding FT and PT mothers in terms of age, cohabiting status, educational...

  4. Safe motherhood: when to begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, M; Chhatwal, J; Mathew, E

    1994-08-01

    Two thousand five hundred college girls were assessed for their knowledge and attitudes regarding sex, pregnancy and child rearing with the help of a pretested questionnaire. The site of menstruation was known to only 35.3% of the girls. The knowledge about the time and site of conception was 25.3% and 58.2%, respectively. Only 16.3% of the respondents knew the normal route of delivery although the duration of normal pregnancy was known to majority (87.7%). The girls were aware of the ideal timing of abortion (67.5%) but the safe method and legality were poorly known facts. Only 5% of the girls believed in pre-marital sex. More than half (54.9%) of the girls knew about some form of contraceptive, Copper-T being the best known. Nearly one fifth of the girls were either undecided or wished family members to decide about antenatal check-ups. The need for better diet and injections during pregnancy was well known although few (15.2%) were aware of the injections being tetanus toxoid. Only about 10% wanted a home delivery but one fourth felt that a Dai or a relative was suitable for conducting the delivery. An overwhelming majority of the students stated that knowledge about above facts was important and they would like to learn about them preferably during college education. It is recommended that 'Family life education' be provided during pre-adolescent and adolescent years to ensure a safe motherhood and a healthy child.

  5. Feminine leadership and organisational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Simona Saseanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available People in general, leaders especially, are influenced by the organisational culture and the other way around. Organisational culture represents a determining factor regarding the display of leadership, since these two processes create each other, adding value and consistency to one another. Moreover, organisational culture can be created and developed in a fluctuant business environment, in which the external factors influence its progress. The development of society has incessantly been emphasized by the relationship between the sexes, by their individual evolution, but also by the interdependency between them. Although there is increasingly more talk about gender equality, in many countries, the social as well as economical chances and opportunities are not equal for women and men. Gradually, women have been through a series of changes related to education, rights and obligations. However, the number of women leaders has always been much lower than the number of men leaders. The personality traits of leaders significantly influence the leadership style and the way in which they are perceived by their subordinates, all this having a major impact on the overall performances of the organisation. In this manner, depending on the gender (masculine/feminine, we can state that one could observe certain personality traits that are characteristic to women and others specific to men, leaving their mark on the leadership method and on the leadership style adopted of each of them. Considering the fact that, in the current turbulent economic environment, certain qualities such as flexibility, intuition, development of communication networks and motivating the employees represent values that are considered to be “feminine”, one can assert that, in this case, gender is an opportunity. However, if we should take into consideration the impact of culture, of certain mentalities and misconceptions that are still present, regarding the woman’s standing in

  6. Making existential meaning in transition to motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina Lange; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Objective to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. Design...

  7. Annunciations - Figuring the Feminine in Renaissance Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Viewers of Renaissance representations of the Annunciation miss an important irony. Where Mary is figured as unimpressed by Gabriel's proposal, she is upholding a masculinist ideal of female virtue. Where she is figured as delighted by the news, she represents an alternative feminine ideal that continues to be attractive to women and feminists, today. Inspired by the writings of Luce Irigaray and Julia Kristeva, I figure Mary in Renaissance representations of the Annunciation as contesting an ideal of feminine virtue that would deny her sexual difference and deny her pleasure in fulfilling her role as the bride and mother of God.

  8. Females in Law Enforcement: Femininity, Competence, Attraction, and Work Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ernie, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Used photographs and biographical descriptions of female deputy strangers to examine effects of femininity and competence on male deputy attraction to and work acceptance of female deputies. Findings included an attraction preference for feminine-competent female deputies, and greater tolerance of feminine-incompetent female deputies for staff…

  9. Femininity, mathematics and science, 1880-1914

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, C

    2009-01-01

    Through the prism of gender, this text explores the contrasting cultures and practice of mathematics and science and asks how they impacted on women. Claire Jones assesses nineteenth-century ideas about women's intellect, femininity and masculinity, and assesses how these attitudes shaped women's experiences as students and practitioners.

  10. Schooling Ophelia: Hysteria, Memory and Adolescent Femininity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I analyze the theorization of adolescent femininity within three popular cultural texts about girls and schooling written by women and published in the United States during the 1990s. The books, referred to as "Ophelia narratives," include Lyn Mikel Brown and Carol Gilligan's (1992) "Meeting at the Crossroads," Mary Pipher's (1994)…

  11. [Biomedical Perspective of the Surrogate Motherhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouve de la Barreda, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    The subrogated motherhood takes place when an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology is implanted in a surrogate, sometimes called a gestational mother, by means a contract with her. It can imply to natural families (woman and man) with or without infertility problems, or to monoparental or biparental families of the same sex. Concerning the origin of the gametes used in the IVF emerges different implications on the genetic relationship of the resulting child with the surrogate and the future parents. The subrogated motherhood was initially considered an option to solve infertility problems. Nevertheless this practice has become a possible and attractive option as a source of economic resources for poor women. The cases of benefit of a pregnancy without mediating a contract are exceptional and they are not properly cases of ″subrogated maternity″ but of ″altruistic maternity″ and must be considered as heterologous in vitro fertilization. In this article are analyzed the medical, genetic and bioethics aspects of this new derivation of the fertilization in vitro. As points of special attention are considered the following questions: Is it the surrogate motherhood used preferably to solve infertility problems? Is not this actually a new form of exploitation of the woman? Does not suppose an attack to the natural family? Does not suppose in addition an attack to the dignity of the human being?

  12. Motherhood as Performance: (ReNegotiations of Motherhood in Contemporary German Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Merley Hill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the birth rate in Europe remains low, the role of motherhood is hotly debated in Germany—particularly in conjunction with the revival of feminism in that country. In the context of these debates, this article analyzes the representation of mothers in three contemporary novels by German authors: Himmelskörper (2003 by Tanja Dückers, Die Gunnar-Lennefsen-Expedition (1998 by Kathrin Schmidt, and Die Mittagsfrau (2007 by Julia Franck. All three books are informed by a feminist perspective, but only Die Mittagsfrau offers a new way of thinking about motherhood; while Dückers and Schmidt ultimately do not depart from the connection between motherhood and the female body, Franck represents motherhood as a performative identity, in the sense of Judith Butler’s theory of performative gender. “Maternal drag,” as articulated in this article, theorizes the identity mother as a performative one, illuminating expectations of that role and thereby opening it up to possible reconfiguration.

  13. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, G

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods.

  14. Femininity, Feminine Gender Role Stress, Body Dissatisfaction, and their Relationships to Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Femininity, Feminine Gender Role Stress, Body Dissatisfaction, and their Relationships to Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Nancy Romero Abstract Research suggests that the associations between femininity, body image and eating disorders are intricate. How these constructs are linked to each other still needs to be determined. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of these links, examining the mediational relationship among these constructs. Also...

  15. Resurrecting the Feminine in "The Name of the Rose."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentz, Thomas S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines how the repressed feminine principle affects the four major discourses in Umberto Eco's "The Name of the Rose." Discusses the historical relationship between the masculine and the feminine in language and religion. Uses that historical frame to guide a close textual analysis of dialectical interplay between the masculine and the…

  16. Resurrecting the Feminine in "The Name of the Rose."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentz, Thomas S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines how the repressed feminine principle affects the four major discourses in Umberto Eco's "The Name of the Rose." Discusses the historical relationship between the masculine and the feminine in language and religion. Uses that historical frame to guide a close textual analysis of dialectical interplay between the masculine and the feminine…

  17. Children's Evaluative Stereotypes of Masculine, Feminine, and Androgynous First Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Philip G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined children's evaluative stereotypes of masculine, feminine, and androgynous first names. Attractive and unattractive masculine, feminine, and androgynous first names were presented to 50 primary school children. The gender-typed names were attributed to the appropriate sex; the androgynous names were repeated and attributed to…

  18. Resurrecting the Feminine in "The Name of the Rose."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentz, Thomas S.

    1988-01-01

    Examines how the repressed feminine principle affects the four major discourses in Umberto Eco's "The Name of the Rose." Discusses the historical relationship between the masculine and the feminine in language and religion. Uses that historical frame to guide a close textual analysis of dialectical interplay between the masculine and the…

  19. Re-scripting interactive artefacts with feminine values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes up the challenge, of developing value-centred interaction design as an approach to avoiding stereotypic presumptions about femininity when designing artefacts. We suggest that utilizing a feminine value perspective to design artefacts can create a richer profusion of ways to view...

  20. Consequences of School-Age Pregnancy and Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gail Hasselbach

    1980-01-01

    School-age mothers, their parents, and school personnel were interviewed independently to determine their perceptions of consequences of school-age pregnancy and motherhood. Perceived consequences differed for the three sets of interviewees. (Author)

  1. Programming for safe motherhood: a guide to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, M A; Tinker, A; Daly, P

    1994-09-01

    The Safe Motherhood Initiative has successfully stimulated much interest in reducing maternal mortality. To accelerate programme implementation, this paper reviews lessons learned from the experience of industrial countries and from demonstration projects in developing countries, and proposes intervention strategies of policy dialogue, improved services and behavioural change. A typological approach with three hypothetical settings from resource poor to resource rich environments is used to address the variability in health behaviours and infrastructure encountered when programming for safe motherhood.

  2. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  3. Unmarried motherhood in twentieth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thane, Pat

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of unmarried mothers who kept and tried to raise their children between World War One and the end of the twentieth century. It argues that there has not been a simple progression from their experiencing social stigma and ostracism to more enlightened attitudes since the 1970s. Rather there is a great deal that has hitherto been unknown about what the evidence suggests were very diverse experiences and attitudes throughout the period. A major change since the 1970s has been from pervasive secrecy about unmarried motherhood, cohabitation, adultery and similar 'irregular' practices, especially among the middle classes, to greater openness. The article uses a variety of sources, including the records of the National Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child (founded in 1918, now One Parent Families), oral histories, contemporary interviews and official and unofficial investigations.

  4. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  5. [Tainted femininity--traces of traditional menstruation myths in product advertising of feminine hygiene products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, J

    1997-01-01

    Does the portrayal of menstruation in menstrual product advertisements reflect cultural myths about menstruation? We analyse the reception of menstruation in contemporary and historical menstruation product advertisements. In menstrual product advertisements, menstruation is depicted as an unclean attribute, discrediting an ideal femininity and creating the need to conceal it. This tendency to taboo menstruation in menstrual product advertising contributes--by conveying a negative definition of femaleness--to a negative self-perception, particularly in young women.

  6. Scaffolding young Australian women's journey to motherhood: a narrative understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Gabrielle; Morrison, Paul; Down, Barry; WestBrook, Be

    2014-09-01

    Pregnant and young mothers' stories often go untold within community social and health service policy, planning and practice. Consequently, there is a significant gap between young women's experiences of motherhood and current service provision. This study was undertaken in response to a paucity of observational and contextually rich research that explores young women's experiences of pregnancy and motherhood, including the role a community service played in scaffolding their motherhood journeys. Fundamental to this study's purpose was the premise that to improve planning and delivery of more appropriate services for this group, we need to listen, consult and consider what life is like for young mothers. The purpose of this paper is to describe the role a community service played in scaffolding young women's experiences as they transitioned to motherhood. Using a narrative approach, this study draws on data collected from contextual observations of 31 informants and 11 in-depth interviews over 7 months of fieldwork in 2010 at a community service in the Peel region of Western Australia. The integral role a community service played in the young women's transition to motherhood was analysed thematically and captured in three metaphorical themes, finding a circle of friends, weaving a tapestry and turning the page. The young women's storied experiences of motherhood present a strong argument for radical re-visioning of community and social health policy, practice and service delivery for young mothers. The findings revealed that judgement-free services that foster social and supportive relationships were integral in developing positive motherhood identities. The power of narrative and social learning when working with young mothers suggests that social models of health that foster a relational, narrative approach to practice are fundamental to young mothers finding their own voices and solutions and becoming active agents in re-authoring future narratives of hope

  7. Cultural Collision and Women Victimization in Buchi Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fathi Helaly

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Buchi Emecheta is one of the most important female writers to emerge from Nigeria. She is distinguished for her vivid description of female subordination and conflicting cultural values in modern Africa. In Emecheta’s The Joys of Motherhood Nnu Ego, the protagonist, has to suffer as a wife both in the tribal environment in which she was born and the urban community in which she is compelled to live the rest of her life.  Nnu Ego has to suffer because these two environments have different cultures. She falls a victim of the tension of the collision of these two conflicting cultures. This collision occurs between the institutions of the traditional Ibo society and the institution of Western Europe.  The hardships that Nnu Ego experiences are the result of the clash between the Ibo traditions and the colonized Lagos. It is a clash of traditions, values and priorities. Nnu Ego is victimzed because of what the village (Ibuza community demands her to do, on the one hand, and what the rules of a European political  regime requires her to be. She finds herself in a predicament as she has to assume different roles in accordance with the values of the surrounding communities in which she has to live. She escapes from Ibuza because she is not accepted as a wife who cannot produce children. She flees to the distant city of Lagos to start a new life with another husband with the hope of fulfilling her dream of carrying children. This dream is rooted in the cultural values of the Ibo society where motherhood is the primary source of female self- esteem and public status. In Lagos Nnu Ego fulfills her dream of motherhood and begets a lot of children but the pleasures associated with motherhood are negated by the difficult economic conditions of her new urban community and its norms and values. She has to work day in and day out as a street-side peddler to sustain her children because her husband is away working for the colonizers most of the time. Nnu

  8. Missing Motherhood: Jordanian Women's Experiences with Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mahmoud Obeidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim, Background, and Introduction. Bearing and rearing children are an important part of life in nearly all cultures and are a central role for Jordanian Muslim women. Infertility can create anxiety, stress, and depression for couples who are infertile. Women frequently bear the emotional stigma of a couple’s infertility. There is a paucity of literature focusing on Jordanian Muslim women experiencing infertility and failed assistive reproductive technology. Therefore, this study explored these women’s lived experience. Methods. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 30 Jordanian Muslim women who experienced failed assistive reproductive technology for infertility. Perceptions of experiences with failed treatment of infertility were documented and analyzed. Results. Major themes were identified: missing out on motherhood and living with infertility, experiencing marital stressors, feeling social pressure, experiencing depression and disappointment, having treatment associated difficulties, appreciating support from family and friends, using coping strategies, and fear of an unknown future. Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications for Clinical Practice. Being infertile significantly influences the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health of Jordanian Muslim women as well as their quality of life. Perceived social support and personal coping strategies were used by study participants to mediate failed attempts to conceive. Designing and implementing culturally appropriate interventions for Muslim women globally who are experiencing infertility are essential.

  9. Rights to safe motherhood and newborn health: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliez, Jacques

    2009-08-01

    Worldwide, one woman dies every minute as a result of being pregnant. This statistic highlights the denial of women's rights to safe motherhood in many parts of the world, particularly in low-resource countries where 98% all maternal deaths occur. The majority of pregnant women die because they deliver unattended by a properly trained birth professional. According to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, every woman has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of herself and her family, including medical care. The principle of moral philosophy supporting women's rights to safe motherhood may be difficult to implement. Philanthropy is diverted by other competing needs, such as HIV prevention and treatment, or provision of urgent food supplies. Equity is denied because women's health is too often set as a low priority. Utilitarianism advocates that safe motherhood is an investment of societal shared interest.

  10. Dating, mating, and motherhood: identity construction among Mexican maquila workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, S; Ladino, C

    1999-02-01

    The authors explore the gender identities among women factory workers in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. Using data from 3 generations of women, they show that women's participation in the maquila work force is exposing them to new ideologies which challenge traditional images embodied in the marianismo ideal of Mexican womanhood. By focusing upon women's changing experiences of courtship and motherhood, the authors suggest that conventional discourses stressing parentally supervised mate selection and full-time motherhood are being challenged by alternative ones which allow young women to socialize freely with prospective mates in unsupervised contexts, and expand the meaning of responsible motherhood to encompass full-time employment. Women workers' identities are fluid processes in permanent negotiation. ¿

  11. Motherhood: a potential source of bias in employment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Madeline E; Okimoto, Tyler G

    2008-01-01

    Results of 2 experimental studies in which job incumbents were said to be applying for promotions to traditionally male positions demonstrated bias against mothers in competence expectations and in screening recommendations. This bias occurred regardless of whether the research participants were students (Study 1) or working people (Study 2). Although anticipated job commitment, achievement striving, and dependability were rated as generally lower for parents than for nonparents, anticipated competence was uniquely low for mothers. Mediational analyses indicated that, as predicted, negativity in competence expectations, not anticipated job commitment or achievement striving, promoted the motherhood bias in screening recommendations; expected deficits in agentic behaviors, not in dependability, were found to fuel these competence expectations. These findings suggest that motherhood can indeed hinder the career advancement of women and that it is the heightened association with gender stereotypes that occurs when women are mothers that is the source of motherhood's potentially adverse consequences. 2008 APA

  12. Teen motherhood and long-term health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Payal H; Sen, Bisakha

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.

  13. Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh: Evidence from 2007 BDHS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Mostafa Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh using the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey data. Overall, 69.3 per cent of the married adolescents began childbearing. Among them 56.4 per cent were already mothers and 12.9per cent were pregnant for the first time. Of the adult married women age 20–49, 62.1 per cent initiated childbearing before age 19. The multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s education, husband’s education, place of residence, ever use of contraceptive method, religion, wealth and region are important determinants of adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh.

  14. Maternal Silences: Motherhood and Voluntary Childlessness in Contemporary Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Llewellyn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Christianity, there is an ideology of motherhood that pervades scripture, ritual, and doctrine, yet there is an academic silence that means relatively little space has been given to motherhood and mothering, and even less to voluntary childlessness, from a faith perspective. By drawing on qualitative in-depth interviews with Christian women living in Britain, narrating their experiences of motherhood and voluntary childlessness, I suggest there are also lived maternal silences encountered by women in contemporary Christianity. There is a maternal expectation produced through church teaching, liturgy and culture that constructs women as ‘maternal bodies’ (Gatrell 2008; this silences and marginalises women from articulating their complex relationship with religion, motherhood, and childlessness in ways that challenge their spiritual development. However, this article also introduces the everyday and intentional tactics women employ to disrupt the maternal expectation, and hereby interrupt the maternal silence.

  15. The Motherhood Earnings Dip: Evidence from Administrative Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Kranz, Daniel; Lacuesta, Aitor; Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Using Spanish Social Security records, we document the channels through which mothers fall onto a lower earnings track, such as shifting into part- time work, accumulating lower experience, or transitioning to lower-paying jobs, and are able to explain 71 percent of the unconditional individual fixed- effects motherhood wage gap. The earnings…

  16. Motherhood in the teens and twenties: some surprises.

    OpenAIRE

    Cupples, M.E.; Bradley, T; Irvine, H.; McCann, B.; Wilson-Davis, K.

    2000-01-01

    We report a study of the association of health and social support variables with motherhood in teenagers and older mothers. Both teenage and older mothers reported poorer physical and mental health and fewer and less frequent social contacts than their nulliparous peers. Contrary to expectation, however, older mothers reported less extensive and less adequate social support networks than did teenagers.

  17. Young females' images of motherhood in relation to television viewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ex, C.T.G.M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between television viewing and young females' images of motherhood. The respondents were 166 Dutch adolescents (age 15–17) and young women (age 20–22) with various educational backgrounds. None were mothers. We examined the young females' self-image and ideal ima

  18. Young Females' Images of Motherhood in Relation to Television Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ex, Carine T. G. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines young Dutch adolescent and young females' self-image and ideal image of motherhood and the extent to which television viewing and viewing motives were related to these images. Notes none of the subjects were mothers and all were selected from a variety of educational settings. Concludes that sitcoms and soaps that portrayed mothers with a…

  19. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions.

  20. An abbreviated tool for assessing feminine norm conformity: psychometric properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-12-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and validity of the CFNI-45 with data from 520 college women (55% White). Confirmatory factor analyses with data from this sample suggested acceptable fit for the posited 9-factor structure. Furthermore, analyses of measurement invariance indicated similar structural properties with members of socioculturally dominant (i.e., White) and nondominant (i.e., women of color) racial/ethnic status groups. Also, subscales of the CFNI-45 demonstrated acceptable internal consistency reliability coefficients, and correlations with convergent and discriminant validity indicators supported the validity of subscales scores. Overall, results offered support for the CFNI-45 as a multidimensional measure of women's conformity to feminine norms. The CFNI-45 can be used in research to facilitate evaluation of the theorized roles of conformity to feminine norms in women's mental health, vocational behavior, interpersonal relationships, and other domains. The CFNI-45 can be used in clinical practice to assess and attend to clients' conformity to feminine norms as is called for in the American Psychological Association's (2007) Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Girls and Women.

  1. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Alavi, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268.

  2. The Measurement of Masculinity and Femininity: Historical Perspective and Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2001-01-01

    Masculinity and femininity are both psychological and sociocultural constructs that test developers have attempted to assess for many years. Examines the history of the measurement of masculinity and femininity from the 1920s through 2000, addresses relevant theory, and considers criticisms of masculinity and femininity measurement as well as the…

  3. Becoming an 'Amai': Meanings and experiences of motherhood amongst Zimbabwean women living in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benza, Sandra; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2017-02-01

    little is known about the meanings and experiences of motherhood among Zimbabwean migrant women. This paper discusses the meanings and experiences of motherhood from the perspectives of Zimbabwean migrant women living in Melbourne, Australia. qualitative methods (in-depth interviewing, photo elicitation and drawing) were conducted with 15 Zimbabwean women who had children in Zimbabwe and in Australia. Data were analysed using thematic analysis method. Zimbabwean women defined motherhood in varied ways. Common to all women was that becoming a mother had a significant meaning. Motherhood came with a sense of responsibility for children which resulted from their compromise and sacrifice. The dedication was exhibited by participants who demonstrated commitment to motherhood when striving to be a good mother. While motherhood provided pleasure and joy, some women found the role of motherhood burdensome in their new homeland. Due to cultural expectations of motherhood, women kept their difficulties silent for fear of being judged a 'bad mother'. The unfamiliarity with the health and social care systems in Australia presented challenges to these women. Often, they were treated without respect and felt discriminated against. our findings reveal the paradox of motherhood. Although motherhood can be burdensome, there are positive changes brought about by the process of motherhood. Due to a lack of knowledge about the health and social care system and the negative experiences with health care in Australia, the women felt overwhelmed about becoming a mother in Australia. healthcare providers, including midwives, need to understand how migrant women perceive and experience motherhood and their mothering role as this will help to improve the health and social care for these women and their children. Findings from this study provide a basis for further investigation into the formation and strengthening of support networks for Zimbabwean mothers in particular, and to other migrant

  4. Femininity as city marketing strategy: gender bending Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Rotterdam organised the festival ‘La City’ as an entrepreneurial strategy to upgrade the city’s class position, using femininity as a tool. ‘La City’ was an attempt to introduce a new economy in Rotterdam: one that is service-based and post-industrial. Rotterdam is a former industrial city and is

  5. Feminine values and happy life-expectancy in nations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Veenhoven, R

    2002-01-01

    Cross-national studies suggest that people are happier in feminine nations that are also economically affluent. The first objective of the present study was to replicate this finding with a quality of life index which is more comprehensive than the usual measures of subjective well-being. This

  6. Feminine Values and Happy Life-Expectatncy in Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Arrindell; R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCross-national studies suggest that people are happier in feminine nations that are also economically affluent. The first objective of the present study was to replicate this finding with a quality of life index which is more comprehensive than the usual measures of subjective

  7. Tomboys and Girly-Girls: Embodied Femininities in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how 9-11-year-old children, particularly girls, co-construct tomboy and girly-girl identities as oppositional positions. The paper sits within a theoretical framework in which I understand individual and collective masculinities and femininities as ways of "doing man/woman" or "doing boy/girl" that are…

  8. Feminine values and happy life-expectancy in nations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Veenhoven, R

    2002-01-01

    Cross-national studies suggest that people are happier in feminine nations that are also economically affluent. The first objective of the present study was to replicate this finding with a quality of life index which is more comprehensive than the usual measures of subjective well-being. This compr

  9. Femininity as city marketing strategy: gender bending Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Rotterdam organised the festival ‘La City’ as an entrepreneurial strategy to upgrade the city’s class position, using femininity as a tool. ‘La City’ was an attempt to introduce a new economy in Rotterdam: one that is service-based and post-industrial. Rotterdam is a former industrial city and is no

  10. Masculinity and Femininity: A Bipolar Construct and Independent Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; And Others

    Data from the authors' previous research (1979, 1980, 1987), consisting of responses to five masculinity-femininity (M-F), two esteem, and two social desirability instruments, were reanalyzed. The subjects were 104 male and 133 female college students who completed the: Bem Sex Role Inventory, Personal Attributes Questionnaire, ANDRO instrument…

  11. Between Office and Motherhood: Municipal Authorities in Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vázquez García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In México, women's participation in municipal politics faces, among other difficulties, that of reconciling domestic and public responsibilities. Drawing on research conducted with eighteen female mayors of Oaxaca, this paper analyzes the ways in which women perceive the relationship between motherhood, double burden (child raising and domestic work and their presidential position. All the women who have ruled a Custom and Practice municipality in Oaxaca since 1996 were interviewed. Two main conclusions are drawn from the analysis. First, the relationship between motherhood and presidential position varies according to women's marital status; the age of their children; and their chances of hiring domestic help. Second, even if women assume a public position of prestige and responsibility, they continue to perform domestic duties; household chores do not get redistributed among its members.

  12. Discourses of Motherhood and Consumption Practices of Turkish Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Ozhan Dedeoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Being primarily responsible of conducting logistical and emotional work of child-rearing, mothers have agency in formation of the child’s future identity, cultural values and dispositions, and serve as role models, sources of social pressure, and interpersonal support. This article aims to discover discourses of motherhood of Turkish mothers, especially educated and middle class, who have children dependent on their consumption decisions and how their discourses figure in their consumption practices of products, such as food and clothing, which they buy on behalf of their children. Discursive and consumption practices of Turkish mothers who are participating in selected virtual communities are analyzed by means of qualitative research methods. Main discourses that can be observed in their told consumption practices appeared to be the “good mothering” and “motherhood as personal achievement”. Backgrounding and absent discourses are also discussed.

  13. Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobcraft, J; Kiernan, K

    2001-09-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the current political agenda. The key new issue that this research addresses is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? Subsidiary questions relate to the magnitude of these associations, the particular levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether, as often assumed, only teenage mothers are subsequently disadvantaged, or are those who have their first birth in their early twenties similarly disadvantaged? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine outcomes at age 33 for several domains of adult social exclusion: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, emotional well-being and demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. There are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth, even after controlling for childhood poverty and the other childhood background factors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the widest gulf in adult outcomes occurs for those who enter motherhood early (before age 23), though further reinforced by teenage motherhood for most adult outcomes. We also show that any experience of childhood poverty is clearly associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood, with reinforcement for higher levels of childhood poverty for a few outcomes.

  14. Commercial agencies and surrogate motherhood: a transaction cost approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mhairi; McLachlan, Hugh V; Swales, J Kim

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the legal arrangements involved in UK surrogate motherhood from a transaction-cost perspective. We outline the specific forms the transaction costs take and critically comment on the way in which the UK institutional and organisational arrangements at present adversely influence transaction costs. We then focus specifically on the potential role of surrogacy agencies and look at UK and US evidence on commercial and voluntary agencies. Policy implications follow.

  15. Social status of motherhood with special reference to Serbia today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of the theoretical exploration of maternity and motherhood as a feminist political idea and includes the overview of the social practices and methods aimed at strengthening maternity and parenting in modern states, emphasizing the issue of the political support and social status of motherhood in Serbia today. The general trend in current changes is the separation of the population policy from the social policy of family planning, and deterioration of the social status of parenthood and motherhood, while the formal legal framework and ideas for improving the gender equality has been nominally improved, which contributes to their impracticability. Recent changes and adoption of new laws dealing with family and parenthood are fully adapted to the neoliberal transformation of Serbia, within which the social position of women is getting worse. In response, nationalist and patriarchal family policy are reinforced in the broader society. The article highlights the importance of examining women’s experiences and needs of women related to their reproduction and maternity, as a necessary starting point for developing appropriate policies in the wider society. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179035: Izazovi nove društvene integracije u Srbiji - koncepti i akteri

  16. An anthropological approach to voluntarily single motherhood in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Jordana-Pröpper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the research I did for my doctoral thesis about voluntarily single motherhood in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain. It is an anthropological approach to the appearance and the development of voluntarily single motherhood, which is when a woman becomes a mother through adoption or conception previously planned without partner. Within a framework of study carried out from October 2001 to October 2007 in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area, my research is based on in-depth interviews with twelve women from April 2002 to April 2006. The aim of the paper is to understand why women in Barcelona choose to be voluntarily single mothers. The purpose is to point out that the voluntarily single motherhood is a new way of understanding between women and men, resulting from the progressive changes in their respective gender roles. This anthropological research is grounded in a full vital process: from the personal decision of the women to become single mothers to the daily interaction with their children.

  17. A Study of Motherhood and Perceived Career Satisfaction of Women in Student Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kacee Ferrell

    2011-01-01

    There is limited research available on the relationship between motherhood and career satisfaction. This dissertation examined women who worked as student affairs professionals to develop a greater understanding of the relationship between motherhood and career satisfaction. The following research questions were addressed: Is there a difference…

  18. Growing up as a feminine team through a European project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Bocher, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The project AUGURY was selected in 2014 for a ERC consolidator grant. Like many of these projects, a new team is built almost from scratch, focused on a common scientific goal. In this project, the team was mostly feminine, being 5 women and 1 man. In a masculine world like geosciences, this situation revealed stereotypical reactions and behaviors. Especially when the only man is the leader of the project, shortcuts are easily made. We had to develop strategies to work against inappropriate situations, and we started to use the AUGURY project as a platform to promote equal opportunity in our department, and beyond. The two of us will present (1) how the team was put together for the project and show how the geodynamics community is more and more feminine, (2) how the team responded to the scientific challenges as a group of persons working together, and (3) how the team faced the challenges of its environment regarding equal opportunity.

  19. Feminine transformations: gender reassignment surgical tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizura, Aren Z

    2010-10-01

    Every year, hundreds of transgendered people from the United States, Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia travel to Thailand to undergo cosmetic and gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). Many GRS clinics market themselves almost exclusively to non-Thai trans women (people assigned a male sex at birth who later identify as female). This article draws on ethnographic research with patients visiting Thailand for GRS to explore how trans women patients related their experience of medical care in Thailand to Thai cultural traditions, in particular "traditional" Thai femininity and Theravada Buddhist rituals and beliefs. Foreign patients in Thai hospital settings engage not only with medical practices but also with their perceptions of Thai cultural traditions--which inflect their feminine identifications. I draw on two patients' accounts of creating personal rituals to mark their gender reassignment surgery, placing these accounts within the context of biomedical globalization and debates about the touristic appropriation of non-"Western" cultural practices.

  20. Do the BSRI and PAQ really measure masculinity and femininity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Coello, Ma Teresa

    2010-11-01

    The two most used instruments to assess masculinity (M) and femininity (F) are the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personality Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Two hypotheses will be tested: a) multidimensionality versus bidimensionality, and b) to what extent the two instruments, elaborated to measure the same constructs, classify subjects in the same way. Participants were 420 high school students, 198 women and 222 men, aged 12-15 years. Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis were carried out and log-linear models were tested. The data support a) the multidimensionality of both instruments and b) the lack of full concordance in the classification of persons according to the fourfold typology. Implications of the results are discussed regarding the supposed theory behind instrumentality/ expressiveness and masculinity/femininity, as well as for the use of both instruments to classify different subjects into the four distinct types.

  1. Femininity, neoliberalism and popular culture: the depolitization of feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Esquirol, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    This thesis intends to analyze the logics of representation of contemporary femininity in the popular imagery that has instrumentalized feminism. Such is the case of the transmedia narrative The Twilight Saga, the cultural franchise of 50 Shades of Grey, and TV fiction Girls. All of these cultural products have earned an important position in contemporary cultural consumption, invite a form of cultural participation closely linked to the consumer industry, and propose female ideals characteri...

  2. The Scream of the Butterfly: on Reclaiming the Feminine Divine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Daly, Bernice

    My thesis is that the Feminine Divine has re-entered our age as a primary image for human spiritual growth. Her central energies are immanence, interconnection, mutuality, and interdependence. Emerging from the ancient Goddess tradition, She is reflected anew in contemporary thought in multiple ways. I have explored Her re-emergence in spirituality, psychology, cross-cultural studies, ecofeminism and the new physics. I have focused my research on the experiences of women because women are the original and natural bearers of feminine energies. In the area of spirituality, She expresses Herself through women's reclaiming their sacred image in the women's spirituality movement. Further insights are gained from diverse indigenous cultures which honor the spirit-world in their everyday lives. Ritual, as the enactment of our beliefs, values and world-view, becomes powerful personal and communal expressions of Her re-emergence. From a psychological perspective, I have studied current theories of "Self-in-Relation" and Integrative Psychology. "Self-in-Relation" stresses personal development from within the context of relational growth, both within oneself and with others. Integrative Psychology articulates a body-oriented reconception of feminine and masculine energies. Ecofeminism expresses the confluence of women and nature as intrinsic to meeting environmental demands. Recognizing that treating 'mother' and 'earth' as inexhaustible resources is no longer possible, an ecofeminist position asserts that our assumptions about both women and nature be re -examined. The new physics reconstructs our perception of the universe through quantum physics and chaos theories. These perspectives view the universe as an alive, integrated whole; all aspects, including ourselves, inter-relate with all other aspects. These areas of research demonstrate the emergence of relatedness and interdependence as expressions of a new consciousness which honors the feminine Divine.

  3. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Struggle with the Feminine Traits in the Black Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左静

    2012-01-01

    In the short novel of The Black Cat,the first black cat,the second one and the narrator's wife are very important figures.They all have their denotative meaning.But they also have something in common.Here explains them as the feminine traits in the narrator.He always tries to kill them because he denies them and wants to perish them way from him.

  5. Correlated Male Preferences for Femininity in Female Faces and Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Fraccaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic physical traits are important for mate choice and mate preference in many species, including humans. Several previous studies have observed that women's preferences for physical cues of male masculinity in different domains (e.g., visual and vocal are correlated. These correlations demonstrate systematic, rather than arbitrary, variation in women's preferences for masculine men and are consistent with the proposal that sexually dimorphic cues in different domains reflect a common underlying aspect of male quality. Here we present evidence for a similar correlation between men's preferences for different cues of femininity in women; although men generally preferred feminized to masculinized versions of both women's faces and voices, the strength of men's preferences for feminized versions of female faces was positively and significantly correlated with the strength of their preferences for feminized versions of women's voices. In a second study, this correlation occurred when men judged women's attractiveness as long-term, but not short-term, mates, which is consistent with previous research. Collectively, these findings (1 present novel evidence for systematic variation in men's preferences for feminine women, (2 present converging evidence for concordant preferences for sexually dimorphic traits in different domains, and (3 complement findings of correlations between women's facial and vocal femininity.

  6. FEMININE WRITING” - THE EVOLUTION OF A CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela BACALI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “feminine writing” has caused much controversy in time. It appeared in France after the feminist movements in 1970, as a reaction to the lack of visibility of women writers, and it had three important stages. The first, temporally placed right after the events, whose spokeswoman was Hélène Cixous and was marked by her disputatious spirit. In the second stage, between the 80s and the 90s, a less troubled period, as the revolutionary enthusiasm decreased, the works of reference are those signed by Béatrice Didier and Christine Planté. A third stage is the one we are in at the moment – the stage from the beginning of the millennium – characterized by the fact that gender studies are more and more frequent and the efforts to reinstate a literature that has been ignored for a long time, as well as the concern to bring to the fore the literary femininity multiply. If in the period before the postmodernist era feminine literature had certain peculiarities due also to the social situation of women in a masculine society, nowadays the process of un-differentiation – a reflex of an equality that women gained with so much difficulty – is also manifested in the writing field.

  7. Sexual arousal and masculinity-femininity of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Chivers, Meredith L; Bailey, J Michael

    2016-08-01

    Studies with volunteers in sexual arousal experiments suggest that women are, on average, physiologically sexually aroused to both male and female sexual stimuli. Lesbians are the exception because they tend to be more aroused to their preferred sex than the other sex, a pattern typically seen in men. A separate research line suggests that lesbians are, on average, more masculine than straight women in their nonsexual behaviors and characteristics. Hence, a common influence could affect the expression of male-typical sexual and nonsexual traits in some women. By integrating these research programs, we tested the hypothesis that male-typical sexual arousal of lesbians relates to their nonsexual masculinity. Moreover, the most masculine-behaving lesbians, in particular, could show the most male-typical sexual responses. Across combined data, Study 1 examined these patterns in women's genital arousal and self-reports of masculine and feminine behaviors. Study 2 examined these patterns with another measure of sexual arousal, pupil dilation to sexual stimuli, and with observer-rated masculinity-femininity in addition to self-reported masculinity-femininity. Although both studies confirmed that lesbians were more male-typical in their sexual arousal and nonsexual characteristics, on average, there were no indications that these 2 patterns were in any way connected. Thus, women's sexual responses and nonsexual traits might be masculinized by independent factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Simone De Beauvoir: Transgressing Immanence, Motherhood And Social Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZELINKA ELISABETA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thesis of the present paper is to investigate the reasons why it may become difficult for the 20th century Western woman to avoid feeling trapped within her status of motherhood and to transcend her immanence as a woman. Simone de Beauvoir argues in The Second Sex, Part V, chapter XVII (“The Mother” that the modern Western woman proves unable to transgress her own immanence. What are the three factors that stand in the way of the woman's existential telos? What is the natural consequence of her Snow White-type of imprisonment? Will she impose the same pattern of panoptic surveillance upon her own offspring?

  9. Explaining the motherhood wage penalty during the early occupational career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T

    2012-02-01

    Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Minnesota Youth Development Study, we find that accumulated months not in the labor force and not enrolled in school explain the residual pay gap between mothers and other women.

  10. THE HORROR, THE BEAUTY AND THE FEMININE ONE IN FRIDA KAHLO

    OpenAIRE

    Sílvia Alvim de Paula; Evelyne Rosa Coelho; Adriana de Castro Longo

    2006-01-01

    Given the enigma that femininity implies and all the difficulty to represent it through words, this work intends to express feminine from the history of a woman and the feeling of suffering that this woman lived deeply. Frida Kahlo, consecrated Mexican painter, receives the horror of emptiness, comes close to feminine and proves exactly that the abandonment can, as permanent source of anguish, to gain a creative feature.

  11. THE HORROR, THE BEAUTY AND THE FEMININE ONE IN FRIDA KAHLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Alvim de Paula

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the enigma that femininity implies and all the difficulty to represent it through words, this work intends to express feminine from the history of a woman and the feeling of suffering that this woman lived deeply. Frida Kahlo, consecrated Mexican painter, receives the horror of emptiness, comes close to feminine and proves exactly that the abandonment can, as permanent source of anguish, to gain a creative feature.

