WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding equal access

  1. 45 CFR 98.43 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal access. 98.43 Section 98.43 Public Welfare... Operations (Child Care Services)-Lead Agency and Provider Requirements § 98.43 Equal access. (a) The Lead... sufficient to ensure equal access, for eligible families in the area served by the Lead Agency, to child...

  2. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education Regulations... ACCESS TO PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR THE BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA AND OTHER DESIGNATED YOUTH GROUPS § 108.6 Equal access. (a) General. Consistent with the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section,...

  3. Equal Access but Unequal Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2009-01-01

    with respect to Danish children's choice of secondary education. Denmark is well-suited for this study because access to secondary education is particularly meritocratic. The empirical analysis shows that all three channels through which cultural capital affects educational success are important....

  4. The equal accessibility to patient complaint measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren

    the actual complaint pattern a review was conducted on a 1-year General Practice care complaint sample (2007). Data were extracted on patient gender, age, and affiliation with labor market (if available). Interpreter use or family name presence on the Family Government Agency’s list of foreign names was used......The equal accessibility to patient complaint measures – a Danish perspective Like the Danish Healthcare Act (Para 2) basically prescribes a right to easy, equal access to healthcare, a Complaint Act (Para 2) entitles patients to file a complaint (about health professional conduct, informed consent...... obtainment etc.) with a Health Disciplinary Board at no cost. While there is no guarantee that healthcare is proportionately delivered across patient groups there is no warrant either that the complaint system actually promotes equal accessibility (by natives, cross-border patients etc.). To further study...

  5. Social Security Administration - Equal Access to Justice Act Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A dataset containing payment amounts made by the Social Security Administration for court-approved Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) payments for fiscal year data...

  6. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  7. State Lotteries: Their Effect on Equal Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Randall G.; Elrod, Henry E.

    2004-01-01

    Many states (18 of 39) use revenue generated by lotteries to help fund higher education. The revenue is generated as a regressive tax disproportionately collected. As such, do state lotteries contribute toward facilitation of equal access to higher education for low-income and minority citizens? Given population trends, college enrollment, and…

  8. Functioning and Challenges in Equality and Accessibility Among People with Short Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Kirsti; Anttila, Heidi; Mäkitie, Outi; Leppäjoki, Sanna; Hiekkala, Sinikka

    2016-01-01

    Accessibility is not the same for all of us. This study concerns people with short stature, their functioning and challenges in equality and accessibility in our environment based on average measures.

  9. Paralympics 2012 Legacy: Accessible Housing and Disability Equality or Inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    The golden summer of sport is now over, but what is the legacy of London 2012 for disabled people? Nadia Ahmed, a disabled student, discusses the difficulties she has faced in finding accessible accommodation in London. She argues that while the Games are over, the United Kingdom still has lots of hurdles to leap when it comes to disability. The…

  10. Equal accessequal egress: Accounting for people with disabilities in emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Janne Gress; Dederichs, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Accessibility to buildings for all persons independent of their (dis-)abilities is required by law in many countries (the Swedish BBR 3, the Danish BR10:3:2 ). However, accessible buildings are not automatically egressible in case of a fire. The fire safety design is based on escape routes......, and numerical evacuation models are applied for the prediction of the evacuation process in the fire safety design. In many cases these models are best fit to describe a normative description of the population comprehending young abled bodied adults. It has been shown, that some models poorly describe...... (Papaioannou, 2006). It is essential to use models, enabling the prediction of the egress of a total population in a building. In the current quantitative and qualitative study evacuation times and -characteristics from a train in a tunnel are measured for a full-scale evacuation exercise. The results...

  11. Post-accession compliance with EU gender equality legislation in post-communist new member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Sedelmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the transposition of EU legislation on gender equality at the workplace in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Slovenia, as well as the enforcement powers of their national equality institutions. It does not find significant differences between post- and pre-accession compliance. Overall compliance can be considered good in Hungary, Lithuania, and Slovenia, while it is considerably worse in the Czech Republic – both pre- and post-accession. As an explanation for these variations in legal transposition and enforcement bodies, the paper finds two equifinal paths towards correct transposition of EU gender equality legislation and strong enforcement bodies: either the absence of high adjustment costs, or the combination of strong social democratic governments and NGOs with special expertise in EU gender equality legislation.

  12. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M; Munck, A P

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general...

  13. The Effect of Access to Information on Beliefs Surrounding Breast Cancer in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sarah; Schnippel, Kathryn; Benn, Carol; Kruger, Deirdre; Wright, Kathryne; Firnhaber, Cynthia

    2017-05-24

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in South Africa. There is little knowledge of beliefs to help identify key areas to improve support and education in this demographically and culturally diverse population. Women with a variety of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics accessing care for breast cancer were asked their agreement to statements of knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer. Of the 259 participants, positive statements of medical cure (87.9%) and family support (90.5%) were most commonly believed. Beliefs in faith-based cure and alternative treatments were also present (79.5 and 24.9%, respectively). Negative beliefs were initially more likely in black patients (RR: 11.57, 95%CI: 1.37-97.69) as was belief of cancer as a punishment (RR: 6.85, 95%CI: 1.41-33.21). However, in multivariate analysis adjusting for age, education and access to information (by newspaper, Internet and confidence in reading and writing), there was no difference between racial groups or hospital attended. Reading a newspaper or accessing the Internet was the most protective against belief that cancer was a punishment or curse (Internet use: aRR: 0.12, 95%CI: 0.02-0.99), belief in alternative methods of cure (newspaper use: aRR: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.27-0.96) and the negative beliefs of death and disfigurement (Internet use: aRR: 0.00, 95%CI: 0.00-0.00). Positive expressions of cure and beating cancer were found equally in all women. Attitudes and beliefs about cancer showed little independent demographic or socioeconomic variance. Negative beliefs were mitigated by access to information and confidence in literacy.

  14. Internet accessibility and disability policy: lessons for digital inclusion and equality from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Goggin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the fifth decade of the internet, accessibility for all, especially those with disabilities, is central to digital inclusion. Yet internationally, the score card on internet and accessibility remains mixed, at best; and woefully inadequate, at worst. Via an Australian case study, we argue that it is imperative to better understand how internet technology interacts with the life worlds and dynamics of disability, and we suggest how policy can be articulated and improved to put people with disabilities on an equal basis to others in digital societies.

  15. Access for All! Neuro-architecture and Equal Enjoyment of Public Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gillen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, 1990, many impaired Americans are no longer disabled by socially condoned conditions in the built environment. However, many people with cognitive and neurological impairments continue to face significant barriers to access, due to disabling environmental hyper-sensitivity and sensory processing disorders. These people are equally protected under the ADA, therefore mitigation is required. Neuroarchitecture, where consideration of the impact of the built environment on the central nervous system informs design paradigms, must complement current ADA compliance guidelines. This paper serves to open the topic to discussion, and is a call for attention, and action, for the removal of these generally unrecognized barriers to access and the equal use and enjoyment of public facilities.

  16. One and done? Equality of opportunity and repeated access to scarce, indivisible medical resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huesch Marco D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing ethical guidelines recommend that, all else equal, past receipt of a medical resource (e.g. a scarce organ should not be considered in current allocation decisions (e.g. a repeat transplantation. Discussion One stated reason for this ethical consensus is that formal theories of ethics and justice do not persuasively accept or reject repeated access to the same medical resources. Another is that restricting attention to past receipt of a particular medical resource seems arbitrary: why couldn’t one just as well, it is argued, consider receipt of other goods such as income or education? In consequence, simple allocation by lottery or first-come-first-served without consideration of any past receipt is thought to best afford equal opportunity, conditional on equal medical need. There are three issues with this view that need to be addressed. First, public views and patient preferences are less ambiguous than formal theories of ethics. Empirical work shows strong preferences for fairness in health care that have not been taken into account: repeated access to resources has been perceived as unfair. Second, while difficult to consider receipt of many other prior resources including non-medical resources, this should not be used a motive for ignoring the receipt of any and all goods including the focal resource in question. Third, when all claimants to a scarce resource are equally deserving, then use of random allocation seems warranted. However, the converse is not true: mere use of a randomizer does not by itself make the merits of all claimants equal. Summary My conclusion is that not ignoring prior receipt of the same medical resource, and prioritizing those who have not previously had access to the medical resource in question, may be perceived as fairer and more equitable by society.

  17. The Concepts of Accessibility and Equality in Design Education: The Universal Design Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mugan Akıncı, Guliz

    2014-01-01

    Universal design approach aims to design products and environments that provide equal access for everyone to the variety of activities. Universal design applications and research and discussions related to these applications can be seen in different fields very often especially in the last years. Concerning the fact that its possibility of application is very new in Turkey, on the one hand, one of the aims of this study is to introduce and explain this new approach. On the other hand, the stu...

  18. Is Equal Access to Higher Education in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Achievable by 2030?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Sonia; Rose, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is back in the spotlight, with post-2015 sustainable development goals emphasising equality of access. In this paper, we highlight the long distance still to travel to achieve the goal of equal access to higher education for all, with a focus on poorer countries which tend to have lower levels of enrolment in higher education.…

  19. Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? Technical Appendix. NCEE 2011-4016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Max, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This appendix describes the methods and provides further detail to support the evaluation brief, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers?" (Contains 8 figures, 6 tables and 5 footnotes.) [For the main report, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? NCEE…

  20. Is Equal Access to Higher Education in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa Achievable by 2030?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Sonia; Rose, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is back in the spotlight, with post-2015 sustainable development goals emphasising equality of access. In this paper, we highlight the long distance still to travel to achieve the goal of equal access to higher education for all, with a focus on poorer countries which tend to have lower levels of enrolment in higher education.…

  1. Screening or Symptoms? How Do We Detect Colorectal Cancer in an Equal Access Health Care System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Quinton M; Kniery, Kevin R; Johnson, Eric K; Flores, Shelly A; Moeil, David L; Thompson, John J; Maykel, Justin A; Steele, Scott R

    2016-02-01

    Detection of colorectal cancer ideally occurs at an early stage through proper screening. We sought to establish methods by which colorectal cancers are diagnosed within an equal access military health care population and evaluate the correlation between TNM stage at colorectal cancer diagnosis and diagnostic modality (i.e., symptomatic detection vs screen detection). A retrospective chart review of all newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients from January 2007 to August 2014 was conducted at the authors' equal access military institution. We evaluated TNM stage relative to diagnosis by screen detection (fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, CT colonography, colonoscopy) or symptomatic evaluation (diagnostic colonoscopy or surgery). Of 197 colorectal cancers diagnosed (59 % male; mean age 62 years), 50 (25 %) had stage I, 47 (24 %) had stage II, 70 (36 %) had stage III, and 30 (15 %) had stage IV disease. Twenty-five percent of colorectal cancers were detected via screen detection (3 % by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), 0.5 % by screening CT colonography, 17 % by screening colonoscopy, and 5 % by surveillance colonoscopy). One hundred forty-eight (75 %) were diagnosed after onset of signs or symptoms. The preponderance of these was advanced-stage disease (stages III-IV), although >50 % of stage I-II disease also had signs or symptoms at diagnosis. The most common symptoms were rectal bleeding (45 %), abdominal pain (35 %), and change in stool caliber (27 %). The most common overall sign was anemia (60 %). Screening FOBT (odds ratio (OR) 8.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-78.3; P = 0.05) independently predicted early diagnosis with stage I-II disease. Patient gender and ethnicity were not associated with cancer stage at diagnosis. Despite equal access to colorectal cancer screening, diagnosis after development of symptomatic cancer remains more common. Fecal occult blood screen detection is associated with early stage at

  2. The Concepts of Accessibility and Equality in Design Education: The Universal Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guliz Mugan Akıncı

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Universal design approach aims to design products and environments that provide equal access for everyone to the variety of activities. Universal design applications and research and discussions related to these applications can be seen in different fields very often especially in the last years. Concerning the fact that its possibility of application is very new in Turkey, on the one hand, one of the aims of this study is to introduce and explain this new approach. On the other hand, the study aims to exemplify how the new information related to the philosophy of universal design approach can be integrated to the design education and find the ways of application in the university environment where the next expert generation has been coached. Within this framework, it is aimed to introduce the content and the way of application of the course of “Universal Design” which have been taught in the curriculum of the Architecture and Interior Architecture Departments of Okan University. Within the scope of the course, the students are expected to investigate and analyze the reflections of seven principles of universal design in real-life settings for the different and varied groups of human beings. While integrating the universal design approach to the design education, the things that is wanted to be emphasized is, this new and different approach is an inspiring fact for the new generation of designers concerning the concepts of accessibility and equality. The designs, organizations, suggestions, studies and researches of the design students of the course has demonstrated that if the universal design principles has become a component of the design education, it would also be achieving as a rewarding and fostering attempt.

  3. Treatment Trends for Stage I Testicular Seminoma in an Equal-Access Medical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Jonathan T; Etzioni, Ruth; Macdonald, Dusten M; Brand, Timothy C

    2016-10-01

    The practice patterns for adjuvant therapies for stage I seminoma are rapidly evolving, and surveillance is currently preferred. How these recommendations have affected contemporary practice in an equal-access US population is unknown. A total of 436 men diagnosed with clinical stage IA-IB seminoma from 2001 to 2011 were identified in the Automated Central Tumor Registry (ACTUR). The ACTUR is the cancer registry system for the Department of Defense. Logistic regression models analyzed the association between patient characteristics and adjuvant therapy. Overall and recurrence-free survival were determined from Kaplan-Meier analysis. The use of adjuvant radiotherapy in this population decreased significantly from 2001 to 2011. In 2001, 83.9% of patients received radiotherapy compared with only 24.0% in 2011. During that period, a concomitant increase occurred in the use of chemotherapy from 0% to 38.0%. A later year of diagnosis was significantly associated with a greater rate of receiving chemotherapy relative to radiotherapy (P associated with the receipt of surveillance (P = .412 for 2006-2011 vs. 2001-2005; odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.54-1.29). Black race or age was not significantly associated with adjuvant therapy. With a median follow-up period of 4.7 years, the 5-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 98.0% and 77.0%, respectively. The use of adjuvant radiotherapy has been replaced by chemotherapy for clinical stage I testicular seminoma in an equal-access system. The lack of an increase in active surveillance in our cohort might represent overtreatment of the population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Baltic Republics and Language Ideological Debates Surrounding European Union Accession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the impact of European Union accession negotiations on language ideological debates regarding minority (language) and citizenship rights in the Baltic Republics. It explores issues pertaining to the transferability of standards developed for established democracies in the West to the situation of democratising countries in…

  5. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

  6. Equalizing Access to Electronic Networked Resources: A Model for Rural Libraries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevitch, Judith J.; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current state of networking technology in rural libraries and describes a model for educating rural librarians in accessing electronic networks. Topics discussed include information needs in rural libraries; telecommunications technology access in rural areas; and examples of services to enhance information access.…

  7. From formal adoption to enforcement. Post-accession shifts in EU impact on Hungary in the equality policy field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Krizsan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on EU conditionality in equality policy in Hungary shows that while the formal EU acquis has been transposed in a fast and successful way, its enforcement and application largely lag behind. Most researchers explain this weak enforcement with factors such as state capacity problems, the absence of inclusive policy making, and low norm resonance at the domestic level. This paper analyzes how changes in EU influence in the post-accession, post-conditionality period contribute to maintaining compliance with and improving the enforcement of EU equality policy in Hungary. It aims to understand implementation processes that take place in the post-accession period through the Hungarian case of equality policy. The paper argues that in order to capture the impact of the EU in the post-accession period, one must look beyond formal transposition-related mechanisms and increasingly at financial assistance and social learning mechanisms. While mechanisms connected to formal transposition might suggest major drawbacks in formal compliance, financial assistance and social learning mechanisms seem to address more directly the application and enforcement problems that Hungary faces in the equality realm. The paper shows that these mechanisms directly and indirectly impact the most crucial factors that determine enforcement – state capacity, the strength and involvement of civil society, and norm resonance. A slow but steady move toward sustainable improvement in enforcement is indicated.

  8. Access or Inclusion? Conceptualisation and Operationalisation of Gender Equality in Zimbabwean State Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauraya, Efiritha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores concerns about gender inequality in Zimbabwean state universities. The researcher's interest arose from the realisation of persistent gender inequalities despite initiatives to close gender gaps. Of particular concern is the conceptualization and operationalisation of gender equality in institutions. Focusing only on the…

  9. Access or Inclusion? Conceptualisation and Operationalisation of Gender Equality in Zimbabwean State Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauraya, Efiritha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores concerns about gender inequality in Zimbabwean state universities. The researcher's interest arose from the realisation of persistent gender inequalities despite initiatives to close gender gaps. Of particular concern is the conceptualization and operationalisation of gender equality in institutions. Focusing only on the…

  10. Forum for Change. An Articulation Workshop for Secondary and Post-Secondary Educators to Promote Equal Access in Vocational Education (Harlingen, Texas, February 17, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Service Center Region 2, Corpus Christi, TX.

    This volume contains materials for use in conducting an articulation workshop to train secondary and postsecondary educators to promote equal access to vocational education. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: inequalities in the workplace, the role of articulation in promoting equal access, outreach, career…

  11. Equal Access to Early Childhood Education in South Korea Using the Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Jang, Youn Joo

    2017-01-01

    While the importance of early childhood education is well documented, scant attention is afforded to the access to institutions for early childhood education. Uneven distribution of institutions for early childhood education in segregated metropolitan areas can cause inequality of educational opportunity. By using the Geographic Information System…

  12. Equal and universal access?: water at mealtimes, inequalities, and the challenge for schools in poor and rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sarah M; Stafford, Randall

    2013-05-01

    As a result of the rising national obesity rates, public health researchers and advocates have initiated a number of obesity prevention interventions to reduce the rates of overweight and obesity along with their related medical conditions and costs. Policymakers have also initiated a wide range of environmental and policies to support healthy eating and physical activity. Policies such as California's SB1413, which requires that free drinking water be served in school cafeterias during mealtimes, and subsequently the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010, assume an equal access to safe and healthy drinking water. As a result, these policies and their application may unintentionally, exacerbate the inequities already present. Unless we take reasonable steps to address the needs of high-need communities, these one-size-fits-all policy efforts may result in an unequal patchwork of disparities and may have a greater negative impact in high-need poor and rural areas.

  13. Zooplankton biomass (displacement and settled volume) data collected during the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic EQUALANT I, EQUALANT II, and EQUALANT III projects from 1963-02-15 to 1964-07-09 (NODC Accession 0071432)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement and settled volume) data collected during the International Cooperative Investigations of the Tropical Atlantic EQUALANT I,...

  14. Equal Access to Health Care: Patient Dumping. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (July 22, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    This document presents witnesses' testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of equal access to health care and the practice of patient dumping which may take the form of transferring a patient to another hospital, refusing to treat a patient, or subjecting a patient to long delays, and which may…

  15. Book review: Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act: Environmental litigation and the crippling battle over America's lands, endangered species, and critical habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John

    2016-01-01

    Inside the Equal Access to Justice Act is authored by Lowell E. Baier, an attorney, political scientist, and historian whose conservation portfolio includes the J. N. “Ding” Darling Conservation Award from the National Wildlife Federation (2016), Citizen Conservationist Award from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (2013), Conservationist of the Year Award from Outdoor Life magazine (2010), and Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (2008). In the book, Baier stresses the need to reform the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA) because of unintended provisions that incentivize and reward environmental litigants for filing suit against federal regulatory and land management agencies, consequentially hindering pro-active, cooperative, conservation efforts. The book is the culmination of several years of legal research, case history analyses, and personal interviews with several key individuals from congress, conservation management agencies, and non-government organizations.

  16. Emulation of Equal Open Access and Competition Creation in the Wireline Telecommunications Local and Last Mile Market Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Epps, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Expanded telecommunications was deemed a serious need for end users. The "Local Market" and "Last Mile" market segments have largely consolidated into "natural utilities". Competition and access problems occur if new providers enter the local market and desire competitive access and service to end users. Local and…

  17. Expansion and equality of access to higher education in China%规模扩大与高等教育入学机会均等化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小浩

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the role of socio-economic status in determining access to higher education over time. Findings show that the overall equality of higher education opportunity has improved because of the inclusion of more marginal students into lower-tier higher education institutions (HEIs); however, students from higher socio-economic status have benefited disproportionably from the expansion in elite universities. A brief discussion of the potential implications is presented.

  18. Promoting gender equality in access to microcredit through flexible lending approaches of female targeting MFIs: Evidence from Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Mukamana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Access to loans is one of the most important areas of focus by many development practitioners for reducing the existing gender gap in access to productive resources. Microfinance Institutions which target females as key clients were promoted for their lending approaches which avoid previous discriminatory practices that excluded women in the financial system. The current study examines the role of Duterimbere MFI of Rwanda in promoting equality in access to microcredit between female and male borrowers. The results of the study are generated by analyzing quantitative data collected from 244 females and 94 males using the questionnaire and qualitative data collected from focus group discussions and interviews with key informants. The study findings revealed that Duterimbere has been able to adapt its requirements to the specific needs of poor women. A significant number of poor women have been able to join the MFI through group solidarity, a method that has upgraded their borrowing capacity to the level of getting individual loans on equal basis as male peers. This study recommends further research that should go beyond access to loan and consider the dynamics of power relations about utilization of the loan received by female and male borrowers.

  19. Two plus blue equals green: grapheme-color synesthesia allows cognitive access to numerical information via color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Barnes, Lianne N; Alvarez, Bryan D; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2013-12-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, graphemes (e.g., numbers or letters) evoke color experiences. It is generally reported that the opposite is not true: colors will not generate experiences of graphemes or their associated information. However, recent research has provided evidence that colors can implicitly elicit symbolic representations of associated graphemes. Here, we examine if these representations can be cognitively accessed. Using a mathematical verification task replacing graphemes with color patches, we find that synesthetes can verify such problems with colors as accurately as with graphemes. Doing so, however, takes time: ~250 ms per color. Moreover, we find minimal reaction time switch-costs for switching between computing with graphemes and colors. This demonstrates that given specific task demands, synesthetes can cognitively access numerical information elicited by physical colors, and they do so as accurately as with graphemes. We discuss these results in the context of possible cognitive strategies used to access the information. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Millennium Units, Intercultural Bilingual Education and (in equality in access to education in Ecuador. An analysis from ethnographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodriguez Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a doctoral research project that analyzes whether the public management of intercultural bilingual education responds to the definition of Ecuador as an intercultural and plurinational state. The article analyzes the educational policy developed through Millennium units, promoted by the Ministry of Education and directed especially to indigenous population, in a situation of social vulnerability due to poverty. Our analysis follows a double itinerary: first, the paper analyzes the current legislation on bilingual intercultural education, the Millennium units and the universalization of access to education; secondly, bilingual intercultural education practices and the generalization of access to the educational system are studied and described, based on an ethnography developed in two Millennium units located in the Ecuadorian Andes.

  1. Two plus blue equals green: Grapheme-color synesthesia allows cognitive access to numerical information via color

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Barnes, Lianne N.; Alvarez, Bryan D.; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, graphemes (e.g., numbers or letters) evoke color experiences. It is generally reported that the opposite is not true: colors will not generate experiences of graphemes or their associated information. However, recent research has provided evidence that colors can implicitly elicit symbolic representations of associated graphemes. Here, we examine if these representations can be cognitively accessed. Using a mathematical verification task replacing graphemes with...

  2. Pushing the boundaries of accessibility – Governmental efforts on ensuring equal access to information to rural library users (1997–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máté Tóth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997 a new Cultural Act was enacted which included, among other things, public library provision. Based on this act the Hungarian library system has been developed systematically through the consecutive strategic plans (Skaliczki, 1999. All projects aimed to push the boundaries of accessibility and to facilitate the realisation of the information society (Caidi, 2006. The 2003-2007 strategic period draws to an end and now we are able to review the tasks accomplished. (Skaliczki, 2003; 2006. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the strategic development of Hungarian libraries between 1997 and 2007, and to draw up the basic figures regarding to this period. (

  3. Incomplete equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Karlson, Kristian Bernt;

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests whether the existence of vocationally oriented tracks within a traditionally academically oriented upper education system reduces socioeconomic inequalities in educational attainment. Based on a statistical model of educational transitions and data on two entire cohorts of Danish...... youth, we find that (1) the vocationally oriented tracks are less socially selective than the traditional academic track; (2) attending the vocationally oriented tracks has a negative effect on the likelihood of enrolling in higher education; and (3) in the aggregate the vocationally oriented tracks...... improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking has adverse effects at the micro-level but equalizes educational opportunities at the macro-level. We also discuss whether similar mechanisms might exist in other educational...

  4. The equality of opportunities in the access of higher education La igualdad de oportunidades en el acceso a la educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Jesus Freire

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes equality of access to the university in Galicia (Spain as it was influenced by the political decision to finance higher education at between 80% and 85% of its real cost. The composition of the student body with respect to the level of their parents' education is examined. The analysis confirms that in spite of the significant effort at public financing, the objective of equal access will not be reached. Este trabajo analiza la igualdad de oportunidades de acceso a los estudios universitarios en Galicia (España. El examen se realiza teniendo en cuenta la decisión adoptada políticamente de financiar la educación superior entre un 80% y un 85% del costo real. Al tenor del enorme esfuerzo de financiación pública se examina la composición del alumnado en función del nivel de estudios de los padres. El análisis confirma que con la política de financiación pública aplicada no se podrá alcanzar el objetivo de igualdad de acceso a la universidad.

  5. Does small equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of small scientific communities and small journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. We analysed 444 Croatian open access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from "predatory" journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal's origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from small research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies.

  6. Equality = Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla

    2011-01-01

    A number of design and development methods, including participatory design and agile software development, are premised on an underlying assumption of equality amongst relevant stakeholders such as designers, developers, product owners, and end users. Equality, however, is not a straightforwardly...... an ethnography conducted during the workshop, including location, cultural and classroom hierarchies, gender, “girl games”, stakeholders and boundaries, and risk mitigation....

