WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding elastic region

  1. Lithospheric flexural strength and effective elastic thicknesses of the Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Bülent; Gomez-Ortiz, David; Petit, Carole

    2017-12-01

    The Lithospheric structure of Eastern Anatolia and the surrounding region, including the northern part of the Arabian platform is investigated via the analysis and modeling of Bouguer anomalies from the Earth Gravitational Model EGM08. The effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (EET) that corresponds to the mechanical cores of the crust and lithospheric mantle is determined from the spectral coherence between Bouguer anomalies and surface elevation data. Its average value is 18.7 km. From the logarithmic amplitude spectra of Bouguer anomalies, average depths of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, Conrad and basement in the study area are constrained at 84 km, 39 km, 16 km and 7 km, respectively. The geometries of the LAB and Moho are then estimated using the Parker-Oldenburg inversion algorithm. We also present a lithospheric strength map obtained from the spatial variations of EET determined by Yield Stress Envelopes (YSE). The EET varies in the range of 12-23 km, which is in good agreement with the average value obtained from spectral analysis. Low EET values are interpreted as resulting from thermal and flexural lithospheric weakening. According to the lithospheric strength of the Eastern Anatolian region, the rheology model consists of a strong but brittle upper crust, a weak and ductile lower crust, and a weak lower part of the lithosphere. On the other hand, lithosphere strength corresponds to weak and ductile lower crust, a strong upper crust and a strong uppermost lithospheric mantle for the northern part of the Arabian platform.

  2. Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated

  3. Measurement of elastic modulus and Vickers hardness of surround bone implant using dynamic microindentation--parameters definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Nunes, Sarah Arantes; Franco, Sinésio Domingues; Pires, Raphael Rezende; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-01-01

    The clinical performance of dental implants is strongly defined by biomechanical principles. The aim of this study was to quantify the Vicker's hardness (VHN) and elastic modulus (E) surround bone to dental implant in different regions, and to discuss the parameters of dynamic microindantion test. Ten cylindrical implants with morse taper interface (Titamax CM, Neodent; 3.5 mm diameter and 7 mm a height) were inserted in rabbit tibia. The mechanical properties were analyzed using microhardness dynamic indenter with 200 mN load and 15 s penetration time. Seven continuous indentations were made distancing 0.08 mm between each other perpendicularly to the implant-bone interface towards the external surface, at the limit of low (Lp) and high implant profile (Hp). Data were analyzed by Student's t-test (a=0.05) to compare the E and VHN values obtained on both regions. Mean and standard deviation of E (GPa) were: Lp. 16.6 ± 1.7, Hp. 17.0 ± 2.5 and VHN (N/mm2): Lp. 12.6 ± 40.8, Hp. 120.1 ± 43.7. No statistical difference was found between bone mechanical properties of high and low profile of the surround bone to implant, demonstrating that the bone characterization homogeneously is pertinent. Dynamic microindantion method proved to be highly useful in the characterization of the individual peri-implant bone tissue.

  4. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S

    2008-12-15

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with {mu}{sub {iota}} {>=} 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  5. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  6. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Braunmiller, J.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S

    2007-12-15

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006. During this period, 572 earthquakes and 91 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, two occurred in conjunction with the construction of the new Gotthard railway tunnel and 165 were induced artificially by the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel. With 20 events with {mu}{sub {iota}} {>=} 2.5, five of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2006 was far below the average over the previous 31 years. Nevertheless, six events were felt by the public, most prominently the strongest of the induced Basel events ({mu}{sub {iota}} 3.4), which caused some non-structural building damage. Noteworthy are also the two earthquakes near Cortaillod ({mu}{sub {iota}} 3.2), on the shore of Lake Neuchatel, and in Val Mora ({mu}{sub {iota}} 3.5), between the Engadin and Val Muestair, as well as the 42 aftershocks of the {mu}{sub {iota}} 4.9 Vallorcine earthquake, between Martigny and Chamonix, of September 2005. (author)

  7. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Braunmiller, J.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2007-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006. During this period, 572 earthquakes and 91 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, two occurred in conjunction with the construction of the new Gotthard railway tunnel and 165 were induced artificially by the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, five of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2006 was far below the average over the previous 31 years. Nevertheless, six events were felt by the public, most prominently the strongest of the induced Basel events (Μ ι 3.4), which caused some non-structural building damage. Noteworthy are also the two earthquakes near Cortaillod (Μ ι 3.2), on the shore of Lake Neuchatel, and in Val Mora (Μ ι 3.5), between the Engadin and Val Muestair, as well as the 42 aftershocks of the Μ ι 4.9 Vallorcine earthquake, between Martigny and Chamonix, of September 2005. (author)

  8. Hurricane Dennis Aerial Photography: Draft Image Mosaics of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Dennis made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  9. Hurricane Humberto Aerial Photography: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regions after Hurricane Humberto made landfall. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA...

  10. Tropical Storm Ernesto Aerial Photography: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regions after Tropical Storm Ernesto made landfall. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA...

  11. Parameters of the luminous region surrounding deuterium pellets in the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, D.H.; Greene, G.J.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1985-08-01

    The luminous region of the plasma cloud surrounding deuterium pellets injected into a tokamak is studied spectroscopically. At the time of peak luminosity the average electron density is 2.4 x 10 17 cm -3 to within 30% and the temperature is at most 2.0 eV. The intensity ratio of the Balmer alpha and beta light from the pellets, the total number of emitted photons, and the apparent size of the radiating region are consistent with local thermodynamic equilibrium at this temperature and density

  12. High-Resolution Regional Phase Attenuation Models of the Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    crustal structure or sediment thickness across much of the Iranian plateau. The lone exception is the region between the central Zagros and the Lut block...L11303, 2007. Meunier, P., N. Hovius, and J. A. Haines, Topographic site effects and the location of earthquake induced landslides, Earth Planet . Sci

  13. Hurricane Ivan Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Ivan made landfall. The regions photographed range from Gulf...

  14. Crustal structure beneath Beijing and its surrounding regions derived from gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenliang; Zhang, Jingfa; Lu, Xiaocui; Lu, Jing

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we use gravity data to study fine crustal structure and seismogenic environment beneath Beijing and its surrounding regions. Multi-scale wavelet analysis method is applied to separating gravity fields. Logarithmic power spectrum method is also used to calculate depth of gravity field source. The results show that the crustal structure is very complicated beneath Beijing and its surrounding areas. The crustal density exhibits laterally inhomogeneous. There are three large scale tectonic zones in North China, i.e., WNW-striking Zhangjiakou-Bohai tectonic zone (ZBTZ), NE-striking Taihang piedmont tectonic zone (TPTZ) and Cangxian tectonic zone (CTZ). ZBTZ and TPTZ intersect with each other beneath Beijing area and both of them cut through the lithosphere. The upper and middle crusts consist of many small-scale faults, uplifts and depressions. In the lower crust, these small-scale tectonic units disappear gradually, and they are replaced by large-scale tectonic units. In surrounding regions of Beijing, ZBTZ intersects with several other NE-striking tectonic units, such as Cangxian uplift, Jizhong depression and Shanxi Graben System (SGS). In west of Taihangshan uplift, gravity anomalies in upper and middle crusts are correlated with geological and topographic features on the surface. Compared with the crust, the structure is comparatively simple in uppermost mantle. Earthquakes mainly occurred in upper and middle crusts, especially in transitional regions between high gravity anomaly and low gravity anomaly. Occurrence of large earthquakes may be related to the upwelling of upper mantle and asthenosphere heat flow materials, such as Sanhe earthquake ( M S8.0) and Tangshan earthquake ( M S7.8).

  15. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  16. Three-dimensional lithospheric density distribution of China and surrounding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuantao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze lithospheric density distribution of China and surrounding regions on the basis of 30′ × 30′ gravity data and 1° × 1° P-wave velocity data. Firstly, we used the empirical equation between the density and the P-wave velocity difference as the base of the initial model of the Asian lithospheric density. Secondly, we calculated the gravity anomaly, caused by the Moho discontinuity and the sedimentary layer discontinuity, by the Parker formula. Thirdly, the gravity anomaly of the spherical harmonics with 2–40 order for the anomalous body below the lithosphere is calculated based on the model of EGM96. Finally, by using Algebra Reconstruction Techniques (ART, the inversion of 30′ × 30′ residual lithospheric Bouguer gravity anomaly caused by the lithosphere yields a rather detailed structural model. The results show that the lithospheric density distribution of China and surrounding regions has a certain connection with the tectonic structure. The density is relatively high in the Philippine Sea plate, Japan Sea, the Indian plate, the Kazakhstan shield and the Western Siberia plain, whereas the Tibetan Plateau has low-density characteristics. The minimum value of density lies in the north of Philippines, in the Taiwan province and in the Ryukyu island arc.

  17. Natural Radioactivity in Abu-Tartor Phosphate Deposits and the Surrounding Region, New Valley, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.E.; Higgy, R.H.; Pimpl, M.

    1999-01-01

    Abu-Tartor phosphate mine. New Valley district, is one of the biggest phosphate mines in Egypt which will start full production soon. The planned ore rocks (24.8%P 2 O 5 ) annual production is 4 million tons. The aim of this study is to estimate the natural radioactivity levels in Abu-Tartor phosphate deposits and the surrounding region. The environmental radioactivity levels in the surrounding region will be considered as pre-operational levels which are essential to determine the radiological impacts of phosphate mining later on. Phosphate samples (ore rocks, wet rocks and beneficiation wastes) and environmental samples (soil, water and plant)were collected. The specific activities of Ra-226 (U-238) series, Th-232 series and K-40 were measured using gamma-ray spectrometry based on Hyper pure Germanium detectors. The specific activities of uranium isotopes (U-238, U-235 and U-234) were measured using alpha spectrometry based on surface barrier detectors after radiochemical separation. The specific activity of Pb-210 was measured using low background proportional gas counting system after radiochemical separation . The results were discussed and compared with national and international values

  18. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Shu-ichi

    2009-01-01

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study.

  19. Regional electric power demand elasticities of Japan's industrial and commercial sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoe, Nobuhiro [National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato, Tokyo 106-8677 (Japan); Akiyama, Shu-ichi [Kushiro Public University of Economics, 4-1-1 Ashino, Kushiro, Hokkaido 085-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    In the assessment and review of regulatory reforms in the electric power market, price elasticity is one of the most important parameters that characterize the market. However, price elasticity has seldom been estimated in Japan; instead, it has been assumed to be as small as 0.1 or 0 without proper examination of the empirical validity of such a priori assumptions. We estimated the regional power demand functions for nine regions, in order to quantify the elasticity, and found the short-run price elasticity to be 0.09-0.30 and the long-run price elasticity to be 0.12-0.56. Inter-regional comparison of our estimation results suggests that price elasticity in rural regions is larger than that in urban regions. Popular assumptions of small elasticity of 0.1, for example, could be suitable for examining Japan's aggregate power demand but not power demand functions that focus on respective regions. Furthermore, assumptions about smaller elasticity values such as 0.01 and 0 could not be supported statistically by this study. (author)

  20. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features.Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands.Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads.Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat.Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area.Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  1. Special Features of Strain Localization and Nanodipoles of Partial Disclinations in the Region of Elastic Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyumentsev, A. N.; Ditenberg, I. A.; Sukhanov, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    In the zones of strain localization in the region of elastic distortions and nanodipoles of partial disclinations representing the defects of elastically deformed medium, a theoretical analysis of the elastically stressed state and the energy of these defects, including the cases of their transformation into more complex ensembles of interrelated disclinations, is performed. Using the analytical results, the mechanisms of strain localization are discussed in the stages of nucleation and propagation of the bands of elastic and plastic strain localization formed in these zones (including the cases of nanocrystalline structure formation).

  2. Isostatic and Decompensative Gravity Anomalies of the Arabian Plate and Surrounding Regions: a Key for the Crustal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, M. K.; El Khrepy, S.; Al-Arifi, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    The isostatic anomalies are often considered as one of the most useful correction of the gravity field for investigation of the upper crust structure in many practical applications. By applying this correction, a substantial part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomaly, can be removed. With this approach, it is not even necessary to know the deep density structure of the crust and upper mantle in details; it is sufficient to prescribe some type of compensation (regional vs. local) and a compensation depth. However, even when all the parameters are chosen correctly, this reduction of the gravity field does not show the full gravity effect of unknown anomalies in the crust. The last ones should be also compensated to some extent; therefore their impact is substantially reduced by the isostatic compensation. Long ago (Cordell et al., 1991), it was suggested a so-called decompensative correction of the isostatic anomalies, which provides a possibility to separate these effects. However, the decompensative correction is very sensitive to the parameters of the compensation scheme. In the present study we analyse the ways to choose these parameters and extend this approach by assuming a possibility for the regional compensation via elastic deformations of the lithosphere. Based on this technique, we estimate the isostatic and decompensative anomalies for the Arabian plate and surrounding regions. The parameters of the isostatic model are chosen based on previous studies. It was demonstrated that the decompensative correction is very significant at the mid-range wavelengths and may exceed 100 mGal, therefore ignoring this effect would lead to wrong conclusions about the upper crust structure. The total amplitude of the decompensative anomalies reaches ±250 mGal, evidencing for both, large density anomalies of the upper crust (including sediments) and strong isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere. These results improve

  3. New gravity anomaly map of Taiwan and its surrounding regions with some tectonic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Wen-Bin; Lo, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Huang, Yin-Sheng; Wang, Hsueh-Fen; Chiu, Shye-Donq; Ma, Yu-Fang; Liang, Chin-Wei

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we compiled recently collected (from 2005 to 2015) and previously reported (published and open access) gravity data, including land, shipborne and satellite-derived data, for Taiwan and its surrounding regions. Based on the cross-over error analysis, all data were adjusted; and, new Free-air gravity anomalies were obtained, shedding light on the tectonics of the region. To obtain the Bouguer gravity anomalies, the densities of land terrain and marine sediments were assumed to be 2.53 and 1.80 g/cm3, respectively. The updated gravity dataset was gridded with a spacing of one arc-minute. Several previously unnoticed gravity features are revealed by the new maps and can be used in a broad range of applications: (1) An isolated gravity high is located between the Shoushan and the Kaoping Canyon off southwest Taiwan. (2) Along the Luzon Arc, both Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomaly maps reveal a significant gravity discontinuity feature at the latitude of 21°20‧N. (3) In the southwestern Okinawa Trough, the NE-SW trending cross-back-arc volcanic trail (CBVT) marks the low-high gravity anomaly (both Free-air and Bouguer) boundary.

  4. A computer hydrogeologic model of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillson, R.; Hand, J.; Adams, P.; Lawrence, S.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional, hydrogeologic model of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was developed as an element for regional groundwater flow and radionuclide transport models. The hydrogeologic model shows the distribution, thickness, and structural relationships of major aquifers and confining units, as conceived by a team of experts organized by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office. The model was created using Intergraph Corporation's Geographical Information System based Environmental Resource Management Application software. The study area encompasses more than 28,000 square kilometers in southern Nevada and Inyo County, California. Fifty-three geologic cross sections were constructed throughout the study area to provide a framework for the model. The lithology was simplified to 16 hydrostratigraphic units, and the geologic structures with minimal effect on groundwater flow were removed. Digitized cross sections, surface geology, and surface elevation data were the primary sources for the hydrogeologic model and database. Elevation data for the hydrostratigraphic units were posted, contoured, and gridded. Intergraph Corporation's three-dimensional visualization software, VOXEL trademark, was used to view the results interactively. The hydrogeologic database will be used in future flow modeling activities

  5. Effect of power-plant waste on farming in the surrounding regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J; Maly, V

    1972-01-01

    The results of research undertaken concerning the waste of two power plants in Czechoslovakia are presented. Increased dust was observed in the proximity of the waste as compared with distant sites. Some dirt was observed in the crops around the waste - this demonstrates the dust infestation of the crops. The content of ash in the organic dry matter in farm crops in the proximity of waste were also higher than in the same crops in unaffected regions. Sulfur compounds were found in the ash of organic matter and in its dry matter that exceed the normal values. Dust blocked the pores of the assimilation organs of crops, although the value was lower than in forest wood species, particularly conifers. In most cases the analyses of soil samples collected around the waste demonstrated an increase in lime content. The soils around the wastes were found to contain sulfates, in some cases in fairly high amounts. Spectral analysis revealed trace amounts of some microelements which might have a toxic effect if their contents were increased (As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Be, Ni, Co). The fly ash had a negative influence on the physical properties of soil in the surrounding fields. In the vicinity of the waste severe dampness of the fields was observed in some cases. The dampness of soil decreased with the distance from the waste although moisture values characteristic of soil dampness were found 400 meters from the waste.

  6. Hurricane Gustav Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Gustav made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  7. Hurricane Ike Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Ike made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  8. Using GPS and GRACE data to assess Solid Earth elastic parameters at regional scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Borghi, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a way to combine GPS and GRACE data for regional scale cross check and validation especially of the most commonly used PREM (Preliminary Earth Reference Model). In form of h and k Love numbers, global PREM is very often used to simulate elastic rebound due to present-day ice mass loss......, to derive the mass distribution produced by the observed GRACE time series, and it is also used for atmospheric loading correction both in GPS and in GRACE dealiasing products. GRACE data provide load estimates, usually given as water equivalent mass distribution, from which one derives the Earth elastic...... response, by convolution with suitable elastic green functions, relying on selected Earth model and related layering and elastic parameters. We calculate at regional scale the time series of monthly uplift associated with the mass redistribution observed by GRACE implementing the high resolution technique...

  9. Estimating the size of the cavity and surrounding failed region for underground nuclear explosions from scaling rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Leo A [El Paso Natural Gas Company (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The fundamental physical principles involved in the formation of an underground cavity by a nuclear explosion and breakage of the rock surrounding the cavity are examined from the point of view of making preliminary estimates of their sizes where there is a limited understanding of the rock characteristics. Scaling equations for cavity formation based on adiabatic expansion are reviewed and further developed to include the strength of the material surrounding the shot point as well as the overburden above the shot point. The region of rock breakage or permanent distortion surround ing the explosion generated cavity is estimated using both the Von Mises and Coulomb-Mohr failure criteria. It is found that the ratio of the rock failure radius to the cavity radius for these two criteria becomes independent of yield and dependent only on the failure mechanics of the rock. The analytical solutions developed for the Coulomb-Mohr and Von Mises criteria are presented in graphical form. (author)

  10. Economic impact of accelerated cleanup on regions surrounding the US DOE's major nuclear weapons sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, M.; Solitare, L.; Frisch, M.; Lowrie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The regional economic impacts of the US Department of Energy's accelerated environmental cleanup plan are estimated for the major nuclear weapons sites in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. The analysis shows that the impact falls heavily on the three relatively rural regions around the Savannah River (SC), Hanford (WA), and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ID) sites. A less aggressive phase-down of environmental management funds and separate funds to invest in education and infrastructure in the regions helps buffer the impacts on jobs, personal income, and gross regional product. Policy options open to the federal and state and local governments are discussed

  11. Optical and infrared study of the region surrounding Herbig-Haro objects 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, S.E.; Strom, K.M.; Grasdalen, G.L.; Sellgren, K.; Wolff, S.; Wyoming Univ., Laramie; Hawaii Univ., Honolulu)

    1985-01-01

    Optical and near-IR observations of the environs of H-H objects 1 and 2 provide the basis for identifying a recently discovered radio continuum as the star responsible for powering the highly collimated mass outflow traced by these objects. Polarimetric observations show that the source (designated as VLA 1), located at the midpoint between HH 1 and 2, illuminates a biconical reflection nebula. It is suggested that VLA 1 is probably surrounded by an optically thick disk viewed edge on; an optical jet emanates from the vicinity of HH 1 and is directed along the axis of the putative disk toward HH 1; its spectrum resembles that of HH 1 and other Herbig-Haro objects. 37 references

  12. Wind field measurement in the nonprecipitous regions surrounding storms by an airborne pulsed Doppler lidar system, appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    Coherent Doppler lidar appears to hold great promise in contributing to the basic store of knowledge concerning flow field characteristics in the nonprecipitous regions surrounding severe storms. The Doppler lidar, through its ability to measure clear air returns, augments the conventional Doppler radar system, which is most useful in the precipitous regions of the storm. A brief description of the Doppler lidar severe storm measurement system is provided along with the technique to be used in performing the flow field measurements. The application of the lidar is addressed, and the planned measurement program is outlined.

  13. A regional study of the radiation environment of Greenham Common, Newbury District and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This study was commissioned by Newbury District Council and Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council in response to public concern following disclosures about events at Greenham Common in the 1950s, and the suspicion that there may have been an accident involving a nuclear weapon leading to off-site contamination at the airbase. The Greenham Common airbase is at an advanced stage of decommissioning with parts of the site already re-developed for industrial and leisure purposes and material being removed for use in construction of the Newbury by-pass. The success of such developments is critically dependent on public confidence in the quality of the environment, both near the site, and more generally throughout the area. For this reason the study was commissioned with the aims of: I. defining the radiation environment of the whole district and parts of its surrounding areas. II. examining whether there is any evidence of radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the Greenham Common airbase. III. assessing the evidence that there may have been a release of nuclear material from the site. The work involved a collaboration between scientists from the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, who conducted gamma ray surveys to define the general radiation environment of the area, and Scientists from the University of Southampton who collected an extensive range of samples for high sensitivity radiochemical analyses. This report presents their findings and main conclusions, together with a discussion of the background to the study and its implications. (Author)

  14. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates...

  15. Stochastic analysis of uncertain thermal characteristic of foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Jianzhou; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The influence of stochastic properties and conditions on permafrost foundation was investigated. • A stochastic analysis for the uncertain thermal characteristic of crude oil pipe is presented. • The mean temperature and standard deviation of foundation soils are obtained and analyzed. • Average standard deviation and maximum standard deviation of foundation soils increase with time. - Abstract: For foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions, the soil properties and the upper boundary conditions are stochastic because of complex geological processes and changeable atmospheric environment. The conventional finite element analysis of thermal characteristics for crude oil pipeline is always deterministic, rather than taking stochastic parameters and conditions into account. This study investigated the stochastic influence of an underground crude oil pipeline on the thermal stability of the permafrost foundation on the basis of a stochastic analysis model and the stochastic finite element method. A stochastic finite element program is compiled by Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) software, and the random temperature fields of foundation soils surrounding a crude oil pipeline in a permafrost region are obtained and analyzed by Neumann stochastic finite element method (NSFEM). The results provide a new way to predict the thermal effects of the crude oil pipeline in permafrost regions, and it shows that the standard deviations in temperature increase with time when considering the stochastic effect of soil properties and boundary conditions, which imply that the results of conventional deterministic analysis may be far from the true value, even if in different seasons. It can improve our understanding of the random temperature field of foundation soils surrounding the crude oil pipeline and provide a theoretical basis for actual engineering design in permafrost regions.

  16. A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Wetted-region structure in horizontal unsaturated fractures: Water entry through the surrounding porous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.J.; Norton, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    Small-scale processes that influence wetted structure within the plane of a horizontal fracture as the fracture wets or drains through the matrix are investigated. Our approach integrates both aperture-scale modeling and physical experimentation. Several types of aperture-scale models have been defined and implemented. A series of physical experimental systems that allow us to measure wetted-region structure as a function of system parameters and water pressure head in analogue fractures also have been designed. In our preliminary proof-of-concept experiment, hysteresis is clearly evident in the measured saturation/pressure relation, as is the process of air entrapment, which causes a reduction in the connected areas between blocks and the wetted region available for flow in the plane of the fracture. A percolation threshold where the system is quickly spanned, allowing fluid conduction in the fracture plane, is observed which is analogous to that found in the aperture-scale models. A fractal wetted and entrapped-region structure is suggested by both experiment and modeling. This structure implies that flow tortuosity for both flow in the fracture and for inter-block fluid transfer is a scale-dependent function of pressure head

  18. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plumes of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project, an intensive campaign was launched in the greater Paris region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind of the Paris region. Two mechanisms of secondary OA (SOA) formation are used, both including SOA formation from oxidation and chemical aging of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SI-SOA) in the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. As for SOA formed from traditional VOC (volatile organic compound) precursors (traditional SOA), one applies chemical aging in the VBS framework adopting different SOA yields for high- and low-NOx environments, while another applies a single-step oxidation scheme without chemical aging. Two emission inventories are used for discussion of emission uncertainties. The slopes of the airborne OA levels versus Ox (i.e., O3 + NO2) show SOA formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. The simulated slopes were overestimated slightly by factors of 1.1, 1.7 and 1.3 with respect to those observed for the three airborne measurements, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields for traditional SOA formation in the VBS scheme are used in the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggests that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. The configuration with increased primary

  19. Revision of the tsunami catalogue affecting Turkish coasts and surrounding regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Altinok

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The coasts of Turkey have been hit by tsunamis in the past. The first national earthquake-tsunami catalogues were compiled in the early 1980s while the most up-to-date tsunami catalogues are mainly the products of recent European projects. The EU projects GITEC and GITEC-TWO (Genesis and Impact of Tsunamis on the European Coasts and TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk ANd Strategies For the European Region have added important contributions in establishing and developing unified criteria for tsunami parameterisation, standards for the quality of the data, the data format and the database general architecture. On the basis of these new aspects and based on recent marine geophysical data, tsunamigenic earthquakes, tsunami intensities and their reliability have been revised. The current version of the database contains 134 events, most of which have affected the Turkish coasts seriously during the last 3500 years. The reliability index of 76 events was "probable" and "definite", so that they could be used for assessment of the risk along the Turkish coastal region and for implementation of prevention policies.

  20. The region of influence of significant defects and the mechanical vibrations of linear elastic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of cracks, voids or fields of pores, and their growth under applied forces or environmental actions, can produce a meaningful lowering in the proper frequencies of normal modes of mechanical vibration in machines and structures. A quite general expression for the square of modes proper frequency as a functional of displacement field, density field and elastic moduli fields is used as a starting point. The effect of defects on frequency are modeled as equivalent changes in density and elastic moduli fields, introducing the concept of region of influence of each defect. This region of influence is derived from the relation between the stress field of flawed components in machines or structures, and the elastic energy released from a suitable reference state, due to the presence of significant defects in the above mentioned mechanical components. An approximate analytical expression is obtained, which relates the relative variation in the square of mode s proper frequency with position, size, shape and orientation of defects in mode displacement field. Some simple mathematical models of machine and structural elements with cracks or fields of pores are considered as examples. The connections between the relative lowering in the square of mode s proper frequency and the stress intensity factor of a defect are discussed : the concept of region of influence of a defect is used as a bridge between (low frequency and low amplitude) vibration dynamics and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Some limitations of the present approach are discussed as well as the possibility of applying the region of influence of defects to the damping of normal modes of vibration

  1. Shear wave velocity structure of the Anatolian Plate and surrounding regions using Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delph, J. R.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Biryol, C. B.; Ward, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Anatolian Plate consists of various lithospheric terranes amalgamated during the closure of the Tethys Ocean, and is currently extruding to the west in response to a combination of the collision of the Arabian plate in the east and the roll back of the Aegean subduction zone in the west. We used Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT) at periods structure of the Anatolian Plate. We computed a total of 13,779 unique cross-correlations using one sample-per-second vertical component broadband seismic data from 215 stations from 8 different networks over a period of 7 years to compute fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves following the method of Benson et al. (2007). We then inverted the dispersion data to calculate phase velocity maps for 11 periods from 8 s - 40 s throughout Anatolia and the Aegean regions (Barmin et al. 2001). Using smoothed Moho values derived from Vanacore et al. (2013) in our starting models, we inverted our dispersion curves using a linear least-squares iterative inversion scheme (Herrmann & Ammon 2004) to produce a 3-D shear-wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle throughout Anatolia and the Aegean. We find a good correlation between our seismic shear wave velocities and paleostructures (suture zones) and modern deformation (basin formation and fault deformation). The most prominent crustal velocity contrasts occur across intercontinental sutures zones, resulting from the juxtaposition of the compositionally different basements of the amalgamated terranes. At shallow depths, seismic velocity contrasts correspond closely with surficial features. The Thrace, Cankiri and Tuz Golu basins, and accretionary complexes related to the closure of the Neotethys are characterized by slow shear wave velocities, while the Menderes and Kirsehir Massifs, Pontides, and Istanbul Zone are characterized by fast velocities. We find that the East Anatolia Plateau has slow shear-wave velocities, as expected due to high heat flow and active

  2. Regional water balance for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1985-12-01

    The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi 2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 10 4 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi 2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study

  3. Far-infrared and CO observations of NGC 6357 and regions surrounding NGC 6357 and NGC 6334

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBreen, B.; Jaffe, D.T.; Fazio, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    We have surveyed two 1.7 square degree sections of the galactic plane at 70 μm with one-arcminute resolution. The scanned areas included the giant southern H II region complexes NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. Nineteen far-infrared sources were observed. The sources range in luminosity from 1.6 x 10 4 to 5.5 x 10 5 L/sub sun/ . We present far-infrared continuum and CO line observations of NGC 6357. Four far-infrared sources were found in this complex and for one of these sources the exciting stars are identified. We present far-infrared and CO observations of sources in the field surrounding NGC 6357 and NGC 6334. The far-infrared sources coincide frequently with CO line temperature peaks. The CO clouds which surround the far-infrared sources have similar 13 CO column densities. Two of the far-infrared sources in the field have associated OH and H 2 O maser emission and compact H II regions

  4. Investigation on crack growth parameters in the elastic plastic region (interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1982-03-01

    Some theoretical as well as numerical results are presented with respect to the 2D and 3D application of linear elastic fracture mechanics. The application of the finite element method to calculate the stress and strain field in cracked bodies has been discussed with special attention to: singularity representation, parameter extraction and mesh refinement. Detailed 3D stress analyses of fracture mechanics test specimen are presented showing that: the stress intensity concept cannot be extended simply into a 3D concept, the energy release concept is more promising within this aspect and the plastic region along the crackfront will not have a dogbone shape. The 3D elastic fracture mechanics concept is applied to evaluate the consequences of the thermal stresses due to γ-heating in an in-pile crack growth experiment

  5. Computational modeling of elastic properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites with interphase regions. Part II: Mechanical modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei; Azdoud, Yan; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    We present two modeling approaches for predicting the macroscopic elastic properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer composites with thick interphase regions at the nanotube/matrix frontier. The first model is based on local continuum mechanics

  6. Regional magnetic and gravity features of the Gibson Dome area and surrounding region, Paradox Basin, Utah : a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, T.G.; Kucks, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of regional gravity and magnetic anomaly maps have been carried out to assist in the evaluation of the Gibson Dome area as a possible repository site for high-level radioactive waste. Derivative, wavelength-filtered, and trend maps were compiled to aid in properly locating major geophysical trends corresponding to faults, folds, and lithologic boundaries. The anomaly maps indicate that Paradox Basin is characterized by a heterogeneous Precambrian basement, essentially a metamorphic complex of gneisses and schist intruded by granitic rocks and mafic to ultramafic bodies. Interpreted Precambrian structures trend predominantly northwest and northeast although east-west trending features are evident. Prominent gravity lows define the salt anticlines. Structural and lithologic trends in the Gibson Dome area are closely examined. Of greatest interest is a series of circular magnetic highs trending west-northwest into the Gibson Dome area. Further study of the exact definition and geologic significance of this series of anomalies is warranted.

  7. Output and substitution elasticities of energy and implications for renewable energy expansion in the ECOWAS region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseh, Presley K.; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    This study estimates output and substitution elasticities of renewable energy and nonrenewable energy for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and discusses implications for expanding the former. The results show that nonrenewable energy promises greater benefits for ECOWAS economic transition, with output elasticities averaging between 0.052–0.579 and −0.055 to 0.223 for nonrenewable energy and renewable energy respectively. Overall estimated technological progress is low (−0.5% to 2.6%); the bulk coming from input efficiency. Substitution elasticities (0.02–0.94) suggest potential for switching towards renewable energy. Notwithstanding, scale, economics and sitting problems inherent in renewable power generation challenge the opportunities for energy substitution. A sustainable policy solution, therefore, appears to be one favoring scaled and efficient electricity generation from fossil energy in the short-run with a gradual switch towards renewable power in the long-run. In general, the applied model provides insights that energy efficiency enhances sustainable growth by propelling technological advancement especially when technical change is scale-biased and factor-augmenting. The study also provides insights that impacts of exogenous shocks to inputs are temporary, and hence, do not jeopardize efforts aimed at scaling output through increased and efficient use of labor, capital and energy; especially nonrenewable energy. - Highlights: • Output and substitution elasticities of energy are estimated for the ECOWAS region. • Nonrenewable energy promises greater opportunities for economic growth. • Technical progress is low and driven mainly by the efficiency of inputs. • Energy efficiency drives technological innovation. • Potential of switching towards renewable energy is high but suffers feasibility gaps.

  8. Computational modeling of elastic properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites with interphase regions. Part I: Micro-structural characterization and geometric modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2014-01-01

    A computational strategy to predict the elastic properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites is proposed in this two-part paper. In Part I, the micro-structural characteristics of these nano-composites are discerned. These characteristics include networks/agglomerations of carbon nanotubes and thick polymer interphase regions between the nanotubes and the surrounding matrix. An algorithm is presented to construct three-dimensional geometric models with large amounts of randomly dispersed and aggregated nanotubes. The effects of the distribution of the nanotubes and the thickness of the interphase regions on the concentration of the interphase regions are demonstrated with numerical results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 3-D mechanical modeling of the eastward escape flow pattern around the Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Since the last 50 million years, 2500km shorting of Indian Plate moving north collided with the Eurasian Plate has resulted in rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau shaped into the most intensive and extensive orogen on earth (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1975; Li et al., 2013). Based on previous geological and geophysical investigations (Royden et al., 1997; Clark and Royden, 2000), two end-member models of the entire Tibetan Plateau are proposed: thin visous sheet model and lateral escape model. However, when we scope into a special local area, for example, Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, end-member models could change to lower crustal flow model and upper crust shorting model. Recently, with vigorous geophysical observations, more data such as differential traveltime tomography and seismic velocity structure in the Tibetan Plateau actually reveal that the eastward crustal flow from the central Tibetan plateau is expected to divert north-eastward and south-eastward around the rigid Sichuan basin (Royden et al., 1997, 2008; Clark and Royden, 2000). Moreover, both the P-wave polarization tomography and gravitational anomaly and the GPS data from the intensive crustal movement monitoring network in China show that the north-eastward crustal flow divide two direction due to the Ordos Block as a barrier with rigid, cold and stable crust. In order to investigate mechanical of the eastward escape flow pattern around the Northeastern Tibetan plateau and surrounding regions, especially along the Xi'an-Taiyuan-Datong, we construct 3-D geological finite element model with high resolution topography and non-homogeneous strata. For the uncertainties of computational parameters, such as the depth and width and viscosity coefficient of the middle-lower crust, and the pressure differences, several models were tested to analyze the spatial distribution of curst flow and try to known about the uplift of Datong in Shanxi Province.

  10. Preclinical evaluation of acoustic radiation force impulse measurements in regions of heterogeneous elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerieth, Katharina; Moog, Philipp; Vo-Cong, Minh-Truc; Heemann, Uwe [Nephrology Department, Klinikum Rechts der Isar of the Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Gassmann, Bernhard [Meso International GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Wagenpfeil, Stefan [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University, Campus Homburg (Saar), Homburg (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability of ultrasound-based shear wave elastography in regions of homogeneous versus heterogeneous elasticity by using two different probes. Using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, we measured the shear wave velocity (SWV) in different lesions of an elastography phantom with the convex {sub 4}C{sub 1} probe and the linear {sub 9}L{sub 4} probe. The region of interest (ROI) was positioned in such a way that it was partly filled by one of the lesions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and partly by the background of the phantom (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0%, respectively). The success rate was 98.5%. The measured value and the reference value of SWV correlated significantly (r=0.89, P<0.001). Further, a comparison of the two probes revealed that there was no statistical difference in either the mean or the variance values. However, the deviation of SWV from the reference was higher in the case of the {sub 9}L{sub 4} probe than in the case of the {sub 4}C{sub 1} probe, both overall and in measurements in which the ROI contained structures of different elasticity (P=0.021 and P=0.002). Taking into account all data, for both probes, we found that there was a greater spread and deviation of the SWV from the reference value when the ROI was positioned in structures having different elastic properties (standard deviation, 0.02±0.01 m/sec vs. 0.04±0.04 m/sec; P=0.010; deviation from the reference value, 0.21±0.12 m/sec vs. 0.38±0.27 m/sec; P=0.050). Quantitative ARFI elastography was achievable in structures of different elasticity; however, the validity and the reliability of the SWV measurements decreased in comparison to those of the measurements performed in structures of homogeneous elasticity. Therefore, a convex probe is preferred for examining heterogeneous structures.