  12. Women’s attitudes towards children and motherhood: A predictor of future childlessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Graham

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pronatalism expects and presumes that all women will be mothers, and stereotypes, stigmatises and excludes those who fail to conform. Yet, within the context of pronatalism, little is known about women without children’s attitudes towards motherhood, and their subsequent childbearing. This study aimed to determine if women’s attitudes towards children and motherhood predicted future motherhood status, using data from the Negotiating the Life Course Study. Women 18 years and over at Wave 1, who did not have children, were included in the analysis (n = 122. Logistic regression was used to predict motherhood status at Wave 4 based on attitudes at Wave 1. A positive attitude toward the importance of children in one’s life increased the likelihood of future motherhood, while believing children negatively impact on freedom increased the likelihood of not future childlessness. Findings also suggested that attitudes relating to the burden of children, or the impact of children on a woman’s career, are similar for those who do and do not become mothers. Women’s attitudes towards children and motherhood may be a poor predictor of future childlessness. This study counters some of the negative attitudinal stereotypes towards childless women in a pronatalist society. Keywords: Australia, childlessness, motherhood, attitudes

  13. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904

  14. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  15. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested

  16. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted…

  17. Complicating Hetero-Femininities: Young Women, Sexualities and "Girl Power" at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with expanding knowledge of how femininity/sexuality intersections are constituted in secondary schools. Existing studies have drawn upon Judith Butler's notion of a "heterosexual matrix" in order to understand how intersections of femininity/sexuality are produced in schools through normative discourses of heterosexuality…

  18. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted…

  19. Gender and Choosing a STEM Major in College: Femininity, Masculinity, Chilly Climate, and Occupational Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard M.; Wagner, Ashley; Killion, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Masculinity and femininity have played a substantial role in how social scientists explain the gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The masculine culture of science is thought to be inconsistent with occupational values associated with feminine personalities, and to create a discriminatory academic…

  20. Masculine and feminine voices: making ethical decisions in the care of the dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, D O

    1987-01-01

    Drawing on the example of one specific Ethics Committee, the author delineates feminine and masculine styles of ethical decision making and work with the dying as two sides of what it means to be humanistic in patient care. The author draws particularly on the work of Carol Gilligan to differentiate feminine from masculine approaches.

  1. Masculinity, Femininity, and Sex Role Attitudes in Early Adolescence: Exploring Gender Intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Nancy L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed differences in masculinity, femininity, and sex role attitudes in adolescent girls and boys, and the relation of pubertal timing to intensification of those attitudes. Found that sex differences in masculinity and sex role attitudes increased with age. Pubertal timing was unrelated to masculinity, femininity, and sex role attitudes. (BC)

  2. Gender and Choosing a STEM Major in College: Femininity, Masculinity, Chilly Climate, and Occupational Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard M.; Wagner, Ashley; Killion, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Masculinity and femininity have played a substantial role in how social scientists explain the gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The masculine culture of science is thought to be inconsistent with occupational values associated with feminine personalities, and to create a discriminatory academic…

  3. Suicide risk factors among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L; Nehme, Simon; Aunon, Frances; de Vries, David; Wagner, Glenn

    Transgender women are disproportionately affected by high rates of depression and suicide attempts. It is therefore important to identify factors that influence suicidal risk, particularly in the Middle East where little research has examined the mental health of transgender women. We examined risk factors associated with suicide attempts among 54 trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and analyzed using bivariate statistics. Twenty-five (46%) participants reported having ever attempted suicide. Among them, only one participant received some kind of counseling in response to the attempted suicide. Low general social support, low social integration, and low support from peers were significantly associated with a history of attempted suicide, as were being more open about transgender identity in public and any hormone use (past or current). These findings suggest that progression in gender transition can have unintended consequences related to mental health and suicide risk, while social support systems can mitigate the impact of mental health problems. Some of these findings mirror other contexts around the globe and can inform mental health services for trans feminine individuals in Lebanon, the greater Middle East region, and other international settings.

  4. Review of Marilyn Francus, Monstrous Motherhood: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Ideology of Domesticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Ann Thompson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of Marilyn Francus. Monstrous Motherhood: Eighteenth-Century Culture and the Ideology of Domesticity. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 2012. Xi + 297pp. Index. ISBN 978-1-4214-0737-1.

  5. More U.S. Women Hope for Motherhood, with 2 Kids Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161476.html More U.S. Women Hope for Motherhood, With 2 Kids Ideal Federal ... THURSDAY, Oct. 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- More American women want to become mothers, and their dream family ...

  6. Early marriage, adolescent motherhood, and reproductive rights for young Sasak mothers in Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rae Bennett

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Indonesian adolescents who are wives and mothers, demonstrating how early marriage and adolescent motherhood are normative among women from poor Sasak communities in Western Lombok. It is based on ethnographic research with 28 young mothers that included focus group discussions, in depth interviews, and observations. Demographic and ethnographic data on the aetiology of early marriage and adolescent motherhood are discussed, and confirm that low educational attainment for girls, lack of employment prospects, poverty, and low levels of economic development are all associated with a higher probability of adolescent marriage and motherhood in Indonesia. The article also reveals how conservative sexual morality and local marriage customs can propel girls into early marriage. It provides a human rights analysis that demonstrates how early marriage and adolescent motherhood intersect with the neglect of girls’ rights to education, employment, equality in marriage, health information, family planning, and maternal health.

  7. Mobilizing motherhood: case study of two women's organizations advocating HIV prevention programs in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    This PhD project examines the strategy of mobilizing motherhood through two Indonesian women’s organizations - the Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (Family Welfare Movement, or PKK) and Tim ODHA Perempuan (Seropositive Women’s Team, or TOP Support) - in the attempt to make prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs more socially acceptable. Motherhood and HIV/AIDS are in fact seen as contradictory concepts. However, at a time when PMTCT programs are being promoted, the...

  8. Transition to Motherhood as an Immigrant: Risks and Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruveyde Aydin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of transition to motherhood that brings along a number of vital changes may be full of risks and difficulties for immigrant mothers. Poverty, being unfamiliar with the language of the country that the mother migrated, inability of healthcare policies in covering healthcare expenses of immigrants, insufficiency of social assistance and loneliness may negatively affect health of mother and infant. Postpartum immigrant mothers are seen depression, anxiety, stress and social isolation because of these obstacles. Therefore, health care professionals, who provide care to immigrant mothers, should clarify immigrant mothers' religious, cultural beliefs and attitudes. Procurement of peer support is important by developing care programs special to immigrant mothers and ensuring immigrant women to come together. Increase in the number of translators in hospitals and prepara-tion of education materials in native language of mothers will improve the level of benefiting from healthcare services. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 250-262

  9. Attitudes towards the Use of Masculine and Feminine Japanese among Foreign Professionals: What Can Learners Learn from Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Subordinate femininity associated with feminine Japanese has been found to pose barriers for foreign language learners of Japanese, especially among Western female learners of Japanese. The present study investigates attitudes towards the use of both masculine and feminine Japanese among non-native professional speakers of Japanese. The latter's…

  10. The Assessment of Masculinity and Femininity: Scale 5 of the MMPI Compared with the BSRI and the PAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volentine, Susen Zimmerman

    1981-01-01

    Compared the MMPI Scale 5 to the Bem Sex Role Inventory and Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Femininity measures were related more strongly to Scale 5 score than masculinity measures. It was concluded that Scale 5 may be interpreted more accurately as a measure of femininity rather than masculinity/femininity. (Author)

  11. The C-Word: Motherhood, Activism, Art, and Childcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dhillon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ideals of second wave feminism questioned the family and attempted to reconstruct an understanding of motherhood as a social category. These questions have been overshadowed by a neoliberal discourse of childcare that is constructed around participation in the workplace for middle class women. The result is a clash of ideals and politics specific to the question of childcare: its labour, its distribution, and its reward. In this paper, we document our research-based artistic practice as it has evolved from activist campaigns for childcare in art schools to gallery-commissioned collaborations with publicly funded nurseries. We position our work against a context of other creative works (ranging from documentaries, films, art collectives, and animations that explore experiences of motherhood in relation to the issue of childcare. These examples present counter-narratives, collective solutions, or art practice that attempt to challenge the dominant, neoliberal model of the mother and childcare. Some of these examples succeed in part; others pose questions; and most fail, though failure in this context provides gateways to expanded conversations and long-term future possibilities. We examine the intersection of art and activism, and explore how childcare is often considered a dirty word in art. With its inherent subjectivities of parent and child, the ‘c-word’ is often contained within the education department if engaged with as an issue at all in arts institutions. Childcare often lacks visibility if required by a practioner in order to carry on their work. Yet for us, childcare forms the subject for an artistic practice.

  12. Severe systolic hypertension and the search for safer motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James N

    2016-03-01

    Timely and appropriate response to severe hypertension during gestation is an important component of quality, safe care for pregnant or puerperal mothers regardless of causation. The reduction of severe maternal morbidity and maternal mortality in the hypertensive mother is clearly enhanced by the addition of standard protocols for provider response to severe hypertension, particularly severe systolic hypertension. The program developed in New York State via the Safe Motherhood Initiative promotes the implementation of unit-specific safety bundles, especially one that is focused upon a standardized approach to handling the obstetric emergency of severe hypertension usually associated with preeclampsia/eclampsia. The comprehensive preeclampsia/eclampsia safety bundle as summarized by Drs. Moroz and colleagues is reviewed especially from the perspective of its focus on the timely and specific responses for health care providers to make when severe hypertension is detected in the pregnant patient. Evidence-based guidance to practice considerations and clinical care of patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia is embedded within the program outlined for New York State by Moroz and her District II ACOG colleagues. There is a central focus on timely and appropriate antepartum/postpartum management of severe hypertension, a core concept to lessen maternal risk for cerebral hemorrhage. Ten considerations for further integration into the New York program are suggested. Beyond blood pressure control, there is a need for systematic review of interventions and outcomes over time, attention to possible future variations of the protocol for racial/ethnic patient groups at highest risk for maternal morbidity and mortality, and the identification of biomarker(s) that further specify and quantify risk to the maternal brain and other organ systems when severe hypertension develops. Safer motherhood will happen when evidence for best practice is integrated into systems of care for all

  13. (Re)constructing Myself: the process of transition to motherhood for women with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Denise; Begley, Cecily; Lalor, Joan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a substantive theory that explains the transition to motherhood for women with a disability. Over the last thirty years, interest in exploring women's experiences of motherhood has increased. Extant theories on transition to motherhood originate, primarily, from the perspective and experiences of non-disabled women with few exploring the phenomenon from the perspective and experiences of women with a disability. Those that do tend to focus on issues of accessibility, profiling the challenges that women with a disability encounter while accessing maternity services, attaining a maternal role and fulfilling the requirements of that role. Little is known about the experiences of women with a disability and their transition to motherhood and even less about the relationship of this process on the self. The study was conducted using a Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory. Individual interviews (n = 22) were conducted over 4 years (2008-2012). Women were interviewed during pregnancy and in the postnatal period. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into Nvivo 8 and analysed using the constant comparative method. The substantive theory that emerged from the study provides a conceptual framework clinicians can reference when counselling, assisting and facilitating women with a disability during their preparation for and transition to motherhood. The substantive theory presented in this paper will increase clinicians' understanding of the process involved in the transition to motherhood for women with a disability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. You Are How You Eat? Femininity, Normalization, and Veganism as an Ethical Practice of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Dean

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that the practice of veganism is, or can be, a Foucauldian ethical practice of freedom. I begin by sketching out the problematization of alimentary practices within a normalizing patriarchal framework, which some feminists argue is dominant within contemporary North American society. Within this problematization, eating—for many women—is a way to manage the body’s appearance and bring it into conformity with feminine norms, and also an ongoing opportunity to exercise the will over unruly bodily desires. I then consider the narratives of women who claim that veganism helped them to relinquish disordered eating habits, temper the emotional and psychological turmoil that surrounded their alimentary practices, and mitigate antagonism toward their own bodies. In short, the practice of veganism appears to have reproblematized eating for these women. Thus, I suggest, veganism can be an ethical practice of freedom: it can loosen the tight grip of patriarchal normalization as constituted in and through disordered eating habits, and constitute subjects that are “a little less governed” by this form of power. I conclude by considering objections to this thesis, and in particular, the concern that veganism is linked to healthism, another worrying form of normalization.

  15. From Moscovici to Jung: the feminine archetype and its iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Saiz Galdós

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our representations of women have their origins in the myths of the past. According to Jung, myths are the symbolic expression of the collective unconscious that expresses itself through archetypes. Archetypes are thus images that pass across generations: instruments of collective thought. The main archetypes we deal with in this article are the Mother and the Anima, or men´s feminine principle. Using Jung's concept of archetype to analyse women´s iconographic representations allows us to combine the notion of the collective unconscious with that of social representations. Whereas Moscovici´s theory of social representations offers us the possibility of analysing beliefs about women through history, Jung’s perspective reveals us the possibility of analysing the myths constructed around women as part of the archetypes people use to give sense to reality.

  16. Jane Austen's Feminine Consciousness That Reflected in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童薇

    2011-01-01

    Jane Austen is one of the most famous female novelists in the world.Among her works,"Pride and Prejudice" is her most outstanding representative.The story of "Pride and Prejudice" happened in Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century.At that time,Women regarded marriage as goods to climb up the upper class and to obtain the financial support and their attitudes towards marriage was affected by material factors in determine way.The story of this novel and the behavior of the characters develop around marriage.It mainly talks about Elizabeth,Jane,Charlotte and Lydia these four young ladies' marriages.There are three kinds of motivations of or attitudes towards marriage that are presented for manifestation.First,Charlotte's marriage to Mr.Collins is just for money and social position.Second,Lydia's marriage to Wickham is for beauty regardless of personal morality.Third,is the marriage of Elizabeth and Darcy and that of Jane and Mr.Bingley which are for love and personal merits.Their love stories reveal different views to marriage among young women of the middle class and express Jane Austen her own attitude towards marriage.What's more important,we find that Jane Austen concerns about women's lives and their unfair conditions by means of her feminine consciousness.By examining Jane Austen's social conditions that she lived in and her experiences and analyzing these four marriages,this paper attempts to find the Austen's views of marriage and her feminine consciousness that reflected in this novel.

  17. Facial Visualizations of Women's Voices Suggest a Cross-Modality Preference for Femininity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with higher-pitched voices and more feminine facial features are commonly judged as being more attractive than are women with lower-pitched voices and less feminine faces, possibly because both features are affected by (age-related variations in endocrine status. These results are primarily derived from investigations of perceptions of variations in single-modality stimuli (i.e., faces or voices in samples of young adult women. In the present study we sought to test whether male and female perceptions of women's voices affect visual representations of facial femininity. Eighty men and women judged voice recordings of 10 young girls (11–15 years, 10 adult women (19–28 years and 10 peri-/post-menopausal women (50–64 years on age, attractiveness, and femininity. Another 80 men and women were asked to indicate the face they think each voice corresponded to using a video that gradually changed from a masculine looking male face into a feminine looking female face. Both male and female participants perceived voices of young girls and adult women to be significantly younger, more attractive and feminine than those of peri-/post-menopausal women. Hearing young girls' and adult women's voices resulted in both men and women selecting faces that differed markedly in apparent femininity from those associated with peri-/post-menopausal women's voices. Voices of young girls had the strongest effect on visualizations of facial femininity. Our results suggest a cross-modal preference for women's vocal and facial femininity, which depends on female age and is independent of the perceiver's sex.

  18. A glittering icon of Fascist femininity: Trebisonda "Ondina" Valla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, G

    2001-01-01

    This essay focuses on the second decade of the Italian Fascist regime through its emblematic symbol, Trebisonda 'Ondina' Valla. Valla gained first place in the 80 metre hurdles at the Berlin Olympics of 1936, and became the first world-class female athlete in Italian history, in spite of the generally backward condition of Italian women. In those years, a paternalistic and conservative society deeply discriminated against female participation in not only sport but also other cultural activities. The Catholic Church, medical expertise, eugenics theories and the fascist regime were all opposed to female competitive sport. The Church demanded female morality, modesty and domesticity while, the medical profession recommend only basic physical exercise for female health and motherhood. While promoting the myth of the New Italy as a modern nation, Fascism wished it to be inhabited by a traditional womanhood. Paradoxically, however, Mussolini supported Valla because she epitomized a dynamic fascism and brought Italian Fascism international visibility. The serendipitous value of Valla was that she encouraged young women to attempt to force open the bars of their political cage, and at the same time forced the fascist ideology to reconsider and reconstruct fascist principles in the interest of international propaganda. Thus while Valla was a political instrument of fascist purpose, she was also an agent of female emancipation. She was a political icon that also became a gender icon. In both roles she became a symbol of congratulation but also of confrontation, contradiction and paradox.

  19. The state of political priority for safe motherhood in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, J; Ved, R R

    2007-07-01

    Approximately one-quarter of all maternal deaths occur in India, far more than in any other nation on earth. Until 2005, maternal mortality reduction was not a priority in the country. In that year, the cause emerged on the national political agenda in a meaningful way for the first time. An unpredictable confluence of events concerning problem definition, policy alternative generation and politics led to this outcome. By 2005, evidence had accumulated that maternal mortality in India was stagnating and that existing initiatives were not addressing the problem effectively. Also in that year, national government officials and donors came to a consensus on a strategy to address the problem. In addition, a new government with social equity aims came to power in 2004, and in 2005, it began a national initiative to expand healthcare access to the poor in rural areas. The convergence of these developments pushed the issue on to the national agenda. This paper draws on public policy theory to analyse the Indian experience and to develop guidance for safe motherhood policy communities in other high maternal mortality countries seeking to make this cause a political priority.

  20. Moral implications of obstetric technologies for pregnancy and motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    Drawing on sociological and anthropological studies, the aim of this article is to reconstruct how obstetric technologies contribute to a moral conception of pregnancy and motherhood, and to evaluate that conception from a normative point of view. Obstetrics and midwifery, so the assumption, are value-laden, value-producing and value-reproducing practices, values that shape the social perception of what it means to be a "good" pregnant woman and to be a "good" (future) mother. Activities in the medical field of reproduction contribute to "kinning", that is the making of particular social relationships marked by closeness and special moral obligations. Three technologies, which belong to standard procedures in prenatal care in postmodern societies, are presently investigated: (1) informed consent in prenatal care, (2) obstetric sonogram, and (3) birth plan. Their widespread application is supposed to serve the moral (and legal) goal of effecting patient autonomy (and patient right). A reconstruction of the actual moral implications of these technologies, however, reveals that this goal is missed in multiple ways. Informed consent situations are marked by involuntariness and blindness to social dimensions of decision-making; obstetric sonograms construct moral subjectivity and agency in a way that attribute inconsistent and unreasonable moral responsibilities to the pregnant woman; and birth plans obscure the need for a healthcare environment that reflects a shared-decision-making model, rather than a rational-choice-framework.

  1. Rosie Carpe and the Virgin Mary: Modelling Modern Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Eaton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marie NDiaye’s 2001 novel, Rosie Carpe, incorporates, as one of its several instances of parenting failure, the narrative of the decline of a single mother from adequacy to abuse. This narrative, which is the focus of this article, might be said to put flesh on the bones of Julia Kristeva’s deconstruction of the Virgin Mary in her 1980s essay ‘Stabat Mater’. Kristeva saw the Marian model as out of date but she interrogated its enduring power and its continuing influence on our cultural perceptions of maternity. NDiaye’s eponymous Rosie realises she is pregnant but has no idea how this has come about. Rosie is not represented as a woman who has a religious faith but she decides to accept her child as a holy miracle. This article analyses how the ‘mythology’ of the Virgin Mary, and other biblical intertext, is woven into the narrative of Rosie’s experience of motherhood, so as to counterpoint and illuminate Rosie’s bleak and raw inner experience of maternity, an experience which, while confirming that Rosie is not, and never could have been, a modern Virgin Mary nevertheless refreshes the human stories at the root of the Christian narrative.

  2. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Kaveh; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Twelve male-to-female (MF) and 27 female-to-male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self-report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi-squared test. Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender-Masculine (GM) and Gender-Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2 (MMPI-2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). In the scales of masculinity, MF-GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM-GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF-GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM-GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI-2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM-GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF-GID individuals. Iranian FM-GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF-GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261-268.

  3. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Kaveh; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. Aim The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Methods Twelve male‐to‐female (MF) and 27 female‐to‐male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self‐report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM‐IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi‐squared test. Main Outcome Measures Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender‐Masculine (GM) and Gender‐Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory‐2 (MMPI‐2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results In the scales of masculinity, MF‐GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM‐GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF‐GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM‐GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI‐2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM‐GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF‐GID individuals. Conclusion Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268. PMID:26797060

  4. Construction of the femininity in adolescents from 12 to 17 years, La Dorada municipality of Caldas

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Ortegón, Diana Patricia; Giraldo Patiño, Milena; Cardona Rivas, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Objetive: to understand the process of construction the femininity in adolescents the municipality of La Dorada, Caldas.Methodology: qualitative study was applied to a group adolescents between 12 and 17 years of strata 1 and 2, the College Renan Barco in grades 7 through 11 secondary, and the "Support Foundation" La Dorada, Caldas. Through interview and focus groups were asked about experiences, knowledge and influences adolescents living in the process of construction their femininity.Resul...

  5. The inscription of the feminine body in the field of sound: Vocal expression as a platform of feminine writing (écriture féminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings together several theoretical issues relevant both to the fields of musicology/ethnomusicology and feminist/gender studies - above all, the issue of the status of the voice within the complexity of a body-textuality tension, and the issue of mapping the strategies of feminine writing in the contemporary vocal performance. Through the analysis of chosen case studies it highlights the possibility of making an alteration, transformation and re-signification of a firm structural linguistic/social order in the field of sound, thus creating a space for a feminine body to be heard.

  6. Ideological discourse of gender inequality in feminine sociology

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    O. I. Parkhomenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of theoretical and methodological principles and key provisions of the discourse of gender inequality in feminine sociology. It has been stated by the author that the analysis of the ideological aspects of gender discourse, which appeared at the XXI century, is oriented to the search of contemporary gender ideology of egalitarianism and tolerance that would take root in the mentality of different societies. Analysis of ideas of different ideologies and cultures suggests that any ideology can only perform a positive function when it is based on the values of the culture. Otherwise it does not receive social support. The study of the ideological aspects of gender discourse in feminist sociology has shown that in the process of gender socialization man and woman should pass pre-ideological (before adulthood and post-ideological stages. In such situation, gender orientation values are formed in several ways (legal, economic, religious, gender norms influence the assimilation and evaluation, and only subsequently change the gender behavior and gender acquiring competence. It has been stipulated in the article that the modern world is characterized by multivariate cultures and patterns of gender socialization. In feminist sociology it has been decided to allocate three basic types of gender ideologies and their corresponding patterns of gender socialization: a patriarchal gender ideology and socialization, which are characterized by a lack of awareness, significant changes, a sense of continuity of life, self-mastery behaviors that meet all standards of culture; b modernist gender ideology and socialization, characterized by such prevailing model of behavior as the adoption of new norms of behavior, activity and independence in women’s behavior, adults can learn from children, children try to develop their own style of behavior that is different from the behavior of their parents, conflict of generations, lots of

  7. Representation of Motherhood and Age Characteristics of Infants in Girls in their Late Teens

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    Krys’ko A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe and analyze data on changes in the representations of motherhood and age characteristics of infants under the influence of pregnancy and motherhood experiences with girls in their late teens (we studied three groups: having no children, pregnant women and young mothers. We used questionnaire “Representations of characteristics of children in each period of their development” (designed by M.E. Lantsburg, A.A. Krys’ko, pictorial projective test, “Me and my child”, projective technique “Mothers TAT”, with 5 reproductions of paintings “Motherhood” by S. Krasauskas representing parenting, motherhood and childbirth, selected as stimulus material. The results of analysis were used to identify the main trends for each of the three groups of subjects.

  8. Stress, Pregnancy, and Motherhood: Implications for Birth Weights in the Borderlands of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2017-03-01

    We argue that changes over time in how ideas of stress are incorporated into understandings of pregnancy and motherhood among Mexican immigrant women living in the United States may affect the documented increase of low birth weight infants born to those women. Stress has consistently been linked to low birth weight, and pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women differ in levels of perceived social stress. What is lacking is an explanation for these differences. We utilize a subset of 36 ethnographic interviews with pregnant immigrant women from northern Mexico and Mexican Americans living in south Texas to demonstrate how meanings of pregnancy and motherhood increasingly integrate notions of stress the longer immigrant Mexican women live in the United States. We situate our results within anthropological and sociological research on motherhood in the United States and Mexico, anthropological research in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands, and interdisciplinary research on Hispanic rates of low birth weight. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  9. Trends and differentials of adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia: evidences from 2005 Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmu, Eshetu; Dejene, Tariku

    2012-12-01

    Adolescent childbearing has undesirable consequences. Dropping out of school, high rates of abortion, maternal mortality and morbidity are noted consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. The objective of this study, which is based on the 2005 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data, is to analyze the levels, trends and differentials of adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia. A multilevel logistic regression was fitted to analyze the determinants of adolescent childbearing. Adolescent motherhood in Ethiopia has shown a generally declining trend over time. The decline was more marked in the periods following the adoption of the national population policy in the country. Further, it was lower in urban areas and among women who have secondary and above level of education, but higher among women not working and those engaged in agricultural activities. Housewives and women working in the agricultural sector should be given attention to reduce the risks and consequences of adolescent motherhood.

  10. The Motherhood Penalty at Midlife: Long-Term Effects of Children on Women's Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Joan R; García-Manglano, Javier; Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2014-02-01

    The authors build on prior research on the motherhood wage penalty to examine whether the career penalties faced by mothers change over the life course. They broaden the focus beyond wages to also consider labor force participation and occupational status and use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women to model the changing impact of motherhood as women age from their 20s to their 50s (n = 4,730). They found that motherhood is "costly" to women's careers, but the effects on all 3 labor force outcomes attenuate at older ages. Children reduce women's labor force participation, but this effect is strongest when women are younger, and is eliminated by the 40s and 50s. Mothers also seem able to regain ground in terms of occupational status. The wage penalty for having children varies by parity, persisting across the life course only for women who have 3 or more children.

  11. Narratives About Necessity--Constructions of Motherhood Among Drug Using Sex-Sellers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjønness, Jeanett

    2015-05-01

    This ethnographic study explores norms and practices concerning motherhood among 37 drug-using female sex-sellers in Denmark. It is based on extended fieldwork in a drop-in center and narrative interviews with clients and staff in this center from 2001-2005. A strong norm guiding the staff's relation to the users is that drug-use, prostitution, and motherhood are incompatible. The women meet such institutional expectations and norms about motherhood either by constructing norm-conforming narratives or by opposing the institutional view. As the institution offers no 'backstage', the women's self-representations often appear chaotic and inconsistent. Either way their strategies often become contributions to the reproduction of the structures they resist.

  12. Medusa as the story of Victorian feminine identity

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    Simona Catrinel Avarvarei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper scans the meandering paths of a quest through the realms of womanly self and its articulateness in (robust constructs of individuality. We have departed from a paradigm of interpretation related to a mythological figure, dual in itself, namely the Medusa, perceived as either mask, or face which has always fascinated with her tragic beauty. It is within the semantics of the word fascinum charm, evil spirit but also virile member where the attributes of an age, the Victorian time, that was equally fascinating, as it was whirling and powerful, lie hidden. This paper focuses on artistic reflections of Victorian femininity in an effort to examine how it contributed to the ever-changing definition and search of female gender identities at times of hegemonic masculinities. Art and fiction articulate some of the more powerful challenges. If philosophy encapsulates phallogocentrism, as Derrida points out, fiction, he claims, is an invagination, namely a creation of differences where no term spells self-sufficiency. Thus, whereas philosophy may be seen as the very core of the canon, literature builds a bridge for women to challenge the vastness of terrains of male utterance.

  13. Learning Dynamics in Feminine Precarious Migration. A Qualitative Perspective

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    Letitia TRIFANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Consenting theories on learning consider it as a dynamic process, which all lifelong, nourishes itself from experience. This epistemological perspective had many practical consequences in the social field and immigration is one of the most concerned areas. This article focuses on learning processes related to precarious feminine migration. Its empirical starting point consists in an ongoing qualitative research on African migrant women – asylum seekers and irregular immigrants. We shall focus on the diverse modalities individuals use to transform migration experiences in sources of social learning, based on three case studies, three women’s migration narratives. From a biographical paradigm perspective, we will analyse the relation between experiential learning and the process of becoming a subject, such as it appears in these narratives. As a transition period marked by cultural and identity ruptures, precarious migration involves for those concerned an important biographical work. The result is individuals’ transformation within a dynamics of empowerment as in (regaining power onto one’s life. Change of life involves the constant capacity to self re-invention and change of the past means being able to give it value in a future perspective.

  14. Performing Femininity in Japanese Politics: Chikage Ogi Case Study

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    Alison Luke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Women’s access to the political sphere in Japan has been limited by structural constraints which perpetuate their roles primarily as housewives and mothers. Some women who seek to become professional politicians use these images of traditional femininity as a deliberate tactic in political campaigns to provide a culturally acceptable way for them to express their political views. This paper analyses the life of Chikage Ōgi, a Japanese politician who was once a Takarazuka actress, in order to develop a deeper understanding of the ways in which gender-role expectations restrict women’s access to opportunities throughout their life course and the pragmatic ways that women strive to achieve their goals despite this. Ōgi used the performance skills she developed during her time as an actress to enhance her political image and fulfil her political ambitions. This paper highlights Ōgi’s creativity in enacting agency in Japan’s male-dominated political sphere and demonstrates the complex ways she both upheld and subverted gender norms in order to achieve political longevity.

  15. "Behind the poetic fiction": Freud, Schnitzler and feminine subjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    In 1922 Sigmund Freud wrote to fellow Viennese author and dramatist Arthur Schnitzler: "I believe I have avoided you out of a sort of fear of my double." Through a series of reflections on this imagined doubling and its reception, this paper demonstrates that the ambivalent desire for his literary other attested by Freud's confession goes to the heart of both theoretical and historical questions regarding the nature of psychoanalysis. Bringing Schnitzler's resistance to Freud into conversation with attempts by psychoanalytically oriented literary scholars to affirm the "Doppengängertum" of the two men, it argues that not only psychoanalytic theories and modernist literature but also the tendency to identify the two must be treated as historical phenomena. Furthermore, the paper contends, Schnitzler's work stands in a more critical relationship to its Viennese milieu than Freud's: his examination of the vicissitudes of feminine desire in "Fräulein Else" underlines the importance of what lies outside the oedipal narrative through which the case study of "Dora" comes to be centered on the uncanny nexus of identification with and anxious flight from the other.

  16. Mother's educational level and single motherhood: Comparing Spain and Italy

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    Anna Garriga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the second half of the 20th century there was a positive relationship between single parenthood and the mother's educational level in Spain and Italy. Objective: However, several important transformations contemplated by Goode (1993 and McLanahan (2004 suggest that this relationship may have been inverted in Spain but perhaps not in Italy. The purpose of our study is to test this hypothesis. Methods: We use EU_SILC data from waves 2005 and 2011 and logistic regressions. Results: We found the relationship between the mother's educational level and being a single mother is negative in Spain, while it is not significant in Italy. However, we found that for Italian mothers aged 40 and younger and mothers from northwest Italy, this relationship is also negative. By contrast, for older mothers and mothers from the islands or southern Italy, this association is positive. Meanwhile, for mothers from the central and northeast regions, the relationship between educational level and single motherhood is not significant. Conclusions: These results show how Spain and some parts of Italian society are moving towards family models similar to those in the Northern European countries. As Sara McLanahan (2004 noted for the United States, this social transformation in Southern Europe cannot be considered without recognizing the potential negative consequence for future generations. The single-mother households dealing with the economic crisis that started in 2008 have lower socioeconomic backgrounds than the single mothers who suffered through previous crises, and therefore the consequences of this crisis for children in single-parent families might be even more negative, especially in Spain.

  17. Feminilidade: alteridade e experiência Femininity: alterity and experience

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    Márcia Arán

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem como objetivo desenvolver a noção de alteridade na psicanálise a partir dos conceitos de feminilidade e de experiência. Parte de uma crítica à centralidade do modelo Édipo / castração na teoria psicanalítica ­ modelo este que fundamenta uma forma de subjetivação que se faz pelo recalque como defesa ou pela renúncia pulsional - para pensar novas formas de sociabilidade. Inicialmente, procura-se analisar o destino da experiência alteritária na modernidade: o outro como estranho-familiar. Em seguida, através da análise de algumas passagens da obra freudiana, procura-se desen­ volver a noção de alteridade no registro da imanência, ou seja, como uma abertura para a diferença.The objective of this essay is to elaborate on the notion of alterity in psychoanalysis based on the concepts of femininity and experience. The point of departure is a critique of the centrality of the Oedipean/castration model in psychoanalytical theory (a model underlying a form of subjectivation resulting from repression or denial of drive in order to conceive new forms of sociabilily. The article begins by analyzing lhe fate of the altetily experience in modernity: lhe other as slrange/familiar. Next, by analyzing key passages from Freud's work, lhe author seeks to develop the notion of alterily in lhe context of immanence, that is, as an openness to difference.

  18. Figuras da maternidade em Clarice Lispector ou a maternidade para além do falo The figures of motherhood in Clarice Lispector or motherhood beyond the phallus

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    Cristina Marcos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A maternidade é freqüentemente situada na lógica fálica. Nossa proposta é nos interrogarmos sobre o que, da maternidade e da gestação, não se reduz ao falo. As figuras da maternidade em Clarice Lispector exibem o que há aí de incomensurável, de impossível a simbolizar e aparecem ligadas ao mundo orgânico, ou, ainda, a um gozo animal e excessivo, lembrando o que Lacan nomeia como gozo outro. A criança é, para a mulher, um modo de relação com o falo, e não dizemos o contrário, entretanto Clarice nos dá a ver que a criança torna também presente um real incomensurável.Motherhood is often situated in a phallic logic. But something in motherhood is not reduced to the phallus. The figures of motherhood in Clarice Lispector shows what is incommensurable in it, what cannot be symbolized and is still linked to the organic world, to an animal and excessive jouissance. The child is, for the woman, a kind of relation with the phallus, but also the incommensurable real.

  19. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  20. Mobilizing motherhood: case study of two women's organizations advocating HIV prevention programs in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imelda, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    This PhD project examines the strategy of mobilizing motherhood through two Indonesian women’s organizations - the Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (Family Welfare Movement, or PKK) and Tim ODHA Perempuan (Seropositive Women’s Team, or TOP Support) - in the attempt to make prevention of

  1. Scales for Measuring College Student Views of Traditional Motherhood and Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, Mark; Knox, David

    2005-01-01

    College students rank "raising a family" as one of their primary values (American Council on Education and University of California, 2003). Yet, little is known about their understanding of the respective roles of motherhood and fatherhood. Feminism, dual career marriages, and more egalitarian role models may have altered adherence to…

  2. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  3. Shared Secrets: Motherhood and Male Homosexuality in Doppelgänger Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sencindiver, Susan Yi

    2011-01-01

    narratives. Enlisting Joseph Conrad’s short story, “The Secret Sharer,” among others, as both a paradigmatic yet self-conscious example, I examine the intersecting hotbed of these two strange bedfellows, motherhood and homosexuality, as well as the significance of gender in the male doppelgänger imaginary....

  4. Disciplining Youth, Disciplining Women: Motherhood, Delinquency, and Race in Postwar American Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This article brings together, and builds upon, previous scholarship on juvenile delinquency, motherhood, and education in 1950s America, and explores how the widespread contention that inadequate mothering was responsible for a rise in juvenile crime and social deviance helped shape the organization of schooling in the postwar era. In the first…

  5. Making existential meaning in transition to motherhood-A scoping review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prinds, Christina; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Mogensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to provide a thematic overview of the existing literature on existential meaning-making related to transition to motherhood among mothers of full term born babies in Western oriented countries and to discuss the themes from a existential psychology perspective. DESIGN: the review follows...

  6. Presurgical orthopedics and satisfaction in motherhood: a randomized clinical trial (Dutchcleft).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl, C.; Prahl-Andersen, B.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of infant orthopedics on satisfaction in motherhood. DESIGN: Prospective two-arm randomized controlled trial in parallel with three participating academic cleft palate centers. Treatment allocation was concealed and was performed by means of a computerized balanced all

  7. Impact of Teenage Motherhood on the Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmao-Kiptanui, Catherine; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga; Lelan, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy and motherhood is a concern in both developed and developing countries and is a complex reality of contemporary society however the re-entry of teenage mothers into the school system continues to demand attention as society's negative attitude towards pregnant girls and teenage mothers persists. Those who do return to school…

  8. How Motherhood Triumphs Over Trauma Among Mothers With Children From Genocidal Rape in Rwanda

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    Odeth Kantengwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rape is a common occurrence during genocide and the presence of children born as a result of rape poses a challenge to post-genocide recovery processes. This paper treats mothers of children born as a result of genocidal rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi as a separate category of survivors and explores the contribution of a positive embrace of motherhood in their recovery. It is based upon a study that included fourteen women from Kigali city, Karongi District in the Western Province and Huye District in the Southern Province. Qualitative analysis of individual interviews and focus groups provided a means to explore in-depth the perceptions of mothers and the value of motherhood. It was found that mothers of children of rape experienced challenges raising their children, especially in the early stages of parenting. Social stigma related to rape and children born of rape created challenges, as did the lack of psychosocial resources for the women, particularly when faced with disclosing paternity to the children. However, despite these and other difficulties, motherhood played a positive role for many women, often providing a reason to live again after the genocide. These findings show that positive experiences of motherhood can be key to the recovery of survivors of genocidal rape in Rwanda and points to future directions for research and health promotion among populations affected by conflict-related sexual violence.

  9. From motherhood penalties to husband premia: the new challenge for gender equality and family policy, lessons from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M; Høgsnes, Geir

    2014-03-01

    Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in creating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer-employee data from Norway, 1979-96, a period with extensive expansion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and fatherhood remained constant. In 1979, the gender wage gap was primarily due to the motherhood penalty, but by 1996 husband premia were more important than motherhood penalties.

  10. For better or for worse? The dilemmas of unmarried motherhood in mid-twentieth-century popular British film and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates representations of unmarried motherhood in the late 1940s and early 1950s through readings of popular British film and fiction. These sources are used to illustrate contradictions and conflicts in the meanings afforded to unmarried motherhood and, in turn, to highlight how the unmarried mother was used as a motif for exploring post-war normative boundaries around marriage, motherhood, and female sexuality. The article draws upon Raymond Williams's idea of a 'structure of feeling' to make connections between these representations and issues and debates about the role and status of women and mothers more generally in post-war Britain.

  11. Evaluation of a Safe Motherhood project in Ntcheu district, Malawi

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    Mseu D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dennis Mseu,1 Betty Mkwinda Nyasulu,2 Sadandaula Rose Muheriwa3 1Nurses and Midwives Council of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 2Basic Studies Department, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi; 3Department of Maternal and Child Health, Kamuzu College of Nursing, University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi Purpose: This study evaluated knowledge and practices of childbearing women on key childcare practices within the Safe Motherhood project, administered by the Ntcheu District Health Office in the Republic of Malawi. The study excluded men and elderly women. Methods: The design was cross-sectional, and utilized quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis procedures. Data were also collected through review of participant health records. Results: Although the findings showed that all participants (100%, n=400 had general knowledge on maternal and child health care, they did not have comprehensive information, and few mothers were practicing the recommended key child health care practices. Only 42.4% (n=170 knew the appropriate number of visits a woman should make to the antenatal clinic, and very few knew the appropriate time at which to access antenatal care. Only 55% (n=220 of participants breastfed their babies exclusively. Some participants introduced supplementary feeds as early as a month after birth, and not all women delivered at the health facility. Failure to actively involve men and elderly women in maternal and child health issues had a negative impact on women's ability to fully implement key maternal and childcare practices. Conclusion and recommendations: There is a need to actively involve men and elderly women in maternal and child health issues since, in the ideal Malawian context, a child is raised not just by the mother, but also by all who live in the village. Additionally, elderly women are the guardians of members of the childbearing group, and are a traditional reservoir of experience into

  12. A Critical Analysis of Ibn al-‘Arabi’s Views on Femininity and Gender Issues

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    ملیحه علیزاده

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the sources on Tasawwuf, the works of Ibn al-‘Arabi especially hold femininity in high regard. The present study is to illustrate that beyond the transcendental view of Ibn al-‘Arabi to woman, there are some prominent traces of binary oppositions that, according to Hélèn Cixous, culminate in different reactions to feminine and masculine roles and ultimately lead to the appearance of patriarchal atmosphere. In the first part of the article, some ontological concepts are examined to delineate Ibn al-‘Arabi’s attitude towards femininity. In the following sections, his positive and negative perspectives on woman, which are the representation of his viewpoint towards gender characteristics, are analyzed. Besides, in the analyses, the change of masculine concepts to metaphysical ones in Ibn al-‘Arabi’ s view is shown.