  7. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY: impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes LA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay A Rhodes,1 Carrie E Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,2 Stephen T Mennemeyer,3 Mary Bregantini,4 Nita Patel,4 Jinan Saaddine,5 John E Crews,5 Christopher A Girkin,1 Cynthia Owsley11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology, 3Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 4Prevent Blindness, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Vision Health Initiative, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USAPurpose: To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY.Patients and methods: New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized.Results: At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions. Those who were unemployed (odds

  8. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  9. Pré-vestibulares alternativos: da igualdade à eqüidade Alternative courses for college entrance examination and higher education access: from equality to equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleny Mitrulis

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as crescentes demandas por acesso ao ensino superior em período em que se assiste a um deslizamento do debate sobre igualdade de oportunidades do plano da educação obrigatória para o terreno da educação superior. Representando os interesses dos novos grupos de concluintes de educação básica, proliferaram, a partir do final dos anos 90, dentro de movimentos sociais voltados para segmentos desassistidos da população, cursos preparatórios ao ensino superior, gratuitos e sem fins lucrativos. No âmbito das universidades públicas do Estado de São Paulo, igualmente sensíveis às urgências sociais da inclusão, registram-se também ações favoráveis ao acesso e à permanência desses segmentos sociais nos cursos oferecidos. O artigo analisa as ambigüidades e as aberturas presentes em programas preparatórios ao ensino superior, tomando como referência o Programa Pró-Universitário, voltados aos alunos da série terminal da educação básica, pertencentes à rede estadual de ensino, desenvolvido pela Universidade de São Paulo em parceria com a Secretaria de Estado da Educação. Traz uma análise do perfil dos alunos participantes e uma reflexão sobre os efeitos desse tipo de iniciativa sobre a relação dos jovens com o saber e sobre a construção de suas identidades. Sugere que a ação afirmativa para a inclusão de jovens dos segmentos populares em instituições públicas de ensino superior requer uma proposta educativa na qual a socialização e a aprendizagem estejam intimamente ligadas. O domínio dos saberes preparatórios aos exames de acesso deixa de ser considerado apenas pelo valor instrumental e adquire outros significados como uma nova maneira de ver o mundo, relacionar-se consigo mesmo e com o outro.This work explores the growing demands for increasing access to higher education at a time when discussions on equality of opportunities at the level of compulsory education are shifting to higher

  10. Unjust Equalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2014-01-01

    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck egalitar...

  11. Granting Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ An amendment to the Electoral Law of the National People's Congress and Local People's Congresses of the People's Republic of China granting equal representation in legislative bodies to rural and urban people was ratified by the National People's Congress(NPC),China's top legislature,on March 14.

  12. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  13. Access to Gender-Sensitive Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe: Reflections on the CEPES Project "Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Summarizing the incomplete results of the United Nations Educational and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) program "Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education," the author asks that any assessment of the progress made in the area of gender-sensitive education take regional specificities into account. The regional…

  14. Do rheumatoid arthritis patients have equal access to treatment with new medicines? Tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors use in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, Joelle M.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.; van Dijk, Liset; Bijlsma, Johannes W. J.; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of the biological tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as a measure of access to treatment with new medicines. In addition, characteristics both related to national health systems and spending will be assessed to

  15. Do rheumatoid arthritis patients have equal access to treatment with new medicines? Tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors use in four European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J.M.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K.; Dijk, L. van; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Leufkens, H.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of the biological tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as a measure of access to treatment with new medicines. In addition, characteristics both related to national health systems and spending will be assessed to

  16. Creating (In)Equalities in Access to Higher Education in the Context of Structural Adjustment and Post-Adjustment Policies: The Case of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the access of different socio-economic groups to post-secondary institutions by quintile, this paper examines the impact produced by higher education financing policies in Chile during the Pinochet (1973-1990), the Aylwin (1990-1994) and the Frei (1994-2000) administrations. To this purpose, CASEN databases and semi-structured…

  17. TURBO EQUALIZATION WITH JOINTLY GAUSSIAN EQUALIZER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Sen; Sun Hong; Li Ping

    2005-01-01

    A Jointly Gaussian (JG) equalizer is derived for turbo equalization based on an augmented real matrix representation of channel model and a Gaussian approximation of the received symbol sequence. Using matrix inversion lemma and Cholesky decomposition, a lowcomplexity implementation of JG equalizer is also presented. The simulation results and complexity comparison confirm that turbo equalization with JG equalizer has a better performance and a lower complexity than the existing turbo equalization with linear minimum mean squared error equalizer.

  18. Equality or equity in health care access: a qualitative study of doctors' explanations to a longer doctor's delay among female TB patients in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, A; Johansson, E

    2004-04-01

    Earlier studies from Vietnam have highlighted the importance of studying gender aspects of health-seeking and diagnosis of potential tuberculosis patients. A longer doctor's delay to diagnosis among female TB patients has been shown. The objective of the present study was to explore doctors' views about and explanations for the longer doctor's delay. Five focus group discussions and three in-depth interviews were performed in a rural province in Vietnam. Thematic content analysis was used to interpret the data. The doctors suggest that women are lost or delayed within the health care-seeking chain, mainly because of barriers associated with the female gender. These barriers are identified, but yet the patient-doctor encounter seems to be steered by an equality principle. This results in gender blindness since equal treatment is suggested despite needs being different. We argue that gender equity should be the guiding principle for the tuberculosis patient-doctor encounter. An equity principle emphasises that needs vary with factors like gender or context. We suggest more research into the health care-seeking chain in order to identify the specific steps where TB diagnosis of men and women may be delayed. Interventions are needed in order to reduce delay to TB diagnosis especially for women and the current TB control strategy, (DOTS), needs to be examined from an equity perspective.

  19. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  20. “幸福广东”视域下公共体育服务均等化现状与对策%Current equal access to public sports service viewed from happy Guangdong prospect and countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林锋

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the concept,the paper defines the connotation of the public sports service and analyses the unequal access to the public sports service in Guangdong province.The paper also proposes to strengthen the public sports service function of the sports administrations,establish various channels of public sports service and improve the financial guarantee of the equal access of the public sports service.%基于建设幸福广东的理念,从公共体育服务的内涵出发,分析了广东省公共体育服务非均等化的原因,提出加强体育行政部门公共体育服务职能、建立多元化的公共体育服务供给模式、完善体育公共服务均等化财政制度保障等发展策略,旨在为推动广东省的公共体育服务均等化提供理论依据。

  1. Web Accessibility - A timely recognized challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Qadri, Jameel A

    2011-01-01

    Web Accessibility for disabled people has posed a challenge to the civilized societies that claim to uphold the principles of equal opportunity and nondiscrimination. Certain concrete measures have been taken to narrow down the digital divide between normal and disabled users of Internet technology. The efforts have resulted in enactment of legislations and laws and mass awareness about the discriminatory nature of the accessibility issue, besides the efforts have resulted in the development of commensurate technological tools to develop and test the Web accessibility. World Wide Web consortium's (W3C) Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) has framed a comprehensive document comprising of set of guidelines to make the Web sites accessible to the users with disabilities. This paper is about the issues and aspects surrounding Web Accessibility. The details and scope are kept limited to comply with the aim of the paper which is to create awareness and to provide basis for in-depth investigation.

  2. Equal Measure: Shielding Students and Enabling Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Margo

    2012-01-01

    "If one life is saved, then it's worth it." That is the cliched argument frequently used to justify banning electronic communications, websites, and other forms of technology in schools. The common belief is that these prohibitions will prevent, among other things, the sexual assault of minors or suicides related to cyberbullying. But that…

  3. Equal Measure: Shielding Students and Enabling Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Margo

    2012-01-01

    "If one life is saved, then it's worth it." That is the cliched argument frequently used to justify banning electronic communications, websites, and other forms of technology in schools. The common belief is that these prohibitions will prevent, among other things, the sexual assault of minors or suicides related to cyberbullying. But that…

  4. CULTURE, TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW AND GENDER EQUALITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JMaluleke

    2005-10-18

    Oct 18, 2005 ... "Equal access to Education and Training for Women: Pathway to Decent work for Women", on. 12-13 August ..... These parents and relatives also face being charged with Trafficking in Persons, ..... Register of Internet sources.

  5. Education, equality and difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Enslin

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Does the pursuit of equality in post-apartheid education require the removal of difference? This article examines the concepts of difference and equality by exploring two contemporary texts in political philosophy. It is argued that the pursuit of equality can and should, under certain circumstances, accommodate difference in the form of decentralisation and private schools.

  6. Obesity and oncological outcome after radical prostatectomy: impact of prostate-specific antigen-based prostate cancer screening: results from the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital and Duke Prostate Center databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedland, Stephen J; Sun, Leon; Kane, Christopher J; Presti, Joseph C; Terris, Martha K; Amling, Christopher L; Moul, Judd W; Aronson, William J

    2008-09-01

    To indirectly test the hypothesis that prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening is biased against obese men due to haemodilution of PSA, and thus results in delayed diagnosis and poorer outcome beyond the biological link between obesity and aggressive prostate cancer. We sought to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and the outcome of radical prostatectomy (RP) separately for men with PSA-detected cancers (cT1c) or with abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) findings (cT2/T3), and stratified by year of treatment, using two large databases. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1375 and 2014 men treated by RP between 1988 and 2007 using the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital (SEARCH) and Duke Prostate Center (DPC) databases. We evaluated the association between BMI and adverse pathological features and biochemical progression, using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for several clinical characteristics, respectively. Data were examined as a whole and as stratified by clinical stage (cT1c vs cT2/T3) and year of surgery (>or=2000 vs obesity was significantly related to progression in both cohorts among men with T1c cancers (P cancers (P > 0.3). Among men with T1c disease, the association between BMI and biochemical progression was limited to men treated in 2000 or later (P 0.4). Obese men with PSA-detected cancers and treated with RP since 2000 were at significantly greater risk of biochemical progression, while obese men treated before 2000 or diagnosed with an abnormal DRE were not at significantly greater risk of progression. These findings support the hypothesis that current PSA-based screening is less effective at finding cancers in obese men, leading to more aggressive tumours at diagnosis. Lowering the PSA threshold for biopsy among obese men might help to improve outcomes among this high-risk group.

  7. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  8. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  9. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  10. Integer Equal Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C A; Schulz, A S

    2009-01-07

    The integer equal flow problem is an NP-hard network flow problem, in which all arcs in given sets R{sub 1}, ..., R{sub {ell}} must carry equal flow. We show this problem is effectively inapproximable, even if the cardinality of each set R{sub k} is two. When {ell} is fixed, it is solvable in polynomial time.

  11. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  12. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure....

  13. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  14. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  15. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  16. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks surrounding these activities, the article provides new…

  17. The support paradox: Overcoming dilemmas in gender equality programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.C.L. van den; Stobbe, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper revolves around ambivalent discourses surrounding gender equality policies and interventions in organizations. On the one hand, these equality policies are perceived as necessary in order to create more opportunities for upward career mobility for women. On the other hand, both men and wo

  18. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  19. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses and accessi......This article introduces a new design concept; sensory accessibility. While acknowledging the importance of sensory experiences in architectural quality, as well as the importance of accommodating user needs the concept combines three equally important factors; architecture, the senses...... and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  20. Transhumanism and moral equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James

    2007-10-01

    Conservative thinkers such as Francis Fukuyama have produced a battery of objections to the transhumanist project of fundamentally enhancing human capacities. This article examines one of these objections, namely that by allowing some to greatly extend their capacities, we will undermine the fundamental moral equality of human beings. I argue that this objection is groundless: once we understand the basis for human equality, it is clear that anyone who now has sufficient capacities to count as a person from the moral point of view will continue to count as one even if others are fundamentally enhanced; and it is mistaken to think that a creature which had even far greater capacities than an unenhanced human being should count as more than an equal from the moral point of view.

  1. Gender equality revisited:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; B. Eydal, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic childcare policy model is often reviewed and even recommended internationally for its contribution to gender equality, high female labour force participation and, perhaps more indirectly, to a high fertility rate. Nordic childcare services and parental leave schemes have thus been...... portrayed in the literature as policies which have managed to facilitate a work–family model of dual earners and dual carers. However, the recent introduction of cash-for-care schemes seems to go against the Nordic dual earner/dual carer model and ideals of gender equality, in supporting parental (maternal...

  2. Motivation and Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.; Burton, John T.

    1982-01-01

    Argues that if teachers maintain task involvement in all children, they will achieve justifiable form of educational equality. Discusses social and personal factors which influence task involvement, including value framework of school (i.e., purpose school is seen to serve), organizational strategies adopted to facilitate learning, and specific…

  3. Teale Board of Equalization

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  4. Vascular Access Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the needle directly into the vein during the venous puncture (or access) process. This helps improve the likelihood of a successful venous puncture and also helps the interventional radiologist avoid surrounding ...

  5. Equality Work in Finnish Ministries

    OpenAIRE

    Tanhua, Inkeri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge about the equality work in public sector organisations. Especially, my aim is to bring light into everyday experiences of doing equality work. This is achieved through interviewing equality workers in Finnish ministries. The study draws also on my personal experiences as an equality consultant. The main question I ask is: Which issues influence the content of equality work? According to feminist research, promoting equality is always a poli...

  6. Equal Love Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou; Mingyang

    2015-01-01

    Recently,the LGBT community(including Lesbians,Gays,Bisexuals,Transgenders)has won big.In terms of their marriage rights,on July 2015,the Supreme Court of the United States has passed judegment to recognize same-sex marriage and grant most of their rights,which means one’s marriage with same sex is not only legal from then on,but also equal to that of opposite sex.

  7. Thoughts upon Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申辰瑜

    2015-01-01

    <正>Anyone who has some basic knowledge about The Declaration of Independence might not be unfamiliar with the following lines,"We hold these truths to be self-evident,that all men are created equal,that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights,that they are among these are life,liberty and the pursuit of happiness."Those words were truly respectable and encouraging at that time as well as

  8. Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    At its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Standing Concertation Committee took note of the appointment of four new members of the Panel: Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano and Markus Nordberg. The present composition of the Panel (appointed ad personam) is as follows: Tiziano Camporesi (Chairperson), Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano, Josi Schinzel (Equal Opportunities Officer), Markus Nordberg, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz et Elena Wildner. Human Resources Department Tel. 74480

  9. Democracy, Redistribution, and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przeworski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that economic inequality inevitably generates politicalinequality, which in turn reproduces economic inequality. Basic concepts areintroduced first along with strong caveats concerning the quality of the crossnationaldata on income distributions; historical patterns of income inequalityare summarized next, and with these preliminaries, a distinction is made betweenredistribution of consumption at a particular time and equalization of incomeearning capacities over time. Following this economic considerations, the articlediscussion moves to political factors that may block redistributions.

  10. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  11. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  12. Research on Fiscal Policy of the Equal Access to Basic Public Services between Urban and Rural Areas%城乡基本公共服务均等化的财政政策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕凌; 彭园媛

    2016-01-01

    Urban and rural areas “dual structure”interests curing of fiscal policy,makes large difference of regional urban and rural public services,and different parts of the urban and rural basic public services equalization degree also varies from place to place.Promote equal basic public services between urban and rural areas of fiscal policy,fundamental goal is to realize the public service of urban and rural development as a whole,is the main measure to speed up the ex-pansion of “agriculture,rural areas and farmers”by the national finance expenditure proportion, specific local governments bear the responsibility of the“three rural”spending,standard financial transfer payment,accelerate the new urbanization promoting the construction of urban and rural integration and synchronization.%城乡“二元结构”利益固化的财政政策,导致局部地区城乡公共服务差异大,且地区城乡基本公共服务均等化程度因地而异。推进城乡基本公共服务均等化的财政政策,根本目标在于实现公共服务城乡统筹发展,应加快扩大国家财政“三农”支出比重、明确地方财政承担“三农”支出的责任、规范财政转移支付、加快推进新型城镇化,并同步推进城乡一体化建设。

  13. Equalized near maximum likelihood detector

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.

  14. 加大改革力度促进城乡基本医保服务均等化%Promote Equal Access to Basic Health Care Services in Urban and Rural Areas through the Way of Deepening Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓微

    2014-01-01

    The prominent obstacle to achieve equal basic medical insurance system between urban and rural areas in China is the segmentation of basic medical insurance system and the imbalance health care service. Under the background of comprehensively deepening health insurance reform in China, promoting the equalization in basic health care services for urban and rural residents should be conducted mainly from the reform and construction of three aspects, namely, providers of public products, receivers of basic health insurance and carriers of basic medical insurance. First of all, it should reform the administrative system of basic medical insurance, straighten out the relations of service providers, and reduce the internal friction of government departments so as to reduce administrative costs, and promote the equalization of basic medical insurance services. Secondly, it need to optimize the framework of the basic health care system, integrate the urban basic medical insurance system and new rural cooperative medical care system, and establish basic medical insurance system for residents. Third, change basic medical insurance for urban employees into basic medical insurance for employees, expand the coverage and improve the basic medical insurance level. Last, strengthen medical treatment system reform, optimize the resource allocation in basic medical insurance carriers, strengthen the construction of rural medical and health care network, and relieve the contradictions in medical manpower distribution between urban and rural.%在我国推进城乡基本医保服务均等化,主要应从公共产品供给主体、基本医保受众和基本医保实现载体三个方面着力。改革基本医疗保险行政管理体制,理顺基本医保供给主体,减少政府部门的摩擦和内耗,降低行政管理成本,保证基本医保服务均等化;优化基本医保制度体系,整合城镇居民医保与新农合,建立居民基本医疗保险制度;

  15. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt;

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure. © 2016 UNU-WIDER. Journal of International Development published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright...

  16. Turbo iterative equalization for HSDPA systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU QiHui; ZHAO ChunMing; WANG JinLong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a turbo iterative receiver structure with chip equalization is proposed for the 3G high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) systems. The receiver equalizes the channel prior to the dispreading and then performs two successive soft-output decisions, achieved by a soft-input soft-output (SISO) multi-code detector and a SISO turbo decoder through an iterative process. At each iteration, extrinsic information is extracted from detection and decoding stages and is then used as a priori information in the next iteration, just as in turbo decoding. Computer simulations show that the turbo iterative receiver structure with chip equalization offers significant performance gain over the traditional receiver structure.

  17. Pay More Attention: a national mixed methods study to identify the barriers and facilitators to ensuring equal access to high-quality hospital care and services for children and young people with and without learning disabilities and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulton, Kate; Wray, Jo; Carr, Lucinda; Hassiotis, Angela; Jewitt, Carey; Kerry, Sam; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Gibson, Faith

    2016-12-09

    Despite evidence of health inequalities for adults with intellectual disability (ID) there has yet to be a comprehensive review of how well hospital services are meeting the needs of children and young people (CYP) with ID and their families. We do not know how relevant existing recommendations and guidelines are to CYP, whether these are being applied in the paediatric setting or what difference they are making. Evidence of parental dissatisfaction with the quality, safety and accessibility of hospital care for CYP with ID exists. However, the extent to which their experience differs from parents of CYP without ID is not known and the views and experiences of CYP with ID have not been investigated. We will compare how services are delivered to, and experienced by CYP aged 5-15 years with and without ID and their families to see what inequalities exist, for whom, why and under what circumstances. We will use a transformative, mixed methods case study design to collect data over four consecutive phases. We will involve CYP, parents and hospital staff using a range of methods; interviews, parental electronic diary, hospital and community staff questionnaire, patient and parent satisfaction questionnaire, content analysis of hospital documents and a retrospective mapping of patient hospital activity. Qualitative data will be managed and analysed using NVivo and quantitative data will be analysed using parametric and non-parametric descriptive statistics. The study will run from December 2015 to November 2018. We have Health Authority Approval (IRAS project ID: 193932) for phase 1 involving staff only and ethical and Health Authority Approval for phases 2-4 (IRAS project ID: 178525). We will disseminate widely to relevant stakeholders, using a range of accessible formats, including social media. We will publish in international peer-reviewed journals and present to professional, academic and lay audiences through national and international conferences. Published by

  18. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  19. Adaptive Equalization Algorithms: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Malik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent digital transmission systems impose the application of channel equalizers with short training time and high tracking rate. Equalization techniques compensate for the time dispersion introduced by communication channels and combat the resulting inter-symbol interference (ISI effect. Given a channel of unknown impulse response, the purpose of an adaptive equalizer is to operate on the channel output such that the cascade connection of the channel and the equalizer provides an approximation to an ideal transmission medium. Typically, adaptive equalizers used in digital communications require an initial training period, during which a known data sequence is transmitted. A replica of this sequence is made available at the receiver in proper synchronism with the transmitter, thereby making it possible for adjustments to be made to the equalizer coefficients in accordance with the adaptive filtering algorithm employed in the equalizer design. In this paper, an overview of the current state of the art in adaptive equalization techniques has been presented.

  20. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  1. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  2. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  3. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  4. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  5. World Summit embraces Open Access, libraries

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaser, D

    2004-01-01

    "The long-anticipated "first phase" meeting of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), held in Geneva in December, was supposed to have been about equal access. It turned out being equally about open access as leading scientific organizations pushed their open-access initiative onto the World Summit agenda" (1 page)

  6. 8. Gail Presbey Kenyan Sages on Equality of the sexes pp111-145

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gail

    Odera Oruka, Sage Philosophy, Feminism, Equality, Gender Justice, Ethics ..... literature in the ethics of care argues that using one's heart is indispensable for ... (4) Social customs surrounding marriage that advantage men's autonomy and ...

  7. Supplemental health insurance and equality of access in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental

  8. On Migrant Children's Right to Equal Access to Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN KAILIN; LIU XIAOLIANG

    2011-01-01

    @@ By "migrant children," we mean children living in cities with their parents who are migrants from the countryside.Under the current education system practiced in Chinese cities, the so-called "migrant children," as an underprivileged group, are often denied of the same right and opportunity to attend school as their counterparts in their host cities.While infringing upon a legitimate right of those "migrant children," this is adversely affecting the national endeavor to ensure fairness in education and the process of urbanization.

  9. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... or Social Security numbers, should not be included. Comments will not be edited to remove any..., corporation, association, or public or private organization with a net worth of not more than $7 million and... individuals, corporation or other entity that directly or indirectly controls or owns a majority of the voting...

  10. Gender Accessibility and Equality in Education: The Implication to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gold

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... College of Education Nsugbe, Anambra State, Nigeria. Arinze, Francis .... be viewed by some illiterate parents as a strong factor that discourages parents from ... Mothers who dropout prematurely from educational system,.

  11. 75 FR 17622 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...., Washington, DC 20552. The telephone number for the Telecommunications Device for the Deaf is (800) 877-8339... adjudication, without regard to whether the official is designated as a hearing examiner, administrative law... Justice Act in light of the actual relationship between the affiliated entities to consider them to...

  12. realising equality in access to hiv treatment for vulnerable and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UOVS

    Protocol to the African Charter on the Rights of Women (African Women's. Protocol). 20 are good ..... women and the trafficking of women and girls may lead to serious health consequences not ..... Register of internet sources. Department of ...

  13. Cataract surgery: ensuring equal access for boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Shirima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, many children are not brought for surgery in a timely fashion and follow up is often poor. Research at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC has shown that girls are more likely than boys to be negatively affected: * Only half as many girls as boys received cataract surgery. * Girls tended to be brought for surgery later than boys. * Girls who did receive surgery were less likely than boys to be brought for the appropriate two-week follow-up visit (36 per cent of girls vs 64 per cent of boys.

  14. 75 FR 65214 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... entitled as of right to be admitted as a party in an adversarial adjudication. Position of FHFA means the... in private practice, his or her customary fees for similar services; or, if the attorney, agent, or... party for limited purposes, or that is properly seeking and entitled as of right to be admitted as a...

  15. Equality and Education -- Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John

    1975-01-01

    Discusses equality in education within the framework of the ideas of John Rawls, asserting that even though in the real world it is not easy to implement his version of equality and justice without endangering his prior principle of liberty, he provides a philosophical foundation for the reconsideration of the meritocratic principle. (Author/JM)

  16. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  17. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  18. Moderate Secularism and Multicultural Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    provides a response to a prominent argument against multicultural accommodation of religious minorities, what is really at stake in discussions of multiculturalism and secularism are political principles. Modood's case for accommodation of Muslims along the lines of moderate secularism presupposes...... a normative conception of equality, but his characterisation of multicultural equality is inadequate in several respects...

  19. Access to Specialized Surgical Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to reduce the global burden of disease (GBD), it is ... global players have supported efforts to improve access and safety of surgery ... (i) strengthening surgical services at district hospitals ... of the surrounding community and a model for other.

  20. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  1. Electronegativity Equalization with Pauling Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsch, Steven G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses electronegativity equalization using Pauling units. Although Pauling has qualitatively defined electronegativity as the power of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself, Pauling electronegativities are treated in this paper as prebonded, isolated-atom quantities. (JN)

  2. Sparsity Enhanced Decision Feedback Equalization

    CERN Document Server

    Ilic, Jovana

    2011-01-01

    For single-carrier systems with frequency domain equalization, decision feedback equalization (DFE) performs better than linear equalization and has much lower computational complexity than sequence maximum likelihood detection. The main challenge in DFE is the feedback symbol selection rule. In this paper, we give a theoretical framework for a simple, sparsity based thresholding algorithm. We feed back multiple symbols in each iteration, so the algorithm converges fast and has a low computational cost. We show how the initial solution can be obtained via convex relaxation instead of linear equalization, and illustrate the impact that the choice of the initial solution has on the bit error rate performance of our algorithm. The algorithm is applicable in several existing wireless communication systems (SC-FDMA, MC-CDMA, MIMO-OFDM). Numerical results illustrate significant performance improvement in terms of bit error rate compared to the MMSE solution.

  3. From Equality of Opportunity to the Society of Equals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Rosanvallon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to reaffirm equality as a fundamental democratic value faces two tasks: it must respond to social and cultural changes accompanying the most recent phase of capitalist development, and it must reactivate the original context of the democratic transformation that brought equality to prominence, in close conjunction with other aspects of an innovative vision. At the outset, equality was interpreted in terms of “a world of similar human beings, a society of autonomous individuals, and a community of citizens”. In this context, equality was closely linked to liberty, but their interconnections were also open to historical changes. Later developments – including the shift to a more organized kind of capitalism, two world wars and the rise of a temporarily successful rival version of modernity – led to significant upgradings of equality. But during the past half-century, the case for equality has been undermined by historical trends. Mutations of the capitalist economy, on the level of organization as well as production, and the disappearance of a really existing alternative, lent support to a new type of individualism. Drawing on Simmel’s distinction between the individualism of similarity and the individualism of distinction, the present phase can be interpreted as a radicalization and democratization of the individualism of distinction into an individualism of singularity. A social-liberal strategy, aiming at a reconciliation of liberty and equality, must take this new individualism on board and understand it as a social relationship, thus maintaining critical distance from neo-liberal ideology.