  11. Cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner - Distribution functions and bulk parameter estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, K.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Richardson, I. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    The bulk parameters (number density and thermal energy density) of cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner have been derived using data from the EPAS instrument on the ICE spacecraft. The derivation is based on the assumption that the pick-up ion distribution function is isotropic in the frame of the bulk flow, an approximation which has previously been shown to be reasonable within about 400,000 km of the comet nucleus along the spacecraft trajectory. The transition between the pick-up and mass-loaded regions occurs at the cometary shock, which was traversed at a cometocentric distance of about 100,000 km along the spacecraft track. Examination of the ion distribution functions in this region, transformed to the bulk flow frame, indicates the occurrence of a flattened distribution in the vicinity of the local pick-up speed, and a steeply falling tail at speeds above, which may be approximated as an exponential in ion speed.

  12. 12-Digit Watershed Boundary Data 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and Surrounding States (NAT_HYDROLOGY.HUC12_NRCS_REG2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — 12 digit Hydrologic Units (HUCs) for EPA Region 2 and surrounding states (Northeastern states, parts of the Great Lakes, Puerto Rico and the USVI) downloaded from...

  13. Detection method of elastic scattering in the Coulomb interference region: scintillation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azaiez, Hamza.

    1981-01-01

    Measurement of polarization in (p-p) elastic scattering in the Coulomb interference region is considered as a valid method for calibrating high energy polarized proton beams. Possibility of using a scintillation target to detect low energy recoil protons in this /t/ region has been studied by using a 4 GeV/c π - beam from CERN PS. The results obtained with a steack of thin plastic scintillators, each 1 mm thick, showed the feasibility of detecting recoil protons in a /t/ range as low a 5.10 -3 (GeV/c) 2 . This method thus confirmed experimentally can be used also to measure, using a polarized beam, polarization in Coulomb interference region [fr

  14. High-Frequency Ground-Motion Parameters from Weak-Motion Data in the Sicily Channel and Surrounding Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Akinci, Aybige; Pischiutta, Marta

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we characterize the high frequency (1.0 - 10 Hz) seismic wave crustal attenuation and the source excitation in the Sicily Channel and surrounding regions using background seismicity from weak-motion database. The data set includes 15995 waveforms related to earthquakes having local magnitude ranging from 2.0 to 4.5 recorded between 2006 and 2012. The observed and predicted ground motions form the weak-motion data are evaluated in several narrow frequency bands from 0.25 to 20.0 Hz. The filtered observed peaks are regressed to specify a proper functional form for the regional attenuation, excitation and site specific term separately. The results are then used to calibrate effective theoretical attenuation and source excitation models using the Random Vibration Theory (RVT). In the log-log domain, the regional seismic wave attenuation and the geometrical spreading coefficient are modeled together. The geometrical spreading coefficient, g (r), modeled with a bilinear piecewise functional form and given as g (r) ∝ r-1.0 for the short distances (r selected reference distance with a magnitude independent roll-off spectral parameter, κ 0.04 s and with a Brune stress drop parameter increasing with moment magnitude, from Δσ = 2 MPa for Mw = 2.0 to Δσ = 13 MPa for Mw = 4.5. For events M≤4.5 (being Mwmax = 4.5 available in the dataset) the stress parameters are obtained by correlating the empirical/excitation source spectra with the Brune spectral model as function of magnitude. For the larger magnitudes (Mw>4.5) outside the range available in the calibration dataset where we do not have recorded data, we extrapolate our results through the calibration of the stress parameters of the Brune source spectrum over the Bindi et al. (2011) ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) selected as a reference model (hereafter also ITA10).

  15. Comprehensive analysis of Curie-point depths and lithospheric effective elastic thickness at Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Li, C. F.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic Ocean remains at the forefront of geological exploration. Here we investigate its deep geological structures and geodynamics on the basis of gravity, magnetic and bathymetric data. We estimate Curie-point depth and lithospheric effective elastic thickness to understand deep geothermal structures and Arctic lithospheric evolution. A fractal exponent of 3.0 for the 3D magnetization model is used in the Curie-point depth inversion. The result shows that Curie-point depths are between 5 and 50 km. Curie depths are mostly small near the active mid-ocean ridges, corresponding well to high heat flow and active shallow volcanism. Large curie depths are distributed mainly at continental marginal seas around the Arctic Ocean. We present a map of effective elastic thickness (Te) of the lithosphere using a multitaper coherence technique, and Te are between 5 and 110 km. Te primarily depends on geothermal gradient and composition, as well as structures in the lithosphere. We find that Te and Curie-point depths are often correlated. Large Te are distributed mainly at continental region and small Te are distributed at oceanic region. The Alpha-Mendeleyev Ridge (AMR) and The Svalbard Archipelago (SA) are symmetrical with the mid-ocean ridge. AMR and SA were formed before an early stage of Eurasian basin spreading, and they are considered as conjugate large igneous provinces, which show small Te and Curie-point depths. Novaya Zemlya region has large Curie-point depths and small Te. We consider that fault and fracture near the Novaya Zemlya orogenic belt cause small Te. A series of transform faults connect Arctic mid-ocean ridge with North Atlantic mid-ocean ridge. We can see large Te near transform faults, but small Curie-point depths. We consider that although temperature near transform faults is high, but mechanically the lithosphere near transform faults are strengthened.

  16. Human dynamics and forest management: a baseline assessment of the socioeconomic characteristics of the region surrounding the El Yunque National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen McGinley

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the socioeconomic dynamics and human–environment interactions in the region surrounding the El Yunque National Forest (EYNF) in northeastern Puerto Rico and their implications for policy development and sustainable resource use. As part of a larger, comprehensive assessment of the conditions and trends of the EYNF and broader region, I...

  17. Analyzing power for π-p elastic scattering in the energy region of the Roper resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, A.; Briscoe, W.J.; Eichon, A.D.; Fitzgerald, D.H.; Kim, G.J.; Nefkens, B.M.K.; Wightman, J.A.; Sadler, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    High-precision measurements of the analyzing power A/sub N/ in π - p elastic scattering at p/sub π/ = 471--687 MeV/c are presented and compared with the results of recent πN partial-wave analyses (PWA's) by the Karlsruhe-Helsinki, CMU-LBL, and VPI groups. While agreeing with the main features of the measured angular dependence of A/sub N/, the three PWA's yield larger values than the measurements at forward angles at p/sub π/ = 471, 547, and 625 MeV/c. At 687 MeV/c the PWA's do not agree with the data at far backward angles. We estimate the effect of our data on the phase shifts in this energy region, which includes the Roper resonance

  18. Spatial variations of effective elastic thickness of the Lithosphere in the Southeast Asia regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobin; Kirby, Jon; Yu, Chuanhai; Swain, Chris; Zhao, Junfeng

    2016-04-01

    The effective elastic thickness Te corresponds to the thickness of an idealized elastic beam that would bend similarly to the actual lithosphere under the same applied loads, and could provide important insight into rheology and state of stress. Thus, it is helpful to improve our understanding of the relationship between tectonic styles, distribution of earthquakes and lithospheric rheology in various tectonic settings. The Southeast Asia, located in the southeastern part of the Eurasian Plate, comprises a complex collage of continental fragments, volcanic arcs, and suture zones and marginal oceanic basins, and is surrounded by tectonically active margins which exhibit intense seismicity and volcanism. The Cenozoic southeastward extrusion of the rigid Indochina Block due to the Indo-Asian collision resulted in the drastic surface deformation in the western area. Therefore, a high resolution spatial variation map of Te might be a useful tool for the complex Southeast Asia area to examine the relationships between surface deformation, earthquakes, lithospheric structure and mantle dynamics. In this study, we present a high-resolution map of spatial variations of Te in the Southeast Asia area using the wavelet method, which convolves a range of scaled wavelets with the two data sets of Bouguer gravity anomaly and topography. The topography and bathymetry grid data was extracted from the GEBCO_08 Grid of GEBCO digital atlas. The pattern of Te variations agrees well with the tectonic provinces in the study area. On the whole, low lithosphere strength characterizes the oceanic basins, such as the South China Sea, the Banda sea area, the Celebes Sea, the Sulu Sea and the Andaman Sea. Unlike the oceanic basins, the continental fragments show a complex pattern of Te variations. The Khorat plateau and its adjacent area show strong lithosphere characteristics with a Te range of 20-50 km, suggesting that the Khorat plateau is the strong core of the Indochina Block. The West

  19. Analyzing the Implications of Climate Data on the Rainfall Frequency Spectrum: Case Study of Knoxville, Tennessee and Surrounding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Linda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Esther S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Modeled daily precipitation values are used to determine changes in percentile rainfall event depths, for planning and mitigation of stormwater runoff, over past (1980-2005) and future (2025-2050) periods for Knoxville, Tennessee and the surrounding area.

  20. Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jansen, P.G.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Ambient systems are networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments and supporting people in their activities. These systems will create a Smart Surrounding for people to facilitate and enrich daily life and increase productivity at work. Such systems will be quite different from

  1. Trust-region based return mapping algorithm for implicit integration of elastic-plastic constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, Brian T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    A new method for the solution of the non-linear equations forming the core of constitutive model integration is proposed. Specifically, the trust-region method that has been developed in the numerical optimization community is successfully modified for use in implicit integration of elastic-plastic models. Although attention here is restricted to these rate-independent formulations, the proposed approach holds substantial promise for adoption with models incorporating complex physics, multiple inelastic mechanisms, and/or multiphysics. As a first step, the non-quadratic Hosford yield surface is used as a representative case to investigate computationally challenging constitutive models. The theory and implementation are presented, discussed, and compared to other common integration schemes. Multiple boundary value problems are studied and used to verify the proposed algorithm and demonstrate the capabilities of this approach over more common methodologies. Robustness and speed are then investigated and compared to existing algorithms. As a result through these efforts, it is shown that the utilization of a trust-region approach leads to superior performance versus a traditional closest-point projection Newton-Raphson method and comparable speed and robustness to a line search augmented scheme.

  2. Trust-region based return mapping algorithm for implicit integration of elastic-plastic constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Here, a new method for the solution of the non-linear equations forming the core of constitutive model integration is proposed. Specifically, the trust-region method that has been developed in the numerical optimization community is successfully modified for use in implicit integration of elastic-plastic models. Although attention here is restricted to these rate-independent formulations, the proposed approach holds substantial promise for adoption with models incorporating complex physics, multiple inelastic mechanisms, and/or multiphysics. As a first step, the non-quadratic Hosford yield surface is used as a representative case to investigate computationally challenging constitutive models. The theory and implementation are presented, discussed, and compared to other common integration schemes. Multiple boundary value problems are studied and used to verify the proposed algorithm and demonstrate the capabilities of this approach over more common methodologies. Robustness and speed are then investigated and compared to existing algorithms. Through these efforts, it is shown that the utilization of a trust-region approach leads to superior performance versus a traditional closest-point projection Newton-Raphson method and comparable speed and robustness to a line search augmented scheme.

  3. Climatology and trend of wind power resources in China and its surrounding regions: a revisit using Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman

    2015-01-01

    The mean climatology, seasonal and interannual variability and trend of wind speeds at the hub height (80 m) of modern wind turbines over China and its surrounding regions are revisited using 33-year (1979–2011) wind data from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) that has many improvements including higher spatial resolution over previous global reanalysis...

  4. Chapter B: Regional Geologic Setting of Late Cenozoic Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits, Great Basin and Surrounding Region: Overview and Plans for Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    Freshwater diatomite deposits are present in all of the Western United States, including the Great Basin and surrounding regions. These deposits are important domestic sources of diatomite, and a better understanding of their formation and geologic settings may aid diatomite exploration and land-use management. Diatomite deposits in the Great Basin are the products of two stages: (1) formation in Late Cenozoic lacustrine basins and (2) preservation after formation. Processes that favored long-lived diatom activity and diatomite formation range in decreasing scale from global to local. The most important global process was climate, which became increasingly cool and dry from 15 Ma to the present. Regional processes included tectonic setting and volcanism, which varied considerably both spatially and temporally in the Great Basin region. Local processes included basin formation, sedimentation, hydrology, and rates of processes, including diatom growth and accumulation; basin morphology and nutrient and silica sources were important for robust activity of different diatom genera. Only optimum combinations of these processes led to the formation of large diatomite deposits, and less than optimum combinations resulted in lakebeds that contained little to no diatomite. Postdepositional processes can destroy, conceal, or preserve a diatomite deposit. These processes, which most commonly are local in scale, include uplift, with related erosion and changes in hydrology; burial beneath sedimentary deposits or volcanic flows and tuffs; and alteration during diagenesis and hydrothermal activity. Some sedimentary basins that may have contained diatomite deposits have largely been destroyed or significantly modified, whereas others, such as those in western Nevada, have been sufficiently preserved along with their contained diatomite deposits. Future research on freshwater diatomite deposits in the Western United States and Great Basin region should concentrate on the regional

  5. Variation of Runoff and Precipitation in the Hekou-Longmen Region of the Yellow River Based on Elasticity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Erhui; Mu, Xingmin; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation is very important to the formation of runoff, and studying of runoff variation and its response to precipitation has practical significance to sustainable utilization of water resources. The study used Mann-Kendall test, anomaly accumulation method, and precipitation elasticity of runoff method to analyze the changes in the relation of precipitation and runoff and the contribution of precipitation to runoff change in the Hekou-Longmen region (from 1957 to 2010), Huangfuchuan wat...

  6. Definition of the continent-ocean boundary of India and the surrounding oceanic regions from Magsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Rajaram, Mita; Bapat, V. J.

    1991-06-01

    Magsat studies over the Indian region and adjoining areas show that the continental-oceanic contrasts appear more distinctly in the equivalent magnetization solution than in the anomaly maps. The vertical component ( Z) is found to be more useful for the equatorial regions. It is also noted that, in general, the continental crust has a higher magnetization than the oceanic crust. Further, the continental crust seems to extend into the Arabian Sea across a part of the west coast. A similar continuation is seen in the northern part of the Bay of Bengal. The west coast result is corroborated using land and marine Bouguer gravity anomalies.

  7. Use of a culture independent method to analyze the diversity of soil fungi surrounding Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Shouxian; Yin, Yonggang

    2012-01-01

    habitat to facilitate its large-scale cultivation. A culture-independent molecular approach—a powerful technology for microbiological ecology studies—was used to investigate the diversity of soil fungal communities in samples surrounding C. rutilus from the Beijing region of China. Metagenomic DNA...... was isolated from soil samples collected around C. rutilus, and an internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene library was constructed. Subsequently, polymerase chain reaction products were digested with HinfI, HaeIII, MspI, TaqI, or MboI. Clones were selected and sequenced based on their restriction fragment...... length polymorphisms. The diversity of the fungi represented by their ITS sequences was analyzed. Our results indicate the presence of numerous fungi in the C. rutilus habitat. This study is the first demonstration of the fungal ecology surrounding C. rutilus using a culture independent method...

  8. Evaluation of tidal stream energy and its impacts on surrounding dynamics in the Eastern Region of Pingtan Island, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, He; Wang, Xin; Wang, Bingzhen; Bai, Yang; Wang, Peitao

    2017-11-01

    Using an improved FVCOM numerical model, combined with the momentum-sinking scheme based on the structural characteristics of specific turbines, this study analyzed the temporal and spatial distributions of tidal energy resources before and after the deployment of tidal turbines near Pingtan Island, China. Considering factors such as the distribution of tidal stream energy, bathymetry, topography, and the design parameters of the turbines, an appropriate location for a demonstration tidal turbine was selected and the corresponding energy resource was evaluated. Several sites with strong tidal streams were considered: south of the northern cape, east of the southern cape, and the southern end of Haitan Bay. The former was thought most suitable for the deployment of a tidal energy turbine, with projected power generation for approximately 470 h per month. The average power of this demonstration was about 2.4 kW, and the annual electricity output was approximately 17.47 MWh. The intervention of the turbine device had little influence on the near-field tidal stream or water level. The tidal stream was reduced slightly in the area south of the northern cape, although the effect weakened further from the turbine. Conversely, the velocity increased slightly on both sides of the demonstration site. The difference in current speed with and without the turbine was greater at slack tide than still tide. The influence of turbine operation on water level was minor. The method adopted in this study can be considered a reference for the selection of sites for the demonstration of tidal stream energy. However, the method is unable describe the dynamic characteristics of the turbulent flow surrounding the deployed turbines, which has an important role regarding the optimal designs of the turbine blade and pile foundations. Therefore, we will continue to work to improve this model in future research.

  9. Variation of Runoff and Precipitation in the Hekou-Longmen Region of the Yellow River Based on Elasticity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is very important to the formation of runoff, and studying of runoff variation and its response to precipitation has practical significance to sustainable utilization of water resources. The study used Mann-Kendall test, anomaly accumulation method, and precipitation elasticity of runoff method to analyze the changes in the relation of precipitation and runoff and the contribution of precipitation to runoff change in the Hekou-Longmen region (from 1957 to 2010, Huangfuchuan watershed (from 1954 to 2010, and Yanhe watershed (from 1952 to 2010 in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The results showed that runoff appeared a significant decreasing trend (P=0.01 while it was not significant in precipitation in all study areas. In particular, the reductions of average annual runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed were 72.7%, 87.5%, and 32.2%, respectively, during 2000–2010 compared to the 1950s. There existed two abrupt change points of the runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region and Huangfuchuan watershed, which were detected in 1979 and 1998. But in the Yanhe watershed only one abrupt change point was found in 1996. The precipitation elasticities of runoff were 1.11, 1.09, and 1.26, respectively, and the contributions of precipitation on runoff reduction were 26.4%, 17.9%, and 31.6%, respectively, in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed.

  10. Variation of Runoff and Precipitation in the Hekou-Longmen Region of the Yellow River Based on Elasticity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erhui; Mu, Xingmin; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation is very important to the formation of runoff, and studying of runoff variation and its response to precipitation has practical significance to sustainable utilization of water resources. The study used Mann-Kendall test, anomaly accumulation method, and precipitation elasticity of runoff method to analyze the changes in the relation of precipitation and runoff and the contribution of precipitation to runoff change in the Hekou-Longmen region (from 1957 to 2010), Huangfuchuan watershed (from 1954 to 2010), and Yanhe watershed (from 1952 to 2010) in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The results showed that runoff appeared a significant decreasing trend (P = 0.01) while it was not significant in precipitation in all study areas. In particular, the reductions of average annual runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed were 72.7%, 87.5%, and 32.2%, respectively, during 2000–2010 compared to the 1950s. There existed two abrupt change points of the runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region and Huangfuchuan watershed, which were detected in 1979 and 1998. But in the Yanhe watershed only one abrupt change point was found in 1996. The precipitation elasticities of runoff were 1.11, 1.09, and 1.26, respectively, and the contributions of precipitation on runoff reduction were 26.4%, 17.9%, and 31.6%, respectively, in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed. PMID:24955424

  11. Variation of runoff and precipitation in the Hekou-Longmen region of the Yellow River based on elasticity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erhui; Mu, Xingmin; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation is very important to the formation of runoff, and studying of runoff variation and its response to precipitation has practical significance to sustainable utilization of water resources. The study used Mann-Kendall test, anomaly accumulation method, and precipitation elasticity of runoff method to analyze the changes in the relation of precipitation and runoff and the contribution of precipitation to runoff change in the Hekou-Longmen region (from 1957 to 2010), Huangfuchuan watershed (from 1954 to 2010), and Yanhe watershed (from 1952 to 2010) in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The results showed that runoff appeared a significant decreasing trend (P = 0.01) while it was not significant in precipitation in all study areas. In particular, the reductions of average annual runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed were 72.7%, 87.5%, and 32.2%, respectively, during 2000-2010 compared to the 1950s. There existed two abrupt change points of the runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region and Huangfuchuan watershed, which were detected in 1979 and 1998. But in the Yanhe watershed only one abrupt change point was found in 1996. The precipitation elasticities of runoff were 1.11, 1.09, and 1.26, respectively, and the contributions of precipitation on runoff reduction were 26.4%, 17.9%, and 31.6%, respectively, in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed.

  12. Environment of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 971214: A Giant H ii Region Surrounded by a Galactic Supershell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn

    2000-02-10

    Among a number of gamma-ray bursts whose host galaxies are known, GRB 971214 stands out for its high redshift (z>/=3) and the Lyalpha emission line having a P Cygni-type profile, which is interpreted to be a direct consequence of the expanding supershell. From a profile-fitting analysis, we estimate the expansion velocity of the supershell (vexp=1500 km s-1) and the neutral column density (NHi=1020 cm -2). The redshift z=3.418 of the host galaxy proposed by Kulkarni et al. in 1998 has been revised to be z=3.425 from our profile analysis. The observed Lyalpha profile is fitted well by a Gaussian curve, which yields the Lyalpha luminosity LLyalpha=&parl0;1.8+/-0.8&parr0;x1042 ergs s-1. Assuming that the photon source is a giant H ii region, we deduce the electron number density in the H ii region ne=&parl0;40+/-10&parr0;&parl0;L/LLyalpha&parr0;0.5&parl0;R/100 pc&parr0;-1.5 cm-3, which corresponds to the illumination by about 104 O5 stars. We estimate the star formation rate to be RSF=7+/-3 M middle dot in circle yr-1 with the internal and the Galactic extinction corrected. The theory on the evolution of supernova remnants is used to propose that the supershell is at the adiabatic phase, with its radius R=18E1&solm0;253 pc, its age t=4.7x103E1&solm0;253 yr, and the density of the ambient medium n1=5.4E-1&solm0;253 cm-3, where E53=E&solm0;1053 ergs; we estimate the kinetic energy of the supershell to be Ek=7.3x1052E53 ergs. These values are consistent with the hypothesis that the supershell is the remnant of a gamma-ray burst. We note similarities between supershells found in nearby galaxies and remote primeval galaxies and propose that the gamma-ray burst may have occurred in a giant H ii region whose environment is similar to that in star-forming galaxies.

  13. Topogrid Derived 10 Meter Resolution Digital Elevation Model of the Shenandoah National Park and Surrounding Region, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Tanner, Seth D.

    2004-01-01

    Explanation The purpose of developing a new 10m resolution DEM of the Shenandoah National Park Region was to more accurately depict geologic structure, surfical geology, and landforms of the Shenandoah National Park Region in preparation for automated landform classification. Previously, only a 30m resolution DEM was available through the National Elevation Dataset (NED). During production of the Shenandoah10m DEM of the Park the Geography Discipline of the USGS completed a revised 10m DEM to be included into the NED. However, different methodologies were used to produce the two similar DEMs. The ANUDEM algorithm was used to develop the Shenadoah DEM data. This algorithm allows for the inclusion of contours, streams, rivers, lake and water body polygons as well as spot height data to control the elevation model. A statistical analysis using over 800 National Geodetic Survey (NGS) first and second order vertical control points reveals that the Shenandoah10m DEM, produced as a part of the Appalachian Blue Ridge Landscape project, has a vertical accuracy of ?4.87 meters. The metadata for the 10m NED data reports a vertical accuracy of ?7m. A table listing the NGS control points, the elevation comparison, and the RMSE for the Shenandoah10m DEM is provided. The process of automated terrain classification involves developing statistical signatures from the DEM for each type of surficial deposit and landform type. The signature will be a measure of several characteristics derived from the elevation data including slope, aspect, planform curvature, and profile curvature. The quality of the DEM is of critical importance when extracting terrain signatures. The highest possible horizontal and vertical accuracy is required. The more accurate Shenandoah 10m DEM can now be analyzed and integrated with the geologic observations to yield statistical correlations between the two in the development of landform and surface geology mapping projects.

  14. Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for localization in target tissues exhibiting a regional pH shift relative to surrounding tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.; Kung, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiopharmaceutical compounds are provided which are capable of entering a target tissue or a target organ by passive diffusion through cell walls and which are effectively accumulated and retained within the target tissue or organ due to a regional pH shift. Such compounds are desirably readily accessible synthetically using readily available radionuclides. The compound comprises a radioactive isotope of an element in chemical combination with at least one amine group and preferably with at least two secondary or tertiary amine groups. The radioactive element is an element other than iodine emitting gamma ray, x-ray or positron radiation. When the element is a gamma ray emitting isotope, at least 75 percent of the number of emissions is emitted at energies of between 80 and 400 keV. The half-life of the isotope is usually between two minutes and 15 days. The compound has acid-base characteristics such that the state of ionization of the compound at the pH of the body is significantly different and usually less than its state of ionization at the intracellular pH of the target tissue. The compound has such lipid solubility characteristics that it is capable of ready penetration through cell walls, but within cells its lipid solubility is substantially decreased, whereby the ability of the compound to leave the target tissue is substantially diminished. Specific data relevant to di-beta-(piperidinoethyl)-selenide and di-beta-(morpholinoethyl)-selenide in rat brains are presented

  15. Elastic properties of Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiyama, N.; Inoue, A.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2001-01-01

    In situ ultrasonic measurements for the Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk glass in three states: Glassy solid, supercooled liquid, and crystalline, have been performed. It is found that velocities of both longitudinal and transverse waves and elastic moduli (shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus......, and Lame parameter), together with Debye temperature, gradually decrease with increasing temperature through the glass transition temperature as the Poisson's ratio increases. The behavior of the velocity of transverse wave vs. temperature in the supercooled liquid region could be explained by viscosity...

  16. Search for photon–photon elastic scattering in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, T.; Yamaji, T.; Adachi, S.; Namba, T.; Asai, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Tamasaku, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Inubushi, Y.; Sawada, K.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first results of a search for real photon–photon scattering using X rays. A novel system is developed to split and collide X-ray pulses by applying interferometric techniques. A total of 6.5×10 5 pulses (each containing about 10 11 photons) from an X-ray Free-Electron Laser are injected into the system. No scattered events are observed, and an upper limit of 1.7×10 −24  m 2 (95% C.L.) is obtained on the photon–photon elastic scattering cross section at 6.5 keV

  17. Botanical origin and chemical constituents of commercial Saposhnikoviae radix and its related crude drugs available in Shaanxi and the surrounding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Takuro; Ezaki, Masami; Shiba, Mao; Yamaji, Hiroki; Yoshitomi, Taichi; Kawano, Noriaki; Zhu, Shu; Cheng, Xiao; Yokokura, Tsuguo; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Sun, Hang; Komatsu, Katsuko; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2018-01-01

    Saposhnikoviae radix (SR) is described in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia as a crude drug derived from the root of Saposhnikovia divaricata Schischkin (Umbelliferae). According to Flora of China, the root of Peucedanum ledebourielloides K. F. Fu is used as a regional substitute for SR. Therefore, we surveyed the botanical origin of the drug used in China, especially Shaanxi and the surrounding regions, through nucleotide sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. As a result, several samples from Shaanxi () and Shanxi () provinces were identified as Peucedanum ledebourielloides. To prevent this substitute from being distributed as genuine SR, we developed a thin-layer chromatography analysis condition to enable a specific compound of this species to be easily detected. The specific compound was identified as xanthalin, based on 1D- and 2D-NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The established TLC conditions were as follows-extraction solvent, n-hexane; applied volume, 5 µL; chromatographic support, silica gel; developing solvent, n-hexane:ethyl acetate:acetic acid (20:10:1); developing length, 7 cm; detection, UV (365 nm); R f value, 0.4 (blue fluorescence; xanthalin).

  18. A regional high-resolution emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2012 for Beijing and the surrounding five provinces of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjia; Wu, Bobo; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Chuanyong; Wang, Yong; Wu, Yiming; Xue, Yifeng; Gao, Jiajia; Hao, Yan; Tian, Hezhong

    2018-05-01

    A high resolution regional emission inventory of typical primary air pollutants (PAPs) for the year 2012 in Beijing and the surrounding five provinces (BSFP) of North China is developed. It is compiled with the combination of bottom-up and top-down methods, based on city-level collected activity data and the latest updated specific emission factors for different sources. The considered sources are classified into 12 major categories and totally 36 subcategories with respect to their multi-dimensional characteristics, such as economic sector, combustion facility or industrial process, installed air pollution control devices, etc. Power plant sector is the dominant contributor of NOX emissions with an average contribution of 34.1%, while VOCs emissions are largely emitted from industrial process sources (33.9%). Whereas, other stationary combustion sources represent major sources of primary PM2.5, PM10 and BC emissions, accounting for 22.7%, 30.0% and 33.9% of the total emissions, respectively. Hebei province contributes over 34% of the regional total CO emissions because of huge volume of iron and steel production. By comparison, Shandong province ranks as the biggest contributor for NOX, PM10, PM2.5, SO2, VOCs and OC. Further, the BSFP regional total emissions are spatially distributed into grid cells with a high resolution of 9 km × 9 km using GIS tools and surrogate indexes, such regional population, gross domestic product (GDP) and the types of arable soils. The highest emission intensities are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area, Jinan-Laiwu-Zibo area and several other cities such as Shijiazhuang, Handan, and Zhengzhou. Furthermore, in order to establish a simple method to estimate and forecast PAPs emissions with macroscopic provincial-level statistical parameters in China, multi-parameter regression equations are firstly developed to estimate emissions outside the BSFP region with routine statistics (e.g. population, total final coal consumption

  19. Computational modeling of elastic properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites with interphase regions. Part II: Mechanical modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2014-01-01

    We present two modeling approaches for predicting the macroscopic elastic properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer composites with thick interphase regions at the nanotube/matrix frontier. The first model is based on local continuum mechanics; the second one is based on hybrid local/non-local continuum mechanics. The key computational issues, including the peculiar homogenization technique and treatment of periodical boundary conditions in the non-local continuum model, are clarified. Both models are implemented through a three-dimensional geometric representation of the carbon nanotubes network, which has been detailed in Part I. Numerical results are shown and compared for both models in order to test convergence and sensitivity toward input parameters. It is found that both approaches provide similar results in terms of homogenized quantities but locally can lead to very different microscopic fields. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pion elastic scattering from polarized 13C in the energy region of the P33 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yifen, Yen

    1992-08-01

    Asymmetries (A y ) and differential cross sections (dσ/dΩ) were measured for π + and π - elastic scattering using polarized and unpolarized 13 C targets. The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility with the pion beam from the Low Energy Pion channel. The scattered pions were detected with the Large Acceptance Spectrometer. The 13 C nuclei in 13 C-enriched 1-butanol were polarized by the dynamic nuclear polarilization method. Angular distributions of both A y and dσ/dΩ were measured below the P 33 resonance at the incident energy of 130 MeV for π + and π - , and above the resonance at 223 MeV for π + and at 226 MeV for π - . In addition, A y and dσ/dΩ were measured in a range of momentum transfers, 1.75 ≤ q ≤ 2.05 fm - , at several energies. At 130 MeV, the values of A y are significantly different from zero for π - scattering. For π + at 130 MeV and for both π - and π + at all other energies, the A y are mostly consistent with zero. Theoretical analyses were done using different nuclear structure models. The data were not reproduced by the presently available nuclear wave functions. It was found that the asymmetry is strongly sensitive to the quadrupole spin flip part of the transition. The data of this thesis complement measurements of the magnetic form factor from electron scattering. In attempts to fit both the asymmetry and the magnetic form factor, it was found that the pion asymmetry data are not reproduced by the wavefunctions which fit the magnetic form factor at low momentum transfers

  1. 1P autoionization states of He in the elastic scattering region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, I.H.

    1975-01-01

    Following the method of Feshbach projection operator formalism, 1 P autoionization states of He in the n = 1 to n = 2 energy region was investigated. Variational functionals are constructed for solving the closed channel components and these results are compared with the absorption spectrum measured by Madden and Codling. In the open channel components the Coulomb wave function is used. Together with closed channel components, we calculate the line width of 1 P and 3 P resonance states. Comparison of these results with the previous calculation and with experimental data is also discussed

  2. What is important in the surroundings in order to extend the healthy life period? A regional study of 19 older women in a northern part of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minde, Gunn-Tove; Sæterstrand, Torill M

    2013-01-01

    Participating in a community with other retired individuals to increase life quality can be possible for the older persons. Cultural and ethnical background is important for their social identity. To identify what the informants think is important in their surroundings in order to extend their healthy life period. A structured questionnaire developed by the OCIN network. Nineteen elderly women aged 75 years or more were interviewed. This regional survey is a pilot study in Norway. The data were collected during 2 periods, in 2009 and 2010. The data are analyzed using a result scheme prepared by the network OCIN. Our findings show that this is a group of elderly women that are concerned with promoting their own health. The participants wish to take care of themselves, so they do not become a burden for society and the local authorities. The findings of this study suggest that participation in the local context is important for promoting health and well-being among elderly in all ethnicities. For the Sami elderly, this is particularly important because meeting equal-minded people helps them maintain their Sami identity. In the Sami culture and among the Sami elderly, it is important to be "strong" and "healthy". Due to these norms, the elderly Sami women try to live with their illnesses and are less eager to go to the doctor when they are seriously ill.

  3. Biomechanics of Ergometric Stress Test: regional and local effects on elastic, transitional and muscular human arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, G.; Torrado, J.; Farro, I.; Bia, D.; Zócalo, Y.; Lluberas, S.; Craiem, D.; Armentano, Rl

    2011-09-01

    Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. In this context, this work aims were to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical behaviour in response to EST; to evaluate its temporal profile in the post-EST recovery phase; and to compare the biomechanical response of different to EST. Methods: In 16 non-trained healthy young subjects the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the carotid, femoral and brachial arterial distensibility were non-invasively evaluated before (Rest) and after EST. Main results: The EST resulted in an early increase in the arterial stiffness, evidenced by both, regional and local parameters (pulse wave velocity increase and distensibility reduction). When analyzing conjunctly the different post-EST recovery stages there were quali-quantitative differences among the arterial local stiffness response to EST. The biomechanical changes could not be explained only by blood pressure variations.

  4. Biomechanics of Ergometric Stress Test: regional and local effects on elastic, transitional and muscular human arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls, G; Torrado, J; Farro, I; Bia, D; Zocalo, Y; Lluberas, S; Armentano, RL; Craiem, D

    2011-01-01

    Ergometric exercise stress tests (EST) give important information about the cardiovascular (CV) response to increased demands. The expected EST-related changes in variables like blood pressure and heart rate are known, but those in the arterial biomechanics are controversial and incompletely characterized. In this context, this work aims were to characterize the regional and local arterial biomechanical behaviour in response to EST; to evaluate its temporal profile in the post-EST recovery phase; and to compare the biomechanical response of different to EST. Methods: In 16 non-trained healthy young subjects the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and the carotid, femoral and brachial arterial distensibility were non-invasively evaluated before (Rest) and after EST. Main results: The EST resulted in an early increase in the arterial stiffness, evidenced by both, regional and local parameters (pulse wave velocity increase and distensibility reduction). When analyzing conjunctly the different post-EST recovery stages there were quali-quantitative differences among the arterial local stiffness response to EST. The biomechanical changes could not be explained only by blood pressure variations.

  5. Regional Differences in the Price-Elasticity of Demand for Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, M. A.; Griffin, J.

    2006-02-01

    At the request of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the RAND Corporation examined the relationship between energy demand and energy prices with the focus on whether the relationships between demand and price differ if these are examined at different levels of data resolution. In this case, RAND compares national, regional, state, and electric utility levels of data resolution. This study is intended as a first step in helping NREL understand the impact that spatial disaggregation of data can have on estimating the impacts of their programs. This report should be useful to analysts in NREL and other national laboratories, as well as to policy nationals at the national level. It may help them understand the complex relationships between demand and price and how these might vary across different locations in the United States.