  13. An Analysis of the Feminine Awakening of Rebecca and Xi-feng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue

    2013-01-01

    In Rebecca and A Dream of Red Mansions, the authors create two similar female characters -Rebecca and Wang Xi-feng,who have aroused numerous discussions among scholars. Although Rebecca and Xi-feng live in different times, they are quite similar in their characters and destinies, and are often referred as representatives of awakened female. This dissertation in-tends to conduct a cross-culture comparison between Rebecca and Xi-feng by answering the following questions: 1) what are the historical and individual causes of the feminine awakening of Rebecca and Xi-feng; 2) what are the similarities between Re-becca’s and Xi-feng’s feminine consciousness? 3) What are the differences between Rebecca and A Dream of Red Mansions in dis-playing characters’feminine consciousness?

  14. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

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    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  15. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  16. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  17. Gender Debate and Teachers' Constructions of Masculinity Vs. Femininity of School Principals: The Case of Muslim Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Oplatka, Izhar

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study that sought to identify Muslim teachers' constructions of "masculinity" and "femininity" of the school principal. The first purpose of the study was to trace Muslim teachers' perceptions of masculine and feminine features of school principals, and the second was to explore their…

  18. Evolution of "The New Frontier" in "Alien" and "Aliens": Patriarchal Co-optation of the Feminine Archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    1989-01-01

    Discusses feminine symbolism in the American frontier myth as an evolving cultural/rhetorical manifestation of a developing archetypal process. Analyzes the films "Alien" and "Aliens," in which the lost feminine is encountered, found to be vengeful of exploitation of her domain, and then killed by a patriarchalized heroine. (SR)

  19. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  20. Developing a Connective Feminine Discourse: Drusilla Modjeska on Women’s Lives, Love and Art

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    Ulla Rahbek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the work of the Australian writer and historian Drusilla Modjeska through a focus on the intersections between women‟s lives, love and art, which constitute the central triptych of Modjeska‟s writing. It argues that Modjeska‟s oeuvre unfolds a connective feminine discourse through a development of what the paper calls hinging tropes, discursive connectors that join life, love and art, such as weaving, folding and talking. That connective feminine discourse is indeed central to Modjeska‟s personal and sometimes idiosyncratic feminism.

  1. Sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes towards motherhood among single women compared with cohabiting women treated with donor semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomon, Maria; Sylvest, Randi; Hansson, Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine sociodemographic characteristics, family backgrounds, reproductive histories, and attitudes towards motherhood in single vs. cohabiting women seeking treatment with donor semen. DESIGN: Baseline data collection in a multicenter cohort study. SETTING: All nine public fertilit...

  2. Features of Parent-Child Relationship of Mothers with Teenage Children in the Conditions of Late Motherhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zakharova E.I

    2015-01-01

    ...’ parent position, who had children at different periods of adulthood (middle, late). The aim of the study was to investigate the features of the parent-child relationship of mothers with teenage children in the conditions of late motherhood...

  3. Sexuality and considering motherhood after an HIV diagnosis : an IPA exploration of the experiences of European, childless women

    OpenAIRE

    Biggs, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Research in the field of HIV acknowledges the existence of social constructs, including the incongruity between HIV, motherhood and sexuality, which may add to the psychosocial burden of an HIV diagnosis (Blystad and Moland, 2009; Long, 2006; Stinon & Myer, 2012). However the research is fragmented, and addresses the concepts of motherhood and sexuality in the presence of HIV independently. There has been little consideration of how the opposing constructs may be simultaneously experienced an...

  4. Implications of the legalization of non-commercial surrogacy for local kinship and motherhood in Vietnamese society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Yuri

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, surrogacy was banned in Vietnam for all cases. The government, however, has altered its position on reproductive technology and will soon legalize non-commercial surrogacy among relatives. Motherhood is highly venerated in Vietnamese society and, under this local kinship conception, gestational process is of paramount importance in establishing a connection between the fetus and the woman. The implications of this new government decision for local kinship, motherhood and the individuals concerned will be discussed.

  5. Cross-cultural validity of the masculine and Feminine Gender Role Stress scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Well, S; Kolk, AM; Arrindell, WA

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to examine the usefulness of Dutch versions of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) Scale and the Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie & Eisler, 1992) Scale in The Netherlands. Undergraduate students (N = 2,239) completed both gender role stress scales

  6. Reproducing Traditional Femininities? The Social Relations of "Special Educational Needs" in a Girls' Comprehensive School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shereen

    2002-01-01

    Uses ethnographic data to examine the identity work of eight girls identified as having special education needs in a mainstream school, exploring how they positioned themselves in relation to the term "special needs." Findings suggest that historical meanings associated with femininity and disability combine with contemporary schooling…

  7. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  8. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  9. Femininity and Depression Mediated by Social and Relational Aggression in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Field, Julaine E.; Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies have found a relation between the use of relational aggression and depressive symptomatology, there is less evidence for the relation of the role of gender identity in these processes. Consequently, this study investigated the roles of social and relational aggression and feminine gender role identity in depressive symptoms among…

  10. Ventral frontal cortex in children: morphology, social cognition and femininity/masculinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murko, Vesna; Nopoulos, Peg

    2008-01-01

    The ventral frontal cortex (VFC) has been shown to differ morphologically between sexes. Social cognition, which many studies demonstrate involves the VFC, also differs between sexes, with females being more adept than males. In a previous study of subregions of the VFC in our lab, in an adult population, size of the straight gyrus (SG) but not the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), differed between sexes and correlated with better performance on a test of social cognition and with greater identification with feminine characteristics. To investigate the relationship between VFC structure and social cognition in children, VFC gray matter volumes were measured on MRIs from 37 boys and 37 girls aged 7 to 17. The VFC was subdivided into the OFC and SG. Subjects were also administered a test of social perceptiveness and a rating scale of femininity/masculinity. In contrast to our findings in adults, the SG was slightly smaller in girls than boys. In girls, but not boys, smaller SG volumes significantly correlated with better social perception and higher identification with feminine traits. No volume differences by sex or significant correlations were found with the OFC. These data suggest a complex relationship between femininity, social cognition and SG morphology. PMID:19015107

  11. The Role of Facial Attractiveness and Facial Masculinity/Femininity in Sex Classification of Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoss, Rebecca A.; Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Griffin, Angela M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    2005-01-01

    We tested whether adults (Experiment 1) and 4–5-year-old children (Experiment 2) identify the sex of high attractive faces faster and more accurately than low attractive faces in a reaction time task. We also assessed whether facial masculinity/femininity facilitated identification of sex. Results showed that attractiveness facilitated adults’ sex classification of both female and male faces and children’s sex classification of female, but not male, faces. Moreover, attractiveness affected the speed and accuracy of sex classification independent of masculinity/femininity. High masculinity in male faces, but not high femininity in female faces, also facilitated sex classification for both adults and children. These findings provide important new data on how the facial cues of attractiveness and masculinity/femininity contribute to the task of sex classification and provide evidence for developmental differences in how adults and children use these cues. Additionally, these findings provide support for Langlois and Roggman’s (1990) averageness theory of attractiveness. PMID:16457167

  12. [The 1st lipstick or the fear of femininity in the parents of adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournut-Janin, M

    1988-01-01

    Adolescence of their daughter disturbs parent's psychical organization. For the father, more or less deep anal regression results from feminine and passive fantasies ("If she does not come back, I'll kill her"). Mother, in interaction with her husband's anxiety is getting depressed ("If she does not come back, I'll kill myself").

  13. Masculinity and femininity in the divergence of male body image concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Given recent assertions suggesting that gender role endorsement may be relevant in the divergence of male body image concerns, this study examined the self-reported gender role endorsement in opposing dimensional extremes of male body image disorders, namely, muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa. This study further examined the relationship between gender role endorsement and eating disordered and muscle dysmorphia disorder pathology. Methodology Participants were 21 male muscle dysmorphia patients, 24 male anorexia nervosa patients, and 30 male gym-using controls from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. All participants completed multidimensional measures of masculinity and femininity, and measures of eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia symptomatology. Results Patients with muscle dysmorphia reported significantly elevated adherence to masculine (but not feminine) norms relative to control gym-using men and men with anorexia nervosa, whereas patients with anorexia nervosa exhibited elevated feminine (but not masculine) gender role endorsement relative to control gym-using men and men with muscle dysmorphia. Conclusions Masculine and feminine gender role endorsement appear to be associated with the divergence of body image concerns towards muscularity and thinness-oriented ideals respectively. PMID:24999393

  14. Cross-cultural validity of the masculine and Feminine Gender Role Stress scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Well, S; Kolk, AM; Arrindell, WA

    The objective was to examine the usefulness of Dutch versions of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) Scale and the Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie & Eisler, 1992) Scale in The Netherlands. Undergraduate students (N = 2,239) completed both gender role stress

  15. Tackling femininity: The heterosexual paradigm and women's soccer in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2011-01-01

    and among, women and men. Moreover, heteronormative discourses normalise a particular relationship between sex, gender and sexuality that posits woman/feminine/heterosexual (and man/masculine/heterosexual) as a natural order from which variance is considered a punishable deviance. This paper outlines...

  16. Perceptions of Gender and Femininity Based on Language: Implications for Transgender Communication Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Adrienne B; Stutts, Holly Wilder; Bass, Annie

    2015-09-01

    Recent research presents a picture of diminishing gender differences in language. Two experiments examined whether language use can predict perceptions of gender and femininity; one included male and female speakers telling a personal narrative, the other also included male-to-female transgender speakers and analyzed an oral picture description. In each experiment, raters read transcribed samples before judging the gender and rating the femininity of the speaker. Only number of T-units, words per T-unit, dependent clauses per T-unit, and personal pronouns per T-unit emerged as different between gender groups. As none of the variables were strongly correlated with perceptual judgments, regression analysis was used to determine how combinations of linguistic variables predict female/feminine ratings. Results from these two studies demonstrate that gender-related differences in language use for these two contexts are limited, and that any relationship of language to perceptions of gender and femininity is complex and multivariate. This information calls into question the utility of training key language features in transgender communication therapy.

  17. Educating Rita and Her Sisters: Using Drama to Reimagine Femininities in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article examines drama in relation to girls' education, and considers some of the ways in which drama might be applied in schools to challenge limiting hegemonic narratives about gender and support the emerging understandings and performances of femininities of adolescent girls. It reports on case study research conducted with a Year 9 Drama…

  18. Masculine Instrumentality and Feminine Expressiveness: Their Relationships with Sex Role Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) largely measure socially desirable instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) traits which have limited relationships with sex role attitudes and behaviors. The literature does suggest that the traits have important implications separate from sex role behaviors.…

  19. Ghetto Fabulous: Reading Black Adolescent Femininity in Contemporary Urban Street Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth; Staples, Jeanine; Gibson, Simone

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors provide a general overview of the controversies associated with urban street fiction, a brief introduction to the genre and an introduction to the complex representations of Black adolescent femininity within two contemporary titles, "Black and Ugly" (Styles, 2006) and "Bitch" (King, 2006). The authors provide a…

  20. THE FEMINISM AND FEMININITY OF ANN VERONICA IN H. G. WELLS' ANN VERONICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Satya Limanta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available H.G. Well's Ann Veronica structurally seems to be divided into two parts; the first deals with Ann Veronica's struggle to get equality with men and freedom in most aspects of life, such as in politics, economics, education, and sexuality; the second describes much the other side of her individuality which she cannot deny, namely her femininity, such as her crave for love, marriage, maternity, and beauty. H.G. Wells describes vividly the two elements in Ann Veronica, feminism and femininity. As a feminist, Ann Veronica rebelled against her authoritative Victorian father, who regarded women only as men's property to be protected from the harsh world outside. On the other side, Ann could not deny her being a woman after she fell in love with Capes. Her femininity from the second half of the novel then is explored. Although the novel ends with the depiction of the domestic life of Ann Veronica, it does not mean that the feminism is gone altogether. The key point is that the family life Ann chooses as a `submissive' wife and good mother is her choice. It is very different if it is forced on her to do. Thus, this novel depicts both sides of Ann Veronica, her feminism and her femininity.

  1. Krótka historia macierzyństwa w ujęciu feministycznym (Brief History of Motherhood in Feminist Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Wodzik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feminist thought of motherhood begins with First Wave, when thinkers were convinced of naturalistic point of view according to which women are predestined to be a mother (M. Wollstonecraft, J.S. Mill, H. Taylor. Women’s liberation was put down for a while by given them vote rights. The next wave of women’s liberation came back after II World War. Denaturalization of motherhood starts with Simone de Beauvoir’s Second Sex where she presents an analysis of mother stereotypes and social processes of promoting specific motherhood-mode, which works for the patriarchal culture. She does not treat motherhood and child rearing as something natural for every woman. Beauvoir’s critics set up a debate about the possibility ofnon-patriarchal motherhood where being a mother is independent from patriarchal order, as ground for woman’s identity. S. Macintyre postulates division off motherhood and marriage, which is opposite to traditional sociology paradigm. A. Rich creates a definition of motherhood institution so different from intimate experience ofmother, she gives mothers voice to speak about motherhood. N. Chodorow suggests non-patriarchal rule of „double parenting”, which is to reduce differences between sexes. E. Badinter proves that maternal instinct does not exist (in biological way, but it is the social construct exploited by patriarchal system. Works of Beauvoir,Macintyre, Rich, Firestone, Chodorow, Badinter exemplify the slow process of denaturalization of motherhood in feminist thought.

  2. Tea with Mother: Sarah Palin and the Discourse of Motherhood as a Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McCabe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Seldom has someone emerged so unexpectedly and sensationally on to the American political scene as Sarah Palin. With Palin came what had rarely, if ever, been seen before on a presidential trail: hockey moms, Caribou-hunting, pitbulls in lipstick parcelled as political weaponry. And let’s not forget those five children, including Track 19, set to deploy to Iraq, Bristol, and her unplanned pregnancy at 17, and Trig, a six-month-old infant with Down’s syndrome. Never before had motherhood been so finely balanced with US presidential politics. Biological vigour translated into political energy, motherhood transformed into an intoxicating political ideal. This article focuses on Sarah Palin and how her brand of “rugged Alaskan motherhood” (PunditMom 2008 became central to her media image, as well as what this representation has to tell us about the relationship between mothering as a political ideal, US politics, and the media.

  3. Midlife women's generativity and authoritarianism: marriage, motherhood, and 10 years of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Duncan, Lauren E

    2007-09-01

    Generativity and authoritarianism assessed at age 52 were correlated with criterion variables assessed at age 62 in a sample of well-educated women (N = 81). Results indicated that generativity predicted positive personality characteristics, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging. By contrast, although authoritarianism is linked in the literature to endorsing traditional gender roles, authoritarianism was uncorrelated in the current study with happiness about marriage and was negatively related to perceptions of motherhood. Furthermore, authoritarianism was correlated with neuroticism later in life. These data suggest that midlife authoritarianism may be problematic as women transition from their 50s to their 60s. Midlife generativity, in contrast, seems to offer one path to life satisfaction.

  4. Beyond labor: the role of natural and synthetic oxytocin in the transition to motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Aleeca F; Erickson, Elise N; Carter, C Sue

    2014-01-01

    Emerging research raises questions that synthetic oxytocin during childbirth may alter the endogenous oxytocin system and influence maternal stress, mood, and behavior. Endogenous oxytocin is a key component in the transition to motherhood, affecting molecular pathways that buffer stress reactivity, support positive mood, and regulate healthy mothering behaviors (including lactation). Synthetic oxytocin is widely used throughout labor and postpartum care in modern birth. Yet research on the implications beyond labor of maternal exposure to perinatal synthetic oxytocin is rare. In this article, we review oxytocin-related biologic pathways and behaviors associated with the transition to motherhood and evidence supporting the need for further research on potential effects of intrapartum oxytocin beyond labor. We include a primer on oxytocin at the molecular level. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  5. Early motherhood: a qualitative study exploring the experiences of African Australian teenage mothers in greater Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngum Chi Watts, Mimmie Claudine; Liamputtong, Pranee; Mcmichael, Celia

    2015-09-10

    Motherhood is a significant and important aspect of life for many women around the globe. For women in communities where motherhood is highly desired, motherhood is considered crucial to the woman's identity. Teenage motherhood, occurring at a critical developmental stage of teenagers' lives, has been identified as having adverse social and health consequences. This research aimed to solicit the lived experiences of African Australian young refugee women who have experienced early motherhood in Australia. This qualitative research used in-depth interviews. The research methods and analysis were informed by intersectionality theory, phenomenology and a cultural competency framework. Sixteen African born refugee young women who had experienced teenage pregnancy and early motherhood in Greater Melbourne, Australia took part in this research. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and data analysed using thematic content analysis. Ethics approval for this research was granted by Victoria University Human Research Ethics committee. Motherhood brings increased responsibilities, social recognition, and a sense of purpose for young mothers. Despite the positive aspects of motherhood, participants faced challenges that affected their lives. Most often, the challenges included coping with increased responsibilities following the birth of the baby, managing the competing demands of schooling, work and taking care of a baby in a site of settlement. The young mothers indicated they received good support from their mothers, siblings and close friends, but rarely from the father of their baby and the wider community. Participants felt that teenage mothers are frowned upon by their wider ethnic communities, which left them with feelings of shame and embarrassment, despite the personal perceived benefits of achieving motherhood. We propose that service providers and policy makers support the role of the young mothers' own mother, sisters, their grandmothers and aunts following

  6. Shared Secrets: Motherhood and Male Homosexuality in Doppelgänger Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sencindiver, Susan Yi

    2011-01-01

    of male self-procreation and childbirth, the classic male doppelgänger narrative thus renders women and the maternal body obsolete. A corresponding exclusion of femininity, however, may also be related to the omnipresence of intense male homosocial and homoerotic bonds found in countless doppelgänger...

  7. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items "masculine" and "feminine" in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1-2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes.

  8. Girls Just Want to Have Fun?: Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Motherhood among Bolivian Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to quantify female teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and motherhood in Bolivia using the most recent Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive results suggest that teenage sexual activity, pregnancy, and childbearing are more prevalent among those adolescents who are more likely to be socially vulnerable and excluded. In addition, the high incidence of undesired pregnancies among Bolivian teen girls suggests that government action to prevent teenage pregnancy is needed....

  9. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Emily S; Tran,, N.V.; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T.; Thune, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in...

  10. Perceptions of teen motherhood in Australian adolescent females: life-line or lifederailment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer L; Skinner, S Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    The findings presented in this paper describe the beliefs and attitudes of three different groups of adolescent females about teen motherhood. These were elicited from a larger analysis that explored and theorized contraceptive pathways in a sample of young Australian women. A purposive sample of females aged 14 to 19 years was recruited from three distinct populations in the city of Perth, Western Australia: (1) never-pregnant; (2) pregnant-terminated; and (3) pregnant-continued. Grounded theory principles were used to analyze data generated from 69 semi-structured interviews conducted over a 21 month period (2006-2008). Two categories that described teenagers' attitudes to pregnancy and motherhood were elicited from the analysis. These explained the level of priority that teenagers placed on using contraception and postponing the transition to parenthood. The category labeled 'life derailment' represented how those who had never had a pregnancy or had terminated a pregnancy constructed teen motherhood as potentially restricting their personal, career and social transition to adulthood. The alternative category, 'life-line', reflected how those who continued with their pregnancy perceived teen motherhood as a positive and transformative experience that fostered personal growth. The findings from this study contribute further insight into the complex nature of adolescent contraceptive use and pregnancy risk. The analysis has strengthened evidence of the critical role of self-perceptions of pregnancy and childbearing on teenagers' fertility outcomes. It has also emphasized the broader life circumstances that shape these attitudes, intentions and related behavior. Strategies directed toward academic support and vocational skill development may broaden teenage girls' perceived future options and achievement capacity, thus influencing key reproductive health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Discursive Suppression of Women: Female Evils as the Villains of the Motherhood Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Önal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the discursive construction and control of female sexuality and sexual activity, which simultaneously lead to the definition of women as inherently evil and to their suppression. This process is reinforced through a “motherhood narrative” inaugurated by a number of discourses, wherein female evils play the role of the villains, either as evil women or as anthropomorphised female beings that harm the mother or the unborn/newborn baby. The role of the “female evil”, a universally occurring archetypal motif, is to steal, kill or harm the child or the mother during pregnancy, labour, or puerperium. This motif is taken into account particularly in the framework of discourses that can be termed as medico-religious. Case studies of female evils are given as examples in the article, with a focus on the motherhood narrative and medico-religious discourses. This focus provides an insight to the way in which female evils pertain to the suppression of women within a more general framework. Female evils appear as necessary constructs of the aforementioned discourses to be able to control female sexual activity and the motherhood related fears of women, especially through the internalisation of control and through shaping the relationship of women with other women.

  12. Promoting safe motherhood through the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugha, Ruair; Pritze-Aliassime, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The formal private sector could play a significant role in determining whether success or failure is achieved in working towards goals for safe motherhood in many low- and middle-income settings. Established private providers, especially nurses/midwives, have the potential to contribute to safe motherhood practices if they are involved in the care continuum. However, they have largely been overlooked by policy-makers in low-income settings. The private sector (mainly doctors) contributes to overprovision and high Caesarean section rates in settings where it provides care to wealthier segments of the population; such care is often funded through third-party payment schemes. In poorer settings, especially rural areas, private nurses/midwives and the women who choose to use them are likely to experience similar constraints to those encountered in the public sector - for example, poor or unaffordable access to higher level facilities for the management of obstetrical emergencies. Policy-makers at the country-level need to map the health system and understand the nature and distribution of the private sector, and what influences it. This potential resource could then be mobilized to work towards the achievement of safe motherhood goals.

  13. Experiences of motherhood when suffering from mental illness: a hermeneutic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blegen, Nina Elisabeth; Hummelvoll, Jan Kåre; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2012-10-01

    Being a mother is inseparable from women's existential life. Mothers with mental illness struggle with conflicting and distressing feelings related to motherhood. They seldom obtain the necessary support to increase their control over the determinants of their role as a mother, thus their opportunity of improving their own and their children's mental health is weakened. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of being a mother with mental illness. The research question was: How can mothers' experiences of motherhood when suffering from mental illness be understood? The understanding emerged through a hermeneutical interpretation of the empirical material on four different levels of abstraction. The inductive-deductive approach, inspired by the philosophy of Gadamer, was used. The mothers' experiences were understood in their way of struggling to become good enough mothers, managing to become the mother they longed to be, being present in the caring relationship with their child, as well as being recognized as a mother and living openly and honestly in relationships with others. Addressing the existential needs of motherhood is important for their improvement and recovery, as well as for promoting their children's mental health and well-being.

  14. Motherhood: A Site of Repression or Liberation? Kristeva and Butler on the Maternal Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Söderbäck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In her reading of Julia Kristeva in 'Gender Trouble', Judith Butler speaks of a ‘compulsory obligation on women’s bodies to reproduce.’ She raises what I see as two major concerns: first, she is skeptical of the subversive potential and emancipatory status of the semiotic as articulated by Kristeva; and second, she worries that Kristeva’s alleged attempts to delimit “maternity as an essentially precultural reality” will lead to a reification of motherhood that precludes “an analysis of its cultural construction and variability.” While I think Butler’s worries are important ones, I argue that she misses the target due to some fundamental misconceptions of Kristeva’s thoughts that run through her analysis. This paper argues that Kristeva – who has been criticised by feminists for her consistent emphasis on the maternal – by no means reduces woman to the biological function of motherhood but that, rather, she returns to the maternal body partially to free women from this very reduction. The maternal body to which Kristeva urges us to return must, I argue, be understood' ''qua temporalisation': that to which we return is temporal, moving, displacing, renewing. The return, as I see it, is neither nostalgic nor aimed at preserving some essential notion of motherhood – it is one that makes possible new beginnings, allowing for a future pregnant with change and transformation.

  15. Area-Level and Individual-Level Factors for Teenage Motherhood: A Multilevel Analysis in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Sachiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage motherhood is strongly associated with a range of disadvantages for both the mother and the child. No epidemiological studies have examined related factors for teenage motherhood at both area and individual levels among Japanese women. Therefore, we performed a multilevel analysis of nationwide data in Japan to explore the association of area- and individual-level factors with teenage motherhood. Methods The study population comprised 21,177 mothers living in 47 prefectures who had their first, singleton baby between 10 and 17 January or between 10 and 17 July, 2001. Information on the prefecture in which the mothers resided was linked to prefecture-level variables. Primary outcomes were area-level characteristics (single-mother households, three-generation households, college enrollment, abortions, juvenile crime, and per capita income) and individual-level characteristics, and divided into tertiles or quintiles based on their variable distributions. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was then performed. Results There were 440 teenage mothers (2.1%) in this study. In addition to individual low level of education [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 7.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.59–9.78], low income [4.23 (2.95–6.08)], and smoking [1.65 (1.31–2.07)], high proportions of single-mother households [1.72 (1.05–2.80)] and three-generation household [1.81 (1.17–2.78)], and per capita income [2.19 (1.06–3.81)] at an area level were positively associated, and high level of college enrollment [0.46 (0.25–0.83)] and lower crime rate [0.62 (0.40–0.98)] at area level were inversely associated with teenage motherhood compared with the corresponding women living in prefectures with the lowest levels of these variables. Conclusions Our findings suggest that encouraging the completion of higher education and reducing the number of single-mother household at an area level may be important public health strategies to reduce teenage motherhood

  16. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  17. The concept of motherhood among three generations of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquier, Katherine Ferrell

    2011-06-01

    To provide an understanding of the experiences of three generations of African American women in the transition to motherhood. Hermeneutic phenomenology from an Afrocentric feminist perspective is the methodological approach used in this study. Using the snowball technique, a purposive sample of 18 African American women from three generations who were mostly middle class, partnered, and educated was recruited. Individual open-ended interviews were used to identify information-rich cases that would provide an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon. Generation 1 included seven women, between the ages of 65 and 83 years, who became mothers between 1950 and 1970, prior to the Civil Rights Movement. Generation 2 included five women, between the ages of 51 and 58 years, who became mothers between 1971 and 1990, after the Civil Rights Movement. There were six women in Generation 3, between the ages of 30 and 41 years, who became mothers between 1991 and 2003. Three constitutive patterns and their associated themes were identified. The first pattern, It Took Me a Minute, had three themes: Finding Out, Realizing What Mothers Do, and Way Tricked! The second pattern, Preserving Our Home, had four themes: Mothering Within the isms: Racism, Classism, and Sexism, I Did the Best I Could, Mothers and Others, and Spiritual Mothers. Eat the Meat, Throw Away the Bone, the third pattern, had two themes: The Ways in Which We Learn and Someone Who Looks Like Me. The results of this study reveal some consistency with current descriptions of maternal identity and becoming a mother and add to our understanding of the complexities that racism, classism, and sexism play in the lives of African American mothers and their families. The data from this study also suggest that future development of theoretical frameworks and analytical tools, used to assess the effects of stress and other psychosocial factors on health, need to be grounded in a historic understanding of the African American

  18. Motherhood as Constructed by Us: Muslim Women’s Negotiations from a Space That Is Their Own

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariya Mary Cheruvallil-Contractor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to foundational Islamic texts, motherhood is a key aspect of women’s diverse social roles; however some Muslim religious commentaries position motherhood as the only aspect of women’s contributions to society. The everyday mothering experiences of Muslim women remain absent from these discussions. This anthropological article will examine Muslim women’s narratives of motherhood and mothering in contemporary Britain. In my research, Muslim women in Britain chose motherhood, firstly, as one of the many fronts on which to challenge patriarchy that is evident in some Muslim texts and to thus ‘reclaim their faith’ as articulated in foundational Islamic texts. Secondly, in their mothering experiences, Muslim women found a space of commonality that they shared with other women – motherhood was something these Muslim women believed they shared with their ‘sisters’ who were from backgrounds different to their own. Within their diverse and multifaceted struggles, Muslim women thus identified a space which they share with other women.

  19. "I Would Want to Give My Child, Like, Everything in the World": How Issues of Motherhood Influence Women Who Have Abortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Frohwirth, Lori F.; Moore, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of U.S. women who have abortions (61%) have children. This exploratory study analyzes qualitative information from 38 women obtaining abortions to examine how issues of motherhood influenced their decisions to terminate their pregnancies. Women in the sample had abortions because of the material responsibilities of motherhood, such as…

  20. Primary amenorrhea in anorexia nervosa: impact on characteristic masculine and feminine traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jessica H; Sisk, Cheryl L; Thornton, Laura M; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S; Mitchell, James E; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M; Klump, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that gonadal hormones at puberty have an effect on the development of masculine and feminine traits. However, it is unknown whether similar processes occur in humans. We examined whether women with anorexia nervosa (AN), who often experience primary amenorrhea, exhibit attenuated feminization in their psychological characteristics in adulthood due to the decrease/absence of gonadal hormones at puberty. Women with AN were compared on a number of psychological characteristics using general linear models on the basis of the presence/absence of primary amenorrhea. Although women with primary amenorrhea exhibited lower anxiety scores than those without primary amenorrhea, in general, results did not provide evidence of attenuated feminization in women with AN with primary amenorrhea. Future research should utilize novel techniques and direct hormone measurement to explore the effects of pubertal gonadal hormones on masculine and feminine traits.

  1. Constructions of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negotiation practices among women in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaveh, Daniel Y; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Okyerefo, Michael P K; Reysoo, Fenneke; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2015-01-01

    Using qualitative data gathered through in-depth interviews with women in Accra, Ghana, this paper explores narratives of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negotiation practices among women. While women framed 'proper' masculinity in terms of stereotypical reproductive norms, they also acknowledged the fluidity and multiplicity of masculinities. Femininity was more uniformly characterised in terms of physical attractiveness and beauty, responsibility and reproduction. These features, especially those related to adherence to morally and socially appropriate sexual norms (e.g., menstrual and bodily hygiene, unplanned pregnancy etc.), influenced women's approach to sexual negotiation. Work aiming to support women to negotiate sex safely needs to pay attention to their notions of gender and practices of sexual negotiation.

  2. Feminine gender identity and physical aggressiveness in heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, K; Blanchard, R

    1987-01-01

    This study explored the differences among six groups of adult males in retrospective self-reports of childhood gender identity and physical aggressiveness. The three groups of homosexual men preferred prepubescent, pubescent, or physically mature sexual partners. The three groups of heterosexual men preferred prepubescent partners, normal sexual interaction with physically mature partners (controls), or anomalous interaction with physically mature partners. Childhood gender identity was measured with the Feminine Gender Identity Scale (FGIS), and boyhood aggressiveness was measured with the Physical Aggressiveness Scale (PAS). Duncan tests at the .05 level showed that the FGIS differentiated the homosexuals who preferred mature partners from the five other groups; whereas the PAS differentiated all homosexual groups from all heterosexual groups. These results suggest that male homosexuals in general tend to be unaggressive in boyhood, whereas only those who prefer mature sexual partners show significant levels of feminine identification.

  3. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma.

  4. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items “masculine” and “feminine” in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1–2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes. PMID:27458394

  5. You Are How You Eat? Femininity, Normalization, and Veganism as an Ethical Practice of Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Megan A. Dean

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the practice of veganism is, or can be, a Foucauldian ethical practice of freedom. I begin by sketching out the problematization of alimentary practices within a normalizing patriarchal framework, which some feminists argue is dominant within contemporary North American society. Within this problematization, eating—for many women—is a way to manage the body’s appearance and bring it into conformity with feminine norms, and also an ongoing opportunity to exercise the...

  6. Discourses of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in Uganda's Stand Proud, Get Circumcised campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrum, Sarah; Oliffe, John L; Benoit, Cecilia

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyses discourses of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in Stand Proud, Get Circumcised, a public health campaign promoting circumcision as an HIV-prevention strategy in Uganda. The campaign includes posters highlighting the positive reactions of women to circumcised men, and is intended to support the national rollout of voluntary medical male circumcision. We offer a critical discourse analysis of representations of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in relation to HIV prevention. The campaign materials have a playful feel and, in contrast to ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Use condoms) campaigns, acknowledge the potential for pre-marital and extra-marital sex. However, these posters exploit male anxieties about appearance and performance, drawing on hegemonic masculinity to promote circumcision as an idealised body aesthetic. Positioning women as the campaign's face reasserts a message that women are the custodians of family health and simultaneously perpetuates a norm of estrangement between men and their health. The wives' slogan, 'we have less chance of getting HIV', is misleading, because circumcision only directly prevents female-to-male HIV transmission. Reaffirming hegemonic notions of appearance- and performance-based heterosexual masculinity reproduces existing unsafe norms about masculinity, femininity and sexuality. In selling male circumcision, the posters fail to promote an overall HIV-prevention message.

  7. Men report stronger attraction to femininity in women's faces when their testosterone levels are high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, Lisa L M; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Smith, Finlay G; Feinberg, David R; Little, Anthony C; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2008-11-01

    Many studies have shown that women's judgments of men's attractiveness are affected by changes in levels of sex hormones. However, no studies have tested for associations between changes in levels of sex hormones and men's judgments of women's attractiveness. To investigate this issue, we compared men's attractiveness judgments of feminized and masculinized women's and men's faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high and test sessions where salivary testosterone was relatively low. Men reported stronger attraction to femininity in women's faces in test sessions where salivary testosterone was high than in test sessions where salivary testosterone was low. This effect was found to be specific to judgments of opposite-sex faces. The strength of men's reported attraction to femininity in men's faces did not differ between high and low testosterone test sessions, suggesting that the effect of testosterone that we observed for judgments of women's faces was not due to a general response bias. Collectively, these findings suggest that changes in testosterone levels contribute to the strength of men's reported attraction to femininity in women's faces and complement previous findings showing that testosterone modulates men's interest in sexual stimuli.

  8. A meaning analysis about ‘feminine perception’ in the Turkish Folk Music lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Mustan Dönmez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ‘feminine perception’ which exists in the Turkish folk music lyrics was discussed in terms of its mystical and mythological roots. In this study, it was strived that a feminine meaning had been attributed to the earth; the way of the metaphorization of the words ‘earth mother’, ‘Moon’, ‘Sun’, ‘Venus’ parading in Turkish language and folk songs is a proof for this.Because the earth creates and feeds, it is called as ‘mother’; because it covers all the dirt and reveals the beauty although it is stepped on, it is dwelled on that it is the symbol of modesty and awe. Additionally, a living creature whose soul leaves from body, integrating with earth is perceived as the first attempt for mental migration (reincarnation so it has been showed in the study that earth is seen as a bridge in the condition for mystical creator-created identity. . Lastly, it is detected that feminine perception related to ‘moon’, ‘sun’ and ‘Venus’ are included in the Turkish folk music lyrics with the reason that they were carried from the ancient matriarchal in Anatolian civilizations till today.

  9. Hey good lookin'! Popular culture, femininity, and lesbian representation in transnational regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sridevi

    2008-01-01

    Currently, four big "Indian: names circulate within lesbian public culture within the United States: the biracial Indian-Dutch actress Janina Gavankar, the biracial model and actress Lisa Ray, Indian-American actress Sheetal Sheth, and Purva Bedi. These actresses have all represented a certain kind of close-to-Whiteness and a carefully constructed "feminine" aesthetic that has much to do with disciplining the racial body as it does the gendered body. In addition, they also position themselves in problematic ways with respect to their racial and sexual identities. What are the consequences of such representation for "real-life" "third-world" lesbians living in Western cultures like the United States in which racist and imperialist gestures constantly frame preemptive meanings about our bodies and our selves? If the only images of third-world lesbians we see are those that are carefully constructed along the same racist and heteronormative ideals of femininity, can racially marked lesbians find accurate models for our own invisible lives? How do these representations affect our perception of ourselves--as women who are lesbian and as women who are not White? How does our "femininity" get positioned within this? Are we the exoticized Other equally available for consumption by hetero and queer Whiteness? How might this only repeat rather than correct imperialist histories of race? How might they further divide communities of color from each other by their problematic selectivity of who gets to represent the racial and sexual Other?

  10. 女性陶艺的表述方式%Feminine Approaches to Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩祥翠

    2011-01-01

    女性陶艺是伴随着现代艺术和现代陶艺发展起来的.本文从女性陶艺的形式特征入手,简要介绍了其发展背景、发展过程及语言特点.文章重点是从对女性陶艺自然之美的颂扬、自我经验的表述、性的禁忌以及社会关注等这几方面深入论述了女性陶艺所具有的时代特点和意义.%Feminine ceramic art has emerged with the development of modem art and modem ceramics. This paper introduces the background, evolution and expressiveness of feminine ceramic art through a review of the features in their form. An in-depth investigation into the feminine ceramic works reveals that their contemporariness consists in the praise of beauty of nature, the awareness of self-identity, sexual taboos and social concerns.

  11. The Grey Zone of Subjectivity. Phenomenology of the feminine body in Emmanuel Lévinas's thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Adamiak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a "woman figure" by Emmanuel Lévinas, is an example, in which the notions of "masculinity" and "femininity" serve to determine the character of a certain proposition of a Subject. Lévinas introduced sexual characteristics into the neutral subject, yet he is incon-sistent in his treatment of the idea of a Woman and, moreover, he assigned subjectivity to a single gender: the masculine. Nonetheless, the criticism of Lévinas’s model of femininity from a feminist viewpoint is neither simple nor clear. Lévinas continually evades such criticism. He re-established the body and sensuality as key aspects of meeting with the Other. And also, he criticizes the Western ontological tradition as a theoretical source of violence against the Other, since – as he claims – on a high level of abstraction it appears that thematisation itself is a violence. At the same time, Lévinas proposes ontology of a "woman". In relation to this, one needs to ask the question: why does Lévinas, whilst stating the need to be freed from ontology, at the same time create an ontological woman? And additionally, what are the philo-sophical and ethical consequences of the phenomenology of femininity that are presented by Lévinas?

  12. A meaning analysis on ‘feminine apprehension’ in the Turkish Folk Music lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Mustan Dönmez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available             In this study, feminine apprehension, which exist in the Turkish folk music lyrics is discussed regarding its sufistic and mythological bases. In this study, it has been strived that a feminine meaning was attributed to the earth; and that the way of the metaphorization of the words ‘earth mother’, ‘moon’, ‘sun’, ‘venus’ parading in Tukish language and folk songs is a proof for this.          Because the earth creates, it is apprehensioned as ‘mother’; because of it covers all the scum and reveal the niceness although it is stepped on, it is apprehensioned as the symbol of modesty and greatness.  In addition to that, because when a soul leaving a body is to be mixed up with earth first, mixing up with earth is accepted as the first phase of reincarnation and consequently the earth is apprehensioned as a bridge which is a condition of sufistic creator-creature identity. Lastly, it is detected that feminine apprehension in terms of ‘moon’, ‘sun’ and ‘venus’ words are included in the Turkish folk music (türkü lyrics with the reason that they were carried from the ancient matriarchals in Anatolian civilizations till today.