  4. All Men are Created Equal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婉欣

    2015-01-01

    <正>I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed:"We hold these truths to be self-evident,that all men are created equal."This is an abstract from Martin Luther King’s famous speech I Have a Dream,which we all learnt in middle school."All men are created equal",he said,and he devoted his

  5. ABC of women workers' rights and gender equality

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    This concise and easy to read guidebook assists the layperson in understanding the legal frameworks and socio-economic developments surrounding gender equality in the world of work. Completely updated and revised, this guide incorporates important information relevant to women workers such as women in development, gender mainstreaming, the glass ceiling and much more. Each entry in the guide provides a clear, succinct definition and directs the reader to relevant laws, ILO conventions, and other topics for further research.

  6. PUBLIC EQUALITY, DEMOCRACY AND JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mladenović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of public equality which, according to the view Thomas Christiano defends in his book The Constitution of Equality: Democratic Authority and Its Limits, is of central importance for social justice and democracy. Christiano also holds that the authority of democracy, and its limits, are grounded in this principle. Christiano’s democratic theory can be, broadly speaking, divided in two parts. The first part deals with the derivation and justification of the principle of public equality. The second part argues why and how the authority of democracy, and its limits, are based on this principle. This article will deal only with the first part of Christiano’s theory. While I believe that the second part is crucially important for Christiano’s democratic theory, I think that before examining the role of the principle of public equality, it is necessary to examine its nature. For that reason, this paper deals primarily with the nature of the principle of public equality as the requirement of social justice and the basis for the justification of democracy.

  7. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  8. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  9. Distributive Equality, Relational Equality and Preferences about Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Are scenarios in which disadvantaged students prefer not to attend (certain) universities a concern from the perspective of an egalitarian theory of justice? I consider this question from the respective perspectives of two prominent approaches to equality: distributive theories, which focus on the fairness of inequalities in outcomes, and…

  10. Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chakrabarti, Amit; McGregor, Andrew;

    2012-01-01

    The \\textsc{equality} problem is usually one's first encounter with communication complexity and is one of the most fundamental problems in the field. Although its deterministic and randomized communication complexity were settled decades ago, we find several new things to say about the problem...... by focusing on two subtle aspects. The first is to consider the {\\em expected} communication cost (at a worst-case input) for a protocol that uses limited interaction---i.e., a bounded number of rounds of communication---and whose error probability is zero or close to it. The second is to consider the {\\em...... cost bounds, we obtain new bounded-round randomized lower bounds for the \\textsc{or-equality} problem that have a direct-sum flavor. Such lower bounds were previously known only for deterministic protocols or one-round randomized protocols. The \\textsc{or-equality} problem is in turn closely related...

  11. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  12. The Invisible Obstacle to Educational Equality: Gender Bias in Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Rae Lesser

    2008-01-01

    Gender bias in textbooks (GBIT) is a low-profile education issue, given the 72,000,000 children who still have no access to schooling, but this article argues that GBIT is: (1) an important, (2) near-universal, (3) remarkably uniform, (4) quite persistent but (5) virtually invisible obstacle on the road to gender equality in education--an obstacle…

  13. Educational Opportunity: El Salvador's Barriers to Achieving Equality Persist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekrans, Kristin

    This paper analyzes barriers to educational equality in El Salvador, using a multi-layered framework of educational opportunity. To improve educational opportunity and give the most marginalized sectors of society the possibility of changing their life circumstances requires policies that go beyond mere access to formal schooling. The model…

  14. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  15. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  16. Promote Equality in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents suggestions to help physical educators treat all students equally and avoid unconsciously making inequitable gender-based statements and practicing other gender discrimination. Suggestions include encouraging girls to talk more, praising girls' performance and boys' appearance, using gender-neutral language, not stereotyping either sex,…

  17. Equal Opportunity Through Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Margarite A.

    1985-01-01

    The assumption is that sex-integrated classes are inherently equal by the very fact that boys and girls are in the same class. In fact, educational inequity has increased primarily because of instructional design which perpetuates differences among individuals. Good teaching must accommodate individual differences. (MT)

  18. Equal, but not the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Gabriel

    2006-10-19

    In April 2007, the gender equality duty will make it obligatory for all health providers to actively demonstrate equity in service provision. Good practice tends to exist in small projects with little evidence of national progress towards gender equity. The DoH says trusts should already be working towards

  19. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  20. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  1. Accessibility Considerations for Hybrid Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the central questions and issues that faculty and administrators need to consider when designing and implementing hybrid courses to ensure that all students, including those with disabilities, have equal access. The author offers resources on faculty development programs, accessibility checklists, and online resources on…

  2. Revising the Musical Equal Temperament

    CERN Document Server

    Hinrichsen, Haye

    2015-01-01

    Western music is predominantly based on the equal temperament with a constant semitone frequency ratio of $2^{1/12}$. Although this temperament has been in use since the 19th century and in spite of its high degree of symmetry, various musicians have repeatedly expressed their discomfort with the harmonicity of certain intervals. Recently it was suggested that this problem can be overcome by introducing a modified temperament with a constant but slightly increased frequency ratio. In this paper we confirm this conjecture quantitatively. Using entropy as a measure for harmonicity, we show numerically that the harmonic optimum is in fact obtained for frequency ratios larger than $2^{1/12}$. This suggests that the equal temperament should be replaced by a harmonized temperament as a new standard.

  3. Equal opportunity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A

    1992-04-01

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was created by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The commission encourages voluntary compliance with equal employment opportunity practices, and has authority to investigate complaints alleging discrimination in hiring, firing, wage rates, testing, training, apprenticeship, and other conditions of employment. In October 1991, during the Senate Judiciary Committee hearings, the confirmation of Judge Clarence Thomas for a seat on the United States Supreme Court was placed in jeopardy by a charge of sexual harassment while Thomas was head of the EEOC. This article focuses on aspects of sexual harassment in the workplace, the role of the EEOC, and offers some suggestions for keeping the work environment free of abusive behavior.

  4. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  5. Reminder - Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    At its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Standing Concertation Committee also took note of the nomination of a fourth new member of the Panel: Wisla Carena. The present composition of the Panel (appointed ad personam) is now as follows: Tiziano Camporesi (Chairperson), Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano, Josi Schinzel (Equal Opportunities Officer), Markus Nordberg, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz and Elena Wildner. Human Resources Department Tel. 74480

  6. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  7. Vermont State Lands Conservation Easement for lands surrounding the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document outlines public access rights to state lands that surround the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Wildlife Refuge.

  8. The equal right to drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura A

    2014-11-01

    The starting place for this essay is Knupfer and Room's insight that more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication tend to be selectively applied to the economically dependent segments of society, such as women. However, since these authors wrote in 1964, women in the US and many other societies around the globe have experienced rising economic independence. The essay considers how the moral categories of acceptable drinking and drunkenness may have shifted alongside women's rising economic independence, and looks at evidence on the potential consequences for women's health and wellbeing. I argue that, as women have gained economic independence, changes in drinking norms have produced two different kinds of negative unintended consequences for women at high and low extremes of economic spectrum. As liberated women of the middle and upper classes have become more economically equal to men, they have enjoyed the right to drink with less restraint. For them, alongside the equal right to drink has come greater equality in exposure to alcohol-attributable harms, abuse and dependence. I further suggest that, as societies become more liberated, the economic dependency of low-income women is brought into greater question. Under such conditions, women in poverty-particularly those economically dependent on the state, such as welfare mothers-have become subject to more restrictive norms around drinking and intoxication, and more punitive social controls.

  9. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings - 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, Gerard; Burgwal, van de Marcel; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it provid

  10. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  11. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  12. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jacek Korchowiec

    2005-09-01

    The chemical system can be analyzed in different resolutions. The assumed resolution imposes a given partitioning of the system in physical or functional space. The most frequently explored are global, reactant, atoms-in-molecule, orbital, and local resolutions. In this paper we have considered reactant resolution, i.e., the mutually polarized reactants before the charge-transfer among them. We have demonstrated that a certain type of generalized sensitivity, the system responses to the population variables, is equalized throughout the space up to the infinite order in the perturbation expansion.

  13. Teachers’ challenges education for equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Anguita Martínez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality among women and men has been, and still is a key issue regarding the development of formal education systems. In some way, it can be seen as the cornerstone of equity. Although the most visible gender issues are drawing back in our country, others specially related to the hidden curriculum are still present. Teacher´s initial and lifelong training constitute the best tool to minimize the aforementioned hidden-curriculum-related gender inequalities. However, there is not much done with this regard in our current teacher´s formal training system.

  14. Are Men and Women Equal in Employment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    EQUALITY was one of the themes of the Fourth World Conference on Women. The motto of the Conference was "Action for Equality, Development and Peace." But is there a real possibility for equality between men and women? Equality in employment remains an important concern. Recently, Zheng Yefu, research worker of the Beijing Academy of Social

  15. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  16. Boosting equal time bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Dennis D; Jarvinen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    We present an explicit and exact boost of a relativistic bound state defined at equal time of the constituents in the Born approximation (lowest order in hbar). To this end, we construct the Poincar\\'e generators of QED and QCD in D=1+1 dimensions, using Gauss' law to express A^0 in terms of the fermion fields in A^1=0 gauge. We determine the fermion-antifermion bound states in the Born approximation as eigenstates of the time and space translation generators P^0 and P^1. The boost operator is combined with a gauge transformation so as to maintain the gauge condition A^1=0 in the new frame. We verify that the boosted state remains an eigenstate of P^0 and P^1 with appropriately transformed eigenvalues and determine the transformation law of the equal-time, relativistic wave function. The shape of the wave function is independent of the CM momentum when expressed in terms of a variable, which is quadratically related to the distance x between the fermions. As a consequence, the Lorentz contraction of the wave ...

  17. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  18. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  19. Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2003-01-01

    When the human genome project was conceived, its leaders wanted all researchers to have equal access to the data and associated research tools. Their vision of equal access provides an unprecedented teaching opportunity. Teachers and students have free access to the same databases that researchers are using. Furthermore, the recent movement to…

  20. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  1. All equal-area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usery, E.L.; Seong, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution regional and global raster databases are currently being generated for a variety of environmental and scientific modeling applications. The projection of these data from geographic coordinates to a plane coordinate system is subject to significant areal error. Sources of error include users selecting an inappropriate projection or incorrect parameters for a given projection, algorithmic errors in commercial geographic information system (GIS) software, and errors resulting from the projection of data in the raster format. To assess the latter type of errors, the accuracy of raster projection was analyzed by two methods. First, a set of 12 one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals placed at various latitudes was projected at several raster resolutions and compared to the projection of a vector representation of the same quadrilaterals. Second, several different raster resolutions of land cover data for Asia were projected and the total areas of 21 land cover categories were tabulated and compared. While equal-area projections are designed to specifically preserve area, the comparison of the results of the one-degree by one-degree quadrilaterals with the common equal area projections (e.g., the Mollweide) indicates a considerable variance in the one-degree area after projection. Similarly, the empirical comparison of land cover areas for Asia among various projections shows that total areas of land cover vary with projection type, raster resolution, and latitude. No single projection is best for all resolutions and all latitudes. While any of the equal-area projections tested are reasonably accurate for most applications with resolutions of eight-kilometer pixels or smaller, significant variances in accuracies appear at larger pixel sizes.

  2. Frequency-domain equalization for OFDMA-based multiuser MIMO systems with improper modulation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Pei; Lin, Zihuai; Fagan, Anthony; Cowan, Colin; Vucetic, Branka; Wu, Yi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel transceiver structure for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based uplink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output systems. The numerical results show that the proposed frequency-domain equalization schemes significantly outperform conventional linear minimum mean square error-based equalizers in terms of bit error rate performance with moderate increase in computational complexity.

  3. Gender equality remains the objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helzner, J

    1996-01-01

    The 1994 and 1995 UN conferences in Cairo and Beijing stressed the importance of involving men in family planning and reproductive health programs and initiatives. The fourth chapter of the report of the International Conference on Population and Development puts forth the goal of promoting gender equality in all spheres of life, including family and community life, and encouraging and enabling men to take responsibility for their sexual and reproductive behavior and their social and family roles. The document specifies areas of shared responsibility in both the household and society in general. Gender analysis of family planning programs is discussed, followed by consideration of men as managers and decision makers, male involvement to increase contraceptive use, male-dependent contraceptives, other issues of male control, and future challenges.

  4. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay-for-perfo......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay......-for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working...

  5. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  6. Pythagorean triangles of equal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intent in this paper is to find triples of Rational Pythagorean Triangles (abbr. RPT having equal areas. A new method of solving a2+ab+b2=c2 is to set a=y−1, b=y+1, y∈N−{0,1} and get Pell's equation c2−3y2=1. To solve a2−ab−b2=c2, we set a=12(y+1, b=y−1, y≥2, y∈N and get a corresponding Pell's equation. The infinite number of solutions in Pell's equation gives rise to an infinity of solutions to a2±ab+b2=c2. From this fact the following theorems are proved.

  7. Ethical Perspectives of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian PALADE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the fair equality of the concept of opportunity from the perspective of the moral and reasonable justifications brought to support positive discrimination. Although contemporary democratic societies guarantee the absence of discrimination by securing the formal equality of opportunity, this seems to be insufficient to balance opportunities. The Rawlsian model has gained ground, by advancing a redistribution of the resources to support the disadvantaged ones, which is implemented through special measures. The compulsory quotas for admission to higher education or public institutions, addressed to some disadvantaged groups, are one of the effective means of implementing fairness. As this system has shattered the principle of reward judging by one‟s merits, and ending up as a form of inverse discrimination of the majority groups, it is necessary that we analyse the arguments and the boomerang effects of the special measures. The undertaking proposed by the present paper is structured around highlighting the ethical aspects, as well as the consequences resulting from the arguments in favour of positive discrimination. Do we have the moral obligation to make up for the past inequalities suffered by some groups? Does preferential treatment really ensure the genuine integration of such groups? Do special measures contribute in creating social justice? Without the claim of having responded definitively and exhaustively to these questions, this paper attempts to emphasise the ethical dilemma that raises when special measures favour one group or another, when a group is protected judging by only one criterion, or when only an implementation area is selected.

  8. Identification of -SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond medium using weak Raman surface phonons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla; Harish Ojha; Vadali Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth

    2013-11-01

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its volume content when relatable, will affect the resultant Raman response of -SiC phase as seen in the present case of diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin films.

  9. Fovea-periphery axis symmetry of surround modulation in the human visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Nurminen

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus activates different sized cortical area depending on eccentricity of the stimulus. Here, our aim is to understand whether the visual field size of a stimulus or cortical size of the corresponding representation determines how strongly it interacts with other stimuli. We measured surround modulation of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal and perceived contrast with surrounds that extended either towards the periphery or the fovea from a center stimulus, centered at 6° eccentricity. This design compares the effects of two surrounds which are identical in visual field size, but differ in the sizes of their cortical representations. The surrounds produced equally strong suppression, which suggests that visual field size of the surround determines suppression strength. A modeled population of neuronal responses, in which all the parameters were experimentally fixed, captured the pattern of results both in psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although the fovea-periphery anisotropy affects nearly all aspects of spatial vision, our results suggest that in surround modulation the visual system compensates for it.

  10. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  11. Equality and Empowerment for Decent Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Substantive equality encompasses equality of results, opportunity, and human dignity. To implement it requires an incremental approach ranging from voluntary participation to penalties for noncompliance, active participation of all stakeholders, and empowerment of disadvantaged groups. (SK)

  12. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...

  13. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161640.html Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also ... 25, 2016 MONDAY, Oct. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women have made major strides towards equality with men, ...

  14. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  15. Competition and Cooperation, Equality and Elites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flew, Antony

    1983-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are often seen as polar opposites; yet they are not necessarily in opposition. Similarly, quality and elitism are not opposed if the goal of equality is seen as equality of opportunity rather than equality of outcome and the elite are the product of fair competition. (IS)

  16. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  17. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  18. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    in development policies. The former liberal-conservative government (2001-2011) has focused on equal opportunities, gender equality as a means to economic growth, voluntary measures and freedom of choice. Increased attention has been paid in recent years to ethnic minorities and to men’s role in gender equality.......The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...

  19. "We Understand Better Because We Have Been Mothers": Teaching, Maternalism, and Gender Equality in Bolivian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Julie A.; Miller, Amy Chasteen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Bolivian schoolteachers' attitudes and practices surrounding gender in the context of a national educational reform law that mandated gender equity. Teacher interviews and primary school classroom observations indicate teachers' discourses and practices reflect a sometimes paradoxical blend of advocacy for gender equality and…

  20. Characterizing the Microenvironment Surrounding Phosphorylated Protein Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Cai Fan; Xue-Gong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in various cellular processes. Due to its high complexity, the mechanism needs to be further studied. In the last few years, many methods have been contributed to this field, but almost all of them investigated the mechanism based on protein sequences around protein sites. In this study, we implement an exploration by characterizing the microenvironment surrounding phosphorylated protein sites with a modified shell model, and obtain some significant properties by the rank-sum test, such as the lack of some classes of residues, atoms, and secondary structures. Furthermore, we find that the depletion of some properties affects protein phosphorylation remarkably. Our results suggest that it is a meaningful direction to explore the mechanism of protein phosphorylation from microenvironment and we expect further findings along with the increasing size of phosphorylation and protein structure data.

  1. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  3. Improving SC-FDMA performance by Turbo Equalization in UTRA LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard;

    2008-01-01

    does not have stringent power constraints. In this paper, a turbo equalization technique to improve Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) performance is proposed. A new adaptive coefficients solution for frequency domain equalization is considered. The work is in the context...... that the turbo equalizer can improve the BLER performance around 1 dB with only a few iterations, and improve the SC-FDMA performance over OFDM, especially at high coding rate.......Turbo equalization is known as an advanced iterative equalization and decoding technique that allows to enhance the performance of the data transmission over a frequency selective fading channel. The turbo equalizer will result in extra receiver complexity, but isolated to the base-station, which...

  4. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  5. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiulianoF.Panza; AntonellaPontevivo; GiordanoChimera; RenetaRaykova; AbdelkrimAoudia

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by sur-face wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion.Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithos-phere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, iden-tified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the prmctpat recent votca-noes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria, a lithospheric dou-bling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenos-phere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea,likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria.

  6. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  7. The Uneasy Marriage between Law and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline C. Westerman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be said to contribute to equality in the sense of an equal distribution of collective resources. It is argued that whereas the first just requires decision-making to be rule-based, the second principle demands that rules should be based on sound categorical distinctions. Neither of the two can, however, sensibly be linked to equality as equal distribution. The article concludes that the only way to establish such a link is by adding to the principle of non-discrimination “financial resources” as a suspect ground.

  8. Iterative Estimation in Turbo Equalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORGOS Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the iterative estimation in turbo equalization process. Turbo equalization is the process of reception in which equalization and decoding are done together, not as separate processes. For the equalizer to work properly, it must receive before equalization accurate information about the value of the channel impulse response. This estimation of channel impulse response is done by transmission of a training sequence known at reception. Knowing both the transmitted and received sequence, it can be calculated estimated value of the estimated the channel impulse response using one of the well-known estimation algorithms. The estimated value can be also iterative recalculated based on the sequence data available at the output of the channel and estimated sequence data coming from turbo equalizer output, thereby refining the obtained results.

  9. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...... reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global...

  10. Gender Equality, Intersectionality and Diversity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    Analyzing the developments which have characterized EU gender equality policies and women's transnational activism since the introduction of multiple discrimination policies in the 1990s, this book identifies two interrelated challenges: diversity of women's interests, and degendering of policies....... Drawing on discursive policy analysis, it addresses the interaction between policies, institutions and civil society actors in relation to gender equality, diversity and intersectionality at the European level. Rolandsen Agustín successfully integrates the concepts of diversity and gender equality...

  11. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...... conclude that while trust facilitates welfare state policies that may reduce net inequality, this decrease in inequality does not increase trust....

  12. How Likely Is Factor Price Equalization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil O.; Keiding, Hans

    The idea of treating factor price equalization as a situation, where the distribution of factors among countries is compatible with an equilibrium in an integrated world economy, has been refined to give the so-called lens condition for factor price equalization. In this paper, we show...... that the lens condition may be used to give estimates for the probability of factor price equalization when factors are distributed randomly among countries and, in addition, the techologies are sampled according to a given probability distribution. The estimates indicate that factor price equalization may...

  13. Equality: A Principle of Human Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjördís Hákonardóttir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on equality as a primary principle of human interaction. Human beings have basic needs, physical and mental, the fulfilment of which is necessary for a flourishing life. These needs transfer into so-called fundamental rights. Humans are entitled to a life as conscious, autonomous actors in respect to those needs. In this respect all humans are equal. It is proposed here that equality in this sense promotes a situation from which fundamental rights are derived. Thus equality is primary to and the reason why recognition of fundamental rights cannot be left to the chance of social development.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  15. Access Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Building access control (BAC)--a catchall phrase to describe the systems that control access to facilities across campus--has traditionally been handled with remarkably low-tech solutions: (1) manual locks; (2) electronic locks; and (3) ID cards with magnetic strips. Recent improvements have included smart cards and keyless solutions that make use…

  16. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  17. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  18. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  19. Does Russia need gender equality officers?

    OpenAIRE

    Krasilnikova, Oxana; Красильникова, Оксана

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies the reasons for the lack of the gender equality officer in the Russian Federation against the background of the Nordic countries and Germany experience and conditions for the establishment of the gender equality in Europe. Using gender approach the political and cultural situation of the Russian society is analyzed and the ways to solve the problem are suggested.

  20. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  1. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Amendment paved the way for more women to participate in American politics--as leaders, candidates, voters... August 28, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9003--Women's Equality Day, 2013 Proclamation 9004...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9003 of August 23, 2013 Women's Equality Day...

  2. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to compute the latter messages from the beliefs obtained using a Kalman smoother/equalizer. Doing so leads to a significant complexity reduction compared to the initial PGA...

  3. 47 CFR 73.1941 - Equal opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal opportunities. 73.1941 Section 73.1941... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1941 Equal opportunities. (a) General requirements...-spot coverage of bona fide news events (including, but not limited to political conventions...

  4. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality...... are articulated and justified in the policy statements of six Scandinavian universities. The analysis reveals some interesting disparities between the countries. In short, the Danish universities seem to be reluctant to deal with gender equality on the basis of rights-based assumptions. While the Norwegian...... and Swedish universities juxtapose arguments of utility, innovation, justice, and anti-discrimination, the Danish universities primarily refer to aspects of competitiveness, utility, and innovation when justifying activities on gender equality. The article suggests that the lack of justice...

  5. Approximate Equalities on Rough Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and an Analysis of Approximate Equalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Tripathy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to involve user knowledge in determining equality of sets, which may not be equal in the mathematical sense, three types of approximate (rough equalities were introduced by Novotny and Pawlak ([8, 9, 10]. These notions were generalized by Tripathy, Mitra and Ojha ([13], who introduced the concepts of approximate (rough equivalences of sets. Rough equivalences capture equality of sets at a higher level than rough equalities. More properties of these concepts were established in [14]. Combining the conditions for the two types of approximate equalities, two more approximate equalities were introduced by Tripathy [12] and a comparative analysis of their relative efficiency was provided. In [15], the four types of approximate equalities were extended by considering rough fuzzy sets instead of only rough sets. In fact the concepts of leveled approximate equalities were introduced and properties were studied. In this paper we proceed further by introducing and studying the approximate equalities based on rough intuitionistic fuzzy sets instead of rough fuzzy sets. That is we introduce the concepts of approximate (rough equalities of intuitionistic fuzzy sets and study their properties. We provide some real life examples to show the applications of rough equalities of fuzzy sets and rough equalities of intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

  6. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  7. Frequency-domain equalization for OFDMA-based multiuser MIMO systems with improper modulation schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we propose a novel transceiver structure for orthogonal frequency division multiple access-based uplink multiuser multiple-input multiple-output systems. The numerical results show that the proposed frequency-domain equalization schemes significantly outperform conventional linear minimum mean square error-based equalizers in terms of bit error rate performance with moderate increase in computational complexity.

  8. Web Accessibility, Libraries, and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Fulton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With an abundance of library resources being served on the web, researchers are finding that disabled people oftentimes do not have the same level of access to materials as their nondisabled peers. This paper discusses web accessibility in the context of United States’ federal laws most referenced in web accessibility lawsuits. Additionally, it reveals which states have statutes that mirror federal web accessibility guidelines and to what extent. Interestingly, fewer than half of the states have adopted statutes addressing web accessibility, and fewer than half of these reference Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act or Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 1.0. Regardless of sparse legislation surrounding web accessibility, librarians should consult the appropriate web accessibility resources to ensure that their specialized content reaches all.

  9. The importance of institutional mechanisms for exercising gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajvančić Marijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary democratic societies, equality between men and women is one of the fundamental human rights as well as the key moral and legal value. In order to be exercised, this right must be legally recognized and efficiently exercised in all aspects of human life: political, economic, social and cultural. Experience has shown that an effective exercise of gender equality calls for integrating the gender perspective into all public policies, at all levels and in all decision-making processes. The necessary prerequisite is a proper institutional and legal framework. The institutional framework in the field of gender equality includes institutions operating within the legislative and the executive branch, as well as those involved in the protection of gender equality. The jurisdiction of the institutional mechanism within the legislative branch is defined in general terms and it does not reflect the multi-sectoral nature of activities covered by this operative body. The Gender Equality Council and the Gender Equality Agency, which were operative until the year 2014, differed in their composition and membership selection method, and they had different positions in the structure of executive authorities; the content and scope of their jurisdiction was not clearly defined, nor were they vested with sufficient and relevant powers. For that reason, it is essential to establish a new structure of institutional mechanisms within the executive branch as soon as possible. In that course, it should be ascertained that these institutions have direct communication with the government, and their competences have to be regulated adequately and precisely. In order to ensure that the normative and other measures and activities produce good results, it is necessary to provide and sustain an inter-sectoral approach to gender equality and create systemic presumptions and adequate procedures which will provide for utmost coordination and cooperation of all

  10. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound......The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...

  11. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...... of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound...