  6. A Neutron Elastic Scattering Study of Chromium, Iron and Nickel in the Energy Region 1.77 to 2.76 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Johansson, S G; Lodin, G; Wiedling, T [AB Atomenergi, Nyko eping (Sweden); Salama, M [Reactor and Neutron Physics Dept., Atomic Energy Es tablishment, Cairo (Egypt)

    1970-07-01

    Elastic neutron scattering measurements have been performed on the natural elements chromium, iron and nickel. Angular distributions were recorded in the interval 20 to 160 deg at several energies in the region 1.77 to 2.76 MeV. The experimental data were analysed in terms of the optical model, applying a spherical nuclear potential.

  7. Elastic pp scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region and low energy behaviour of p-barp scattering partial amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Markushin, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on the low energy elastic p-barp scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region and on the shift and width of the 1s level of p-barp-atom are analysed. The partial wave amplitudes for l=0.1 are extracted. The p-wave amplitude is in fair agreement with the atomic data for the 2p state and exhibits some energy structure. It is shown that the real-to-imaginary ratio of the p-barp forward elastic-scattering amplitude becomes negative in an energy interval just near p-barp-threshold

  8. Analyzing the Implications of Climate Data on Plant Hardiness Zones for Green Infrastructure Planning: Case Study of Knoxville, Tennessee and Surrounding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Linda M [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL

    2016-07-01

    Downscaled climate data for Knoxville, Tennessee and the surrounding region were used to investigate future changing Plant Hardiness Zones due to climate change. The methodology used is the same as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), well-known for their creation of the standard Plant Hardiness Zone map used by gardeners and planners. USDA data were calculated from observed daily data for 1976–2005. The modeled climate data for the past is daily data from 1980-2005 and the future data is projected for 2025–2050. The average of all the modeled annual extreme minimums for each time period of interest was calculated. Each 1 km raster cell was placed into zone categories based on temperature, using the same criteria and categories of the USDA. The individual models vary between suggesting little change to the Plant Hardiness Zones to suggesting Knoxville moves into the next two Hardiness Zones. But overall, the models suggest moving into the next warmer Zone. USDA currently has the Knoxville area categorized as Zone 7a. None of the Zones calculated from the climate data models placed Knoxville in Zone 7a for the similar time period. The models placed Knoxville in a cooler Hardiness Zone and projected the area to increase to Zone 7. The modeled temperature data appears to be slightly cooler than the actual temperature data and this may explain the zone discrepancy. However, overall Knoxville is projected to increase to the next warmer Zone. As the modeled data has Knoxville, overall, moving from Zone 6 to Zone 7, it can be inferred that Knoxville, Tennessee may increase from their current Zone 7 to Zone 8.

  9. Damping scaling factors for elastic response spectra for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions: "average" horizontal component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Idriss, I.M.; Abrahamson, Norman; Campbell, Kenneth; Silva, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for elastic response spectra are typically developed at a 5% viscous damping ratio. In reality, however, structural and nonstructural systems can have other damping ratios. This paper develops a new model for a damping scaling factor (DSF) that can be used to adjust the 5% damped spectral ordinates predicted by a GMPE for damping ratios between 0.5% to 30%. The model is developed based on empirical data from worldwide shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. Dependencies of the DSF on potential predictor variables, such as the damping ratio, spectral period, ground motion duration, moment magnitude, source-to-site distance, and site conditions, are examined. The strong influence of duration is captured by the inclusion of both magnitude and distance in the DSF model. Site conditions show weak influence on the DSF. The proposed damping scaling model provides functional forms for the median and logarithmic standard deviation of DSF, and is developed for both RotD50 and GMRotI50 horizontal components. A follow-up paper develops a DSF model for vertical ground motion.

  10. Ethno-medicinal study of plants used for treatment of human ailments, with residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolson, Mônica; Hefler, Sonia Marisa; Hefler, Sonia Regina; Dall'Oglio Chaves, Elisiane Inês; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara

    2015-02-23

    This study aims to document the traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro", a fragment of seasonal semideciduous forests. This vegetation is intensely fragmented and disturbed; despite its importance there are few records of the traditional knowledge of medicinal species. Twenty-four residents in the neighborhood of the protected area "Parque Estadual da Cabeça do Cachorro" were interviewed. The residents were questioned about preparation techniques, recommended doses, ways of administration and healing properties of various parts of the plants and were invited to walk through the park to collect in situ some species of plants. The recognized medicinal species were identified and traditional knowledge was systematized. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC and Use Value - UV) were calculated. 115 species of medicinal plants belonging to 54 botanical families were cited. Asteraceae (n=14), Fabaceae (n=11), Myrtaceae (n=6), Bignoniaceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae (n=5) were the most species-rich. The highest use values were calculated for Achyrocline satureioides, Aristolochia triangularis and Bauhinia forficata (0.63). Moreover, the informants consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.024 to 0.663, which shows high level of agreements among the informants for gastro-intestinal and respiratory system diseases. Furthermore, for the first time, new traditional medicinal uses of Asteraceae (Chromolaena pedunculosa Hook. & Arn.), Commelinaceae (Tradescantia fluminensis Vell.) and Polypodiaceae (Microgramma vacciniifolia Langsd. & Fisch.) species were reported. Present study revealed that the residents of the surrounding region of forest fragments of Paraná are rich in ethno-medicinal knowledge and rely on plant-based remedies for common health problems. As in many parts of Brazil knowledge of the past is combined with new knowledge that has

  11. Regional variation in wood modulus of elasticity (stiffness) and modulus of rupture (strength) of planted loblolly pine in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Finto; Lewis Jordan; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter; Richard F. Daniels

    2011-01-01

    Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and specific gravity (SG) are important properties for determining the end-use and value of a piece of lumber. This study addressed the variation in MOE, MOR, and SG with physiographic region, tree height, and wood type. Properties were measured from two static bending samples (dimensions 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm × 406.4...

  12. Ground-water hydrology and simulation of ground-water flow at Operable Unit 3 and surrounding region, U.S. Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Air Station, Jacksonville (herein referred to as the Station), occupies 3,800 acres adjacent to the St. Johns River in Duval County, Florida. Operable Unit 3 (OU3) occupies 134 acres on the eastern side of the Station and has been used for industrial and commercial purposes since World War II. Ground water contaminated by chlorinated organic compounds has been detected in the surficial aquifer at OU3. The U.S. Navy and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a cooperative hydrologic study to evaluate the potential for ground water discharge to the neighboring St. Johns River. A ground-water flow model, previously developed for the area, was recalibrated for use in this study. At the Station, the surficial aquifer is exposed at land surface and forms the uppermost permeable unit. The aquifer ranges in thickness from 30 to 100 feet and consists of unconsolidated silty sands interbedded with local beds of clay. The low-permeability clays of the Hawthorn Group form the base of the aquifer. The USGS previously conducted a ground-water investigation at the Station that included the development and calibration of a 1-layer regional ground-water flow model. For this investigation, the regional model was recalibrated using additional data collected after the original calibration. The recalibrated model was then used to establish the boundaries for a smaller subregional model roughly centered on OU3. Within the subregional model, the surficial aquifer is composed of distinct upper and intermediate layers. The upper layer extends from land surface to a depth of approximately 15 feet below sea level; the intermediate layer extends from the upper layer down to the top of the Hawthorn Group. In the northern and central parts of OU3, the upper and intermediate layers are separated by a low-permeability clay layer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivities in the upper layer, determined from aquifer tests, range from 0.19 to 3.8 feet per day. The horizontal hydraulic

  13. Elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates the following five aspects of engineering-material solid-state elastic constants: general properties, interrelationships, relationships to other physical properties, changes during cooling from ambient to near-zero temperature, and near-zero-temperature behavior. Topics considered include compressibility, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law, elastic-constant measuring methods, thermodynamic potentials, higher-order energy terms, specific heat, thermal expansivity, magnetic materials, structural phase transitions, polymers, composites, textured aggregates, and other-phenomena correlations. Some of the conclusions concerning polycrystalline elastic properties and their temperature dependence are: elastic constants are physical, not mechanical, properties which relate thermodynamically to other physical properties such as specific heat and thermal expansivity; elastic constants at low temperatures are nearly temperature independent, as required by the third law of thermodynamics; and elastic constants can be used to study directional properties of materials, such as textured aggregates and composites

  14. Energy-Dependent Partial-Wave Analysis of Pion-Deuteron Elastic Scattering in T_L=65 to 294 MeV Region

    OpenAIRE

    Noboru, HIROSHIGE; Faculty of Economics, Hannan University

    1996-01-01

    An energy-dependent partial-wave analysis of πd elastic scattering has been performed in the region T_L=65~294 MeV for currently available experimental data, including the recent vector analyzing power iT_ and composite observables τ_. We have obtained a solution which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The ^3P_1,^3P_2,^3D_3 and ^3D_2 amplitudes abtained show counter-clockwise rotating behaviors.

  15. Facies Analysis of Tertiary Basin-Filling Rocks of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water System and Surrounding Areas, Nevada and California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Taylor, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Existing hydrologic models of the Death Valley region typically have defined the Cenozoic basins as those areas that are covered by recent surficial deposits, and have treated the basin-fill deposits that are concealed under alluvium as a single unit with uniform hydrologic properties throughout the region, and with depth. Although this latter generalization was known to be flawed, it evidently was made because available geologic syntheses did not provide the basis for a more detailed characterization. As an initial attempt to address this problem, this report presents a compilation and synthesis of existing and new surface and subsurface data on the lithologic variations between and within the Cenozoic basin fills of this region. The most permeable lithologies in the Cenozoic basin fills are freshwater limestones, unaltered densely welded tuffs, and little-consolidated coarse alluvium. The least permeable lithologies are playa claystones, altered nonwelded tuffs, and tuffaceous and cl ay-matrix sediments of several types. In all but the youngest of the basin fills, permeability probably decreases strongly with depth owing to a typically increasing abundance of volcanic ash or clay in the matrices of the clastic sediments with increasing age (and therefore with increasing depth in general), and to increasing consolidation and alteration (both hydrothermal and diagenetic) with increasing depth and age. This report concludes with a categorization of the Cenozoic basins of the Death Valley region according to the predominant lithologies in the different basin fills and presents qualitative constraints on the hydrologic properties of these major lithologic categories

  16. Analyzing power measurement of pp elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region with the 200-GeV/c polarized-proton beam at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Langland, J.; Onel, Y.; Bonner, B.E.; Corcoran, M.D.; Cranshaw, J.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Nguyen, C.; Roberts, J.B.; Skeens, J.; White, J.L.; Bravar, A.; Giacomich, R.; Penzo, A.; Schiavon, P.; Zanetti, A.; Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; van Rossum, L.; Cossairt, J.D.; Read, A.L.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Matulenko, Y.A.; Meschanin, A.P.; Nurushev, S.B.; Patalakha, D.I.; Rykov, V.L.; Solovyanov, V.L.; Vasiliev, A.N.; Grosnick, D.P.; Hill, D.A.; Laghai, M.; Lopiano, D.; Ohashi, Y.; Shima, T.; Spinka, H.; Stanek, R.W.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Funahashi, H.; Goto, Y.; Imai, K.; Itow, Y.; Makino, S.; Masaike, A.; Miyake, K.; Nagamine, T.; Saito, N.; Yamashita, S.; Iwatani, K.; Kuroda, K.; Michalowicz, A.; Luehring, F.C.; Miller, D.H.; Maki, T.; Pauletta, G.; Rappazzo, G.F.; Salvato, G.; Takashima, R.

    1993-01-01

    The analyzing power A N of proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region has been measured using the 200-GeV/c Fermilab polarized proton beam. A theoretically predicted interference between the hadronic non-spin-flip amplitude and the electromagnetic spin-flip amplitude is shown for the first time to be present at high energies in the region of 1.5x10 -3 to 5.0x10 -2 (GeV/c) 2 four-momentum transfer squared, and our results are analyzed in connection with theoretical calculations. In addition, the role of possible contributions of the hadronic spin-flip amplitude is discussed

  17. Enhanced spin polarization of elastic electron scattering from alkaline-earth-metal atoms in Ramsauer-Townsend and low-lying shape resonance regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, J.; Zhang, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Spin polarizations (SP's) of elastic electron scattering from alkaline-earth-metal atoms in Ramsauer-Townsend (RT) and low-lying shape resonance (SR) regions are calculated using a relativistic method. The detailed SP distributions both with scattering angle and with electron energy are presented via the energy- and angle-dependent surfaces of SP parameters. It is shown that the SP effects of the collisions of electrons with Ca, Sr, and Ba atoms in the RT region are significant in a considerable area on the energy-angle plane and that the spin-orbit interaction is well increased around the low-lying p-wave SR states of Be and Mg and the d-wave SR states of Ca, Sr, and Ba

  18. Precision measurements of pion nucleon elastic scattering in the P3 energy region at LAMPF. 1984 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    This study is a continuation of the pion-nucleon program at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Previous measurements, in chronological order, have included differential cross sections for π/sup +-/p elastic scattering at P/sub π/ = 378 - 687 MeV/c (LAMPF experiment 363), π - p charge exchange for P/sub π/ = 247 - 687 MeV/c (LAMPF experiment 120), and measurements of the polarization asymmetry for π/sup +-/p -> π/sup +-/p and π - p -> π 0 n for P/sub π/ = 471 - 687 MeV/c (LAMPF experiments 120* and 120**, respectively). Two experiments were initiated in the past year, forward-angle differential cross sections for π - p -> π 0 n at P/sub π/ = 96 - 150 MeV/c (LAMPF experiment 809) and polarization asymmetry for π - p - > γn (LAMPF experiment 804). Approved experiments which will be scheduled in the future are spin rotation measurements for π/sup +-/p -> π/sup +-/p (LAMPF experiments 806 and 807) and differential cross sections for π - p -> π 0 n near 0 0 and 180 0 at P/sub π/ = 471-687 MeV/c (LAMPF experiment 849). Another experiment, differential cross section measurements for π/sup +-/ elastic scattering on 3 He and 3 H (LAMPF experiment 546), has also been completed. The 3 He and 3 H targets form an isospin doublet analogous to the proton and neutron. The I 3 = -1/2 member ( 3 H) of the multiplet can be utilized as a target in this case, allowing a direct test of charge symmetry not achievable in the πN system due to the impossibility of a pure neutron target

  19. Assessing the environmental fate of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the region surrounding the Zhuoshui River of Taiwan based on an Equilibrium Constant fugacity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Kieran; Doherty, Rory; Robinson, Jill; Chiang, Wen-Son; Kao Kao, Ruey-Chy

    2015-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of flame retardants that have been in use since the 1970s. They are included in the list of hazardous substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because they are extremely hazardous to the environment and human health. PBDEs have been extensively used in industry and manufacturing in Taiwan, thus its citizens are at high risk of exposure to these chemicals. An assessment of the environmental fate of these compounds in the Zhuoshui river and Changhua County regions of western Taiwan, and also including the adjacent area of the Taiwan Strait, was conducted for three high risk congeners, BDE-47, -99 and -209, to obtain information regarding the partitioning, advection, transfer and long range transport potential of the PBDEs in order to identify the level of risk posed by the pollutants in this region. The results indicate that large amounts of PBDEs presently reside in all model compartments - air, soil, water, and sediment - with particularly high levels found in air and especially in sediment. The high levels found in sediment, particularly for BDE-209, are significant, since there is the threat of these pollutants entering the food chain, either directly through benthic feeding, or through resuspension and subsequent feeding in the pelagic region of the water column which is a distinct possibility in the strong currents found within the Taiwan Strait. Another important result is that a substantial portion of emissions leave the model domain directly through advection, particularly for BDE-47 (58%) and BDE-209 (75%), thus posing a risk to adjacent communities. Model results were generally in reasonable agreement with available measured concentrations. In air, model concentrations are in reasonably good agreement with available measured values. For both BDE-47 and -99, model concentrations are a factor of 2-3 higher and BDE-209 within the range of measured values. In soil, model results are somewhat

  20. Regional magnetic and gravity surveys: an aid for uranium exploration - case study from Renigunta and surrounding areas, Chitoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Rao, B.; Rama Krishna, P.; Markandeyulu, A.; Dwivedy, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    Regional magnetic and gravity data of Papanaidupet area, Chitoor district, are discussed in the light of bore hole information for selection of target areas for uranium exploration. The low-pass filtered magnetic data shows a 'smooth' picture suppressing the high frequency components in the original data. The amplitude maxima of analytic signal outline the magnetic source at depth. The Bouguer gravity residual anomaly corresponding to a double sill-like model beneath is used to explain the borehole intercepts, after petro-physical studies of the borehole samples. (author)

  1. Assessment of metals pollution on agricultural soil surrounding a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolan; Li, Zhongyi; Yang, Weiwei; Pan, Liping; Gu, Minghua; Lee, DoKyoung

    2013-06-01

    Soil samples were collected on farmland in a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China. The contamination of the soil by eight metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni) was determined. Among all these metals, Cd is the most serious pollutant in this area. Zn, Hg as well asPb can also be measured at high levels, which may affect the crop production. All other metals contributed marginally to the overall soil contamination. Besides the evaluation of single metals, the Nemerow synthetic index indicated that the soil is not suitable for agricultural use.

  2. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Effect of steroid on brain tumors and surround edemas : observation with regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps of perfusion MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ju Youl; Sun, Joo Sung; Kim, Sun Yong; Kim, Ji Hyung; Suh, Jung Ho; Cho, Kyung Gi; Kim, Jang Sung

    2000-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic change in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas after steroid treatment, and then investigate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MRI. We acquired conventional and perfusion MR images in 15 patients with various intracranial tumors (4 glioblastoma multiformes, 4 meningiomas, 3 metastatic tumors, 1 anaplastic ependymoma, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 hemangioblastoma, and 1 pilocytic astrocytoma). For perfusion MR imaging, a 1.5T unit employing the gradient-echo EPI technique was used, and further perfusion MR images were obtained 2-10 days after intravenous steroid therapy. After processing of the raw data, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps were reconstructed. The maps were visually evaluated by comparing relative perfusion in brain tumors and peritumoral edemas with that in contralateral white matter. Objective evaluations were performed by comparing the perfusion ratios of brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Visual evaluations of rCBV maps, showed that in most brain tumors (67%, 10/15), perfusion was high before steroid treatment and showed in (80%, 12/15) decreased afterwards. Objective evaluation, showed that in all brain tumors, perfusion decreased. Visual evaluation of perfusion change in peritumoral edemas revealed change in only one case, but objective evaluation indicated that perfusion decreased significantly in all seven cases. rCBV maps acquired by perfusion MR imaging can provide hemodynamic information about brain tumors and peritumoral edemas. Such maps could prove helpful in the preoperative planning of brain tumor surgery and the monitoring of steroid effects during conservative treatment. (author)

  4. Effects of Chernobyl on Mittelfranken. An evaluation of Erlangen and the surrounding regions. Auswirkungen von 'Tschernobyl' auf Mittelfranken. Bewertung am Beispiel Erlangen und Umgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deubner, S; Iwatschenko-Borho, M; Malzer, S; Plank, H; Schmitzer, R; Giesse, E; Baurichter, A; Heer, G; Kleffner, B; Pfister, H

    1986-01-01

    According to an analysis of radioactivity in the atmosphere, ground, plants and meat Mittelfranken values are as follows: 1) The dispersion of ground pollution values by far exceeds that of other regions in Bavaria. 2) Dairy milk was constantly keeping a rough 10% below the iodine 131 limiting value. Drinking water remained unpolluted. 3) From the beginning to the middle of May vegetables such as spinach and the like, potherbs as well as pollen and honey were generally showing values above the iodine and cesium limiting values. 4) The beginning of July was showing small fruits (about 250 Bq/kg cesium 137 and 134) and venison (about 600 Bq/kg cesium) to be still contaminated considerably. 5) The contamination of sand boxes proved to be negligible compared with other sources. 6) The contamination and risk of breathing highly active 'hot particles' cannot be evaluated definitely. 7) The high concentration of long-lived radioactive substances in sewage sludges requires the sludges to be carefully analyzed before they are made available for manuring purposes. 8) According to estimations cesium is assumed to be one of the major factors to be made responsible for a long-term contamination of foods.

  5. Factors Affecting Elevated Arsenic and Methyl Mercury Concentrations in Small Shield Lakes Surrounding Gold Mines near the Yellowknife, NT, (Canada Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam James Houben

    Full Text Available Gold mines in the Yellowknife, NT, region--in particular, the Giant Mine--operated from 1949-99, releasing 237,000 tonnes of waste arsenic trioxide (As2O3 dust, among other compounds, from gold ore extraction and roasting processes. For the first time, we show the geospatial distribution of roaster-derived emissions of several chemical species beyond the mine property on otherwise undisturbed taiga shield lakes within a 25 km radius of the mine, 11 years after its closing. Additionally, we demonstrate that underlying bedrock is not a significant source for the elevated concentrations in overlying surface waters. Aquatic arsenic (As concentrations are well above guidelines for drinking water (10 μg/L and protection for aquatic life (5 μg/L, ranging up to 136 μg/L in lakes within 4 km from the mine, to 2.0 μg/L in lakes 24 km away. High conversion ratios of methyl mercury were shown in lakes near the roaster stack as well, with MeHg concentrations reaching 44% of total mercury. The risk of elevated exposures by these metals is significant, as many lakes used for recreation and fishing near the City of Yellowknife are within this radius of elevated As and methyl Hg concentrations.

  6. Differential cross section measurements of the π-p elastic scattering in the Coulomb interference region between 30 and 140 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ille, B.

    1979-01-01

    The differential cross section of elastic π - -p scattering in the Coulomb interference region from 30 GeV to 140 GeV has been measured at the CERN SPS using in conjunction an ionization chamber recoil spectrometer and a forward multiwire proportional chamber-magnet spectrometer. The phase of the π - -p forward hadronic amplitude was found to go four negative value (at 30 GeV) to positive value (at 140 GeV), passing through zero at about 60 GeV. The logarithmic slope at small /t/ (/t/ approximately 0.03 (GeV/c) 2 ) has also been measured and was found to be higher by about 3 (GeV/c) -2 than the values determined at higher /t/ (/t/ = 0.2 (GeV/c) 2 ) [fr

  7. Form finding in elastic gridshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O.; Jawed, Mohammad K.; Reis, Pedro M.

    2018-01-01

    Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.

  8. Elastic Beanstalk

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara

    2011-01-01

    While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots

  9. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  11. Measurements of the spin rotation parameterf A in the elastic pion- proton scattering in the D$_{13}$(1700) resonance region

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, I G; Beloglasov, Yu A; Budkovsky, P E; Bunyatova, E I; Kanavets, V P; Kovalev, A I; Koroleva, L I; Kruglov, S P; Morozov, B V; Nesterov, V M; Novinsky, D V; Ryltzov, V V; Shchedrov, V A; Sulimov, A D; Sumachev, Yu V; Svirida, D N; Trautman, V Yu; Zhurkin, V V

    2001-01-01

    The spin rotation parameters A and R were measured for the elastic pion-proton scattering by the PNPI-ITEP collaboration in the D/sub 13 /(1700) resonance region. The main goal of the experimental program is to resolve the current partial-wave analyses (PWA) uncertainties. Simultaneously with A and R the polarization parameter P was measured with the purpose to improve the experimental database and estimate systematic errors. The constraint which demands a smooth energy dependence of all pi /sup -/p transverse amplitude zeros in the complex plane together with the new experimental data on the A parameter can lead to the conclusion that the Barrelet branch of "zero trajectories" is chosen improperly in PWA of the Carnegie- Mellon-Lawrence-Berkeley-Laboratory groups at the range of the pion beam momentum near 1.0 GeV/c. The setup included a longitudinally polarized proton target with superconductive magnet, multiwire spark chambers and carbon polarimeter with thick filter. The experiment was performed at the IT...

  12. Computational modeling of elastic properties of carbon nanotube/polymer composites with interphase regions. Part I: Micro-structural characterization and geometric modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei; Azdoud, Yan; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    A computational strategy to predict the elastic properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites is proposed in this two-part paper. In Part I, the micro-structural characteristics of these nano-composites are discerned

  13. The Impacts of Different PBL Schemes on the Simulation of PM2.5 during Severe Haze Episodes in the Jing-Jin-Ji Region and Its Surroundings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, three schemes [Yonsei University (YSU, Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ, and Bougeault-Lacarrère (Boulac] were employed in the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF-Chem model to simulate the severe haze that occurred in February 2014 in the Jing-Jin-Ji region and its surroundings. The PM2.5 concentration simulated using the three schemes, together with the meteorological factors closely related to PM2.5 (wind speed, local vertical diffusivity, and PBL height, was evaluated through comparison with observations. The results indicated that the eastern plain cities produced better simulation results than the western cities, and the cities under the eastern root of Taihang Mountain produced the worst results in simulating high PM2.5 concentration in haze. All three schemes simulated very similar variation trends of the surface PM2.5 concentration compared with observations. The diurnal variations of simulated surface PM2.5 were not as reasonable as their reflection of daily averaged variation. The simulated concentrations of surface PM2.5 using the YSU, MYJ, and Boulac schemes all showed large negative errors during daytime in polluted days due to their inefficient descriptions of local atmospheric stability or diffusion processes in haze. The lower ability of PBL schemes in distinguishing the diffusion between haze and clean days in the complex topography areas in China is an important problem for PM2.5 forecasting, which is worthy of being studied in detail.

  14. Determination of arsenic in some water bodies, untreated ore and tailing samples at Konongo in the Ashanti region of Ghana and its surrounding towns and villages by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, M.; Osae, E.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Golow, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been employed for the determination of arsenic in samples of water bodies at Konongo an old mining town in the Ashanti region of Ghana and its surrounding towns and villages. In some of the water samples, significant levels of arsenic were recorded but others gave no indication of the metal. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated using real ore samples and standard reference materials. The accuracy of the method was found to be within ±6%. The average arsenic levels found in the water samples ranged between 0.04 and 12.2 mg/l. Untreated ore and tailing samples were also analysed for arsenic. The surface ore gave an arsenic concentration of 4,628 ± 97 ppm while that of the bottom ore was 2,978 ± 69 ppm. For the tailing samples, the range of arsenic level was 1,776 to 1,787 ppm. It was observed that the upper sink (i.e., the surface portion of the ore) showed higher levels of arsenic than the lower one (i.e., bottom portion of the ore). (author)

  15. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of mechanical behaviour in the elastic region of blends of recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) and recycled polyolefins; Analise termodinamica do comportamento mecanico na regiao elastica de blendas de poli (tereftalato de etileno) reciclado e poliolefinas recicladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marconcini, Jose M. [Universidade Federal do Parana Univ. (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento; Ruvolo Filho, Adhemar [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: adhemar@power.ufscar.br

    2006-10-15

    This work describes the study using mechanical tests with the blend of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and recycled polyolefin with and without the addition of polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride and poly(ethylene-co-octene-1). A thermodynamic approach based on the Helmholtz work function was applied in the analysis of mechanical tests, correlating the effects of energy storage and from the compatibilizer on the elastic region of the materials. For the system studied, the polyolefin-rich region shows higher storage of elastic energy corroborating the morphology images obtained from SEM analysis. The thermodynamic analysis seems a useful tool to evaluate the compatibilizer effect in polymeric immiscible blends. In this work, more specifically, this method was used to analyze the mechanical behavior of different compositions of recycled polymeric commodity materials. (author)

  17. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects

  18. In planta processing and glycosylation of a nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-like effector and its interaction with a host CLAVATA2-like receptor to promote parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S; Mitchum, Melissa G; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. In Planta Processing and Glycosylation of a Nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-Like Effector and Its Interaction with a Host CLAVATA2-Like Receptor to Promote Parasitism1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S.; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. PMID:25416475

  20. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  1. Neutron Elastic Scattering Cross Sections of Iron and Zinc in the Energy Region 2.5 to 8.1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, B.; Johansson, S.G.; Lodin, G.; Wiedling, T.; Kiss, A.

    1966-12-01

    Angular distributions were measured for the elastic scattering of neutrons from iron at five energies between 3.0 and 8. 1 MeV and from zinc at eight energies between 2.5 and 8.1 MeV. Time-of-flight technique was used. Corrections for neutron flux attenuation, multiple elastic scattering, and the finite geometry of the source-sample detector system were made by using a Monte Carlo program. An optical model potential with Saxon-Woods form factors was used to fit theoretical angular distributions to the experimental ones. The parameter values giving the best fits to the experimental distributions were calculated by a computer

  2. Neutron Elastic Scattering Cross Sections of Iron and Zinc in the Energy Region 2.5 to 8.1 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Johansson, S G; Lodin, G; Wiedling, T [AB Atomenergi, Nyko eping (Sweden); Kiss, A [Inst. for Experimental Physics, Univ. of Debrecen, De brecen (Hungary)

    1966-12-15

    Angular distributions were measured for the elastic scattering of neutrons from iron at five energies between 3.0 and 8. 1 MeV and from zinc at eight energies between 2.5 and 8.1 MeV. Time-of-flight technique was used. Corrections for neutron flux attenuation, multiple elastic scattering, and the finite geometry of the source-sample detector system were made by using a Monte Carlo program. An optical model potential with Saxon-Woods form factors was used to fit theoretical angular distributions to the experimental ones. The parameter values giving the best fits to the experimental distributions were calculated by a computer.

  3. On the gain properties of “thin” elastically strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells emitting in the near-infrared spectral region near 1550 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, I. I.; Karachinsky, L. Ya. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation); Kolodeznyi, E. S.; Bougrov, V. E. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Kurochkin, A. S.; Gladyshev, A. G.; Babichev, A. V. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation); Gadzhiev, I. M.; Buyalo, M. S. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Usikova, A. A., E-mail: anton@beam.ioffe.ru; Shernyakov, Yu. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Savelyev, A. V.; Nyapshaev, I. A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. Yu. [Connector Optics LLC (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The results of experimental studies of the gain properties of “thin” (3.2 nm thick) elastically strained InGaAs/InGaAlAs quantum wells emitting in the near-infrared spectral region near 1550 nm are presented. The results of studying the threshold and gain characteristics of stripe laser diodes with active regions based on “thin” quantum wells with a lattice–substrate mismatch of +1.0% show that the quantum wells under study exhibit a high modal gain of 11 cm{sup –1} and a low transparency current density of 46 A/cm{sup 2} per quantum well.

  4. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-05-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.

  5. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  6. The elastic scattering of K-mesons on the 4He nucleus in the complex momenta theory for the energy region (20-100) GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, L.A.; Shakhbazyan, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Determined are differential cross sections for K meson elastic scattering on a 4 He nucleus for the energies of an incident particle equal to 30 and 50 GeV, the total cross section in the range from 10 to 10 3 GeV and the di(GeV/c) 2 versus energy in the range 10-100 GeV. The calculation is carried out with the eikonal and quasieikonal models of the complex moment theory. The effects of inelastic screening are shown to be very essential

  7. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  9. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  10. Elastic scattering and quasi-elastic transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments are presented which it will be possible to carry out at GANIL on the elastic scattering of heavy ions: diffraction phenomena if the absorption is great, refraction phenomena if absorption is low. The determination of the optical parameters can be performed. The study of the quasi-elastic transfer reactions will make it possible to know the dynamics of the nuclear reactions, form exotic nuclei and study their energy excitation spectrum, and analyse the scattering and reaction cross sections [fr

  11. Mechanical Characteristics Analysis of Surrounding Rock on Anchor Bar Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuan-cheng; Zhou, Pan; Huang, Rong-bin

    2018-03-01

    Through the homogenization method, the composite of rock and anchor bar is considered as the equivalent material of continuous, homogeneous, isotropic and strength parameter enhancement, which is defined as reinforcement body. On the basis of elasticity, the composite and the reinforcement are analyzed, Based on strengthening theory of surrounding rock and displacement equivalent conditions, the expression of reinforcement body strength parameters and mechanical parameters is deduced. The example calculation shows that the theoretical results are close to the results of the Jia-mei Gao[9], however, closer to the results of FLAC3D numerical simulation, it is proved that the model and surrounding rock reinforcement body theory are reasonable. the model is easy to analyze and calculate, provides a new way for determining reasonable bolt support parameters, can also provides reference for the stability analysis of underground cavern bolting support.

  12. Viscous-elastic dynamics of power-law fluids within an elastic cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir D.

    2017-07-01

    In a wide range of applications, microfluidic channels are implemented in soft substrates. In such configurations, where fluidic inertia and compressibility are negligible, the propagation of fluids in channels is governed by a balance between fluid viscosity and elasticity of the surrounding solid. The viscous-elastic interactions between elastic substrates and non-Newtonian fluids are particularly of interest due to the dependence of viscosity on the state of the system. In this work, we study the fluid-structure interaction dynamics between an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid and a slender linearly elastic cylinder under the creeping flow regime. Considering power-law fluids and applying the thin shell approximation for the elastic cylinder, we obtain a nonhomogeneous p-Laplacian equation governing the viscous-elastic dynamics. We present exact solutions for the pressure and deformation fields for various initial and boundary conditions for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. We show that in contrast to Stokes' problem where a compactly supported front is obtained for shear-thickening fluids, here the role of viscosity is inversed and such fronts are obtained for shear-thinning fluids. Furthermore, we demonstrate that for the case of a step in inlet pressure, the propagation rate of the front has a tn/n +1 dependence on time (t ), suggesting the ability to indirectly measure the power-law index (n ) of shear-thinning liquids through measurements of elastic deformation.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Meaurement of the target single-spin asymmetry in quasi-elastic region from the reaction {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yawei [Rutgers

    2013-10-01

    A measurement of the inclusive target single-spin asymmetry has been performed using the quasi-elastic {sup 3}He{up_arrow}(e,e') reaction with a vertically polarized {sup 3}He target at Q{sup 2} values of 0.13, 0.46 and 0.97 GeV{sup 2}. This asymmetry vanishes under the one photon exchange assumption. But the interference between two-photon exchange and one-photon exchange gives rise to an imaginary amplitude, so that a non-zero A{sub y} is allowed. The experiment, conducted in Hall A of Jefferson Laboratory in 2009, used two independent spectrometers to simultaneously measure the target single-spin asymmetry. Using the effective polarization approximation, the neutron single-spin asymmetries were extracted from the measured {sup 3}He asymmetries. The measurement is to establish a non-vanishing A{sub y}. Non-zero asymmetries were observed at all Q{sup 2} points, and the overall precision is an order of magnitude improved over the existing proton data. The data provide new constraints on Generalized Parton Distribution (GPD) models and new information on the dynamics of the two-photon exchange process.

  15. The transcriptome and miRNome profiling of glioblastoma tissues and peritumoral regions highlights molecular pathways shared by tumors and surrounding areas and reveals differences between short-term and long-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Barbara; Felsani, Armando; Grassi, Luigi; Moles, Anna; D'Andrea, Daniel; Toschi, Nicola; Sicari, Daria; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo; Guerrisi, Maria Giovanna; Luca, Emilia; Farace, Maria Giulia; Maira, Giulio; Ciafré, Silvia Anna; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-09-08

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor, driving patients to death within 15 months after diagnosis (short term survivors, ST), with the exception of a small fraction of patients (long term survivors, LT) surviving longer than 36 months. Here we present deep sequencing data showing that peritumoral (P) areas differ from healthy white matter, but share with their respective frankly tumoral (C) samples, a number of mRNAs and microRNAs representative of extracellular matrix remodeling, TGFβ and signaling, of the involvement of cell types different from tumor cells but contributing to tumor growth, such as microglia or reactive astrocytes. Moreover, we provide evidence about RNAs differentially expressed in ST vs LT samples, suggesting the contribution of TGF-β signaling in this distinction too. We also show that the edited form of miR-376c-3p is reduced in C vs P samples and in ST tumors compared to LT ones. As a whole, our study provides new insights into the still puzzling distinction between ST and LT tumors, and sheds new light onto that "grey" zone represented by the area surrounding the tumor, which we show to be characterized by the expression of several molecules shared with the proper tumor mass.