  13. Benevolent Sexism, Attitudes Toward Motherhood, and Reproductive Rights: A Multi-Study Longitudinal Examination of Abortion Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshu; Davies, Paul G; Sibley, Chris G; Osborne, Danny

    2016-07-01

    Although Benevolent Sexism (BS)-an ideology that highly reveres women who conform to traditional gender roles-is cloaked in a superficially positive tone, being placed upon a pedestal is inherently restrictive. Accordingly, because the paternalistic beliefs associated with BS are based on the idealization of traditional gender roles (which include motherhood), BS should predict people's attitudes toward women's reproductive rights. Using data from a nationwide longitudinal panel study (N = 12,299), Study 1 showed that BS (but not Hostile Sexism) had cross-lagged effects on opposition to both elective and traumatic abortion. Study 2 (N = 309) extended these findings by showing that the relationship between BS and support for abortion was fully mediated by attitudes toward motherhood. These results highlight the pernicious nature of BS by demonstrating that the idealization of women-and motherhood, in particular-comes at a substantial cost (namely, the restriction of women's reproductive rights).

  14. Motherhood challenges and well-being along with the studentship role among Iranian women: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Ordibeheshti Khiaban, Maryam; Esmaeili, Maryam; Salsali, Mahvash

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study purposed to explore and describe the experiences of Iranian female students with the role of motherhood. This 2015 qualitative study used purposeful sampling to select 20 student mothers aged 24–50 who were studying at a state or non-state university in an urban area in northwest Iran. Data was collected through individual semi-structured interviews and analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Three main themes were developed during data analysis: “simultaneous management”, “facilities”, and “barriers”. The management of maternal and family affairs by female students in universities where motherhood is not supported is a challenge. The significance of mother-student roles must be emphasized and support and education provided for women to gain skills useful in playing these roles. Policy makers should devise strategies for bringing change to the traditional perspective that motherhood and educational responsibilities cannot be met at the same time by one person. PMID:28628417

  15. Esperando o futuro: a maternidade na adolescência Awaiting the future: teenage motherhood

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    Silvia Alexim Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de um projeto que pretende avaliar o lugar da maternidade na constituição da subjetividade de um grupo de adolescentes. Parte da hipótese de que a gravidez na adolescência só se tornou um problema político e social dentro de uma biopolítica voltada para a produção e reprodução do corpo social que pressupõe a maternidade como um projeto racional. Nesse contexto, a gravidez na adolescência torna-se um problema de saúde pública, e os discursos sobre o tema adotam um tom homogeneizante e estigmatizante, acentuando seus aspectos negativos. A pesquisa, realizada com adolescentes de camadas populares entre 16 e 18 anos de idade, permite questionar esses discursos. Apontou a maternidade como um acontecimento fundamental para a constituição da subjetividade dessas jovens, possibilitando a construção de ideais e a articulação de um projeto de futuro.This paper is part of a research that aims to evaluate the place of motherhood in the constitution of subjectivity in a group of teenagers. It begins with the hypotheses that teenage pregnancy has become a political and social problem, inside a bio-politic targeting the production and reproduction of the social body. In this context, teenage pregnancy becomes a public health problem and the speeches about the subject tend to assume a homogenizing and stigmatizing tone, punctuating its negatives aspects. A research developed with teenagers from poor communities, between 16 and 18 years old, allows us to question these speeches. The research pointed out motherhood as a fundamental event in the constitution of these young women subjectivities. In fact, motherhood makes possible for them to built new ideals, and articulates a plan for the future.

  16. Navigating Motherhood and the Role of the Head Athletic Trainer in the Collegiate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Eason, Christianne M.

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Motherhood has been identified as a barrier to the head athletic trainer (AT) position. Role models have been cited as a possible facilitator for increasing the number of women who pursue and maintain this role in the collegiate setting. Objective:  To examine the experiences of female ATs balancing motherhood and head AT positions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II and III and National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics settings. Design:  Qualitative study. Setting:  National Collegiate Athletic Association Divisions II and III and National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 22 female head ATs (average age = 40 ± 8 years) who were married with children completed our study. Our participants had been certified for 15.5 ± 7.5 years and in their current positions as head ATs for 9 ± 8 years. Data Collection and Analysis:  We conducted online interviews with all participants. Participants journaled their reflections on a series of open-ended questions pertaining to their experiences as head ATs. Data were analyzed following a general inductive approach. Credibility was confirmed through peer review and researcher triangulation. Results:  We identified 3 major contributors to work-life conflict. Two speak to organizational influences on conflict: work demands and time of year. The role of motherhood, which was more of a personal contributor, also precipitated conflict for our ATs. Four themes emerged as work-life balance facilitators: planning, attitude and perspective, support networks, and workplace integration. Support was defined at both the personal and professional levels. Conclusions:  In terms of the organization, our participants juggled long work hours, travel, and administrative tasks. Individually and socioculturally, they overcame their guilt and their need to be present and an active part of the parenting process. These mothers demonstrated the

  17. Should Postponing Motherhood via “Social Freezing” Be Legally Banned? An Ethical Analysis

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    Stephanie Bernstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In industrial societies, women increasingly postpone motherhood. While men do not fear a loss of fertility with age, women face the biological boundary of menopause. The freezing of unfertilized eggs can overcome this biological barrier. Due to technical improvements in vitrification, so-called “social freezing” (SF for healthy women is likely to develop into clinical routine. Controversial ethical debates focus on the risks of the technique for mother and child, the scope of reproductive autonomy, and the medicalization of reproduction. Some criticize the use of the technique in healthy women in general, while others support a legally defined maximum age for women at the time of an embryo transfer after oocyte cryopreservation. Since this represents a serious encroachment on the reproductive autonomy of the affected women, the reasons for and against must be carefully examined. We analyze arguments for and against SF from a gendered ethical perspective. We show that the risk of the cryopreservation of oocytes for mother and future child is minimal and that the autonomy of the women involved is not compromised. The negative ethical evaluation of postponed motherhood is partly due to a biased approach highlighting only the medical risks for the female body without recognizing the potential positive effects for the women involved. In critical accounts, age is associated in an undifferentiated way with morbidity and psychological instability and is thus used in a discriminatory way. We come to the conclusion that age as a predictor of risk in the debate about SF is, from an ethical point of view, an empty concept based on gender stereotypes and discriminatory connotations of aging. A ban on postponing motherhood via SF is not justified.

  18. From queen to mother: motherhood as discursive construction in the seventeenth century neogranadine painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Cruz Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines motherhood as a discursive construction, linking this construction with the neogranadine visual discourse of the seventeenth century. The image of “The Virgin with the Child”, within the post Tridentine context, stood as a place of origin of a discourse modeling the women behavior, giving specific roles in relation with their children. The tender, loving and protective mother with their children emerges in the visual discourse as a narrative truth that should be adopted by subjects in everyday behavior.

  19. Tea with Mother: Sarah Palin and the Discourse of Motherhood as a Political Ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Janet McCabe

    2016-01-01

    Seldom has someone emerged so unexpectedly and sensationally on to the American political scene as Sarah Palin. With Palin came what had rarely, if ever, been seen before on a presidential trail: hockey moms, Caribou-hunting, pitbulls in lipstick parcelled as political weaponry. And let’s not forget those five children, including Track 19, set to deploy to Iraq, Bristol, and her unplanned pregnancy at 17, and Trig, a six-month-old infant with Down’s syndrome. Never before had motherhood bee...

  20. [Enrico Modigliani and the Institution of maternal assistance: a study of the social factors of illegitimate motherhood during early Twentieth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fano, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Enrico Modigliani (1877-1931) was an Italian paediatrician of the early Twentieth century whose work anticipated modern concepts of maternal and child health. Convinced of the importance of creating a network of health and social care for children born out-of-wedlock, he began by providing care to single mothers and their babies at his home on Sundays. In 1918, in Rome, he established the Institution for Maternal Assistance, which aim was to provide single mothers with basic health information as well as tools to face their socioeconomic situation. The Opera encouraged breastfeeding and maternal acknowledgement of the child and promoted the establishment of lactation rooms and nurseries within factories. Moreover, women were supported to find a job which was compatible with their situation. In the first five years of activity, over 1,000 unmarried women were assisted; 95% of them acknowledged their children and 52% found a job. The infant mortality rate fell to 11%, which was much lower than the 35% observed at the time among the social classes which Modigliani called the most miserable. This article reviews Modigliani's paper, in which the paediatrician reported the first five years of activity of the Institution of Maternal Assistance and where he largely focused on the social factors surrounding illegitimate motherhood. The paper was structured like a modern scientific report, with photographic documentation and statistical data, and proposed a point of view regarding social inequality which is surprisingly up-to-date.

  1. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

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    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  2. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  3. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  4. Motherhood of foreign women in Lombardy: Testing the effects of migration by citizenship

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    Eleonora Mussino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international literature highlights the strong impact of the high risk of childbearing shortly after migration on period fertility, thus establishing a link between reproductive behaviors and migratory transitions. Objective: The present study aims to analyze how migration affects motherhood and the role played by country of citizenship. Although most of the literature has focused on analyzing post-immigration fertility behaviors, in the present work we follow the women for their entire fertility period. Methods: The data were collected in the 2010 ORIM survey, conducted by the Region of Lombardy and the Ismu Foundation. The survey covered about 8,000 immigrants in Lombardy, of whom 3,848 were women aged 14 years and over from less developed countries or Central/Eastern Europe. Using Event History Analysis, we applied discrete-time logit models to study the transition into motherhood. Results: Moroccans are characterized by a strong interrelation effect between fertility and migration. Moroccans and Albanians are the national groups with the highest risk of having a first child during the years shortly after migration. Migration does not seem to have any effect on the fertility behavior of Romanians, who have a lower risk of having a child regardless of their migration status. Conclusions: The study confirms the importance of the interrelationship between migratory and reproductive behaviors. It also highlights the different effects by country of citizenship, where different citizenships are often associated with different migration patterns and distinct gender roles.

  5. Marriage and motherhood are associated with lower testosterone concentrations in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Tran, Van; Thurston, Sally; Jasienska, Grazyna; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Ellison, Peter T; Thune, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in 195 reproductive-age Norwegian women. Testosterone was measured in morning serum samples taken during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and marital and maternal status were assessed by questionnaire. Mothers of young children (age ≤3) had 14% lower testosterone than childless women and 19% lower testosterone than women who only had children over age 3. Among mothers, age of the youngest child strongly predicted testosterone levels. There was a trend towards lower testosterone among married women compared to unmarried women. All analyses controlled for body mass index (BMI), age, type of testosterone assay, and time of serum sample collection. This is the first study to look at testosterone concentrations in relation to marriage and motherhood in Western women, and it suggests that testosterone may differ with marital and maternal status in women, providing further corroboration of previous findings in both sexes.

  6. Security giving in surrogacy motherhood process as a caring model for commissioning mothers: A theory synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Bagheri-Lankarani, Narges

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing use of surrogacy, there are no caring theories/models that serve as the basis for nursing care to surrogacy commissioning mothers. This study has designed a model for caring of surrogacy commissioning mothers in 2013. The theory synthesis of Walker and Avant's strategies of theory construction (2011) was used to design a caring model/theory. The theory synthesis includes three stages: (i) selection of focal concept (the concept of "security giving in motherhood" was selected); (ii) review of studies in order to identify factors related to focal concept relevant studies (42 articles and 13 books) were reviewed, statements and concepts related to focal concept were then extracted and classified, and their relations were specified; and (iii) organization of concepts and statements within a relevant general and effective manifestation of the phenomenon under study which led to developing of a model. In this caring model/theory, entitled "security giving in surrogacy motherhood", nurses roles were conceptualized within the conceptual framework that includes three main roles: (i) coordination; (ii) participation; and (iii) security giving (physical, emotional, and legal support; empowerment; presence; relationship management between both parties and advocacy). Training surrogacy specialist nurses and establishment of surrogacy care centers are important factors for implementation of the model. This model could help to provided better caring for surrogacy clients, especially for commissioning mothers. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  7. Does being a mom help or hurt? Workplace incivility as a function of motherhood status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Kathi N; Pesonen, Amanda D; Smittick, Amber L; Seigel, Michael L; Clark, Emily K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the extent to which motherhood status predicts being a target of workplace incivility and moderates the relationship between incivility and negative outcomes among employed women. Participants included a nationwide sample of law school faculty members (N = 1,234; 48% female, 85% White) who completed measures of workplace incivility, parenting status, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and depression. Results showed that mothers with 3 children were treated more uncivilly than women with fewer children and that mothering mitigated negative outcomes associated with being the target of incivility. Exploratory analyses examining fatherhood status as a predictor of workplace incivility and moderator of incivility and outcomes showed that fathers reported experiencing more workplace incivility than nonfathers, but being a father did not attenuate the negative outcomes of incivility. In addition, mothers reported more incivility than fathers and childless women reported more incivility than childless men. Childless women were also the most negatively affected by incivility at work. This study advances our understanding of how motherhood status affects women's experiences at work.

  8. Shaping the Health Policy Agenda: The Case of Safe Motherhood Policy in Vietnam

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    Bui Thi Thu Ha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal health remains a central policy concern in Vietnam. With a commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5 target of maternal mortality rate (MMR of 70/100 000 by 2015, the Ministry of Health (MoH issued the National Plan for Safe Motherhood (NPSM 2003-2010. In 2008, reproductive health, including safe motherhood (SM became a national health target program with annual government funding. Methods A case study of how SM emerged as a political priority in Vietnam over the period 2001-2008, drawing on Kingdon’s theory of agenda-setting was conducted. A mixed method was adopted for this study of the NPSM. Results Three related streams contributed to SM priority in Vietnam: (1 the problem of high MMR was officially recognized from high-quality research, (2 the strong roles of policy champion from MoH in advocating for the needs to reducing MMR as well as support from government and donors, and (3 the national and international events, providing favorable context for this issue to emerge on policy agenda. Conclusion This paper draws on the theory of agenda-setting to analyze the Vietnam experience and to develop guidance for SM a political priority in other high maternal mortality communities.

  9. The elusive romance of motherhood:drugs, gender, and reproduction in inner-city distressed households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Stürzenhofecker, Gabriele; Johnson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the social contexts of reproductive decision making among poor African-American women in inner-city distressed households by focusing on women's narratives of their reproductive and maternal experiences. We explore the hidden agendas and motivations that underpin women's reproductive decisions and perceived choices within the turmoil of poverty, domestic instability, economic uncertainty, and addiction. The political economy of reproduction, within which birthing and motherhood in distressed inner-city households take place, generates the conditions for absent fathers, brittle unions, and a highly skewed gendered division of parenting. Locally constituted notions of gender, agency and autonomy are key dimensions in the cultural constructions of motherhood in these female headed households. Woven into the local maternal experiences is also the desire to 'give and receive love'. By focusing on women's own formulations of responsibility and agency in their reproductive decisions, we can see how they make sense of their reproductive histories and maternal experiences amidst the constraints of poverty, class, race, and substance abuse.

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF FORMATION OF DEVIATIONS IN THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION FOR MOTHERHOOD

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    S. A. Moreva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a social-psychological indicators of stress, coping mechanisms, rigidity and psychological component gestational dominant as risk factors predisposing to deviations in the context of preparedness for motherhood, marked psychological characteristics of pregnant women main group.Material and methods. The study was conducted on the basis of obstetric clinics SSMU, prenatal maternity hospital number 4 and the Centre for Medical Prevention (Cabinet crisis pregnancy. Total was attended by 52 women aged 18 to 44 years, at different stages of pregnancy – from 5 to 39 weeks. Methodological apparatus consisted of a structured interview questionnaire “Medical and social data of the pregnant woman” methodology for determining the stress and social adaptation of Holmes and Rage (1967, a questionnaire of coping R. Lazarus and S. Folkman (WCQ, 1988, Tomsk questionnaire rigidity G.V. Zalewski (TORZ, 1987, test on pregnant I.V. Dobryakova (1996. Data processing was carried out using statistical methods Spearman rank correlation coefficient, nonparametric Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis H and φ * – Fisher's angular transformation.Results. Significant psychological factors that may influence the formation of readiness for motherhood among women of the main group can be considered an unplanned pregnancy (65%, and also its not gelendost (35%.Studies of stress resistance was detected in pregnant women from the main group low stress levels (88%, and only 12% have a high degree. Most of the women from the сomparison group reverse the situation 64% have a high degree of stress, this suggests that the presence of previously state miscarriage is for this group of stress.On the formation of readiness for motherhood affects not only the presence of stressful situations, butalso how the woman in their lives. Using U-test Mann–Whitney, were statistically significant differences were observed among the main group and сomparison group in

  11. The Association of Lone-Motherhood with Smoking Cessation and Relapse: Prospective Results from an Australian National Study

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    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income, social support, and mental health. We used data from 10 yearly waves (2001 to 2010 of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA survey. Response rate in the first wave was 66%. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of lone-motherhood and other covariates on smoking cessation (n = 2,878 and relapse (n = 3,242. Results showed that the age-adjusted odds of smoking cessation were 32% smaller among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p = 0.004. The age-adjusted odds of relapse was 172% greater among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p < 0.001. We found that socioeconomic status, social support, and mental health account for some of the association of lone motherhood and cessation and relapse. While efforts to reduce the smoking prevalence among lone mothers should focus on their material deprivation, availability of social support, and addressing mental health issues, other factors unique to the lives of lone mothers also need to be taken into account. More research is needed to discover other factors that can explain the association of lone-motherhood and smoking behavior.

  12. The association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse: prospective results from an Australian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Tibbits, Melissa; Huang, Terry T-K; Singh, Gopal K

    2013-07-12

    The aims were to examine the association of lone-motherhood with smoking cessation and relapse, and to investigate the extent to which this association was accounted for by socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income), social support, and mental health. We used data from 10 yearly waves (2001 to 2010) of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Response rate in the first wave was 66%. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of lone-motherhood and other covariates on smoking cessation (n = 2,878) and relapse (n = 3,242). Results showed that the age-adjusted odds of smoking cessation were 32% smaller among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p = 0.004). The age-adjusted odds of relapse was 172% greater among lone mothers than partnered mothers (p social support, and mental health account for some of the association of lone motherhood and cessation and relapse. While efforts to reduce the smoking prevalence among lone mothers should focus on their material deprivation, availability of social support, and addressing mental health issues, other factors unique to the lives of lone mothers also need to be taken into account. More research is needed to discover other factors that can explain the association of lone-motherhood and smoking behavior.

  13. Age, Psychological Maturity, and the Transition to Motherhood among English-Speaking Australian Women in a Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A.; Gibson, Frances L.; Boivin, Jacky

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the trend toward delayed parenthood, this study examines whether older maternal age is associated with greater psychological maturity and whether greater psychological maturity provides any adaptive benefit during the transition to motherhood. A sample of 240 predominantly English-speaking Australian women in a metropolitan area…

  14. The meaning of postponed motherhood for women in the United States and Sweden: aspects of feminism and radical timing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welles-Nyström, B

    1997-01-01

    This exploratory study considered certain psychosocial, medical, and cultural aspects of the phenomenon of postponed motherhood for one cohort of white women born between 1947 and 1953 in Sweden and the United States. A cross-cultural comparison was made of the experience of pregnancy and the early perinatal period in 15 American and 16 Swedish women to find out (a) whether timing decisions reflected the influence of feminist ideology toward a reproductive strategy radically different from the conventional one, and (b) whether the pattern of delayed motherhood was culture specific. Results indicated that the patterns of delayed motherhood were culture specific. Feminist ideology clearly influenced the timing of the American women's first birth but was evident in Sweden. Women in the U.S. exhibited more nonconventional behaviors and attitudes, whereas Swedish women were more conventional. However, the husbands in both groups were remarkably similar in infant caretaking behaviors, regardless of culture and level of education attainment. These findings indicate postponed motherhood has different meanings in the cultural context of these two Western industrialized societies.

  15. Being a Mother in a Strange Land : Motherhood Practices Experiences of Chinese Migrant Women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been emigrating to the Netherlands since 1911. Particularly after World War Two, female migrants outnumbered male migrants, yet their daily-life practices and transnational motherhood experiences have remained largely unknown. For this reason, my study pays attention to first-g

  16. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-08-08

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  17. Flüchtige Spuren in arabischen Quellen: Writing the Feminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Winckler

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Writing the Feminine versammelt 13 Beiträge zur Frauengeschichte der arabischen Welt, insbesondere Andalusiens und des Maghreb der klassischen Zeit. Eine Vielzahl von Primärquellen werden daraufhin analysiert, welche Aussagen zu Handlungsspielräumen von Frauen – und ihren Grenzen – sich aus ihnen herauslesen lassen. Die unterschiedlichen Textsorten erhellen sich zum Teil auf überraschende Weise. Mag der Ertrag auch zunächst gering und die weiblichen Spuren flüchtig erscheinen, so stellt der Band doch einen wichtigen ersten Schritt dar, dem weitere folgen sollten.

  18. Sex typing and the social perception of gender stereotypic and nonstereotypic behavior: the uniqueness of feminine males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, T E

    1994-02-01

    The social perception of masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated males was examined. Preadolescent boys (n = 251) were shown a video film portraying a male target playing either a masculine game with boys, a feminine game with girls, a neutral game with boys, or a neutral game with girls and were required to make a variety of inferences about him. All 4 groups made similar cognitive stereotypic inferences that varied in accordance with the gender stereotypic nature of the target's behavior. However, for the affective judgments (e.g., liking the target and wanting to engage in activities with him), the feminine males showed a pattern of inferences that was not only different from other sex role orientations, but often the reverse. The implications of these results for S. L. Bem's gender schema theory (1981) and H. Markus's self schema theory (H. Markus, M. Crane, S. L. Bernstein, & M. Siladi, 1982) are discussed.

  19. Biomedically assisted reproduction and child birth: Surrogate motherhood in comparative European law and Serbia

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    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood is an arrangement in which a woman agrees to carry and deliver a child for another couple who ordered the pregnancy. This procedure is applied today in Great Britain, Holland (although without legal regulations, Israel, Greece, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, the USA and Australia, and it is forbidden in France, Austria, Spain, Germany, Switzerland and Slovenia. There are two types of surrogacy, one when the woman gives birth to a child who is genetically her own ("partial", genetic surrogacy, and the other where the surrogate mother only carries and gives birth to a child, whereby the child is genetically from the couple that wanted the child, or the fertilized egg is from a third woman (donor, or the embryo was donated ("full", "total", gestational surrogacy. In these cases two women take part in conception and birth of the child while in the last case there is a third woman who will raise the child. Biologically observed, the woman whose egg has been fertilized may be called the genetic mother, while the woman who carried the pregnancy and gave birth to the child - the gestational carrier. Taking into consideration that the Preliminary Draft of the Serbian Civil Law anticipates the introduction of surrogate motherhood into domestic law, we believe restrictive solutions should first be taken into consideration. This would mean that only full surrogating should be allowed, namely the egg should be from the woman who wants the child and not the surrogate mother. In domestic conditions, genetic surrogation should not be allowed as it leads to confusion in family relations, and kinships still have an important social and legal significance in our country. The surrogate mother should be a woman who has already given birth, because in that way any possible shocks which might arise after birth when the woman who has to handover the child to the intended couple would be avoided. The next condition would be that persons involved in this

  20. Following the Traces of Feminine Writing in Adrienne Rich’s Poems

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    Nodeh Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phallogocentric structure of language privileges the male in construction of meaning throughout the patriarchal history which allows no place for feminine writing. Opposing what Lacan calls as phallogocentric discourse, poststructuralist feminists exhort to what Cixous terms as “écriture feminine” as the inscription of female difference in language and text. Therefore, viewing women's difference as a source (of imagery rather than a point of inferiority to men, Rich rediscovers female experiences in her poems through using “écriture feminine” and thus exhibits the productivity and plurality of women’s language. Hence, the present study, looking from the perspective of Cixous’s “écriture feminine,” aims at analyzing female modes of writing in Rich’s poems. The main finding of the research is that, through using genuine female forms of expression as opposed to phallogocentric structure of expression, Rich brings into being the symbolic weight of female consciousness, illustrating the oppressive forces that obstruct female expression.

  1. Preference for leaders with masculine voices holds in the case of feminine leadership roles.

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    Rindy C Anderson

    Full Text Available Human voice pitch research has focused on perceptions of attractiveness, strength, and social dominance. Here we examine the influence of pitch on selection of leaders, and whether this influence varies by leadership role. Male and female leaders with lower-pitched (i.e., masculine voices are generally preferred by both men and women. We asked whether this preference shifts to favor higher-pitch (i.e., feminine voices within the specific context of leadership positions that are typically held by women (i.e., feminine leadership roles. In hypothetical elections for two such positions, men and women listened to pairs of male and female voices that differed only in pitch, and were asked which of each pair they would vote for. As in previous studies, men and women preferred female candidates with masculine voices. Likewise, men preferred men with masculine voices. Women, however, did not discriminate between male voices. Overall, contrary to research showing that perceptions of voice pitch can be influenced by social context, these results suggest that the influence of voice pitch on perceptions of leadership capacity is largely consistent across different domains of leadership.

  2. "What do these women want?": Feminist responses to Feminine Forever, 1963-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    In 1963, Brooklyn gynecologist Robert A. Wilson and his wife, Thelma, published a paper in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society arguing that untreated menopause robbed women of their femininity and ruined the quality of their lives. In 1966 Robert Wilson published a best-selling book, Feminine Forever, in which he maintained that menopause was an estrogen-deficiency disease that should be treated with estrogen replacement therapy to prevent the otherwise inevitable "living decay." This paper explores the issues raised by the convergence of Wilson's campaign and the emergence of the women's movement. Between 1963 and 1980, feminists did not respond with one voice to Wilson's ideas: at first, some embraced them as a boon for aging women, while others resisted regarding female aging as pathological. In 1975, studies linking ERT and endometrial cancer challenged the wisdom of routine hormone therapy; this shifted the tenor of the feminist discussion, but it did not create a consensus about the meaning of menopause or its treatment. Nevertheless, the feminist discussion of menopause revealed a larger women's health agenda-namely, the unyielding belief that women should retain control of their bodies and participate fully in the decision-making efforts regarding their health. By controlling their bodies, all women, whether feminist or not, could ultimately control their lives.

  3. "Lesbians are not women": feminine and lesbian sensibilities in Harmony Hammond's late-1970s sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2008-01-01

    Harmony Hammond's wrapped fabric sculptures are placed in context of the theories of gender and sexuality that circulated among lesbian and straight feminists at the time they were made, the late 1970s. Hammond has cited in particular Monique Wittig's novels, such as The Lesbian Body, and her essays including "The Straight Mind" where Wittig concludes that the lesbian is not a woman. The critique to which Wittig's lesbian separatism has been subjected by Judith Butler in her consideration of the appeal and limitations of essentialism also applies to Hammond's art. Hammond's use of vaginal imagery was instrumental to visualizing a lesbian sensibility, but the proposition of such a sensibility established a new problematic: a new essential category. The article concludes that because Hammond's work was produced in the context of a complex set of discourses, lesbian, feminist, and aesthetic, it resisted reduction to a singular meaning. Her sculptures avoided the pitfall of substituting one essence for another, lesbian for feminine sensibility, but activated both. The sculptures effectively queered vaginal imagery: When Hammond used vaginal imagery to represent lesbian sensibility, she subverted the equation of sex and gender and the essentialist notion of feminine sensibility.

  4. Sedução e feminilidade em transferência Seduction and femininity in transference

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    Luiz Augusto Celes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Buscam-se as relações entre a sedução e a transferência em psicanálise. Segue-se o desenvolvimento laplanchiano de que a transferência é provocada pelo analista, sendo essa provocação entendida ao modo de uma reativação da situação originária de sedução e passividade. Argumenta-se, então, sobre a facilitação, em psicanálise, do estabelecimento de circulação de fantasias da sexualidade "feminina", entendida também como originária. Discute-se, por fim, a presença da alteridade na relação transferencial em face da idéia, de Jacques André, do outro como o feminino.This essay develops considerations on the relations between seduction and transference in psychoanalysis. Following Laplanche's suggestion, transference, in so far as it reactivates the originary situation of seduction and passivity, it is understood to be provoked by the analyst. Psychoanalysis is considered to facilitate the circulation of fantasies of "feminine" sexuality - also regarded as originary. The presence of alterity in transference is discussed from the point of view of J. André's comprehension of the other as feminine.

  5. Erfolgreiche Ambivalenz. Sarah Bernhardts Inszenierungen von Weiblichkeit Successful Ambivalence: Sarah Bernhardt’s Staging of Femininity

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    Doris Kolesch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Thorun untersucht die Inszenierungen von Weiblichkeit am Beispiel der Schauspielerin Sarah Bernhardt, die im späten 19. und beginnenden 20. Jahrhundert zu den erfolgreichsten Künstlerinnen ihrer Zeit gehörte. Dazu werden die Darstellungen ausgewählter Rollenfiguren ebenso analysiert wie die schauspieltheoretischen Überlegungen Bernhardts und schließlich die Rezeption ihres Schaffens in Theaterkritiken, aber auch Werbebildern und Medieninszenierungen. Das lesenswerte Buch erlaubt Einblicke in konkrete theatrale Verkörperungen von Weiblichkeit im Fin de Siècle, unternimmt jedoch keine ausreichende theatergeschichtliche wie kulturwissenschaftliche Kontextualisierung, obwohl die Verfasserin in der Einleitung ihrer Studie das Ziel formuliert, Gendertheorie, Theatergeschichte und Kulturwissenschaft zu verknüpfen.Claudia Thorun examines the staging of femininity using the example of the actress Sarah Bernhardt, who in the late nineteenth century was among the most successful artists of her time. The study includes analyses of the representation of specific roles, Bernhardt’s theories on acting, and finally the reception of her work in theater critiques, as well as advertisement images and representations in the media. The book, which is a worthwhile read, allows for insight into the concrete theatrical embodiment of femininity at the fin de siècle. It does not provide, however, adequate contextualization within theater history nor cultural studies, even though in her introduction, the author asserts that it is her intention to link together gender theory, theater history, and cultural studies.

  6. Basic requirements for the successful implementation of the “feminine leadership” style in Croatian enterprises

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    Nina Pološki

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The “feminine leadership” style, characterized by cooperation, participation, sharing of power and information, teamwork, energizing others, enhancing self-worth of others, etc., is a leadership style of the future. As such, it has to be highly used in today’s organizations. Furthermore, many contemporary surveys have shown that women are primary holders of the “feminine leadership” style. That is why today’s organizations should hire more women, especially for management jobs. However, although there are many objective factors that force organizations to offer more employment to women, there are still many obstacles that have to be overcome so that more women could be taken on board. For example, prejudices about women’s status and role in society, cultural prejudices, traditional educational schemes and organizational obstacles are the serious constraints that prevent women from entering the labor and management force. Fortunately, as a result of the globalization and the development of the information and communication technologies, the organizational values and attitudes toward women are changing. The new and improved thinking and acting philosophy toward women in organizations, and better organizational policies, programs and processes concerning women have become a necessity.

  7. Feminine courage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, L.

    1999-04-01

    This is a first hand account of working conditions and some of the hardships that female labourers on a seismic crew, working under all kinds of weather conditions, have to endure to overcome gender stereotypes. The objective is not to lay blame or making retribution, but to begin discussion of the gender issue in the oil and gas industry, and to make a positive difference in the workplace of the future.

  8. Maternalism, race, class and citizenship: aspects of illegitimate motherhood in Nazi Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vandana

    2011-01-01

    This article juxtaposes three types of illegitimate motherhood that came in the wake of the Second World War in Nazi Germany. The first found institutional support in the Lebensborn project, an elite effort to raise the flagging birth-rates, which at the same time turned a new page in the history of sexuality. The second came before the lower courts in the form of paternity and guardianship suits that had a long precedent, and the third was a social practice that the regime considered a ‘mass crime' among its female citizenry: namely, forbidden unions between German women and prisoners of war. Through these cases the article addresses issues such as morality, sexuality, paternity, citizenship and welfarism. The flesh-and-blood stories have been culled from the Lebensborn Dossiers and Special Court files, as well as cases from the lower courts.

  9. Attitudes towards motherhood and fertility awareness among 20-40-year-old female healthcare professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Luise Lermark; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2012-01-01

    to public child day care, and the possibility of travelling. As many as 50% of women underrated the impact of a woman's age on fertility, and overestimated the success rates of assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. Conclusions Many female healthcare professionals contemplated giving birth after...... in Denmark. Information about participants' intentions and attitudes towards family formation and fertility knowledge was gathered by means of a questionnaire. Results Only 2% of the respondents did not want children. Most women believed that motherhood is important, and hoped to have two to three children....... About half of the respondents intended to have their last child after the age of 35 years. The most important prerequisites for family formation included: living in a stable relationship, having completed one's studies, a sound financial situation, a job that can be kept when having children, access...

  10. Safe motherhood is economic good sense, says WHO's Director-General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article comments on the high rates of maternal and infant mortality. Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, asserted that safe motherhood is a matter of economic good sense, and that resources needed to tackle maternal mortality should be seen as an investment, not a cost. She cited three factors that are vital to help solve the problem of maternal and infant mortality: 1) every pregnancy should be wanted; 2) all pregnant women must have access to skilled care; 3) all pregnant women must be able to reach a functioning health care facility when complications arise. She further added that making pregnancy safer is not only a health issue but also a moral issues that involves principles of human rights, social responsibility, equity, and participation. Lastly, she expressed that high levels of maternal mortality reflect the failure of health systems, policies, and programs in addressing the essential needs of women.

  11. Motherhood, Empowerment, and Resilience within the Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted twenty in-depth interviews with residents of a domestic violence shelter in a southeastern metropolitan area to understand how low-income women experience mothering within the context of intimate partner violence (IPV. Interview questions explored the women’s feelings about motherhood, their relationships with their children, and the effects of IPV on their children. Despite the difficulties of raising children with an abusive partner, the women did not regret becoming a mother. In fact, respondents identified their children as one of few positives in their lives and mothering as central to their identity. Relationships with their children enabled the women to feel empowered in ways that their intimate partnerships did not and motivated them to escape the violence and persevere.

  12. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  13. Functions and responsibilities of organizations dealing with surrogate motherhood in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Den Akker, Olga B. A.

    1998-01-01

    The separation of maternity from social motherhood and progress in reproductive technology raise many social, psychological, medical and legal issues (van den Akker, 1994). The most recent British Medical Association report (BMA, 1996) acknowledged the practice of surrogacy and issued new guidelines for good practice and support for those involved. Surrogate motherhood services have increased around the country over the last decade, even before the formal British Medical Association acknowledgement of their necessity and existence (BMA, 1996). The present survey investigated the incidence, accessibility, and functions of such organizations, specifically, the legal, medical and psychological problems encountered and how they were dealt with, to discover what advice and support is given. Ten centres were interviewed. The incidence of surrogacy conducted through these organizations is widespread, but the processes involved and therefore the implications of the types of surrogacy dealt with are very different. The two major surrogacy agencies deal primarily with partial surrogacy, whereas the clinics are concerned almost exclusively with full (IVF) surrogacy. Information about the procedures involved appears to rely on experience; screening is generally carried out 'in house', and psychological factors are dealt with by counsellors on request by the couples. In general, although the roles of the organizations are disparate and clearly defined, no holistic or long-term care is provided by any of the organizations involved with surrogacy in the UK. The reasons for this are clear cut and stem from the nature of the organizations, and the behaviour of the clients. The data indicate that the current procedures used by the organizations are adequate but could be improved and standardized.

  14. [The Wish for a Child in the Case of (Permanent) Infertility: Development of the "German Questionnaire on Attitudes Toward Motherhood"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegner, Maike; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Krupp, Kerstin; Brunner, Franziska

    2017-09-01

    Study 1 Development of the questionnaire Most questionnaires on attitudes toward motherhood presume that the subject is fertile and positive and negative attitudes are represented on a one-dimensional scale. Moreover, the questionnaires often do not provide German versions and German norms. The aim of this study is to examine whether the German Questionnaire on Attitudes toward Motherhood ("FEMu") can be used to describe attitudes toward motherhood multi-dimensionally and whether it is applicable independent of a person's fertility status. The FEMu was developed based on a female sample (n=932) using principal factor analysis (oblique rotation) which yielded 2 independent main factors ("pro child", "contra child") with 5 subfactors (privation/conformation, attractiveness/balance, incompleteness, relation, affiliation) and 4 prototypes (idealization, rejection, ambivalence, indifference). Study 2Evaluation of clinical Samples of people with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS, n=12), Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS, n=49) and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS, n=55) were included for testing. The first 2 suffer from permanent infertility, in the latter fertility is compromised. The intensity of their wish for a child, the FEMu main factors and the prototypes were analyzed. The independence of pro and contra child scores and the prototypes were emipirically confirmed. Participants with CAIS had a low wish for a child and an indifferent attitude toward motherhood, women with MRKHS had a moderate wish for a child and were ambivalent, women with PCOS had a maximum wish for a child and idealized motherhood. Conclusion The FEMu represents attitudes toward motherhood in a multi-dimensional way. It is appropriate for use in fertile and infertile individuals and can be applied in research and single-case settings. The FEMu results can be useful in individual counseling, e. g. within the scope of fertility treatmernt, at gynecological consultations

  15. Safer motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Of the 500,000 maternal deaths that are recorded each year, 300,000 take place in South and West Asia, 150,000 in Africa, 34,000 in Latin America, and 12,000 in East Asia. Only 6,000 deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth occur in developed countries each year. The lifetime chance of dying in childbirth in a developing country ranges from 1 in 15 to 1 in 70, in marked contrast to the 1 in 3000 to 1 in 10,000 risk in developed countries. The most common medical causes of maternal mortality in Third World countries are hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia. Locations where access to health care is limited have high death rates attributable to obstructed labor and its complications. The poor nutritional status of women in developing countries is a contributing factor to maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. It has been estimated that 63-80% of direct maternal deaths and 88-98% of all maternal deaths could be avoided with proper health care. However, less than 50% of births in developing countries are attended by a physician, nurse, midwife, or trained traditional birth attendant and fewer than 50% of the women in some countries attend even 1 prenatal consultation with a trained person. Although the immediate causes of maternal deaths are generally medical factors, there are usually underlying socioeconomic causes such as poverty, malnutrition, place of residence, educational level, and women's status. Better education, special health programs directed toward men and the community, and more effective use of the media could help promote the socioeconomic changes necessary to enhance women's status. Improved access to maternal health and child spacing services can also be established through training traditional birth attendants, especially in the recognition and referral of complications of pregnancy and delivery. Also needed is the avoidance of unwanted pregnancy through the effective use of contraception. According to World Bank calculations, developing countries can reduce maternal mortality by at least half in a decade at a cost of only US$2/per capita/year.

  16. Maternidade desnaturada: uma análise da barriga de aluguel e da doação de óvulos "Denatured" motherhood: an analysis of surrogate gestational motherhood and egg donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute representações sociais de duas práticas decorrentes das novas tecnologias reprodutivas ou reprodução assistida. Na fertilização in vitro, o procedimento de transferência do óvulo fertilizado de uma mulher para outra separa a maternidade genética da gestacional. Isto se traduz em duas práticas sociais: a doação de óvulos, em que a gestante é designada à mãe, e a maternidade gestacional substituta ("barriga de aluguel", em que a mãe é a fornecedora do óvulo ou idealizadora da gravidez. O foco é a análise dessas representações no discurso jurídico e em matérias da grande imprensa brasileira, além do exame de etnografias sobre doação de óvulo e maternidade substituta. A oposição entre Natureza e Cultura é uma chave para compreender a recepção distinta dessas práticas.This article discusses social representations of two practices related to the new reproductive technologies or assisted reproduction techniques. During in vitro fertilization, the transfer procedure of a woman's fertilized egg to another woman separates genetic motherhood from gestational motherhood. Two practices relate to that: in egg donation the pregnant woman is considered the mother, while in surrogate gestational motherhood the mother is the egg donor or the woman who planned the gestation. The focus is in the analysis of the representations of egg donation and surrogate motherhood in juridical discourse and in texts from the Brazilian press, considering also ethnographic articles. The opposition between Nature and Culture is a key for understanding the different reception of these practices.