  12. Domino instability effect of surrounding rock-coal pillars in a room-and-pillar gob

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chong; Xu Jinhai; Wang Zhongliang; Qin Shuai

    2013-01-01

    To discuss the domino instability effect and large area roof falling and roof accidents of surrounding rock-coal pillars in a room-and-pillar gob, the equilibrium equation for a roof-coal pillar-floor system with the influence of mining floor was developed based on the engineering conditions of the surrounding rock in a room-and-pillar gob in the 3-2 coal seam of Tanggonggou mine. The conditions of system instability and the relationship between system stability and system stiffness were analyzed from an energetic point of view. Numerical simulation using the discrete element software UDEC was also carried out to simulate conditions causing the domino effect on surrounding rock-coal pillars in a 3-2 room-and-pillar gob. The results show that:if we want the system to destabilize, the collective energy in roof-and-floor must be larger than that in the coal pillar. When the stiffness of the coal pillars and the roof-and-floor are both greater than zero, the system is stable. When the stiffness of the coal pillars is negative but the summed stiffness of the coal pillars and roof-and-floor is larger than or equal to zero, the system is statically destroyed. When the sum of the coal pillars and the roof-floor stiffness is negative, the system suffers from severe damages. For equal advance distances of the coal mining face, the wider coal pillars can reduce the probability of domino type instability. Conversely, the smaller width pillars can increase the instability probability. Domino type instability of surrounding rock-coal pillars is predicted to be unli-kely when the width of coal pillars is not less than 8 m.

  13. Equal Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The government of Uruguay ratified this UN International Labor Organization convention on equal remuneration on November 16, 1989, and the Government of Zimbabwe ratified this Convention on December 14, 1989.

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  15. Managing diversity and equality in the workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Angel

    2016-01-01

    ...), and organizational capabilities in managing diversity and equality in the workplace. Firstly, performance appraisals were found to be a major source of discrimination especially due to raters influence on the actual process...

  16. Girls' Education and Gender Equality. Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global Partnership for Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief fact sheet presents benefits of investing in gender equality, how the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) supports inclusive and equitable quality education, as well as the results it has achieved.

  17. Valuing Equality in Irish Social Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Hanlon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author critiques Irish social care by presenting an equality perspective on practice. An equality perspective involves developing emancipatory practices, that is, ways of helping that provide egalitarian solutions and outcomes. Although emancipatory values are often contrasted with traditional social care values, the author seeks a pragmatic and integrated approach to emancipatory practices rather than a restatement of traditional dichotomies. Emancipatory practice begins with an appreciation of the nature and relevance of inequalities on the lives of diverse social care users. Building a commitment to equality within social care education and practice is an important step in altering many individual and institutional social care practices by focussing on equality processes and outcomes as central social care objectives. Using a well credited framework that outlines five dimensions of inequality (Baker, Lynch, Cantillon and Walsh, 2004, the author argues that social care educators and practitioners need to debate the issues raised and develop emancipatory practices.

  18. Access to fertility services by transgender persons: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This statement explores the ethical considerations surrounding the provision of fertility services to transgender individuals and concludes that denial of access to fertility services is not justified.

  19. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  20. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  1. [Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Etsuko

    2013-09-01

    Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society was initiated in 2005 when it joined the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). The Gender Equality Committee of the Bioimaging Society is acting on this issue by following the policy of the EPMEWSE, and has also been planning and conducting lectures at annual meetings of the society to gain the understanding, consents, and cooperation of the members of the society to become conscious of gender equality. Women's participation in the society has been promoted through the activities of the Gender Equality Committee, and the number of women officers in the society has since increased from two women out of 40 members in 2005 to five out of 44 in 2013. The activities of the Gender Equality Committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) have just started. There are more than 400 women belonging to the JAA. When these women members join together and collaborate, women's participation in the JAA will increase.

  2. Marriage equality is a mental health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy-Bateman, Warren; Pryor, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    We aim to review marriage equality in New Zealand and Australia and critically evaluate the health impact of such a legal change. We undertook a review of the literature using the search terms "marriage equality", "same sex marriage" and "gay marriage" in combination with "health", "wellbeing", "psych*", "mental illness" and "distress". This search included medical literature, legal literature and mass media. This review indicates that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) people disproportionately face negative health stressors and negative health events compared with the general population and this is related to the stress of being a stigmatised minority group. The evidence strongly supports the proposition that marriage equality is related to improved health outcomes. A diverse range of professional health groups advocate for the legislative progression to marriage equality. The authors found no evidence that marriage equality harms opposite-sex marriage. Marriage equality is still lacking in Australia and as a positive correlate of health should be strongly supported. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  4. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing equality of jobs. 1620.14 Section 1620.14 Labor... Testing equality of jobs. (a) In general. What constitutes equal skill, equal effort, or equal..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay...

  5. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  6. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - ...

  7. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF COAL MINING ROADWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹喜正; 侯朝炯; 李华祥

    1996-01-01

    This introduces the calculation of opaper the deformationg .the Surroundings of coaowaysand the divisi of surroundings into 5 levels by means or !fuzzy integral assess mairrx, wnlcnserves-asthe scientific basis for selecting supporting pattern of roadways and determining the, pa-rameters of support.

  8. Equal or different? LGBTI rights under discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Arrubia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feminism has emerged in a context of struggle for equality.  As formal rights gained ground, material inequalities resulting from ineffective legal rules became evident. These issues are the starting point for the discussion on equality and differences in the field of LGBTI human rights theory. Accordingly, this essay explores the new legal rights gained by the LGBTI community in the Argentine Republic, along with material tensions arising from social reality. Such reality is addressed by relevant literature as well as by the analysis of interviews conducted in the city of Azul, Province of Buenos Aires. The core idea of this essay focuses on the search for a theory connecting both equality and difference when it comes to sexual minorities. 

  9. Ethics, equality and evidence in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The Danish National Board of Health has expressed its commitment to social equality in health, evidence-informed health promotion and public health ethics, and has issued guidelines for municipalities on health promotion, in Danish named prevention packages.The aim of this article...... is to analyse whether the Board of Health adheres to ideals of equality, evidence and ethics in these guidelines. Methods: An analysis to detect statements about equity, evidence and ethics in 10 health promotion packages directed at municipalities with the aim of guiding the municipalities towards evidence......-informed disease prevention and health promotion. Results: Despite declared intentions of prioritizing social equality in health, these intentions are largely absent from most of the packages.When health inequalities are mentioned, focus is on the disadvantaged or the marginalized. Several interventions...

  10. Criteria for equality in two entropic inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, M. E., E-mail: msh@mi.ras.ru [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    We obtain a simple criterion for local equality between the constrained Holevo capacity and the quantum mutual information of a quantum channel. This shows that the set of all states for which this equality holds is determined by the kernel of the channel (as a linear map). Applications to Bosonic Gaussian channels are considered. It is shown that for a Gaussian channel having no completely depolarizing components the above characteristics may coincide only at non-Gaussian mixed states and a criterion for the existence of such states is given. All the obtained results may be reformulated as conditions for equality between the constrained Holevo capacity of a quantum channel and the input von Neumann entropy. Bibliography: 20 titles. (paper)

  11. The principle of equality and the right to assisted procreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živojinović Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of equality is the foundation of developing an entire system of human rights, and its implementation represents the standard of respecting each right individually. With these premises as a starting point, the subject of the author’s interests is whether the right to assisted reproduction, as a segment of reproductive rights, is regulated in conformity with the equality principal. In order to reach an answer, the author examines the concept of human assisted reproduction and analyzes the application of reproductive technologies in the light of legal, social and political reforms which affected marriages, the family and partnership in general at the end of the 20th century. The author finds that the most significant ones among them are the emancipation of women, recognition and legal formation of same sex unions and statements prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation. Furthermore, by considering the right to assisted reproduction in the context of other human rights with which it is interconnected and interdependent (the right to life, right to privacy, the right to a family life, health rights, children’s rights, the author finds there are no absolute, unlimited rights in the contemporary system of human rights, but that they inevitably have certain restrictions. Since the same limitation attribute also characterizes the right to assisted reproduction, the author further researches whether there is discrimination, positive or negative, towards the existing forms of limitations to this right. The following forms of limitations have been singled out, as the key ones for this analysis: request for (nonmarital status and heterosexual orientation, sexual affiliation and age and the accessibility (prohibition of applying certain methods of assisted reproduction which are primarily in the function of eliminating female sterility. The author concludes that there are elements of discrimination based on family status, sexual

  12. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  13. Should the Public Pay for Higher Education? Equality, Liberty, and Educational Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    As governments shift costs from the public to students, a higher education has become synonymous with educational debt. Liberal egalitarians have justified educational debt on the grounds that it facilitates socioeconomic equality. On this view, the public should only fund access for those students who are so poorly off that educational debt would…

  14. Higher Education as Object for Corporate and Nation Branding: Between Equality and Flagships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataøen, Hogne Lerøy

    2015-01-01

    Branding has become an important issue within higher education. The use of core value statements and visions are expressions of this. To be a successful brand, organisations must also make sure they are different from others. However, in both the scholarly discourse and in political rhetoric, the Nordic model highlights equal access to education…

  15. School Leadership and Educational Equality: Analysis of Greek Secondary School Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiti, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Using data derived from interviews with Greek school principals, the purpose of this paper is twofold: (a) to investigate whether or not equitable access to schools is for all children; and (b) to determine the extent to which the Greek educational system, in particular, offers equal opportunities to immigrant students. The results showed that…

  16. Are Disadvantaged Students Given Equal Opportunities to Learn Mathematics? PISA in Focus. No. 63

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students are not equally exposed to mathematics problems and concepts at school. Exposure to mathematics at school has an impact on performance, and disadvantaged students' relative lack of familiarity with mathematics partly explains their lower performance. Widening access to mathematics content…

  17. Women's Views about Gender Equality on the Current Social Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztop, Hülya; Finkel, Müge

    2015-01-01

    Women's equal participation in all aspects of social, political and economic life is an essential requirement for sustainable development and democratic governance. How to engage women in these different spheres of policy, increase their access to information and ensure their participation in policy debates are therefore among the key questions…

  18. Higher Education as Object for Corporate and Nation Branding: Between Equality and Flagships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sataøen, Hogne Lerøy

    2015-01-01

    Branding has become an important issue within higher education. The use of core value statements and visions are expressions of this. To be a successful brand, organisations must also make sure they are different from others. However, in both the scholarly discourse and in political rhetoric, the Nordic model highlights equal access to education…

  19. EQUALITY AND DISCIMINATION – ROMA SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea George GHERASIM

    2015-01-01

    Substantiating the idea of equality of all citizens, Ion Ghica shows the special value of this concept and its importance for the Romanian society, saying that "equality is a noble and good aspiration of the generous man, of the man endowed with a sense of justice and fairness; it is the urge and hope of the intelligent person, of the scholar and of the worker, of the one who wants to climb the social ladder, who aspires to the development of progress and civilization". The purpose of this st...

  20. Energy Transferring Dynamic Equalization for Battery Packs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The equivalent circuit model of battery and the analytic model of series battery uniformities are setup. The analysis shows that it is the key to maintain small voltage difference between cells in order to improve uniformities. Therefore a new technique combining low voltage difference, big current charging and bi-directional charge equalizer system is put forward and designed. The test shows that the energy transferring dynamic equalization system betters the series battery uniformities and protection during charging and discharging, improves the battery performance and extends the use life of series battery.

  1. Wavelet Neural Networks for Adaptive Equalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGMinghu; DENGBeixing; GIELENGeorges; ZHANGBo

    2003-01-01

    A structure based on the Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) is proposed for nonlinear channel equalization in a digital communication system. The construction algorithm of the Minimum error probability (MEP) is presented and applied as a performance criterion to update the parameter matrix of wavelet networks. Our experimental results show that performance of the proposed wavelet networks based on equalizer can significantly improve the neural modeling accuracy, perform quite well in compensating the nonlinear distortion introduced by the channel, and outperform the conventional neural networks in signal to noise ratio and channel non-llnearity.

  2. Multigradient for Neural Networks for Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulhee Lee

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new training algorithm, multigradient, has been published for neural networks and it is reported that the multigradient outperforms the backpropagation when neural networks are used as a classifier. When neural networks are used as an equalizer in communications, they can be viewed as a classifier. In this paper, we apply the multigradient algorithm to train the neural networks that are used as equalizers. Experiments show that the neural networks trained using the multigradient noticeably outperforms the neural networks trained by the backpropagation.

  3. Black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we obtain uncharged∖charged Kiselev-like black holes as a new class of black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in the context of Rastall theory. Then, we study the specific cases of the uncharged∖charged black holes surrounded by regular matter like dust and radiation, or exotic matter like quintessence, cosmological constant and phantom fields. By comparing the Kiselev-like black hole solutions in Rastall theory with the Kiselev black hole solutions in GR, we find an effective perfect fluid behavior for the black hole's surrounding field. It is shown that the corresponding effective perfect fluid has interesting characteristic features depending on the different ranges of the parameters in Rastall theory. For instance, Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by regular matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by exotic matter in GR, or Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by exotic matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by regular matter in GR.

  4. Emancipation and Equality: A Critical Genealogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Joan Wallach

    2012-01-01

    I have been suggesting that the deployment of the language of sexual emancipation and gender equality to dismiss Muslim claims for recognition as full members of the nation-states of Western Europe in which so many have now for so long resided, needs to be read not simply as Islamophobia (which it c

  5. Equality, self‐respect and voluntary separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Merry

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that self‐respect constitutes an important value, and further, an important basis for equality. It also argues that under conditions of inequality‐producing segregation, voluntary separation in schooling may be more likely to provide the resources necessary for self‐respect. A prim

  6. Multicultural Challenges - new gender equality dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    In my research have been interested in exploring tensions between diversity and gender equality from a theoretical and comparative approach, looking at the Nordic welfare, citizenship and gender regimes from a cross-national European perspective. In this key-note presentation I draw on results an...

  7. Educational Technology: A Presupposition of Equality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The work of philosopher Jacques Rancière is used conceptually and methodologically to frame an exploration of the driving interests in educational technology policy and the sanctioning of particular discursive constructions of pedagogy that result. In line with Rancière's thinking, the starting point for this analysis is that of equality--that…

  8. Wireline equalization using pulse-width modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    Abstract-High-speed data links over copper cables can be effectively equalized using pulse-width modulation (PWM) pre-emphasis. This provides an alternative to the usual 2-tap FIR filters. The use of PWM pre-emphasis allows a channel loss at the Nyquist frequency of ~30dB, compared to ~20dB for a

  9. Achieving gender equality: development versus historical legacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilli, S.; Rijpma, A.; Carmichael, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Economic development is often held to be beneficial for gender equality. However, there is good reason to believe that persistent institutions such as religion, legal traditions, and family practices, also matter. This article provides an empirical assessment of the relative importance of

  10. Turbo Equalization for Digital Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, it is demonstrated that Turbo Equalization routines can be used to mitigate performance degradations stemming from optical fiber propagation effects both in optical fiber dispersion managed and unmanaged coherent detection links. The effectiveness of this solution is analyzed both numerically...

  11. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be derived by proper...

  12. Capabilities and Equality of Health II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    The concept of capabilities, introduced originally by Sen, has inspired many researchers but has not found any simple formal representation which might be instrumental in the construction of a comprehensive theory of equality. In a previous paper (Keiding, 2005), we investigated whether preferences...

  13. Comparing Several Robust Tests of Stochastic Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha, Andras; Delaney, Harold D.

    In this paper, six statistical tests of stochastic equality are compared with respect to Type I error and power through a Monte Carlo simulation. In the simulation, the skewness and kurtosis levels and the extent of variance heterogeneity of the two parent distributions were varied across a wide range. The sample sizes applied were either small or…

  14. Some Are More Equal Than Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Contends that not all books are created equal--"Anna Karenina," for example, is worth more than Nancy Drew mysteries. Relates, in a personal narrative, that when this opinion was manifested in a newspaper column, hundreds of letters took issue with the idea. Reiterates that the literate teacher finds ways to convince students that…

  15. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  16. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  17. Gender Equality in Education: Definitions and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanian, R.

    2005-01-01

    International consensus on education priorities accords an important place to achieving gender justice in the educational sphere. Both the Dakar 'Education for All' goals and the Millennium Development goals emphasise two goals, in this regard. These two goals are distinguished as gender parity goals [achieving equal participation of girls and…

  18. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  19. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  20. Some Are More Equal Than Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Contends that not all books are created equal--"Anna Karenina," for example, is worth more than Nancy Drew mysteries. Relates, in a personal narrative, that when this opinion was manifested in a newspaper column, hundreds of letters took issue with the idea. Reiterates that the literate teacher finds ways to convince students that literacy is of…

  1. Some Are More Equal Than Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanian, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Contends that not all books are created equal--"Anna Karenina," for example, is worth more than Nancy Drew mysteries. Relates, in a personal narrative, that when this opinion was manifested in a newspaper column, hundreds of letters took issue with the idea. Reiterates that the literate teacher finds ways to convince students that…

  2. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  3. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Divan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion: The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions: The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV

  4. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. Discussion The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. Conclusions The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote

  5. Transgender social inclusion and equality: a pivotal path to development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Vivek; Cortez, Clifton; Smelyanskaya, Marina; Keatley, JoAnne

    2016-01-01

    The rights of trans people are protected by a range of international and regional mechanisms. Yet, punitive national laws, policies and practices targeting transgender people, including complex procedures for changing identification documents, strip transgender people of their rights and limit access to justice. This results in gross violations of human rights on the part of state perpetrators and society at large. Transgender people's experience globally is that of extreme social exclusion that translates into increased vulnerability to HIV, other diseases, including mental health conditions, limited access to education and employment, and loss of opportunities for economic and social advancement. In addition, hatred and aggression towards a group of individuals who do not conform to social norms around gender manifest in frequent episodes of extreme violence towards transgender people. This violence often goes unpunished. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) views its work in the area of HIV through the lens of human rights and advances a range of development solutions such as poverty reduction, improved governance, active citizenship, and access to justice. This work directly relates to advancing the rights of transgender people. This manuscript lays out the various aspects of health, human rights, and development that frame transgender people's issues and outlines best practice solutions from transgender communities and governments around the globe on how to address these complex concerns. The examples provided in the manuscript can help guide UN agencies, governments, and transgender activists in achieving better standards of health, access to justice, and social inclusion for transgender communities everywhere. The manuscript provides a call to action for countries to urgently address the violations of human rights of transgender people in order to honour international obligations, stem HIV epidemics, promote gender equality, strengthen social and

  6. Access For All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove Kjeld; Hjulmand, Christian

    2005-01-01

    . There is a clear need for a free internet based Danish text-to-speech synthesizer. Furthermore, the current state of technology i.e. internet bandwidth, response time and server technology is sufficient for setting up an online automatic reading service that is used by steadily growing number of individuals......Approximately 30% of the Danish population has severe problems in reading everyday text. In the light of the increasing amount of text available on the Internet this poses a democratic challenge to ensure “equal access” to information. The Talking Internet service - Access For All (AFA) - offers...... a free Internet-based tool for reading aloud any marked text with a synthetic voice. The only requirements are a standard equipped PC running a recent Windows OS and an Internet connection. Experiences gathered from running the service for more than 28 months underline the viability of the concept...

  7. Random Access Transport Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Jeffrey G; Kountouris, Marios; Haenggi, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new metric for quantifying end-to-end throughput in multihop wireless networks, which we term random access transport capacity, since the interference model presumes uncoordinated transmissions. The metric quantifies the average maximum rate of successful end-to-end transmissions, multiplied by the communication distance, and normalized by the network area. We show that a simple upper bound on this quantity is computable in closed-form in terms of key network parameters when the number of retransmissions is not restricted and the hops are assumed to be equally spaced on a line between the source and destination. We also derive the optimum number of hops and optimal per hop success probability and show that our result follows the well-known square root scaling law while providing exact expressions for the preconstants as well. Numerical results demonstrate that the upper bound is accurate for the purpose of determining the optimal hop count and success (or outage) probability.

  8. Evaluating Faculty Performance Under the Equal Pay for Equal Work Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzan, Bert Carl; Hunt, Thomas Lynn

    1976-01-01

    Faculty promotion and salary policies at the University of Texas at Austin are analyzed to determine whether male and female faculty members are rewarded equally for equal academic qualifications and performances. This regression analysis tends to support the discrimination hypothesis with respect to both promotion and salary policies. (Author/LBH)

  9. Troubling Gender Equality: Revisiting Gender Equality Work in the Famous Nordic Model Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The…

  10. O enigma da igualdade The conundrum of equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan W. Scott

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Scott estabelece, através deste artigo, uma discussão sobre os conceitos de igualdade e diferença, do gênero, das identidades individuais e de grupo, enfatizando a necessidade de historicidade do tema dentro da sociedade contemporânea. O artigo trata também de questões que envolvem as políticas de ação afirmativa, diferenças de gênero e raça no mundo do trabalho ou acesso de minorias a universidades. Scott argumenta que a questão da igualdade precisa ser entendida em termos de paradoxo.Through this article, Scott sets up a discussion about the concepts of equality and difference, gender, individual identity and group identity, emphasizing that this theme needs to be historicized in contemporary society. This article draws attention to questions that envolve affirmative action policies, gender and race differences in the labour world or minorities' access to universities. Scott argues that the equality question must be understood in terms of paradox.

  11. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real‐world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  12. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  13. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. ... conception, pregnancy, birth and the early months ofparenthood. .... house attended by a traditional birth attendant of a ..... Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional.

  14. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  15. The history of open access medical publishing: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, Andrea; Burrall, Barbara; Maverakis, Emanual

    2016-09-15

    Dermatology Online Journal became the first medical open access journal in the early 1990's. Today, thousands of open access medical journals are available on the Internet. Despite criticisms surrounding open access, these journals have allowed research to be rapidly available to the public. In addition, open access journal policies allow public health research to reach developing countries where this research has the potential to make a substantial impact. In the future, open access medical journals will likely continue to evolve with technology, changing how medical research is accessed and presented.

  16. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Huanxin Zou; Shilin Zhou; Cheng Wang; Naser El-Sheimy

    2013-01-01

    Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searc...

  17. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  18. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  19. TROUBLING GENDER EQUALITY: REVISITING GENDER EQUALITY WORK IN THE FAMOUS NORDIC MODEL COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Edström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The consequences of this development on gender equality work have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Our joint empirical analysis is based on discourse-analytic methodology and two previous empirical studies. By analysing interviews conducted with people involved in gender equality work, this article emphasises the effects of market-oriented and project-based gender equality work in education and working life in Sweden and in Finland. The findings highlight an alliance between projectisation and heteronormativity that acts to regulate how gender equality ought to be talked about in order for its issues to be heard. A persistently constructed ‘remedy’ to ‘the gender equality problem’ is that girls and women are positioned as ‘needing’ to change more than boys and men, by adopting more traditionally ‘masculine manners’ and choosing to work in more ‘masculine sectors’. The findings also show that the constitutive forces of these discourses provide little leeway for critical perspectives.

  20. EQUALITY AND DISCIMINATION – ROMA SOCIAL EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea George GHERASIM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantiating the idea of equality of all citizens, Ion Ghica shows the special value of this concept and its importance for the Romanian society, saying that "equality is a noble and good aspiration of the generous man, of the man endowed with a sense of justice and fairness; it is the urge and hope of the intelligent person, of the scholar and of the worker, of the one who wants to climb the social ladder, who aspires to the development of progress and civilization". The purpose of this study is to focus on the issues of the Roma minority and on the ethnic discrimination in this segment, which is not limited to Romania, becoming rapidly a center of interest and concern throughout Europe.

  1. Education, Equality and the European Social Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Lynch, Kathleen; Brine, Jacky;

    2009-01-01

    and employment. The importance of education is often mentioned in EU documents on social welfare. However, European policies in the areas of welfare and education are marked by a fundamental tension between the pursuit of capitalist growth on one hand, the pursuit of social justice and equality on the other......Social welfare and education have been themes in European collaboration since the early days of the Treaty of Rome. Especially after the establishment in 2000 of the Lisbon agenda the EU has stepped up its efforts in these two areas and has integrated both of them in a strategy for growth....... This often leads to an impoverished conceptualisation of education as just another service to be delivered on the market. A more holistic approach to education policy is necessary, an approach which takes account of the broader conditions of equality and includes not only the economic, but also the political...

  2. Kalman filtering approach to blind equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Mehmet

    1993-12-01

    Digital communication systems suffer from the channel distortion problem which introduces errors due to intersymbol interference. The solution to this problem is provided by equalizers which use a training sequence to adapt to the channel. However in many cases in which a training sequence is unfeasible, the channel must be adapted blindly. Most of the blind equalization algorithms known so far have problems of convergence to local minima. Our intention is to offer an alternative approach by using extended Kalman filtering and hidden Markov models. They seem to yield more efficient algorithms which take the statistics of the transmitted sequence into consideration. The theoretical development of these new algorithms is discussed in this thesis. Also these algorithms have been simulated under different conditions. The results of simulations and comparisons with existing systems are provided. The models for simulations are presented as MATLAB codes.

  3. Investigating equality: The Rényi spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-09-01

    An equality index is a score quantifying the socioeconomic egalitarianism of the distribution of wealth in human societies; the score takes values in the unit interval, with the unit upper bound characterizing purely communist societies. In this paper we explore the Rényi spectrum, a continuum of equality indices that: (i) is based on the moments of the societies' distributions of wealth; (ii) unifies various measures of socioeconomic inequality, including the Theil and Atkinson indices; (iii) displays a collection of amicable analytic properties; (iv) admits multiple Rényi-divergence representations; and (v) provides a high-resolution gauging of egalitarianism that is way beyond what can be offered by the common-practice measures of socioeconomic inequality, the Gini and Pietra indices. At large, the Rényi spectrum is applicable in the context of any distribution of non-negative sizes with a positive mean-yielding a high-resolution gauging of the distribution's inherent statistical heterogeneity.

  4. Challenging equality policies: The emerging LGBT perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cruells, Marta; Coll Planas, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The state members of the European Union have witnessed the emergence of equality policies which target discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity. These are usually based on the single issue model focusing exclusively on discrimination suffered by LGBT people, however there are other approaches to this issue which take into account the interaction of different axes of inequality, namely, the multiple and intersectional discrimination models. This ar...