  16. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java

  17. Growth-induced axial buckling of a slender elastic filament embedded in an isotropic elastic matrix

    KAUST Repository

    O'Keeffe, Stephen G.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the problem of an axially loaded, isotropic, slender cylinder embedded in a soft, isotropic, outer elastic matrix. The cylinder undergoes uniform axial growth, whilst both the cylinder and the surrounding elastic matrix are confined between two rigid plates, so that this growth results in axial compression of the cylinder. We use two different modelling approaches to estimate the critical axial growth (that is, the amount of axial growth the cylinder is able to sustain before it buckles) and buckling wavelength of the cylinder. The first approach treats the filament and surrounding matrix as a single 3-dimensional elastic body undergoing large deformations, whilst the second approach treats the filament as a planar, elastic rod embedded in an infinite elastic foundation. By comparing the results of these two approaches, we obtain an estimate of the foundation modulus parameter, which characterises the strength of the foundation, in terms of the geometric and material properties of the system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regard sur la participation de populations marginalisées à la recherche-action. Le cas des squatteurs en Ile-de-France The participation of Marginalised populations in research-action: a case study of squatters in the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Pourtau

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La recherche-action comporte deux caractéristiques principales : elle met en œuvre la collaboration entre plusieurs types d’acteurs et vise une transformation de la réalité sociale. Elle possède des forces et des faiblesses différentes de la recherche à objectif strictement cognitif. L’article rend compte d’une recherche-action menée par des sociologues, des intervenants sociaux et des populations vivant en squats en Ile-de-France. Les auteurs analysent les enjeux méthodologiques qui se sont posés sur ce terrain particulier relevant de la sociologie de la déviance. Ceux-ci sont liés, notamment, à la participation de chaque groupe d’acteurs aux différentes étapes de la recherche, à la présence d’intérêts différents portés par chacun d’entre eux, et à la conciliation entre les principes habituellement de rigueur dans l’enquête sociologique et les principes de la recherche-action.Research-Action has two main objectives: to allow different players to cooperate, and to transform social reality. This methodology has both the strengths and the weaknesses of strictly cognitive research. In this article, the authors discuss a research-action project which brought together sociologists, social workers and squatters from the Ile-de-France region (Paris and surrounding region. Methodological issues that arise specifically in the context of deviance are addressed, notably the participation of the different players at different stages of the research project, their different areas of interest, as well as the reconciliation between more conventional sociological research and the principles of research-action.

  19. Introducing a Global Optical Model Approach for Analysing 16O+16O Elastic Scattering at 5-10MeV/nucleon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Küçükoğlu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper, the experimental data on elastic scattering of the 16O+16O reaction for the energy range 5-10 MeV/nucleon have been analyzed within the optical model (OM formalism by using the phenomenological potential forms in Fresco code. When developing the shape of the nuclear potential for the calculations, we have used the Woods-Saxon (WS or Woods-Saxon squared (WS2 potentials for the imaginary part together with a WS2 type real part. Although most of the previous OM analyses using phenomenological potentials have provided reasonably good fits with the experimental measurements, none of them could completely relate the behavior of the imaginary potential to the energy of the projectile yet. However, we have managed to introduce two analyses that can keep the real potential parameters almost constant and suggest a linear expression for the depth of the imaginary part of the nuclear potential depending on the incidence energy. Thus, 16O+16O system within this wide energy range has been described globally by the optical potentials having a deep, attractive real potential part and a weaker, energy dependent absorptive imaginary potential part. It has been also shown that, our calculations with these potential forms can reproduce the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions successfully and the maxima and minima are predicted correctly for most of the energies. Key words: 16O+16O reaction, optical model, elastic scattering, cross-section, phenomenological potentials. 5-10MeV/nükleon Bölgesinde 16O+16O Esnek Saçılmasının Analizi için Global bir Optik Model Yaklaşımının Tanıtılması Özet: Bu çalışmada 5-10 MeV/nükleon enerji aralığında 16O+16O reaksiyonunun deneysel esnek saçılma verileri, optik model (OM formalizmi altında, Fresco kodunda fenomenolojik potansiyel formları kullanılarak analiz edilmektedir. Hesaplamalar için nükleer potansiyelin şekli oluşturulurken gerçel kısım için Woods

  20. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  1. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  2. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  3. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  5. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Construction of a series of congenic mice with recombinant chromosome 1 regions surrounding the genetic loci for resistance to intracellular parasites (Ity, Lsh, and Bcg), DNA repair responses (Rep-1), and the cytoskeletal protein villin (Vil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, B A; Holiday, D L; Cerretti, D P; Darnell, S C; O'Brien, A D; Potter, M

    1994-01-01

    The interval of mouse chromosome 1 extending from Idh-1 to Pep-3 harbors the natural resistance gene Ity/Lsh/Bcg; it controls the outcome of infection with Salmonella typhimurium, Leishmania donovani, and several Mycobacterium species. This region also contains a DNA repair gene, Rep-1, which determines the rapidity with which double-strand breaks in chromatin are repaired. BALB/cAnPt and DBA/2N mice differ in their phenotypic expression of these genes. To generate appropriate strains of mice for the study of these genes, a series of 10 C.D2 congenic strains recombinant across a 28-centimorgan interval of mouse chromosome 1 extending from Idh-1 to Pep-3 were derived from crosses of the C.D2-Idh-1 Pep-3 congenic strain back to BALB/cAn. Analyses of these recombinant strains will allow the correlation of biological-immunological phenotypes with defined genetic regions.

  7. Landscape Archaeology in the surrounding of «Lauro»: A micro-regional approach to Roman territorial shaping in a north-eastern sector of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau GARCÍA MOLSOSA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The link between the place-name Lauro and the ancient history of the eastern part of Vallès region (Barcelona is a constant throughout historiography. In this paper, this ancient Lauro serves as a guide to present the results of a research conducted in a small area, which due to archaeological data complexity has been of great interest to study the dynamics of territorial structuration in one of the first rural areas conquered by Rome outside the Italian peninsula.From Landscape Archaeology conceptual and methodological tools, extensive and intensive archaeological surveys have been developed. The collected materials and the documented structural remains have allowed us to define settlement and human occupation in a chronology ranging from the development of indigenous (Iberian societies to the consolidation of the Roman Empire –ivth bc-iith ad–.The results of these works set out the elements to analyse the impact of Roman conquest in settlement evolution at a micro-regional scale. The studied area may represent a model to contrast in other regions and to discuss in future works.

  8. A YAC contig and an EST map in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13 surrounding the loci for neurosensory nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C (LGMD2C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilford, P.; Crozet, F.; Blanchard, S. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Two forms of inherited childhood nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB1 and DFNA3) and a Duchenne-like form of progressive muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C) have been mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 13. To clone the genes responsible for these diseases we constructed a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig spanning an 8-cM region between the polymorphic markers D13S221. The contig comprises 24 sequence-tagged sites, among which 15 were newly obtained. This contig allowed us to order the polymorphic markers centromere- D13S175-D13S141-D13S143-D13S115-AFM128yc1-D13S292-D13S283-AFM323vh5-D13S221-telomere. Eight expressed sequence tags, previously assigned to 13q11-q12 (D13S182E, D13S183E, D13S502E, D13S504E, D13S505E, D13S837E, TUBA2, ATP1AL1), were localized on the YAC contig. YAC screening of a cDNA library derived from mouse cochlea allowed us to identify an {alpha}-tubulin gene (TUBA2) that was subsequently precisely mapped within the candidate region. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.

  10. Elasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saada, Adel S; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    2013-01-01

    Elasticity: Theory and Applications reviews the theory and applications of elasticity. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is concerned with the kinematics of continuous media; the second part focuses on the analysis of stress; and the third part considers the theory of elasticity and its applications to engineering problems. This book consists of 18 chapters; the first of which deals with the kinematics of continuous media. The basic definitions and the operations of matrix algebra are presented in the next chapter, followed by a discussion on the linear transformation of points. The study of finite and linear strains gradually introduces the reader to the tensor concept. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are examined in detail, along with the similarities between stress and strain. The chapters that follow cover torsion; the three-dimensional theory of linear elasticity and the requirements for the solution of elasticity problems; the method of potentials; and topics related to cylinders, ...

  11. Elastic Thickness Estimates for Coronae Associated with Chasmata on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Martin, P.; Housean, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Coronae are large-scale circular tectonic features surrounded by annular ridges. They are generally considered unique to Venus and may offer insights into the differences in lithospheric structure or mantle convective pattern between Venus and Earth. 68% of all coronae are associated with chasmata or fracture belts. The remaining 32% are located at volcanic rises or in the plains. Chasmata are linear to arcuate troughs, with trough parallel fractures and faults which extend for 1000 s of kilometers. Estimates of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere (T(sub e)) have been calculated in a number of gravity/topography studies of Venus and for coronae specifically. None of these studies, however, have explored the dependence of T(sub e) on the tectonic history of the region, as implied from the interpretation of relative timing relationships between coronae and surrounding features. We examine the relationship between the local T(sub e) and the relative ages of coronae and chasmata with the aim of further constraining the origin and evolution of coronae and chasmata systems.

  12. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  13. Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  14. Surrounding rock stress analysis of underground high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Wang Guangdi

    2006-01-01

    During decay of nuclear waste, enormous energy was released, which results in temperature change of surrounding rock of depository. Thermal stress was produced because thermal expansion of rock was controlled. Internal structure of surrounding rock was damaged and strength of rock was weakened. So, variation of stress was a dynamic process with the variation of temperature. BeiShan region of Gansu province was determined to be the depository field in the future, it is essential to make research on granite in this region. In the process of experiment, basic physical parameters of granite were analyzed preliminary with MTS. Long range temperature and stress filed was simulated considering the damage effect of surrounding rock, and rules of temperature and stress was achieved. (authors)

  15. Regional potentiometric-surface map of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Plume, Russell W.; Buto, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in and around Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah. The map area covers approximately 9,000 square miles in Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. Recent (2007-2010) drilling by the Utah Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey has provided new data for areas where water-level measurements were previously unavailable. New water-level data were used to refine mapping of the pathways of intrabasin and interbasin groundwater flow. At 20 of these locations, nested observation wells provide vertical hydraulic gradient data and information related to the degree of connection between basin-fill aquifers and consolidated-rock aquifers. Multiple-year water-level hydrographs are also presented for 32 wells to illustrate the aquifer system's response to interannual climate variations and well withdrawals.

  16. Measurement of the analysing power T20 in the backward elastic scattering d-vector.p in the region of Δ-excitation and theoretical analysis of this reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudard, A.

    1984-03-01

    We have measured the analysing power T 20 in the backward elastic scattering d.p for 16 energies of the deuteron from 300 MeV to 2300 MeV. This is the region of the observed bump in the backward excitation function of the cross section. This bump is usually thought to be a signature of a Δ(3/2,3/2 + ) dynamically excited in the intermediate state. We have also measured Ay and Ayy from 70 0 to 180 0 for Tsub(d) = 1200 MeV. We have compared both T 20 and the backward cross section with a coherent sum between direct neutron exchange (ONT) and Δ excitation by intermediate exchange of π and rho mesons (TME). The overall shape of the cross section is reproduced. Unlike the earlier measurement from Argonne, there is a deep minimum in T 20 at Tsub(d) = 600 MeV, in agreement with the predictions of direct exchange models. However, an additional structure producing a second minimum at Tsub(d) = 1400 MeV (√S = 3240 MeV) is never reproduced by our calculations. This suggests either that refinements in the Δ treatment are needed or that a new reaction mechanism (resonance) takes place in that region [fr

  17. A qualitative study of attitudes and values surrounding stillbirth and neonatal mortality among grandmothers, mothers, and unmarried girls in rural Amhara and Oromiya regions, Ethiopia: unheard souls in the backyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Mitike Molla; Yirgu, Robel; Gobezayehu, Abebe Gebremariam; Sibley, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality and stillbirth are high and underreported. This study explored values related to neonatal mortality and stillbirth and the visibility of these deaths in rural Ethiopia among 3 generations of women. We conducted a qualitative study in 6 rural districts of the Oromiya and Amhara regional states during May 2012. We included 30 focus groups representing grandmothers, married women (mothers), and unmarried girls in randomly selected kebeles (villages). Until the 40th day of life, neonates are considered to be strangers to the community (not human). Their deaths are not talked about; they are buried in the house or in the backyard. Mothers are forbidden to mourn their loss lest they offend God and bring on future neonatal losses. Women who repeatedly lose their neonates may be blamed, mistreated, and dishonored through divorce. Neonatal death and stillbirth are attributed to supernatural powers, although some women and girls associate these deaths with poverty and lack of education. The desire for increased visibility of neonatal death is mixed. Unlike the grandmothers and unmarried girls, most of the married women want death to be visible to draw the attention of policy makers. Women prefer home birth and consider themselves lucky to be able to give birth at home. At present, there is no national vital registration system. Neonatal death and stillbirth are hidden and the magnitude is likely underrepresented. The delayed recognition of personhood, attribution of death to supernatural causes, social repercussions for women who experience a pregnancy loss, preference for home birth, and lack of a vital registration system all contribute to the invisibility of perinatal deaths. Increasing the visibility of (and counting) these deaths may require multifaceted behavior-change interventions. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Statistical mechanics of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, JH

    2012-01-01

    Advanced, self-contained treatment illustrates general principles and elastic behavior of solids. Topics include thermoelastic behavior of crystalline and polymeric solids, interatomic force laws, behavior of solids, and thermally activated processes. 1983 edition.

  19. Elasticity of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, M.

    2004-01-01

    Insight is given into the price elasticities of several energy carriers. Next, attention is paid to the impact of the discussion on changes of the Regulating Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) in the Netherlands [nl

  20. 3D Structure of Iran and Surrounding Areas From The Simultaneous Inversion of Complementary Geophysical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, C. J.; Maceira, M.; Cleveland, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional seismic-structure model of the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone obtained via simultaneous, joint inversion of surface-wave dispersion measurements, teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, and gravity observations. We use a simple, approximate relationship between density and seismic velocities so that the three data sets may be combined in a single inversion. The sensitivity of the different data sets are well known: surface waves provide information on the smooth variations in elastic properties, receiver functions provide information on abrupt velocity contrasts, and gravity measurements provide information on broad-wavenumber shallow density variations and long-wavenumber components of deeper density structures. The combination of the data provides improved resolution of shallow-structure variations, which in turn help produce the smooth features at depth with less contamination from the strong heterogeneity often observed in the upper crust. We also explore geologically based smoothness constraints to help resolve sharp features in the underlying shallow 3D structure. Our focus is on the region surrounding Iran from east Turkey and Iraq in the west, to Pakistan and Afghanistan in the east. We use Bouguer gravity anomalies derived from the global gravity model extracted from the GRACE satellite mission. Surface-wave dispersion velocities in the period range between 7 and 150 s are taken from previously published tomographic maps for the region. Preliminary results show expected strong variations in the Caspian region as well as the deep sediment regions of the Persian Gulf. Regions constrained with receiver-function information generally show sharper crust-mantle boundary structure than that obtained by inversion of the surface waves alone (with thin layers and smoothing constraints). Final results of the simultaneous inversion will help us to better understand one of the most prominent examples of continental collision. Such models

  1. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  2. The Trees that surround us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. E. G.; Rodrigues, M. A. S.

    2012-04-01

    In our school the activities linked with sciences are developed in a partnership with other school subjects. Interdisciplinary projects are always valued from beginning to end of a project. It is common for teachers of different areas to work together in a Science project. Research of English written articles is very important not only for the development of our students' scientific literacy but also as a way of widening knowledge and a view on different perspectives of life instead of being limited to research of any articles in Portuguese language. In this study we are going to collect data about the predominant tree species in the region, especially the invasive trees from the acacia species, the native tree species and the commercial species. We are going to study the reasons for the appearance of each species and draw a chart of soil occupation in the council. This chart will also allow the study of the distribution and use of land for each tree species. This research work is the first stage for a contribution to warn the town council of the dangers of the invasive species to the future economy of the council.

  3. Elastic scattering of pions from tritium and 3He in the backward hemisphere in the region of the Δ33(1232) resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.K.

    1993-11-01

    Several experiments have measured nominally-charge-symmetric scattering of pions from tritium ( 3 H) and 3 He. These experiments have covered incident pion energies from 142 MeV to 295 MeV and scattering angles up to 110 degrees in the laboratory. The results have been used to study charge-symmetry breaking and nuclear scattering systematics. In the work I have extended these measurements to angles near 180 degrees for pion energies of 142 MeV, 180 MeV, 220 MeV, and 256 MeV, which bracket the Δ 33 pion-nucleon resonance. This is the most extensive set of πT and π 3 He data in this kinematical region. It will allow tests of scattering theory of pion-nucleus interactions and charge-symmetry breaking in back-angle scattering, and, within the limits of these two theories, it may help improve our understanding of the structure of these nuclei

  4. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR 11429

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements (''acoustic-power halos'') at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency ''acoustic-emission halo'', or ''seismic glory'' surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the ''acoustic halos'' and the ''seismic glories'' are prominent at high frequencies 5–8 mHz. We investigate morphological properties of acoustic-power and acoustic emission halos around an active region to see if they are spatially correlated. Details about the local magnetic field from vectormagnetograms of AR 11429 are included. We identify a 15'' region of seismic deficit power (dark moat) shielding the white-light boundary of the active region. The size of the seismic moat is related to region of intermediate magnetic field strength. The acoustic moat is circled by the halo of enhanced seismic amplitude as well as enhanced seismic emission. Overall, the results suggest that features are related. However, if we narrow the frequency band to 5.5 – 6.5 mHz, we find that the seismic source density dominates over the local acoustic power, suggesting the existence of sources that emit more energy downward into the solar interior than upward toward the solar surface.

  5. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Aoudia, A.; Pontevivo, A.; Chimera, G.; Raykova, R.

    2003-02-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea, likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria. (author)

  10. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  11. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  12. Model-Based Reconstructive Elasticity Imaging Using Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavat R. Aglyamov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity imaging is a reconstructive imaging technique where tissue motion in response to mechanical excitation is measured using modern imaging systems, and the estimated displacements are then used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of Young's modulus. Here we present an ultrasound elasticity imaging method that utilizes the model-based technique for Young's modulus reconstruction. Based on the geometry of the imaged object, only one axial component of the strain tensor is used. The numerical implementation of the method is highly efficient because the reconstruction is based on an analytic solution of the forward elastic problem. The model-based approach is illustrated using two potential clinical applications: differentiation of liver hemangioma and staging of deep venous thrombosis. Overall, these studies demonstrate that model-based reconstructive elasticity imaging can be used in applications where the geometry of the object and the surrounding tissue is somewhat known and certain assumptions about the pathology can be made.

  13. Elastic anisotropy of crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.

  14. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  15. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  16. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  17. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. The law of elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cesare Masin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight-a cognitive law analogous to Hooke¿s law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined either in series or in parallel. This total elongation was longer for serial than for parallel springs, and increased proportionally to the number of serial springs and inversely proportionally to the number of parallel springs. The results suggest that participants integrated load weight with imagined elasticity rather than with spring length.

  19. ElasticSearch server

    CERN Document Server

    Rogozinski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.

  20. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  1. Elasticity problems in domains with nonsmooth boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, David

    2001-01-01

    In the present work we study the behaviour of elastic stress fields in domains with non-regular boundaries. We consider three-dimensional problems in elastic media with thin conical defects (inclusions or cavities) and analyse the stress singularity at their vertices. To construct asymptotic expansions for the stress and displacement fields in terms of a small parameter ε related to the 'thickness' of the defect, we employ a technique based on the work by Kondrat'ev, Maz'ya, Nazarov and Plamenevskii. We first study the stress distribution in an elastic body with a thin conical notch. We derive an asymptotic representation for the stress singularity exponent by reducing the original problem to a spectral problem for a 9x9 matrix. The elements of this matrix are found to depend upon the geometry of the cross-section of the notch and the elastic properties of the medium. We specify the sets of eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors for a circular, elliptical, 'triangular' and 'square' cross-section, and show that the strongest singularity is associated with the 'triangular' cross-section, and is generated by a non-axisymmetric load. We then analyse the stress distribution near a thin conical inclusion which is allowed to slide freely along its axis. We derive the representation for the stress singularity exponent for the case of a circular conical inclusion whose elastic properties differ from those of the medium. In the last chapter we study the stress distribution in the vicinity of a thin 'coated' conical inclusion. We show that a soft thin coating (perfectly bonded to the inclusion and the surrounding material) can be replaced by a so-called linear interface at which the normal displacement is discontinuous, and the stresses are proportional to the 'jump' in the normal displacement across the coating. We analyse the effect of the properties of the coating on the stress singularity exponent and compare the results with those for a perfectly bonded

  2. Three dimensional vibration and bending analysis of carbon nanotubes embedded in elastic medium based on theory of elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shaban

    Full Text Available This paper studies free vibration and bending behavior of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs embedded on elastic medium based on three-dimensional theory of elasticity. To accounting the size effect of carbon nanotubes, non-local theory is adopted to shell model. The nonlocal parameter is incorporated into all constitutive equations in three dimensions. The surrounding medium is modeled as two-parameter elastic foundation. By using Fourier series expansion in axial and circumferential direction, the set of coupled governing equations are reduced to the ordinary differential equations in thickness direction. Then, the state-space method as an efficient and accurate method is used to solve the resulting equations analytically. Comprehensive parametric studies are carried out to show the influences of the nonlocal parameter, radial and shear elastic stiffness, thickness-to-radius ratio and radiusto-length ratio.

  3. Fracton-Elasticity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretko, Michael; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by recent studies of fractons, we demonstrate that elasticity theory of a two-dimensional quantum crystal is dual to a fracton tensor gauge theory, providing a concrete manifestation of the fracton phenomenon in an ordinary solid. The topological defects of elasticity theory map onto charges of the tensor gauge theory, with disclinations and dislocations corresponding to fractons and dipoles, respectively. The transverse and longitudinal phonons of crystals map onto the two gapless gauge modes of the gauge theory. The restricted dynamics of fractons matches with constraints on the mobility of lattice defects. The duality leads to numerous predictions for phases and phase transitions of the fracton system, such as the existence of gauge theory counterparts to the (commensurate) crystal, supersolid, hexatic, and isotropic fluid phases of elasticity theory. Extensions of this duality to generalized elasticity theories provide a route to the discovery of new fracton models. As a further consequence, the duality implies that fracton phases are relevant to the study of interacting topological crystalline insulators.

  4. The Law of Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  5. Autonomic Vertical Elasticity of Docker Containers with ElasticDocker

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dhuraibi , Yahya; Paraiso , Fawaz; Djarallah , Nabil; Merle , Philippe

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Elasticity is the key feature of cloud computing to scale computing resources according to application workloads timely. In the literature as well as in industrial products, much attention was given to the elasticity of virtual machines, but much less to the elasticity of containers. However, containers are the new trend for packaging and deploying microservices-based applications. Moreover, most of approaches focus on horizontal elasticity, fewer works address vertica...

  6. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender. ... is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. ... are necessary in the society it should not be mistaken for gender inequality.

  7. Morphology, surface roughness, electron inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering in elastic peak electron spectroscopy of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesiak, B.; Kosinski, A.; Nowakowski, R.; Koever, L.; Toth, J.; Varga, D.; Cserny, I.; Sulyok, A.; Gergely, G.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) deals with the interaction of electrons with atoms of a solid surface, studying the distribution of electrons backscattered elastically. The nearest vicinity of the elastic peak, (low kinetic energy region) reflects both, electron inelastic and quasi-elastic processes. The incident electrons produce surface excitations, inducing surface plasmons with the corresponding loss peaks separated by 1 - 20 eV energy from the elastic peak. Quasi-elastic losses result from the recoil of scattering atoms of different atomic number, Z. The respective energy shift and Doppler broadening of the elastic peak depend on Z, the primary electron energy, E, and the measurement geometry. Quantitative surface analytical application of EPES, such as determination of parameters describing electron transport, requires a comparison of experimental data with corresponding data derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Several problems occur in EPES studies of polymers. The intensity of elastic peak, considered in quantitative surface analysis, is influenced by both, the inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering processes (especially for hydrogen scattering atoms and primary electron energy above 1000 eV). An additional factor affecting the elastic peak intensity is the surface morphology and roughness. The present work compares the effect of these factors on the elastic peak intensity for selected polymers (polyethylene, polyaniline and polythiophenes). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and helium pycnometry are applied for deriving the surface atomic composition and the bulk density, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for determining surface morphology and roughness. According to presented results, the influence of surface morphology and roughness is larger than those of surface excitations or recoil of hydrogen atoms. The component due to recoil of hydrogen atoms can be

  8. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, Steven; Hicks, Sally; Vanhoy, Jeffrey; McEllistrem, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium ( 23 Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56 Fe and 54 Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23 Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-@@energy (few MeV) fast-@@neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-@@region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., @@ 2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  9. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Steven [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hicks, Sally [Univ. of Dallas, TX (United States); Vanhoy, Jeffrey [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); McEllistrem, Marcus [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium (23Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56Fe and 54Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-­energy (few MeV) fast-­neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-­region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., β2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  10. Trajectories and Maneuvers of Surrounding Vehicles with Panoramic Camera Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    Vision-based research for intelligent vehicles have traditionally focused on specific regions around a vehicle, such as a front looking camera for, e.g., lane estimation. Traffic scenes are complex and vital information could be lost in unobserved regions. This paper proposes a framework that uses...... four visual sensors for a full surround view of a vehicle in order to achieve an understanding of surrounding vehicle behaviors. The framework will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies by automating the task of data reduction of the observed trajectories. To this end, trajectories...... are estimated using a vehicle detector together with a multiperspective optimized tracker in each view. The trajectories are transformed to a common ground plane, where they are associated between perspectives and analyzed to reveal tendencies around the ego-vehicle. The system is tested on sequences from 2.5 h...

  11. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  12. Designing interactively with elastic splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Fisker, Ann-Sofie

    2018-01-01

    We present an algorithm for designing interactively with C1 elastic splines. The idea is to design the elastic spline using a C1 cubic polynomial spline where each polynomial segment is so close to satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equation for elastic curves that the visual difference becomes neglig...... negligible. Using a database of cubic Bézier curves we are able to interactively modify the cubic spline such that it remains visually close to an elastic spline....

  13. Optimal Electricity Charge Strategy Based on Price Elasticity of Demand for Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Xu, Daidai; Zang, Chuanzhi

    The price elasticity is very important for the prediction of electricity demand. This paper mainly establishes the price elasticity coefficient for electricity in single period and inter-temporal. Then, a charging strategy is established based on these coefficients. To evaluate the strategy proposed, simulations of the two elastic coefficients are carried out based on the history data of a certain region.

  14. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  15. Dynamic energy release rate in couple-stress elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, L; Piccolroaz, A; Mishuris, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with energy release rate for dynamic steady state crack problems in elastic materials with microstructures. A Mode III semi-infinite crack subject to loading applied on the crack surfaces is considered. The micropolar behaviour of the material is described by the theory of couple-stress elasticity developed by Koiter. A general expression for the dynamic J-integral including both traslational and micro-rotational inertial contributions is derived, and the conservation of this integral on a path surrounding the crack tip is demonstrated

  16. Elasticity in Elastics-An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisetty, Supradeep Kumar; Nimagadda, Chakrapani; Begam, Madhoom Ponnachi; Nalamotu, Raghuveer; Srivastav, Trilok; Gs, Shwetha

    2014-04-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement results from application of forces to teeth. Elastics in orthodontics have been used both intra-orally and extra- orally to a great effect. Their use, combined with good patient co-operation provides the clinician with the ability to correct both anteroposterior and vertical discrepancies. Force decay over a period of time is a major problem in the clinical usage of latex elastics and synthetic elastomers. This loss of force makes it difficult for the clinician to determine the actual force transmitted to the dentition. It's the intent of the clinician to maintain optimal force values over desired period of time. The majority of the orthodontic elastics on the market are latex elastics. Since the early 1990s, synthetic products have been offered in the market for latex-sensitive patients and are sold as nonlatex elastics. There is limited information on the risk that latex elastics may pose to patients. Some have estimated that 0.12-6% of the general population and 6.2% of dental professionals have hypersensitivity to latex protein. There are some reported cases of adverse reactions to latex in the orthodontic population but these are very limited to date. Although the risk is not yet clear, it would still be inadvisable to prescribe latex elastics to a patient with a known latex allergy. To compare the in-vitro performance of latex and non latex elastics. Samples of 0.25 inch, latex and non latex elastics (light, medium, heavy elastics) were obtained from three manufacturers (Forestadent, GAC, Glenroe) and a sample size of ten elastics per group was tested. The properties tested included cross sectional area, internal diameter, initial force generated by the elastics, breaking force and the force relaxation for the different types of elastics. Force relaxation testing involved stretching the elastics to three times marketed internal diameter (19.05 mm) and measuring force level at intervals over a period of 48 hours. The data were

  17. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  18. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  19. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  20. First-principles elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, J.

    2014-07-01

    The elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates, 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCO3·xH2O (x = 11 or 8), has been investigated by first-principles calculations. Previous experimental study revealed that the fully hydrated monocarboaluminate (x = 11) exhibits exceptionally low compressibility compared to other reported calcium aluminate hydrates. This stiff hydration product can contribute to the strength of concrete made with Portland cements containing calcium carbonates. In this study, full elastic tensors and mechanical properties of the crystal structures with different water contents (x = 11 or 8) are computed by first-principles methods based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the compressibility of monocarboaluminate is highly dependent on the water content in the interlayer region. The structure also becomes more isotropic with the addition of water molecules in this region. Since the monocarboaluminate is a key hydration product of limestone added cement, elasticity of the crystal is important to understand its mechanical impact on concrete. Besides, it is put forth that this theoretical calculation will be useful in predicting the elastic properties of other complex cementitous materials and the influence of ion exchange on compressibility.

  1. First-principles elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, J.; Yoon, S.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Monteiro, P. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The elasticity of monocarboaluminate hydrates, 3CaO·Al2O3·CaCO3·xH2O (x = 11 or 8), has been investigated by first-principles calculations. Previous experimental study revealed that the fully hydrated monocarboaluminate (x = 11) exhibits exceptionally low compressibility compared to other reported calcium aluminate hydrates. This stiff hydration product can contribute to the strength of concrete made with Portland cements containing calcium carbonates. In this study, full elastic tensors and mechanical properties of the crystal structures with different water contents (x = 11 or 8) are computed by first-principles methods based on density functional theory. The results indicate that the compressibility of monocarboaluminate is highly dependent on the water content in the interlayer region. The structure also becomes more isotropic with the addition of water molecules in this region. Since the monocarboaluminate is a key hydration product of limestone added cement, elasticity of the crystal is important to understand its mechanical impact on concrete. Besides, it is put forth that this theoretical calculation will be useful in predicting the elastic properties of other complex cementitous materials and the influence of ion exchange on compressibility.

  2. Zirconium elasticity modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, G.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the limit and the intermediate values of the Young modulus E, modulus of shear G and of linear modulus of compression K obtainable at various temperatures (4.2 to 1133 K) for single crystals of α-zirconium. Determined and presented are the corrected isotropic elasticity characteristics of E, G, K over the above range of temperatures of textured and non-textured α-Zr

  3. The ratio Rdp of the quasi-elastic nd → p(nn) to the elastic np → pn charge-exchange process yields at 0 deg over 0.55-2.0 GeV neutron beam energy region: 2. Comparison of the results with the model dependent calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, V.I.; Morozov, A.A.; Shindin, R.A.; Chernykh, E.V.; Nomofilov, A.A.; Strunov, L.N.

    2008-01-01

    In our previous paper, the new experimental results on ratio R dp of the quasi-elastic charge-exchange yield at 0 Lab d eg for the nd → p + (nn) reaction to the elastic np → pn charge-exchange yield, were presented. The measurements were carried out at the Nuclotron of the Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at the neutron beam kinetic energies of 0.55, 0.8, 1.0,1.2, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.0 GeV. In this paper, the comparison of these R dp data with the R dp calculations obtained within the impulse approximation by using the invariant amplitude sets from the GW/VPI phase-shift analysis, is made. The calculated R dp values with the set of invariant amplitude data for the elastic np → pn charge exchange at θ p,CM = 0 deg are in a good agreement with the experimental data. It has been confirmed that at θ p,CM = 0 deg the nd → pnn process is caused by the elastic np → pn charge-exchange reaction. Thus, it has been shown that the obtained experimental R dp results can be used for the Delta-Sigma experimental programme to reduce the total ambiguity in the extraction of the amplitude parts

  4. pp-elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprile, E; Cantale, G; Degli-Agosti, S; Hausammann, R; Heer, E; Hess, R; Lechanoine-LeLuc, C; Leo, W; Morenzoni, S; Onel, Y [Geneva Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire

    1983-01-01

    The aim of the elastic pp experimental program at SIN was to measure enough spin dependent parameters in order to do a direct experimental reconstruction of the elastic scattering amplitudes at a few energies between 400 and 600 MeV and at several angles between 38/sup 0/ cm and 90/sup 0/ cm. This reconstruction was not possible until recently due to lack of experimental data. Information instead has come mainly from phase shift analysis (PSA). The only way to extract the elastic scattering amplitudes without any hypotheses except those of basic symmetries, is to measure a sufficient set of spin dependent parameters at a given angle and energy. With this in view, the authors have measured at 448, 494, 515, 536 and 579 MeV, the polarization, the spin correlation parameters Asub(00nn), Asub(00ss), Asub(00kk), Asub(00ks), the 2-spin parameters Dsub(n0n0), Ksub(n00n), Dsub(s'0s0), Dsub(s'0k0) and the 3-spin parameters Msub(s'0sn), Msub(s'0kn) between 34/sup 0/ cm and 118/sup 0/ cm. A few of these parameters have also been measured at 560 and 470 MeV and at a few energies below 448 MeV. The indices refer to the polarization orientation of the scattered, recoil, beam and target particle respectively.

  5. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions......: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  6. Elastic properties of Gum Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Shigeru; Furuta, Tadahiko; Hwang, Junghwan; Nishino, Kazuaki; Saito, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction measurements under tensile loading and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed to investigate the mechanisms of elastic deformation in Gum Metal. Tensile stress-strain curves for Gum Metal indicate that cold working substantially decreases the elastic modulus while increasing the yield strength, thereby confirming nonlinearity in the elastic range. The gradient of each curve decreased continuously to about one-third its original value near the elastic limit. As a result of this decrease in elastic modulus and nonlinearity, elastic deformability reaches 2.5% after cold working. Superelasticity is attributed to stress-induced martensitic transformations, although the large elastic deformation in Gum Metal is not accompanied by a phase transformation

  7. Elastic-plastic analysis of tube expansion in tubesheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasraie, B.; O'Donnell, W.J.; Porowski, J.S.; Selz, A.

    1983-01-01

    Conditions for expansion of tubes in tubesheets are often determined by the test. The tightness of the joint and pull out force are used as criteria for evaluation of the results. For closely spaced tubes, it is also necessary to control development of the plastic regions in the ligaments surrounding the tube being expanded. High local strains may occur and excessive distortion may result if the expansion of the tube is continued beyond the admissible limits. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses are performed herein in order to establish conditions for rolling of the tubes in tubesheets of low ligament efficiency. Such penetration patterns are often required in the design of tubular reactors for catalytic processes. The model considered includes individual tube expansion in tubesheets with triangular penetration patterns. The effect of prior expansion of the neighboring tubes is also evaluated. Gap elements are used to model the initial clearance of the tube in the hole. Development of the plastic zones and distortion of the ligaments is monitored during radial expansion of the tube diameter. The residual stresses between the tube and the hole surface and the history of gap closing after removal of the expansion tool are determined. The effect of axial extension of the tube on the tube thinning is determined. Tube thinning is often used as a measure of tube expansion in manufacturing processes. For the analyzed ligament efficiency, reliable joints are obtained for a thinning range within 2% to 3%

  8. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  9. Childhood Suicide and Myths Surrounding It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Dorothea B.

    1994-01-01

    Dispels five misconceptions surrounding the suicide of children: that children under the age of six do not commit suicide; that suicide in latency years is extremely rare; that psychodynamically and developmentally true depression is not possible in childhood; that child cannot understand finality of death; and that children are cognitively and…

  10. Measurement of Elastic pp Scattering at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference Region – Determination of the $\\rho$ Parameter and the Total Cross-Section

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069260; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Broulím, P.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Campanella, C.E.; Catanesi, M.G.; Csanád, M.; Csörgö, T.; Deile, M.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Doubek, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Guaragnella, C.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Karev, A.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Linhart, R.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajíček, M.V.; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Naaranoja, T.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Paločko, L.; Passaro, V.; Peroutka, Z.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Procházka, J.; Prudenzano, F.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.