  17. "You Don't Have to Claim Her": Reconstructing Black Femininity through Critical Hip-Hop Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which females who identify with hip-hop often develop and construct their identities in relation to media representations of blackness and femininity in hip-hop music and culture. In order for educators to support female students in constructing identities of empowerment and agency, they should be willing and able…

  18. "You Don't Have to Claim Her": Reconstructing Black Femininity through Critical Hip-Hop Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which females who identify with hip-hop often develop and construct their identities in relation to media representations of blackness and femininity in hip-hop music and culture. In order for educators to support female students in constructing identities of empowerment and agency, they should be willing and able…

  19. Masculinity-femininity as a national characteristic and its relationship with national agoraphobic fear levels : Fodor's sex role hypothesis revitalized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, WA; Eisemann, M; Richter, J; Oei, TPS; Caballo, VE; van der Ende, J; Sanavio, E; Bages, N; Feldman, L; Torres, B; Sica, C; Iwawaki, S; Hatzichristou, C

    2003-01-01

    Hofstede's dimension of national culture termed Masculinity-Femininity [Hofstede (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill] is proposed to be of relevance for understanding national-level differences in self-assessed agoraphobic fears. This prediction is based on

  20. Examining the Gender Identity of Language Teachers Using a Masculinity-Femininity Scale: A Case from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Saboori, Fahime; Samavarchi, Laila; Hassanzadeh, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    The present study pursued two goals: first, to construct and validate a masculinity/femininity scale (MFS); and second, to reveal and compare the dominant gender identity of English, Arabic, and Persian teachers. Regarding the first goal, a 30- item gender identity scale was designed and, using the data collected from 300 junior high school…

  1. Individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity: Examining the effects of genes, environment, and prenatal hormone transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Mosing, M.A.; Ullén, F.; Madison, G.

    2016-01-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Fiv

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory and Development of an Abbreviated Version: The CFNI-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    The present study undertakes the first factor analysis of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory (CFNI) conducted since the instrument's development. Confirmatory factor analysis using data from 243 women offered mixed support for the original 84-item CFNI structure and pointed to ways to modify the structure and reduce the length of the…

  3. "You Better Not Get Pregnant while You're Here": Tensions between Masculinities and Femininities in Military Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Using a life history approach, this article explores the ways in which women in the military who are also mothers learn to embody various masculinities and femininities as they negotiate workplace gender processes. Complex intersections of gendered communities of practice result in the participants' learning to variously understand, accept, shape…

  4. Examining the Gender Identity of Language Teachers Using a Masculinity-Femininity Scale: A Case from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Saboori, Fahime; Samavarchi, Laila; Hassanzadeh, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    The present study pursued two goals: first, to construct and validate a masculinity/femininity scale (MFS); and second, to reveal and compare the dominant gender identity of English, Arabic, and Persian teachers. Regarding the first goal, a 30- item gender identity scale was designed and, using the data collected from 300 junior high school…

  5. Individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity: Examining the effects of genes, environment, and prenatal hormone transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Mosing, M.A.; Ullén, F.; Madison, G.

    2016-01-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used

  6. "You Better Not Get Pregnant while You're Here": Tensions between Masculinities and Femininities in Military Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Using a life history approach, this article explores the ways in which women in the military who are also mothers learn to embody various masculinities and femininities as they negotiate workplace gender processes. Complex intersections of gendered communities of practice result in the participants' learning to variously understand, accept, shape…

  7. A Comparison of Androgynous, Feminine, Masculine, and Undifferentiated Women on Self-Esteem, Body Satisfaction, and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlicka, Thomas; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared sex-role orientations of female undergraduates (N=204) who completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Androgyny and masculinity were associated with self-esteem, body satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction. Androgynous and masculine subjects were generally similar and well adjusted; feminine and undifferentiated subjects were similar and less…

  8. Gender and stress : is gender role stress? A reexamination of the relationship between feminine gender role stress and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Boselie, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was, first, aimed at examining the relationship between eating disorders, feminine gender role stress and other types of stress. In addition, we investigated whether eating disordered women compared to non-clinical controls use depressogenic coping more often. We hypothesized that

  9. A Factor-Analytic Comparison of Two Measures of Masculinity-Femininity in Post and Early Adolescent Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Carol J.

    Many researchers have questioned the validity of the underlying assumptions, the psychometric properties, and conceptualizations for both the older and new measures that generate two independent scores for masculinity and femininity. The assumptions of bipolarity and unidimensionality and the construct validity of existing masculinity/femininity…

  10. Gender and stress : is gender role stress? A reexamination of the relationship between feminine gender role stress and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Boselie, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was, first, aimed at examining the relationship between eating disorders, feminine gender role stress and other types of stress. In addition, we investigated whether eating disordered women compared to non-clinical controls use depressogenic coping more often. We hypothesized that

  11. Masculinity-femininity as a national characteristic and its relationship with national agoraphobic fear levels : Fodor's sex role hypothesis revitalized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, WA; Eisemann, M; Richter, J; Oei, TPS; Caballo, VE; van der Ende, J; Sanavio, E; Bages, N; Feldman, L; Torres, B; Sica, C; Iwawaki, S; Hatzichristou, C

    Hofstede's dimension of national culture termed Masculinity-Femininity [Hofstede (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill] is proposed to be of relevance for understanding national-level differences in self-assessed agoraphobic fears. This prediction is based on

  12. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  13. One foot wet and one foot dry: transition into motherhood among married adolescent women in rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie; Binh, Nguyen; Johansson, Annika; Berggren, Vanja

    2008-10-01

    This study explores married Vietnamese adolescents' perceptions and experiences related to transition into motherhood and their encounter with health care service. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 women younger than 20 who were either pregnant or had newly delivered. It emerged from the narratives that young women experienced ambivalence in the transition to motherhood in that they felt too young but also happy to be able to please their husband and the extended family. Patterns were shown indicating that the participants experienced lacking power with regard to decisions in relation to pregnancy, delivery, and contraceptive usage. Feelings of being patronized and ignored in the encounter with health care providers were seen in the narratives. Findings might be used for reproductive health care providers, social workers, and educators in their contact with young mothers to empower them to make their own decisions with regard to marriage, childbearing, and contraception.

  14. Absent or Ambivalent Mothers and Avoidant Children – An Evolutionary Reading of Zhang Kangkang’s Motherhood Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbo Xu

    2014-03-01

    Zhang’s texts also describe insecurely attached infants and children who sink into a nonchalant and avoidant state after experiencing distress, terror, or resentment due to insensitive and unpredictable mothering. Absent and ambivalent mothers are generally harassed by the feeling of guilt, resulting from conditional maternal commitment, mother-child conflicts, and the high expectations of the motherhood myth. Children’s counterstrategies also regulate and enhance maternal or alloparental care.

  15. Tackling femininity: the heterosexual paradigm and women's soccer in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2011-01-01

    Sport is a social institution that perpetuates gendered ideologies in the wider society through appealing to discourses of the naturalness of men's privilege and domination in society. Heteronormativity regulates the roles, behaviours, appearances and sexualities of, and relationships between and among, women and men. Moreover, heteronormative discourses normalise a particular relationship between sex, gender and sexuality that posits woman/feminine/heterosexual (and man/masculine/heterosexual) as a natural order from which variance is considered a punishable deviance. This paper outlines the effects of heteronormative discourses in the lives of women footballers in South Africa, through drawing on interviews with a wide range of women footballers. The paper shows how heteronormative discourses nurture homophobic attitudes that serve to regulate the appearances and performances of South African women.

  16. Gendering Prayer: Millennial-generation Catholics and the Embodiment of Feminine Genius and Authentic Masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Anne Dugan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between prayer practices and gendered subjectivity among a group of millennial-generation Catholic men and women. Drawing on ethnographic work, this case study illuminates the role of prayer in shaping how, why, and with what sorts of struggles young and culturally-savvy women and men embodied gender complementarity in the twenty-first century U.S. This article proposes gendering prayer as an analytic for understanding how prayer cultivated these Catholics in the habits of feminine genius and authentic masculinity. By comparing women’s and men’s practices, I argue that these young adults were flourishing in the modern world, even as they rejected egalitarian gender roles in favor of multiple modes of submission within gender essentialism. This work contributes to anthropological scholarship focused on gender performance in daily Catholic life.

  17. Negotiating the transition from adolescence to motherhood: Coping with prenatal and parenting stress in teenage mothers in Mulago hospital, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaye Dan K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and parenthood. Methods Longitudinal qualitative study involving twenty two in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions among pregnant adolescents who were followed from pregnant to delivery, from January 2004 to August 2005. Participant were selected by theoretical sampling and data was analyzed using grounded theory. Results Overall, young adolescents reported more anxiety, loss of self esteem (when they conceived, difficulty in accessing financial, moral and material support from parents or partners and stigmatization by health workers when they sought care from health facilities. Three strategies by which adolescent mothers cope with parenting and pregnancy stress that were described as utilizing opportunities (thriving, accommodating the challenges (bargaining and surviving, or failure (despairing, and varied in the extent to which they enabled adolescents to cope with the stress. Conclusion Adolescents on the transition to motherhood have variable needs and aspirations and utilize different strategies to cope with the stress of pregnancy and parenthood.

  18. Education and Entry into Motherhood: The Czech Republic during State Socialism and the Transition Period (1970-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic presently shows one of the lowest total fertility rates (TFR in Europe. A decline in period fertility followed the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy that started in 1990. In this study, we investigate women's transition to first births, focusing on the impact of female education. We make a distinction between the effects of education attainment and time elapsed since completion of education. There are two aspects to the role of education that influenced the delay of entry into motherhood in the 1990s. First, during early adulthood women spent more time in education than their contemporaries did in the era of state socialism. Second, women entered motherhood much later after completion of education than before, which contrasts with the previous pattern of a strong immediate effect the completion of studies had on first-birth risks. The decline in first-birth risks in the 1990s applies more so to women with a higher level of education than to those with a lower level. We argue that greater education differentiation of labor market opportunities and constraints brought about greater education differentiation in the timing of entry into motherhood.

  19. Negotiating the transition from adolescence to motherhood: coping with prenatal and parenting stress in teenage mothers in Mulago hospital, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Dan K

    2008-03-04

    Adolescence is a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood that is characterized by physical, physiological, psychosocial and behavioral changes that are influenced to a large extent by the age, culture and socialization of the individual. To explore what adolescent mothers perceive as their struggles during the period of transition from childhood to parenthood (through motherhood) and to describe strategies employed in coping with stress of pregnancy, motherhood and parenthood. Longitudinal qualitative study involving twenty two in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions among pregnant adolescents who were followed from pregnant to delivery, from January 2004 to August 2005. Participant were selected by theoretical sampling and data was analyzed using grounded theory. Overall, young adolescents reported more anxiety, loss of self esteem (when they conceived), difficulty in accessing financial, moral and material support from parents or partners and stigmatization by health workers when they sought care from health facilities. Three strategies by which adolescent mothers cope with parenting and pregnancy stress that were described as utilizing opportunities (thriving), accommodating the challenges (bargaining and surviving), or failure (despairing), and varied in the extent to which they enabled adolescents to cope with the stress. Adolescents on the transition to motherhood have variable needs and aspirations and utilize different strategies to cope with the stress of pregnancy and parenthood.

  20. Perinatal Risks in "Late Motherhood" Defined Based On Parity and Preterm Birth Rate - an Analysis of the German Perinatal Survey (20th Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, V; Voigt, M; Schild, R L; Hesse, V; Carstensen, M; Schneider, K T M; Straube, S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: "Late motherhood" is associated with greater perinatal risks but the term lacks precise definition. We present an approach to determine what "late motherhood" associated with "high risk" is, based on parity and preterm birth rate. Materials and Methods: Using data from the German Perinatal Survey of 1998-2000 we analysed preterm birth rates in women with zero, one, or two previous live births. We compared groups of "late" mothers (with high preterm birth rates) with "control" groups of younger women (with relatively low preterm birth rates). Data of 208 342 women were analysed. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, the "control" group included women aged 22-26 (27-31; 29-33) years. Women in the "late motherhood" group were aged > 33 (> 35; > 38) years. Results: The "late motherhood" groups defined in this way were also at higher risk of adverse perinatal events other than preterm birth. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, normal cephalic presentation occurred in 89 % (92.7 %; 93.3 %) in the "control" group, but only in 84.5 % (90 %; 90.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. The mode of delivery was spontaneous or at most requiring manual help in 71.3 % (83.4 %; 85.8 %) in the "control" group, but only in 51.4 % (72.2 %; 76.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. Five-minute APGAR scores were likewise worse for neonates of "late" mothers and the proportion with a birth weight ≤ 2499 g was greater. Conclusion: "Late motherhood" that is associated with greater perinatal risks can be defined based on parity and preterm birth rate.

  1. Seeking safety and empathy: adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-08-01

    To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions (FGDs) among adolescent girls (10-19 years) and key informant (KI) interviews with health workers. Age for FGD participants ranged from 16 to 19 years. The FGD participants were recruited while seeking antenatal care for their first pregnancy or immunization service for their first child, not being older than 6 months. Six health facilities were selected. Key informants were purposefully selected on the basis of being in-charge of maternity units. Thirteen FGDs comprising of a total of 92 adolescent girls were conducted. The FGDs were held with homogeneously constituted categories; married pregnant adolescents (5), unmarried pregnant adolescents (3) and married or not married adolescents with children (5). Semi structured interviews were held with six KIs who were in-charge of maternity units of health facilities. Latent content analysis technique was used for data analysis. Two main themes emerged; 'feeling exposed and powerless', and 'seeking safety and empathy'. The categories identified in the first theme were "the dilemma of becoming an adolescent mother" and "lack of decision power". In the second theme the following categories were identified: "cultural practices and beliefs about birth", "expectations and experiences", "transport, a key determinant to health seeking", and "dealing with constraints". Adolescents felt exposed and powerless due to the dilemma of early motherhood and lack of decision making power. The adolescent mothers seemed to be in continuous quest for safety and empathy. In so doing they are part of cultural practices and beliefs about birth. They had expectations about the health

  2. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  3. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  4. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  5. Does adolescent motherhood affect education and labor market outcomes of mothers? A study on young adult women in Chile during 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Matias; Kruger, Diana I

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the impact of adolescent motherhood on several education and labor market outcomes in Chile over the 1990-2013 period. We explore whether effects are different across income levels, timing of adolescent births, and three sub-periods. Using the CASEN national household survey, we applied propensity score-matching methods on two samples of women aged 24: one for women in the 2009-2013 period and another sample of 24-year-old women living with their mother between 1990-2013. In both samples, adolescent motherhood has negative effects on educational outcomes (high school completion, enrollment in technical institutes and universities, and years of education) and on labor outcomes of non-poor women. Childbearing in early adolescence is associated with worse outcomes, and the adverse effects of adolescent motherhood on education and labor outcomes have diminished over the period. Similar to results in developed countries, adolescent motherhood has negative consequences on women's education and labor outcomes, particularly on women that become mothers early in adolescence. Public policies aimed at reducing teen motherhood will have important effects on young women's education and employment.

  6. A multidisciplinary program of preparation for childbirth and motherhood: maternal anxiety and perinatal outcomes

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    Prevedel Tânia TS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study maternal anxiety and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women submitted to a Multidisciplinary Program for Childbirth and Motherhood Preparation (MPCM. Methods This is a not randomized controlled trial on 67 nulliparous pregnant women divided into two groups according to participation (MPCM Group; n = 38 or not (Control Group; n = 29 in MPCM. The program consisted of 10 meetings (between the 18th and the 38th gestational week during which educational, physiotherapeutic and interaction activities were developed. Anxiety was quantified at the beginning and at the end of the gestational period by the Trace-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Initial maternal anxiety was equivalent between the groups. At the end of the gestational period, it was observed that anxiety levels increased in the Control Group and were maintained in the MPCM Group. A higher occurrence of vaginal deliveries (83.8% and hospital discharge of three-day-older newborns (81.6% as a result of MPCM was also significant. Levels of state-anxiety at the end of pregnancy showed a negative correlation with vaginal delivery, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar index at the first minute and positive correlation with the hospital period remaining of the newborns. Conclusion In the study conditions, MPCM was associated with lower levels of maternal anxiety, a larger number of vaginal deliveries and shorter hospitalization time of newborns. It was not related to adverse perinatal outcomes.

  7. But the kids are okay: motherhood, consumption and sex work in neo-liberal Latin America.

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    Rivers-Moore, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Although sex work remains highly stigmatized around the world, its relatively high value (when compared to other kinds of work available for low-income women) allows sex workers to attain some level of economic, if not social, mobility. This article challenges the idea that sex work in 'third world' settings is always about mere subsistence. Instead, it suggests that sex workers in Costa Rica's tourism sector work to survive, but they also demonstrate significant personal ambition and aim not only to increase their own consumption levels, but crucially to get ahead. Women are clear about what sex work enables for their families and themselves: not the maintenance of the status quo, but rather a level of consumption otherwise unavailable to them as low-income and poor women. Sex work offers an opportunity to consume and to get ahead that these women have been unable to attain in other kinds of employment, primarily domestic and factory work. Furthermore, sex work allows women to think of themselves as particularly good mothers, able to provide for and spend important quality time with their kids. The article argues that survival, consumption, and motherhood are discursively deployed, in often contradictory and conflicting ways, in order to counteract the effects that stigma has on sex workers. It also suggests that sex workers may very well be the quintessential subjects of neo-liberalism in Latin America, in their embrace of entrepreneurial work and consumption.

  8. Quality of life and emotional distress among HIV-positive women during transition to motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to describe the quality of life (QOL) and emotional distress during pregnancy and early postpartum, and to examine the ability of psychopathological symptoms to predict QOL at early postpartum. A sample of 75 pregnant women (31 HIV-positive and 44 HIV-negative) was assessed during the second trimester of pregnancy and two to four days postpartum. QOL was assessed with the WHOQOL-Bref. The emotional distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory, and with the Emotional Assessment Scale. Seropositive women reported increased negative emotional reactivity and lower scores in social relationships and overall QOL during pregnancy than HIV-negative women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women reported better QOL after the birth of their child, when compared with the pregnancy period. Among HIV-positive women, lower anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were, respectively, significant predictors of better psychological QOL and overall QOL at early postpartum. Less intense somatic symptoms predicted better physical QOL. Longitudinal assessment of QOL and emotional status may provide potentially useful information for tailoring psychological interventions in the maternity care of HIV-infected women, during their transition to motherhood.

  9. Femineidad: segregación y lazos Femininity: segregation and relationships

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    Patricia Andrea Karpel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Precisamente, en el punto en que lo femenino no hace clase, la identificación histérica deja un resto; lo inimitable de la Otra, que se vuelve causa para cada una. S. Freud señalaba que las chicas del internado hacían síntoma, todas, por la carta del amado que una recibía; en una identificación histérica que situaba la pregunta por los misterios femeninos que causan el deseo de un hombre. Nos preguntamos cómo "pasa", o no, lo femenino en estos tiempos de declive de la función paterna, qué particularidades introduce en los lazos, esta época de prevalencia de consumos autistas de objetos tóxicos y de imágenes, centrando esta pregunta en particular respecto de las jóvenes. Intentaremos situar, para ello, una lectura posible de un fenómeno de segregación actual que en ámbitos educativos de otros países y del nuestro llaman "bullying", y que suele tomar la modalidad de pandillas de chicas que se unen para desgarrar brutalmente el rostro de otra, en un pasaje al acto donde se rechaza la diferencia con un corte en lo real, eludiendo el pasaje por las identificaciones a que la función fálica daría acceso, y permaneciendo en un plano de transitivismo imaginario, en la más descarnada segregación.Precisely, in the point in which the feminine thing doesn't form a class, the hysterical identification leaves an inimitable way of "The Other woman", which turns reason and crux for each one. Freud was indicating that all the girls of the boarding school were doing symptom, for the love letter that one had received, in a hysterical identification that allowed them to place the question for the feminine mysteries that cause the desire of a man. We wonder for how the feminine thing "happens" or not in these times of decline of the paternal function; how this times of autistic consumerism of toxic substances and images establish crazy ties. We will focus on the young women question. For it, we´ll try to place a reading of a phenomenon

  10. ANALIZA COMPARATIVĂ A UNOR PARAMETRI DIN SEDIMENTUL URINAR LA SUBIECŢI DE SEX FEMININ ŞI MASCULIN

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    MARIOARA NICOLETA FILIMON

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinarea sedimentului urinar este necesară în oferirea de informaţii despre buna funcţionare a rinichilor, a întregului organism şi în depistarea posibilelor afecţiuni renale. S-a luat în studiu un lot de 129 subiecţi de sex faminin (83 şi masculin (46, la care li s-a determinat numărul de hematii, leucocite şi celule epiteliale din sedimentul urinar. Valorile obţinute au fost prelucrate statistic cu ajutorul programului statistic Minitab pentru a putea stabili daca exista sau nu diferenţe la cele 2 lotuir de subiecţi analizaţi. Numărul de hematii şi leucocite din sedimentul urinar al subiecţilor testaţi nu prezintă diferenţe semnificative la subiecţii de sex masculin şi feminin, pe când numărul celulelor epiteliale înregistrează diferenţe foarte semnificative la cele 2 sexe cu valori mai mari în cazul subiecţilor de sex feminin. Incidenţa leucocitelor în sedimentul urinar ala subiecţilor de sex masculin este mai mare decât la cei de sex feminin, la care predomină celulele epiteliale. Valoarea crescută a numărului de leucocite şi prezenţa florei bacteriene în sedimentul urinar la subiecţii de sex feminin şi masculin testaţi indică infecţii urinare.

  11. “Having it All” on Social Media: Entrepreneurial Femininity and Self-Branding Among Fashion Bloggers

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    Brooke Erin Duffy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the widespread individualization of the creative workforce, various genres of social media production have emerged from the traditionally feminine domains of fashion, beauty, domesticity, and craft. Fashion blogging, in particular, is considered one of the most commercially successful and publicly visible forms of digital cultural production. To explore how fashion bloggers represent their branded personae as enterprising feminine subjects, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the textual (n = 38 author narratives and visual (n = 760 Instagram images content published by leading fashion bloggers; we supplement this with in-depth interviews with eight full-time fashion/beauty bloggers. Through this data, we show how top-ranked bloggers depict the ideal of “having it all” through three interrelated tropes: the destiny of passionate work, staging the glam life, and carefully curated social sharing. Together, these tropes articulate a form of entrepreneurial femininity that draws upon post-feminist sensibilities and the contemporary logic of self-branding. We argue, however, that this socially mediated version of self-enterprise obscures the labor, discipline, and capital necessary to emulate these standards, while deploying the unshakable myth that women should work through and for consumption. We conclude by addressing how these findings are symptomatic of a digital media economy marked by the persistence of social inequalities of gender, race, class, and more.

  12. THE COMMUNICATION MIX ADRESSED TO THE FEMININE SEGMENT. CASE STUDY ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS

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    CLAUDIA ELENA PAICU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the female segment represents a genuine power in terms of consumer behavior. We can certainly argue that the feminine segment is no longer just a market niche. We can relate to this segment as the majority. To support this idea, we consider the data provided by the National Institute of Statistics. According to these statistics, the female segment sums up 51.4% of the total population, an increase being recorded in the last 10 years, from just over 50% to more than 51%. Therefore, it is not wrong to claim that feminine segment holds the majority in terms of consumer behavior. In this context, the female consumer’s preferences and needs should be integrated into all the communication strategies of organizations. The present study aims to see to what extent, at present, an attention is paid to this segment, proposing as an example a study in an area addressed in a high percentage to the feminine segment, the market of cosmetic products.

  13. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

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    Brian R Spisak

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace. Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership.

  14. Chemosensory Communication of Gender Information: Masculinity Bias in Body Odor Perception and Femininity Bias Introduced by Chemosignals During Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Smiljana; Moellers, Eileen M; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout) and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes) and affective introspection (mood) by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication.

  15. Chemosensory communication of gender information: Masculinity bias in body odor perception and femininity bias introduced by chemosignals during social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana eMutic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes and affective introspection (mood by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in association with both male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication.

  16. Flüchtige Spuren in arabischen Quellen: Writing the Feminine Women in Arabic Sources

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    Barbara Winckler

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Writing the Feminine versammelt 13 Beiträge zur Frauengeschichte der arabischen Welt, insbesondere Andalusiens und des Maghreb der klassischen Zeit. Eine Vielzahl von Primärquellen werden daraufhin analysiert, welche Aussagen zu Handlungsspielräumen von Frauen – und ihren Grenzen – sich aus ihnen herauslesen lassen. Die unterschiedlichen Textsorten erhellen sich zum Teil auf überraschende Weise. Mag der Ertrag auch zunächst gering und die weiblichen Spuren flüchtig erscheinen, so stellt der Band doch einen wichtigen ersten Schritt dar, dem weitere folgen sollten.The thirteen essays featured in this anthology deal with women’s history in the Arabic world, particularly Andalusia and classical Maghreb. The authors examine numerous primary sources for their ideas about women’s spaces (as well as their limits. Occasionally the different kinds of texts under investigation turn out to be full of surprises While the results may seem meagre at first, the anthology nonetheless represents a first step in an important direction.

  17. Frauenbildung ohne Weiblichkeitszwang: Theorie und Praxis Women’s Education Beyond Compulsive Femininity: Theory and Practice

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    Nicola Döring

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Im Sommer 2000 fand die Internationale Frauenuniversität (ifu in Hannover statt. Der von ifu-Präsidentin Aylâ Neusel herausgegebene Sammelband dokumentiert Konzept, Planung und Curriculum-Entwicklung der ifu. Was Frauen im akademischen Kontext mit und über Frauen bzw. Geschlechterverhältnisse lernen können und sollen, steht hier im Anwendungskontext zur Diskussion. Gesa Heinrichs liefert in ihrer Monographie eine Analyse des Identitäts-Konzepts und seiner Bezüge zu Geschlecht und Bildung. Das Ergebnis ihrer Theoriekritik korrespondiert mit dem praktischen ifu-Konzept: Frauenbildung soll die Auseinandersetzung mit Identität beinhalten, ohne in Weiblichkeitszwang zu münden.In the summer of 2000 the International Women’s University (ifu took place in Hannover. ifu-president Aylâ Neusel edited the proceedings of the meeting, documenting the concept, planning and curriculum development of the ifu. Drawing on their practical experiences, the authors of this anthology discuss what women can and should learn with and about women and gender in an academic context. Gesa Heinrichs’ monograph investigates the concept of identity and its relationships to gender and education. Her theoretical analysis corresponds to the concepts applied at ifu, positing that women’s education should deal with questions of identity without implying compulsive femininity.

  18. THE WOMAN; THE EVIL? – FEMININE REPRESENTATIONS IN JOSÉ SARAMAGO’S WORK

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    Débora Renata de Freitas Braga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research we propose to analyze the representation of women in lite­rature from the male perspective, to see to what extent the author’s position is linked (or not the rules and (pre concepts of Christian morality – the woman with original sin, because of misfortunes men, prone to sorcery and seduction as a vehicle for insubordination – and what remains of this male gaze imply. In light of theorists such as Gilles Lipovetsky and essayists as Helder Macedo, Maria Alzira Seixo, Beatriz Berrini and Maria de Fátima Marinho, elected works Caim, Memorial do Convento and Ensaio sobre a cegueira, by José Saramago. Assuming that the characters have elements in common with each other, share research in two stages: the first, we dis­cuss the configuration of the feminine in Saramago under the aspects of the look, eroticism, seduction and magic, to verify that way are relevant in shaping their roles in the male universe, in the second step, we analyze four characters – eva and lilith, for Caim, Blimunda, for Memorial do Con­vento and mulher do médico, for Ensaio sobre a cegueira, identifying the elements mentioned above and comparing them. 

  19. "Paying the price to get there": Motherhood and the dynamics of pregnancy deliberations among women with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPierre, Tracey A; Zimmerman, Mary K; Hall, Jean P

    2017-07-01

    Women with disabilities report fewer pregnancies than those without disabilities. To explore the range of factors involved in pregnancy decision-making among women with disabilities, and give insight into the decision making process. Data were obtained from 4 focus groups conducted with 22 women of child-bearing age, who had a chronic physical or mental health condition or disability that influenced their pregnancy decisions. Group transcripts were analyzed using conventional content analysis to identify the types of factors that influence pregnancy decisions and themes related to pregnancy decision-making. Most had a strong desire for motherhood, although there were varied decisions and some ambivalence over whether or not to attempt pregnancy. Decisions were influenced by an interplay of biomedical, social and personal factors that shaped assessments of three key areas of consideration: importance, feasibility, and costs of pregnancy/motherhood. It is not just the 'biomedical facts' of health conditions that are relevant, but rather the meaning attributed to these facts and how they are weighed in relation to other significant non-medical factors. By moving beyond the medical model of disability to recognize the importance of social and personal factors, and engaging in patient-centered communication, healthcare providers can facilitate pregnancy decision-making that is consistent with the values and preferences of women with disabilities and improve quality of care and support. In order to make motherhood a more viable option for women with disabilities, societal attitudes and a lack of role models for these women also need to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Mother, Who Is Not One: Reflections Of Motherhood In Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet, The Tempest, And The Taming Of The Shrew

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    KARAMAN HATICE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of proper motherhood in Shakespeare's plays has been a point of attraction for many feminist critics actively engaged in emphasizing the patriarchal aspect of Shakespeare's plays. This paper aims to analyze motherhood and the lack of mother/mother-figure in The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew through Luce Irigaray's theory of gender and the work of other feminist critics. The issues of gender, father-daughter relations and the reflections of the absent mothers will be discussed. Male/Female Subjectivity will also be questioned, in view of Irigaray's conceptualization of gender by relating it to Subject.

  1. Do STEM fields need a makeover?: The effect of role model femininity on men and women's interest in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Carolynn

    Women continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. This lack of women is problematic because it diminishes perspective, input, and expertise that women could provide. Consequently, this thesis examined the benefits of exposure to peer role models for increasing women's interest in STEM, which may ultimately lead more women to enter STEM fields. The role model research to date has amassed considerable evidence showing that role model exposure is beneficial; yet, questions still remain about what makes these role models effective. Accordingly, this thesis investigated whether feminine female role models increase women's interest in STEM and improve their perceptions of female STEM role models relative to "neutral" female role models. Across three experiments men and women were exposed to role models and their interest in STEM was measured. All experiments exposed participants to one of three articles about a peer role model (a female role model who embodies femininity (e.g. wears makeup), a female role model who has gender neutral qualities/behaviors [e.g., works hard], or a male role model who embodies neutral traits) and Experiments 2 and 3 had a fourth control condition in which participants read about the history of SDSU (a control condition). In the first two experiments interest in physics was measured using an adapted version of the STEM Career Interest Survey (CIS). Experiment 3 used an adapted version of the STEM CIS scale, but measured overall interest in STEM by including subscales for each of the four STEM areas with a composite score serving as the primary dependent variable. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that women's interest in physics was no different than men's after exposure to a feminine female role model compared to a neutral female and neutral male role model. Furthermore, women's interest in physics was greater in the feminine condition compared to all other conditions for the first two

  2. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings - 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, Gerard; Burgwal, van de Marcel; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it provid

  3. Female Romanian university students' attitudes and perceptions about contraception and motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blidaru, Iolanda Elena; Furau, Gheorghe; Socolov, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of female Romanian university students, as possible future opinion leaders, about contraception and motherhood, by assessing their level of contraceptive use, opinions and knowledge with regard to combined oral contraceptives (COCs). A knowledge, attitudes and practice questionnaire was conducted among 1105 female university students aged 19 to 30 years. The participants were recruited from six faculties at universities in Iasi and Arad, Romania. The study protocol was approved by the university ethics committees. Statistical analyses included percentages, χ(2) tests and Fisher's exact test. Two-thirds of respondents were in a relationship or married. Average age at first sexual intercourse was 18.6 years. Two out of three (69%) students identified themselves as sexually active. The same percentage showed a positive attitude towards contraception and stated that they used it. The most commonly used contraceptive methods were condoms, COCs and withdrawal. The students' perceptions of the benefits and adverse effects of COCs were analysed. Half of the students had heard about extended COC regimens, but only 24% showed interest in using them regularly. A large proportion of pharmacy and non-medical students appeared to have poor knowledge about contraception and reproductive health, which generated misperceptions and negative attitudes. Two-thirds of the participants considered 25 to 29 years to be the optimal age for starting a family, and 85.5% intended to have children in the future. Medical students, but not pharmacy students, showed higher levels of knowledge. Improvement of students' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards general contraceptive use, COCs and childbearing is needed. Evidence-based information is required to address poor knowledge about the physiology of reproduction, misconceptions relating to COCs, and the possibility of menstrual suppression using hormonal

  4. From 'Virgin Births' to 'Octomom': Representations of Single Motherhood via Sperm Donation in the UK News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, S; Foster, J

    2016-01-01

    The use of sperm donation by single women has provoked public, professional and political debate. Newspapers serve as a critical means of both broadcasting this debate and effecting a representation of this user group within the public sphere. This study uses the theory of social representations to examine how single motherhood by sperm donation has been represented in the UK news over time. The study sampled news coverage on this topic in eight British newspapers during three 4-year periods between the years 1988 and 2012. The dataset of news reports (n = 406) was analysed using a qualitative approach. Findings indicated that UK media reports of single women using donor sperm are underpinned by conventional categories of the 'personal', the 'traditional' and the 'natural' that when paired with their corollaries produce a representation of this user group as the social 'other'. The amount of coverage on this topic over time was found to vary according to the political orientation of different media sources. Using key concepts from social representations theory, this article discusses the relationship between themata and anchoring in the maintenance of representations of the social 'other' in mass mediated communication. Findings are explained in relation to theoretical conceptions of the mass media and its position within the public sphere. It is argued that the use of personal narratives in news reports of single mothers by sperm donation may have significant implications for public understandings of this social group. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  6. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  7. SPAСE-TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF SELF-AWARENESS OF WOMEN WITH DIFFERENT EXPERIENCES MOTHERHOOD SYNERGETIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostareva Elena Nikolaevna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article the question of interrelation of features of consciousness and life experience of the person is considered. Results of empirical research, which purpose - the comparative analysis existential psychosemantics structures of consciousness of women with different experience of motherhood are submitted. In structure self-consiousness of the women having children, the personal value of family well-being integrating senses of child-parental and matrimonial relations, a material prosperity and dialogue is revealed. In self-consciousness women who are not having children, the potential personal values of motherhood not connected among themselves and the leisure, focused on the future and specifying alternative variants of development and self-determination of women are found out. On the basis of methodology of synergetrics parameters of the system - structural analysis of consciousness are proved. The consciousness of the women having children is established, that, made structurally out and differs relative orderliness and stability. The consciousness of the women who are not having children, is made structurally out, but characterized by instability and rather smaller orderliness.

  8. Threats to safe motherhood in Honduran Miskito communities: local perceptions of factors that contribute to maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arps, Shahna

    2009-08-01

    Despite global initiatives to lower rates of maternal death, barriers to safe motherhood persist, particularly in socially and economically marginalized communities. This article describes the risks that women in Honduran Miskito villages encounter during pregnancy and childbirth. Ethnographic data are used to examine emic understandings of the underlying causes of maternal death. Participant observation, four community discussions, individual interviews with 218 women and five midwives, and a maternal mortality survey were conducted during November 2004 through November 2005. Case studies are drawn from the 55 death histories collected during the survey to illustrate the factors that contribute to maternal mortality. Community members identified poverty, gender inequality, witchcraft, and sorcery as major threats to safe motherhood. All of these factors influence women's health-related behaviors; and therefore, each issue deserves attention from public health officials. Designing appropriate interventions to improve maternal health depends on understanding the forces that increase women's vulnerability during pregnancy and childbirth. Local perspectives of risk, even when they diverge from biomedical understandings, point to specific needs, issues to address, and avenues for effective intervention.

  9. Expectations of a group of Portuguese pregnant women in the districts of Viseu and Aveiro regarding motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Emília de Carvalho; Rocha, Ana Maria Anjos; Silva, Alcione Leite da

    2016-08-01

    Motherhood is a complex phenomenon, supplementedwith expectations about the new reality, the hopes of all going well, taking into account the expected care. In order to meet the needs of the Portuguese expectant mother, it is necessary to know what she deems essential for herself and her family, so that strategies may be developed to facilitate the transition process. This study was intended to gain insight into fulfilled and unfulfilled expectations of health care in motherhood with a group pregnant females in Portugal. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study, with 22 Portuguese women belonging to the Clusters of Health Care Centers of the districts of Viseu and Aveiro. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed using content analysis proposed by Bardin, supported by QSR NVivo 10. It was observed that fulfilled expectations surpassed those unmet, especially in terms of high quality health care and competent health care professionals. Regarding unfulfilled expectations, they mainly refer to maternity incentives, with an emphasis on the wish of greater financial familly supportfrom the government.

  10. Expectations of a group of Portuguese pregnant women in the districts of Viseu and Aveiro regarding motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Motherhood is a complex phenomenon, supplementedwith expectations about the new reality, the hopes of all going well, taking into account the expected care. In order to meet the needs of the Portuguese expectant mother, it is necessary to know what she deems essential for herself and her family, so that strategies may be developed to facilitate the transition process. This study was intended to gain insight into fulfilled and unfulfilled expectations of health care in motherhood with a group pregnant females in Portugal. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study, with 22 Portuguese women belonging to the Clusters of Health Care Centers of the districts of Viseu and Aveiro. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed using content analysis proposed by Bardin, supported by QSR NVivo 10. It was observed that fulfilled expectations surpassed those unmet, especially in terms of high quality health care and competent health care professionals. Regarding unfulfilled expectations, they mainly refer to maternity incentives, with an emphasis on the wish of greater financial familly supportfrom the government.

  11. Women on the Edge of Time: Representations of revolutionary motherhood in the NEP-era Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Proctor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the October revolution of 1917 the fledgling Soviet government legalized divorce and abortion, secularized marriage, and decriminalized homosexuality. Utopians dreamed of the withering away of the family and the transformation of women's roles in the home and the workplace. But at least for the time being, only some bodies were capable of bearing children. Women's bodies became contested territory, a site of paradox. On the one hand the image of woman was re-imagined as a de-libidinalized fellow comrade, but this was combined with a continued emphasis on women's biological role as the privileged carriers of the future generation. Rather than circumventing this seeming contradiction, Soviet artworks of the 1920s confronted it, depicting motherhood as an emancipatory and revolutionary act. And this crucially does not only relate to bodies but to emotions. Revolutionary maternal love has a positive, affective dimension that provides an alternative to sexual love. The figure of the revolutionary mother prefigures the still hazily defined qualitative richness of the communist future. This article examines the figure of the revolutionary mother through a discussion of key artworks from the NEP era (1921-1928 concluding by considering how the representation of motherhood shifted in the Stalin era. The article asks what these historical ideas might still teach us today.