  5. Chinese and Foreign Students Debate Gender Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    WITH the Fourth World Conference on Women drawing near, more and more people are showing a strong interest in women’s issues. On April 12 the debate "Is the Equality Between Men and Women Impossible?" was held at Beijing Language and Culture University. Hundreds of students and teachers crowded into the 200-seat university theater where the debate was held. The debate consisted of two teams representing positive and negative sides

  6. A Possible Generalized Form of Jarzynski Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Zhan-Chun; ZHOU Zi-Cong

    2006-01-01

    The crucial condition in the derivation of the Jarzynski equality (JE) from the fluctuation theorem is that the time integral of the phase space contraction factor can be exactly expressed as the entropy production resulting from the heat absorbed by the system from the thermal bath. For the system violating this condition, a more general form of JE may exist. This existence is verified by three Gedanken experiments and numerical simulations, and may be confirmed by the real experiment in the nanoscale.

  7. Equal Representation : New Perspectives in Democratic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Representation is not only a buzz–word in contemporary political theory butalso a conceptual platform from which questions about the performance of old forms of democracy and the potential of new varieties are launched. This volume is primarily concerned with equality as a basic component of the democraticcharacter of representation. In other words, of the many types of equalitythat have attracted the attention of theorists since democracy’s beginnings –political, socio-economic, anthropologi...

  8. Rudiments of Sexual Equality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CHINESE people’s earliest awakening to sexual equality occurred in the middle- and latestages of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Although still a feudal society, China had seen the relation of production with capitalist economic systems at that time. Capitalist ideology also found a space in some people’s thinking. Feudal ideology, especially ethical codes discriminating against women, were being attacked then. One outstanding figure who attacked the

  9. Equality of differences in Learning Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Serradell; Lídia Puigvert; Lena de Botton

    2009-01-01

    We are currently living in a multicultural society where its members show a great social and educational potential. However, ethnic discrimination still represents a strong limitation in our societies, and more specifically in Europe. Successful experiencessuch as the “Learning Communities” show that an equality of differences, that is to say everybody’s right to live their lives in a different way, helps to improve academic performance, instrumental learning, and reduces conflicts in college...

  10. Nonlinear Equalization of Microwave Photonic Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    3[1…3] = [1][2][3] the Volterra model reduces to the Taylor series. TABLE I VOLTERRA KERNEL COEFFICIENTS FOR...ORDER 3 M UNIQUE VOLTERRA COEFFICIENTS 8 120 16 816 64 45760 128 357760 256 2829056 The main benefit of a Volterra model over a Taylor ...nonlinear equalizer works on the entire Nyquist band and is synthesized directly from mathematical requirements instead of using best - fit methods

  11. Accessibility Inequality to Basic Education in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    educational services in Amhara region of Ethiopia in terms of availability and accessibility ... opportunities to get educated, to have food, shelter and .... provide free, compulsory Universal Basic ..... remaining six zones have below or equal to.

  12. Equal Protection of the Law: The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Bain

    2016-10-01

    This analysis of the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities Act, 2014, examines the nature and scope of equal rights and whether the Act provides adequate enforcement. The aim of the provisions is to restrict discrimination against persons with disabilities by providing opportunities on an equal basis and to require persons having dealings with the disabled to accommodate their needs. It is questionable whether the Act fulfils its purpose and whether penalties for failure to comply with the Act are adequate, as there is a lacuna or gap in the law, which hinders purposeful rights.

  13. Education Reform and Equal Opportunity in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Okada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been concerns that equality of educational opportunity has been lost and that this is leading to the stratification of Japanese society through the widening of income differentials, in a 'gap society'. In such a disparity society, secure full- time jobs are increasingly becoming limited to those who graduate from prestigious universities, and entry into those institutions is becoming connected more clearly with family income and investments. Parental attitudes towards their children taking extra lessons after school, going to cram schools, getting into university, and getting into a relatively highly-ranked university have influenced educational costs. This article examines the historical formation of the concept of equality of opportunity, which has been applied to the educational policy in Japan, particularly from the end of World War II to the new millennium. This paper also expands on the existing literature on educational policies in contemporary Japan by examining how the current educational reform efforts have affected equality of educational opportunity among children from different family backgrounds.

  14. The equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved a variety of defensive strategies to resist herbivory, but at the interspecific level, the relative effectiveness of these strategies has been poorly evaluated. In this study, we compared the level of herbivory between species that depend on ants as indirect defenders and species that rely primarily on their own direct defenses. Using a dataset of 871 species and 1,405 data points, we found that in general, ant-associated species had levels of herbivory equal to those of species that are unattractive to ants; the pattern was unaffected by plant life form, climate and phylogenetic relationships between species. Interestingly, species that offer both food and nesting spaces for ants suffered significantly lower herbivory compared to species that offer either food or nesting spaces only or no reward for ants. A negative relationship between herbivory and latitude was detected, but the pattern can be changed by ants. These findings suggest that, at the interspecific level, the effectiveness of different defensive strategies may be equal. Considering the effects of herbivory on plant performance and fitness, the equal effectiveness of different defensive strategies may play an important role in the coexistence of various species at the community scale. PMID:26267426

  15. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  16. On Equal Opportunities at CERN: A report prepared for the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, E M

    2001-01-01

    This report has been prepared at the request of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. It is an attempt to demonstrate, simply and clearly, some additional facts relating to gender differences shown in previous reports of the Panel.

  17. The College Access Debate: Class Considerations and College Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The college access debate in America remains an important one. Affirmative action policies and practices continue to occupy a significant sub-component of the overall college access discussion. Recent legal debates and policy changes pertaining to affirmative action have encouraged analysis surrounding the overall viability and fairness of these…

  18. Migraine increases centre-surround suppression for drifting visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Battista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of migraine is incompletely understood, but evidence points to hyper-responsivity of cortical neurons being a key feature. The basis of hyper-responsiveness is not clear, with an excitability imbalance potentially arising from either reduced inhibition or increased excitation. In this study, we measure centre-surround contrast suppression in people with migraine as a perceptual analogue of the interplay between inhibition and excitation in cortical areas responsible for vision. We predicted that reduced inhibitory function in migraine would reduce perceptual surround suppression. Recent models of neuronal surround suppression incorporate excitatory feedback that drives surround inhibition. Consequently, an increase in excitation predicts an increase in perceptual surround suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-six people with migraine and twenty approximately age- and gender-matched non-headache controls participated. The perceived contrast of a central sinusoidal grating patch (4 c/deg stationary grating, or 2 c/deg drifting at 2 deg/sec, 40% contrast was measured in the presence and absence of a 95% contrast annular grating (same orientation, spatial frequency, and drift rate. For the static grating, similar surround suppression strength was present in control and migraine groups with the presence of the surround resulting in the central patch appearing to be 72% and 65% of its true contrast for control and migraine groups respectively (t(44 = 0.81, p = 0.42. For the drifting stimulus, the migraine group showed significantly increased surround suppression (t(44 = 2.86, p<0.01, with perceived contrast being on average 53% of actual contrast for the migraine group and 68% for non-headache controls. CONCLUSIONS: In between migraines, when asymptomatic, visual surround suppression for drifting stimuli is greater in individuals with migraine than in controls. The data provides evidence for a

  19. Seeking electoral equality for IDP voters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Grace

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Guiding Principle 22 affirms IDPs’ “right to vote and toparticipate in governmental and public affairs, includingthe right to have access to the means necessary to exercisethis right.” Despite the clarity of this language, there is noset of universally accepted policies and practices protectingIDP voting rights.

  20. Soil pollution in surroundings of Litija as a reflectionofmining,metallurgy and natural conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gosar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of mining and metallurgic activities as well as natural conditionson heavy metal pollution in Litija and surroundings was defined.Sampling gridinan area of 30 km2 was determined. Soil samples were collected on 120 equally distributed locations in two different depths: horizon A (0–5cm and horizon B (20–30cm.In total researched area concentrations of considered elements in upper soil horizon exceed the official limit concentration on 24km2, warning concentration on 20 km2 and critical concentration on 1.6 km2. Pollution of bottom soil horizon is several times lower. The highest are contents of lead, mercury and arsenic. Areas of enhanced concentrations include a hill Sitarjevec and hill base Podsitarjevec, where the dumps of mining waste and metallurgic slag are situated. Increased concentrations of heavy metals were determined also in the immediate vicinity of former smelter.

  1. GENDER EQUALITY AS A MODERN PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Storozhuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work. Forming the axiological system of Western society, with the intentions to establish gender equality as a guarantee of a just society being taken into account, on the one hand, and preserving the traditional gender stereotypes inherent to patriarchal gender roles in a considerable part of the world, on the other hand, is actualizing the study of the factors that have contributed to realizing the problem of gender inequality and discrimination. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to highlight the factors that stipulated the awareness of gender equality in European social and cultural space, while leaving alive the traditional gender values in a number of other cultural environments. Methodology of the study is determined by interdisciplinary approach involving the use of general scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, generalization, etc. The leading role belonged to the principle of the historical and logical unity. At the same time the study applies the basic principles of philosophical hermeneutics and the contextual analysis method. Originality lies in putting forward the new theoretical statements aimed to show that in the ancient and pre-modern society, gender inequality and discrimination did not exist, because at that time gender relations were considered either as a result of the biological characteristics of a human body, or were explained by worldview ideas about the origin and structural features of the world, prevailing in a specific historical dimension. Consequently, gender roles were taken for granted and were not subject to any doubt. Conclusions. Despite all the worldview shifts that had been taking place in the pre-modern era social outlook, nevertheless, as history has shown, they failed to generate sufficient philosophical foundations either for recognizing the equality of women, or changing their social, legal and political status. This led to accumulating the unconscious internal resistance to

  2. Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tenni, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.

  3. Equality of differences in Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Serradell

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We are currently living in a multicultural society where its members show a great social and educational potential. However, ethnic discrimination still represents a strong limitation in our societies, and more specifically in Europe. Successful experiencessuch as the “Learning Communities” show that an equality of differences, that is to say everybody’s right to live their lives in a different way, helps to improve academic performance, instrumental learning, and reduces conflicts in college classrooms as well asin communities, neighborhoods or even in the municipality.

  4. Negotiating Equality and Diversity in Europe -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    has also put relations between gender and other inequality creating categories on the agenda within the member states and the EU. The chapter addresses the intersections of gender equality and ethno-national diversity across Europe focusing on the interactions of actors in democratic politics...... in the national and supranational EU arena. It thus proposes to apply the intersectionality approach to the EUropean situation as a methodological way of dealing with diversity, above all class, race and gender. The method also allows including additional differences, e.g. religion, nationality and sexual...

  5. Accessibility in the Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available FIABA is a cultural route for all, its aim is to promote a Global Accessibility and a Universal Usability through the removal of architectural, cultural, psychological and sensory barriers. FIABA is carrying out a real change and a cultural renewal in the name of equal opportunities. Respect for the environment in which we live is also a duty towards the younger generations to whom we must deliver a world in which free movement and the normal use of spaces are goals already achieved. There are millions of citizens who, because of their physical conditions are prisoners in their homes because there isn’t any elevator or any elevator maintenance. FIABA project aims at implementing “a Space for all” or “a landscape for all” following the path of the ONU Convention on the Rights of People with disabilities with an emphasis on architectural, cultural, and psychological barriers, the last ones in particular, create barriers to equal opportunities and they are often carriers of discrimination. The principle of accessibility is invoked in Article 9 of the Convention which confirms the principle that people have a right to live independently and participate fully in all spheres of life and thus States are required to take all necessary measures to ensure accessibility to physical environment, transport, information and communications, including systems and technologies of information and communication and other facilities and services open to the public, both in urban and rural areas.

  6. Equality of Education and Citizenship: Challenges of European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follesdal, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    What kind of equality among Europeans does equal citizenship require, especially regarding education? In particular, is there good reason to insist of equality of education among Europeans--and if so, equality of what? To what extent should the same knowledge base and citizenship norms be taught across state borders and religious and other…

  7. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  8. String Analysis for Dynamic Field Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Magnus; Andreasen, Esben

    2014-01-01

    In JavaScript, and scripting languages in general, dynamic field access is a commonly used feature. Unfortunately, current static analysis tools either completely ignore dynamic field access or use overly conservative approximations that lead to poor precision and scalability. We present new string...... domains to reason about dynamic field access in a static analysis tool. A key feature of the domains is that the equal, concatenate and join operations take Ο(1) time. Experimental evaluation on four common JavaScript libraries, including jQuery and Prototype, shows that traditional string domains...

  9. Changing carbonate chemistry in ocean waters surrounding coral reefs in the CMIP5 ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricke, K.; Schneider, K.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2012-12-01

    Coral reefs comprise some of the most biodiverse ecosystems in the world. Today they are threatened by a number of stressors, including pollution, bleaching from global warming and ocean acidification. In this study, we focus on the implications of ocean acidification for the open ocean chemistry surrounding coral reefs. We use results from 13 Earth System Models included in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) to examine the changing aragonite saturations (Ωa) of open ocean waters surrounding approximately 6,000 coral reefs. These 13 Earth System Models participating in CMIP5 each have interactive ocean biogeochemistry models that output state variables including DIC, alkalinity, SST, and salinity. Variation in these values were combined with values from the GLODAP database to calculate aragonite, the form of calcium carbonate that corals use to make their skeletons. We used reef locations from ReefBase that were within one degree (in latitude or longitude) of water masses represented both in the GLODAP database and in the climate models. Carbonate chemistry calculations were performed by Dr. James C. Orr (IPSL) as part of a separate study. We find that in preindustrial times, 99.9 % of coral reefs were located in regions of the ocean with aragonite saturations of 3.5 or more. The saturation threshold for viable reef ecosystems in uncertain, but the pre-industrial distribution of water chemistry surrounding coral reefs may nevertheless provide some indication of viability. We examine the fate of coral reefs in the context of several potential aragonite saturation thresholds, i.e., when Ωa_crit equals 3, 3.25, or 3.5. We show that under a business-as-usual scenario Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, the specific value of Ωa_crit does not affect the long-term fate of coral reefs -- by the end of the 21st century, no coral reef considered is surrounded by water with Ωa> 3. However, under scenarios with significant CO2 emissions

  10. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  11. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...

  12. Is Primatology an equal-opportunity discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available The proportion of women occupying academic positions in biological sciences has increased in the past few decades, but women are still under-represented in senior academic ranks compared to their male colleagues. Primatology has been often singled out as a model of "equal-opportunity" discipline because of the common perception that women are more represented in Primatology than in similar fields. But is this indeed true? Here we show that, although in the past 15 years the proportion of female primatologists increased from the 38% of the early 1990s to the 57% of 2008, Primatology is far from being an "equal-opportunity" discipline, and suffers the phenomenon of "glass ceiling" as all the other scientific disciplines examined so far. In fact, even if Primatology does attract more female students than males, at the full professor level male members significantly outnumber females. Moreover, regardless of position, IPS male members publish significantly more than their female colleagues. Furthermore, when analyzing gender difference in scientific productivity in relation to the name order in the publications, it emerged that the scientific achievements of female primatologists (in terms of number and type of publications do not always match their professional achievements (in terms of academic position. However, the gender difference in the IPS members' number of publications does not correspond to a similar difference in their scientific impact (as measured by their H index, which may indicate that female primatologists' fewer articles are of higher impact than those of their male colleagues.

  13. Potential Fluctuation Equality for Free Energy Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Ngo, Van

    2011-01-01

    Jarzynski's equality [1] allows us to investigate free energy landscapes (FELs) by constructing distributions of work performed on a system from an initial ensemble of states to final states. This work is experimentally measured by extension-versus-force (EVF) curves. We proposed a new approach that enables us to reconstruct such FELs without necessity of measuring EVF curves. We proved that any free energy changes could be computed by measuring the fluctuations of a harmonic external potential in final states. The main assumption of our proof is that one should probably treat a potential's minimum {\\lambda} (thought to be control parameter) and time in separate and independent manners. We recovered Jarzynski's equality from the introduction of a double Heaviside function. We then applied the approach in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to compute the free energy barrier of breaking DNA base pairs (bps). The free energy barrier for breaking a CG bp in our simulations is identified as 1.7 +/- 0.2 kcal/mol t...

  14. Equalization method for Medipix3RX

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkel, Jean; Wagner, Franz; Frojdh, Erik; Ballabriga Sune, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new method of threshold equalization for X-ray detectors based on the Medipix3RX ASIC, using electrical pulses to calibrate and correct for the threshold dispersion between pixels. This method involves a coarse threshold tuning, based on two 8 bits global DACs and which sets the range of variation of the threshold values; and a fine-tuning, based on two 5-bits adjustment DACs per pixel. As our fine-tuning approach is based on a state-of-the-art methodology, our coarse tuning relies on an original theoretical model. This model takes into account the noise level of the ASIC, which varies with temperature and received radiation dose. The experimental results using 300 μm Si sensor and Kα fluorescence of Zn show a global energy resolution improvement of 14% compared to previous equalization methods. We compared these results with the best achievable global energy resolution given by the resolution of individual pixels and concluded that the remaining 14% difference was due to the discreti...

  15. Women and Gender Equality in Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. David

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available I look at the changes in higher education (HE and women’s lives over the last 50 years, drawing on my recent book Feminism, Gender & Universities: Politics, Passion & Pedagogies which is a life history of feminism entering academe. The Robbins Report (cmnd 2154 1963 on HE was published in the same year that I went to university. It inaugurated a process of change and educational expansion that was linked to other major social transformations, including feminism. Its effects have been widely felt such that women now participate in education and employment on unprecedented levels. Indeed, it has opened up opportunities for education and employment for women including individual and social mobility. From my study I show how it opened up opportunities for women from both middle class and working class backgrounds to be first-in-the-family to go to university. I will also argue that whilst there have been very welcome changes in education, and HE especially, such that there is a gender balance of undergraduate students in HE, this does not mean that gender equality has been achieved. Patriarchy or hegemonic masculinity in HE is still strongly felt and experienced despite women’s and feminist involvements in academe over the last 50 years. The question remains about how to transform universities to achieve genuine gender equality across all students and academics in HE.

  16. SOME BLIND FRESH EQUALIZATION ALGORITHMS WITH ANTI-INTERFERENCE CAPABILITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some novel blind FREquency.Shift (FRESH) equalizer algorithms axe proposed for the equalization of Finite Impulse Response(FIR)single channel with anti-interference capabilities.These algorithms based on FRESH filter can work well without any training sequence.Simulation results show that the equalizer algorithms can effectively reject many types of interferences and the performances of these new equalizer algorithms are superior to the conventional equalizer algorithms.

  17. A primer on equalization, decoding and non-iterative joint equalization and decoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Hermanus C.; Olivier, Jan C.

    2013-12-01

    In this article, a general model for non-iterative joint equalization and decoding is systematically derived for use in systems transmitting convolutionally encoded BPSK-modulated information through a multipath channel, with and without interleaving. Optimal equalization and decoding are discussed first, by presenting the maximum likelihood sequence estimation and maximum a posteriori probability algorithms and relating them to equalization in single-carrier channels with memory, and to the decoding of convolutional codes. The non-iterative joint equalizer/decoder (NI-JED) is then derived for the case where no interleaver is used, as well as for the case when block interleavers of varying depths are used, and complexity analyses are performed in each case. Simulation results are performed to compare the performance of the NI-JED to that of a conventional turbo equalizer (CTE), and it is shown that the NI-JED outperforms the CTE, although at much higher computational cost. This article serves to explain the state-of-the-art to students and professionals in the field of wireless communication systems, presenting these fundamental topics clearly and concisely.

  18. Equalization of Legal Status with Respect to Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Tarusina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the current trends in Russian legal doctrine and legislation on aligning the legal status of women and men, taking into account the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the European Court of Human Rights.It analyzes and critically reflects upon the gender aspects and content of those branches of Russian law in which such aspects are most clearly represented, either objectively or by tradition – techniques for gender neutralization of legal norms, the establishment of gender privileges and gender restrictions in legal status.Constitutional law: the basic premise of gender equality, preferential treatment for certain categories of citizens, gender limitations; problems of quotas for women’s representation in government, administration and other structures, provisions for women’s representation in party electoral lists, etc.Criminal Law: trends in the gender neutralization of crimes of a sexual nature while maintaining criminal responsibility for offenses against pregnant women, etc.; gender neutralization of preferential treatment in the punishment of persons with children.Family Law: Russia’s traditional view of marriage and parenthood; privileges for women in the divorce process, disputes about children, maintenance obligations; gender restrictions on adoption, assisted reproductive technologies; variants of gender neutralization of some family law norms.Labor law: the preservation of absolute protection of the rights and interests of pregnant women and mothers of young children; the trend for gender neutralization of the legal status of parents of young children; continued restrictions on women’s access to certain areas of work.Analysis of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the European Court of Human Rights shows that on a number of gender equality aspects in Russian legislation and law enforcement practice, the views of these

  19. The effect of centralization of health care services on travel time and its equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the regional variations in travel time between patient residences and medical facilities for the treatment of ischemic heart disease and breast cancer, and to simulate the effects of health care services centralization on travel time and equality of access. We used medical insurance claims data for inpatients and outpatients for the two target diseases that had been filed between September 2008 and May 2009 in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Using a geographical information system, patient travel times were calculated based on the driving distance between patient residences and hospitals via highways and toll roads. Locations of residences and hospital locations were identified using postal codes. We then conducted a simulation analysis of centralization of health care services to designated regional core hospitals. The simulated changes in potential spatial access to care were examined. Inequalities in access to care were examined using Gini coefficients, which ranged from 0.4109 to 0.4574. Simulations of health care services centralization showed reduced travel time for most patients and overall improvements in equality of access, except in breast cancer outpatients. Our findings may contribute to the decision-making process in policies aimed at improving the potential spatial access to health care services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Typology of accessibility between planned and unplanned settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Utami Tin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of physical boundaries in real estate created by developers has experienced changes that are dependent on time and environmental conditions of the vicinity. This also applies to the access of communities settled within the surrounding area into real estate. This study aims to describe the typology of accessibility of surrounding settlements (unplanned settlement transitioning into a real estate environment (planned settlement in South Tangerang, by using case studies of Bintaro Jaya real estate. The research method is done through surveys and interviews by individuals who understand the development process of access and the existing boundaries. Typology of accessibility will be described by using two variables, namely, whether or not there is access and its conditions. The results show that there are four types of access namely: access is planned and integrated within the existing; access is planned, but less integrated within the existing; access is made by dismantling most of the boundary; and no access. Although several typologies of accessibility can result in conflicts, yet job opportunities inside a real estate environment tend to be good with all access typologies. The physical boundary of real estate can potentially be good interface to be developed between two distinct settlements.

  1. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  2. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  3. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  4. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  5. P3-23: Center/Surround Motion Interactions Measured Using a Nulling Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Park

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many direction-selective neurons have a receptive field structure that promotes suppressive interactions between center and surround regions. These interactions sculpt the overall pattern of activity among those neurons and, therefore, presumably impact perceived direction of motion. To test this conjecture, we have assessed the effect of motion signals produced by a moving stimulus on perceived motion within a neighboring region. On each trial a vertical bar (inducer appeared at 8 eccentricity in the upper visual field, moving either leftward or rightward, and a circular shaped random dot kinematogram (test appeared at 4 eccentricity. The test dots moved randomly except when the inducer passed nearby the test, at which time a pulse of coherent motion occurred in one of the two directions within the test. Coherence strength was adjusted by QUEST to maintain equal likelihood (point of subjective equality: PSE of leftward and rightward reports of perceived direction during this motion pulse. The inducer caused a substantial shift in PSE: it was necessary for the test to contain 50% coherent motion in the same direction as that of the inducer to nullify the illusory motion within the test caused by the inducer. The effect of the inducer could also be offset by simultaneously presenting a second inducer moving in the opposite direction. This pattern of results implies substantial suppressive interactions between neighboring moving stimuli, interactions whose strength and direction can be assessed psychophysically using nulling procedures.

  6. An Adaptive Multiuser Chip-Rate Equalizer for CDMA Underwater Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jing; HUANG Jian-guo; SHEN Xiao-hong

    2008-01-01

    Direct-sequence code-division multiple access (CDMA) is considered for multiuser communication network in underwater acoustic channel, where extended multipath and rapid time-variability are encountered. To track and compensate the channel distortion, a decentralized hypothesis-feedback equalization (HFE) algorithm based on chip-rate update has been used[1]. But due to multiple access interference (MAI), its performance suffers degradation. For this reason, successive interference cancellation hypothesis-feedback equalization (SIC-HFE) algorithm is proposed, which combines the capabilities of HFE to track the time-varying channel and SIC implemented by cross-over feedback filters to cancel out the MAI effects between users. Simulation and experiment results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve the performance of asynchronous multiuser CDMA underwater communication system.

  7. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear

  8. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  9. How Equalization Techniques Affect the TCP Performance of MC-CDMA Systems in Correlated Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Leonardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of several equalization techniques for multicarrier code division multiple access systems on the performance at both lower and upper layers (i.e., physical and TCP layers. Classical techniques such as maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining, orthogonality restoring combining, minimum mean square error, as well as a partial equalization (PE are investigated in time- and frequency-correlated fading channels with various numbers of interferers. Their impact on the performance at upper level is then studied. The results are obtained through an integrated simulation platform carefully reproducing all main aspects affecting the quality of service perceived by the final user, allowing an investigation of the real gain produced by signal processing techniques at TCP level.

  10. STEEL BARRIER: LEGAL IMPLICATIONS FROM A GENDER EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Bastida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, legal Acts, norms, and regulations have proliferated in order to ensure equal opportunities for women and men in multiple contexts, including public and private organizations. Nevertheless, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that, to date, real and legal equality do not match. The current context of the global economy suggests that there may now be a new barrier, related to the fact that women have been partially excluded from positions abroad which would facilitate the acquisition of professional and personal skills which are essential in the present century. This new inequality in access to senior management seems to be in contradiction with the different pressures and initiatives put in place to achieve equality of opportunities between women and men, protected in our national and international laws. In this paper, the main causes excluding women from international assignments, and consequently from senior management, are reviewed, highlighting the motivational and legal aftereffects that this trend may have. En las últimas décadas han proliferado diversas disposiciones legales y normativas con el objetivo de garantizar la igualdad de oportunidades entre mujeres y hombres en múltiples contextos, entre ellos el que atañe a las organizaciones públicas y privadas. Pese a ello, existe suficiente evidencia de que la igualdad real no se acerca, hasta la fecha, a la legal. El contexto actual de economía globalizada sugiere que puede aparecer una nueva barrera, al quedar la mujer excluida parcialmente de puestos en el extranjero que le facilitan la adquisición de capacidades profesionales y personales imprescindibles en el siglo actual. Esta nueva desigualdad en el acceso a puestos de alta dirección no parece responder a las distintas presiones e iniciativas por conseguir la igualdad de oportunidades entre hombres y mujeres, protegida en nuestro ordenamiento jurídico nacional e internacional. En este trabajo revisamos

  11. 76 FR 11667 - Procedures Relating to Awards Under the Equal Access to Justice Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    .... Department of Labor Consumer Price All-Items Index for All Urban Consumers. In brief, the petitioners sought... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... fees rate from $75.00 to $125.00. Because inflation has eroded the value of the $125 per hour fee set...