    2016-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, $|t|$, from $6\\times10^{-4}$ GeV$^2$ to 0.2 GeV$^2$. Near the lower end of the $t$-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the $\\rho$-pa...

  11. Measurement of elastic pp scattering at √(s) = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region: determination of the ρ-parameter and the total cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Broulim, P.; Eremin, V.; Georgiev, V.; Hammerbauer, J.; Linhart, R.; Oriunno, M.; Palocko, L.; Peroutka, Z. [University of West Bohemia, Pilsen (Czech Republic); Aspell, P.; Baechler, J.; Burkhardt, H.; Giani, S.; Karev, A.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Oliveri, E.; Palazzi, P.; Radermacher, E.; Ravotti, F.; Redaelli, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Salvachua, B.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Valentino, G.; Wenninger, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Avati, V. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Berardi, V.; Quinto, M. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (Italy); Berretti, M. [Universita degli Studi di Siena and Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Latino, G.; Losurdo, L.; Turini, N. [Universita degli Studi di Siena and Gruppo Collegato INFN di Siena, Siena (Italy); Bozzo, M.; Lo Vetere, M. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Buzzo, A.; Ferro, F.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Robutti, E. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Fiergolski, A.; Mercadante, A.; Radicioni, E. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Campanella, C.E.; De Leonardis, F.; D' Orazio, A.; Guaragnella, C.; Passaro, V.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Prudenzano, F. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell' Informazione - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); Csanad, M.; Nemes, F.; Sziklai, J. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Csoergo, T. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); KRF University College, Gyoengyoes (Hungary); Deile, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell' Informazione - Politecnico di Bari, Bari (Italy); Doubek, M.; Vacek, V. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Eggert, K.; Niewiadomski, H.; Taylor, C. [Case Western Reserve University, Department of Physics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Garcia, F.; Heino, J.; Lauhakangas, R. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Grzanka, L.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Kaspar, J. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.; Prochazka, J. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Lami, S.; Scribano, A. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J. [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics NICPB, Tallinn (Estonia); Minafra, N. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica di Bari, Bari (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Naaranoja, T.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oesterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Welti, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, vertical stroke t vertical stroke, from 6 x 10{sup -4} to 0.2 GeV{sup 2}. Near the lower end of the t-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the ρ-parameter is found to be 0.12 ± 0.03. The results for the total hadronic cross-section are σ{sub tot} = (102.9 ± 2.3) mb and (103.0 ± 2.3) mb for central and peripheral phase formulations, respectively. Both are consistent with previous TOTEM measurements. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of elastic pp scattering at √(s) = 8 TeV in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region: determination of the ρ-parameter and the total cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Broulim, P.; Eremin, V.; Georgiev, V.; Hammerbauer, J.; Linhart, R.; Oriunno, M.; Palocko, L.; Peroutka, Z.; Aspell, P.; Baechler, J.; Burkhardt, H.; Giani, S.; Karev, A.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Oliveri, E.; Palazzi, P.; Radermacher, E.; Ravotti, F.; Redaelli, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Salvachua, B.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Valentino, G.; Wenninger, J.; Avati, V.; Berardi, V.; Quinto, M.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Latino, G.; Losurdo, L.; Turini, N.; Bozzo, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Buzzo, A.; Ferro, F.; Macri, M.; Minutoli, S.; Robutti, E.; Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Fiergolski, A.; Mercadante, A.; Radicioni, E.; Campanella, C.E.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Guaragnella, C.; Passaro, V.; Petruzzelli, V.; Politi, T.; Prudenzano, F.; Csanad, M.; Nemes, F.; Sziklai, J.; Csoergo, T.; Deile, M.; Doubek, M.; Vacek, V.; Eggert, K.; Niewiadomski, H.; Taylor, C.; Garcia, F.; Heino, J.; Lauhakangas, R.; Grzanka, L.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zielinski, K.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Lokajicek, M.V.; Prochazka, J.; Lami, S.; Scribano, A.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Minafra, N.; Naaranoja, T.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oesterberg, K.; Saarikko, H.; Welti, J.

    2016-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the CERN LHC has measured elastic proton-proton scattering at the centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 8 TeV and four-momentum transfers squared, vertical stroke t vertical stroke, from 6 x 10"-"4 to 0.2 GeV"2. Near the lower end of the t-interval the differential cross-section is sensitive to the interference between the hadronic and the electromagnetic scattering amplitudes. This article presents the elastic cross-section measurement and the constraints it imposes on the functional forms of the modulus and phase of the hadronic elastic amplitude. The data exclude the traditional Simplified West and Yennie interference formula that requires a constant phase and a purely exponential modulus of the hadronic amplitude. For parametrisations of the hadronic modulus with second- or third-order polynomials in the exponent, the data are compatible with hadronic phase functions giving either central or peripheral behaviour in the impact parameter picture of elastic scattering. In both cases, the ρ-parameter is found to be 0.12 ± 0.03. The results for the total hadronic cross-section are σ_t_o_t = (102.9 ± 2.3) mb and (103.0 ± 2.3) mb for central and peripheral phase formulations, respectively. Both are consistent with previous TOTEM measurements. (orig.)

  13. Vitamin A deficiency alters the pulmonary parenchymal elastic modulus and elastic fiber concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Amey J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial hyperreactivity is influenced by properties of the conducting airways and the surrounding pulmonary parenchyma, which is tethered to the conducting airways. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is associated with an increase in airway hyperreactivity in rats and a decrease in the volume density of alveoli and alveolar ducts. To better define the effects of VAD on the mechanical properties of the pulmonary parenchyma, we have studied the elastic modulus, elastic fibers and elastin gene-expression in rats with VAD, which were supplemented with retinoic acid (RA or remained unsupplemented. Methods Parenchymal mechanics were assessed before and after the administration of carbamylcholine (CCh by determining the bulk and shear moduli of lungs that that had been removed from rats which were vitamin A deficient or received a control diet. Elastin mRNA and insoluble elastin were quantified and elastic fibers were enumerated using morphometric methods. Additional morphometric studies were performed to assess airway contraction and alveolar distortion. Results VAD produced an approximately 2-fold augmentation in the CCh-mediated increase of the bulk modulus and a significant dampening of the increase in shear modulus after CCh, compared to vitamin A sufficient (VAS rats. RA-supplementation for up to 21 days did not reverse the effects of VAD on the elastic modulus. VAD was also associated with a decrease in the concentration of parenchymal elastic fibers, which was restored and was accompanied by an increase in tropoelastin mRNA after 12 days of RA-treatment. Lung elastin, which was resistant to 0.1 N NaOH at 98°, decreased in VAD and was not restored after 21 days of RA-treatment. Conclusion Alterations in parenchymal mechanics and structure contribute to bronchial hyperreactivity in VAD but they are not reversed by RA-treatment, in contrast to the VAD-related alterations in the airways.

  14. Modeling Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Springback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    constant. In the context of this investigation we refer psuedoelastic behavior in the most general sense as any deviation from linearity in the unloading curve. The non-linearity leads to a hysteresis loop upon reloading. The approach is based on the non-conventional theory with a vanishing elastic region as advanced by Dafalias and Popov. The treatment is purely phenomenological where we don't distinguish between macroscopic plasticity and micro-plasticity. The macroscopic uniaxial stress-strain curve is used to define effective plastic response in the same manner as classical plasticity theory except that the nonlinearity during unloading and reloading are incorporated into plasticity. It is shown that such models can be easily formulated within the context of elastoplasticity without violating any physical mechanisms of deformation. Springback for a plane strain bending model is used to demonstrate the potential effect if such a model is applied

  15. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    β-SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman ... Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its .... intensity implies very low graphite content in thin film. In.

  16. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  17. NONLINEAR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF ELASTIC CARTILAGE IN RABBIT EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JING CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Elastic cartilage in the rabbit external ear is an important animal model with attractive potential value for researching the physiological and pathological states of cartilages especially during wound healing. In this work, nonlinear optical microscopy based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second harmonic generation were employed for imaging and quantifying the intact elastic cartilage. The morphology and distribution of main components in elastic cartilage including cartilage cells, collagen and elastic fibers were clearly observed from the high-resolution two-dimensional nonlinear optical images. The areas of cell nuclei, a parameter related to the pathological changes of normal or abnormal elastic cartilage, can be easily quantified. Moreover, the three-dimensional structure of chondrocytes and matrix were displayed by constructing three-dimensional image of cartilage tissue. At last, the emission spectra from cartilage were obtained and analyzed. We found that the different ratio of collagen over elastic fibers can be used to locate the observed position in the elastic cartilage. The redox ratio based on the ratio of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH over flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD fluorescence can also be calculated to analyze the metabolic state of chondrocytes in different regions. Our results demonstrated that this technique has the potential to provide more accurate and comprehensive information for the physiological states of elastic cartilage.

  18. Mathematical foundations of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Jerrold E

    1994-01-01

    This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con

  19. Elastic and viscoplastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebensohn, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review crystal elasticity and plasticity-based self-consistent theories and apply them to the determination of the effective response of polycrystalline aggregates. These mean-field formulations, which enable the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of polycrystalline aggregates based on the heterogeneous and/or directional properties of their constituent single crystal grains and phases, are ideal tools to establish relationships between microstructure and properties of these materials, ubiquitous among fuels and structural materials for nuclear systems. (author)

  20. On the elastic stiffness of grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tongyi; Hack, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The elastic softening of grain boundaries is evaluated from the starting point of grain boundary energy. Several examples are given to illustrate the relationship between boundary energy and the extent of softening. In general, a high grain boundary energy is associated with a large excess atomic volume in the boundary region. The consequent reduction in grain boundary stiffness can represent a significant fraction of that observed in bulk crystals. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen depth profiling using elastic recoil detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Peercy, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis technique for H profiling in the near surface regions of solids is described. ERD is shown to have the capability of detecting H and its isotopes down to concentrations of approx. 0.01 at. % with a depth resolution of a few hundred angstroms. Is is demonstrated that 2.4-MeV He ions can be used successfully to profile 1 H and 2 D using this technique. 12 figures

  2. Elastic wave diffraction by infinite wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Larissa; Zernov, Victor [Sound Mathematics Ltd., Cambridge CB4 2AS (United Kingdom); Gautesen, Arthur [Mathematics Department, Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory (United States); Darmon, Michel, E-mail: l.fradkin@soundmathematics.com [CEA-LIST, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-01-01

    We compare two recently developed semi-analytical approaches to the classical problem of diffraction by an elastic two dimensional wedge, one based on the reciprocity principle and Fourier Transform and another, on the representations of the elastodynamic potentials in the form of Sommerfeld Integrals. At present, in their common region of validity, the approaches are complementary, one working better than the other at some isolated angles of incidence.

  3. Does maltose influence on the elasticity of SOPC membrane?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genova, J; Zheliaskova, A; Mitov, M D, E-mail: ulia@issp.bas.b [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72, Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-11-01

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations of giant quasi-spherical lipid vesicles are used to study the influence of the disaccharide maltose, dissolved in the aqueous solution, on the curvature elasticity k{sub c} of a lipid membrane. The influence of the carbohydrate solute is investigated throughout a considerably wide interval of concentrations. The values of the bending elastic modulus for 200 mM and 400 mM of maltose in the water solution are obtained. The data for k{sub c} in presence of maltose is compared with previously obtained results for this constant for the most popular hydrocarbons: monosaccharides glucose and fructose and disaccharides sucrose and trehalose. It is shown that the presence of maltose, dissolved in the aqueous phase surrounding the membrane does not influence on the bending elasticity with the increase of its concentration in the aqueous solution. Up to our knowledge this is the first sugar that does not show decrease of the bending elastic modulus of the lipid membrane, when present in the water surrounding it in concentration up to 400 mM.

  4. Mathematical methods in elasticity imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ammari, Habib; Garnier, Josselin; Kang, Hyeonbae; Lee, Hyundae; Wahab, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to comprehensively explore elasticity imaging and examines recent, important developments in asymptotic imaging, modeling, and analysis of deterministic and stochastic elastic wave propagation phenomena. It derives the best possible functional images for small inclusions and cracks within the context of stability and resolution, and introduces a topological derivative-based imaging framework for detecting elastic inclusions in the time-harmonic regime. For imaging extended elastic inclusions, accurate optimal control methodologies are designed and the effects of uncertainties of the geometric or physical parameters on stability and resolution properties are evaluated. In particular, the book shows how localized damage to a mechanical structure affects its dynamic characteristics, and how measured eigenparameters are linked to elastic inclusion or crack location, orientation, and size. Demonstrating a novel method for identifying, locating, and estimating inclusions and cracks in elastic...

  5. Nonlocal elasticity tensors in dislocation and disclination cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taupin, V.; Gbemou, K.; Fressengeas, C.; Capolungo, L.

    2017-01-01

    We introduced nonlocal elastic constitutive laws for crystals containing defects such as dislocations and disclinations. Additionally, the pointwise elastic moduli tensors adequately reflect the elastic response of defect-free regions by relating stresses to strains and couple-stresses to curvatures, elastic cross-moduli tensors relating strains to couple-stresses and curvatures to stresses within convolution integrals are derived from a nonlocal analysis of strains and curvatures in the defects cores. Sufficient conditions are derived for positive-definiteness of the resulting free energy, and stability of elastic solutions is ensured. The elastic stress/couple stress fields associated with prescribed dislocation/disclination density distributions and solving the momentum and moment of momentum balance equations in periodic media are determined by using a Fast Fourier Transform spectral method. Here, the convoluted cross-moduli bring the following results: (i) Nonlocal stresses and couple stresses oppose their local counterparts in the defects core regions, playing the role of restoring forces and possibly ensuring spatio-temporal stability of the simulated defects, (ii) The couple stress fields are strongly affected by nonlocality. Such effects favor the stability of the simulated grain boundaries and allow investigating their elastic interactions with extrinsic defects, (iii) Driving forces inducing grain growth or refinement derive from the self-stress and couple stress fields of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline configurations.

  6. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  7. Design guidance for elastic followup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naugle, F.V.

    1983-01-01

    The basic mechanism of elastic followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where elastic followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for elastic followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed

  8. Income Elasticity of Environmental Amenities

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Miles; Andrés Pereyra; Máximo Rossi

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the estimation of income elasticities of environmental amenities. The novelty is the application of econometric methods that take into account the problem of measurement errors when estimating these elasticities, which are common in microeconomic data and are not usually considered in the applied literature related with this issue. Our aim is to discuss whether the measurement error has signi…cant e¤ects on the elasticities. Data from the Expenditure Budget...

  9. A Reevaluation of Price Elasticities for Irrigation Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Richard E.; Watson, William D.; Adams, Richard M.

    1980-08-01

    The effectiveness of pricing systems in the allocation of irrigation water is linked with the price elasticity of demand of farmers for water. Using microeconomic theory, it is shown that omission of the elasticity of demand for the crop produced leads to an inelastic bias in the demand for irrigated water. Linear programing approaches omit the product elasticity of demand and are consequently biased, whereas quadratic programing approaches to estimating derived demands for irrigation water include product demand functions. The difference between the resulting estimates are empirically demonstrated for regional derived demand functions estimated from a model of California's agricultural industry.

  10. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  11. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. An Optical Model Study of Neutrons Elastically Scattered by Iron, Nickel, Cobalt, Copper, and Indium in the Energy Region 1.5 to 7.0 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1967-03-15

    Angular distributions of elastically scattered neutrons have been measured for cobalt and copper at nine energies between 1.5 and 7.0 MeV, for natural iron at 4.6 MeV, for natural nickel and indium at four energies between 3.0 and 4.6 MeV, by using time-of-flight technique. The observed angular distributions were corrected for neutron flux attenuation, multiple elastic scattering, and the finite geometry of the source-sample-detector system by using a Monte Carlo program. Theoretical angular distributions have been fitted to the experimental angular distributions by using an optical model potential with Saxon-Woods form factors. A computer program was used to find parameter values of the potential giving the best fittings to the experimental angular distributions.

  13. Elastic scattering of. pi. /sup -/ mesons on protons in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region at 33-60 GeV/c. [Total and differential cross sections,scattering amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apokin, V D; Vasiliev, A N; Derevshchikov, A A; Matulenko, Yu A; Meschanin, A P; Mysnik, A I; Nurushev, S B; Saraykin, A I; Siksin, V V; Smirnov, E V [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij

    1976-04-19

    Differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of negative pions on protons, as well as total cross sections have been measured for the incident momentum range from 33 up to 60 GeV/c. The values for four-momentum transfer were within the limits of -(10/sup -3/-8x10/sup -2/) (GeV/c)/sup 2/. The energy dependence of the ratio rho(0) of the real part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude to the imaginary part has been determined from the experimental data. The magnitude rho(0) smoothly increases from (-10.9+-1.2)% at momenta 33.52 GeV/c up to (-1.8+-1.8)% at 59.4 GeV/c. The results obtained are compared with the predictions of theoretical models.

  14. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad

    2017-11-06

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  15. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad; Guo, Bowen; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  16. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  17. Analytical Solution of Tunnel Surrounding Rock for Stress and Displacement Based on Lade–Duncan Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MingZheng Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The deformation and failure of tunnel surrounding rock is the result of tunnel excavation disturbance and rock stress release. When the local stress of surrounding rock exceeds the elastic limit of rock mass, the plastic analysis of surrounding rock must be carried out to judge the stability of tunnel. In this study, the Lade–Duncan yield criterion is used to calculate the analytic solutions for the surrounding rock in a tunnel, and the radius and displacement of the plastic zone are deduced using an equilibrium equation. The plastic zone radius and displacement based on Lade–Duncan criterion and Mohr–Coulomb criterion were compared by using single-factor analysis method under the different internal friction angles, in situ stresses, and support resistances. The results show that the solutions of the radius and displacement of plastic zone calculated by the Lade–Duncan criterion are close to those of Mohr–Coulomb criterion under the high internal friction angle and support resistance or low in situ rock stress; however, the radius and displacement of the plastic zone calculated by the Lade–Duncan criterion are larger under normal circumstances, and the Lade–Duncan criterion is more applicable to the stability analysis of the surrounding rock in a tunnel.

  18. Crack arrest within teeth at the dentinoenamel junction caused by elastic modulus mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Fett, Theo; Rizzi, Gabriele; Habelitz, Stefan; Klocke, Arndt; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-05-01

    Enamel and dentin compose the crowns of human teeth. They are joined at the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) which is a very strong and well-bonded interface unlikely to fail within healthy teeth despite the formation of multiple cracks within enamel during a lifetime of exposure to masticatory forces. These cracks commonly are arrested when reaching the DEJ. The phenomenon of crack arrest at the DEJ is described in many publications but there is little consensus on the underlying cause and mechanism. Explanations range from the DEJ having a larger toughness than both enamel and dentin up to the assumption that not the DEJ itself causes crack arrest but the so-called mantle dentin, a thin material layer close to the DEJ that is somewhat softer than the bulk dentin. In this study we conducted 3-point bending experiments with bending bars consisting of the DEJ and surrounding enamel and dentin to investigate crack propagation and arrest within the DEJ region. Calculated stress intensities around crack tips were found to be highly influenced by the elastic modulus mismatch between enamel and dentin and hence, the phenomenon of crack arrest at the DEJ could be explained accordingly via this elastic modulus mismatch. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  20. Nonlinear Elasticity of Doped Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2016-0206 NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS Mark Dykman and Kirill Moskovtsev Michigan State University...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF DOPED SEMICONDUCTORS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-16-1-7600 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...vibration amplitude. 15. SUBJECT TERMS semiconductors , microresonators, microelectromechanical 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  1. Elasticity theory of ultrathin nanofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiangang; Yun, Guohong; Narsu, B; Yao, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    A self-consistent theoretical scheme for describing the elastic behavior of ultrathin nanofilms (UTNFs) was proposed. Taking into account the lower symmetry of an UTNF compared to its bulk counterpart, additional elastic and magnetoelastic parameters were introduced to model the elasticity rigorously. The applications of current theory to several elastic and magnetoelastic systems gave excellent agreement with experiments. More importantly, the surface elastic and magnetoelastic parameters used to fit the experimental results are physically reasonable and in close agreement with those obtained from experiment and simulation. This fact suggests that the additional elastic (magnetoelastic) constants due to symmetry breaking are of great importance in theoretical description of the mechanical properties of UTNFs. And we proved that the elasticity of UTNFs should be described by a three-dimensional model just including the intrinsic surface and bulk parameters, but not the effective surface parameters. It is believed that the theory reported here is a universal strategy for elasticity and magnetoelasticity of ultrathin films. (paper)

  2. Influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kashiwaya, Koki; Nishida, Yuki; , Toshinori, Ii

    2017-06-01

    Understanding subcritical crack growth in rock is essential for determining appropriate measures to ensure the long-term integrity of rock masses surrounding structures and for construction from rock material. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated experimentally, focusing on the influence of the surrounding environment on the relationship between the crack velocity and stress intensity factor. The crack velocity increased with increasing temperature and/or relative humidity. In all cases, the crack velocity increased with increasing stress intensity factor. However, for Carrara marble (CM) in air, we observed a region in which the crack velocity still increased with temperature, but the increase in the crack velocity with increasing stress intensity factor was not significant. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth observed in glass in air. Region II in glass is controlled by mass transport to the crack tip. In the case of rock, the transport of water to the crack tip is important. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contain water. Because the porosity of CM is very low, the amount of water contained in the marble is also very small. Therefore, our results imply that we observed Region II in CM. Because the crack velocity increased in both water and air with increasing temperature and humidity, we concluded that dry conditions at low temperature are desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass. Additionally, mass transport to the crack tip is an important process for subcritical crack growth in rock with low porosity.

  3. Substrate-dependent cell elasticity measured by optical tweezers indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Muhammad S.; Ndoye, Fatou; Coceano, Giovanna; Niemela, Joseph; Bonin, Serena; Scoles, Giacinto; Cojoc, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, cell elasticity has been widely investigated as a potential label free indicator for cellular alteration in different diseases, cancer included. Cell elasticity can be locally measured by pulling membrane tethers, stretching or indenting the cell using optical tweezers. In this paper, we propose a simple approach to perform cell indentation at pN forces by axially moving the cell against a trapped microbead. The elastic modulus is calculated using the Hertz-model. Besides the axial component, the setup also allows us to examine the lateral cell-bead interaction. This technique has been applied to measure the local elasticity of HBL-100 cells, an immortalized human cell line, originally derived from the milk of a woman with no evidence of breast cancer lesions. In addition, we have studied the influence of substrate stiffness on cell elasticity by performing experiments on cells cultured on two substrates, bare and collagen-coated, having different stiffness. The mean value of the cell elastic modulus measured during indentation was 26±9 Pa for the bare substrate, while for the collagen-coated substrate it diminished to 19±7 Pa. The same trend was obtained for the elastic modulus measured during the retraction of the cell: 23±10 Pa and 13±7 Pa, respectively. These results show the cells adapt their stiffness to that of the substrate and demonstrate the potential of this setup for low-force probing of modifications to cell mechanics induced by the surrounding environment (e.g. extracellular matrix or other cells).

  4. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Naimish R.; Bole, Medhavi; Chen, Cheng; Hardin, Charles C.; Kho, Alvin T.; Mih, Justin; Deng, Linhong; Butler, James; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function. PMID:23028423

  5. Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimish R Patel

    Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.

  6. Multipurpose hooks for elastic attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As certain bracket systems do not include hooks on premolar brackets for elastic attachment, Kobayashi or custom made ligature hooks have proven as an alternative. However, these hooks tend to bend labially when used with heavy elastics and these elastics can even pop loose from the hooks on mouth opening. The following article describes an innovative multipurpose hook which is simple, stiff and inexpensive and can be used for engagement of class II elastics on premolars in case of missing molars as well as engagement of intermaxillary elastics for settling of occlusion in finishing stages. As the hooks can be prefabricated, this saves a lot of chair side time and is more practical for use in day-to-day orthodontic practice.

  7. Bending wave propagation of carbon nanotubes in a bi-parameter elastic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.-X.; Li, X.-F.; Tang, G.-J.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies transverse waves propagating in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in a surrounding medium. The CNTs are modeled as a nonlocal elastic beam, whereas the surrounding medium is modeled as a bi-parameter elastic medium. When taking into account the effect of rotary inertia of cross-section, a governing equation is acquired. A comparison of wave speeds using the Rayleigh and Euler-Bernoulli theories of beams with the results of molecular dynamics simulation indicates that the nonlocal Rayleigh beam model is more adequate to describe flexural waves in CNTs than the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli model. The influences of the surrounding medium and rotary inertia on the phase speed for single-walled and double-walled CNTs are analyzed. Obtained results turn out that the surrounding medium plays a dominant role for lower wave numbers, while rotary inertia strongly affects the phase speed for higher wave numbers.

  8. Bending wave propagation of carbon nanotubes in a bi-parameter elastic matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.-X. [School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410075 (China); Li, X.-F., E-mail: xfli25@yahoo.com.cn [School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410075 (China); Tang, G.-J. [College of Aerospace and Materials Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2012-02-15

    This article studies transverse waves propagating in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded in a surrounding medium. The CNTs are modeled as a nonlocal elastic beam, whereas the surrounding medium is modeled as a bi-parameter elastic medium. When taking into account the effect of rotary inertia of cross-section, a governing equation is acquired. A comparison of wave speeds using the Rayleigh and Euler-Bernoulli theories of beams with the results of molecular dynamics simulation indicates that the nonlocal Rayleigh beam model is more adequate to describe flexural waves in CNTs than the nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli model. The influences of the surrounding medium and rotary inertia on the phase speed for single-walled and double-walled CNTs are analyzed. Obtained results turn out that the surrounding medium plays a dominant role for lower wave numbers, while rotary inertia strongly affects the phase speed for higher wave numbers.

  9. Blocky inversion of multichannel elastic impedance for elastic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozayan, Davoud Karami; Gholami, Ali; Siahkoohi, Hamid Reza

    2018-04-01

    Petrophysical description of reservoirs requires proper knowledge of elastic parameters like P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and density (ρ), which can be retrieved from pre-stack seismic data using the concept of elastic impedance (EI). We propose an inversion algorithm which recovers elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in two sequential steps. In the first step, using the multichannel blind seismic inversion method (exploited recently for recovering acoustic impedance from post-stack seismic data), high-resolution blocky EI models are obtained directly from partial angle-stacks. Using an efficient total-variation (TV) regularization, each angle-stack is inverted independently in a multichannel form without prior knowledge of the corresponding wavelet. The second step involves inversion of the resulting EI models for elastic parameters. Mathematically, under some assumptions, the EI's are linearly described by the elastic parameters in the logarithm domain. Thus a linear weighted least squares inversion is employed to perform this step. Accuracy of the concept of elastic impedance in predicting reflection coefficients at low and high angles of incidence is compared with that of exact Zoeppritz elastic impedance and the role of low frequency content in the problem is discussed. The performance of the proposed inversion method is tested using synthetic 2D data sets obtained from the Marmousi model and also 2D field data sets. The results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method for inversion of pre-stack seismic data.

  10. Automatic estimation of elasticity parameters in breast tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerl, Katrin; Cochran, Sandy; Evans, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Shear wave elastography (SWE), a novel ultrasound imaging technique, can provide unique information about cancerous tissue. To estimate elasticity parameters, a region of interest (ROI) is manually positioned over the stiffest part of the shear wave image (SWI). The aim of this work is to estimate the elasticity parameters i.e. mean elasticity, maximal elasticity and standard deviation, fully automatically. Ultrasonic SWI of a breast elastography phantom and breast tissue in vivo were acquired using the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France). First, the SWI within the ultrasonic B-mode image was detected using MATLAB then the elasticity values were extracted. The ROI was automatically positioned over the stiffest part of the SWI and the elasticity parameters were calculated. Finally all values were saved in a spreadsheet which also contains the patient's study ID. This spreadsheet is easily available for physicians and clinical staff for further evaluation and so increase efficiency. Therewith the efficiency is increased. This algorithm simplifies the handling, especially for the performance and evaluation of clinical trials. The SWE processing method allows physicians easy access to the elasticity parameters of the examinations from their own and other institutions. This reduces clinical time and effort and simplifies evaluation of data in clinical trials. Furthermore, reproducibility will be improved.

  11. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  12. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Qin Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10 3 cm –3 and kinematic temperature ∼20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  13. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  14. Physical geography of the Nete basin and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerten, K.

    2011-01-01

    The report briefly describes the main features of the physical geography of the Nete basin (Campine region, Belgium) and its immediate surroundings. First, an integrated overview of the topography, morphology and hydrography is given. This overview serves as the basis for the assessment of the morphological stability of the region and also explains the relationship between the topography and the hydrology. Furthermore, special attention is paid to soil science including a quantitative survey of some soil characteristics data. Another part of this report deals with erosion processes caused by water and wind action, and the (potential) impact on the morphology. Finally, the palaeogeographical evolution during the Quaternary is discussed. This evolution shows that the environment is stable over 10 000 years or more in the current and similar climatic conditions. Altering climatic conditions, notably glacial-interglacial periods, have impacted erosion with periods of strong erosion.

  15. Elastic Anisotropy of Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2005-12-01

    Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are

  16. Contact Problem for an Elastic Layer on an Elastic Half Plane Loaded by Means of Three Rigid Flat Punches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ozsahin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The frictionless contact problem for an elastic layer resting on an elastic half plane is considered. The problem is solved by using the theory of elasticity and integral transformation technique. The compressive loads P and Q (per unit thickness in direction are applied to the layer through three rigid flat punches. The elastic layer is also subjected to uniform vertical body force due to effect of gravity. The contact along the interface between elastic layer and half plane is continuous, if the value of the load factor, λ, is less than a critical value, . In this case, initial separation loads, and initial separation points, are determined. Also the required distance between the punches to avoid any separation between the punches and the elastic layer is studied and the limit distance between punches that ends interaction of punches is investigated for various dimensionless quantities. However, if tensile tractions are not allowed on the interface, for the layer separates from the interface along a certain finite region. Numerical results for distance determining the separation area, vertical displacement in the separation zone, contact stress distribution along the interface between elastic layer and half plane are given for this discontinuous contact case.

  17. The price elasticity of electricity demand in South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Shu; Hyndman, Rob J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the price elasticity of electricity demand, representing the sensitivity of customer demand to the price of electricity, has been estimated for South Australia. We first undertake a review of the scholarly literature regarding electricity price elasticity for different regions and systems. Then we perform an empirical evaluation of the historic South Australian price elasticity, focussing on the relationship between price and demand quantiles at each half-hour of the day. This work attempts to determine whether there is any variation in price sensitivity with the time of day or quantile, and to estimate the form of any relationships that might exist in South Australia. - Highlights: → We review the scholarly literature on electricity own-price elasticity for different regions and systems. → We use annual log-linear econometric models of the electricity demand to estimate the historic South Australian price elasticity. → We focus on the relationship between price and demand quantiles at each half-hour of the day. → The overall price elasticity in South Australia ranges from -0.363 to -0.428.

  18. Forces and torques on rigid inclusions in an elastic environment: Resulting matrix-mediated interactions, displacements, and rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljiz, Mate; Menzel, Andreas M.

    2017-05-01

    Embedding rigid inclusions into elastic matrix materials is a procedure of high practical relevance, for instance, for the fabrication of elastic composite materials. We theoretically analyze the following situation. Rigid spherical inclusions are enclosed by a homogeneous elastic medium under stick boundary conditions. Forces and torques are directly imposed from outside onto the inclusions or are externally induced between them. The inclusions respond to these forces and torques by translations and rotations against the surrounding elastic matrix. This leads to elastic matrix deformations, and in turn results in mutual long-ranged matrix-mediated interactions between the inclusions. Adapting a well-known approach from low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics, we explicitly calculate the displacements and rotations of the inclusions from the externally imposed or induced forces and torques. Analytical expressions are presented as a function of the inclusion configuration in terms of displaceability and rotateability matrices. The role of the elastic environment is implicitly included in these relations. That is, the resulting expressions allow a calculation of the induced displacements and rotations directly from the inclusion configuration, without having to explicitly determine the deformations of the elastic environment. In contrast to the hydrodynamic case, compressibility of the surrounding medium is readily taken into account. We present the complete derivation based on the underlying equations of linear elasticity theory. In the future, the method will, for example, be helpful to characterize the behavior of externally tunable elastic composite materials, to accelerate numerical approaches, as well as to improve the quantitative interpretation of microrheological results.

  19. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogiso, Hisato; Yoshida, Mikiko; Nakano, Shizuka; Yasui, Haruyuki; Awazu, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase

  20. Elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiso, Hisato [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yoshida, Mikiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Nakano, Shizuka [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Yasui, Haruyuki [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan); Awazu, Kaoru [Industrial Research Institute of Ishikawa (IRII), Ro-1, Tomizu-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-0233 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    This research discusses the elastic nano-structure of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Two DLC film samples deposited by plasma based ion implantation (PBII) were prepared. The plasma generated by microwave (MW) was applied to one sample and the plasma by radio frequency (RF) to the other sample. The samples were evaluated for the elastic property image with nanometer resolution using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). The film surface deposited by RF-PBII was very flat and homogeneous in elastic property. In contrast, the film surface by MW-PBII was more uneven than that by RF-PBII and both the locally hard and the locally soft regions were found at the film surface. The size of the structure in elastic property is several tens nanometer. We conclude that the film probably contains nano-scale diamond phase.

  1. bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    2, 3DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA. ENUGU STATE. ... theory of elasticity and in the case of vertical applied loads, was first ... partial differential equations in bodies having cylindrical symmetry.

  2. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  3. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  4. CONCERNING THE ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC MODEL APPLIED TO WOOD ELASTIC PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeu Mascia,Nilson

    2003-01-01

    Among the construction materials, wood reveals an orthotropic pattern, because of unique characteristics in its internal structure with three axes of wood biological directions (longitudinal, tangential and radial). elastic symmetry: longitudinal, tangential and radial, reveals an orthotropic pattern. The effect of grain angle orientation onin the elastic modulus constitutes the fundamental cause forof wood anisotropy. It is responsible for the greatest changes in the values of the constituti...

  5. Spectral dimension of elastic Sierpinski gaskets with general elastic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.H.; Liu, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectral dimension is calculated for a Sierpinski gasket with the most general elastic restoring forces allowed by symmetry. The elastic forces consist of bond-stretching and angle-bending components. The spectral dimension is the same as that for the bond-stretching-force (central-force) model. This demonstrates that on the Sierpinski gasket the two types of forces belong to the same universality class

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Towards Semantic Understanding of Surrounding Vehicular Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of multiple low-cost visual sensors to obtain a surround view of the ego-vehicle for semantic understanding. A multi-perspective view will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies (NDS), by automating the task of data reduction of the observed sequences...... into events. A user-centric vision-based framework is presented using a vehicle detector and tracker in each separate perspective. Multi-perspective trajectories are estimated and analyzed to extract 14 different events, including potential dangerous behaviors such as overtakes and cut-ins. The system...... is tested on ten sequences of real-world data collected on U. S. highways. The results show the potential use of multiple low-cost visual sensors for semantic understanding around the ego-vehicle....

  9. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa); Centre for Theoretical Physics, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2018-02-15

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r{sub h} < r{sub c} allowing the black hole to become thermodynamically stable. (orig.)