  12. An impact evaluation of the safe motherhood promotion project in Bangladesh: evidence from Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Yukie; Islam, Mohammad Tajul

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the findings from a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project (SMPP) conducted in the Narsingdi district of Bangladesh. SMPP is a Japanese aid-funded technical cooperation project aimed at developing local capacities to tackle maternal and newborn health problems in rural areas. We assessed whether the project interventions, in particular, community-based activities under the Model Union approach, had a favorable impact on women's access to and knowledge of maternal health care during pregnancy and childbirth. The project comprises a package of interlinked interventions to facilitate safe motherhood practices at primary and secondary care levels. The primary-level activities focused on community mobilization through participatory approaches. The secondary-level activities aimed at strengthening organizational and personnel capacities for delivering emergency obstetric care (EmOC) at district and sub-district level hospitals. The project impact was estimated by difference-in-differences logistic regressions using two rounds of cross-sectional household survey data. The results showed that the project successfully increased the utilization of antenatal visits and postpartum EmOC services and also enhanced women's knowledge of danger signs during pregnancy and delivery. The project also reduced income inequalities in access to antenatal care. In contrast, we found no significant increase in the use of skilled birth attendants (SBA) in the project site. Nonetheless, community mobilization activities and the government's voucher scheme played a complementary role in promoting the use of SBA.

  13. Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson, Lanny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printed photograph. In particular, it focuses upon the representations of feminine beauty as found the illustrated “new-possessions” books which described recent island acquisitions of the United States. The connections between aesthetics and the forms of governance in each territory will also be elucidated.Este artículo examina el “sentido de belleza” en el archipiélago imperial estadounidense, compuesto de los territorios isleños de Cuba, Hawai`i, Filipinas y Puerto Rico, todos adquiridos en 1898. La conexión teórica entre estos dos elementos –estética e imperio– se establece mediante una revisión de los conceptos de “economía de deseo colonial” y el “complejo de visualidad”. Este artículo analiza la tecnología visual más avanzada del siglo diecinueve tardío: la fotografía impresa. En particular, se enfoca en las representaciones de belleza femenina en los libros ilustrados de las “nuevas posesiones” los cuales describían las adquisiciones recientes de los Estados Unidos. También, se dilucidarán las conexiones entre estética y las formas de gobernanza en cada territorio.

  14. Effects of feminine cleanser Inclear on sperm motility: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Wook; An, Jin Hee; Han, Sang Chul; Lee, Jongwon; Lee, Hyo Serk; Seo, Ju Tae

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of Inclear, a feminine cleanser, on sperm motility. Semen samples were obtained from infertile male patients. Following liquefaction, the raw semen samples were diluted with Ham's F-10 nutrient mixture medium containing 0.4% human serum albumin solution at a ratio of 1:3. The semen samples were subsequently centrifuged to separate the seminal plasma from the serum. The supernatant was discarded, and the pellet was resuspended. The sample was again centrifuged to remove cell debris, and the supernatant was removed. The final pellet was gently loosened by resuspension and incubated in medium alone as a control, and in a 10% solution of the medium plus Inclear. A sampling time of 30 minutes was selected on the basis of sperm transport studies. Sperm motility was evaluated with computer-assisted sperm analysis. A total of 20 samples were analyzed. The mean age of patients was 34.40±2.96 years. There was no difference in sperm concentration and motility in the two samples at 0 minute and 30 minutes of incubation. In both semen samples, the sperm concentration and motility decreased after an incubation period of 30 minutes. However, there was no statistical difference between the samples. Sperm concentration and motility were not significantly different between the control and Inclear samples after 0 minute and 30 minutes of incubation. Inclear has no negative effects on sperm motility. This product can be recommended to pregnancy planners for vaginal hygiene and as a vaginal lubricant.

  15. Does It Make Any Difference if She Is a Mother? An Interactional Perspective on Intimate Partner Violence with a Focus on Motherhood and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatnar, Solveig Karin Bo; Bjorkly, Stal

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the impact of motherhood and pregnancy on interactional aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV) among help-seeking women. Is having children a protective or a risk factor for IPV severity, injury, duration, frequency, and mortal danger, controlling for sociodemographics? Regarding interactional aspects of IPV, do survivors…

  16. Pre-conception to parenting: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature on motherhood for women with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolman, Clare; Jones, Ian; Howard, Louise M

    2013-06-01

    The majority of women with a severe mental illness (SMI) become pregnant and have children. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to examine the qualitative research on the experiences of motherhood in women with SMI from preconception decision making to being a mother. The experiences of the health professionals treating women with SMI were also reviewed. Eleven databases were searched for papers published up to April 25, 2012, using keywords and mesh headings. A total of 23 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria on the views of women with SMI, eight reported the views of health professionals including one which reported both. The meta-synthesis of the 23 studies on women's views produced two overarching themes Experiences of Motherhood and Experiences of Services. Sub-themes included the following: Guilt, Coping with Dual Identities, Stigma, and Centrality of Motherhood. Four themes emerged from the synthesis of the eight papers reporting the views of health professionals: Discomfort, Stigma, Need for education, and Integration of services. An understanding of the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood for women with SMI can inform service development and provision to ensure the needs of women and their families are met.

  17. Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix.

  18. Mother-Blaming in the Shadow of Incest: Commentary on "Motherhood in the Shadow of Incest" by Rachel Lev-Wiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2007-01-01

    This commentary on "Motherhood in the Shadow of Incest" by Rachel Lev-Wiesel, is divided into three sections. In the first section, this author addresses the issue of the role of mothers in incest. Faller contends that, with regard to research findings on the role of mothers' own sexual victimization in her child's experience, previous research…

  19. In the New Century Literature Middle-aged Feminine Image Narrates%新世纪文学中的中年女性形象叙事研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏奎

    2009-01-01

    对于女性尤其是中年女性的关注是中国现代文学的一个传统,新世纪以来的文学创作承继了这一主题叙事,展现了在新的社会时代背景下,中年女性所承载的生活困境与灵魂挣扎.文章对新世纪文学中的中年女性主题叙事进行研究,从生存与存在两个角度对众多的中年女性形象进行分析,探讨新的时代情景下的女性命运书写的深度与广度.%Regarding the feminine middle age feminine attention is in particular a Chinese modern literature tradition, since the new century literature creation has inherited this subject to narrate, has unfolded under the new social time background, the middle-aged female load bearing life difficult position and the soul struggle.This article conducts the research narrative to in the new century literature middle-aged feminine subject, from survives and has two angles to carry on the analysis to the multitudinous middle-aged feminine image, discusses under the new time scene the feminine destiny writing depth and the breadth.

  20. The Emotional Experience of Motherhood in Planned Lesbian Families in the South African Context: "… Look How Good a Job I'm Doing, Look How Amazing We Are".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ewyk, Jacquetta; Kruger, Lou-Marié

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on lesbian mothers' emotional experience of motherhood. It forms part of a larger qualitative and exploratory study with 10 lesbian couples in South Africa on their lived experience of planned motherhood. The study is located in a feminist phenomenological framework. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Participants described many different emotions associated with new motherhood: hope, joy, love, anxiety, helplessness, exhaustion, and feeling companionship and togetherness as well as feeling compromised and deprived. Mothers described these emotions but also focused on the development of a new identity, that of being a mother.

  1. Identification of -SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond medium using weak Raman surface phonons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla; Harish Ojha; Vadali Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth

    2013-11-01

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its volume content when relatable, will affect the resultant Raman response of -SiC phase as seen in the present case of diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin films.

  2. Scope of health systems research in Child Survival and Safe Motherhood programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, P K

    1993-01-01

    Editorial commentary focused on several Health System Research (HSR) approaches which exemplified some of the key issues for application of HSR for further improvement in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services in India. The goals of HSR are to delineate health policy which improves the operations of the health care delivery system for sustainability at the district level. HSR is part of a global effort of Health For All by 2000 AD and India's Child Survival and Safe Motherhood (CSSM) program, sponsored by IDA/UNICEF. CSSM aims also to end polio by 2000 AD, eliminate neonatal tetanus by 1995, and prevent deaths and morbidity from measles, diarrheal diseases, and acute respiratory infection. MCH services will be expanded at the village, subcenter, primary health center, and community health center levels in order to reduce maternal mortality to below 2/1000 from the 1990 5/1000 and to reduce mortality of children aged 1-4 years to less than 10/1000 live births from 80/1000 by 2000 AD. States with particularly high levels of child and maternal mortality are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh, which have about 40% of India's population. These states have low marriage ages, low female literacy, and few women in nonagricultural employment. There are about 90 districts in these states with particularly low demographic indicators. India policy directs all CSSM work to be carried out by existing staff; the program emphasis will be training, supervision, and logistics. IEC will need to be directed to attitudinal change in rural areas and urban slums. Research has found that coverage is uneven and quality of MCH services, poor. One study will evaluate the performance over 5 years in Gwalior district in a nutrition and school health program. Another research effort will perform quality assessment of MCH care at the primary health care level and promote community awareness and increased utilization. An ongoing study is evaluating nationally the family welfare

  3. Beat Medusa: The model angelic woman in the first romance novel of Carmen de Icaza. Femininity and traditionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Soler Gallo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the traditional ideal of women in the first romance novel of Carmen de Icaza, a preeminent author in postwar Spanish literature. In the novel, two female models, an angel, representing the protagonist and the idea of traditional femininity, and the monster, who plays the antagonist and reflects the diametrically opposing view of morality to that imposed by the patriarchal society. In this novel Icaza spreads her conservative ideology to the female readers, mostly consumers of this kind of literature in the period after the Spanish Civil War, and emphasizes the values that should prevail in society.

  4. «Unsex Me Here»: Bodies and Femininity in the Performance History of Lady Macbeth

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Jenijoy La Belle argued that Lady Macbeth’s “unsex me here” speech expresses Lady Macbeth’s desire to be made more masculine through amenorrhea. This amenorrhea enables Duncan’s murder, but leaves her barren. La Belle’s essay is predicated on Lady Macbeth’s female and initially fertile body, which is rendered barren by her actions in the first act. This paper considers alternative readings of Lady Macbeth’s femininity and amenorrhea codified by two historical bodies: the mal...

  5. Sexuality and the limits of agency among South African teenage women: theorising femininities and their connections to HIV risk practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, R; Morrell, R

    2012-06-01

    In South Africa, both HIV and gender-based violence are highly prevalent. Gender inequalities give men considerable relational power over young women, particularly in circumstances of poverty and where sex is materially rewarded. Young women are often described as victims of men, but this inadequately explains women's observed sexual agency. This paper takes a different approach. We use qualitative interviews and ethnographic observation among 16 young women from the rural Eastern Cape to explore ways young women construct their femininities and exercise agency. The data were collected as part of an evaluation of Stepping Stones, which is a participatory behavioural intervention for HIV prevention that seeks to be gender transformative. Agency was most notable in particular stages of the dating 'game', especially relationship initiation. Constructions of desirable men differed but generally reflected a wish to avoid violence, and a search for mutual respect, sexual pleasure, romance, modernity, status and money. Agency was constrained once relationships were consented to, as men expected to control their partners, using violent and non-violent methods. Women knew this and many accepted this treatment, although often expressing ambivalence. Many of the women expressed highly acquiescent femininities, with power surrendered to men, as a 'choice' that made their lives in cultural terms more meaningful. In marked contrast to this was a 'modern' femininity, centred around a desire to be 'free'. A visible third position, notably emerging after the Stepping Stones intervention, rested not on a feminist challenge to patriarchy, but on an accommodation with men's power whilst seeking to negotiate greater respect and non-violence within relations with men. These multiple and dynamic femininities open up possibilities for change. They demonstrate the need to engage with women, both as victims of patriarchy and active supporters of the gender order. The multiplicity of women

  6. Motherhood and work-life balance in the national collegiate athletic association division I setting: mentors and the female athletic trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Christianne M; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Goodman, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest catalysts for turnover among female athletic trainers (ATs) is motherhood, especially if employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. The medical education literature regularly identifies the importance of role models in professional character formation. However, few researchers have examined the responsibility of mentorship and professional role models as it relates to female ATs' perceptions of motherhood and retention. To evaluate perceptions of motherhood and retention in relation to mentorship and role models among female ATs currently employed in the collegiate setting. Qualitative study. Female athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Twenty-seven female ATs employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting volunteered. Average age of the participants was 35 ± 9 years. All were full-time ATs with an average of 11 ± 8 years of clinical experience. Participants responded to questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. Male and female role models and mentors can positively or negatively influence the career and work-life balance perceptions of female ATs working in the Division I setting. Female ATs have a desire to see more women in the profession handle the demands of motherhood and the demands of their clinical setting. Women who have had female mentors are more positive about the prospect of balancing the rigors of motherhood and job demands. Role models and mentors are valuable resources for promoting perseverance in the profession in the highly demanding clinical settings. As more female ATs remain in the profession who are able to maintain work-life balance and are available to serve as role models, the attitudes of other women may start to change.

  7. Motherhood and Work–Life Balance in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Setting: Mentors and the Female Athletic Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Christianne M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Goodman, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Context: One of the greatest catalysts for turnover among female athletic trainers (ATs) is motherhood, especially if employed at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level. The medical education literature regularly identifies the importance of role models in professional character formation. However, few researchers have examined the responsibility of mentorship and professional role models as it relates to female ATs' perceptions of motherhood and retention. Objective: To evaluate perceptions of motherhood and retention in relation to mentorship and role models among female ATs currently employed in the collegiate setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Female athletic trainers working in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven female ATs employed in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I setting volunteered. Average age of the participants was 35 ± 9 years. All were full-time ATs with an average of 11 ± 8 years of clinical experience. Data Collection and Analysis: Participants responded to questions by journaling their thoughts and experiences. Multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review were included as steps to establish data credibility. Results: Male and female role models and mentors can positively or negatively influence the career and work–life balance perceptions of female ATs working in the Division I setting. Female ATs have a desire to see more women in the profession handle the demands of motherhood and the demands of their clinical setting. Women who have had female mentors are more positive about the prospect of balancing the rigors of motherhood and job demands. Conclusions: Role models and mentors are valuable resources for promoting perseverance in the profession in the highly demanding clinical settings. As more female ATs remain in the profession who are able to maintain work–life balance and are available to serve as role models, the

  8. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  9. FEMININE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A RESEARCH THEME. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE WAY OF INITIATING A BUSINESS BY THE ENTREPRENEUR WOMEN IN THE WEST OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims an incursion in the concern for researches in the field of feminine entrepreneurship – as a research theme, the study directions of the feminine entrepreneurship, on the basis of the special literature in the field. The applicative part of the paper refers to the research taken in the field of feminine entrepreneurship in Romania, through the project AntrES, in the area of the initiation way of business by entrepreneur women investigated and aligns aspects regarding the research methodology, the study of the way of initiating a business, the length with the age of manager women, the occupational situation at the moment of business initiation and their previous experience.

  10. IDENTIDAD FEMENINA Y CONSUMO DE DROGAS: UN ESTUDIO CUALITATIVO / FEMININE IDENTITY AND DRUG USE: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pérez Gómez* y Marcela Correa Muñoz**

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste estudio examina la relación entre identidad femenina (IF y consumo de drogas. Setenta y seis mujeres de tresgrupos de edades (jóvenes, adultas jóvenes y adultas mayores, de tres niveles socioeconómicos (alto, medio y bajo y trescircunstancias de consumo (consumidoras, no consumidoras y ex consumidoras fueron entrevistadas sobre seis aspectos:la definición de ser mujer y las diferencias con ser hombre; la autovaloración femenina; los factores que influyen en laconstrucción de la IF; la evolución de la IF; IF y consumo de drogas; factores protectores y de riesgo.Las entrevistadas consideraron que la mayor parte de los cambios recientes dentro de la sociedad occidental hanmejorado sustancialmente la condición de la mujer, aun cuando algunos de esos cambios también han incrementado suvulnerabilidad y están asociados al notable aumento del consumo de drogas entre las mujeres. Varios de los factoresmencionados no suelen aparecer en los estudios sobre este tema ("mal uso de la libertad", "abandono de responsabilidades","conducta sexual inadecuada" probablemente porque sus autores temen que se les acuse de estar censurando a las mujerescontemporáneas; en este estudio se presentan las percepciones de las mujeres, no las interpretaciones de los autores.ABSTRACTThis study examines the relationship between feminine identity and drug use. Seventy-six women in three ages groups(young, young adults, and mature adults, in three socio-economic levels (upper, medium, low and three drug use conditions(non users, users and ex users were interviewed on six aspects: definition of being a woman; and difference with being amale, women’s self-evaluation, factors influencing the development of FI; FI and drug use; and risk and protective factors.The results showed that the interviewees think that most of the changes that occurred in West society have substantiallyimproved women’s condition; nevertheless, some of those changes have also

  11. Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Annelida, Serpulidae is feminine: a nomenclatural checklist of updated names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey B. Read

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a service to taxonomists and ecologists using names in the well-known and species-rich ship-fouling serpulid genus Hydroides we present an update of all 107 non-synonymised scientific names, with additional information on Hydroides nomenclature, original names, etymologies, and type localities derived from original literature, and in accord with the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS database. An update is needed because the gender of genus Hydroides has from 1 January 2000 reverted to the original feminine, due to a change in the wording of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature which was overlooked at that time, and is contrary to the usage in practice of Hydroides as masculine which had started about 1992, although Code-required from the 1960s. We match 31 further original names of current WoRMS subjective junior synonyms to each non-synonymised name, and also report on the world distribution of the genus as illustrated by type localities of the valid names. We include notes on seven species inquirenda. The correct rendering is given of six names that have been altered for gender agreement for the first time herein. Hydroides gottfriedi nom. n. replaces junior homonym H. rostrata Pillai, 1971. Currently there are 41 non-synonymised species-group names in Hydroides which should be gender invariant, and 23 names which would only change if moved to a neuter genus; the remaining 43 names are fully gender variable. Place-names (23, and personal names (16 make up more than a third (36% of the species names, with most of the remainder (68 being descriptive of species character states, usually of operculum morphology (54. All species, except H. norvegica (63°N, have type localities in shallow-water coastal locations in temperate to tropical waters below latitude 44°, with the highest number of new species (54 from the adjoining Western Pacific and Indian Ocean areas. The other concentration of new species (31 are those first found on

  12. Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 (Annelida, Serpulidae) is feminine: a nomenclatural checklist of updated names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Geoffrey B.; ten Hove, Harry A.; Sun, Yanan; Kupriyanova, Elena K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract As a service to taxonomists and ecologists using names in the well-known and species-rich ship-fouling serpulid genus Hydroides we present an update of all 107 non-synonymised scientific names, with additional information on Hydroides nomenclature, original names, etymologies, and type localities derived from original literature, and in accord with the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) database. An update is needed because the gender of genus Hydroides has from 1 January 2000 reverted to the original feminine, due to a change in the wording of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature which was overlooked at that time, and is contrary to the usage in practice of Hydroides as masculine which had started about 1992, although Code-required from the 1960s. We match 31 further original names of current WoRMS subjective junior synonyms to each non-synonymised name, and also report on the world distribution of the genus as illustrated by type localities of the valid names. We include notes on seven species inquirenda. The correct rendering is given of six names that have been altered for gender agreement for the first time herein. Hydroides gottfriedi nom. n. replaces junior homonym Hydroides rostrata Pillai, 1971. Currently there are 41 non-synonymised species-group names in Hydroides which should be gender invariant, and 23 names which would only change if moved to a neuter genus; the remaining 43 names are fully gender variable. Place-names (23), and personal names (16) make up more than a third (36%) of the species names, with most of the remainder (68) being descriptive of species character states, usually of operculum morphology (54). All species, except Hydroides norvegica (63°N), have type localities in shallow-water coastal locations in temperate to tropical waters below latitude 44°, with the highest number of new species (54) from the adjoining Western Pacific and Indian Ocean areas. The other concentration of new species (31) are those

  13. Construcción de la debilidad femenina Construction of the feminine weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gentil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En estos momentos, en nuestra sociedad, la moda para la "mujer elegante" impone un modelo de calzado totalmente dañino para la salud de sus pies, por tanto para la salud de las mujeres. Las deformidades, lesiones y dolor en los pies de las mujeres están aumentando a consecuencia de ello. Nos cuestionamos el por qué de ésta moda, siendo conscientes de que los dictados de la moda nunca se producen en el vacío, fuera de un contexto social y nunca son neutros. Se realiza un estudio cualitativo utilizando la teoría fundamentada de Glaser y Strauss y la perspectiva de género para analizar los datos recogidos mediante la observación, tratando de descubrir qué significados esconde el modelo de "mujer elegante" que nos presentan los medios de comunicación. Descubrimos que tras la ideología de la elegancia femenina se oculta una realidad pragmática que busca el regreso de las mujeres a una inferioridad biológica.In these moments, in our society, the fashion for the "elegant woman" there imposes a model of totally harmful footwear for the health of the feet, therefore for the health of the women. The deformities, injuries and pain in the feet of the women are increasing as a result of it. We question why of this one fashion, being conscious that the dictations of the fashion never take are produced in the emptiness, out of a social context and they are never neutral. A qualitative analysis is realized using the theory of Glaser and Strauss and the perspective of genre to analyse the information gathered by means of the observation trying to discover that meant there hides the model of "elegant woman" that they present theirs the mass media. We verify that after the ideology of the feminine elegance there hides itself a pragmatic reality that looks for the return of the woman to a biological inferiority.

  14. SHAPE OF FEMININITY IN THE TEXT OF GEGURITAN (PHILOSOPICAL VERSE IN BALI: ANALYSIS OF FEMINISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Karmini

    2012-11-01

    become the men’s power could be the centre or the subject of the events undergoneduring their lives; (5 the women’s ability was similar to the men’s and they could show theirability; (6 the shape of femininity in the texts was in accordance with wadhu tatwa ( a type ofphilosophy and the struggle of Radical Cultural Feminism; (7 it turned out that the theory offeminism could be used for analyzing the traditional literature.

  15. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyesaw NYK

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nana Yaa Konadu Gyesaw,1 Augustine Ankomah2 1Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service, Koforidua, Eastern Region, 2Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana Background: The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very little is known about what happens after pregnancy, ie, the experience of teenage motherhood. Several studies in Ghana have identified the determinants of early sexual activity, contraception, and unsafe abortion, with teenage motherhood only mentioned in passing. Few studies have explored the experiences of adolescent mothers in detail with regard to their pregnancy and childbirth. This qualitative study explores the experiences of adolescent mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and care of their newborns. Methods: This qualitative study was based on data from focus group discussions and indepth interviews with teenage mothers in a suburb in Accra. Participants were recruited from health facilities as well as by snowball sampling. Results: Some of the participants became pregnant as a result of transactional sex in order to meet their basic needs, while others became pregnant as a result of sexual violence and exploitation. A few others wanted to become pregnant to command respect from people in society. In nearly all cases, parents and guardians of the adolescent mothers were upset in the initial stages when they heard the news of the pregnancy. One key finding, quite different from in other societies, was how often teenage pregnancies are eventually accepted, by both the young women and their families. Also observed was a rarity of willingness to resort to induced abortion. Conclusion: Special programs should be initiated by the government and the various

  16. Self-objectification, feminist activism and conformity to feminine norms among female vegetarians, semi-vegetarians, and non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Britney G; Khan, Aliya; Edner, Benjamin; Rosén, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that vegetarians may be at an increased risk for developing disordered eating or body image issues when compared to non-vegetarians. However, the results of such studies are mixed, and no research has explored potential connections between vegetarianism and self-objectification. In the current study, the authors examine factors that predicted body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs; three aspects of self-objectification. Surveys were completed by 386 women from the United States who were categorized as vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, or non-vegetarian. The three groups differed regarding dietary motivations, levels of feminist activism, and body shame, but did not differ on their conformity to feminine norms. While conformity to feminine norms predicted body surveillance and body shame levels among all three groups of women, feminist activism predicted appearance control beliefs among non-vegetarians only. These findings suggest that it is important for researchers and clinicians to distinguish among these three groups when examining the relationship between vegetarianism and self-objectification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cute Boys or Game Boys? The Embodiment of Femininity and Masculinity in Young Norwegians’ Text Message Love-Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Prøitz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available By looking at young Norwegians’ text messages in sexual romantic negotiations, this article examines whether text messages may provide a site for performing femininity and masculinity in ways that subvert traditional conceptions of these constructs. Although various studies on gender, sexuality and media [1] have consistently indicated gender specific usage/performances which in this article is indicated and supported by the study’s young informants’ own formulations, the discourse analysis approach employed a more complex image. Here, I focus on how the young people indicate and translate their modes and body-language into texts, paying particular attention to how signs of femininity and masculinity emerge in text message love-projects, I argue that especially for young males, text messages in love-projects offer a site where in particular young males may perform masculinity in counter-traditional ways. The article is a part of a long study of young Norwegian’s usages, self-understanding and gender performances through text message communication. [[1] Döring, Hellwig and Klimsa, 2004, Hareide 2002, Johnsen 2000, Lee and Sohn, 2004, Ling 1998, 1999, 2002, 2004, 2005, Skog 2000, 2002

  18. The relationship between domestic space and gender identity: Some signs of emergence of alternative domestic femininity and masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this article is that, by introducing domestic space in the analysis of gender identity, one might gain a more nuanced understanding of how gender and power are co-constitutive. The research question is what one could learn from the conclusions of recent studies about the relationship between gender identity and domestic space, by analyzing it as a way of “doing and undoing gender” through spatial practices. We conducted an interpretive synthesis, focusing on 20 articles published in the last ten years on the topics of domestic space, masculinity, and femininity. We show the traditional normative model of gender identity is still strong, but there are some signs, of the emergence of alternative domestic masculinity and femininity, based on the tendency to reconsider the value of domesticity, and to transgress traditional gender oppositions (mind and body, rational and emotional, public and private, work and domesticity. We discuss the implications of the findings for understanding and refining the concepts of doing and doing gender, and gendered space.

  19. Judgments of sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity based on thin slices of behavior: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava; Rieger, Gerulf; Havlicek, Jan; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael

    2011-12-01

    Studies of North Americans suggest that laypeople can judge the sexual orientation of others with greater than chance accuracy based on brief observations of their behavior (i.e., "gaydar" exists). One factor that appears to contribute to these judgments is targets' degree of masculinity-femininity. However, behaviors related to sexual orientation and to masculinity-femininity might vary across cultures. Thus, cross-cultural work is needed to test whether judgments of sexual orientation are more accurate when targets and raters are from the same culture. American and Czech male targets, 38 homosexual and 41 heterosexual, were videotaped and brief segments of the videotapes were presented to American and Czech raters. Overall, raters' judgments of targets' sexual orientation were related to targets' self-reported sexual orientation. However, the relationship was stronger when targets were judged by raters from their own country. In general, results suggest that there are both cross-cultural similarities and differences in gaydar and in cues related to sexual orientation.

  20. Characterizing the Microenvironment Surrounding Phosphorylated Protein Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Cai Fan; Xue-Gong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in various cellular processes. Due to its high complexity, the mechanism needs to be further studied. In the last few years, many methods have been contributed to this field, but almost all of them investigated the mechanism based on protein sequences around protein sites. In this study, we implement an exploration by characterizing the microenvironment surrounding phosphorylated protein sites with a modified shell model, and obtain some significant properties by the rank-sum test, such as the lack of some classes of residues, atoms, and secondary structures. Furthermore, we find that the depletion of some properties affects protein phosphorylation remarkably. Our results suggest that it is a meaningful direction to explore the mechanism of protein phosphorylation from microenvironment and we expect further findings along with the increasing size of phosphorylation and protein structure data.

  1. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  3. Severing Ties: A Lacanian Reading of Motherhood in Joyce Carol Oates’s Short Stories "The Children" and "Feral"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Tomić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches two of Joyce Carol Oates’s short stories (“The Children” and “Feral” from a Lacanian perspective on the tripartite structure of personality in an attempt to analyze questions of motherhood and the parent-child separation process. Although published 35 years apart both stories deal with mothers who have trouble containing their maternal attitude and children who become elusive entities for their parents. Utilizing as well the concept of what Oates has termed “realistic allegory” in the analysis of characters situated within highly specific settings and circumstances, the paper aims to shed light on Oates’s vision of the workings of individuals within contemporary society.

  4. A mother's heart is weighed down with stones: a phenomenological approach to the experience of transnational motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    Although recent scholarship on transnational mothers has rigorously examined the effect of migration on gender constructs and ideologies, it neglects analysis of the lived experience of separated mothers and children. In privileging the exploration of transnational separations through the single analytical lens of gender, such research reduces the embodied distress of mothers and children to mere "gender false consciousness." This paper calls upon anthropologists to redress this oversight by undertaking a phenomenological analysis of the lived experience of transnational motherhood. Eschewing an analysis of mothers and children as isolated social roles, I show that the suffering of mothers and children is profoundly relational. Through analysis of the narratives of undocumented Salvadoran mothers residing in the U.S., I show how the strain of such mothers' undocumented status is lived and shouldered within the intersubjective space of the family.

  5. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyesaw, Nana Yaa Konadu; Ankomah, Augustine

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very little is known about what happens after pregnancy, ie, the experience of teenage motherhood. Several studies in Ghana have identified the determinants of early sexual activity, contraception, and unsafe abortion, with teenage motherhood only mentioned in passing. Few studies have explored the experiences of adolescent mothers in detail with regard to their pregnancy and childbirth. This qualitative study explores the experiences of adolescent mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and care of their newborns. This qualitative study was based on data from focus group discussions and indepth interviews with teenage mothers in a suburb in Accra. Participants were recruited from health facilities as well as by snowball sampling. Some of the participants became pregnant as a result of transactional sex in order to meet their basic needs, while others became pregnant as a result of sexual violence and exploitation. A few others wanted to become pregnant to command respect from people in society. In nearly all cases, parents and guardians of the adolescent mothers were upset in the initial stages when they heard the news of the pregnancy. One key finding, quite different from in other societies, was how often teenage pregnancies are eventually accepted, by both the young women and their families. Also observed was a rarity of willingness to resort to induced abortion. Special programs should be initiated by the government and the various responsible departments to address ignorance on sexual matters, and the challenges and risks associated with pregnancy and parenting by adolescents. Parenting techniques should be taught in sex education programs.

  6. Motherhood in adolescent mothers: maternal attachment, mother-infant styles of interaction and emotion regulation at three months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva Crugnola, Cristina; Ierardi, Elena; Gazzotti, Simona; Albizzati, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    Early motherhood is considered a risk factor for an adequate relationship between mother and infant and for the subsequent development of the infant. The principal aim of the study is to analyze micro-analytically the effect of motherhood in adolescence on the quality of mother-infant interaction and emotion regulation at three months, considering at the same time the effect of maternal attachment on these variables. Participants were 30 adolescent mother-infant dyads compared to 30 adult mother-infant dyads. At infant 3 months, mother-infant interaction was video-recorded and coded with a modified version of the Infant Caregiver Engagement Phases and the Adult Attachment Interview was administered to the mother. Analysis showed that adolescent mothers (vs. adult mothers) spent more time in negative engagement and their infants spent less time in positive engagement and more time in negative engagement. Adolescent mothers are also less involved in play with their infants than adult mothers. Adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. adult mother-infant dyads) showed a greater duration of negative matches and spent less time in positive matches. Insecure adolescent mother-infant dyads (vs. insecure adult mother-infant dyads) demonstrated less involvement in play with objects and spent less time in positive matches. To sum up adolescent mother-infant dyads adopt styles of emotion regulation and interaction with objects which are less adequate than those of dyads with adult mothers. Insecure maternal attachment in dyads with adolescent mothers (vs. adult mother infant dyads) is more influential as risk factor.

  7. [Reminiscence on the municipal out-of-hospital maternity unit and the motherhood home in Novi Sad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Breberina, Milan; Vujosević, Bozica; Pećanac, Marija; Zakula, Nenad; Trajković, Velicko

    2013-01-01

    In the mid-twentieth century, the health care of women and children was inadequate in the post-war Yugoslavia, including the city of Novi Sad, due to the severe post-war reality: poverty in the devastated country, shortage of all commodities and services and especially of medical supplies, equipment and educated staff. OUT-OF-HOSPITAL MATERNITY UNIT: One of the serious problems was parturition at home and morbidity and mortality of the newborns and women. Soon after the World War II the action programme of improving the women's health was realized on the state level by establishing out-of-hospital maternity units but under the expert supervision. The Maternity unit at 30 Ljudevita Gaja Street in Novi Sad played a great role in providing skilled birth attendance at mainly normal deliveries. With a minimal number of medical staff and modest medical equipment, about 2000 healthy babies were born in this house. After 5 years of functioning in that way, this unit was transformed into the Motherhood Home and became a social and medical institution for pregnant women and new mothers. Regardless of the redefined organization concept the curative and preventive health care as well as women and children social protection programmes were provided successfully for the next 12 years. Although the Motherhood Home was moved into the Women Health Centre of Novi Sad and later into the former Maternity Hospital in Sremski Karlovci, its great importance for women and children's health care remained unchanged. In 1979 the overall social situation and mostly economic issues led to its closing. The house in Gajeva Street is now used as the municipality office. However, this house with its story recommends itself to become a house for a special social function, such as a museum of medical history of Novi Sad. A small investment could make it possible to collect, preserve and display the valuable records of our past, which is something we do owe to the generations to come.

  8. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  9. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiulianoF.Panza; AntonellaPontevivo; GiordanoChimera; RenetaRaykova; AbdelkrimAoudia

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by sur-face wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion.Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithos-phere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, iden-tified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the prmctpat recent votca-noes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria, a lithospheric dou-bling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenos-phere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea,likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria.

  10. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  11. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

  12. Ozsvath, Zsuzsanna: "When the Danube Ran Red"; Mandel, Eva Marika: "Le Livre de Mana"; Roth, Marika: "All the Pretty Shoes; A Memoir of Survival and the Feminine Spirit".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Blaikie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozsvath, Zsuzsanna. When the Danube Ran Red. Syracuse University Press, 2010,171 pp., Illus.Mandel, Eva Marika. Le Livre de Mana. Paris, Glyphe 2009, 231 pp., Illus.Roth, Marika. All the Pretty Shoes; A Memoir of Survival and the Feminine SpiritWyatt McKenzy 2010, 254 pp., Illus.Reviewed by Evi Blaikie, Freelance Writer.

  13. Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Weeden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We assess how changes in the social organization and compensation of work hours over the last three decades are associated with changes in wage differentials among mothers, fathers, childless women, and childless men. We find that large differences between gender and parental status groups in long work hours (fifty or more per week, coupled with sharply rising hourly wages for long work hours, contributed to rising gender gaps in wages (especially among parents, motherhood wage penalties, and fatherhood wage premiums. Changes in the representation of these groups in part-time work, by contrast, is associated with a decline in the gender gap in wages among parents and in the motherhood wage penalty, but an increase in the fatherhood wage premium. These findings offer important clues into why gender and family wage differentials still persist.

  14. The Modernization of Childbirth and the Indoctrination of Motherhood in Prewar Japan : the "Aiiku-son" Project of Imperial Gift Foundation "Aiiku-kai"

    OpenAIRE

    吉長, 真子

    1997-01-01

    In preceding historical studies on the relation of childbirth and the state in modern Japan, the transformation of the institution and the measures about midwives, or the legal preparation for maternal-child health has been focused on. In this paper, the writer has attempted to show the modernization in childbirth by educational activity for motherhood, especially by the "Aiiku-son" (Aiiku village) project. The project started from 1936 in order to diminish the infant mortality rate all over ...

  15. Mãe é tudo igual? Enunciados produzindo maternidade(s contemporânea(s Are mothers all alike? Statements producing contemporary motherhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Espíndula Moreira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os enunciados relativos à maternidade que configuram o que chamamos de "norma" da maternidade. Seguimos as reflexões de Foucault, principalmente no que se refere à genealogia como forma de pensar o presente. Utilizamos o relato das trajetórias de mulheres que são mães e trabalhadoras para a produção dos materiais de análise. Os materiais possibilitaram a problematização de alguns enunciados que constituem a maternidade na contemporaneidade. Descrevemos a intensificação do investimento em um padrão de mulher mãe que tem como produto uma norma da maternidade. Essa norma da maternidade, apesar de ser produzida socialmente, passa a ser naturalizada. Ela funciona associando algumas características a um modo de ser mãe considerado mais adequado, tais como tempo e idade certos para ser mãe, número de filhos, condições financeiras. A partir dela, outros modos de ser mãe são avaliados e hierarquizados.This article analyses the statements related to motherhood that configure what we call motherhood "norm". We follow Foucault's theory, mainly in reference to genealogy as a way to think about the present. The analysis was conducted mainly on working mothers' life trajectories description. This research material allowed us to question some statements that constitute contemporary motherhood. We described the intensification of the investment in a woman pattern as the result of motherhood norm. This norm, although socially produced is naturalized nowadays. It works determining some characteristics that configure the good way to be mother, as such: correct time to be a mother (age, number of children, and financial conditions. As an effect of the norm we have an evaluation and hierarchization of different ways of being a mother.

  16. The magazine feminal: photography and visualization of the feminine contribution to the educational reform in Catalonia 1907-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat SUREDA GARCIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Barcelona, between 1907 and 1917, a monthly feminine supplement called Feminal run by Carme Karr i Alfonsetti was published in the magazine Ilustració Catalana. Feminal systematically resorted to photographs to round off its reports on current affairs. The orientation Karr sets the publication responds to the ideas of conservative feminism that advocate for a greater public presence of women, without ceasing to be a wife and a mother, by modernizing their education. These aims are framed in and committed to the broad Regenerationist programme promoted by the Catalan industrial bourgeoisie at the time, with education as one of its main axes. In this article we analyse the role of photographs in reinforcing the modernizing discourse of education.

  17. Predictions for sex of first born child reflect masculine and feminine characteristics in male and female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Hague, Jaime L; Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2013-08-13

    Previous research has identified physical and behavioral differences between parents who produce sons and those who produce daughters. However, the possibility that men and women have predictions about the sexes of their offspring based on these differences, or any other interoceptive cues, has not been investigated. We compared the dominance, sociosexual orientation, estradiol, testosterone, and 2D:4D ratios of men and women who predicted they would conceive a boy as their first child with those who predicted a girl. Women who predicted they would have a boy were more dominant and less sociosexually restricted than those who predicted they would have a girl. Men who predicted they would have a girl had higher salivary estradiol and higher (more feminine) 2D:4D ratios than those who predicted they would have a boy. Possible implications of these results are discussed in the context of evolutionary theory.

  18. Trappings of femininity: A test of the "beauty as currency" hypothesis in shaping college women's gender activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Rachel M; Tylka, Tracy L; Donnelly, Lois C; McGetrick, Amber; Leger, Andrea Medrano

    2017-03-17

    This study investigated whether believing beauty is a primary currency for women operates as an antecedent force in the relation between self-objectification and gender activism. Ninety-four ethnically diverse women attending a small liberal arts college in the southeastern United States completed the study questionnaires online for course credit. Preliminary results demonstrated beauty as currency belief, self-objectification, and support for the gender status quo were negatively associated with gender activism. A serial mediation analysis revealed support for the proposed model: Beauty as currency belief was indirectly and inversely linked to gender activism through self-objectification and support for the gender status quo, offering initial evidence for our beauty as currency hypothesis. These findings suggest belief in the notion women will reap more benefits from their bodies than other attributes or pursuits may be an important legitimizing feature of feminine beauty ideology that works through self-objectification against gender social change.