  12. Caribbean Equal Access Program: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Dancy, NLM, and Wilma Templin-Branner, ORISE

    2009-01-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine, of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  13. Racial Differences in Prostate Cancer Risk Remain Among US Servicemen With Equal Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    occupational in nature, cadmium has been studied as a possible carcinogen for human prostate cancer [19,20]. Cadmium is commonly used as a component in nickel...G, Thun MJ, Travis R, Virtamo J, Andriole G, Gelmann E, Willett WC, Hunter DJ. A common 8q24 variant in prostate and breast cancer from a large nested...Case-control study of toenail cadmium and prostate cancer risk in Italy. Sci Total Environ 2007;373(1):77–81. 20. Sahmoun AE, Case LD, Jackson SA

  14. Medicaid Meets Its Equal Access Requirement For Dental Care, But Oral Health Disparities Remain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Jaffer A; Edelstein, Burton L

    2016-12-01

    Most US children today have public or private dental health insurance, yet oral health among publicly insured children remains a policy concern. We analyzed data for 2011-12 from the National Survey of Children's Health to compare oral health status and the use of dental care among publicly and privately insured children. After we adjusted for demographic and parent characteristics, we found no differences between the two groups in parent-reported use of dental care or unmet need for dental care. However, compared to parents of privately insured children, parents of publicly insured children were less likely to report that the condition of their child's teeth was excellent or very good and more likely to report that the child had had a dental problem in the past twelve months. Family income differences between the groups accounted for much of this disparity. Our findings suggest that Medicaid is meeting its mandate to ensure that dental care is as available for children in the program as it is for privately insured children, but refinements in Medicaid policy are needed to improve poor children's oral health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Unequal Access to Universities in a Country with High Social Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Baklanov, Nikita

    likely to choose elite humanities than females, lifted by mothers in higher professions, whereas females are more likely to choose elite social sciences. Students living in urban areas are more likely to enter elite universities. Family income of the parents still plays a part in choosing elite social...... likely to choose gymnasium. The results also show a social gradient at the university level with males being more likely to become a graduate student. The choice of elite university is even more exclusive since especially students with relatively wealthy, highly educated parents, and mothers...... with a professional background have a higher chance of entering. Social selection is increasing at a lower level of strength. Our model 2 shows that students from families with higher levels of income are more likely to choose health sciences, social and natural sciences than the humanities. Also individuals...

  16. Priority to organ donors: Personal responsibility, equal access and the priority rule in organ procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    recently and the preliminary reports indicate increased donation rates. How should we evaluate such initiatives from an ethical perspective? Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive approach to distributive justice, provides one possible justification: Those who decide against being organ donors......In the effort to address the persistent organ shortage it is sometimes suggested that we should incentivize people to sign up as organ donors. One way of doing so is to give priority in the allocation of organs to those who are themselves registered as donors. Israel introduced such a scheme...... egalitarianism provides us with reaons to exempt people who are not responsible for their inability to donate from receiving lower priority, provide sufficient information about donation, and mitigate social and natural circumstances affecting people’s choice to donate....

  17. Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)

    1994-12-31

    The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.

  18. Culture, Tradition, Custom, Law and Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Maluleke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In August 2011 Advocate Joyce Maluleke, Director in the Gender Directorate of the South African Department of Justice and Constitutional Development addressed the Annual General Conference of the South African Chapter of the International Association of Women Judges held in Potchefstroom on the dangers of harmful traditional practices such as early and forced marriages, virginity testing, widow's rituals, levirate and sororate unions, female genital mutilation, breast sweeping/ironing, the primogeniture rule, practices such as 'cleansing' after male circumcision, and witch-hunting. Although she considers respect for tradition, culture and customs to be part of the South African identity, she argues that cultural practices should be rooted in respect for human rights, democracy and equality. We publish her paper here as an oratio.

  19. Interpretationen des Gleichheitsrechts Interpretations of Equality Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Baer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Diskussionen darum, wie genau ein Recht auf Gleichheit zu interpretieren ist, sind alt. Heute geht es darum, die in Deutschland und in Europa entwickelten Ansätze miteinander in Einklang zu bringen und effektives Recht gegen Diskriminierung gut begründen zu können. Das Buch von Nishihara macht dazu einen Vorschlag, der auch die wesentlichen Diskussionspunkte gewinnbringend zusammenträgt.Discussions of how the right to equality is to be exactly interpreted are old. Today, it is concerned with achieving accordance between approaches developed in Germany and Europe and with being able to adequately argue for effective laws against discrimination. Nishihara’s book makes a suggestion for this, which also successfully brings together the main points of discussion.

  20. The Borders of Equality. Recognition, Inclusion, Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scuccimarra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the sociologist Ulrich Beck, the contemporary debate on social inequalities is an exemplary case study of the phenomenon of systematic distortion of «scientific perspective of the observer» which he proposed to define as methodological nationalism. In this horizon of investigation it is possible to touch the «great gray areas» - and the gross errors - produced on the level of empirical research by a vision of society and politics that programmatically tends to assume «the logic of the national perspective». Moving from some famous passages of Alexis de Tocqueville, the essay aims to focus on the complex foundational dynamics which are the basis of this territorialized approach to the issue of equality, within a path of reflection that calls into question some of the latest theoretical contributions on the theme.

  1. HEBS: Histogram Equalization for Backlight Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Iranli, Ali; Pedram, Massoud

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed for finding a pixel transformation function that maximizes backlight dimming while maintaining a pre-specified image distortion level for a liquid crystal display. This is achieved by finding a pixel transformation function, which maps the original image histogram to a new histogram with lower dynamic range. Next the contrast of the transformed image is enhanced so as to compensate for brightness loss that would arise from backlight dimming. The proposed approach relies on an accurate definition of the image distortion which takes into account both the pixel value differences and a model of the human visual system and is amenable to highly efficient hardware realization. Experimental results show that the histogram equalization for backlight scaling method results in about 45% power saving with an effective distortion rate of 5% and 65% power saving for a 20% distortion rate. This is significantly higher power savings compared to previously reported backlight dimming approa...

  2. Access to health care: solidarity and justice or egoism and injustice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudil, Lukas

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to answer the question whether there is a real demand for equal access to health care or--better--to medical care and which interest groups (patients, health care professionals, policy makers and others) are interested in equal access. The focus is on EU countries including recent case law from the European Court of Justice and the European Court of Human Rights. We discuss whether there is a need to have legislative safeguards to protect equal access to medical care and whether such norms really work. The paper concludes that some of the key players in medical care are not primarily governed by a real willingness to have equal and just access to medical care, but by rather egoistic approaches. It seems that policy makers and politicians are the only ones who, surprisingly, must at least formally call for and enforce equal access to medical care. Interests of other groups seem to be different.

  3. Towards access for all? Policy and research on access of ethnic minority groups to natural areas in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jay, M.; Peters, K.B.M.; Buijs, A.E.; Gentin, S.; Kloek, M.E.; O'Brien, L.

    2012-01-01

    Migration and growing ethnic diversity pose new questions for forest and nature policy and research, especially on the equality of access to natural areas. This paper compares national approaches in policy and research on ethnic minority groups' access to natural areas in four Western-European count

  4. Combat Exclusion: An Equal Protection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Distribution Unlimited D DIShUMMION STATE3MEN L E TaT AVALABIUTTY COD= DsIM ~tMGK Av~AUABRz ANMWr W9=AL’ DATE ACCESSIONED DISTRIUWTION ATM R E D)ATE RMETUN...because some servicemembers can’t control their sexual urges targets the women instead of the true problem. A more reasonable solution would be to take...guidance and strong leadership are the keys to controlling these challenges. The Danish tests showed that women performed well during adverse physical

  5. Assessment method of accessibility conditions: how to make public buildings accessible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Isabela Fernandes; Ely, e Vera Helena Moro Bins

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of accessibility today has faced several difficulties, such as intervention in historic buildings that now house public services and cultural activities, such as town halls, museums and theaters and should allow access, on equal terms to all people. The paper presents the application of a method for evaluating the spatial accessibility conditions and their results. For this, we sought to support the theoretical foundation about the main issue involved and legislation. From the method used--guided walks--it was possible to identify the main barriers to accessibility in historic buildings. From the identified barriers, possible solutions are presented according to the four components of accessibility: spatial orientation, displacement, use and communication. It is hoped also that the knowledge gained in this research contributes to an improvement of accessibility legislation in relation to the listed items.

  6. School Finance, Equivalent Educational Expenditure, and the Income Distribution: Equal Dollars or Equal Chances for Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn; Lambright, Kristina; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2006-01-01

    This article breaks new ground in the debate on school finance and equality of per pupil school expenditures. We are able to merge school district data with the individual and family data of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). This allows us to examine both student and school district characteristics and to assess several measures of…

  7. Teachers Negotiating Discourses of Gender (In) Equality: The Case of Equal Opportunities Reform in Andalusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Mercedes; Santamaría, Andrés; Rebollo, Mª Ángeles; Cubero, Rosario; García, Rafael; Vega, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the narratives produced by a group of teachers, experts in coeducation, while they were discussing their everyday activities. They are responsible for the implementation of a Plan for Gender Equality in public secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). This study is based on contributions about doing gender…

  8. 101 Short Problems from EQUALS = 101 Problemas Cortos del programma EQUALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenmark, Jean Kerr, Ed.

    EQUALS is a teacher advisory program that helps elementary and secondary educators acquire methods and materials to attract minority and female students to mathematics. The program supports a problem-solving approach to mathematics, including having students working in groups, using active assessment methods, and incorporating a broad mathematics…

  9. Beyond equality and adequacy: equal protection, tax assessments, and the Missouri public school funding dilemma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, Ronald K., II

    2010-01-01

    ... having the intention of achieving a more just system of school funding does not guarantee that the legislature achieved its purpose with its recent action or that the legislation is consistent with the Missouri Constitution as a whole. In the 2009 case of Committee for Educational Equality v. State of Missouri, a group of students, taxpayers, and school ...

  10. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments.

  11. Study on Temperature Fieldof Surrounding Rock with BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyzed the characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face, setup its mathematic model, and got its numerical result with the boundary element method(BEM). To calculate in-tra-domain integral, it was transformed into boundary integration with the DRM method. Using the similitude the-ory, the dimensionless differential equation was educed. Finally, the authors calculated two drifting faces of San-hejian Coal Mine using the computer software developed by authors based on the above principium, and got the dis-tribution characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face and the periodic variation intemperature with its periodic moving forward. Comparing the calculated heat dissipating-capacity of surroundingrock with the measured data shows that the computer software is proper.

  12. Experimental Study of Deformation of Surrounding Rock with Infrared Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jun; AN Li-qian; REN Run-hou; FAN Shi-min; MA Nian-jie; LI Jian-hui; JI Yuan-ming

    2005-01-01

    According to the practical conditions of coal roadway in Changcun Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, the deformation of rock surrounding roadway was experimentally studied by means of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging system in the process of confined compressions. It is found that the model surface TIR temperature (TIRT) changes with the increase of load. Furthermore, TIRT changes non-synchronously in different ranges such as the roof, floor, wall, corners and bolted ranges. The TIRT is higher in the location of stress concentration and bolted ranges than that in the location of stress relaxation and broken ranges. The interaction ranges of bolt and rock are determined preliminarily according to the corresponding relationship of TIRT fields and the strain fields of the surrounding rock. The new method of TIR image processing has been proved to be effective for the study of bolt support and observation of roadway stability under mine pressure.

  13. High resolution bathymetry of China seas and their surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the oceanic lithospheric flexure and the worldwide bathymetric data ETOPO5, the high resolu tion bathymetry of the China seas and their surroundings is computed from altimeter derived gravity anomalies. The new bathymetry obtained by this study is higher resolution and accuracy than the widely used ETOPO5 data, mean while it shows clearly the seafioor, the tectonic characteristics and the geodynamical processes in the China seas.

  14. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic q...

  15. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  16. Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia by Surround Needling with Electric Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin; YANG Qin-hua

    2005-01-01

    运用电针围刺法治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛29例,获得较好疗效,总有效率为93.1%.%Twenty-nine cases of postherpetic neuralgia of herpes zoster were treated by the surround needling with electric stimulation, and the better therapeutic effect was obtained, the total effective rate was 93.1%.

  17. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  18. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  19. THE DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SIMULATION SYSTEM ON EARTHQUAKE SURROUNDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈毅力; 杨云; 李天石

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a system that can simulate earthquake surroundings. In the surroundings, people can be familiar with the omen, strong shock and aftershock of earthquake, thus make right choices and get away when the disaster occurs. Methods The system consists of an electro-hydraulic servo system, a whole-information sound system and some lighting device; By using the adaptive inverse control method and LMS algorithms, the inverse model (I.e. The controller) is convergent rapidly; The software based on LabVIEW makes the parameters can be modified easily; There is a double closed-loop structure in the system: an analog closed-loop and a digital closed-loop, and their parameters can be inspected in real time. Results The system is of very high reliability, and the desired vibration signal can be tracked exactly by output. Conclusion Earthquake surroundings is simulated vividly. Through the system, people can be familiar with earthquake phenomena, and know lots of knowledge of earthquake.

  20. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  1. Contrast Enhancement through Clustered Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Chuan Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a contrast enhancement algorithm. Some methods enhance images depending on only the global or the local information, therefore it would cause over-enhancement usually and make the image look unnatural. The proposed method enhances image based on the global and local information. For the global part, we proposed mapping curves to find the new average, maximum and minimum intensity to try to suit the concept of Human Visual System (HVS for obtaining the better perceptual results. For the local part, we utilized fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm to group image and we can obtain the information of intensity distribution and pixel number from each group. Then we calculate weights according to the information and enhance images by Histogram Equalization (HE depending on the weights. The experiment results show that our method can enhance the contrast of image steadily and it causes over-enhancement with lower probability than other methods. The whole image not only looks natural but also shows detail texture more clearly after applying our method.

  2. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  3. Equalizer: a scalable parallel rendering framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilemann, Stefan; Makhinya, Maxim; Pajarola, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Continuing improvements in CPU and GPU performances as well as increasing multi-core processor and cluster-based parallelism demand for flexible and scalable parallel rendering solutions that can exploit multipipe hardware accelerated graphics. In fact, to achieve interactive visualization, scalable rendering systems are essential to cope with the rapid growth of data sets. However, parallel rendering systems are non-trivial to develop and often only application specific implementations have been proposed. The task of developing a scalable parallel rendering framework is even more difficult if it should be generic to support various types of data and visualization applications, and at the same time work efficiently on a cluster with distributed graphics cards. In this paper we introduce a novel system called Equalizer, a toolkit for scalable parallel rendering based on OpenGL which provides an application programming interface (API) to develop scalable graphics applications for a wide range of systems ranging from large distributed visualization clusters and multi-processor multipipe graphics systems to single-processor single-pipe desktop machines. We describe the system architecture, the basic API, discuss its advantages over previous approaches, present example configurations and usage scenarios as well as scalability results.

  4. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  5. Effect of equal channel angular pressing on aging treatment of Al-7075 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.H. Shaeri; M. Shaeri; M.T. Salehi; S.H. Seyyedein; M.R. Abutalebi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aging treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of equal channel angular pressed Al-7075 alloy was examined. Commercial Al-7075 alloy in the solid solution heat-treated condition was processed by equal channel angular pressing through route BC at both the room temperature and 120 1C. Only three passes of equal channel angular pressing was possible due to the low ductility of the alloy at both temperatures. Followed by equal channel angular pressing, the specimens have been aged at 120 1C for different aging times. Mechanical properties were measured by Vickers microhardness and tensile tests and microstructural observations were undertaken using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer as well as optical microscopy. Microstructural investigations showed that ultrafine-grained materials with grain size in the range of 200–350 nm and 300–500 nm could be obtained after three passes of equal channel angular pressing at room temperature and 120 1C, respectively. Equal channel angular pressing of solid solution heat-treated Al-7075 alloy accelerates precipitation rate and subsequently leads to a significant decrease in aging time to attain maximum mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is possible to achieve maximum mechanical properties during equal channel angular pressing at 120 1C as a result of dynamic aging and formation of smallɳ´ phase.&2015 Chinese Materials Research Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  6. Structural Equality at the Top of the Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogut, Bruce; Colomer, Jordi; Belinky, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    We propose a concept of structural equality as a compromise between competing policy preferences of equality and individual liberty to address a stunning property of the governance of corporations, namely, the paucity of female directors on corporate boards. An argument for imposing a quota for w...... well-connected networks of women directors who attain equality in their centrality and influence. The analysis demonstrates the utility of computational social science for identifying policies that generate alternative and possible worlds of greater structural equality...

  7. Equalizers for DVD read channel with d = 2 modulation coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalaswamy, Srinivasan; Wood, Roger

    1997-07-01

    The EFMPlus is the run-length-limited modulation code adopted for the DVD. Enhanced performance can be obtained by using equalizers that exploit the d equals 2 constraint of this code. Two such equalizers are presented and their performance evaluated using modeling and simulations. The use of this equalization strategy avoids the Viterbi detector, and optimal detection is provided by use of only a comparator.

  8. The controversy surrounding bone morphogenetic proteins in the spine: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Blizzard, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins have been in use in spinal surgery since 2002. These proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily and guide mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts to form bone in targeted tissues. Since the first commercial BMP became available in 2002, a host of research has supported BMPs and they have been rapidly incorporated in spinal surgeries in the United States. However, recent controversy has arisen surrounding the ethical conduct of the research supporting the use of BMPs. Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) recently teamed up with Medtronic to offer a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of BMPs in spinal surgery. This review focuses on the history of BMPs and examines the YODA research to guide spine surgeons in their use of BMP in spinal surgery.

  9. Poverty, Equity and Access to Education in Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Altaf; Zeitlyn, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh has made great improvements in the scale and quality of access to education in recent years and gender equality has almost been achieved in primary education (World Bank, 2008). Evidence from CREATE's nationwide community and school survey (ComSS) confirms results from other research (such as Al-Samarrai, 2009) which suggests that…

  10. To DNA, all information is equal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Lau; Bentin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Information storage capabilities are key in most aspects of society and the requirement for storage space is rapidly expanding. In principle, DNA could be a high-density medium for information storage. Church and coworkers recently demonstrated how binary data can be encoded, stored in......, and retrieved from a library of oligonucleotides, increasing by several orders of magnitude the amount and density of manmade information stored in DNA to date. The technology remains in its infancy and important hurdles have yet to be overcome in order to realize its potential. However, DNA may be particularly...... useful as a storage-medium over long time-scales (centuries), because data-access is compatible with any large-scale DNA-sequencing and -synthesis technology....

  11. Nonlinear Algorithms for Channel Equalization and Map Symbol Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, K.

    The transfer of information through a communication medium invariably results in various kinds of distortion to the transmitted signal. In this dissertation, a feed -forward neural network-based equalizer, and a family of maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol detectors are proposed for signal recovery in the presence of intersymbol interference (ISI) and additive white Gaussian noise. The proposed neural network-based equalizer employs a novel bit-mapping strategy to handle multilevel data signals in an equivalent bipolar representation. It uses a training procedure to learn the channel characteristics, and at the end of training, the multilevel symbols are recovered from the corresponding inverse bit-mapping. When the channel characteristics are unknown and no training sequences are available, blind estimation of the channel (or its inverse) and simultaneous data recovery is required. Convergence properties of several existing Bussgang-type blind equalization algorithms are studied through computer simulations, and a unique gain independent approach is used to obtain a fair comparison of their rates of convergence. Although simple to implement, the slow convergence of these Bussgang-type blind equalizers make them unsuitable for many high data-rate applications. Rapidly converging blind algorithms based on the principle of MAP symbol-by -symbol detection are proposed, which adaptively estimate the channel impulse response (CIR) and simultaneously decode the received data sequence. Assuming a linear and Gaussian measurement model, the near-optimal blind MAP symbol detector (MAPSD) consists of a parallel bank of conditional Kalman channel estimators, where the conditioning is done on each possible data subsequence that can convolve with the CIR. This algorithm is also extended to the recovery of convolutionally encoded waveforms in the presence of ISI. Since the complexity of the MAPSD algorithm increases exponentially with the length of the assumed CIR, a suboptimal

  12. The relevance vector machine technique for channel equalization application

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; Gunn, S.R.; Harris, C J

    2001-01-01

    The recently introduced relevance vector machine (RVM) technique is applied to communication channel equalization. It is demonstrated that the RVM equalizer can closely match the optimal performance of the Bayesian equalizer, with a much sparser kernel representation than that is achievable by the state-of-art support vector machine (SVM) technique.

  13. 12 CFR 626.6025 - Equal housing lender poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The Equal Housing Lender Poster shall be at least 11 inches by 14 inches in size, and shall bear the... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal housing lender poster. 626.6025 Section... § 626.6025 Equal housing lender poster. (a) Each Farm Credit institution that makes loans for...

  14. Dilemmas in the Danish Approach to Gender Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality...

  15. Reflections on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Adult Basic Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…

  16. 76 FR 21221 - National Equal Pay Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... economic equality for all, regardless of gender. When the Equal Pay Act was signed into law in 1963, women... exist for working women, who still earn less on average than working men. Each year, National Equal Pay... harder to close the gaps that still exist. At a time when families across this country are struggling...

  17. The Fate of Equality in a Technological Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The meaning of equality has been radically altered since the Enlightenment. In the 18th century, equality acquired political and economic meanings specifically in the contexts of democracy and capitalism. Today, the context in which equality is understood and practiced is technology as our most immediate and compelling environment. Moreover, the…

  18. Channel Equalization for Chaos-Based Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯久超; 鲁瑞华

    2002-01-01

    We study the equalization of the channel for chaotic communication systems. A channel equalizer is designed and realized by a modified recurrent neural network for eliminating channel distortions. The results from computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the equalizer as applied to a chaotic communication system.

  19. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  20. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  1. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  2. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  3. An Index for Estimating the Stability of Brittle Surrounding Rock Mass: FAI and its Engineering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. Q.; Zhou, H.; Feng, X. T.

    2011-07-01

    Based on the geometric analysis of the relationship between the stress state at a point and the yield surface defined in the principal stress space, a coefficient ω is set up as an estimation index to describe the stress-induced yield risk. After yield, the equivalent plastic shear strains is usually used to characterize the failure degree (FD) of the material and adopted here as an index of the damage degree for the surrounding rock masses. Then, a unified variable combining ω and FD, named failure approaching index (FAI), is constructed to estimate the stability of rock mass which may be at different deformation stages. The formulas of FAI are derived for some popular yield criteria in geomechanics. Details for such development are addressed in the paper. Its rationality is verified by numerical simulation and comparative analysis of the conventional triaxial compression tests and typical tunnel projects. In addition, the method for applying FAI to the stability estimation of surrounding rock mass is proposed. As examples, the stability of the underground powerhouse, access tunnels and headrace tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station are estimated by making use of the method we presented. The results indicate that not only is the index rational in mechanics, but the theory also has good expansibility, and the estimation methods are simple and practical as well. It is easier for field engineers to analyze and understand the numerical results.

  4. VT Limited Access Highways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A limited-access road, known by various terms worldwide, including limited-access highway, dual carriageway, expressway, and partial controlled access highway, is a...

  5. Born free and equal?: on the ethical consistency of animal equality

    OpenAIRE

    Bruers, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the possibility of constructing a consistent ethical system that offers clear notions of equality and incorporates an animal ethic. The first part is more meta-ethical in nature, reflecting on notions such as moral intuitions, universalism, consistency and coherence. It demonstrates that moral illusions might exist and offers a method to discover such moral illusions. The second part turns to normative ethics, dealing with principles of welfare, justice and ...

  6. 78 FR 7987 - Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... access to education, economic opportunity, and health care increases broader economic prosperity, as well... Directive on Global Development, and the 2010 U.S. Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review. To elevate... Federal Government to ensure that U.S. diplomacy and foreign assistance promote gender equality...

  7. County-Level Poverty Is Equally Associated with Unmet Health Care Needs in Rural and Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E.; Litaker, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Regional poverty is associated with reduced access to health care. Whether this relationship is equally strong in both rural and urban settings or is affected by the contextual and individual-level characteristics that distinguish these areas, is unclear. Purpose: Compare the association between regional poverty with self-reported unmet…

  8. Plurality and equality in the Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimar Ramis-Salas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to present empirical evidence of the success generated as a result of the types of organization of the centres and the classrooms in the CA. The inclusion of the plurality of voices of families from very different origins allows for an education that based on the plurality and diversity manages to achieve a greater equality in the results of all children. Design/methodology/approach: the present article is based on 1 review of the scientific literature in journals selected in the Journal Citation Reports about the types of participation of migrant families and from cultural minorities and their effect on the education of their children; and 2 on the collection of testimonies of migrant and cultural minority families through qualitative techniques. Findings and Originality/value: empirical evidence is presented about how the types of management and organization of the families participation in the classroom and the school of Learning communities maximize the plurality of voices (migrant and cultural minority families and contribute to improve the results of the children of the social groups who are most underprivileged and who obtain a greater improvement in the results levelling them with those of the mainstream society. Research limitations/implications: complexity to achieve a climate of ideal egalitarian dialogue in the framework of the communicative research data collection techniques Social implications: the article emphasizes the fact that evidence based actions achieve social and educational transformation, contributing to respond to the objectives of Europe 2020 to achieve more inclusive societies. Originality/value: how through implementing certain forms of classroom and school organization based on the inclusion of the plurality of voices, we contribute evidence of the improvement of the management of the center and the transformation of the relations with the community, beyond the educational success.