  10. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r_h

  11. Organization of cervical cancer screening in Campinas and surrounding region, São Paulo State, Brazil Organização do rastreamento do câncer do colo uterino em Campinas e região, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Zeferino

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer screening remains a challenge in developing countries due to a complex array of problems. This paper aimed to describe the experience with organization of cervical cancer screening in three districts of Campinas and the surrounding region in São Paulo State, Brazil, and to report the resulting data. The program was organized in a pyramid format, and the health care hierarchy was defined according to the complexity and total number of medical procedures. Screening has been extended currently to 88 municipalities, of which 51 are equipped with colposcopy and eight have facilities for treating advanced cervical cancer. The standardized incidence rate for cervical cancer in Campinas was 14.2/100,000 women per year in 1993-1995, and the standardized mortality rate per district ranged from 2.7 to 3.0 per 100,000 women in 1997-1998. This project has clearly shown that hierarchical and decentralized organization of health procedures is a necessary condition for achieving the goals of an effective cervical cancer screening program.O programa de rastreamento do câncer do colo uterino ainda é um desafio para os países em desenvolvimento devido a uma série complexa de problemas. Este estudo objetivou descrever a experiência adquirida com a organização e mostrar alguns dados sobre o rastreamento deste câncer em três distritos de Campinas e região, São Paulo, Brasil. A hierarquia das ações de saúde foi estabelecida de acordo com a complexidade dos procedimentos e do total destes procedimentos que precisavam ser realizados. Atualmente, o rastreamento se estende a 88 municípios, dos quais 51 realizam colposcopia e oito têm serviços para tratar câncer avançado do colo uterino. A taxa de incidência ajustada em Campinas foi de 14,2/100 mil mulheres por ano em 1993-1995, e a taxa de mortalidade ajustada por distrito variou entre 2,7 e 3,0 por 100 mil mulheres em 1997-1998. De acordo com a experiência adquirida, a organiza

  12. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  13. Astronomical optics and elasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard Rene

    2008-01-01

    Astronomical Optics and Elasticity Theory provides a very thorough and comprehensive account of what is known in this field. After an extensive introduction to optics and elasticity, the book discusses variable curvature and multimode deformable mirrors, as well as, in depth, active optics, its theory and applications. Further, optical design utilizing the Schmidt concept and various types of Schmidt correctors, as well as the elasticity theory of thin plates and shells are elaborated upon. Several active optics methods are developed for obtaining aberration corrected diffraction gratings. Further, a weakly conical shell theory of elasticity is elaborated for the aspherization of grazing incidence telescope mirrors. The very didactic and fairly easy-to-read presentation of the topic will enable PhD students and young researchers to actively participate in challenging astronomical optics and instrumentation projects.

  14. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells

  15. Graphene nanoribbon as an elastic damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evazzade, Iman; Lobzenko, Ivan P.; Saadatmand, Danial; Korznikova, Elena A.; Zhou, Kun; Liu, Bo; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    Heterostructures composed of dissimilar two-dimensional nanomaterials can have nontrivial physical and mechanical properties which are potentially useful in many applications. Interestingly, in some cases, it is possible to create heterostructures composed of weakly and strongly stretched domains with the same chemical composition, as has been demonstrated for some polymer chains, DNA, and intermetallic nanowires supporting this effect of two-phase stretching. These materials, at relatively strong tension forces, split into domains with smaller and larger tensile strains. Within this region, average strain increases at constant tensile force due to the growth of the domain with the larger strain, at the expense of the domain with smaller strain. Here, the two-phase stretching phenomenon is described for graphene nanoribbons with the help of molecular dynamics simulations. This unprecedented feature of graphene that is revealed in our study is related to the peculiarities of nucleation and the motion of the domain walls separating the domains of different elastic strain. It turns out that the loading–unloading curves exhibit a hysteresis-like behavior due to the energy dissipation during the domain wall nucleation and motion. Here, we put forward the idea of implementing graphene nanoribbons as elastic dampers, efficiently converting mechanical strain energy into heat during cyclic loading–unloading through elastic extension where domains with larger and smaller strains coexist. Furthermore, in the regime of two-phase stretching, graphene nanoribbon is a heterostructure for which the fraction of domains with larger and smaller strain, and consequently its physical and mechanical properties, can be tuned in a controllable manner by applying elastic strain and/or heat.

  16. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Alan

    1989-09-15

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago.

  17. A Labor Supply Elasticity Accord?

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Ljungqvist; Thomas J. Sargent

    2011-01-01

    A dispute about the size of the aggregate labor supply elasticity has been fortified by a contentious aggregation theory used by real business cycle theorists. The replacement of that aggregation theory with one more congenial to microeconomic observations opens possibilities for an accord about the aggregate labor supply elasticity. The new aggregation theory drops features to which empirical microeconomists objected and replaces them with life-cycle choices. Whether the new aggregation theo...

  18. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V

    2012-01-01

    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  19. Estimates of elastic plate thicknesses beneath large volcanos on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Megellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanos on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Earth, flexure beneath large hotspot volcanos results in an annual topographic moat that is partially to completely filled in by sedimentation and mass wasting from the volcano's flanks. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are considered to be negligible at the resolution of Magellan images. Thus, it may be possible to observe evidence of flexure by the ponding of recent volcanic flows in the moat. We also might expect to find topographic signals from unfilled moats surrounding large volcanos on Venus, although these signals may be partially obscured by regional topography. Also, in the absence of sedimentation, tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanos should be evident except where buried by very young flows. We use analytic solutions in axisymmetric geometry for deflections and stresses resulting from loading of a plate overlying an inviscid fluid. Solutions for a set of disk loads are superimposed to obtain a solution for a conical volcano. The deflection of the lithosphere produces an annular depression or moat, the extent of which can be estimated by measuring the distance from the volcano's edge to the first zero crossing or to the peak of the flexural arch. Magellan altimetry data records (ARCDRs) from data cycle 1 are processed using the GMT mapping and graphics software to produce topographic contour maps of the volcanos. We then take topographic profiles that cut across the annular and ponded flows seen on the radar images. By comparing the locations of these flows to the predicted moat locations from a range of models, we estimate the elastic plate thickness that best fits the observations, together with the uncertainty in that estimate.

  20. Elastic properties of magnetostrictive rare-earth-iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, J.R.; Blessing, G.; Rinaldi, S.

    1978-01-01

    The elastic properties of certain magnetostrictive rare-earth-iron alloys, namely polycrystalline Tbsub(0.3)Dysub(0.7)Fesub(2), Smsub(0.88)Dysub(0.12)Fesub(2)and amorphous TbFesub(2), were investigated ultrasonically. In all cases two shear waves were observed propagating simultaneously when a magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the direction of propagation. A model to explain this behaviour, based on magnetic-elastic coupling within local regions of these disordered materials, is developed and discussed in two limiting cases: (i) strongly coupled regions for which an effective isotropic magneto-elastic coupling is appropriate, and (ii) materials for which the elastic properties of the conglomerate are determined by averaging over those of independent regions. Experimental results up to fields of 25 kOe on the alloys mentioned above are exhibited and compared with the limiting cases (i) and (ii). In the case of polycrystalline Tbsub(0.3)Dysub(0.7)Fesub(2) further comparison is made between the determination of the magneto-elastic coupling constants using this model and the determination by using the results of a previous single-crystal study. (author)

  1. In Situ elastic property sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, D.; Hirschfeld, T.; Kishiyama, K.; Steinhaus, R.

    1987-01-01

    Elasticity is an important property of many materials. Loss of elasticity can have serious consequences, such as when a gasket deteriorates and permits leakage of an expensive or hazardous material, or when a damping system begins to go awry. Loss of elasticity can also provide information related to an ancillary activity such as degradation of electrical insulation, loss of plasticizer in a plastic, or changes in permeability of a thin film. In fact, the mechanical properties of most organic compounds are altered when the compound degrades. Thus, a sensor for the mechanical properties can be used to monitor associated characteristics as well. A piezoelectric material in contact with an elastomer forms an oscillating system that can provide real-time elasticity monitoring. This combination constitutes a forced harmonic oscillator with damping provided by the elastomer. A ceramic oscillator with a total volume of a few mm 3 was used as an elasticity sensor. It was placed in intimate contact with an elastomer and then monitored remotely with a simple oscillator circuit and standard frequency counting electronics. Resonant frequency shifts and changes in Q value were observed corresponding to changes in ambient temperature and/or changes in pressure applied to the sample. Elastomer samples pretreated with ozone (to simulate aging) showed changes in Q value and frequency response, even though there were no visible changes in the elastic samples

  2. Hydrogen analysis by elastic recoil spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirira, J.; Trocellier, P.

    1989-01-01

    An absolute, quantitative procedure was developed to determine the hydrogen content and to describe its concentration profile in the near-surface region of solids. The experimental technique used was the elastic recoil detection analysis of protons induced by 4 He beam bombardment in the energy range <=1.8 MeV. The hydrogen content was calculated using a new recoil cross section expression. The analyses were performed in silicon crystals implanted with hydrogen at 10 keV. The implantation dose was evaluated with an accuracy of 10% and the hydrogen depth profile with that of +-10 nm around 200 nm. (author) 10 refs.; 3 figs

  3. How A Black Hole Lights Up Its Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    How do the supermassive black holes that live at the centers of galaxies influence their environments? New observations of a distant active galaxy offer clues about this interaction.Signs of CoevolutionPlot demonstrating the m-sigma relation, the empirical correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion of a galactic bulge and the mass of the supermassive black hole at its center. [Msigma]We know that the centers of active galaxies host supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of suns. One mystery surrounding these beasts is that they are observed to evolve simultaneously with their host galaxies for instance, an empirical relationship is seen between the growth of a black hole and the growth of its host galaxys bulge. This suggests that there must be a feedback mechanism through which the evolution of a black hole is linked to that of its host galaxy.One proposed source of this coupling is the powerful jets emitted from the poles of these supermassive black holes. These jets are thought to be produced as some of the material accreting onto the black hole is flung out, confined by surrounding gas and magnetic fields. Because the jets of hot gas and radiation extend outward through the host galaxy, they provide a means for the black hole to influence the gas and dust of its surroundings.In our current model of a radio-loud active galactic nuclei,a region of hot, ionized gas the narrow-line region lies beyond the sphere of influence of the supermassive black hole. [C.M. Urry and P. Padovani]Clues in the Narrow-Line RegionThe region of gas thought to sit just outside of the black holes sphere of influence (at a distance of perhaps a thousand to a few thousand light-years) is known as the narrow line region so named because we observe narrow emission lines from this gas. Given its hot, ionized state, this gas must somehow be being pummeled with energy. In the canonical picture, radiation from the black hole heats the gas directly in a process

  4. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium–indium–tin (Galinstan ® ) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy. (paper)

  5. Soft-matter composites with electrically tunable elastic rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-08-01

    We use a phase-changing metal alloy to reversibly tune the elastic rigidity of an elastomer composite. The elastomer is embedded with a sheet of low-melting-point Field’s metal and an electric Joule heater composed of a serpentine channel of liquid-phase gallium-indium-tin (Galinstan®) alloy. At room temperature, the embedded Field’s metal is solid and the composite remains elastically rigid. Joule heating causes the Field’s metal to melt and allows the surrounding elastomer to freely stretch and bend. Using a tensile testing machine, we measure that the effective elastic modulus of the composite reversibly changes by four orders of magnitude when powered on and off. This dramatic change in rigidity is accurately predicted with a model for an elastic composite. Reversible rigidity control is also accomplished by replacing the Field’s metal with shape memory polymer. In addition to demonstrating electrically tunable rigidity with an elastomer, we also introduce a new technique to rapidly produce soft-matter electronics and multifunctional materials in several minutes with laser-patterned adhesive film and masked deposition of liquid-phase metal alloy.

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). The view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses. Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This panorama combines right-eye and left-eye views presented as cylindrical-perspective projections with geometric seam correction.

  7. INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING THE HELIOPAUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution, in the limit of very low plasma β-ratio, for the distortion of the interstellar magnetic field surrounding the heliopause. The solution is obtained using a line dipole method that is the integration of point dipole along a semi-infinite line; it represents the magnetic field caused by the presence of the heliopause. The solution allows the variation of the undisturbed magnetic field at any inclination angle. The heliosphere is considered as having blunt-nosed geometry on the upwind side and it asymptotically approaches a cylindrical geometry having an open exit for the continuous outflow of the solar wind on the downwind side. The heliopause is treated as a magnetohydrodynamic tangential discontinuity; the interstellar magnetic field lines at the boundary are tangential to the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field is substantially distorted due to the presence of the heliopause. The solution shows the draping of the field lines around the heliopause. The magnetic field strength varies substantially near the surface of the heliopause. The effect on the magnetic field due to the presence of the heliopause penetrates very deep into the interstellar space; the depth of penetration is of the same order of magnitude as the scale length of the heliosphere.

  8. Temperature dependence of elastic properties of paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrova, I.M.; Pisarevskii, Y.V.; Senyushenkov, P.A.; Krupny, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    New data are presented on the temperature dependence of the elastic wave velocities, elastic stiffness constants, and thermal expansion of paratellurite. It is shown that the external pressure appreciably influences the elastic properties of TeO 2 , especially the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus connected with the crystal soft mode. (author)

  9. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Woo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE- based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard tumor and surrounding tissue (soft. The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  10. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  11. Biogeography of azooxanthellate corals in the Caribbean and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J.

    2002-04-01

    Biogeographic patterns for azooxanthellate corals are not as well known as those of zooxanthellate (primarily reef-building) corals. I analyzed occurrences of 129 species of azooxanthellate corals in 19 geopolitical regions in the Caribbean and surrounding areas. I performed an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis using Bray-Curtis' similarity measure on the complete data set and shallow- and deep-water subsets of the data. The results indicate two provinces, each with a widespread (tropical and subtropical distributions) component to its fauna. One province has a tropical and primarily insular component to it, while the other has a subtropical and primarily continental component. By contrast, zooxanthellate corals have a uniform faunal composition throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, zooxanthellate corals have half as many species in the Caribbean as the azooxanthellate corals even though their global diversities are equal. These differences in diversity and geographic distribution patterns should be considered when developing conservation strategies.

  12. The Morishima Gross elasticity of substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Blackorby, Charles; Primont, Daniel; Russell, R. Robert

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Hotelling-Lau elasticity of substitution, an extension of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity to allow for optimal output-quantity (or utility) responses to changes in factor prices, inherits all of the failings of the Allen-Uzawa elasticity identified by Blackorby and Russell [1989 AER]. An analogous extension of the Morishima elasticity of substitution to allow for output quantity changes preserves the salient properties of the original Hicksian notion of elasticity of substitution.

  13. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  14. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  15. Predicting Maximum Lake Depth from Surrounding Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake volume aids understanding of the physical and ecological dynamics of lakes, yet is often not readily available. The data needed to calculate lake volume (i.e. bathymetry) are usually only collected on a lake by lake basis and are difficult to obtain across broad regions. ...

  16. Elastic limit and microplastic response of hardened steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccone, M.A. (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Krauss, G. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    Tempered martensite-retained austenite microstructures were produced by direct quenching a series of 41XX medium carbon steels, direct quenching and reheating a series of five 0.8C-Cr-Ni-Mo steels and intercritically austenitizing at various temperatures, and quenching a SAE 52100 steel. All specimens were tempered either at 150 C or at 200 C. Specimens were subjected to compression and tension testing in the microstrain regime to determine the elastic limits and microplastic response of the microstructures. The retained austenite and matrix carbon content of the intercritically austenized specimens were measured by X-ray diffraction and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The elastic limit of the microstructures decreases with increasing amounts of retained austenite. Refining of the austenite distribution increases the elastic limit. Low elastic limits are mainly due to low flow stresses in the austenite and not internal stresses. The elastic limit correlates with the largest austenite free-mean path by a Hall-Petch type equation. The elastic limit increases with decreasing intercritical austenitizing temperature in the SAE 52100 due to a lower carbon content in the matrix reducing the retained austenite levels and retained carbides that refine grain size and, therefore, the austenite distribution in quenched specimens. In the microplastic region, the strain is accommodated by successively smaller austenite regions until the flow strength matches that of the martensite. Reheating and quenching refines the microstructure and renders the austenite unstable in the microplastic regime, causing transformation of the austenite to martensite by a strain-induced mechanism. The transformation of austenite to martensite occurs by a stress-assisted mechanism in medium carbon steels. The low elastic limits in medium carbon steels were due to the inability of the strain from the stress-assisted transformation to balance the plastic strain accumulated in the austenite.

  17. Deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Ali, S.

    1991-01-01

    The eikonal picture which has theoretical foundations in some areas of physics has been successful in explaining various aspects of elastic scattering at high energies. Chou and Yang first proposed a preliminary version of the eikonal model for hadron-hadron elastic scattering. The model is based on geometrical considerations in which hadrons are treated as extended objects. Elastic scattering then results from the propagation of attenuated wave function. By assuming that at high energies the scattering amplitude is purely imaginary and that the hadronic matter distribution is proportional to the charge distribution on protons, Durand and Lipes studied high energy pp scattering on the basis of this prestine model. Later on, the model was extended to other elastic reactions. However, a survey of literature shows that it has been successful only in the diffraction peak region. It has been shown that the pristine Chou-Yange model can explain the differential cross section for deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at √s = 53 GeV in the diffraction peak region. In order to fit the large momentum transfer data, the generalized Chou-Yang model is used

  18. Forward diffraction amplitude of pp and pp elastic scattering at accelerator energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, M.; Maehara, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    A simple relation between the total cross section and the forward exponential slope of the elastic differential cross section of pp and pp scattering is indicated. An interpretation of this relation is presented as the formation of a black-disk structure for the elastic diffraction interaction of hadron-hadron scattering at the nonasymptotic energy region

  19. Non-linear waves in heterogeneous elastic rods via homogenization

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2012-03-01

    We consider the propagation of a planar loop on a heterogeneous elastic rod with a periodic microstructure consisting of two alternating homogeneous regions with different material properties. The analysis is carried out using a second-order homogenization theory based on a multiple scale asymptotic expansion. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlating elastic and plastic deformation with magnetic permeability values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the utilization of magnetic permeability method in determining elastic and plastic deformation state of ferromagnetic steels. The results have shown a strong degradation of the magnetic values on plastically region due to the irreversible movements of the magnetic domain walls.

  1. Price elasticity of demand for psychiatric consultation in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This paper addresses price elasticity of demand (PED) in a region where most patients make payments for consultations out of pocket. PED is a measure of the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of goods or services to changes in price. The study was done in the context of an outpatient psychiatric clinic in ...

  2. Phason elasticity and surface roughening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Leihan; Jaric, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The phason elasticity of two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium quasicrystals is discussed in analogy with surface roughening phenomena. Taking a Penrose tiling model as an example, we show that the phason elastic energy is linear in the phason strain at zero temperature (T = 0), but becomes quadratic at any T > 0 and sufficiently small strain. Heuristic and real-space renormalization group arguments are given for the thermal roughening of the hyper-surface which represents quasicrystal tiling. Monte Carlo method is applied to illustrate the logarithmically diverging phason fluctuations and power-law diffraction intensities at T > 0. For three-dimensional systems, we present arguments which suggest a finite temperature transition between two quasicrystal phases, characterized by linear and quadratic phason elastic energy, respectively. (author). 17 refs, 12 figs

  3. Appraisal of elastic follow up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide indications to choose what fraction of a self limiting stress can be considered as secondary. At first, considerations are given to a simple structure which could be called ''creep relaxation tensile test''. A bar (with constant cross section) is loaded by an elastic spring in order to obtain a given elongation of the assembly. The stress evolution is studied. Then the creep damage is computed, and compared to the damage corresponding to the elastic computed stress. This comparison gives the fraction of the self limiting stress which must be considered as primary. This involve the structural parameter 0 which is the initial value of the ratio of elastic energy to dissipating power. Extension of the rule is made with the help of KACHANOV approximation. As a conclusion a procedure is described which determines what fraction of a self limiting stress must be considered as primary

  4. Investor response to consumer elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, Stine; Meibom, Peter; Ravn, H.F.; Straarup, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    In the Nordic electricity system there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started in a situation with a large reserve margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The electricity price is the key market signal to potential investors. The price is settled as a balance between supply and demand, and it is generally assumed that the demand side has an important role in this, and increasingly so. However, since consumers have not earlier had the incentive to respond to electricity prices, no reliable estimate of demand elasticity is known. The purpose of the present study is to analyse the role of electricity demand elasticity for investments in new electricity production capacity. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the demand elasticity are used. The simulated investment decisions are taken in a stochastic, dynamic setting, where a key point is the timing of the investment decision in relation to the gathering of new information relative to the stochastic elements. Based on this, the consequences of the development in consumer price elasticity for investments in a base load and a peak load plant are investigated. The main result of the analysis is that peak load investments can be made unprofitable by the development in consumer price elasticity, such that an investor will tend to wait with his peak load investment, until the development in consumer price elasticity has been revealed. (au)

  5. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  6. CONFERENCE: Elastic and diffractive scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering, when particles appear to 'bounce' off each other, and the related phenomena of diffractive scattering are currently less fashionable than the study of hard scattering processes. However this could change rapidly if unexpected results from the UA4 experiment at the CERN Collider are confirmed and their implications tested. These questions were highlighted at the third 'Blois Workshop' on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held early in May on the Evanston campus of Northwestern University, near Chicago

  7. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  8. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  9. Elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Davis, L. C.

    1995-05-01

    We study the elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites with perfect bonding between fibers and matrix, and also with sliding boundary conditions. In the dilute region, there exists an exact analytical solution. Around the rigidity threshold we find the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio by decomposing the deformation into a compression mode and a rotation mode. For perfect bonding, both modes are important, whereas only the compression mode is operative for sliding boundary conditions. We employ the digital-image-based method and a finite element analysis to perform computer simulations which confirm our analytical predictions.

  10. Nonlinear theory of elastic shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, J.A.

    1979-08-01

    Nonlinear theory of elastic shells is developed which incorporates both geometric and physical nonlinearities and which does not make use of the well known Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis. The resulting equations are formulated in tensorial notation and are reduced to the ones of common use when simplifying assumptions encountered in the especific litterature are taken. (Author) [pt

  11. In Situ Observation of Hard Surrounding Rock Displacement at 2400-m-Deep Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xia-Ting; Yao, Zhi-Bin; Li, Shao-Jun; Wu, Shi-Yong; Yang, Cheng-Xiang; Guo, Hao-Sen; Zhong, Shan

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results of in situ investigation of the internal displacement of hard surrounding rock masses within deep tunnels at China's Jinping Underground Laboratory Phase II. The displacement evolution of the surrounding rock during the entire excavation processes was monitored continuously using pre-installed continuous-recording multi-point extensometers. The evolution of excavation-damaged zones and fractures in rock masses were also observed using acoustic velocity testing and digital borehole cameras, respectively. The results show four kinds of displacement behaviours of the hard surrounding rock masses during the excavation process. The displacement in the inner region of the surrounding rock was found to be greater than that of the rock masses near the tunnel's side walls in some excavation stages. This leads to a multi-modal distribution characteristic of internal displacement for hard surrounding rock masses within deep tunnels. A further analysis of the evolution information on the damages and fractures inside the surrounding rock masses reveals the effects of excavation disturbances and local geological conditions. This recognition can be used as the reference for excavation and supporting design and stability evaluations of hard-rock tunnels under high-stress conditions.

  12. Examining the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Michael James

    Estimating the consumer demand response to changes in the price of gasoline has important implications regarding fuel tax policies and environmental concerns. There are reasons to believe that the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand fluctuates due to changing structural and behavioral factors. In this paper I estimate the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand in two time periods, from 2001 to 2006 and from 2007 to 2010. This study utilizes data at both the national and state levels to produce estimates. The short-run price elasticities range from -0.034 to -0.047 during 2001 to 2006, compared to -0.058 to -0.077 in the 2007 to 2010 period. This paper also examines whether there are regional differences in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand in the United States. However, there appears to only be modest variation in price elasticity values across regions.

  13. Asymptotic perturbative QCD in elastic scattering, color transparency and ANN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botts, J.

    1989-01-01

    Sorting out the various perturbative contributions to wide angel elastic hadron-hadron scattering has been the subject of recent enquiry. Distinguishing the various contributions are the transverse size of the external hadrons and the interaction region and restrictions on the internal momenta flows. For wide angle elastic hadron-hadron scattering, the interaction between two types of perturbative processes, multiple and single scattering, can be the source of interference phenomena and interesting physics. In the following, after a brief description of the leading and non-leading processes, we shall give a picture of what perturbative QCD may have to say about elastic scattering, color transparency and the spin asymmetry, A NN . 9 refs., 5 figs

  14. Tidal propagation in the Gulf of Khambhat, Bombay High, and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    -diurnal and diurnal constituents at forty-two ports in the Gulf and surrounding areas is sued to define characteristics of the tides. A barotropic numerical model based on shallow water wave equations to simulate the sea level and circulation in the region is used...

  15. Heart transplantation and arterial elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colvin-Adams M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Monica Colvin-Adams,1 Nonyelum Harcourt,1 Robert LeDuc,2 Ganesh Raveendran,1 Yassir Sonbol,3 Robert Wilson,1 Daniel Duprez11Cardiovascular Division, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Biostatistics University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Cardiovascular Division, St Luke's Hospital System, Sugar Land, TX, USAObjective: Arterial elasticity is a functional biomarker that has predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in nontransplant populations. There is little information regarding arterial elasticity in heart transplant recipients. This study aimed to characterize small (SAE and large (LAE artery elasticity in heart transplant recipients in comparison with an asymptomatic population free of overt cardiovascular disease. A second goal was to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with arterial elasticity in this unique population.Methods: Arterial pulse waveform was registered noninvasively at the radial artery in 71 heart transplant recipients between 2008 and 2010. SAEs and LAEs were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. Comparisons were made to a healthy cohort of 1,808 participants selected from our prevention clinic database. Multiple regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations between risk factors and SAE and LAE within the heart transplant recipients.Results: LAE and SAE were significantly lower in heart transplant recipients than in the normal cohort (P <0.01 and P < 0.0001, respectively. Female sex and history of ischemic cardiomyopathy were significantly associated with reduced LAE and SAE. Older age and the presence of moderate cardiac allograft vasculopathy were also significantly associated with reduced SAE. Transplant duration was associated with increased SAE.Conclusion: Heart transplants are associated with peripheral endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in SAE and LAE when compared with a

  16. Elastic and inelastic photon scattering on the atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskarev, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Works on investigation of elastic and inelastic scattering of photons on heavy and intermediate nuclei are briefly reviewed. Theoretical problems of nuclear and electron Tompson, Releev and Delbrueck scatterings as well as nuclear resonance scattering are briefly discussed. It is shown that differential cross section of coherent elastic scattering is expressed by means of partial amplitudes of shown processes. Experimental investigations on elastic scattering in the region of threshold energies of photonucleon reactions are described. Problems of theoretical description of elastic scattering in different variants of collective models are considered. Discussed are works, investigating channels of inelastic photon scattering with excitation of nuclear Raman effect. It is noted that to describe channels of inelastic photon scattering it is necessary to use models, that correctly regard the microscopic structure of giant resonance levels to obtain information on the nature of these levels. Investigations of processes of photon elastic and inelastic scattering connected with fundamental characteristics of atomic nucleus, permit to obtain valuable spectroscopic information on high-lying levels of nucleus. Detail investigation of photon scattering in a wide range of energies is necessary [ru

  17. Structural aspects of elastic deformation of a metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hufnagel, T. C.; Ott, R. T.; Almer, J.

    2006-01-01

    We report the use of high-energy x-ray scattering to measure strain in a Zr 57 Ti 5 Cu 20 Ni 8 Al 10 bulk metallic glass in situ during uniaxial compression in the elastic regime up to stresses of approximately 60% of the yield stress. The strains extracted in two ways--directly from the normalized scattering data and from the pair correlation functions--are in good agreement with each other for length scales greater than 4 A. The elastic modulus calculated on the basis of this strain is in good agreement with that reported for closely related amorphous alloys based on macroscopic measurements. The strain measured for atoms in the nearest-neighbor shell, however, is smaller than that for more distant shells, and the effective elastic modulus calculated from the strain on this scale is therefore larger, comparable to crystalline alloys of similar composition. These observations are in agreement with previously proposed models in which the nominally elastic deformation of a metallic glass has a significant anelastic component due to atomic rearrangements in topologically unstable regions of the structure. We also observe that the distribution of the atomic-level stresses in the glass becomes more uniform during loading. This implies that the stiffness of metallic glasses may have an entropic contribution, analogous to the entropic contribution in rubber elasticity

  18. Submillisecond elastic recoil reveals molecular origins of fibrin fiber mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O'Brien, E Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Falvo, Michael R

    2013-06-18

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin's elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin's mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Submillisecond Elastic Recoil Reveals Molecular Origins of Fibrin Fiber Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan E.; Ding, Feng; Bucay, Igal; O’Brien, E. Timothy; Gorkun, Oleg V.; Superfine, Richard; Lord, Susan T.; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Falvo, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrin fibers form the structural scaffold of blood clots. Thus, their mechanical properties are of central importance to understanding hemostasis and thrombotic disease. Recent studies have revealed that fibrin fibers are elastomeric despite their high degree of molecular ordering. These results have inspired a variety of molecular models for fibrin’s elasticity, ranging from reversible protein unfolding to rubber-like elasticity. An important property that has not been explored is the timescale of elastic recoil, a parameter that is critical for fibrin’s mechanical function and places a temporal constraint on molecular models of fiber elasticity. Using high-frame-rate imaging and atomic force microscopy-based nanomanipulation, we measured the recoil dynamics of individual fibrin fibers and found that the recoil was orders of magnitude faster than anticipated from models involving protein refolding. We also performed steered discrete molecular-dynamics simulations to investigate the molecular origins of the observed recoil. Our results point to the unstructured αC regions of the otherwise structured fibrin molecule as being responsible for the elastic recoil of the fibers. PMID:23790375

  20. Thermo-mechanical vibration analysis of annular and circular graphene sheet embedded in an elastic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    Full Text Available In this study, the vibration behavior of annular and circular graphene sheet coupled with temperature change and under in-plane pre-stressed is studied. Influence of the surrounding elastic medium 011 the fundamental frequencies of the single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs is investigated. Both Winkler-type and Pasternak- type models are employed to simulate the interaction of the graphene sheets with a surrounding elastic medium. By using the nonlocal elasticity theory the governing equation is derived for SLGSs. The closed-form solution for frequency vibration of circular graphene sheets lias been obtained and nonlocal parameter, inplane pre-stressed, the parameters of elastic medium and temperature change appears into arguments of Bessel functions. The results are subsequently compared with valid result reported in the literature and the molecular dynamics (MD results. The effects of the small scale, pre-stressed, mode number, temperature change, elastic medium and boundary conditions on natural frequencies are investigated. The non-dimensional frequency decreases at high temperature case with increasing the temperature change for all boundary conditions. The effect of temperature change 011 the frequency vibration becomes the opposite at high temperature case in compression with the low temperature case. The present research work thus reveals that the nonlocal parameter, boundary conditions and temperature change have significant effects on vibration response of the circular nanoplates. The present results can be used for the design of the next generation of nanodevices that make use of the thermal vibration properties of the graphene.

  1. Texture and Elastic Anisotropy of Mantle Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. N.; Ivankina, T. I.; Bourilitchev, D. E.; Klima, K.; Locajicek, T.; Pros, Z.

    Eight olivine rock samples from different European regions were collected for neu- tron texture analyses and for P-wave velocity measurements by means of ultrasonic sounding at various confining pressures. The orientation distribution functions (ODFs) of olivine were determined and pole figures of the main crystallographic planes were calculated. The spatial P-wave velocity distributions were determined at confining pressures from 0.1 to 400 MPa and modelled from the olivine textures. In dependence upon the type of rock (xenolith or dunite) different behavior of both the P-wave veloc- ity distributions and the anisotropy coefficients with various confining pressures was observed. In order to explain the interdependence of elastic anisotropy and hydrostatic pressure, a model for polycrystalline olivine rocks was suggested, which considers the influence of the crystallographic and the mechanical textures on the elastic behaviour of the polycrystal. Since the olivine texture depends upon the active slip systems and the deformation temperature, neutron texture analyses enable us to estimate depth and thermodynamical conditions during texture formation.

  2. Collusion and the elasticity of demand

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of collusion in infinitely repeated Cournot oligopoly games has generally assumed that demand is linear, but this note uses constant-elasticity demand functions to investigate how the elasticity of demand affects the sustainability of collusion.

  3. Mechanical behaviour of nanoparticles: Elasticity and plastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... Mechanical behaviour of nanoparticles: Elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms ... The main results in terms of elasticity and plastic deformation mechanisms are then reported ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  4. Converging shocks in elastic-plastic solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A López; Lombardini, M; Hill, D J

    2011-11-01

    hydrostatic part of the energy essentially commands the strong-shock behavior, the shear modulus and yield stress modify the compression ratio and velocity of the shock far from the axis or origin. A characterization of the elastic-plastic transition in converging shocks, which involves an elastic precursor and a plastic compression region, is finally exposed.

  5. Electrical resistivity response due to elastic-plastic deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    The electrical resistivity of many materials is sensitive to changes in the electronic band configurations surrounding the atoms, changes in the electron-phonon interaction cross-sections, and changes in the density of intrinsic defect structures. These changes are most directly dependent on interatomic measures of relative deformation. For this reason, a model for resistivity response is developed in terms of interatomic measures of relative deformation. The relative deformation consists of two terms, a continuous function to describe the recoverable displacement between two atoms in the atomic lattice structure and a functional to describe the nonrecoverable displacement between two atoms as a result of interatomic discontinuities from dislocation kinetics. This model for resistivity extends the classical piezoresistance representation and relates electric resistance change directly to physical mechanisms. An analysis for the resistivity change of a thin foil ideally embedded in a material that undergoes elastic-plastic deformation is presented. For the case of elastic deformations, stress information in the material surrounding the thin foil is inferred for the cases of pure strain coupling boundary conditions, pure stress coupling boundary conditions, and a combination of stress-strain coupling boundary conditions. 42 refs., 4 figs

  6. Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun; Zhang, Zhao-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse

  7. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is used to invert synthetic particle-velocity data and crosswell pressure field data. The migration images consist of both the P- and Svelocity perturbation images. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrate the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In addition, elastic LSRTM images are better focused and have better reflector continuity than do the acoustic LSRTM images.

  8. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2016-09-06

    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is used to invert synthetic particle-velocity data and crosswell pressure field data. The migration images consist of both the P- and Svelocity perturbation images. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrate the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In addition, elastic LSRTM images are better focused and have better reflector continuity than do the acoustic LSRTM images.

  9. Add-on unidirectional elastic metamaterial plate cloak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-02-01

    Metamaterial cloaks control the propagation of waves to make an object invisible or insensible. To manipulate elastic waves in space, a metamaterial cloak is typically embedded in a base system that includes or surrounds a target object. The embedding is undesirable because it structurally weakens or permanently alters the base system. In this study, we propose a new add-on metamaterial elastic cloak that can be placed over and mechanically coupled with a base structure without embedding. We designed an add-on type annular metamaterial plate cloak through conformal mapping, fabricated it and performed cloaking experiments in a thin-plate with a hole. Experiments were performed in a thin plate by using the lowest symmetric Lamb wave centered at 100 kHz. As a means to check the cloaking performance of the add-on elastic plate cloak, possibly as a temporary stress reliever or a so-called “stress bandage”, the degree of stress concentration mitigation and the recovery from the perturbed wave field due to a hole were investigated.

  10. Dissipation of Impact Stress Waves within the Artificial Blasting Damage Zone in the Surrounding Rocks of Deep Roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial explosions are commonly used to prevent rockburst in deep roadways. However, the dissipation of the impact stress wave within the artificial blasting damage zone (ABDZ of the rocks surrounding a deep roadway has not yet been clarified. The surrounding rocks were divided into the elastic zone, blasting damage zone, plastic zone, and anchorage zone in this research. Meanwhile, the ABDZ was divided into the pulverizing area, fractured area, and cracked area from the inside out. Besides, the model of the normal incidence of the impact stress waves in the ABDZ was established; the attenuation coefficient of the amplitude of the impact stress waves was obtained after it passed through the intact rock mass, and ABDZ, to the anchorage zone. In addition, a numerical simulation was used to study the dynamic response of the vertical stress and impact-induced vibration energy in the surrounding rocks. By doing so, the dissipation of the impact stress waves within the ABDZ of the surrounding rocks was revealed. As demonstrated in the field application, the establishment of the ABDZ in the surrounding rocks reduced the effect of the impact-induced vibration energy on the anchorage support system of the roadway.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Price Elasticity for Urban Domestic Water Consumption in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tajabadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Price elasticity plays a critical role in determining water tariff and its system. Many economic decision makers and researchers have estimated demand function for different cities in order to predict the associated income and price elasticity. In this research we reviewed 20 studies on urban domestic water demand function from which 63 price elasticity values were obtained. Since the price elasticity values obtained from these studies had significant statistical differences, the aim of this research is to determine the effective factors in price elasticity values as well as to analyze differences in such values using meta-analysis technique. The meta-analysis technique focuses on variation in water price elasticity results. The statistical meta-analysis technique focuses on two main objectives of publication bias or publication heterogeneity in reported results. The results indicated that publication bias is negligible while publication heterogeneity is significant. The major factors affecting price elasticity values are classified into 4 categories including theoretical, model, data and socio-geographical specifications. The result indicated that variables such as income, time-series datasets, natural logarithm function and use of stone-geary theory which is the basis for predicting many domestic water demand functions, significantly overestimate the price elasticity values. Also the geographical condition of the region, population density and use of OLS technique to estimate the demand parameters underestimates the price elasticity values.