  19. More on the origin of the Indo-European feminine gender : a reply to Ledo-Lemos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Shields

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This brief paper has two related purposes. First, it represents a response to Ledo-Lemos' criticisms (2003 of the theory of the origin of the Indo-European feminine gender presented in Shields (1995 and elsewhere - a theory based on the established typological principle that demonstratives (in this case, a demonstrative in *a are key in the emergence of gender systems because of their dual role as anaphora and attributive modifiers. Second, this paper includes critical commentary about Ledo-Lemos' own hypothesis regarding the origin of this Indo-European grammatical category, grounded in the specialization of "relational adjectives." Objections to the latter involve his reliance on unmotivated analogical reanalysis and paradigmatic specialization.

  20. Teen motherhood and pregnancy prototypes: the role of social context in changing young African American mothers' risk images and contraceptive expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2013-12-01

    Despite the declining rate of teen pregnancies in the United States, academic and public health experts have expressed concern over the still relatively high rate of rapid repeat pregnancies among adolescents, particularly among minority youth. Using a sample of over 300 African American female adolescents, the current study used insights from the prototype/willingness model of adolescent risk behavior to explore this risk. More specifically, it assessed the relationship between entry into unwed motherhood during mid-to-late adolescence and changes in prototypes of unmarried pregnant teens. Further, it explored the extent to which these changing prototypes accounted for young mothers' later contraceptive expectations. We tested the possibility that social images were affected not only by personal experience (the birth of a child) but also by the family and community context in which this experience took place. The findings show that the early entrance into teen motherhood was associated with a shift toward more favorable prototypes of unwed pregnant teens, but that this was only the case for young mothers in disadvantaged contexts. Given this, prototype changes helped to explain the link between teen motherhood and contraceptive expectations only for those in disadvantaged contexts. We discuss these findings in terms of their practical and theoretical implications.

  1. Masculinity and Femininity: What are we Talking About? Masculinidad y feminidad: ¿De qué estamos hablando?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Roberto Chaves Jiménez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By presenting some of the ideas constructed on masculinity and femininity, this paper aims at clarifying such concepts, in plain language, from a critical –and gender-sensitive– point of view, and make such information available to a wider public, without undermining, however, the importance of conveying ideas in academic and scientific terms, as well. Therefore, its purpose is to clarify the nature of both concepts in the construction of the individual’s identity, particularly in the case of men whose identity is based on the rejection of femininity. This paper explains how such constructions are permeated by social mandates, which manifestation will depend on the culture. It also alerts us on the challenge of education in deconstructing gender-based stereotypes.Recibido 15 de marzo de 2012 • Corregido 04 de octubre de 2012 • Aceptado 07 de noviembre de 2012A continuación se presentan diversas ideas creadas alrededor del tema de la masculinidad y feminidad. El objetivo es esclarecer dichos conceptos desde un punto de vista crítico y de género sensitivo, en un lenguaje sencillo. El fin es que la información sea accesible a una mayor cantidad de personas; eso, sin menoscabar la importancia de transmitir las ideas desde un carácter académico y científico. Por tanto, se busca aclarar el carácter de ambos conceptos en la construcción de su identidad, principalmente para el hombre que cimienta su identidad a partir del rechazo de lo que es femenino. Se trata de mostrar cómo dichas construcciones son atravesadas por diversos mandatos sociales que se expresan según la cultura en la que se desarrollen; además, se plantea el reto de la educación para deconstruir estereotipos ligados a los géneros.

  2. Variance Composition, Measurement Invariance by Gender, and Construct Validity of the Femininity Ideology Scale-Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Alto, Kathleen M; McKelvey, Daniel K; Richmond, Katherine A; McDermott, Ryon C

    2017-06-12

    The current study extended prior work on the Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS), a multidimensional measure of traditional femininity ideology (TFI), in several ways. First, we conducted exploratory factor and bifactor analyses, which revealed a general TFI factor and 3 specific factors: dependence/deference, purity, and emotionality/traditional roles. Second, based on these results we developed the 12-item FIS-Short Form (FIS-SF). Third, we assessed the FIS-SF using confirmatory factor analysis on a separate sample, finding that the items loaded on the general factor and 3 specific factors as hypothesized, and that the bifactor model fit better than common factors and unidimensional models. Fourth, model-based reliability estimates tentatively support the use of raw scores to represent the general TFI factor and the emotionality/traditional roles specific factor, but the other 2 specific factors are best measured using SEM or by ipsatizing their scores. Fifth, we assessed measurement invariance across 2 gender groups, finding evidence for configural invariance for all factors, and for partial metric invariance for the specific factors. Sixth, we found evidence for the convergent construct validity of the FIS-SF general factor and the emotionality/traditional roles specific factors by examining relationships with the latent variables of several constructs in the nomological network. The results are discussed in relationship to prior literature, future research directions, applications to counseling practice, and limitations. Data (N = 1,472, 907 women, 565 men, 530 people of color) were from community and college participants who responded to an online survey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  4. The safe motherhood referral system to reduce cesarean sections and perinatal mortality - a cross-sectional study [1995-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudge Marilza VC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs set targets for reducing child mortality and improving maternal health by 2015. Objective To evaluate the results of a new education and referral system for antenatal/intrapartum care as a strategy to reduce the rates of Cesarean sections (C-sections and maternal/perinatal mortality. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Botucatu Medical School, Sao Paulo State University/UNESP, Brazil. Population: 27,387 delivering women and 27,827 offspring. Data collection: maternal and perinatal data between 1995 and 2006 at the major level III and level II hospitals in Botucatu, Brazil following initiation of a safe motherhood education and referral system. Main outcome measures: Yearly rates of C-sections, maternal (/100,000 LB and perinatal (/1000 births mortality rates at both hospitals. Data analysis: Simple linear regression models were adjusted to estimate the referral system's annual effects on the total number of deliveries, C-section and perinatal mortality ratios in the two hospitals. The linear regression were assessed by residual analysis (Shapiro-Wilk test and the influence of possible conflicting observations was evaluated by a diagnostic test (Leverage, with p Results Over the time period evaluated, the overall C-section rate was 37.3%, there were 30 maternal deaths (maternal mortality ratio = 109.5/100,000 LB and 660 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate = 23.7/1000 births. The C-section rate decreased from 46.5% to 23.4% at the level II hospital while remaining unchanged at the level III hospital. The perinatal mortality rate decreased from 9.71 to 1.66/1000 births and from 60.8 to 39.6/1000 births at the level II and level III hospital, respectively. Maternal mortality ratios were 16.3/100,000 LB and 185.1/100,000 LB at the level II and level III hospitals. There was a shift from direct to indirect causes of

  5. [Motherhood behind bars: the struggle for citizens' rights and health for women inmates and their children in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Miriam; Simas, Luciana; Larouzé, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the links between health, rights, legislation, and public policies based on document research on legal safeguards for women and their children residing in prison. The research was conducted at the Federal level and in four States of Brazil: Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Paraná, and São Paulo. The study aims to back measures by public agencies to guarantee such rights and to raise awareness of the problem, given the extreme vulnerability of women inmates and their children and the issue's legal and administrative invisibility. The authors identified 33 different legal provisions as points of tension, such as the possibility of house arrest and disparities in the terms and conditions for children to remain inside the prison system. Various provisions cite the Constitutional guarantee of women inmates' right to breastfeed in prison. Meanwhile, the study found gaps in other issues pertaining to motherhood in prison, expressed as dual incarceration (imprisonment arbitrarily extended to their children). It is necessary to expand and enforce the existing legislation to prevent such violations of rights.

  6. Teenage motherhood: where you live is also important. A prospective cohort study of 14,000 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David M; Rosato, Michael; Doherty, Rachel; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2016-11-01

    The United Kingdom has among the highest rates of teenage motherhood (TM) in Western Europe. The relationship to individual social and material disadvantage is well established but the influence of area of residence is unclear. We tested for additional TM risks in deprived areas or in cities. The Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study was used to identify 14,055 nulliparous females (15-18). TM risk was measured using multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for health status, religion, family structure, socio-economic status, rurality and employment-based area deprivation. Most variation in TM was driven by individual, household and socioeconomic factors with the greatest proportion of mothers in low value or social rented accommodation. Living in an area with fewer employment opportunities was associated with elevated TM risk (most vs. least deprived, ORadj =1.98 [1.49, 2.63]), as was urban dwelling (urban vs. intermediate, ORadj =1.42 [1.13, 1.78]). We conclude that area of residence is a significant independent risk factor for TM. Interventions should be targeted towards the most deprived and urban areas and to those in the lowest value housing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Features of Parent-Child Relationship of Mothers with Teenage Children in the Conditions of Late Motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova E.I.,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The author's attention is attracted by one of the features of modern Russian family: the tendency to increase the frequency of childbirth by women of older reproductive age. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the mothers’ parent position, who had children at different periods of adulthood (middle, late. The aim of the study was to investigate the features of the parent-child relationship of mothers with teenage children in the conditions of late motherhood. Mothers of adolescents who participated in the study were divided into two groups: "young" mothers who gave birth to the first child before the age of 30 years, and "late" mothers who gave birth to their first child after being 30 years old. It turned out that the strategies of education and interaction between the "young" and "late" mothers, reflecting the value orientation of personality, are significantly different. Focusing on the emotional closeness with the child and creativity, education strategy of "late" mothers has a high emotional involvement, soft and inconsistent parenting. The features of maternal parenting strategies are adequately reflected by the teenagers who follow their mothers in priority of the values of family and work, or material well-being and the pursuit of hedonistic values.

  8. “I Do the Dishes; You Mow the Lawn”: Gender Effects in Stereotypically Feminine Negotiation Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Demoulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on gender effects in negotiation has largely relied on stereotypically masculine negotiation paradigms (e.g., selling a car. Globally, though with relatively weak effects sizes, this research shows that women tend to underperform men in negotiations. The present research examines gender effects in negotiations involving typically female-related topics. Specifically, we examine perceptions and performance of mixed negotiating dyads. We manipulate the topic of the negotiation between dyads: typically feminine (i.e., household duties vs. neutral (i.e., organization of a debate. Results show an interaction between the gender of the negotiator and the negotiation topic. Among men, the topic of negotiation impacts neither perceptions nor negotiation performance. Among women, in contrast, aspirations and performance decrease in the stereotypically feminine negotiation condition compared to the neutral one. Furthermore, this effect of topic of negotiation on performance among women is mediated by (lower aspirations of women in the feminine topic condition. We discuss results in light of recent research on gender and negotiation, as well as of broader theories such as role congruity and stereotype threat. Résumé La majorité des études sur les effets de genre en négociation a utilisé des paradigmes de négociation stéréotypiquement masculins (e.x., la vente d’une voiture. De manière consistante les femmes ont des performances moindres de celles des hommes, malgré que la taille de ces effets soit relativement faible. Dans la présente recherche, nous examinons les effets de genre dans une négociation où les thématiques à négocier sont typiquement associées à des stéréotypes féminins. Plus spécifiquement, nous examinons les perceptions et la performance de dyades mixtes en faisant varier la thématique de négociation : féminine (i.e., tâches ménagères versus neutre (organisation d’un débat.   Les résultats mettent

  9. Navigating the feminine in massively multiplayer online games: Gender in World of Warcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eBrehm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to present and discuss attitudes, perceptions and opinions about sexism and gendered play in the massively multiplayer online roleplaying game (MMO, World of Warcraft. Through the use of an online survey which includes both multiple choice questions and open-ended questions, the research discusses the major themes and findings expressed by the World of Warcraft forum users (N = 294. The descriptive statistical findings presented are derived from the multiple choice questions. Within the sample, the results reveal that sexism is a contentious topic in the World of Warcraft community. 63.6% (n = 75 of female respondents reported experiencing sexism within the game. 27.5% (n = 44 of male respondents and 45.3% (n = 53 of female respondents believe that sexism is a problem in the game. Overall, 64.4% (n = 183 of the respondents reported sexism as a non-issue in the game. Themes surrounding the topic of sexism experienced within the game are presented based on frequency of homogenous responses. Based on the multiple choice questions and the open-ended questions, the research argues that sexism and gendered play in gaming should be studied more closely, as the results reveal that many MMO players are affected negatively by it.

  10. Navigating the feminine in massively multiplayer online games: gender in World of Warcraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Audrey L

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to present and discuss attitudes, perceptions and opinions about sexism and gendered play in the massively multiplayer online roleplaying game (MMO), World of Warcraft. Through the use of an online survey which includes both multiple choice questions and open-ended questions, the research discusses the major themes and findings expressed by the World of Warcraft forum users (N = 294). The descriptive statistical findings presented are derived from the multiple choice questions. Within the sample, the results reveal that sexism is a contentious topic in the World of Warcraft community. 63.6% (n = 75) of female respondents reported experiencing sexism within the game. 27.5% (n = 44) of male respondents and 45.3% (n = 53) of female respondents believe that sexism is a problem in the game. Overall, 64.4% (n = 183) of the respondents reported sexism as a non-issue in the game. Themes surrounding the topic of sexism experienced within the game are presented based on frequency of homogenous responses. Based on the multiple choice questions and the open-ended questions, the research argues that sexism and gendered play in gaming should be studied more closely, as the results reveal that many MMO players are affected negatively by it.

  11. Study on the Development of Feminine Leisure Sports Culture In China%试论中国女性休闲体育文化的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧平

    2013-01-01

    The establishment and development of our country modern feminine sports leisure culture both faces the traditional ethics and the sex consciousness restriction, and is restrained the feminine individual social role dependence as well as the education and own idea influence. However, the human society always develops in the base of advanced cultural, as marks the woman develop dimension, feminine sports leisure which is rooted “the feminism” thought gradually prosperity in the world domain also moves towards its own free will. Developing the feminine sports leisure culture under the modern society sex consciousness in our country ,we have to persist the way of localization, constructing sports leisure culture ecology system which is multi-dimensional value and advantageous to amphoteric harmonious development.%中国现代女性休闲体育文化的建立和发展既面临传统伦理和性别意识的制约,又受制于女性个体社会角色的依赖性以及教育和自身观念的影响。然而,人类社会前行的车轮总是发轫于先进文化的沃土,作为标识妇女发展维度的女性体育休闲也正是根植于世界领域内“女性主义”思想的逐步繁荣而走向主体的自觉。中国发展现代社会性别意识下的女性体育休闲文化必须坚持本土化的道路,构建价值多元的、有利于两性和谐发展的体育休闲文化生态体系。

  12. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF COAL MINING ROADWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹喜正; 侯朝炯; 李华祥

    1996-01-01

    This introduces the calculation of opaper the deformationg .the Surroundings of coaowaysand the divisi of surroundings into 5 levels by means or !fuzzy integral assess mairrx, wnlcnserves-asthe scientific basis for selecting supporting pattern of roadways and determining the, pa-rameters of support.

  13. Mrs Birkbeck's Album: The Hand-written and the Printed in Early Nineteenth-Century Feminine Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Di Bello

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mrs Birkbeck's Album, collected between 1825 and 1847 by the wife of the founder of the College, contains poems, songs and other texts, as well as drawings and watercolours by famous women and men of her time. Like the collections that aristocratic women were able to spread over galleries and libraries, the album formed and displayed her taste, showcasing her husband's reputation and the cultural and political circles in which the couple moved. Several contributors to her album also worked for annuals, fashionable publications associated with a debased, commercialised feminine culture. Unlike these mechanically produced pages, Mrs Birkbeck's album, marked by individual hands rather than by printing presses, is the result of gift exchanges, removed from the world of commodified culture, even as it partakes of its glamour. Recent publications have explored the emergence of women's magazines, but little consideration has been given to album making. In this paper I explore the social meanings of Mrs Birkbeck's interest in albums. To facilitate a close reading of its individual pages, I am working towards digitising the album, in collaboration with Birkbeck Library and the Vasari Lab in the School of History of Art, Film and Visual Media.

  14. Homogamy in Masculinity-Femininity Is Positively Linked to Relationship Quality in Gay Male Couples from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Klára; Štěrbová, Zuzana; Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Binter, Jakub; Varella, Marco Antonio Corrêa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella

    2017-07-01

    The main aims of this research were to test the similarity of masculinity-femininity in long-term male same-sex couples from the Czech Republic and to examine whether this similarity predicts higher relationship quality. In Study 1, participants (N = 30) and their partners completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale (CGN). In Study 2, participants (N = 40) and their partners completed DAS and the Gender Diagnosticity Scale (GD). Results showed that the partners were no more alike than individuals paired at random in their CGN or GD, but greater similarity in CGN between partners increased Dyadic Cohesion (r = -.41 [-.71, -.02]) and Affectional Expression (r = -.38 [-.60, -.13]). Our results add to previous evidence showing that similarity in same-sex couples increased relationship quality. Although, on average, gay men were not coupled on the basis of homogamy in gender roles, their relationship quality is linked to the gender egalitarian model rather than to the gender stratified one. Thus, a widespread stereotype suggesting that same-sex partners are divided by different gender roles seems to be, at least in our sample from a Western society, rather incorrect.

  15. Individual Differences in Personality Masculinity-Femininity: Examining the Effects of Genes, Environment, and Prenatal Hormone Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Five personality inventory data of 9,520 Swedish twins (aged 27 to 54) to create a bipolar M-F personality scale. Using biometrical twin modeling, we estimated the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual differences in a M-F personality score. Furthermore, we tested whether prenatal hormone transfer may influence individuals' M-F scores by comparing the scores of twins with a same-sex versus those with an opposite-sex co-twin. On average, males scored 1.09 standard deviations higher than females on the created M-F scale. Around a third of the variation in M-F personality score was attributable to genetic factors, while family environmental factors had no influence. Males and females from opposite-sex pairs scored significantly more masculine (both approximately 0.1 SD) than those from same-sex pairs. In conclusion, genetic influences explain part of the individual differences in personality M-F, and hormone transfer from the male to the female twin during pregnancy may increase the level of masculinization in females. Additional well-powered studies are needed to clarify this association and determine the underlying mechanisms in both sexes.

  16. From ‘Virgin Births’ to ‘Octomom’: Representations of Single Motherhood via Sperm Donation in the UK News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of sperm donation by single women has provoked public, professional and political debate. Newspapers serve as a critical means of both broadcasting this debate and effecting a representation of this user group within the public sphere. This study uses the theory of social representations to examine how single motherhood by sperm donation has been represented in the UK news over time. The study sampled news coverage on this topic in eight British newspapers during three 4‐year periods between the years 1988 and 2012. The dataset of news reports (n = 406) was analysed using a qualitative approach. Findings indicated that UK media reports of single women using donor sperm are underpinned by conventional categories of the ‘personal’, the ‘traditional’ and the ‘natural’ that when paired with their corollaries produce a representation of this user group as the social ‘other’. The amount of coverage on this topic over time was found to vary according to the political orientation of different media sources. Using key concepts from social representations theory, this article discusses the relationship between themata and anchoring in the maintenance of representations of the social ‘other’ in mass mediated communication. Findings are explained in relation to theoretical conceptions of the mass media and its position within the public sphere. It is argued that the use of personal narratives in news reports of single mothers by sperm donation may have significant implications for public understandings of this social group. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27867283

  17. The ripples of adolescent motherhood: social, educational, and medical outcomes for children of teen and prior teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Douglas P; Roos, Noralou P; Brownell, Marni D; Briggs, Gemma; MacWilliam, Leonard; Roos, Leslie L

    2010-01-01

    We examined medical, educational and social risks to children of teen mothers and children of nonadolescent mothers with a history of teen birth (prior teen mothers) and considered these risks at both the individual and societal level. A population-based, retrospective cohort study tracked outcomes through young adulthood for children born in Manitoba, Canada (n = 32 179). chi(2) and logistic regression analyses examined risk of childhood death or hospitalization, failure to graduate high school, intervention by child protective services, becoming a teen mother, and welfare receipt as a young adult. For children of both teen and prior teen mothers, adjusted likelihoods of death during infancy, school-aged years, and adolescence were more than 2-fold higher than for other children. Risks for hospitalization, high hospital use, academic failure, and poor social outcomes were also substantially higher. At a societal level, only 16.5% of cohort children were born to teen and prior teen mothers. However, these children accounted for 27% of first-year hospitalizations, 34% of deaths (birth to 17 years), 30% of failures to graduate high school, 51% in foster care, 44% on welfare as young adults, and 56% of next-generation young teen mothers. Children of prior teen mothers had increased risks for poor health and for educational and social outcomes nearly equal to those seen in children of teen mothers. Combined, these relatively few children experienced a large share of the negative outcomes occurring among young people. Our results suggest the need to expand the definition of risk associated with adolescent motherhood and target their children for enhanced medical and social services. Copyright 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does the kin orientation of a British woman's social network influence her entry into motherhood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mathews

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The influence of family and friends on an individual's fertility has long been an important topic within demography. Researchers who focus on social network effects and evolutionary demography have shown a renewed interest in this issue in recent years. However, only a few studies have been conducted in contemporary low-fertility, resource-rich settings. OBJECTIVE This study investigates whether a British woman's entry into motherhood (i.e., her first birth is influenced by the kin orientation of her close social network. Specifically, we test the prediction derived from evolutionary theory that individuals with a kin-oriented network will have higher fertility than those with fewer relatives in their close social networks. We consider two potential proximate mechanisms by which kin may influence fertility. First, relatives could provide practical resources, such as childcare, which reduce the costs of reproduction, thereby increasing fertility. Second, family members might communicate relatively pro-natal messages that could help to "persuade" childless women to become mothers. METHODS We use data from the British Household Panel Study (1992 to 2003, and base the degree of kin orientation on the number of relatives a woman includes when identifying her three closest non-household friends. We conduct a discrete-time event history analysis to measure the risk of first birth, controlling for household composition and socio-economic background. RESULTS We find that when a woman has more kin in her close social network, her risk of having a first birth increases at all ages. This suggests that relatives may influence fertility behaviour in this contemporary resource-rich population. Both of our proposed proximate mechanisms may be important in driving this effect.

  19. Black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we obtain uncharged∖charged Kiselev-like black holes as a new class of black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in the context of Rastall theory. Then, we study the specific cases of the uncharged∖charged black holes surrounded by regular matter like dust and radiation, or exotic matter like quintessence, cosmological constant and phantom fields. By comparing the Kiselev-like black hole solutions in Rastall theory with the Kiselev black hole solutions in GR, we find an effective perfect fluid behavior for the black hole's surrounding field. It is shown that the corresponding effective perfect fluid has interesting characteristic features depending on the different ranges of the parameters in Rastall theory. For instance, Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by regular matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by exotic matter in GR, or Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by exotic matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by regular matter in GR.

  20. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  1. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real‐world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  2. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  3. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. ... conception, pregnancy, birth and the early months ofparenthood. .... house attended by a traditional birth attendant of a ..... Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional.

  4. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  5. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Huanxin Zou; Shilin Zhou; Cheng Wang; Naser El-Sheimy

    2013-01-01

    Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searc...

  6. A Study to Assess Empowerment of Adolescent Girls in Terms of Knowledge-Based Life Skills Education About Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A K; Saxena, D M; Kaushal, Rituja

    2016-12-01

    This study has been designed with the intention to bring a substantial change in the mindsets or life skills of adolescent girls at secondary school level regarding their concept of child survival and safe motherhood practices in order to deal effectively with real-life situations. A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out with 538 adolescent girls regarding assessment of their knowledge on variables like correct nutrition, iron-deficiency anemia and its prevention, care during pregnancy, safe birth, skilled birth attendance, breast feeding and complementary feeding practices, child's growth and development issues, immunization, management of common childhood illnesses. etc. Analysis was done using Mc Nemar's Chi-square test for paired data. Values obtained were highly significant for nutrition, iron-deficiency anemia and its prevention, care during pregnancy, and management of childhood illnesses variables, whereas study findings were found to be insignificant for rest of the variables. This study based on life skills approach and counseling worked well to promote and motivate adolescent girls for positive decision making. In this context, every adolescent girl should be encouraged to raise her unsolved issues in order to achieve safe motherhood plus growth and development of their children.

  7. Politics of Feminine Abuse: Political Oppression and Masculine Obstinacy in Doris Lessing’s The Good Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Lalbakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the male-dominated world of Doris Lessing’s novel The Good Terrorist. Alice Mellings, the protagonist of the novel, is a political activist whose reliance on male figures in the story—the leaders of a subdivision of a political party—ends in disillusionment and frustration. Looking at this novel from a socialist feminist point of view, Alice Mellings is found to be a minor member, exploited and abused, who has to follow the orders and instructions of her inept superiors—all male. While Alice is the one who guarantees the continuation of activism (doing all kinds of jobs needed to keep the squat alive, she is never allowed to have a role in decision making. She is a member whose identity is defined by male superiors and is considered as a half-human whose services are to be enjoyed only. However, the findings of this study prove Alice as one who has her own voice at the end. The novel’s closing is marked with an engendered New Woman who is aware of the political abuse and whose independent unbound identity stands much higher than the political oppression and masculine obstinacy that had imprisoned her for so long. She is a different woman at the end; one who knows her power, believes in it and decides to fight and not to surrender. And this is a new consciousness that Lessing raises: discover your feminine power, have a firm belief in it and use it to win. Keywords: Abusive politics, female subjugation, female exploitation, New Woman, socialist

  8. Equipes gerenciadas por mulheres: representações sociais sobre gerenciamento feminino Women managers' teams: social representations about feminine management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Fontenele Mourão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo apreender a maneira como as equipes que têm uma mulher como gerente estão construindo representações sociais sobre este gerenciar. Participaram 74 mulheres e 72 homens de equipes que trabalham com sete mulheres que atingiram o topo de carreira, ocupando cargos administrativos nos níveis DAS 5 e DAS 6 da Administração Pública Federal. Utilizou-se a associação livre de palavras, sendo as respostas analisadas pelo software EVOC. Os resultados indicam que os participantes identificam algumas características que as equipes atribuem ao gerenciamento feminino. Apontam para uma forma de gestão voltada para as relações pessoais, respeito pela pessoa, preocupação com a qualidade do trabalho. Um gerenciamento cujo estilo interativo se caracterizaria pela capacidade de promover a inclusão, característico das formas de redes planas de gestão.The aim of this study was to apprehend the way teams that have a woman as amanager are building the social representation about this management. The participants were 74 women and 72 men whose teams work with seven women who have reached the top of their careers in administrative positions of DAS 5 and DAS 6 levels of the Public Federal Administration. A free association test was applied and analyzed through the EVOC software. The results showed that the participants identified some characteristics on women management that were considered a feminine form of leadership: interpersonal relationship, respect for individuality, concern with the quality of work. This kind of management carries an interactive style that is characterized by the capacity to promote inclusion, which is a characteristic of flat management nets.

  9. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  10. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  11. The Sorrows of Motherhood A Reading of The joys of Motherhood by Buchi Emecheta%母性的悲哀——读埃梅切塔的小说《母性的喜悦》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓蕊

    2007-01-01

    Buchi Emecheta's The Joys of Motherhood is a Nigerian woman's story:set in the British colony of Nigeria in the 1930s and 1940s.Buchi Emecheta narrates the protagonist-Nnu Ego's both physical life and psychological reflections first as a woman in traditional tribal Ibo and later as a mother in colonial Lagos.From being a barren woman,to wanting to be a complete woman--being a mother of many children in her first marriage;from succeeding in being nine children's mother,to resulting in being a lonely woman in her second marriage,Nnu Ego,as her name suggests,finds her "new ego"--new self.after experiencing such a hard life-long mother and complete woman pursuing process.Though it is too late for herself,it is not later for other women who have similar situation like she does.%埃梅切塔在她的小说中塑造了一个动人的奈及利亚妇女形象Nnu Ego,小说主题寓意深刻.奈及利亚社会对妇女的基本标准之一是生养多个孩子,以支持其农业经济.女主人公Nnu Ego第一次婚姻因其不能生育而破裂.为了成为奈及利亚社会承认的完整女人,Nan Ego选择了第二次婚姻,虽然成为八个孩子的母亲,抚养他们成人,Nnu Ego最后还是一个人孤单的死去.是什么导致了Nnu Ego悲惨的命运呢?在临终时,Nan Ego终于找到了新的自我,虽然对她自己而言为时已晚,但是她一生坎坷的生活经历却给了和她有相似处境的女性宝贵的启示.小说题目极具讽刺意味,士主人公Nnu Ego的为母生涯充满了不是喜悦而是悲哀.

  12. What Influences the Rate of Entry into Motherhood of Women Enrolled in Full-Time Education? A Difference-in-Differences Analysis of the Effect of the German Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolin J. Blossfeld

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the entry into motherhood of women in full-time education in East and West Germany before and after German unification. Using longitudinal data from the ‘National Educational Panel Study’ (NEPS, we have conducted a difference-in-differences analysis and apply multivariate methods. Our longitudinal analysis demonstrated that the conflict between the sequencing norm and the age norm is dependent on women’s age, social origin, and pro-natalist state support for women in full-time education. Women who are enrolled in education enter motherhood more often as age increases, since the pressure coming from the normative timing of motherhood is increasing, although with a declining slope. To avoid the jeopardizing consequences of motherhood on educational success, families from higher social origins have a stronger desire that women should first finish education before they have their first baby. The results of our analysis also demonstrate that the fertility behaviour of young East German women who are enrolled in full-time education has changed with German unification.

  13. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  14. The Principle of the Eternal-Feminine in Rossini’s L’Italiana in Algeri: Isabella as the Italian Super-Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir, Sara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The term Eternal-Feminine, or Das Ewig-Weibliche, first appeared in the last verses of the second part of Goethe’s Faust (completed 1832. It, subsequently, became the subject of speculation and a riddle which scholars have been trying to solve ever since. The term gradually came to represent a cultural principle regarding the image of femininity and it reached its Romantic apex, in the 19th Century, when various female archetypes were fused into a singe heroine. The present article aims to explore Isabella’s character in Rossini’s L’Italiana in Algeri in the light of the principle of the Eternal-Feminine. Although Goethe was still in the process of writing the second part of Faust when L’Italiana premiered (1813 in Italy, the cultural principle of the Eternal- Feminine can be used retrospectively in the analysis of Isabella as the central female protagonist of the opera. A thorough reading of her character suggests an aesthetic approach that makes use of certain Romantic aspects of the Eternal-Feminine principle. The present article focuses specifi cally on the Cruda sorte! Amor tiranno! scene and briefl y refers to other scenes as well.La expresión Eterno Femenino (Eternal-Feminine, o Das Ewig-Weibliche, apareció por primera vez en los últimos versos de la segunda parte del Fausto de Goethe (acabado en 1832. Posteriormente, se convirtió en tema de especulación, y en un enigma que los estudiosos han estado intentando resolver desde entonces. La expresión vino a identificar, con el paso del tiempo, un principio cultural relacionado con la imagen de la feminidad y alcanzó su extremo romántico, en el siglo XIX, cuando diversos arquetipos femeninos se fundieron en una sola heroína. El presente artículo pretende explorar el personaje de Isabella en La italianaen Argel de Rossini, a la luz del principio del Eterno Femenino. Aunque Goethe se encontraba todavía escribiendo la segunda parte de su Fausto cuando se estrenó La italiana

  15. The use and value of digital media for information about pregnancy and early motherhood: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Deborah

    2016-07-19

    Many women in countries in the global North access digital media information sources during pregnancy and the early years of motherhood. These include websites, blogs, online discussion forums, apps and social media platforms. Little previous research has sought to investigate in detail how women use the diverse range of digital media now available to them and what types of information they value. A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted to address these issues. Four focus groups were held in Sydney, Australia, including a total of 36 women who were either pregnant or had given birth in the previous three years. The participants were asked to talk about the types of digital media they used for pregnancy and parenting purposes, why they used them and in what ways they found them useful or helpful (or not). Group discussions were transcribed and thematically analysed, identifying the dominant information characteristics identified by women as valuable and useful. Nine characteristics emerged from the focus group discussions as most important to women: information that was: 1) immediate; 2) regular; 3) detailed; 4) entertaining; 5) customised; 6) practical; 7) professional; 8) reassuring; and 9) unbiased. These characteristics were valued for different purposes and needs. Digital media provided women with details when they most needed them or at times when they had opportunities to access them. The study showed that women value apps or digital platforms that are multi-functional. The findings revealed the importance of using digital information for establishing and maintaining social connections and intimate relationships with other mothers. However, participants also highly valued expert advice and expressed the desire for greater and more ready access to information and support offered by healthcare professionals. Pregnant women and those with young children place a high value on the information and support they receive from and sharing using online

  16. Dilemas sobre la Maternidad Subrogada en México (Dilemmas about Surrogate Motherhood from México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Victoria Ruiz Balcázar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 33 current civil codes in Mexico, only the State of Tabasco code regulates gestational surrogacy, codes of Coahuila de Zaragoza and Querétaro states prevent it, and the rest avoid the issue rather than discuss it. The Coahuila code considers non-existent any surrogacy arrangement in the name of another person because the authorized ones as recipients of TRHA are those who are marriaged or attached by cohabitation and even if a fertilized egg was implanted a woman who is not from the genetic material the code orders this attribute of motherhood to her. The Queretaro code prohibits embryo adoptive couples to contract the womb of a third woman. The Sinaloa Family Code also authorizes surrogacy arrangemen for free or onerous. This scenario creates legal uncertainty and constant violation of human rights of both interested in procreation and the woman that agrees to become or attempts to become pregnant and bear a child for another person or persons. En México se cuenta con 33 códigos civiles vigentes de los cuales únicamente el que rige al Estado de Tabasco regula la gestación sustituta, dos la impiden y el resto evita el tema en lugar de discutirlo. La impiden Coahuila de Zaragoza y Querétaro. La primera entidad considera inexistente todo pacto o convención que verse sobre la gestación realizada en nombre de otra persona en virtud que sólo autoriza como destinatarios de las TRHA a quienes se encuentren unidos en matrimonio o concubinato y aun en el caso que un óvulo fecundado fuese implantado en una mujer de quien no provenga el material genético ordena atribuirle a ésta la maternidad. La segunda prohíbe a las parejas adoptantes de embriones contratar el vientre de una tercera mujer. De igual forma el Código Familiar de Sinaloa también autoriza la gestación por encargo en forma gratuita u onerosa. Este panorama genera incertidumbre jurídica y una constante violación a los derechos humanos tanto de los interesados en

  17. Escritura femenina y cruce de culturas: aplicaciones en la dramaturgia de Caryl Churchill Feminine writing and cross culture: applications to Caryl Churchill's dramaturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Ortiz de Zárate Fernández

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La escritura femenina es una de las estrategias para confrontar a los mecanismos patriarcales construidos por la lógica occidental. A la luz de esta propuesta se han levantado diversas voces-otras que, en un ejercicio transdisciplinario, la han acogido para potenciar sus líneas de expresión y enriquecer sus discusiones y debates. Ese es el caso del cruce entre cultura y escritura bisexual y algunas de sus representaciones en el teatro contemporáneo. Los contextos culturales-postcoloniales desde los cuales se nutren las relaciones entre género y cultura estimulan a los creadores teatrales y les impulsan a exponer ese intercambio dialógico. El objetivo de este trabajo, por tanto, es observar cómo estos cruces son llevados al texto teatral - como escritura femenina - por la dramaturga británica contemporánea Caryl Churchill.Feminine writing is one of the strategies used to confront the patriarchal mechanisms that have been set up by occidental logic. In light of this proposal, various voices of the other have risen. In a transdisciplinary exercise, feminine writing has taken this in, so as to promote its lines of expression and enrich its discussions and debates. This is the case of the crossroads between culture and bisexual writing and some of their representations in contemporary theatre. The cultural and postcolonial contexts that nourish the relations between gender and culture stimulate the theatrical creators and motivate them to display that dialogic exchange in their pieces of work. Thus, the objective of this work is to observe how these crosses are brought to the theatrical text - as feminine writing - by the British contemporary playwright Caryl Churchill.

  18. Loi et identité féminine dans Jane Eyre. Lecture psychocritique The Making of Feminine Identity and Law in Jane Eyre. A Psychocritical Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Vega-Ritter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to throw light on a pattern of undercurrents within Jane Eyre probably originating from the network of relations to the father or (dead mother figure—or their substitutes—within the closely knit Brontë phratry. It will endeavour to reveal the “son / daughter figure as usurping favourite / and / or / deprived victim” as a hidden “Freudian phantasy” which seems to operate in and organise, Wuthering Heights and some of the Brontës’ Juvenilia as well. A masochistic relationship with the father figure is traced and seen to develop on lines similar to Sigmund Freud’s analysis in “A Child is being beaten”. This study proceeds on to describe the way Jane Eyre gives shape to a new, more feminine sense of authority based on her experience at Lowood and on the moral and spiritual values her identifying with Helen Burns and Miss Temple instilled in her. She builds on them in an effort to stand up to Rochester’s claim to assert his power as a father figure and to bend her to his will until Mason discloses his transgression of Law. By rising to meet Rochester’s challenge, Jane is forced to affirm her own will and her capacity for mastering “her master”. Lucy Snowe in Villette and Shirley Keeldar in Shirley go through a similar experience. Thus Bertha Rochester emerges as the archetype of a feminine power both dreaded and reproved. Far from being Jane’s repressed mirror image, she serves to protect and exonerate her from any charge of resentful anger against Man’s power. Indeed Jane is constantly shown to accommodate a traditional feminine surrender to Love and a firm stand as a Law figure with regard to a masculine partner who uses Law as a means towards the pursuit of Power. Eventually the two characters femininise and / or virilise each other.

  19. 希腊神话中女性美的政治学阐释%A Political Interpretation to the Feminine Charm in Ancient Greek Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌其

    2015-01-01

    Feminine charm is an essential quality endued with females by the Nature , and a social attribute entrusted to them by male politics . As an important aspect of female issues in ancient Greek mythology , feminine charm condenses the complicated aesthetic outlook and aesthetic appeal of male politics in ancient Greek society . It demonstrates a cultural confidence that the mythology puts to feminine quality and value of this time . It is the key for us to interpret correctly the female issues in the mythology to unearth the cultural connotation and to reveal the political implication of the female charm in the mythology .%女性美是自然赋予女性的一种本质属性,也是男性政治赋予女性的一种社会属性。女性美作为希腊神话中女性问题的一个重要方面,凝聚着古希腊社会中男性政治复杂的审美观念与审美诉求,表现了神话对这一时期女性品质与价值的文化自信。深入挖掘神话中女性美的文化内涵,揭示神话中女性美的政治意蕴,是我们正确解读神话中众多女性问题的关键。

  20. Tacita Muta y el silencio femenino como arma del patriarcado romano. – Tacita Muta and the feminine silence as a weapon of the roman patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casamayor Mancisidor, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tacita Muta was a naiad punished by Jupiter who ripped her tongue out for talking excessively. She became a divinity that symbolized the prerogative of the feminine silence. The aim of the present article is to illustrate how the roman patriarchy imposed the duty of silence on women, taking the myth of Tacita as the starting point. We present several examples of deities, mythological characters and real women who also exemplified this female duty, along with others that transgressed the norm. All of this with the aim of getting deeper on gender relations in Roman times.