  9. On solving equations of algebraic sum of equal powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinghua; YANG Shijun

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that a system of equations of sum of equal powers can be converted to an algebraic equation of higher degree via Newton's identities. This is the Viete-Newton theorem. This work reports the generalizations of the Viete-Newton theorem to a system of equations of algebraic sum of equal powers. By exploiting some facts from algebra and combinatorics,it is shown that a system of equations of algebraic sum of equal powers can be converted in a closed form to two algebraic equations, whose degree sum equals the number of unknowns of the system of equations of algebraic sum of equal powers.

  10. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  11. A Legal Analysis of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and Its Impact on Ballot Initiatives and Affirmative Action Programs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Harold Davon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the controversial issues surrounding affirmative action in higher education. Are anti-affirmative action ballot initiatives in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by restructuring the political process of minorities in such a way that places special burden on their ability to secure…

  12. Equal Pay for Equal Qualifications? A Model for Determining Race or Sex Discrimination in Salaries. AIR Forum Paper 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffo, John; And Others

    Equal pay for equal work by persons of equal qualifications is the concept behind laws against race and sex discrimination in salaries in the United States. However, determining the existence and extent of discrimination is not a simple matter. A four-step procedure is recommended that attempts to uncover the existence of discrimination and begins…

  13. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  14. Turbo-per-Tone Equalization for ADSL Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the equalization procedure in discrete multitone (DMT-based systems, in particular, in DMT-based ADSL systems. Traditionally, equalization is performed in the time domain by means of a channel shortening filter. Shifting the equalization operations to the frequency domain, as is done in per-tone equalization, increases the achieved bitrate by 5–10%. We show that the application of the turbo principle to per-tone equalization can provide significant additional gains. In the proposed receiver structure, referred to as a “turbo-per-tone equalization” structure, equalization and decoding are performed in an iterative fashion. Equalization is done by means of a linear minimum mean squared error (MMSE equalizer, using a priori information. We give a description of an efficient implementation of such an equalizer in the per-tone structure. Simulations show that we obtain a bitrate increase of 12–16% compared to the original per-tone equalization-based receiver structure.

  15. A Novel Convergence Approach for an Adaptive Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Shoaib Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Linear equalizers were derived either on the deterministic Zero Forcing (ZF approach for equalizers of ZF type or on the stochastic Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE approach for equalizers of the MMSE type. We present a new formulation of the equalizer problem based on a Weighted Least Squares (WLS approach. Here, we show that it is possible and in our opinion even simpler to derive the classical results in a purely deterministic setup, interpreting both equalizer types as Least Squares solutions. This, in turn, allows the introduction of a simple linear reference model for equalizers, which supports the exact derivation of a family of iterative and recursive algorithms with optimize behavior. Due to this reference approach the adaptive equalizer problem can equivalently be treated as an adaptive system identification problem for which very precise Statements are possible with respect to convergence, optimization and l2-stability.

  16. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  17. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.; Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2015-06-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e. the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the Solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD 46375b, HD 73256b, HD 102195b, HD 130322b and HD 179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9-8.0 × 10-13 M⊙ yr-1) and the wind properties at the position of the hot Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are supermagnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrounding these planets. Assuming planetary magnetic fields similar to Jupiter's, we estimate planetary magnetospheric sizes of 4.1-5.6 planetary radii. We also derive the exoplanetary radio emission released in the dissipation of the stellar wind energy. We find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy, which are challenging to be observed with present-day technology, but could be detectable with future higher sensitivity arrays (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Radio emission from systems having closer hot Jupiters, such as from τ Boo b or HD 189733b, or from nearby planetary systems orbiting young stars, are likely to have higher radio fluxes, presenting better prospects for detecting exoplanetary radio emission.

  18. Issues surrounding record keeping in district nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E E

    2000-07-01

    This article examines some aspects of nursing documentation following the publication of the document 'Guidelines for Records and Record Keeping' (UKCC, 1998). The importance of nursing documentation in patient care, in guiding practice and in providing information for members of the interprofessional healthcare team is highlighted. Record keeping forms an important part of the clinical governance initiative in terms of quality improvement and risk management. The issues surrounding the legal requirements of record keeping in district nursing practice are discussed. Suggestions are made for assessing the quality of nursing documentation by audit and research, in order to establish the suitability of using the present systems in the community setting.

  19. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  20. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  1. Problems Surrounding Probation In The South African Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baloyi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate problems surrounding probation periods in the South African Public Service. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the views of both probationers and supervisors managing the probation process. Data was gathered by means of focus groups and individual interviews. Nine key areas were identified as being problematic, viz. clarity regarding the purpose of probation, lack of proper guidelines, the duration of probation, rotation during probation, lack of training, poor management of probation, performance management, anxiety and stress, power and authority. Recommendations are made concerning possible interventions.

  2. JISC Open Access Briefing Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2005-01-01

    What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources

  3. JISC Open Access Briefing Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2005-01-01

    What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources

  4. Access to Effective Teaching for Disadvantaged Students. NCEE 2014-4001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, Eric; Max, Jeffrey; Gleason, Philip; Potamites, Liz; Santillano, Robert; Hock, Heinrich; Hansen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent federal initiatives emphasize measuring teacher effectiveness and ensuring that disadvantaged students have equal access to effective teachers. This study substantially broadens the existing evidence on access to effective teaching by examining access in 29 geographically dispersed school districts over the 2008-2009 to 2010-2011 school…

  5. Interactions of the Infrared bubble N4 with the surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Liu, Tie; Dubner, G; Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Molinari, Sergio; Huang, Maohai; Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with HII regions have been considered to be a good sample to investigate triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the HII region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with the surroundings and star formation histories therein, aiming at determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 $\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, mean volume density of about 4.4 $\\times10^{4}$ cm$^{-3}$, and a mean mass of 320 $M_{\\odot}$. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 $\\mu$m, ...

  6. Radio observations of Supernova Remnants and the surrounding molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, G

    2011-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the main source of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The strong SNR shocks provide ideal acceleration sites for particles of at least 10^14 eV/nucleon. Radio continuum studies of SNRs carried out with good sensitivity and high angular resolution convey information about three main aspects of the SNRs: morphology, polarization and spectrum. Based on this information it is possible to localize sites of higher compression and particle acceleration as well as the orientation and degree of order of the magnetic fields, and in some cases even its intensity. All this information, when complemented with the study of the distribution and kinematics of the surrounding interstellar gas, results in a very useful dataset to investigate the role of SNRs as cosmic ray accelerators. In this presentation, I analyze the radio observations of SNRs and surrounding molecular clouds, showing the contribution of these studies to the understanding of the role of SNRs as factories of CRs.

  7. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  8. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Moutou, C; Donati, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e., the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9 to 8.0 $\\times 10^{-13} M_{\\odot}$/yr) and the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are super-magnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrou...

  9. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  10. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  11. Natural radioactivity content in groundwater of Mt. Etna’s eastern flank and gamma background of surrounding rocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kozłowska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Waters of Mt. Etna are the main source of drinking water for the local population and are also distributed in municipal supply systems to neighbouring areas. Radioactivity in underground waters and surrounding rocks from the eastern flank of Mt.Etnawas investigated on the basis of 9 water and 8 rocks samples from 12 localities altogether. Three samples were from water drainage galleries and six from water wells. All water intakes are used for consumption. Activity concentration of uranium isotopes 234,238U, radium isotopes 226,228Ra and radon 222Rn were determined with the use different nuclear spectrometry techniques. The determination of uranium isotopes was carried out with the use of alpha spectrometry. The measurements of radium and radon activity concentration in water were performed with the use of a liquid scintillation technique. Additionally, rocks surrounding the intakes were examined with gamma spectrometry. All water samples showed uranium concentration above Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA, with the highest total uranium (234U + 238U activity concentration equal to 149.2±6 mBq/L. Conversely, all samples showed radium isotopes activity concentrations below MDA. Radon activity concentration was within the range from 2.91±0.36 to 21.21±1.10 Bq/L, hence these waters can be classified as low – radon waters. Gamma natural background of the rocks surrounding the water sampling sites was found on the same levels as other volcanic rocks of Italy.

  12. Foreign Models of Financial Equalization, Prospects for Implementation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontko Nataliia B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to identify the models of financial equalization applied in foreign countries, and to substantiate the possibilities for use of foreign experience in terms of financial equalization or individual elements of such models on the territory of Ukraine, for taking into consideration the foreign tools of financial equalization in the context of the State regional policy reforms is a priority and urgent task of the present day. During the generalization and systematization of scientific works by numerous domestic and foreign scientists, models of financial equalization, depending on the form of state structure in the country, have been identified. Determinants of the necessity of financial equalization were analyzed, such as: the imbalance between the own financial security and the level of assigned tasks; the level of fiscal decentralization. Methods of income and expenditures equalization, applied in vertical or horizontal levels for balancing regional development, have been substantiated. Features of expansion of financial security of budgets by using innovative tools for equalization have been determined. A comparison of the models of financial equalization in foreign countries was made and the major tasks for improving the mechanism and organization of financial equalization of budgets in Ukraine were defined. Prospects for further research in this area are diversification of tools for financial equalization, defining the investment component in the structure of budgets' incomes and studying the activities of sub-central authorities in the financial market

  13. Equally parsimonious pathways through an RNA sequence space are not equally likely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. H.; DSouza, L. M.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental system for determining the potential ability of sequences resembling 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to perform as functional 5S rRNAs in vivo in the Escherichia coli cellular environment was devised previously. Presumably, the only 5S rRNA sequences that would have been fixed by ancestral populations are ones that were functionally valid, and hence the actual historical paths taken through RNA sequence space during 5S rRNA evolution would have most likely utilized valid sequences. Herein, we examine the potential validity of all sequence intermediates along alternative equally parsimonious trajectories through RNA sequence space which connect two pairs of sequences that had previously been shown to behave as valid 5S rRNAs in E. coli. The first trajectory requires a total of four changes. The 14 sequence intermediates provide 24 apparently equally parsimonious paths by which the transition could occur. The second trajectory involves three changes, six intermediate sequences, and six potentially equally parsimonious paths. In total, only eight of the 20 sequence intermediates were found to be clearly invalid. As a consequence of the position of these invalid intermediates in the sequence space, seven of the 30 possible paths consisted of exclusively valid sequences. In several cases, the apparent validity/invalidity of the intermediate sequences could not be anticipated on the basis of current knowledge of the 5S rRNA structure. This suggests that the interdependencies in RNA sequence space may be more complex than currently appreciated. If ancestral sequences predicted by parsimony are to be regarded as actual historical sequences, then the present results would suggest that they should also satisfy a validity requirement and that, in at least limited cases, this conjecture can be tested experimentally.

  14. Respiratory health equality in the United States. The American thoracic society perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón, Juan C; Roman, Jesse; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Thomas, Alvin; Samet, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Because the frequency of major risk factors for respiratory diseases (e.g., tobacco use) differs across demographic groups (defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, health care access, occupation, or other characteristics), health disparities are commonly encountered in pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. As part of its policy on respiratory health disparities, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Executive Committee created a Health Equality Subcommittee of the Health Policy Committee, with an initial mandate of defining respiratory health equality and, as a subsequent task, providing recommendations to the ATS leadership as to how our society may help attain such equality in the United States. After receiving input from the ATS assemblies and committees, the subcommittee developed this document on respiratory health equality. This document defines respiratory health disparities and respiratory health equality, and expands on a recent ATS and European Respiratory Society policy statement on disparities in respiratory health. Attainment of respiratory health equality requires the ending of respiratory health disparities, which can be achieved only through multidisciplinary efforts to eliminate detrimental environmental exposures while promoting a healthy lifestyle, implementing all components of high-quality health care (prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment), and conducting research that will lead to better prevention and management of respiratory diseases for everyone. The ATS recognizes that such efforts must include all stakeholders: members of society at large, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and other professional societies. The ATS urges all of its members and those of sister societies to work to achieve this laudable goal.

  15. «Equality! the sacred right of equality». Representation under Constitution of 1812

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez O., Jaime E.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Historians generally argue that Spaniards were not willing to grant Americans equal representation in the Cortes of Cádiz. This article examines the nature of representation in the Antiguo Régimen and the reasons inequality existed in the institutions that emerged after 1808, the Junta Central, the Regency, and the Cortes. Although it is true that the Peninsular majority refused to grant the castas full political rights, they acted to preserve equal representation for themselves in the Cortes. Their actions were predicated on an erroneous belief about the total population of the overseas territories. Opposition to granting the castas full political rights was also shared by some American deputies — those from regions with large African origin population—. Although the Peninsular majority failed to grant Americans the equal representation based on population that they desired, the Spaniards went further than the leaders of any other European nation. England never considered granting the white population of its North American possessions any representation in Parliament, much less equality.

    La historiografía sostiene habitualmente que los españoles peninsulares no deseaban otorgar a los americanos una representación igualitaria en las Cortes de Cádiz. Este artículo estudia la naturaleza de la representación en el Antiguo Régimen y las razones por las que existía la desigualdad en instituciones surgidas después de 1808, como la Junta Central, la Regencia y las Cortes. Es cierto que la mayoría peninsular rechazó otorgar plenos derechos políticos a las castas (personas con ancestros africanos y que se esforzó en conservar la representación igualitaria para ellos mismos en las Cortes. Un comportamiento que se basaba en una idea equivocada sobre la población total de los territorios de ultramar. Sin embargo, en el rechazo a otorgar plenos derechos políticos también participaron algunos diputados

  16. CERN Access Cards and Access Authorisations

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From the 01/05/2003, all problems relating to access cards and refusal of access to any zone, building or experiment within CERN must be addressed to the Centrale de Surveillance des Accès (CSA building 120) on 78877 or send an e-mail to Access.Surveillance@cern.ch. The responsibles for CERN access control have put into place a procedure with the CSA, Service Enregistrement and the Technical Control Room, to make sure that all problems get resolved in a proper and timely manner.

  17. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs.

  18. An Iterative Algorithm for the Split Equality and Multiple-Sets Split Equality Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoyi Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-sets split equality problem (MSSEP requires finding a point x∈∩i=1NCi, y∈∩j=1MQj such that Ax=By, where N and M are positive integers, {C1,C2,…,CN} and {Q1,Q2,…,QM} are closed convex subsets of Hilbert spaces H1, H2, respectively, and A:H1→H3, B:H2→H3 are two bounded linear operators. When N=M=1, the MSSEP is called the split equality problem (SEP. If  B=I, then the MSSEP and SEP reduce to the well-known multiple-sets split feasibility problem (MSSFP and split feasibility problem (SFP, respectively. One of the purposes of this paper is to introduce an iterative algorithm to solve the SEP and MSSEP in the framework of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces under some more mild conditions for the iterative coefficient.

  19. The implementation of Automatic Adaptive Equalizer Based on LMS Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>In this paper,the inter-symbol interference and eliminating method are introduced.After analyzing the principle of adaptive equalization,we designed an adaptive equalizer using the LMS algorithm,and constructed a simulation system using MATLAB.Then we analyzed the convergence speed and mean square error characteristic of the adaptive equalizer by changing the step length factor to test the performance of the algorithm.

  20. Nonlinear Blind Equalization for Volume Holographic Data Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商未雄; 何庆声; 金国藩

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear blind equalization for volume holographic data storage channel. Base on the recurrent neural network channel model, we describe a novel blind equalizer for the volume holographic data storage system to improve the bit error rate and hence to make the storage densities achievable. The experimental results also indicate that a significant improvement in the bit error rate to 2.55 × 10-3 is possible with the nonlinear blind equalization.

  1. Method for solvent extraction with near-equal density solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Joseph F.; Randolph, John D.; Singh, S. Paul

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a modified centrifugal contactor for separating solutions of near equal density. The modified contactor has a pressure differential establishing means that allows the application of a pressure differential across fluid in the rotor of the contactor. The pressure differential is such that it causes the boundary between solutions of near-equal density to shift, thereby facilitating separation of the phases. Also disclosed is a method of separating solutions of near-equal density.

  2. Application of Fast and Robust Equalization in Communication Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Hua(叶桦); Zhou Wanlei; Ye Lin; Lanham Elicia; Raitman Ruth

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the potential of several popular equalization techniques while overcoming their disadvantages. First, extensive literature survey on equalization is conducted. The focus is on popular linear equalization algorithms such as the conventional least-mean-square (LMS ) algorithm, the recursive least-squares ( RLS ) algorithm, the filtered-X LMS algorithm and their development. To overcome the slow convergence problem while keeping the simplicity of the LMS based algorithms, an H2 optimal initialization is proposed.

  3. ON TESTING THE EQUALITY OF K MULTIPLEAND PARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Coutsourides (1980) derives an ad hoc nuisance parameter removal test for testing the equality of two multiple correlation coefficients of two independent p variate normal populations, under the assumption that a sample of size n is available from each population. He also extends his ad hoc nuisance parameter removal test to the testing of the equality of two multiple correlation matrices. This paper presents likelihood ratio tests for testing the equality of k multiple correlation coefficients, and also k partial correlation coefficients.

  4. Social work with families at social risk promoting gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivoriene J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the research whose aim is to find out the attitudes of social workers toward gender equality. The qualitative research was carried out in 2014 in order to find out social workers' attitudes to gender equality in families and families at social risk, as well as obstacles and possibilities for implementation of gender equality in families at social risk. Eight social workers working with families at social risk were interviewed using semi-structured interview and content analysis for research data analysis. The research data reveals that gender equality in the family can be reached by mutual agreement, when the division of duties and responsibilities is in accordance with needs and abilities of family members. Good family relations are emphasized as a prerequisite for gender equality. Families at social risk with unbalanced social functioning and relationships are affected by stereotyped thinking about gender roles. As informants point out, this makes gender equality impossible in families at social risk. Social workers reveal that they do not directly relate the gender dimension with social work practice, and as a result it becomes problematic to promote gender equality in families at social risk. The main obstacles for implementation of gender equality are clients' resistance to change, too much responsibilities put on women-mother by social workers and other institutions that deal with social risk families, lack of information on gender equality and tools for promoting gender equality in the family. However, the informants provide solutions for promotion of gender equality in micro, mezzo and macro practice that correspond to the guidelines presented in the documents and strategies on gender equality at national and EU level.

  5. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  6. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Abu-Qarn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  7. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  8. The nature of plerions surrounding soft gamma-ray repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    1995-01-01

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  9. Casimir Effect in the Kerr Spacetime Surrounded by Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, V B; Freitas, L F F; Muniz, C R

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the Casimir energy of a massless scalar field in a cavity formed by nearby parallel plates orbiting a rotating spherical body surrounded by quintessence, investigating the influence of the gravitational field on that energy, at zero temperature. This influence includes the effects due to the spacetime dragging caused by the source rotation as well as those ones due to the quintessence. We show that the energy depends on all the involved parameters, as source mass, angular momentum and quintessence state parameter, for any radial coordinate and polar angle. We show that at the north pole the Casimir energy is not influenced by the quintessential matter. At the equatorial plane, when the quintessence is canceled, the result obtained in the literature is recovered. Finally, constraints in the quintessence parameters are obtained from the uncertainty in the current measurements of Casimir effect.

  10. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  11. Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Martirosian, J. R.

    2003-04-01

    Results from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objects surrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample of Kazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of the Kazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% of binary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazarian galaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-ray sources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for complete samples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higher than the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies.

  12. On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.

  13. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O`Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-09-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  14. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O' Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  15. Rotation of the Warm Molecular Gas Surrounding Ultracompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations towards five massive star forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each HII region (as traced by SO_2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the HII region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.

  16. A 500 Parsec Halo Surrounding the Galactic Globular NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, Edward W; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows four magnitudes of main sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (>250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of $r^{-1.24}$. It contains approximately 0.1% of the dynamical mass of NGC 1851. There is no evidence for tidal tails. Current models of globular cluster evolution do not explain this feature, although simulations of tidal influences on dwarf spheroidal galaxies qualitatively mimic these results. Given the state of published models it is not possible to decide between creation of this halo from isolated cluster evaporation, or from tidal or disk shocking, or from destruction of a dwarf galaxy in which this object may have once been embedded.

  17. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there is a great deal of difference on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  18. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2017-06-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence ω _q is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there are several differences on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  19. Impact-Generated Dust Clouds Surrounding the Galilean Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, H; Grün, E; Kr\\"uger, Harald~; Krivov, Alexander V.; Gr\\"un, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Tenuous dust clouds of Jupiter's Galilean moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto have been detected with the in-situ dust detector on board the Galileo spacecraft. The majority of the dust particles have been sensed at altitudes below five radii of these lunar-sized satellites. We identify the particles in the dust clouds surrounding the moons by their impact direction, impact velocity, and mass distribution. Average particle sizes are 0.5 to $\\rm 1 \\mu m$, just above the detector threshold, indicating a size distribution with decreasing numbers towards bigger particles. Our results imply that the particles have been kicked up by hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids onto the satellites' surfaces. The measured radial dust density profiles are consistent with predictions by dynamical modeling for satellite ejecta produced by interplanetary impactors (Krivov et al., PSS, 2003, 51, 251--269), assuming yield, mass and velocity distributions of the ejecta from laboratory measurements. The dust clouds of the th...

  20. World Wide Access: Accessible Web Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This brief paper considers the application of "universal design" principles to Web page design in order to increase accessibility for people with disabilities. Suggestions are based on the World Wide Web Consortium's accessibility initiative, which has proposed guidelines for all Web authors and federal government standards. Seven guidelines for…

  1. Serial Symmetrical Relocation Algorithm for the Equal Sphere Packing Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, WenQi

    2012-01-01

    For dealing with the equal sphere packing problem, we propose a serial symmetrical relocation algorithm, which is effective in terms of the quality of the numerical results. We have densely packed up to 200 equal spheres in spherical container and up to 150 equal spheres in cube container. All results are rigorous because of a fake sphere trick. It was conjectured impossible to pack 68 equal spheres of radius 1 into a sphere of radius 5. The serial symmetrical relocation algorithm has proven wrong this conjecture by finding one such packing.

  2. Diversity reception and equalization techniques for laser communication in space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liang; Weibiao Chen

    2007-01-01

    The principle of band-limited space optical communication system using the techniques of space diversity methods and time domain Rake receiver is analyzed. The joint channel equalizer method combining diversity reception and equalization technique is presented in space laser communication. By computer simulation, the bit error rates of noncoherent pace optical on-off keying signal using different space diversity methods, Rake reception with different inter-symbol interferences, joint diversity equalizations with different signal noise rates and different channel numbers are analysed. The results identify that joint diversity equalization method can enhance space optical communication erformance evidently.

  3. Equal opportunities in the public and private sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Monica Ardeleanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Equal opportunities are a goal to achieve in Romania at the legislative and institutional/ organizational level.In terms of legislation Romania has made progress, but the institutional mechanisms of the government dealing with gender equality issues are not functioning properly, are not generating a concreate impact on the equal opportunities for women and men.For this reason there is no specific and significant political commitmentto these issue of gender equality in Romania. Gender discrimination is addressed both by anti-discrimination and equal opportunities laws.Equality,fairness and non-discrimination in the workplace environment are present as objective requirements of economic, social and ethical behavior that goes beyond the labor market. Theoretically, on the labor market , both public and private sectors do not accept direct or indirect discrimination at the workplace, espeially during the process of recruitment , training , development, promotion, establishment, payment of the salary and benefits. In practice , the legislation regarding the equal opportunities and equal treatment it is not respected by the employers all the time.Promotion of the policies at the national and organizational level, focused on ensuring equal opportunities , will enhance the social cohesion of the population that will generate economic growrh overall.

  4. From conditions of equality to demands of justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily; Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2015-01-01

    Equal freedom is the common starting point for most contractual theories of justice from Hobbes and Rousseau to Rawls. But while equal freedom defines a common starting point for these theories, this does not result in a general consensus on the conception of justice. On the contrary, different...... ways of conceptualizing the contractual starting point leads to different conceptions of the demands of justice. To fully understand the relationship between equal freedom and justice we therefore first need to explicate how and why the initial condition of equality is transformed into demands...

  5. Dilemmas in the Danish Approach to Gender Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that context matters and question gender quota as a universal strategy to achieve gender equality. The empirical......The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality...

  6. Profile of a leader: unearthing Ethel Johns's "buried" commitment to racial equality, 1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grypma, Sonya J

    2003-01-01

    In 1925, Canadian nurse leader Ethel Johns was hired by the Rockefeller Foundation to study the status of black women in nursing in the United States. Despite the acknowledged excellence of her report, the study was shelved. It remained "buried" in the basement of the Rockefeller headquarters for almost 60 years until American historian Darlene Clark Hine discovered it there in the 1980s. The aim of this article is to extend current understandings of Johns based on this and other evidence not accessible to her biographer in 1973. The discussion will illuminate her commitment to social equality by highlighting the 1925 report that perceived and articulated the racist character of relations between white institutions and black nurses in an era when few others would do so. It seems vital that this study be recognized as a focal point in Johns's outstanding nursing career, and that her success in leadership be acknowledged as inextricably linked with her passion for justice and equality.

  7. Physical mapping and YAC contig analysis of the region surrounding Xist on the mouse X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, E; Simmler, M C; Larin, Z; Rougeulle, C; Courtier, B; Lehrach, H; Avner, P

    1993-03-01

    The Xist sequence has been proposed as a potential candidate for the X-inactivation center based both on its localization within the candidate region for the X-inactivation center in man and mouse and on its unique pattern of expression from the inactive X chromosome. We have cloned 550 kb of DNA surrounding the mouse Xist sequence in contiguously overlapping YAC clones and have developed a long-range restriction map that spans almost 1 Mb of this region and includes this YAC contig. The detailed restriction map we have established provides a framework for the identification of expressed sequences other than Xist that may equally exhibit unusual expression characteristics associated with X inactivation. The presence of possible structural or methylation differences within this region between the active and inactive X chromosomes has been investigated through comparative analysis of male and female genomic DNA, and we report here the identification of certain CpG-containing restriction sites around Xist that have an interesting differential methylation status on the inactive and active X chromosomes.