  12. Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, DGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, DHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, DSe) and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the reinforced ...

  13. On Elasticity Measurement in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elasticity is the foundation of cloud performance and can be considered as a great advantage and a key benefit of cloud computing. However, there is no clear, concise, and formal definition of elasticity measurement, and thus no effective approach to elasticity quantification has been developed so far. Existing work on elasticity lack of solid and technical way of defining elasticity measurement and definitions of elasticity metrics have not been accurate enough to capture the essence of elasticity measurement. In this paper, we present a new definition of elasticity measurement and propose a quantifying and measuring method using a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC model, which is easy to use for precise calculation of elasticity value of a cloud computing platform. Our numerical results demonstrate the basic parameters affecting elasticity as measured by the proposed measurement approach. Furthermore, our simulation and experimental results validate that the proposed measurement approach is not only correct but also robust and is effective in computing and comparing the elasticity of cloud platforms. Our research in this paper makes significant contribution to quantitative measurement of elasticity in cloud computing.

  14. The Measurement of the Quasi-Elastic Neutrino-Nucleon Scattering Cross Section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwonjandee, Narumon [Cincinnati U.

    2004-01-01

    The quasi-elastic neutrino nucleon cross section measurement has been measured in the low energy region less than 100 Ge V. The data agree well with the model proposed by C. H. Llewellyn Smith. This model predicts that the quasi-elastic cross section should be constant in the high enery region. The NuTeV experiment at Fermilab provides data which allows us to measure the quasi-elastic cross section for both neutrinos and anti-neutrinos at high energy. We find that $\\sigma^{Neucleon}_{qe}(v) = 0.94 \\pm 0.03(stat.) \\pm 0.07(syst.)$, and $\\sigma^{Neucleon}_{qe}(\\bar\

  15. Severe blood-brain barrier disruption and surrounding tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Friedman, Beth; Cheng, Qun; Tsai, Phil; Schim, Erica; Kleinfeld, David; Lyden, Patrick D

    2009-12-01

    Blood-brain barrier opening during ischemia follows a biphasic time course, may be partially reversible, and allows plasma constituents to enter brain and possibly damage cells. In contrast, severe vascular disruption after ischemia is unlikely to be reversible and allows even further extravasation of potentially harmful plasma constituents. We sought to use simple fluorescent tracers to allow wide-scale visualization of severely damaged vessels and determine whether such vascular disruption colocalized with regions of severe parenchymal injury. Severe vascular disruption and ischemic injury was produced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1, 2, 4, or 8 hours, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (2 MDa) was injected intravenously before occlusion. After perfusion-fixation, brain sections were processed for ultrastructure or fluorescence imaging. We identified early evidence of tissue damage with Fluoro-Jade staining of dying cells. With increasing ischemia duration, greater quantities of high molecular weight dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate invaded and marked ischemic regions in a characteristic pattern, appearing first in the medial striatum, spreading to the lateral striatum, and finally involving cortex; maximal injury was seen in the mid-parietal areas, consistent with the known ischemic zone in this model. The regional distribution of the severe vascular disruption correlated with the distribution of 24-hour 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride pallor (r=0.75; P<0.05) and the cell death marker Fluoro-Jade (r=0.86; P<0.05). Ultrastructural examination showed significantly increased areas of swollen astrocytic foot process and swollen mitochondria in regions of high compared to low leakage, and compared to contralateral homologous regions (ANOVA P<0.01). Dextran extravasation into the basement membrane and surrounding tissue increased significantly from 2 to 8 hours of

  16. Xiphoid Process-Derived Chondrocytes: A Novel Cell Source for Elastic Cartilage Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seungwoo; Cho, Wheemoon; Cho, Hyunji; Lee, Jungsun

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of elastic cartilage requires a source of chondrocytes that display a reliable differentiation tendency. Predetermined tissue progenitor cells are ideal candidates for meeting this need; however, it is difficult to obtain donor elastic cartilage tissue because most elastic cartilage serves important functions or forms external structures, making these tissues indispensable. We found vestigial cartilage tissue in xiphoid processes and characterized it as hyaline cartilage in the proximal region and elastic cartilage in the distal region. Xiphoid process-derived chondrocytes (XCs) showed superb in vitro expansion ability based on colony-forming unit fibroblast assays, cell yield, and cumulative cell growth. On induction of differentiation into mesenchymal lineages, XCs showed a strong tendency toward chondrogenic differentiation. An examination of the tissue-specific regeneration capacity of XCs in a subcutaneous-transplantation model and autologous chondrocyte implantation model confirmed reliable regeneration of elastic cartilage regardless of the implantation environment. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that xiphoid process cartilage, the only elastic cartilage tissue source that can be obtained without destroying external shape or function, is a source of elastic chondrocytes that show superb in vitro expansion and reliable differentiation capacity. These findings indicate that XCs could be a valuable cell source for reconstruction of elastic cartilage. PMID:25205841

  17. Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2013-10-01

    In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.

  18. Elasticity of Long Distance Travelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Aagaard

    2011-01-01

    With data from the Danish expenditure survey for 12 years 1996 through 2007, this study analyses household expenditures for long distance travelling. Household expenditures are examined at two levels of aggregation having the general expenditures on transportation and leisure relative to five other...... aggregated commodities at the highest level, and the specific expenditures on plane tickets and travel packages at the lowest level. The Almost Ideal Demand System is applied to determine the relationship between expenditures on transportation and leisure and all other purchased non-durables within...... packages has higher income elasticity of demand than plane tickets but also higher than transportation and leisure in general. The findings within price sensitiveness are not as sufficient estimated, but the model results indicate that travel packages is far more price elastic than plane tickets which...

  19. Elastic scattering of gamma radiation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, O.D.

    1987-01-01

    The elastic scattering of gamma rays in solids is studied: Rayleigh scattering as well as Bragg scattering in Laue geometries. We measured Rayleigh cross sections for U, Pb, Pt, W, Sn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Zn, and Cu with gamma energies ranging from 60 to 660 KeV and angles between 5 0 and 140 0 . The experimental data are compared with form factor theories and second order perturbation theories and the limits of validity of both are established. In the 60 KeV experiment, a competition between Rayleigh and Bragg effects is found in the region of low momentum transfer. The Bragg experiments were performed using the gamma ray diffractometer from the Hahn-Meitner Institut (Berlin) with gammas of 317 KeV and angles up to 2 0 . In particular, we studied the effect of annealing in nearly perfect Czochralski Silicon crystals with high perfection in the crystallographic structure. The results are compared with Kinematical and Dynamical theories. (author)

  20. Pipeline robots with elastic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matuliauskas

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article constructions of the pipeline robots with elastic elements are reviewed and the scheme of new original construction is presented. The mathematical models of a robot with one-dimensional vibration exciter with two degrees of freedom were developed and the equations of movement were formed and written. The mathematical model of the pipeline robot with circular elements is formed and its motion equations are presented.

  1. The poverty elasticity of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    How much does economic growth contribute to poverty reduction? I discuss analytical and empirical approches to assess the poverty elasticity of growth, and emphasize that the relationship between growth and poverty change is non-constant. For a given poverty measure, it depends on initial inequality and on the location of the poverty line relative to mean income. In most cases, growth is more important for poverty reduction than changes in inequality, but this does not tender inequality unimp...

  2. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  3. Teaching nonlinear dynamics through elastic cords

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, R; Galan, C A; Sanchez-Bajo, F

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally studied the restoring force of a length of stretched elastic cord. A simple analytical expression for the restoring force was found to fit all the experimental results for different elastic materials. Remarkably, this analytical expression depends upon an elastic-cord characteristic parameter which exhibits two limiting values corresponding to two nonlinear springs with different Hooke's elastic constants. Additionally, the simplest model of elastic cord dynamics is capable of exhibiting a great diversity of nonlinear phenomena, including bifurcations and chaos, thus providing a suitable alternative model system for discussing the basic essentials of nonlinear dynamics in the context of intermediate physics courses at university level.

  4. Elastic interaction between surface and spherical pore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, G.Z.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsyn, S.B.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.

    2000-01-01

    The energy of elastic interaction of a gas-filled spherical cavity with a boundary of an elastic isotropic half-space is determined. The elastic field of a system of a spherical cavity - boundary is represented as an expansion in series of potential functions. The factors of expansions are determined by boundary conditions on a free surface of an elastic half-space and on a spherical surface of a cavity with pressure of gas P. Function of a Tresca-Miesesa on a surface of elastic surface is defined additionally with purpose creep condition determination caused by gas pressure in the cavity. (author)

  5. Elastic scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspar, Jan; Deile, M

    The seemingly simple elastic scattering of protons still presents a challenge for the theory. In this thesis we discuss the elastic scattering from theoretical as well as experimental point of view. In the theory part, we present several models and their predictions for the LHC. We also discuss the Coulomb-hadronic interference, where we present a new eikonal calculation to all orders of alpha, the fine-structure constant. In the experimental part we introduce the TOTEM experiment which is dedicated, among other subjects, to the measurement of the elastic scattering at the LHC. This measurement is performed primarily with the Roman Pot (RP) detectors - movable beam-pipe insertions hundreds of meters from the interaction point, that can detect protons scattered to very small angles. We discuss some aspects of the RP simulation and reconstruction software. A central point is devoted to the techniques of RP alignment - determining the RP sensor positions relative to each other and to the beam. At the end we pres...

  6. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  7. A new approach to ultrasonic elasticity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerig, Cameron; Ghaboussi, Jamshid; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical properties of soft tissues can provide information regarding the local health status. Often the cells in pathological tissues can be found to form a stiff extracellular environment, which is a sensitive, early diagnostic indicator of disease. Quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging provides a way to image the mechanical properties of tissues. Strain images provide a map of the relative tissue stiffness, but ambiguities and artifacts limit its diagnostic value. Accurately mapping intrinsic mechanical parameters of a region may increase diagnostic specificity. However, the inverse problem, whereby force and displacement estimates are used to estimate a constitutive matrix, is ill conditioned. Our method avoids many of the issues involved with solving the inverse problem, such as unknown boundary conditions and incomplete information about the stress field, by building an empirical model directly from measured data. Surface force and volumetric displacement data gathered during imaging are used in conjunction with the AutoProgressive method to teach artificial neural networks the stress-strain relationship of tissues. The Autoprogressive algorithm has been successfully used in many civil engineering applications and to estimate ocular pressure and corneal stiffness; here, we are expanding its use to any tissues imaged ultrasonically. We show that force-displacement data recorded with an ultrasound probe and displacements estimated at a few points in the imaged region can be used to estimate the full stress and strain vectors throughout an entire model while only assuming conservation laws. We will also demonstrate methods to parameterize the mechanical properties based on the stress-strain response of trained neural networks. This method is a fundamentally new approach to medical elasticity imaging that for the first time provides full stress and strain vectors from one set of observation data.

  8. Elastic-plastic transition: A universal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the initial stress-strain behavior in a tensile test is often characterized as linear elastic up to a yield stress and nonlinear plastic thereafter, the pre-yield transition region is known to exhibit significant curvature and hysteresis. Hundreds of high-precision loading-unloading-loading tensile tests were performed using 26 commercial sheet alloys exhibiting a wide range of strength, ductility and crystal structure. Analysis of the results reveals the following: 1.There is no significant linear elastic region; the proportional limit is ~0 MPa when measured with sufficient sensitivity. 2.Each of the hundreds of measured transitional stress-strain curves can be characterized by a single parameter, here called the “modulus reduction rate.”The corresponding equation captures ~80% of the observed variation, a factor of 3 to 6 better than a one-parameter linear approximation. 3.Most interestingly, the transitional behavior for all alloys follows a “Universal Law” requiring no fit parameters. The law depends only upon the strength of the material and its Young’s modulus, both of which are can be measured by independent tests or adopted from handbooks. The Universal Law captures ~90% of the variation represented by the one-parameter representation and eliminates the need for mechanical testing to implement and apply. The practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed. The results provide a simple path to significantly improving applied constitutive models in the transitional regime. The consistency of the effect for such a wide range of metals and suggests that the origin of the behavior lies in the pile-up and relaxation of dislocation arrays.

  9. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability ...

  10. Investigation of the readout electronics of DELPHI surround muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khovanskij, N.; Krumshtejn, Z.; Ol'shevskij, A.; Sadovskij, A.; Sedykh, Yu.; Molnar, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomsa, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of the readout electronics of the DELPHI surround muon chambers with various AMPLEX chips (AMPLEX 16 and AMPLEX-SICAL) are presented. This electronics is studied in a cosmic rays test of the real surround muon chamber model. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Tamone, Amelie [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Varela, Jesus, E-mail: elena.ricciardelli@epfl.ch [Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Plaza San Juan 1, E-44001 Teruel (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R {sub void}, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3 σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  12. Surrounding land cover types as predictors of palustrine wetland vegetation quality in conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Gara, Brian; Schumacher, William

    2018-01-01

    The loss of wetland habitats and their often-unique biological communities is a major environmental concern. We examined vegetation data obtained from 380 wetlands sampled in a statistical survey of wetlands in the USA. Our goal was to identify which surrounding land cover types best predict two indices of vegetation quality in wetlands at the regional scale. We considered palustrine wetlands in four regions (Coastal Plains, North Central East, Interior Plains, and West) in which the dominant vegetation was emergent, forested, or scrub-shrub. For each wetland, we calculated weighted proportions of eight land cover types surrounding the area in which vegetation was assessed, in four zones radiating from the edge of the assessment area to 2 km. Using Akaike's Information Criterion, we determined the best 1-, 2- and 3-predictor models of the two indices, using the weighted proportions of the land cover types as potential predictors. Mean values of the two indices were generally higher in the North Central East and Coastal Plains than the other regions for forested and emergent wetlands. In nearly all cases, the best predictors of the indices were not the dominant surrounding land cover types. Overall, proportions of forest (positive effect) and agriculture (negative effect) surrounding the assessment area were the best predictors of the two indices. One or both of these variables were included as predictors in 65 of the 72 models supported by the data. Wetlands surrounding the assessment area had a positive effect on the indices, and ranked third (33%) among the predictors included in supported models. Development had a negative effect on the indices and was included in only 28% of supported models. These results can be used to develop regional management plans for wetlands, such as creating forest buffers around wetlands, or to conserve zones between wetlands to increase habitat connectivity.

  13. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  14. Application of quasi-elastic neutron scattering to dynamics study of confined water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hua; Zhang Lili; Yi Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) is an important experiment for dynamics study of confined water. It is significant to study the dynamics of confined water in cement paste. Purpose: In this paper, we have two aims. One is to present a reviewer of QENS study on dynamics of confined water in cement paste in recent years. The other is to illustrate the QENS application to the study on dynamics of confined water based on cement paste. Method: Relaxing cage model (RCM) is specially introduced for the analyses of QENS spectra. Results: Based on RCM, several parameters for describing the dynamics of confined water in cement paste, can be obtained from the analyses of QENS spectra: a fraction of mobile 'glassy' water molecules embedded in amorphous gel region surrounding the hydration products, 1-p, the capture time of confined water molecule in some place-τ 0 , the average translational relaxation time-<τ>, the self-diffusion coefficient-D, and a phenomenological shape parameter describing the uniform of amorphous in cement paste-β. Conclusion: All these provide a practical method for QENS study on dynamics of confined water in cement paste. (authors)

  15. Motivation and compliance with intraoral elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeroo, Helen J; Cunningham, Susan J; Newton, Jonathon Timothy; Travess, Helen C

    2014-07-01

    Intraoral elastics are commonly used in orthodontics and require regular changing to be effective. Unfortunately, poor compliance with elastics is often encountered, especially in adolescents. Intention for an action and its implementation can be improved using "if-then" plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal, such as elastic wear, can be put into action. Our aim was to determine the effect of if-then plans on compliance with elastics. To identify common barriers to compliance with recommendations concerning elastic wear, semistructured interviews were carried out with 14 adolescent orthodontic patients wearing intraoral elastics full time. Emerging themes were used to develop if-then plans to improve compliance with elastic wear. A prospective pilot study assessed the effectiveness of if-then planning aimed at overcoming the identified barriers on compliance with elastic wear. Twelve participants were randomized equally into study and control groups; the study group received information about if-then planning. The participants were asked to collect used elastics, and counts of these were used to assess compliance. A wide range of motivational and volitional factors were described by the interviewed participants, including the perceived benefits of elastics, cues to remember, pain, eating, social situations, sports, loss of elastics, and breakages. Compliance with elastic wear was highly variable among patients. The study group returned more used elastics, suggesting increased compliance, but the difference was not significant. The use of if-then plans might improve compliance with elastic wear when compared with routine clinical instructions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Consistent and robust determination of border ownership based on asymmetric surrounding contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Ko; Nishimura, Haruka; Shimizu, Ryohei; Kondo, Keiichi

    2012-09-01

    Determination of the figure region in an image is a fundamental step toward surface construction, shape coding, and object representation. Localized, asymmetric surround modulation, reported neurophysiologically in early-to-intermediate-level visual areas, has been proposed as a mechanism for figure-ground segregation. We investigated, computationally, whether such surround modulation is capable of yielding consistent and robust determination of figure side for various stimuli. Our surround modulation model showed a surprisingly high consistency among pseudorandom block stimuli, with greater consistency for stimuli that yielded higher accuracy of, and shorter reaction times in, human perception. Our analyses revealed that the localized, asymmetric organization of surrounds is crucial in the detection of the contrast imbalance that leads to the determination of the direction of figure with respect to the border. The model also exhibited robustness for gray-scaled natural images, with a mean correct rate of 67%, which was similar to that of figure-side determination in human perception through a small window and of machine-vision algorithms based on local processing. These results suggest a crucial role of surround modulation in the local processing of figure-ground segregation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Importance of the Decompensative Correction of the Gravity Field for Study of the Upper Crust: Application to the Arabian Plate and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir

    2017-01-01

    The isostatic correction represents one of the most useful "geological" reduction methods of the gravity field. With this correction it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. However, even this reduction does not show the full gravity effect of unknown anomalies in the upper crust since their impact is substantially reduced by the isostatic compensation. We analyze a so-called decompensative correction of the isostatic anomalies, which provides a possibility to separate these effects. It was demonstrated that this correction is very significant at the mid-range wavelengths and may exceed 100 m/s2 (mGal), therefore ignoring this effect would lead to wrong conclusions about the upper crust structure. At the same time, the decompensative correction is very sensitive to the compensation depth and effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere. Therefore, these parameters should be properly determined based on other studies. Based on this technique, we estimate the decompensative correction for the Arabian plate and surrounding regions. The amplitude of the decompensative anomalies reaches ±250 m/s2 10-5 (mGal), evidencing for both, large density anomalies of the upper crust (including sediments) and strong isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere. These results improve the knowledge about the crustal structure in the Middle East.

  18. Strain concentration at structural discontinuities and its quantification by elastic follow-up parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Takasho, Hideki

    1998-12-01

    Elevated temperature structural design codes pay attention to strain concentration at structural discontinuities due to creep and plasticity, since it causes to enlarge creep-fatigue damage of material. One of the difficulties to predict strain concentration is its dependency on loading, constitutive equations, and relaxation time. This study investigated fundamental mechanism of strain concentration and its main factors. It was clarified that strain concentration was caused from strain redistribution between elastic and inelastic regions, which can be quantified by the elastic follow-up parameter. As a function of inelastic strain, the elastic follow-up parameter can describe variation of strain concentration during incremental loading and relaxation process, caused by transition of strain distribution from peak strain concentration to secondary stress redistribution. Structures have their own elastic follow-up characteristics as a function of inelastic strain, which is insensitive to constitutive equations. It means that application of inelastic analysis is not difficult to obtain elastic follow-up characteristics. (author)

  19. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  20. Understanding Price Elasticities to Inform Public Health Research and Intervention Studies: Key Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies. PMID:24028228

  1. Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-11-01

    Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies.

  2. Wave motion in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Karl F

    1991-01-01

    This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter

  3. Elastic Moduli of Carbon Nanohorns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube is a special case of carbon nanohorns or carbon nanocones with zero apex angle. Research into carbon nanohorns started almost at the same time as the discovery of nanotubes in 1991. Most researchers focused on the investigation of nanotubes, and the exploration of nanohorns attracted little attention. To model the carbon nanohorns, we make use of a more reliable second-generation reactive empirical bond-order potential by Brenner and coworkers. We investigate the elastic moduli and conclude that these nanohorns are equally strong and require in-depth investigation. The values of Young's and Shear moduli decrease with apex angle.

  4. Wave propagation in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Jan

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat

  5. Systematics of elastic scattering at high and intermediate energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias De Deus, J [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Lisboa (Portugal); Kroll, P [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    A model for elastic scattering valid in the intermediate and high-energy region is proposed. The model includes three kinds of entities: the pomeron, a universal GS pomeron; the reggeons, also universal and of GS type; and the core, a low-energy central real piece required by dispersion relations. The number of free functions and parameters is rather small. The approach supports naive duality and, in general, agrees with the results of absorptive models.

  6. Interface effects on effective elastic moduli of nanocrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gangfeng; Feng Xiqiao; Yu Shouwen; Nan Cewen

    2003-01-01

    Interfaces often play a significant role in many physical properties and phenomena of nanocrystalline materials (NcMs). In the present paper, the interface effects on the effective elastic property of NcMs are investigated. First, an atomic potential method is suggested for estimating the effective elastic modulus of an interface phase. Then, the Mori-Tanaka effective field method is employed to determine the overall effective elastic moduli of a nanocrystalline material, which is regarded as a binary composite consisting of a crystal or inclusion phase with regular lattice connected by an amorphous-like interface or matrix phase. Finally, the stiffening effects of strain gradients are examined on the effective elastic property by using the strain gradient theory to analyze a representative unit cell. Our analysis shows two physical mechanisms of interfaces that influence the effective stiffness and other mechanical properties of materials. One is the softening effect due to the distorted atomic structures and the increased atomic spacings in interface regions, and another is the baffling effect due to the existence of boundary layers between the interface phase and the crystalline phase

  7. Elastic dipoles of point defects from atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvenne, Céline; Clouet, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of point defects with an external stress field or with other structural defects is usually well described within continuum elasticity by the elastic dipole approximation. Extraction of the elastic dipoles from atomistic simulations is therefore a fundamental step to connect an atomistic description of the defect with continuum models. This can be done either by a fitting of the point-defect displacement field, by a summation of the Kanzaki forces, or by a linking equation to the residual stress. We perform here a detailed comparison of these different available methods to extract elastic dipoles, and show that they all lead to the same values when the supercell of the atomistic simulations is large enough and when the anharmonic region around the point defect is correctly handled. But, for small simulation cells compatible with ab initio calculations, only the definition through the residual stress appears tractable. The approach is illustrated by considering various point defects (vacancy, self-interstitial, and hydrogen solute atom) in zirconium, using both empirical potentials and ab initio calculations.

  8. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  9. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  10. Contamination of nebulisers and surrounding air at the bedside of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An air sampler was used to collect air samples from the surrounding bedside environment. .... individualised resealable plastic bags and stored upside down in a cooler .... conventional and mesh technology nebulisers used at home by adults.

  11. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  12. Surface elastic properties in silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Claudio; Giordano, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2017-09-01

    The elastic behavior of the external surface of a solid body plays a key role in nanomechanical phenomena. While bulk elasticity enjoys the benefits of a robust theoretical understanding, many surface elasticity features remain unexplored: some of them are here addressed by blending together continuum elasticity and atomistic simulations. A suitable readdressing of the surface elasticity theory allows to write the balance equations in arbitrary curvilinear coordinates and to investigate the dependence of the surface elastic parameters on the mean and Gaussian curvatures of the surface. In particular, we predict the radial strain induced by surface effects in spherical and cylindrical silicon nanoparticles and provide evidence that the surface parameters are nearly independent of curvatures and, therefore, of the surface conformation.

  13. Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    En-Bo, Wei; Guo-Qing, Gu; Ying-Ming, Poon

    2010-01-01

    Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  14. Effective elastic properties of damaged isotropic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U Sik

    1998-01-01

    In continuum damage mechanics, damaged solids have been represented by the effective elastic stiffness into which local damage is smoothly smeared. Similarly, damaged solids may be represented in terms of effective elastic compliances. By virtue of the effective elastic compliance representation, it may become easier to derive the effective engineering constants of damaged solids from the effective elastic compliances, all in closed form. Thus, in this paper, by using a continuum modeling approach based on both the principle of strain energy equivalence and the equivalent elliptical micro-crack representation of local damage, the effective elastic compliance and effective engineering constants are derived in terms of the undamaged (virgin) elastic properties and a scalar damage variable for both damaged two-and three-dimensional isotropic solids

  15. Monitoring program of surrounding of the NPP SE-EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobis, L.; Kostial, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper dealt with monitoring program of radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, which has the aim: (1) to ensure the control of influence of work of the NPP Bohunice on the environment in their surrounding; (2) to ensure the back-ground for regular brief of control and supervisory organs about condition of the environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice; (3) to maintain the expected technical level of control of the NPP Bohunice and to exploit optimally the technical means; (4) to solicit permanently the data about the radioactivity of environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice for forming of files of the data; (5) to exploit purposefully the technical equipment, technical workers and to maintain their in permanent emergency and technical eligibility for the case of the breakdown; (6) to obtain permanently the files of the values for qualification of the reference levels. This program of monitoring includes the radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, in the time of normal work of power-station's blocks, inclusively of all types of trouble-shooting and repairer works in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, up to distance 20 km from power-station. The monitoring includes: outlets from the NPP Bohunice, monitoring of radiation characteristics in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, (aerosols, fall-outs, soil), the links of food chains: (grass and fodder, milk, agriculture products), hydrosphere in surrounding (surface waters, drink water, bores of radiation control in complex of the NPP Bohunice, components of the hydrosphere), measurement of radiation from external sources (measurement of the dose rates, measurement of the doses [sk

  16. Chromatic induction from surrounding stimuli under perceptual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Koji; Kuriki, Ichiro; Tokunaga, Rumi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of colors can be affected by their spatiotemporal context. The shift in color appearance according to the surrounding colors is called color induction or chromatic induction; in particular, the shift in opponent color of the surround is called chromatic contrast. To investigate whether chromatic induction occurs even when the chromatic surround is imperceptible, we measured chromatic induction during interocular suppression. A multicolor or uniform color field was presented as the surround stimulus, and a colored continuous flash suppression (CFS) stimulus was presented to the dominant eye of each subject. The subjects were asked to report the appearance of the test field only when the stationary surround stimulus is invisible by interocular suppression with CFS. The resulting shifts in color appearance due to chromatic induction were significant even under the conditions of interocular suppression for all surround stimuli. The magnitude of chromatic induction differed with the surround conditions, and this difference was preserved regardless of the viewing conditions. The chromatic induction effect was reduced by CFS, in proportion to the magnitude of chromatic induction under natural (i.e., no-CFS) viewing conditions. According to an analysis with linear model fitting, we revealed the presence of at least two kinds of subprocesses for chromatic induction that reside at higher and lower levels than the site of interocular suppression. One mechanism yields different degrees of chromatic induction based on the complexity of the surround, which is unaffected by interocular suppression, while the other mechanism changes its output with interocular suppression acting as a gain control. Our results imply that the total chromatic induction effect is achieved via a linear summation of outputs from mechanisms that reside at different levels of visual processing.

  17. Anomalous elasticity, fluctuations and disorder in elastic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doussal, Pierre; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by freely suspended graphene and polymerized membranes in soft and biological matter we present a detailed study of a tensionless elastic sheet in the presence of thermal fluctuations and quenched disorder. The manuscript is based on an extensive draft dating back to 1993, that was circulated privately. It presents the general theoretical framework and calculational details of numerous results, partial forms of which have been published in brief Letters (Le Doussal and Radzihovsky, 1992; 1993). The experimental realization atom-thin graphene sheets (Novoselov et al., 2004) have driven a resurgence in this fascinating subject, making our dated predictions and their detailed derivations timely. To this end we analyze the statistical mechanics of a generalized D-dimensional elastic "membrane" embedded in d dimensions using a self-consistent screening approximation (SCSA), that has proved to be unprecedentedly accurate in this system, exact in three complementary limits: (i) d → ∞, (ii) D → 4, and (iii) D = d. Focusing on the critical "flat" phase, for a homogeneous two-dimensional (D = 2) membrane embedded in three dimensions (d = 3), we predict its universal roughness exponent ζ = 0 . 590, length-scale dependent elastic moduli exponents η = 0 . 821 and ηu = 0 . 358, and an anomalous Poisson ratio, σ = - 1 / 3. In the presence of random uncorrelated heterogeneity the membrane exhibits a glassy wrinkled ground state, characterized by ζ‧ = 0 . 775 ,η‧ = 0 . 449, ηu‧ = 1 . 101 and a Poisson ratio σ‧ = - 1 / 3. Motivated by a number of physical realizations (charged impurities, disclinations and dislocations) we also study power-law correlated quenched disorder that leads to a variety of distinct glassy wrinkled phases. Finally, neglecting self-avoiding interaction we demonstrate that at high temperature a "phantom" sheet undergoes a continuous crumpling transition, characterized by a radius of gyration exponent, ν = 0 . 732 and η = 0

  18. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H

    2006-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  19. Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on-off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator.

  20. Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue–fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074

  1. High Energy pp Elastic Scattering in Condensate Enclosed Chiral Bag Model and TOTEM Elastic Measurements at LHC at 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M M

    2013-01-01

    We study high energy $\\small{\\rm{pp}}$ and $\\small{\\rm{\\bar {p}p}}$ elastic scattering in the TeV region based on an effective field theory model of the proton. We phenomenologically investigate the main processes underlying elastic scattering and quantitatively describe the measured elastic d$\\small{\\sigma}$/dt at energies 7.0 TeV (LHC $\\small{\\rm{pp}}$), 1.96 TeV (Tevatron $\\small{\\rm{\\bar {p}p}}$), and 0.630 TeV (SPS $\\small{\\rm{\\bar {p}p}}$). Finally, we give our prediction for $\\small{\\rm{pp}}$ elastic d$\\small{\\sigma}$/dt at 14 TeV that will be measured by the TOTEM Collaboration.

  2. Modeling the explosion-source region: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The explosion-source region is defined as the region surrounding an underground explosion that cannot be described by elastic or anelastic theory. This region extends typically to ranges up to 1 km/(kt) 1/3 but for some purposes, such as yield estimation via hydrodynamic means (CORRTEX and HYDRO PLUS), the maximum range of interest is less by an order of magnitude. For the simulation or analysis of seismic signals, however, what is required is the time resolved motion and stress state at the inelastic boundary. Various analytic approximations have been made for these boundary conditions, but since they rely on near-field empirical data they cannot be expected to reliably extrapolate to different explosion sites. More important, without some knowledge of the initial energy density and the characteristics of the medium immediately surrounding the explosion, these simplified models are unable to distinguish chemical from nuclear explosions, identify cavity decoupling, or account for such phenomena as anomalous dissipation via pore collapse

  3. Elastic properties of graphite and interstitial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayasse, J.-B.

    1977-01-01

    The graphite elastic constants C 33 and C 44 , reflecting the interaction of the graphitic planes, were experimentally measured as a function of irradiation and temperature. A model of non-central strength atomic interaction was established to explain the experimental results obtained. This model is valid at zero temperature. The temperature dependence of the elastic properties was analyzed. The influence of the elastic property variations on the specific heat of the lattice at very low temperature was investigated [fr

  4. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  5. Elastic properties of icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Problems associated with determining the symmetry properties of the elastic constant tensor of icosahedral and decagonal quasicrystals are reviewed. Notions of elastic isotropy and anisotropy are considered, and their relation to the components of the elastic constant tensor is discussed. The question is addressed of how to determine experimentally whether a system under study is elastically isotropic. Experimental results produced by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy of icosahedral Al-Li-Cu and decagonal Al-Ni-Co single quasicrystals are discussed in detail. (methodological notes)

  6. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  7. Elastic moduli and elastic anisotropy of cold sprayed metallic coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Cizek, J.; Sedlák, Petr; Huang, R.; Cupera, J.; Dlouhý, I.; Landa, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 291, April (2016), s. 342-347 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13616S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-35890S Grant - others:NETME Centre Plus - národní program udržitelnosti(CZ) LO1202 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : kinetic spray * CGDS * elastic properties * metals and alloys * deposition * resonant ultrasound spectroscopy Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0257897216301165/1-s2.0-S0257897216301165-main.pdf?_tid=1083617a-017f-11e6-92e7-00000aacb361&acdnat=1460555773_2e80d3df20843f3af649bf3ac71c8844

  8. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  9. Magnetic and elastic properties of the antiferromagnet uranium mononitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Doorn, C.F.

    1976-10-01

    The magnetic and elastic properties of antiferromagnetic uranium mononitride single crystals are studied in the thesis from the measurements of the temperature dependences of the magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity and elastic constants. The elastic constants C 11 , C 12 and C 44 were determined in the temperature interval 4 to 300 K by ultrasonic measurements of the five possible wave velocities in the [100] and [110] directions. A test for internal consistency was also made. A dip of about 9 percent occurs in C 11 at a temperature of 5 to 6 K lower than the Neel temperature T(N) (equals about 53 K). Starting at T(N), a renormalization in C 44 is proportional to the square of the sublattice magnetization also occurs. Both these results agree with model calculations which include spin-phonon interactions. The investigation of this anomaly was extended by measuring the electrical resistivity of a sample cut from the same crystal as that on which the elasticity was measured. No anomalous behavior was observed at the temperature where C 11 displays its anomaly. However, a discontinuity in the temperature derivative of the resistance was found at T(N). The possible effect of a magnetic field on the resistivity, as well as on the elasticity, was investigated without any measurable effect. The magnetic susceptibility was measured with a Foner magnetometer between 4 and 1 000 K. It was found that above the Neel temperature the paramagnetic susceptibility followed a revised Curie-Weiss law. In an attempt to ascertain the ionic state of the 5f-uranium ion in UN, use was made of the experimentally determined Weiss constant, spin disorder resistivity and Knight shift. A calculation was made that gave a good representation of the ratio of the experimental susceptibilities along the [100] and [110] directions in the ordered region [af

  10. Report of study meeting on nuclear physics of quasi-elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This meeting was held for three days from June 8 to 10, 1992, as one of the study meetings of Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. The lectures were given on spin observables in quasi-elastic scattering, calculation of spin observables in 12 C, 40 Ca(p,n) reaction in quasifree scattering region, present state of quasi-elastic scattering, first results of (p,n) quasifree scattering with the new facility of the RCNP, spin-isospin response function and effect of Δ-hole configuration in finite nuclei, effective polarization of nuclei and observed amount of spin, (p,2p) measurement in the RCNP, quasi-elastic scattering in 2 H, 3 He and 4 He of polarized protons, quasifree Δ formation, 3 He(gamma, pπ ± ) reaction in Δ region, search for isobar components in 3 He by quasifree knockout studies, nonquasi-elastic process in photonuclear reaction, QF and NQF processes in gamma d→π + π - pn, coincidence scattering experiment in quasi-elastic scattering region, exclusive electron scattering of 3 He with full inclusion of final state interaction, quasi-elastic electron scattering and internucleon correlation and 13 other themes. (K.I.)