  1. Threat of the feminine identity: The emerging structure in exploring the process of women's empowerment for menopause management: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Yazdkhasti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment in different spheres of life especially menopause is among the key elements of health promotion in all communities. However there is no realistic images of empowering women in menopausal symptoms management. The present survey aimed to explain the process of women's empowerment for menopausal symptoms management. This qualitative study is part of a larger project which was conducted using Grounded Theory between 2013 and 2015. The article's main focus was to explore the underlying conditions and factors affecting the process of women's empowerment. Using a purposive and theoretical sampling method, 25 participants were interviewed 28 times. Data was collected through some in-depth, semi-structural and open ended interviews with the participant and also memoing and field notes. The interviews were conducted in Neighborhoods House affiliated to Tehran municipality and two gynecological clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was applied through Strauss and Corbin approach (2008 using MAXQDA10 software. Threat of the feminine identity has been noted as the women's most common concern to being empowered in menopause management. The key theme emerged in the present study (threat of the feminine identity included four main categories (consciousness about the likelihood of femininity decline, negative attitude towards herself, inadequate supportive context, latent opportunity, two subcategories and 109 first-level codes. There is a logical, coherent and integrated relationship between all these concepts and the theme of feminine identity threat. This theme is considered as an underlying social problem and a major concern for postmenopausal women in the context of this group of women's empowerment. The factors (barriers and facilitators affecting women's empowerment in menopause management are associated with social context, intensity and origin of each society. Evaluation of Iranian women

  2. Migraine increases centre-surround suppression for drifting visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Battista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of migraine is incompletely understood, but evidence points to hyper-responsivity of cortical neurons being a key feature. The basis of hyper-responsiveness is not clear, with an excitability imbalance potentially arising from either reduced inhibition or increased excitation. In this study, we measure centre-surround contrast suppression in people with migraine as a perceptual analogue of the interplay between inhibition and excitation in cortical areas responsible for vision. We predicted that reduced inhibitory function in migraine would reduce perceptual surround suppression. Recent models of neuronal surround suppression incorporate excitatory feedback that drives surround inhibition. Consequently, an increase in excitation predicts an increase in perceptual surround suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-six people with migraine and twenty approximately age- and gender-matched non-headache controls participated. The perceived contrast of a central sinusoidal grating patch (4 c/deg stationary grating, or 2 c/deg drifting at 2 deg/sec, 40% contrast was measured in the presence and absence of a 95% contrast annular grating (same orientation, spatial frequency, and drift rate. For the static grating, similar surround suppression strength was present in control and migraine groups with the presence of the surround resulting in the central patch appearing to be 72% and 65% of its true contrast for control and migraine groups respectively (t(44 = 0.81, p = 0.42. For the drifting stimulus, the migraine group showed significantly increased surround suppression (t(44 = 2.86, p<0.01, with perceived contrast being on average 53% of actual contrast for the migraine group and 68% for non-headache controls. CONCLUSIONS: In between migraines, when asymptomatic, visual surround suppression for drifting stimuli is greater in individuals with migraine than in controls. The data provides evidence for a

  3. On Sylvia Plath’s Motherhood Poems%论西尔维娅·普拉斯的母性诗歌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡梅红

    2014-01-01

    美国当代女性诗人西尔维娅·普拉斯的“母性诗歌系列”通过歌颂母性,开创了20世纪中后期美国女性诗人的重要流派,即“母亲诗人”。普拉斯的“母性诗歌系列”主要由两部分组成:第一部分,以她自己的儿女为创作对象和创作灵感来源的诗歌;第二部分,注重思考和探索母性体验与创作力之间关系的诗歌。从女性主义视角解读“母性诗歌”,旨在揭示诗人创作“母性诗歌”的重要意义,即诗人通过书写母性来确定自己的诗人身份、实现自我的转变,试图从自身的“三重困境”中走出。%Sylvia Plath, the contemporary American woman poet whose“motherhood poem sequence”virtually initi⁃ates through celebrating maternity what has become a significant genre for the mid- and late-century American women poets,“mother poets”. As a mother poet,Plath’s“motherhood poems”consist of two parts. Firstly, Plath wrote poems in which she used her children as her objects and inspiration. Secondly, she wrote poems to explore the correlation between maternity and creativity. This paper aims to reveal the significant implications of“mother⁃hood poems”through a feminist reading and concludes that the poet, through writing motherhood poems, attempts to establish her own identity as a poet, to realize the transformation of the self and to step out of the so-called“tri⁃ple-bind situation”.

  4. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  5. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...

  6. Social class and family size as determinants of attributed machismo, femininity, and family planning: a field study in two South American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, P M

    1977-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.

  7. Estudio de la historia del Club Medicina Hispalense, equipo de baloncesto femenino = Study of the history of the feminine basket team Club Medicina Hispalense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rojo Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudio descriptivo del Club Medicina Hispalense, equipo de baloncesto femenino que pasó desde niveles competitivos universitarios a niveles profesionales. En el estudio se descubre la situación económica, política y social del momento y por otro lado como afecta el mismo al Club. El objetivo de estudio principal del estudio es ilustrar la biografía del Club Medicina Hispalense de Baloncesto Femenino, por medio de recopilación de datos, mostrando la evolución, dificultades de la progresión del deporte amateur y por supuesto, la incapacidad para la mantener la estructura del club teniendo esto correlación con múltiples situaciones deportivas similares en el resto de clubes.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Descriptive study of the Club Medicina Hispalense, A team of feminine basketball that went on from competitive university levels to professional levels. In the study there is discovered the economic, political and social situation of the moment and on the other hand like the same one concerns the Club. The aim of the main study is to focus the biography of the Basketball feminine Club Medicina Hispalense, by mean of summary the information, showing the evolution, the difficulties of the progress of the nonprofit sport and of course the inability to support the structure of the club having this relation with various sports in similar situation in other clubs.

  8. Do que se pode ler em Clarice Lispector: sublimação e feminino What can we read in Clarice Lispector? Sublimation and the feminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marcos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, busca-se ler em Clarice Lispector não uma significação feminina da obra, mas de que modo sua escrita nos permite pensar certos modos de subjetivação do feminino. A leitura assim orientada levou-me a rever o conceito de sublimação e a pensar a obra como lugar privilegiado de inscrição de um gozo que se inscreve no texto pela voz. Trata-se não da apropriação do eu, mas da exibição da falta a ser do sujeito. A função primeira da escrita é menos a constituição do eu do escritor do que sua perda no texto e a inscrição de um gozo.In this paper, I try to read in Clarice Lispector's writing certain ways of subjectivation of the feminine (and not a feminine signification of her work. This approach has led me to a revision of the concept of sublimation and to see the text a locus in which the jouissance inscribes itself by the voice. What is at stake in her texts is the display of the manque à être of the subject, and not the appropriation of the ego. The primary function of writing is the inscription of the jouissance in the text.

  9. Perceptions of sexual violence among men who have sex with men and individuals on the trans-feminine spectrum in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Stephenson, Rob; Delegchoimbol, Altanchimeg; Dorjgotov, Myagmardorj; Baral, Stefan

    2015-12-08

    With the growing realisation that sexual violence poses pressing health and human rights concerns for men who have sex with men (MSM) and individuals on the trans-feminine spectrum, research has focused on the context in which sexual violence takes place. Rape myths and other perceptions of sexual violence affect the prevalence of perpetration and the availability of services and support for survivors. Little research has been conducted on rape myths among sexual and gender minority groups, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Two focus groups and 30 in-depth interviews were conducted with MSM and individuals on the trans-feminine spectrum in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. A number of rape myths previously noted to be prevalent among Western, heterosexual men, and women were expressed by participants, including the myth that males are never raped, rape as a cause of homosexuality or transgenderism, conceptualisations of prototypical rape as requiring overwhelming force, and victim blaming. However, many of these perceptions appeared to have different origins and effects in these populations. This study illustrates interesting similarities and differences compared to rape myths explored in Western, heterosexual male samples, and draws attention to the need to address community perceptions of sexual violence in sexual health and violence intervention programming.

  10. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  11. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  12. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  13. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  14. A Bygone Feminine Allure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    IT is still possible, though rare,to see elderly Chinese ladies with impossibly small feet,walking along with a slightly staggering gait, with the help of at least one stick. These nonagenarian women, remnants of the millennial tradition of foot binding unique to China, become fewer every day. There will soon be no trace of the long-standing custom that still prevailed during their childhood.

  15. Doing Masculinities, Doing Femininities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Gennem et 3 måneders feltarbejde i en 5. klasse på en primary school i udkanten af London vises, hvordan drenge og piger med hjælp af deres rum/krop manifesterer sig selv som hhv. drenge og piger.......Gennem et 3 måneders feltarbejde i en 5. klasse på en primary school i udkanten af London vises, hvordan drenge og piger med hjælp af deres rum/krop manifesterer sig selv som hhv. drenge og piger....

  16. 玛丽·奥利弗的女性书写与自然化伦理%Feminine Writing and Naturalized Ethic of Mary Oliver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄逸民

    2008-01-01

    本论文分析玛丽·奥利弗在其女性书写中对"物性"的探索,原因在于它能让我们意识到自然的固有价值.奥利弗反对我们把自然看成一个文化的产物,主张我们关注自然的物质性,充分意识到我们在某一地的"根基"以及我们对此地的责任.与女性书写一样,她的诗歌试图重建我们与自然在身体上的联系.在她的自然诗里,她向我们展示自然那不可削减的他性,敦促我们承认和尊重自然的差异性.论文作者指出,埃莲娜·西克苏有关女性书写的概念超越了"消除自我"的过程,有力地挑战了"我思"中的"我性",向着建立一个非人类中心主义的自然观的方向发展.实际上,西克苏的女性书写中的一个重要主题就是探索"物性",探索我们对自然的尊重如何帮助我们认识到自然是一个独立且平等的他者.有趣的是,女性书写中突出的"物性"与霍姆斯·罗斯顿倡导的自然化伦理所强调的非人类起源的价值观有着异曲同工之妙.罗斯顿提倡建立一个新的生态伦理模式,坚信固有价值与工具价值之间的差别对于我们评价自然有着至关重要的意义.%In this paper, Mary Oliver's poetry is discussed and analyzed to illustrate her exploration of "thingness" in her feminine writing as it reawakens our consciousness of the intrinsic value of nature. Instead of seeing nature as a cultural construct, Oliver urges us to attend to the physicality of nature, to be aware of our "groundedness" in a place and responsibility for it. Her poetry, like feminine writing, aims to reestablish our bodily connection to nature. In her ecopoetry, she tries to call our attention to the irreducible otherness of nature, whose difference must be recognized and respected. The author argues that Hélène Cixous' concept of feminine writing extends importantly beyond the process of "de-selfing" in order to challenge the "I-ness" of the "I think," to a non

  17. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear

  18. Gestación por Sustitución y Licencias por Maternidad/Paternidad. La Agenda de Cuidado a la Luz de la Jurisprudencia Española y la Perspectiva Argentina (Surrogate Motherhood and Maternity / Paternity Leave. The Care Agenda in the Light of the Spanish...)

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina Perez

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the new technologies and the ability to access a (co)Maternity / (co)Fatherhood through assisted reproductive technics (ART), including surrogate motherhood, altogether with the issue of the care work and maternity/paternity leave. Therefore, this article aims no to stop in the arguments for and against surrogate motherhood (SM), but to reflect about how maternity / paternity leaves must be interpreted in these cases. For that purpose, the article analyzes Argentini...

  19. MOTHERHOOD IN THE AMERICAN WOMAN POET’S PERSPECTIVE: A SHORT GLANCE AT ALLEN’S “ROCK ME TO SLEEP”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Intan Kurnia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes one of the works of an American woman poet named Elizabeth Akers Allen. The poem under studies entitled “Rock Me to Sleep”. This poem reaches its popularity when it is set to music and widely reprinted under the poet’s real name. However, the popularity of this poem raises controversy since it has to face an authorship problem. The poem itself is a portrayal of motherhood. The speaker of this poem is a woman who is longing for the love of her mother. She is seeking for a place to ease her pain since she feels that she has lost her own battle of womanhood. In this poem, the figure of the mother is really important. Although the mother remains absent, however, the readers of the poem can sense the powerful love of the speaker of the poem toward her mother.

  20. Juggling work and motherhood: the impact of employment and maternity leave on breastfeeding duration: a survival analysis on Growing Up in Scotland data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skafida, Valeria

    2012-02-01

    In 2005, Scotland became the first nation to make breastfeeding in public a legal right, but current breastfeeding targets and maternity leave allowance do not acknowledge the conflicting demands women face when juggling employment and motherhood. This paper explores how employment and maternity leave relate to breastfeeding duration among mothers in Scotland. The Growing Up in Scotland national longitudinal cohort study of 5,217 babies born in 2004-2005 was used. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were specified using one cross-sectional wave of data to predict breastfeeding duration. Mothers working as employees, full-time (Hazard Ratio 1.6) or part-time (HR1.3), had a higher risk of earlier breastfeeding cessation than non-working mothers. However, self-employed mothers did not differ significantly from non-working mothers in their breastfeeding patterns. Mothers who took longer maternity leave breastfed for longer. The relationships between employment, maternity leave and breastfeeding duration were significant when controlling for known predictors of breastfeeding. Younger mothers, those with less formal education, single mothers, those of white ethnic background, and first-time mothers were more likely to stop breastfeeding sooner, as has been noted in previous research. Employment and early return to work are both factors associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding. More flexible working conditions and more generous employment leave could help to prolong breastfeeding among working mothers. Current health and employment policy in Scotland and the UK could be better coordinated so that working mothers have the adequate support to meet the conflicting demands of employment and motherhood.

  1. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    teenage mothers. The purpose is to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation during adolescence and low education are causes of teen childbearing but also childlessness among elder women in the age group 32 to 37 years old. Could childlessness as well...

  2. Spina Bifida and Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakes, Olive

    1984-01-01

    Two women with spina bifida, a disability in which the spinal cord and nerves are damaged, gave birth to healthy babies. The article points out the need to provide young girls having this condition with information and counseling regarding sexual relationships, parenthood, and child rearing. (CL)

  3. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamar

    1995-01-01

    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  4. Safe Motherhood in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Л midwife plays an essential role in the promotion of health and provision of care .... ical experience, it has become part of the norm to nurse a labour- ing woman on a bed .... challenges of preventing maternal deaths. Malawi Medical Journal.

  5. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments.

  6. Study on Temperature Fieldof Surrounding Rock with BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyzed the characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face, setup its mathematic model, and got its numerical result with the boundary element method(BEM). To calculate in-tra-domain integral, it was transformed into boundary integration with the DRM method. Using the similitude the-ory, the dimensionless differential equation was educed. Finally, the authors calculated two drifting faces of San-hejian Coal Mine using the computer software developed by authors based on the above principium, and got the dis-tribution characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face and the periodic variation intemperature with its periodic moving forward. Comparing the calculated heat dissipating-capacity of surroundingrock with the measured data shows that the computer software is proper.

  7. Experimental Study of Deformation of Surrounding Rock with Infrared Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jun; AN Li-qian; REN Run-hou; FAN Shi-min; MA Nian-jie; LI Jian-hui; JI Yuan-ming

    2005-01-01

    According to the practical conditions of coal roadway in Changcun Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, the deformation of rock surrounding roadway was experimentally studied by means of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging system in the process of confined compressions. It is found that the model surface TIR temperature (TIRT) changes with the increase of load. Furthermore, TIRT changes non-synchronously in different ranges such as the roof, floor, wall, corners and bolted ranges. The TIRT is higher in the location of stress concentration and bolted ranges than that in the location of stress relaxation and broken ranges. The interaction ranges of bolt and rock are determined preliminarily according to the corresponding relationship of TIRT fields and the strain fields of the surrounding rock. The new method of TIR image processing has been proved to be effective for the study of bolt support and observation of roadway stability under mine pressure.

  8. High resolution bathymetry of China seas and their surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the oceanic lithospheric flexure and the worldwide bathymetric data ETOPO5, the high resolu tion bathymetry of the China seas and their surroundings is computed from altimeter derived gravity anomalies. The new bathymetry obtained by this study is higher resolution and accuracy than the widely used ETOPO5 data, mean while it shows clearly the seafioor, the tectonic characteristics and the geodynamical processes in the China seas.

  9. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic q...

  10. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  11. Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia by Surround Needling with Electric Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin; YANG Qin-hua

    2005-01-01

    运用电针围刺法治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛29例,获得较好疗效,总有效率为93.1%.%Twenty-nine cases of postherpetic neuralgia of herpes zoster were treated by the surround needling with electric stimulation, and the better therapeutic effect was obtained, the total effective rate was 93.1%.

  12. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  13. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  14. THE DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SIMULATION SYSTEM ON EARTHQUAKE SURROUNDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈毅力; 杨云; 李天石

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a system that can simulate earthquake surroundings. In the surroundings, people can be familiar with the omen, strong shock and aftershock of earthquake, thus make right choices and get away when the disaster occurs. Methods The system consists of an electro-hydraulic servo system, a whole-information sound system and some lighting device; By using the adaptive inverse control method and LMS algorithms, the inverse model (I.e. The controller) is convergent rapidly; The software based on LabVIEW makes the parameters can be modified easily; There is a double closed-loop structure in the system: an analog closed-loop and a digital closed-loop, and their parameters can be inspected in real time. Results The system is of very high reliability, and the desired vibration signal can be tracked exactly by output. Conclusion Earthquake surroundings is simulated vividly. Through the system, people can be familiar with earthquake phenomena, and know lots of knowledge of earthquake.

  15. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  16. Women managers' teams – social representations about feminine management / Equipes gerenciadas por mulheres - representações sociais sobre gerenciamento feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Fontenele Mourão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to apprehend the way teams that have a woman as amanager are building the social representation about this management. The participants were 74 women and 72 men whose teams work with seven women who have reached the top of their careers in administrative positions of DAS 5 and DAS 6 levels of the Public Federal Administration. A free association test was applied and analyzed through the EVOC software. The results showed that the participants identified some characteristics on women management that were considered a feminine form of leadership: interpersonal relationship, respect for individuality, concern with the quality of work. This kind of management carries an interactive style that is characterized by the capacity to promote inclusion, which is a characteristic of flat management nets.

  17. Love Practices in the Colombian School during the First Half of the Twentieth Century: Notes for a History of Feminine Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Herrera Beltrán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America women increasingly detach themselves from feminine representations produced by certain discourses of modernity. However, unequal relations, binary constructions of sex and gender, and exclusion whenever there is any sign of resistance are still signs of contemporaneity. In response to this situation, this research paper shows, through an archaeological and genealogical study, how love, as a feeling and emotion, was a subject of education for girls in the Colombian school during the first half of the twentieth century. In that sense, the author reflects upon emotions, feelings and discourses, and reveals how society shaped practices and legitimized truths that, even today, define both men’s and women’s nature.

  18. Uma questão de gênero: onde o masculino e o feminino se cruzam Gender issue: where masculine and feminine meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amílcar Torrão Filho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a importância dos estudos de gênero para a história, recuperando algumas de suas principais discussões e revendo o seu aparecimento na historiografia da segunda metade do século XX. Procura, ainda, inserir a construção da masculinidade como processo correlato da determinação da identidade feminina, e discute a questão da homossexualidade como parte integrante da construção da misoginia.This paper discusses the importance of gender studies for history, recovering some of its most important discussions and reviewing their appearance on the historiography in the second half of the twentieth century. It searches to include the construction of masculinity as a correlate process of the determination of feminine identity, and it discusses the issue of homosexuality as an integrant part of the construction of misogyny.

  19. Loss of attributes of femininity, anxiety and value crisis. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to women after mastectomy and in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a relatively widespread disease and a main cause of fertility problems. The disease diagnosis is frequently related to changes in the value hierarchy. However, it can be treated as a “loss of/threat to” femininity. Similar aspects of the loss of part of femininity are connected with menopause and mastectomy. Participants and procedure One hundred and forty-five women were examined in total: 42 with the PCOS diagnosis, 20 after mastectomy, 42 in menopause and 41 healthy women (reference group. Standard measurement methods were used: the Value Crisis Questionnaire by P. Oleś and the IPAT Anxiety Scale – Self Analysis Form by R. B. Cattell. Results Women suffering from PCOS obtained significantly higher indexes of both crisis and anxiety compared to other groups, whereas women after mastectomy and in menopause did not differ between one another in tested variables, and they did not differ from healthy women either. It was noted that the most relationships between variables were observed in the group of women in menopause (significant correlations between almost all dimensions, while there are few relationships in women after mastectomy. In women with PCOS (a relatively small number of correlations relationships of the greatest strength relate to the relationships of negative self-esteem and guilt proneness with all dimensions of the value crisis. Conclusions Polycystic ovary syndrome, despite having a relatively non-threatening course, is experienced much more strongly by women compared to mastectomy and menopause. It is associated with strong internal anxiety and degradation of the value hierarchy.

  20. Inventário Feminino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IFEGA Feminine Inventory of the Self-Concept's Gender Schemas (IFEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giavoni

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo foi elaborar e validar o Inventário Feminino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IFEGA. Composto por duas escalas (masculina e feminina, este instrumento avalia os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito das mulheres. A amostra foi composta por estudantes universitárias do sexo feminino. Análises fatoriais foram realizadas para ambas as escalas (Principal Axis Factoring, com rotações oblíquas e ortogonais, assim como foram avaliados os índices de consistência interna dos fatores (Alfa de Cronbach para que o instrumento fosse apropriadamente validado. Os resultados demonstraram que ambas as escalas são compostas por estruturas multifatoriais. Devidamente validado, o IFEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito de indivíduos do sexo feminino.The purpose of this article was to elaborate and validate the Feminine Inventory of the Self-Concept's Gender Schemas (IFEGA. Composed by two scales (masculine and feminine scales, this instrument evaluates female self-concept's gender schemas. The sample was composed by female university students. Factorial analysis for both scales (Principal Axis Factoring with oblique and orthogonal rotations was performed, as well as the internal factors consistency analysis (Cronbach's Alpha, in order to validate the instrument. The results showed that IFEGA´s scales are composed by multifactorial structures. It can be stated that both scales may be used in the evaluation of the female self-concept's gender schemas.

  1. Loss of attributes of femininity, anxiety and value crisis. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to women after mastectomy and in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a relatively widespread disease and a main cause of fertility problems. The disease diagnosis is frequently related to changes in the value hierarchy. However, it can be treated as a “loss of/threat to” femininity. Similar aspects of the loss of part of femininity are connected with menopause and mastectomy. Participants and procedure One hundred and forty-five women were examined in total: 42 with the PCOS diagnosis, 20 after mastectomy, 42 in menopause and 41 healthy women (reference group. Standard measurement methods were used: the Value Crisis Questionnaire by P. Oleś and the IPAT Anxiety Scale – Self Analysis Form by R. B. Cattell. Results Women suffering from PCOS obtained significantly higher indexes of both crisis and anxiety compared to other groups, whereas women after mastectomy and in menopause did not differ between one another in tested variables, and they did not differ from healthy women either. It was noted that the most relationships between variables were observed in the group of women in menopause (significant correlations between almost all dimensions, while there are few relationships in women after mastectomy. In women with PCOS (a relatively small number of correlations relationships of the greatest strength relate to the relationships of negative self-esteem and guilt proneness with all dimensions of the value crisis. Conclusions Polycystic ovary syndrome, despite having a relatively non-threatening course, is experienced much more strongly by women compared to mastectomy and menopause. It is associated with strong internal anxiety and degradation of the value hierarchy.

  2. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  3. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.; Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2015-06-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e. the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the Solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD 46375b, HD 73256b, HD 102195b, HD 130322b and HD 179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9-8.0 × 10-13 M⊙ yr-1) and the wind properties at the position of the hot Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are supermagnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrounding these planets. Assuming planetary magnetic fields similar to Jupiter's, we estimate planetary magnetospheric sizes of 4.1-5.6 planetary radii. We also derive the exoplanetary radio emission released in the dissipation of the stellar wind energy. We find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy, which are challenging to be observed with present-day technology, but could be detectable with future higher sensitivity arrays (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Radio emission from systems having closer hot Jupiters, such as from τ Boo b or HD 189733b, or from nearby planetary systems orbiting young stars, are likely to have higher radio fluxes, presenting better prospects for detecting exoplanetary radio emission.

  4. Issues surrounding record keeping in district nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E E

    2000-07-01

    This article examines some aspects of nursing documentation following the publication of the document 'Guidelines for Records and Record Keeping' (UKCC, 1998). The importance of nursing documentation in patient care, in guiding practice and in providing information for members of the interprofessional healthcare team is highlighted. Record keeping forms an important part of the clinical governance initiative in terms of quality improvement and risk management. The issues surrounding the legal requirements of record keeping in district nursing practice are discussed. Suggestions are made for assessing the quality of nursing documentation by audit and research, in order to establish the suitability of using the present systems in the community setting.

  5. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  6. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  7. Problems Surrounding Probation In The South African Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baloyi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate problems surrounding probation periods in the South African Public Service. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the views of both probationers and supervisors managing the probation process. Data was gathered by means of focus groups and individual interviews. Nine key areas were identified as being problematic, viz. clarity regarding the purpose of probation, lack of proper guidelines, the duration of probation, rotation during probation, lack of training, poor management of probation, performance management, anxiety and stress, power and authority. Recommendations are made concerning possible interventions.

  8. Interactions of the Infrared bubble N4 with the surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Liu, Tie; Dubner, G; Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Molinari, Sergio; Huang, Maohai; Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with HII regions have been considered to be a good sample to investigate triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the HII region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with the surroundings and star formation histories therein, aiming at determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 $\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, mean volume density of about 4.4 $\\times10^{4}$ cm$^{-3}$, and a mean mass of 320 $M_{\\odot}$. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 $\\mu$m, ...

  9. Radio observations of Supernova Remnants and the surrounding molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, G

    2011-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the main source of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The strong SNR shocks provide ideal acceleration sites for particles of at least 10^14 eV/nucleon. Radio continuum studies of SNRs carried out with good sensitivity and high angular resolution convey information about three main aspects of the SNRs: morphology, polarization and spectrum. Based on this information it is possible to localize sites of higher compression and particle acceleration as well as the orientation and degree of order of the magnetic fields, and in some cases even its intensity. All this information, when complemented with the study of the distribution and kinematics of the surrounding interstellar gas, results in a very useful dataset to investigate the role of SNRs as cosmic ray accelerators. In this presentation, I analyze the radio observations of SNRs and surrounding molecular clouds, showing the contribution of these studies to the understanding of the role of SNRs as factories of CRs.

  10. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  11. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Moutou, C; Donati, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e., the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9 to 8.0 $\\times 10^{-13} M_{\\odot}$/yr) and the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are super-magnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrou...

  12. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  13. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  14. Representações acerca da maternidade no contexto da depressão pós-parto Representations concerning motherhood in postpartum depression context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Delias de Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou as representações acerca da maternidade no contexto da depressão pós-parto. Participaram do estudo duas mães encaminhadas para a realização de uma psicoterapia breve pais-bebê devido à presença de depressão no primeiro ano de vida de suas filhas. Entrevistas de avaliação realizadas antes da psicoterapia foram analisadas a partir dos quatro eixos interpretativos que constituem a constelação da maternidade, proposta por Stern (1997: vida-crescimento; relacionar-se primário; matriz de apoio; e reorganização da identidade. Nos relatos de ambas as mães apareceram representações acerca do sentimento de não ser capaz de cuidar do bebê logo após o nascimento, de ser pouco apoiada pelo companheiro, bem como uma reavaliação do relacionamento com suas próprias mães e com seus cônjuges. Verificou-se também que as representações de cada mãe apontaram para uma estreita associação entre seus conflitos pregressos e a interação atual com o marido e com o bebê.The present study investigated the representations concerning motherhood in the context of postpartum depression. The study sample was composed by two mothers referred to a brief parent-infant psychotherapy due to depression during the first year of their daughters' life. Interviews of evaluation carried out before psycotherapy were analyzed according to four interpretative axes of the motherhood constellation proposed by Stern (1997: life-growth; primary relatedness; supporting matrix; and identity reorganization. In the stories of both mothers there were representations concerning the feeling of not being capable to take care of their baby after birth, of being little supported by their husbands, as well as a reevaluation of the relationship with their own mothers and spouses. It was verified that the representations revealed a close association between their past conflicts and the current interaction with the husband and with the baby.

  15. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  16. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Abu-Qarn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  17. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  18. The nature of plerions surrounding soft gamma-ray repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    1995-01-01

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  19. Casimir Effect in the Kerr Spacetime Surrounded by Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, V B; Freitas, L F F; Muniz, C R

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the Casimir energy of a massless scalar field in a cavity formed by nearby parallel plates orbiting a rotating spherical body surrounded by quintessence, investigating the influence of the gravitational field on that energy, at zero temperature. This influence includes the effects due to the spacetime dragging caused by the source rotation as well as those ones due to the quintessence. We show that the energy depends on all the involved parameters, as source mass, angular momentum and quintessence state parameter, for any radial coordinate and polar angle. We show that at the north pole the Casimir energy is not influenced by the quintessential matter. At the equatorial plane, when the quintessence is canceled, the result obtained in the literature is recovered. Finally, constraints in the quintessence parameters are obtained from the uncertainty in the current measurements of Casimir effect.

  20. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  1. Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Martirosian, J. R.

    2003-04-01

    Results from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objects surrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample of Kazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of the Kazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% of binary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazarian galaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-ray sources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for complete samples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higher than the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies.

  2. On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.

  3. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O`Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-09-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  4. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O' Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  5. Rotation of the Warm Molecular Gas Surrounding Ultracompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations towards five massive star forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each HII region (as traced by SO_2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the HII region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.

  6. A 500 Parsec Halo Surrounding the Galactic Globular NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, Edward W; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows four magnitudes of main sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (>250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of $r^{-1.24}$. It contains approximately 0.1% of the dynamical mass of NGC 1851. There is no evidence for tidal tails. Current models of globular cluster evolution do not explain this feature, although simulations of tidal influences on dwarf spheroidal galaxies qualitatively mimic these results. Given the state of published models it is not possible to decide between creation of this halo from isolated cluster evaporation, or from tidal or disk shocking, or from destruction of a dwarf galaxy in which this object may have once been embedded.

  7. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there is a great deal of difference on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  8. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2017-06-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence ω _q is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there are several differences on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  9. Impact-Generated Dust Clouds Surrounding the Galilean Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, H; Grün, E; Kr\\"uger, Harald~; Krivov, Alexander V.; Gr\\"un, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Tenuous dust clouds of Jupiter's Galilean moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto have been detected with the in-situ dust detector on board the Galileo spacecraft. The majority of the dust particles have been sensed at altitudes below five radii of these lunar-sized satellites. We identify the particles in the dust clouds surrounding the moons by their impact direction, impact velocity, and mass distribution. Average particle sizes are 0.5 to $\\rm 1 \\mu m$, just above the detector threshold, indicating a size distribution with decreasing numbers towards bigger particles. Our results imply that the particles have been kicked up by hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids onto the satellites' surfaces. The measured radial dust density profiles are consistent with predictions by dynamical modeling for satellite ejecta produced by interplanetary impactors (Krivov et al., PSS, 2003, 51, 251--269), assuming yield, mass and velocity distributions of the ejecta from laboratory measurements. The dust clouds of the th...

  10. Adjusting to motherhood. The importance of BMI in predicting maternal well-being, eating behaviour and feeding practice within a cross cultural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shloim, Netalie; Rudolf, Mary; Feltbower, Richard; Hetherington, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Maternal body mass index (BMI) is associated with negative body image and restrained eating which are experienced differently across cultures. The present study aimed to: 1) examine if self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction changed from early pregnancy to 2-6 months after giving birth; 2) explore changes according to country (Israel vs. UK) and BMI; and 3) determine any relationship between these measurements and infant feeding. Participants completed questionnaires assessing self-esteem, body image and eating/feeding behaviours. Multilevel linear modelling was used to account for change and to assess the independent impact of BMI on outcomes. Seventy-three women and infants participated in the study in early pregnancy and again 16 (9) weeks following birth. Women gained 1.5 kg (range -12 + 23) and UK mothers reported significantly greater body dissatisfaction, but self-esteem and eating behaviours remained stable. BMI was the main predictor of self-esteem, eating behaviours and body satisfaction. Mothers' perceptions of infant's eating did not vary according to BMI or country; however, heavier mothers reported feeding their infants according to a schedule. The first months after giving birth are a key time to assess adjustment to motherhood but later assessments are necessary in order to track changes beyond the early period post-pregnancy.

  11. 'We make them feel special': The experiences of voluntary sector workers supporting asylum seeking and refugee women during pregnancy and early motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaam, Marie-Clare; Kingdon, Carol; Thomson, Gill; Finlayson, Kenneth; Downe, Soo

    2016-03-01

    BACKGROUND OR CONTEXT: refugee and asylum seekers are over represented in maternal death data. Many asylum seeking and refugee women access maternity care infrequently, or not at all. Little is known about the role of voluntary sector workers in supporting pregnant refugees and asylum seekers. to explore the experiences of voluntary sector workers supporting asylum seeking and refugee women during pregnancy and early motherhood. a qualitative descriptive study. individual and focus group interviews in three large urban centres in North West England, United Kingdom. two main themes emerged. 'Literally through hell and back' reflected the experiences of suffering, abuse and loss recounted to the volunteers by many of the women they work with. ׳Bridging the unacknowledged gap' related to the invisible processes undertaken by the workers as they enable the women they work with to over come their marginalised position. This included the difficulties of transience, and lack of enculturation, and to support them in accessing maternity care. voluntary sector workers supporting asylum seeking and refugee women strongly identified with the extreme suffering experienced by many of the women they work with. Through this contact, they become acutely aware of the gaps in provision for such women, and developed unique and innovative approaches to bridge this gap. These findings highlight the need for maternity health system to actively collaborate with, and learn from, voluntary agencies working in this field to improve the support offered to asylum seeking and refugee women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE ROLE OF GOVEMMENT AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN SOLVING THE PROBLEMS OF MOTHERHOOD ON THE DON AND THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna PANARINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the reasons which intensified problems of motherhood because of significant worsening of the demographic situation in the country and in the North Caucasus in the Great Patriotic War. The article highlights the measures undertaken by the government bodies and social organizations to provide assistance to pregnant women, nursing mothers and single mothers. Special attention is given to the issues related to payment of benefits to women in need, improvement of working conditions, health care and creation of conditions for raising children. The author stresses the role of trade union organizations directly involved in helping women to deal with such problems as placing children in kindergartens and nurseries, finding additional sources of food supply, repairing apartments and many others. It is proved that at the final stage of the war the assistance measures were strengthened, that was manifested in the improvement of their financial situation and increased social status of women with many children in Soviet society. The article shows the main results of this work, which alleviated the demographic problems on the territory of the Don and the North Caucasus. 

  13. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  14. The water exchange between Chinchorro Bank and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Julio; Ochoa, Jose Luis; Sheinbaum, Julio; Lopez, Manuel; Cornado, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Chinchorro Bank is a relatively large (~500 km^ 2) atoll situated 33 km in front of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Caribbean coast of Mexico. Two years of continuous measurements of the subsurface pressure field inside and around Chinchorro Bank, along with currents and waves observed outside, suggest four major processes governing the water exchange of the Bank with its surroundings: 1) surface wave pumping of water into the Bank through its eastern edge, 2) the large scale circulation in the region that drives the sea level changes through geostrophy, 3) the tidal pumping with imposed cyclic flows into and out of the Bank and 4) the imposed drift by the wind. Waves impinging all along the eastern barrier reef induce water inflows (from overtopping the reef) and generate a pressure gradient that drives a drift from east to west throughout the Bank. This western drift can normally replenish the water over the Bank with a time scale of ~10 days. However, extreme wave events, lasting around 24 hours, can replenish the whole Bank's water in the order of day. The region's large scale circulation is dominated by the zonal Cayman Current impinging on the Yucatan Peninsula becoming the Yucatan Current as it turns northward. Variability in the strength and impacting latitude of this current causes sea level gradients within the Bank, i.e., a Yucatan Current increase of 1 m/s, over a period of a couple of weeks, sets up a zonal sea level gradient within that can replenish the whole Bank's water in a time scale of ~14 days. At such times, the large scale current around the Bank is at a maximum thus ensuring an effective removal and dispersal of the exported waters. The Bank has a micro-tidal regime with a semidiurnal amplitude of ~12 cm during spring tides and a diurnal of ~2 cm, these imply that the Bank is exchanging ~10% of its waters with its surroundings daily. However small, this tidal pumping is effective for the ventilation of the Banks' waters in ~10 days due to the

  15. The structural feature surrounding glycated lysine residues in human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Nakahari, Takashi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2011-06-01

    Complications derived from diabetes mellitus are caused by nonenzymatic protein glycation at the specific sites. LC/MS/MS was performed for the identification of the tryptic peptides of glycated hemoglobins using glyceraldehyde. After the identification of the glycation or non-glycation site, computer analysis of the structure surrounding the sites was carried out using PDB data (1BZ0). Five glycated lysine residues (Lys-16(α), -56(α), -8(β), -82(β), and -144(β)) and four non-glycated lysine residues (Lys-7(α), -40(α), -99(α), and -132(β)) were identified. The non-glycated lysine residues, Lys-7(α), -40(α), and -132(β), are most likely to form electrostatic interactions with the β carboxyl group of Asp-74(α), C-terminal His-146(β), and Glu-7(β) by virtue of their proximity, which is 2.67-2.91 Å (N-O). Additionally, there are histidine residues within 4.55-7.38 Å (N-N) around eight sites except for Lys-7(α). We conclude that the following factors seem to be necessary for glycation of lysine residues: (i) the apparent absence of aspartate or glutamate residues to inhibit the glycation reaction by forming an electrostatic interaction, (ii) the presence of histidine residues for acid-base catalysis of the Amadori rearrangement, and (iii) the presence of an amino acid residue capable of stabilizing a phosphate during proton transfer.

  16. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  17. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  18. Zonal disintegration phenomenon in rock mass surrounding deep tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FANG Qin; GUO Zhi-kun

    2008-01-01

    Zonal disintegration is a typical static phenomenon of deep rock masses. It has been defined as alternating regions of fractured and relatively intact rock mass that appear around or in front of the working stope during excavation of a deep tunnel. Zonal disintegration phenomenon was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory with 3D tests on analogous gypsum models, two circular cracked zones were observed in the test. The linear Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was used with a constitutive model that showed linear softening and ideal residual plastic to analyze the elasto-plastic field of the enclosing rock mass around a deep tunnel. The results show that tunneling causes a maximum stress zone to appear between an elastic and plastic zone in the surrounding rock. The zonal disintegration phenomenon is analyzed by considering the stress-strain state of the rock mass in the vicinity of the maximum stress zone. Creep instability failure of the rock due to the development of the plastic zone, and transfer of the maximum stress zone into the rock mass, are the cause of zonal disintegration. An analytical criterion for the critical depth at which zonal disintegration can occur is derived. This depth depends mainly on the character and stress concentration coefficient of the rock mass.

  19. Beliefs and practices surrounding postpartum period among Myanmar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2013-11-01

    to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of 'dirty lochia' was identified. traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women's close social network. the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unilateral lung agenesis--detrimental roles of surrounding vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, An-Kou; Huang, Shu-Chien; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Pei-Ming; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chang, Chung-I; Chiu, Ing-Sh; Wu, En-Ting

    2007-03-01

    Unilateral lung agenesis is a rare congenital defect and could be associated with multiple abnormalities. The patients usually have poor long-term outcomes especially in those with right lung agenesis. We reviewed the 10-year experience in our hospital to describe special clinical features and try to delineate the causes of poor outcomes. From 1995 to 2005, 14 patients less than 18 years of age with unilateral lung agenesis (4 with left agenesis, 10 with right agenesis) were enrolled. Medical records reviewed included diagnosis, presentation, chromosome anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies and interventions, outcomes. We found that the mechanisms of severe airway disease in right lung agenesis included (1) trachea compression by the aortic arch, (2) the presence of "pseudo-ring-sling complex," (3) distended pulmonary artery due to left to right shunt which impinged the only bronchus, and finally (4) the persistent LSVC that restricts the growth of trachea. The etiologies of airway complication in left lung agenesis included anomalous aortic arch compression on trachea and the coexisting heart disease with significant left to right shunt, which impinged on the bronchus. In conclusion, unilateral lung agenesis has frequently associated airway problems due to its surrounding vessels. Satisfactory airway intervention remains challenging. This disease still requires great effort to improve patient outcomes.