  8. Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

  9. Personalized medicine and access to health care: potential for inequitable access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Kelly A; Avard, Denise; Simard, Jacques; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2013-02-01

    Personalized medicine promises that an individual's genetic information will be increasingly used to prioritize access to health care. Use of genetic information to inform medical decision making, however, raises questions as to whether such use could be inequitable. Using breast cancer genetic risk prediction models as an example, on the surface clinical use of genetic information is consistent with the tools provided by evidence-based medicine, representing a means to equitably distribute limited health-care resources. However, at present, given limitations inherent to the tools themselves, and the mechanisms surrounding their implementation, it becomes clear that reliance on an individual's genetic information as part of medical decision making could serve as a vehicle through which disparities are perpetuated under public and private health-care delivery models. The potential for inequities arising from using genetic information to determine access to health care has been rarely discussed. Yet, it raises legal and ethical questions distinct from those raised surrounding genetic discrimination in employment or access to private insurance. Given the increasing role personalized medicine is forecast to play in the provision of health care, addressing a broader view of what constitutes genetic discrimination, one that occurs along a continuum and includes inequitable access, will be needed during the implementation of new applications based on individual genetic profiles. Only by anticipating and addressing the potential for inequitable access to health care occurring from using genetic information will we move closer to realizing the goal of personalized medicine: to improve the health of individuals.

  10. Differences in HIV-related behaviors at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbaruku Godfrey

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An HIV behavioral surveillance survey was undertaken in November 2005 at Lugufu refugee camp and surrounding host villages, located near western Tanzania's border with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. Methods The sample size was 1,743 persons based on cluster survey methodology. All members of selected households between 15–49 years old were eligible respondents. Questions included HIV-related behaviors, population displacement, mobility, networking and forced sex. Data was analyzed using Stata to measure differences in proportions (chi-square and differences in means (t-test between gender, age groups, and settlement location for variables of interest. Results Study results reflect the complexity of factors that may promote or inhibit HIV transmission in conflict-affected and displaced populations. Within this setting, factors that may increase the risk of HIV infections among refugees compared to the population in surrounding villages include young age of sexual initiation among males (15.9 years vs. 19.8 years, p = .000, high-risk sex partners in the 15–24 year age group (40% vs. 21%, χ2 33.83, p = .000, limited access to income (16% vs. 51% χ2 222.94, p = .000, and the vulnerability of refugee women, especially widowed, divorced and never-married women, to transactional sex (married vs. never married, divorced, widowed: for 15–24 age group, 4% and 18% respectively, χ2 8.07, p = .004; for 25–49 age group, 4% and 23% respectively, χ2 21.46, p = .000. A majority of both refugee and host village respondents who experienced forced sex in the past 12 months identified their partner as perpetrator (64% camp and 87% in villages. Although restrictions on movements in and out of the camp exist, there was regular interaction between communities. Condom use was found to be below 50%, and expanded population networks may also increase opportunities for HIV transmission. Availability of refugee health services may be

  11. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  12. Sirolimus- versus paclitaxel-eluting stents: numero uno, first among equals or equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchulakanti, Pramod K; Waksman, Ron

    2006-07-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have shown the ability to reduce restenosis and major adverse cardiac events in de novo lesions when compared with bare metal stents in randomized studies. Enthused by the results of these trials, DESs are being used in other difficult lesion subsets, such as bifurcation lesions, in-stent restenosis, vein graft lesions and chronic total occlusions. They are also being used in difficult patient subsets, such as diabetes and acute myocardial infarction. Not all DES are equal, however, and research is now focused on understanding the differences between these stents. This review discusses the DESs that are US FDA-approved and currently available in the USA, namely Cypher (Cordis Corporation) and Taxus (Boston Scientific), and whether they are comparable.

  13. Root-associated fungal communities in three Pyroleae species and their mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees in subalpine coniferous forests on Mount Fuji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuzheng; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2017-07-13

    Pyroleae species are perennial understory shrubs, many of which are partial mycoheterotrophs. Most fungi colonizing Pyroleae roots are ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and share common mycobionts with their Pyroleae hosts. However, such mycobiont sharing has neither been examined in depth before nor has the interspecific variation in sharing among Pyroleae species. Here, we examined root-associated fungal communities in three co-existing Pyroleae species, including Pyrola alpina, Pyrola incarnata, and Orthilia secunda, with reference to co-existing ECM fungi on the surrounding trees in the same soil blocks in subalpine coniferous forests. We identified 42, 75, and 18 fungal molecular operational taxonomic units in P. alpina, P. incarnata, and O. secunda roots, respectively. Mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees, which was defined as the occurrence of the same mycobiont between Pyroleae and surrounding trees in each soil block, was most frequent among P. incarnata (31 of 44 plants). In P. alpina, sharing was confirmed in 12 of 37 plants, and the fungal community was similar to that of P. incarnata. Mycobiont sharing was least common in O. secunda, found in only 5 of 32 plants. Root-associated fungi of O. secunda were dominated by Wilcoxina species, which were absent from the surrounding ECM roots in the same soil blocks. These results indicate that mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees does not equally occur among Pyroleae plants, some of which may develop independent mycorrhizal associations with ECM fungi, as suggested in O. secunda at our research sites.

  14. Multiple Access Technologies for Cellular M 2M Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahyar Shirvanimoghaddam; Sarah J. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the multiple access techniques for machine⁃to⁃machine (M2M) communications in future wireless cellular net⁃works. M2M communications aims at providing the communication infrastructure for the emerging Internet of Things (IoT), which will revolutionize the way we interact with our surrounding physical environment. We provide an overview of the multiple access strategies and explain their limitations when used for M2M communications. We show the throughput efficiency of different multi⁃ple access techniques when used in coordinated and uncoordinated scenarios. Non⁃orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is also shown to support a larger number of devices compared to orthogonal multiple access techniques, especially in uncoordinated sce⁃narios. We also detail the issues and challenges of different multiple access techniques to be used for M2M applications in cellu⁃lar networks.

  15. Choosing Silence for Equality in and through Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers silences and equality as combined from a theoretical perspective. Equality in and through chosen, deliberate and regular silence experience is seen as an equaliser: if no one is speaking no one can dominate. The article uses a bifurcated concept of silence: weak, negative forms and strong, positive forms. Only the strong…

  16. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  17. The restructuring of the fiscal equalization system in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a model of fiscal equalization in Croatia. This paper tests the hypothesis of a lack of effectiveness of the existing fiscal equalization model compared to a model that would be based on alleviating the difference in the potential to collect revenue from the personal income tax and surtax. Fiscal inequalities of local government units are determined first under the current equalization system by calculating the Gini coefficients and graphically presented with Lorenz curves. Thereafter, a distribution of equalization grants is simulated based on the new (proposed model. The effectiveness of the proposed model in alleviating the fiscal inequalities is determined in relation to the effectiveness of the current equalization system. It was found that the model based on equalizing the difference in the capacity to collect revenue from the personal income tax and surtax alleviates inequalities in fiscal capacities of local government units much better than the existing system at the same cost. The main conclusion is that the fiscal equalization in Croatia should urgently be redesigned in order to improve efficiency and fairness, but also the transparency and credibility of the equalization system.

  18. 18 CFR 1316.2 - Affirmative action and equal opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative action and... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.2 Affirmative action and equal opportunity. When so indicated in TVA...: Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity (a) To the extent applicable, contract incorporates the...

  19. Gain Efficient L-band EDFA With Dynamic Gain Equalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli Hui; Rujian Lin

    2003-01-01

    A gain efficient L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier with dynamic gain equalization is presented. Using a single fiber Bragg grating and a static equalizer, the gain is clamped at 27dB with less than 0.5dB variations over 35nm.

  20. Equality of Opportunity, Cultural Diversity and Claims for Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardoc, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines some of the tensions, problems and challenges associated with claims for equality of opportunity (the fairness argument). The introductory part identifies three separate forms of justification for public education, including the argument associated with equality of opportunity. Part II examines in detail two questions…

  1. Programma EQUAL : ravnõe vozmozhnosti na rabote / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud 23 Euroopa Liidu liikmesriigi EQUAL programmile pühendatud foorumist, mille eesmärgiks on vähendada diskrimineerimist töökohtadel. Eestis EQUAL programmi raames töötavatest projektidest. Foorumist võttis osa ka sotsiaalminister Jaak Aab. Lisa

  2. 12 CFR 528.5 - Equal Housing Lender Poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seeking loans. The poster shall be at least 11 by 14 inches in size, and the text shall be easily legible... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal Housing Lender Poster. 528.5 Section 528... REQUIREMENTS § 528.5 Equal Housing Lender Poster. (a) Each savings association shall post and maintain one...

  3. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  4. Conceptualising Gender Equality in Research on Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, Sheila; Halai, Anjum; Rubagiza, Jolly

    2011-01-01

    This article sets out to re-conceptualise gender equality in education quality. Four approaches to conceptualising gender equitable education quality are identified in the literature: human capital theory with a focus on parity and sameness for all; a human rights and power perspective, within which gender equality is viewed as transforming unjust…

  5. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  6. 47 CFR 90.168 - Equal employment opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Facilities Used to Provide Commercial Mobile Radio Services § 90.168 Equal employment opportunities. Commercial Mobile Radio Services licensees shall afford equal opportunity in employment to all qualified... Commission, no later than May 31st following the grant of that licensee's first Commercial Mobile...

  7. Perceived Gender Equality in Managerial Positions in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominc Polona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This research aims to achieve two main objectives: to investigate differences between male and female managers regarding the perceived gender equality in organizations and to analyze the gender differences in relationships among the perceived gender equality, the perceived satisfaction with employment position and career, the perceived satisfaction with work, and the perceived work-family conflict.

  8. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms. (a...

  9. Promoting Equality and Non-Discrimination for Persons with Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, Lisa; Broderick, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring equal opportunities for persons with disabilities is an important facilitator of participation and inclusion in society. Both the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD) and the Council of Europe Disability Strategy 2017-2023 address equality and

  10. Fixed Points on the Real numbers without the Equality Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a study of definability properties of fixed points of effective operators on the real numbers without the equality test. In particular we prove that Gandy theorem holds for the reals without the equality test. This provides a useful tool for dealing with recursive...

  11. Fixed Points on Abstract Structures without the Equality Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this talk is to present a study of definability properties of fixed points of effective operators on abstract structures without the equality test. The question of definability of fixed points of -operators on abstract structures with equality was first studied by Gandy, Barwise, Mosch...

  12. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  13. Programma EQUAL : ravnõe vozmozhnosti na rabote / Ksenia Repson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Repson, Ksenia

    2006-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud 23 Euroopa Liidu liikmesriigi EQUAL programmile pühendatud foorumist, mille eesmärgiks on vähendada diskrimineerimist töökohtadel. Eestis EQUAL programmi raames töötavatest projektidest. Foorumist võttis osa ka sotsiaalminister Jaak Aab. Lisa

  14. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  15. The water exchange between Chinchorro Bank and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Julio; Ochoa, Jose Luis; Sheinbaum, Julio; Lopez, Manuel; Cornado, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Chinchorro Bank is a relatively large (~500 km^ 2) atoll situated 33 km in front of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Caribbean coast of Mexico. Two years of continuous measurements of the subsurface pressure field inside and around Chinchorro Bank, along with currents and waves observed outside, suggest four major processes governing the water exchange of the Bank with its surroundings: 1) surface wave pumping of water into the Bank through its eastern edge, 2) the large scale circulation in the region that drives the sea level changes through geostrophy, 3) the tidal pumping with imposed cyclic flows into and out of the Bank and 4) the imposed drift by the wind. Waves impinging all along the eastern barrier reef induce water inflows (from overtopping the reef) and generate a pressure gradient that drives a drift from east to west throughout the Bank. This western drift can normally replenish the water over the Bank with a time scale of ~10 days. However, extreme wave events, lasting around 24 hours, can replenish the whole Bank's water in the order of day. The region's large scale circulation is dominated by the zonal Cayman Current impinging on the Yucatan Peninsula becoming the Yucatan Current as it turns northward. Variability in the strength and impacting latitude of this current causes sea level gradients within the Bank, i.e., a Yucatan Current increase of 1 m/s, over a period of a couple of weeks, sets up a zonal sea level gradient within that can replenish the whole Bank's water in a time scale of ~14 days. At such times, the large scale current around the Bank is at a maximum thus ensuring an effective removal and dispersal of the exported waters. The Bank has a micro-tidal regime with a semidiurnal amplitude of ~12 cm during spring tides and a diurnal of ~2 cm, these imply that the Bank is exchanging ~10% of its waters with its surroundings daily. However small, this tidal pumping is effective for the ventilation of the Banks' waters in ~10 days due to the

  16. PROMOTING EQUALITY THROUGH ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, A SOCIOECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria NEAGU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the proposed paper is to identify a possible cost benefit evaluation of assistive technologies in the context of promoting equal opportunities in life. Equal opportunities represent more than just ensuring an equitable framework for all individuals; equality represents recognition and respect for all individuals no matter the differences among us. The paper debates the issues of equality in the context of assistive technologies advance. The use of assistive technology was found to be predictive of enjoyment of human rights and increased capabilities for those with special needs. Because promoting equality among individuals necessitates more than doing nothing it is obvious that we should think of evaluating the costs and the benefits of such actions taking into consideration socio and economic aspects. The topic has a novelty and an applicability character mostly for our country.

  17. PROMOTING EQUALITY THROUGH ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES, A SOCIOECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria NEAGU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the proposed paper is to identify a possible cost benefit evaluation of assistive technologies in the context of promoting equal opportunities in life. Equal opportunities represent more than just ensuring an equitable framework for all individuals; equality represents recognition and respect for all individuals no matter the differences among us. The paper debates the issues of equality in the context of assistive technologies advance. The use of assistive technology was found to be predictive of enjoyment of human rights and increased capabilities for those with special needs. Because promoting equality among individuals necessitates more than doing nothing it is obvious that we should think of evaluating the costs and the benefits of such actions taking into consideration socio and economic aspects. The topic has a novelty and an applicability character mostly for our country.

  18. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade DiegovonBM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  19. Design for Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility......A report on how nine rail builder, operators and transport designers deal with design for accessibility...

  20. Ontology Based Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgü CAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As computer technologies become pervasive, the need for access control mechanisms grow. The purpose of an access control is to limit the operations that a computer system user can perform. Thus, access control ensures to prevent an activity which can lead to a security breach. For the success of Semantic Web, that allows machines to share and reuse the information by using formal semantics for machines to communicate with other machines, access control mechanisms are needed. Access control mechanism indicates certain constraints which must be achieved by the user before performing an operation to provide a secure Semantic Web. In this work, unlike traditional access control mechanisms, an "Ontology Based Access Control" mechanism has been developed by using Semantic Web based policies. In this mechanism, ontologies are used to model the access control knowledge and domain knowledge is used to create policy ontologies.

  1. Physical Access Control Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains the personnel access card data (photo, name, activation/expiration dates, card number, and access level) as well as data about turnstiles and...

  2. Positive Action in EU Gender Equality Law and Policy: Women in Decision Making Positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.E. Ramos Martin

    2013-01-01

    Equality is an open and complex concept with various meanings (equal treatment, equal opportunities, formal equality, substantive equality or de facto equality). Although there are strong similarities in the definition of key concepts related to equality, the EU institutions have interpreted and app

  3. Fair equality of opportunity critically reexamined: the family and the sustainability of health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2012-12-01

    A complex interaction of ideological, financial, social, and moral factors makes the financial sustainability of health care systems a challenge across the world. One difficulty is that some of the moral commitments of some health care systems collide with reality. In particular, commitments to equality in access to health care and to fair equality of opportunity undergird an unachievable promise, namely, to provide all with the best of basic health care. In addition, commitments to fair equality of opportunity are in tension with the existence of families, because families are aimed at advantaging their own members in preference to others. Because the social-democratic state is committed to fair equality of opportunity, it offers a web of publicly funded entitlements that make it easier for persons to exit the family and to have children outside of marriage. In the United States, in 2008, 41% of children were born outside of wedlock, whereas, in 1940, the percentage was only 3.8%, and in 1960, 5%, with the further consequence that the social and financial capital generated through families, which aids in supporting health care in families, is diminished. In order to explore the challenge of creating a sustainable health care system that also supports the traditional family, the claims made for fair equality of opportunity in health care are critically reconsidered. This is done by engaging the expository device of John Rawls's original position, but with a thin theory of the good that is substantively different from that of Rawls, one that supports a health care system built around significant copayments, financial counseling, and compulsory savings, with a special focus on enhancing the financial and social capital of the family. This radical recasting of Rawls, which draws inspiration from Singapore, is undertaken as a heuristic to aid in articulating an approach to health care allocation that can lead past the difficulties of social-democratic policy.

  4. Access Control Enforcement Testing

    OpenAIRE

    El Kateb, Donia; Elrakaiby, Yehia; Mouelhi, Tejeddine; Le Traon, Yves

    2012-01-01

    A policy-based access control architecture com- prises Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs), which are modules that intercept subjects access requests and enforce the access decision reached by a Policy Decision Point (PDP), the module implementing the access decision logic. In applications, PEPs are generally implemented manually, which can introduce errors in policy enforcement and lead to security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose an approach to systematically test and validate the co...

  5. Support failure of a high-stress soft-rock roadway in deep coal mine and the equalized yielding support technology:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Sun; Haoyuan Wu; Bensheng Yang; Qiangqiang Li

    2015-01-01

    There are many soft-rock roadway coal mines in China. The surrounding rocks of the high-stress soft-rock roadways in deep mine are especially difficult to be supported using the traditional supporting way. In this study, the south wing rail roadway on the second level of Yunjialing coal mine in China was used as an example to analyze the deformation and failure characteristics and influencing factors of roadway. On this basis, this study proposed the equalized yielding support idea which employs the yielding rings to realize the pressure equalization on the bolts and cables in the section. To achieve this purpose, the first bolt-mesh-cable equalizing pressure yielding support was integrated with the second grouting reinforcement. The results proved that the yield rings of the bolts and cables on the spandrel of the arched roadway firstly developed yielding deformation;then the deformation extended to the vault of the roadway;the bolts and cables achieved a yielding extreme value of 15 and 18 tonnes, respectively. The roadway surrounding rock tended to be stable at the 26th day after the maintenance. The equalizing pressure yielding supporting technology plays a moderate pressure-releasing and actively controlling role on the surrounding rocks in the soft-rock roadway with large deformation.

  6. The structural feature surrounding glycated lysine residues in human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Nakahari, Takashi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2011-06-01

    Complications derived from diabetes mellitus are caused by nonenzymatic protein glycation at the specific sites. LC/MS/MS was performed for the identification of the tryptic peptides of glycated hemoglobins using glyceraldehyde. After the identification of the glycation or non-glycation site, computer analysis of the structure surrounding the sites was carried out using PDB data (1BZ0). Five glycated lysine residues (Lys-16(α), -56(α), -8(β), -82(β), and -144(β)) and four non-glycated lysine residues (Lys-7(α), -40(α), -99(α), and -132(β)) were identified. The non-glycated lysine residues, Lys-7(α), -40(α), and -132(β), are most likely to form electrostatic interactions with the β carboxyl group of Asp-74(α), C-terminal His-146(β), and Glu-7(β) by virtue of their proximity, which is 2.67-2.91 Å (N-O). Additionally, there are histidine residues within 4.55-7.38 Å (N-N) around eight sites except for Lys-7(α). We conclude that the following factors seem to be necessary for glycation of lysine residues: (i) the apparent absence of aspartate or glutamate residues to inhibit the glycation reaction by forming an electrostatic interaction, (ii) the presence of histidine residues for acid-base catalysis of the Amadori rearrangement, and (iii) the presence of an amino acid residue capable of stabilizing a phosphate during proton transfer.

  7. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  8. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  9. Zonal disintegration phenomenon in rock mass surrounding deep tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FANG Qin; GUO Zhi-kun

    2008-01-01

    Zonal disintegration is a typical static phenomenon of deep rock masses. It has been defined as alternating regions of fractured and relatively intact rock mass that appear around or in front of the working stope during excavation of a deep tunnel. Zonal disintegration phenomenon was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory with 3D tests on analogous gypsum models, two circular cracked zones were observed in the test. The linear Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was used with a constitutive model that showed linear softening and ideal residual plastic to analyze the elasto-plastic field of the enclosing rock mass around a deep tunnel. The results show that tunneling causes a maximum stress zone to appear between an elastic and plastic zone in the surrounding rock. The zonal disintegration phenomenon is analyzed by considering the stress-strain state of the rock mass in the vicinity of the maximum stress zone. Creep instability failure of the rock due to the development of the plastic zone, and transfer of the maximum stress zone into the rock mass, are the cause of zonal disintegration. An analytical criterion for the critical depth at which zonal disintegration can occur is derived. This depth depends mainly on the character and stress concentration coefficient of the rock mass.

  10. Beliefs and practices surrounding postpartum period among Myanmar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2013-11-01

    to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of 'dirty lochia' was identified. traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women's close social network. the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unilateral lung agenesis--detrimental roles of surrounding vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, An-Kou; Huang, Shu-Chien; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Pei-Ming; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chang, Chung-I; Chiu, Ing-Sh; Wu, En-Ting

    2007-03-01

    Unilateral lung agenesis is a rare congenital defect and could be associated with multiple abnormalities. The patients usually have poor long-term outcomes especially in those with right lung agenesis. We reviewed the 10-year experience in our hospital to describe special clinical features and try to delineate the causes of poor outcomes. From 1995 to 2005, 14 patients less than 18 years of age with unilateral lung agenesis (4 with left agenesis, 10 with right agenesis) were enrolled. Medical records reviewed included diagnosis, presentation, chromosome anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies and interventions, outcomes. We found that the mechanisms of severe airway disease in right lung agenesis included (1) trachea compression by the aortic arch, (2) the presence of "pseudo-ring-sling complex," (3) distended pulmonary artery due to left to right shunt which impinged the only bronchus, and finally (4) the persistent LSVC that restricts the growth of trachea. The etiologies of airway complication in left lung agenesis included anomalous aortic arch compression on trachea and the coexisting heart disease with significant left to right shunt, which impinged on the bronchus. In conclusion, unilateral lung agenesis has frequently associated airway problems due to its surrounding vessels. Satisfactory airway intervention remains challenging. This disease still requires great effort to improve patient outcomes.

  12. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun -- a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium around the Sun (LISM) made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar medium, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of MgII, FeII and HI. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the LISM consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions per...

  13. Dense Ionized and Neutral Gas Surrounding Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Hemant; Scoville, N Z

    2004-01-01

    We present high resolution H41a hydrogen recombination line observations of the 1.2' (3 pc) region surrounding Sgr A* at 92 GHz using the OVRO Millimeter Array with an angular resolution of 7" x 3" and velocity resolution of 13 km/s. New observations of H31a, H35a, H41a, and H44a lines were obtained using the NRAO 12-m telescope, and their relative line strengths are interpreted in terms of various emission mechanisms. These are the most extensive and most sensitive observations of recombination line to date. Observations of HCO+ (1 - 0) transition at 89 GHz are also obtained simultaneously with a 40% improved angular resolution and 4-15 times improved sensitivity over previous observations, and the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas in the circumnuclear disk (CND) are mapped and compared with those of the ionized gas. The line brightness ratios of the hydrogen recombination lines are consistent with purely spontaneous emission from 7000 K gas with n_e = 20,000 cm$^{-3}$ near LTE condition...

  14. Instability of Magnetized Ionization Fronts Surrounding H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm M2} \\leq 1$. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor $\\alpha$ by a factor of $1+1/(2\\beta_1)$ compared to the unmagnetized case, with $\\beta_1$ denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations due to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber as well as the upstream flow ...

  15. An insight in the surroundings of HR4796

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, A -M; Boccaletti, A; Lacour, S; Thebault, P; Chauvin, G; Mouillet, D; Augereau, J C; Bonnefoy, M; Ehrenreich, D; Kral, Q

    2012-01-01

    HR4796 is a young, early A-type star harbouring a well structured debris disk, shaped as a ring with sharp inner edges. It forms with the M-type star HR4796B a binary system, with a proj. sep. ~560 AU. Our aim is to explore the surroundings of HR4796A and B, both in terms of extended or point-like structures. Adaptive optics images at L'-band were obtained with NaCo in Angular Differential Mode and with Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM). We analyse the data as well as the artefacts that can be produced by ADI reduction on an extended structure with a shape similar to that of HR4796A dust ring. We determine constraints on the presence of companions using SAM and ADI on HR4796A, and ADI on HR4796B. We also performed dynamical simulations of a disk of planetesimals and dust produced by collisions, perturbed by a planet located close to the disk outer edge. The disk ring around HR4796A is well resolved. We highlight the potential effects of ADI reduction of the observed disk shape and surface brightness distribution,...

  16. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  17. Expression of zebrafish nos2b surrounds oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kar-Lai; Richardson, Michael; Korzh, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), and is one of the factors establishing innate immunity. In zebrafish, Nos2 is represented by nos2a and nos2b. Here, we report the cloning and expression pattern of the zebrafish nos2b gene, which does not seem to participate in induced immune response. nos2b was mapped to zebrafish linkage group 15. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of nos2b in embryonic zebrafish was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. nos2b is expressed constitutively in two primordia located along the ventral midline. The first group of cells contributes to the neurohypophysis. Initially at the level of the ventral hindbrain, the second group of cells migrates closely with the thyroid primordium to its final position at the basihyal by 3 dpf. Thus, the analysis of expression pattern of nos2b reveals complex morphogenetic movements resulting in its expression surrounding the oral cavity.

  18. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  19. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Representing the egocentric auditory space: relationships of surrounding region concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Marcella C; Hermann, Thomas; Schack, Thomas; Bläsing, Bettina

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the representation of azimuthal directions of sound sources under two different conditions. In the first experiment, we examined the participants' mental representation of sound source directions via similarity judgments. Auditory stimuli originating from sixteen loudspeakers positioned equidistantly around the participant were presented in pairs, with the first stimulus serving as the anchor, and thereby providing the context for the second stimulus. For each pair of stimuli, participants had to rate the sound source directions as either similar or dissimilar. In the second experiment, the same participants categorized single sound source directions using verbal direction labels (front, back, left, right, and combinations of any two of these). In both experiments, the directions within the front and back regions were more distinctively categorized than those on the sides, and the sides' categories included more directions than those of the front or back. Furthermore, we found evidence that the left-right decision comprises the basic differentiation of the surrounding regions. These findings illustrate what seem to be central features of the representation of directions in auditory space.