  11. Investigation of the core-halo structure of the neutron-rich nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He by intermediate-energy elastic proton scattering at high momentum transfer; Etude de la structure coeur-halo des noyaux riches en neutron {sup 6}He et {sup 8}He par la diffusion elastique de protons aux energies intermediaires etendue a la region du premier minimum de diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksouh, F

    2002-12-01

    The elastic proton scattering from the halo nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He was investigated in inverse kinematics at energies around 700 MeV/u with the aim to deduce the differential cross sections for the region of high momentum transfer, covering the first diffraction minimum. For this purpose, a liquid-hydrogen target was specially developed and used for the first time allowing to obtain low-background data as compared to commonly used targets made from C-H compounds. Previous data taken in the region of small momentum transfer were sensitive to the size and the peripheral shape of the total nuclear matter density distribution but not to the inner part. The present data allow for a more detailed insight in the structure of the alike core in {sup 6,8}He through a better determination of the matter density distributions. Several density distributions calculated from different microscopic models were used to derive elastic scattering cross sections which are compared with the obtained data. (author)

  12. Quasi-experimental taxation elasticities of US gasoline demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Taxation elasticities provide inputs in public policy aimed at raising revenues. Using the quasi-experimental method, this paper calculates gasoline taxation elasticities for the USA over 1952-86. The medium (mean) elasticity over this period is found to be -0.075 (-0.122). However, the elasticity following the oil shock of 1973 is found to be statistically different from the pre-shock elasticity. Reasons for this change in elasticity are discussed. The implication of this analysis is that tax policies based on price elasticities, rather than on tax elasticities, might be using an inappropriate elasticity estimate and consequently misinterpreting the government's ability to raise tax revenues. (author)

  13. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  14. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  15. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  16. Elastic stress transmission and transformation (ESTT) by confined liquid: A new mechanics for fracture in elastic lithosphere of the earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing-Wang; Peters, Stephen; Liang, Guang-He; Zhang, Bao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We report on a new mechanical principle, which suggests that a confined liquid in the elastic lithosphere has the potential to transmit a maximum applied compressive stress. This stress can be transmitted to the internal contacts between rock and liquid and would then be transformed into a normal compressive stress with tangential tensile stress components. During this process, both effective compressive normal stress and tensile tangential stresses arise along the liquid–rock contact. The minimum effective tensile tangential stress causes the surrounding rock to rupture. Liquid-driven fracture initiates at the point along the rock–liquid boundary where the maximum compressive stress is applied and propagates along a plane that is perpendicular to the minimum effective tensile tangential stress and also is perpendicular to the minimum principal stress.

  17. Communication and surrounding of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Asco and Vandellos-II power plants have always been integrated into the regions where they are located, and they take an active part in the development of surrounding towns through quality employment provided by our facilities, social and cultural support and aid to development promoted by regional councils. Communication to media is a corporate priority defined in our strategic plant, to ensure openness, rigour and punctuality. We also attend to the visitors who want to learn more about our facilities in the visitor center, and we have agreements with agrarian institutions in the area so that students can de practical training in the farms we own for agricultural production. (Author)

  18. Applying the elastic model for various nucleus-nucleus fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HASSAN, G.S.; RAGAB, H.S.; SEDDEEK, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    The Elastic Model of two free parameters m,d given by Scalia has been used for wider energy regions to fit the available experimental data for potential barriers and cross sections. In order to generalize Scalia's formula in both sub- and above-barrier regions, we calculated m, d for pairs rather than those given by Scalia and compared the calculated cross sections with the experimental data. This makes a generalization of the Elastic Model in describing fusion process. On the other hand, Scalia's range of interacting systems was 24 ≤ A ≤194 where A is the compound nucleus mass number. Our extension of that model includes an example of the pairs of A larger than his final limit aiming to make it as a general formula for any type of reactants: light, intermediate or heavy systems. A significant point is the comparison of Elastic Model calculations with the well known methods studying complete fusion and compound nucleus formation, namely with the resultants of using Proximity potential with either Sharp or Smooth cut-off approximations

  19. The visco-elastic multilayer program VEROAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical principles and derivation of a linear visco-elastic multilayer computer program are described. The mathematical derivation is based on Fourier Transformation. The program is called VEROAD, which is an acronym for Visco-Elastic ROad Analysis Delft. The program allows calculation of

  20. Heavy ion elastic scattering of code : OPTHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Divatia, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code, OPTHI has been designed to calculate nuclear optical model elastic cross sections for the scattering of heavy ions. The program has been designed to be utilitarian rather than capable of giving an exact description of elastic scattering. Input format is described and the program listing is given. (M.G.B.)

  1. Thermo-elastic optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wu, Min; Wieser, Wolfgang; Amenta, Gaetano; Draxinger, Wolfgang; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Huber, Robert; Van Soest, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    The absorption of nanosecond laser pulses induces rapid thermo-elastic deformation in tissue. A sub-micrometer scale displacement occurs within a few microseconds after the pulse arrival. In this Letter, we investigate the laser-induced thermo-elastic deformation using a 1.5 MHz phase-sensitive

  2. Dynamic elasticity measurement for prosthetic socket design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin; Kim, Junghoon; Son, Hyeryon; Choi, Youngjin

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a novel apparatus to measure the dynamic elasticity of human limb in order to help the design and fabrication of the personalized prosthetic socket. To take measurements of the dynamic elasticity, the desired force generated as an exponential chirp signal in which the frequency increases and amplitude is maintained according to time progress is applied to human limb and then the skin deformation is recorded, ultimately, to obtain the frequency response of its elasticity. It is referred to as a Dynamic Elasticity Measurement Apparatus (DEMA) in the paper. It has three core components such as linear motor to provide the desired force, loadcell to implement the force feedback control, and potentiometer to record the skin deformation. After measuring the force/deformation and calculating the dynamic elasticity of the limb, it is visualized as 3D color map model of the limb so that the entire dynamic elasticity can be shown at a glance according to the locations and frequencies. For the visualization, the dynamic elasticities measured at specific locations and frequencies are embodied using the color map into 3D limb model acquired by using 3D scanner. To demonstrate the effectiveness, the visualized dynamic elasticities are suggested as outcome of the proposed system, although we do not have any opportunity to apply the proposed system to the amputees. Ultimately, it is expected that the proposed system can be utilized to design and fabricate the personalized prosthetic socket in order for releasing the wearing pain caused by the conventional prosthetic socket.

  3. 7 CFR 29.2515 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2515 Elasticity. The flexible, springy... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.2515 Section 29.2515 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3516 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3516 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf to recover... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.3516 Section 29.3516 Agriculture...

  5. 7 CFR 29.1014 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign Type 92) § 29.1014 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf to recover... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.1014 Section 29.1014 Agriculture...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2265 - Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elasticity. 29.2265 Section 29.2265 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2265 Elasticity. The flexible, springy nature of the tobacco leaf to recover approximately its original size and...

  7. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai

    2017-03-08

    We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.

  8. Modelling the elastic properties of cellulose nanopaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Rui; Goutianos, Stergios; Tu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The elastic modulus of cellulose nanopaper was predicted using a two-dimensional (2D) micromechanical fibrous network model. The elastic modulus predicted by the network model was 12 GPa, which is well within the range of experimental data for cellulose nanopapers. The stress state in the network...

  9. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.

  10. Assessment of land degradation and its spatial and temporal variation in Beijing surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Dong, Suocheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhiqiang, Gao

    2005-08-01

    The indulgence in willful persecution of sandstorm had made great attention of many countries around the world. Chinese government and the Chinese academy of science going with some other countries have devoted a large amount of vigor to study the crucial environment problem. Due to the main source areas of sandstorm all located in the arid and semi-arid regions where there have great area, hard natural condition and bad traffic condition, it's very difficult to accomplish source area and the reason of sandstorm. For this destination, a international cooperation organization has been established to clarify the occur mechanism, transfer process and the following environment impact of sandstorm. The organization includes many researchers come form USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. Beijing surrounding area is one of the main sandstorm sources in recent years. In order to understand fully of the sandstorm form and development, we analyzed the land use degradation of Beijing surrounding area during the last ten years. 71 scenes Landsat TM/ETM, 611 scenes DRG and DEM data had been processed in our study. This paper made a detail describe of using Landsat image data and high resolution DEM data to construe the soil erosion and vegetation degenerate. The result shows that the irrational human activities and land use style are the main factors of land use degradation. In case of Beijing surrounding area, the land degradation directly impacted the frequency and intensity of sand & dust storm in Northern China. The case study region of Beijing surrounding area includes 51 counties that belong to three provinces and autonomous regions.

  11. Quantitative Lesion-to-Fat Elasticity Ratio Measured by Shear-Wave Elastography for Breast Mass: Which Area Should Be Selected as the Fat Reference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio) was affected by the location of the reference fat. For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI) in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin). Mean (Emean) and maximum (Emax) elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat) independently associated with false results. Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (P<0.0001). Among four groups of fat elasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (<25th percentile, 25th percentile~median, median~75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile; 0.973, 0.982, 0.967, and 0.954 for Emean; 0.977, 0.967, 0.966, and 0.957 for Emax). Fat elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001). ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives. Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when it is placed in areas of artifacts.

  12. Quantitative Lesion-to-Fat Elasticity Ratio Measured by Shear-Wave Elastography for Breast Mass: Which Area Should Be Selected as the Fat Reference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Youk

    Full Text Available To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio (Eratio was affected by the location of the reference fat.For 257 breast masses in 250 women who underwent shear-wave elastography before biopsy or surgery, multiple Eratios were measured with a fixed region-of-interest (ROI in the mass along with multiple ROIs over the surrounding fat in different locations. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine that Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (depth, laterality, and distance from lesion or skin. Mean (Emean and maximum (Emax elasticity values of fat were divided into four groups according to their interquartile ranges. Diagnostic performance of each group was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC. False diagnoses of Eratio were reviewed for ROIs on areas showing artifactual high or low stiffness and analyzed by logistic regression analysis to determine variables (associated palpable abnormality, lesion size, the vertical distance from fat ROI to skin, and elasticity values of lesion or fat independently associated with false results.Eratio was independently associated with malignancy adjusted for the location of fat ROI (P<0.0001. Among four groups of fat elasticity values, the AUC showed no significant difference (<25th percentile, 25th percentile~median, median~75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile; 0.973, 0.982, 0.967, and 0.954 for Emean; 0.977, 0.967, 0.966, and 0.957 for Emax. Fat elasticity values were independently associated with false results of Eratio with the cut-off of 3.18 from ROC curve (P<0.0001. ROIs were set on fat showing artifactual high stiffness in 90% of 10 false negatives and on lesion showing vertical striped artifact or fat showing artifactual low stiffness in 77.5% of 71 false positives.Eratio shows good diagnostic performance regardless of the location of reference fat, except when it is placed in areas of

  13. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    -depth understanding of the mechanism regulating blood flow and perfusion is necessary if we are to come up with new ideas for intervention and treatment. Method: From fresh born placentas stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end...... and was left untouched in the other end. Then using wire myography they were investigated in terms of contractility and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results: Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue...... compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries with surrounding tissue, when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi...

  14. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...... and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results. Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries...... with surrounding tissue when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion. The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi arteries' sensitivity and force development in a suppressive way. This implicates a new aspect of blood flow regulation...

  15. Nuclear elasticity applied to giant resonances of fast rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S.; Bouyssy, A.

    1987-06-01

    Isoscalar giant resonances in fast rotating nuclei are investigated within the framework of nuclear elasticity by solving the equation of motion of elastic nuclear medium in a rotating frame of reference. Both Coriolis and centrifugal forces are taken into account. The nuclear rotation removes completely the azimuthal degeneracy of the giant resonance energies. Realistic large values of the angular velocity, which are still small as compared to the giant resonance frequencies, are briefly reviewed in relation to allowed high angular momenta. It is shown that for the A=150 region, the Coriolis force is dominating for small values (< ∼ 0.05) of the ratio of angular velocity to resonance frequency, whereas the centrifugal force plays a prominent part in the shift of the split resonance energies for larger values of the ratio. Typical examples of the resonance energies and their fragmentation due to both rotation and deformation are given

  16. Forest biomass and Armington elasticities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundmark, Robert; Shahrammehr, Shima

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide estimated Armington elasticities for selected European countries and for three forest biomass commodities of main interest in many energy models: roundwood, chips and particles and wood residues. The Armington elasticity is based on the assumption that a specific forest biomass commodity is differentiated by its origin. The statistically significant estimated Armington elasticities range from 0.52 for roundwood in Hungary to approximately 4.53 for roundwood in Estonia. On average, the statistically significant Armington elasticity for chips and particles over all countries is 1.7 and for wood residues and roundwood 1.3 and 1.5, respectively. These elasticities can provide benchmark values for simulation models trying to assess trade patterns of forest biomass commodities and energy policy effects for European countries or for the EU as a whole.

  17. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...... in our empirical investigation support the predicted role of the elasticity of substitution as we find a significant negative relation between the elasticity of substitution and the final anti-dumping duties for the ‘lesser duty rule’ group of countries. The countries which do not follow the ‘lesser duty...

  18. Calculation of elastic-plastic strain ranges for fatigue analysis based on linear elastic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, G.

    1998-01-01

    Fatigue analysis requires that the maximum strain ranges be known. These strain ranges are generally computed from linear elastic analysis. The elastic strain ranges are enhanced by a factor K e to obtain the total elastic-plastic strain range. The reliability of the fatigue analysis depends on the quality of this factor. Formulae for calculating the K e factor are proposed. A beam is introduced as a computational model for determining the elastic-plastic strains. The beam is loaded by the elastic stresses of the real structure. The elastic-plastic strains of the beam are compared with the beam's elastic strains. This comparison furnishes explicit expressions for the K e factor. The K e factor is tested by means of seven examples. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of the geomorphology surrounding the Chang'e-3 landing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun-Lai; Mu Ling-Li; Zou Xiao-Duan; Liu Jian-Jun; Ren Xin; Zeng Xing-Guo; Yang Yi-Man; Zhang Zhou-Bin; Liu Yu-Xuan; Zuo Wei; Li Han

    2014-01-01

    Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum (19.51°W, 44.12°N), which was China's first soft landing on the Moon and it started collecting data on the lunar surface environment. To better understand the environment of this region, this paper utilizes the available high-resolution topography data, image data and geological data to carry out a detailed analysis and research on the area surrounding the landing site (Sinus Iridum and 45 km×70 km of the landing area) as well as on the topography, landform, geology and lunar dust of the area surrounding the landing site. A general topographic analysis of the surrounding area is based on a digital elevation model and digital elevation model data acquired by Chang'e-2 that have high resolution; the geology analysis is based on lunar geological data published by USGS; the study on topographic factors and distribution of craters and rocks in the surrounding area covering 4 km×4 km or even smaller is based on images from the CE-3 landing camera and images from the topographic camera; an analysis is done of the effect of the CE-3 engine plume on the lunar surface by comparing images before and after the landing using data from the landing camera. A comprehensive analysis of the results shows that the landing site and its surrounding area are identified as typical lunar mare with flat topography. They are suitable for maneuvers by the rover, and are rich in geological phenomena and scientific targets, making it an ideal site for exploration

  20. Analysis of the geomorphology surrounding the Chang'e-3 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Lai; Mu, Ling-Li; Zou, Xiao-Duan; Liu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Xin; Zeng, Xing-Guo; Yang, Yi-Man; Zhang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Yu-Xuan; Zuo, Wei; Li, Han

    2014-12-01

    Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum (19.51°W, 44.12°N), which was China's first soft landing on the Moon and it started collecting data on the lunar surface environment. To better understand the environment of this region, this paper utilizes the available high-resolution topography data, image data and geological data to carry out a detailed analysis and research on the area surrounding the landing site (Sinus Iridum and 45 km×70 km of the landing area) as well as on the topography, landform, geology and lunar dust of the area surrounding the landing site. A general topographic analysis of the surrounding area is based on a digital elevation model and digital elevation model data acquired by Chang'e-2 that have high resolution; the geology analysis is based on lunar geological data published by USGS; the study on topographic factors and distribution of craters and rocks in the surrounding area covering 4 km×4 km or even smaller is based on images from the CE-3 landing camera and images from the topographic camera; an analysis is done of the effect of the CE-3 engine plume on the lunar surface by comparing images before and after the landing using data from the landing camera. A comprehensive analysis of the results shows that the landing site and its surrounding area are identified as typical lunar mare with flat topography. They are suitable for maneuvers by the rover, and are rich in geological phenomena and scientific targets, making it an ideal site for exploration.

  1. Neutron elastic scattering at very small angles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will measure neutron-proton elastic scattering at very small angles and hence very small four-momentum transfer, |t|. The range of |t| depends on the incident neutron momentum of the events but the geometrical acceptance will cover the angular range 0.025 < $\\Theta_{lab}$ < 1.9 mrad. The higher figure could be extended to 8.4 mrad by changing the geometry of the experiment in a later phase. \\\\ \\\\ The neutron beam will be highly collimated and will be derived from a 400 GeV external proton beam of up to $4 \\times 10^{10}$ protons per pulse in the SPS North Area Hall 1. The hydrogen target will be gaseous, operating at 40 atm. pressure and acts as a multiwire proportional chamber to detect the recoil protons. The forward neutron will be detected and located by interaction in a neutron vertex detector and its energy measured by a conventional steel plate calorimeter. \\\\ \\\\ The experiment will cover the angular region of nucleon-nucleon scattering which is dominated by Coulomb scattering ...

  2. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.

    2013-10-16

    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder.

  3. New empirical generalizations on the determinants of price elasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Van Heerde, HJ; Pieters, RGM

    The importance of pricing decisions for firms has fueled an extensive stream of research on price elasticities. In an influential meta-analytical study, Tellis (1988) summarized price elasticity research findings until 1986. However, empirical generalizations on price elasticity require

  4. Ornitocenosis of the Sursky pond and its close the surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacko, J.; Ambrus, B.; Fupso, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the qualitative-quantitative research of fishpond bird community of the Sursky and its surroundings as well as on analysis of seasonal population dynamics of the avifauna as well as on placing the determined species into environmental groups and guilds. Another object is the comparison of our results with recent work focused on research of bird communities on this site.

  5. Review of Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and his Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschwin de Wolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthony de Jasay is among the most important social thinkers of our time. His oeuvre offers a sustained critique of government and its defenders. In the book Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and His Surroundings, colleagues and friends pay tribute to the man in the form of an inspiring collection of essays.

  6. Neutron spectrum in small iron pile surrounded by lead reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro; Hayashi, S.A.; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Matsumura, Tetsuo; Nishihara, Hiroshi.

    1978-01-01

    In order to save the quantity of sample material, a possibility to assess group constants of a reactor material through measurement and analysis of neutron spectrum in a small sample pile surrounded by a reflector of heavy moderator, was investigated. As the sample and the reflector, we chose iron and lead, respectively. Although the time dispersion in moderation of neutrons was considerably prolonged by the lead reflector, this hardly interferes with the assessment of group constants. Theoretical calculation revealed that both the neutron flux spectrum and the sensitivity coefficient of group constants in an iron sphere, 35 cm in diameter surrounded by the lead reflector, 25 cm thick, were close to those of the bare iron sphere, 108 cm in diameter. The neutron spectra in a small iron pile surrounded by a lead reflector were experimentally obtained by the time-of-flight method with an electron linear accelerator and the result was compared with the predicted values. It could be confirmed that a small sample pile surrounded by a reflector, such as lead, was as useful as a much larger bulk pile for the assessment of group constants of a reactor material. (auth.)

  7. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...

  8. The bird species of pandam wildlife park and the surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of time of day as well as vegetation variables on bird species diversity in the park and surrounding farmlands was also conducted. 10 transects in each study site were surveyed twice between during the dry season and vegetation variables (trees, fingers, finger-rings two- hand, grazing, farming, canopy cover, ...

  9. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  10. Traditional Indian customs surrounding birth A review | Chalmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1960, only a few studies have been made of traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. Very few of these have described customs followed by Indians in South Africa. A review of these publications is presented here. Customs described include religious, social and psychological aspects of behaviour in ...

  11. Experiment to measure total cross sections, differential cross sections and polarization effects in pp elastic scattering at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guryn, W.

    1998-02-01

    The authors are describing an experiment to study proton-proton (pp) elastic scattering experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Using both polarized and unpolarized beams, the experiment will study pp elastic scattering from √s = 50 GeV to √s = 500 GeV in two kinematical regions. In the Coulomb Nuclear Interference (CNI) region, 0.0005 2 , they will measure and study the s dependence of the total and elastic cross sections, σ tot and σ el ; the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, ρ; and the nuclear slope parameter of the pp elastic scattering, b. In the medium |t|-region, |t| 2 , they plan to study the evolution of the dip structure with s, as observed at ISR in the differential elastic cross section, dσ el /dt, and the s and |t| dependence of b. With the polarized beams the following can be measured: the difference in the total cross sections as function of initial transverse spin states Δσ T , the analyzing power, A N , and the transverse spin correlation parameter A NN . The behavior of the analyzing power A N at RHIC energies in the dip region of dσ el /dt, where a pronounced structure was found at fixed-target experiments will be studied. The relation of pp elastic scattering to the beam polarization measurement at RHIC is also discussed

  12. Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.

    2016-08-01

    Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of `island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the `island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our

  13. Application of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to nanoscale heat transfer between a soot particle and the surrounding gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.; Liu, F.; Smallwood, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) technique has been widely used to measure soot volume fraction and primary particle size in flames and engine exhaust. Currently there is lack of quantitative understanding of the shielding effect of aggregated soot particles on its conduction heat loss rate to the surrounding gas. The conventional approach for this problem would be the application of the Monte Carlo (MC) method. This method is based on simulation of the trajectories of individual molecules and calculation of the heat transfer at each of the molecule/molecule collisions and the molecule/particle collisions. As the first step toward calculating the heat transfer between a soot aggregate and the surrounding gas, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used in this study to calculate the heat transfer rate between a single spherical aerosol particle and its cooler surrounding gas under different conditions of temperature, pressure, and the accommodation coefficient. A well-defined and simple hard sphere model was adopted to describe molecule/molecule elastic collisions. A combination of the specular reflection and completely diffuse reflection model was used to consider molecule/particle collisions. The results obtained by DSMC are in good agreement with the known analytical solution of heat transfer rate for an isolated, motionless sphere in the free-molecular regime. Further the DSMC method was applied to calculate the heat transfer in the transition regime. Our present DSMC results agree very well with published DSMC data. (author)

  14. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Wei [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Zhengyue [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Xiaole [School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lai, Yun [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  15. Microstructural evolution in inhomogeneous elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, H.J.; Leo, P.H.; Lowengrub, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    We simulate the diffusional evolution of microstructures produced by solid state diffusional transformations in elastically stressed binary alloys in two dimensions. The microstructure consists of arbitrarily shaped precipitates embedded coherently in an infinite matrix. The precipitate and matrix are taken to be elastically isotropic, although they may have different elastic constants (elastically inhomogeneous). Both far-field applied strains and mismatch strains between the phases are considered. The diffusion and elastic fields are calculated using the boundary integral method, together with a small scale preconditioner to remove ill-conditioning. The precipitate-matrix interfaces are tracked using a nonstiff time updating method. The numerical method is spectrally accurate and efficient. Simulations of a single precipitate indicate that precipitate shapes depend strongly on the mass flux into the system as well as on the elastic fields. Growing shapes (positive mass flux) are dendritic while equilibrium shapes (zero mass flux) are squarish. Simulations of multiparticle systems show complicated interactions between precipitate morphology and the overall development of microstructure (i.e., precipitate alignment, translation, merging, and coarsening). In both single and multiple particle simulations, the details of the microstructural evolution depend strongly o the elastic inhomogeneity, misfit strain, and applied fields. 57 refs., 24 figs

  16. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  17. Elastic modulus of muscle and tendon with shear wave ultrasound elastography: variations with different technical settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chin Wing Kot

    Full Text Available Standardization on Shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE technical settings will not only ensure that the results are accurate, but also detect any differences over time that may be attributed to true physiological changes. The present study evaluated the variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon using SWUE when different technical aspects were altered. The results of this study indicated that variations of elastic modulus of muscle and tendon were found when different transducer's pressure and region of interest (ROI's size were applied. No significant differences in elastic modulus of the rectus femoris muscle and patellar tendon were found with different acquisition times of the SWUE sonogram. The SWUE on the muscle and tendon should be performed with the lightest transducer's pressure, a shorter acquisition time for the SWUE sonogram, while measuring the mean elastic modulus regardless the ROI's size.

  18. Coulomb-like elastic interaction induced by symmetry breaking in nematic liquid crystal colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom-Kyu; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lev, Bohdan

    2017-11-21

    It is generally thought that colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal do not generate the first multipole term called deformation elastic charge as it violates the mechanical equilibrium. Here, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that this is not the case, and deformation elastic charges, as well as dipoles and quadrupoles, can be induced through anisotropic boundary conditions. We report the first direct observation of Coulomb-like elastic interactions between colloidal particles in a nematic liquid crystal. The behaviour of two spherical colloidal particles with asymmetric anchoring conditions induced by asymmetric alignment is investigated experimentally; the interaction of two particles located at the boundary of twist and parallel aligned regions is observed. We demonstrate that such particles produce deformation elastic charges and interact by Coulomb-like interactions.

  19. Two-photon exchange corrections in elastic lepton-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomalak, Oleksandr; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The measured value of the proton charge radius from the Lamb shift of energy levels in muonic hydrogen is in strong contradiction, by 7-8 standard deviations, with the value obtained from electronic hydrogen spectroscopy and the value extracted from unpolarized electron-proton scattering data. The dominant unaccounted higher order contribution in scattering experiments corresponds to the two photon exchange (TPE) diagram. The elastic contribution to the TPE correction was studied with the fixed momentum transfer dispersion relations and compared to the hadronic model with off-shell photon-nucleon vertices. A dispersion relation formalism with one subtraction was proposed. Theoretical predictions of the TPE elastic contribution to the unpolarized elastic electron-proton scattering and polarization transfer observables in the low momentum transfer region were made. The TPE formalism was generalized to the case of massive leptons and the elastic contribution was evaluated for the kinematics of upcoming muon-proton scattering experiment (MUSE).

  20. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenomenology of high-momentum-transfer elastic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coon, D.D.; Gunion, J.F.; Tran Thanh Van, J.; Blankenbecler, R.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to extract the leading effective trajectories and residues in pp and π - p elastic scattering. The results are compared with the predictions of the constituent-interchange model and the logarithmic dual model, which are shown to be the only two types of theory capable of providing a uniform link between backward and forward Regge regions and the fixed-angle region. The hypothesis of a smooth connection between forward and backward Regge regions puts strong contraints on a priori unrelated trajectories and residues. The possibility of a connection between the two models is discussed. As expected from interchange theory the extracted π - p trajectory and residue behave quite differently than those for pp. The dual model seems to give the best overall description of the pp trajectory and residue functions while the πp results agree completely with the interchange predictions. The two model fits to pp elastic scattering at moderate energies (12--24 GeV) are used to extract an expected Pomeron term. The shape of the extracted diffractive contribution is strikingly similar to the recent CERN ISR differential cross sections which exhibit a dip at t = - 1.4 GeV 2 and a slow falloff in the large-t region

  2. SIMULATION OFTHERMO-ELASTICS PROPERTIESOFTHERMALBARRIERCOATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.Ferouani M. Ferouani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings are used to protect different parts in compressors and turbines from heat. They are generally composed of two layers, one metallic layer providing resistance to heat corrosion and oxidation, and one thermally insulating ceramic layer. Two different techniques are industrially used. Plasma spray results in a lamellar structure granting a low thermal conductivity, but with a low thermal expansion compliance. Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition generates a columnar structure allowing a better accommodation of the thermal expansion stresses, entailing improved lifetime of the coating, but with a higher thermal conductivity. The aim of the paper presented here is to develop a procedure of analysis based on the micro structural observation for the prediction of the properties of new coatings in court of industrial development and to predict the effect of the posterior thermal treatment on the properties of the coatings carried out. For a given coating, one has to calculate linear elasticity and its evolution with the temperature as well as thermal expansion, aiming at predicting different parameters related to the in service deterioration.  

  3. Elasticities of demand for gasoline in Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Fluctuations in the world price of oil, the concern with greenhouse gas emissions and the efforts to revive the 1997 Kyoto Protocol have resulted in renewed interest in the estimation of elasticities of demand for gasoline. In this paper, a complete system of demand equations is estimated, including an equation for the demand for gasoline. Canadian family expenditure (FAMEX) and United States consumer expenditure (CEX) survey data are used. Household-level data permits estimation of elasticities for various household groups. Also, differences in demand responsiveness to own-price and income changes are estimated for different regions in Canada and the United States. Demand is found to be own-price and income inelastic, on the whole, as reported in earlier studies. There is also variation in these elasticities across regions of Canada and the United States. However, larger differences are observed with respect to household size and housing tenure, than to region of residence

  4. Phase diagrams of ferroelectric nanocrystals strained by an elastic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitchenko, A. I.; Azovtsev, A. V.; Pertsev, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Ferroelectric crystallites embedded into a dielectric matrix experience temperature-dependent elastic strains caused by differences in the thermal expansion of the crystallites and the matrix. Owing to the electrostriction, these lattice strains may affect polarization states of ferroelectric inclusions significantly, making them different from those of a stress-free bulk crystal. Here, using a nonlinear thermodynamic theory, we study the mechanical effect of elastic matrix on the phase states of embedded single-domain ferroelectric nanocrystals. Their equilibrium polarization states are determined by minimizing a special thermodynamic potential that describes the energetics of an ellipsoidal ferroelectric inclusion surrounded by a linear elastic medium. To demonstrate the stability ranges of such states for a given material combination, we construct a phase diagram, where the inclusion’s shape anisotropy and temperature are used as two parameters. The ‘shape-temperature’ phase diagrams are calculated numerically for PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 nanocrystals embedded into representative dielectric matrices generating tensile (silica glass) or compressive (potassium silicate glass) thermal stresses inside ferroelectric inclusions. The developed phase maps demonstrate that the joint effect of thermal stresses and matrix-induced elastic clamping of ferroelectric inclusions gives rise to several important features in the polarization behavior of PbTiO3 and BaTiO3 nanocrystals. In particular, the Curie temperature displays a nonmonotonic variation with the ellipsoid’s aspect ratio, being minimal for spherical inclusions. Furthermore, the diagrams show that the polarization orientation with respect to the ellipsoid’s symmetry axis is controlled by the shape anisotropy and the sign of thermal stresses. Under certain conditions, the mechanical inclusion-matrix interaction qualitatively alters the evolution of ferroelectric states on cooling, inducing a structural transition

  5. Marangoni elasticity of flowing soap films

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    We measure the Marangoni elasticity of a flowing soap film to be 22 dyne/cm irrespective of its width, thickness, flow speed, or the bulk soap concentration. We perform this measurement by generating an oblique shock in the soap film and measuring the shock angle, flow speed and thickness. We postulate that the elasticity is constant because the film surface is crowded with soap molecules. Our method allows non-destructive measurement of flowing soap film elasticity, and the value 22 dyne/cm ...

  6. Demand Elasticity on the Transport Market

    OpenAIRE

    Teodor Perić; Nada Štrumberger

    2002-01-01

    The elasticity of demand for traffic se1vices is the adaptationof traffic supply to traffic demand. The elasticity of suchdemand is low which is specific of the transport market, especiallyfrom the aspect of designing traffic demand.The essence of the problem of low elasticity can be noticedin three basic properties:First, in the change of place which determines the traffic demandor traffic relation.Second is the continuity of the need to transport goods andpassengers.Third, the needs for tra...

  7. Application Service Program (ASP) Price Elasticities

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Jaeweon; Cho Wanwoo; Jang Ho; Kwak Youngsik

    2010-01-01

    Although the price elasticities for off-line industry are well documented in academic field, the report of price elasticities for on-line to a given brand or industry in practice have beenrelatively rare. The researcher aims to try to full this gap by applying a price response function to Home Trading System’s on-line transaction data for the first time in Korean securities market. The different price elasticities among seven brands were found from -0.819 to -1.811. These results suggested th...

  8. Elastic and inelastic psi production by muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.C.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented on the elastic and inelastic production of psi (3.1). The elastic data are qualitative agreement with the predictions of photon-gluon fusion but have a steeper dependence on Q 2 than the model predicts. A QCD calculation accounts well for the shape of the inelastic data in inelasticity, Q 2 and E/sub γ/, but fails to account for the absolute cross section. At 209 GeV, the cross-section for elastic psi production is 0.36 +- 0.07 nb; for inelastic, 0.28 +- 0.06nb

  9. Marangoni elasticity of flowing soap films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas

    2017-08-01

    We measure the Marangoni elasticity of a flowing soap film to be 22 mN/m irrespective of its width, thickness, flow speed, or the bulk soap concentration. We perform this measurement by generating an oblique shock in the soap film and measuring the shock angle, flow speed, and thickness. We postulate that the elasticity is constant because the film surface is crowded with soap molecules. Our method allows nondestructive measurement of flowing soap film elasticity and the value 22 mN/m is likely applicable to other similarly constructed flowing soap films.

  10. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cordero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x − T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPB(x boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems.

  11. Molecular bonding in SF6 measured by elastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.; Fink, M.

    1992-01-01

    Elastic differential cross-section measurements of gaseous SF 6 were made with 30 keV electrons in the range of 0.25 bohrs -1 ≤s≤10 bohrs -1 . Structural parameters derived in this study closely matched those found in an earlier total (elastic plus inelastic) scattering investigation. Multiple-scattering effects were incorporated in the structural refinement. The discrepancies between the independent atom model and the measured differential cross section reproduce earlier total scattering results for momentum transfers of greater than 5 bohrs -1 . By extending the measurements to smaller s values, a closer examination of a Hartree--Fock calculation for SF 6 was possible. It was found that the difference curve obtained from the Hartree--Fock calculation matched the experimental data in this region. A more quantitative analysis was performed using the analytic expressions of Bonham and Fink to compute moments of the molecular charge distribution from the differential cross-section data. Comparison of these results with similar fits to the Hartree--Fock calculation confirmed the good agreement between the Hartree--Fock calculation and the current elastic data

  12. Elastic Properties and Enhanced Piezoelectric Response at Morphotropic Phase Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The search for improved piezoelectric materials is based on the morphotropic phase boundaries (MPB) between ferroelectric phases with different crystal symmetry and available directions for the spontaneous polarization. Such regions of the composition x−T phase diagrams provide the conditions for minimal anisotropy with respect to the direction of the polarization, so that the polarization can easily rotate maintaining a substantial magnitude, while the near verticality of the TMPBx boundary extends the temperature range of the resulting enhanced piezoelectricity. Another consequence of the quasi-isotropy of the free energy is a reduction of the domain walls energies, with consequent formation of domain structures down to nanoscale. Disentangling the extrinsic and intrinsic contributions to the piezoelectricity in such conditions requires a high level of sophistication from the techniques and analyses for studying the structural, ferroelectric and dielectric properties. The elastic characterization is extremely useful in clarifying the phenomenology and mechanisms related to ferroelectric MPBs. The relationship between dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric responses is introduced in terms of relaxation of defects with electric dipole and elastic quadrupole, and extended to the response near phase transitions in the framework of the Landau theory. An account is provided of the anelastic experiments, from torsional pendulum to Brillouin scattering, that provided new important information on ferroelectric MPBs, including PZT, PMN-PT, NBT-BT, BCTZ, and KNN-based systems. PMID:28793707

  13. Generalized multiscale finite element method for elasticity equations

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.

    2014-10-05

    In this paper, we discuss the application of generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) to elasticity equation in heterogeneous media. We consider steady state elasticity equations though some of our applications are motivated by elastic wave propagation in subsurface where the subsurface properties can be highly heterogeneous and have high contrast. We present the construction of main ingredients for GMsFEM such as the snapshot space and offline spaces. The latter is constructed using local spectral decomposition in the snapshot space. The spectral decomposition is based on the analysis which is provided in the paper. We consider both continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin coupling of basis functions. Both approaches have their cons and pros. Continuous Galerkin methods allow avoiding penalty parameters though they involve partition of unity functions which can alter the properties of multiscale basis functions. On the other hand, discontinuous Galerkin techniques allow gluing multiscale basis functions without any modifications. Because basis functions are constructed independently from each other, this approach provides an advantage. We discuss the use of oversampling techniques that use snapshots in larger regions to construct the offline space. We provide numerical results to show that one can accurately approximate the solution using reduced number of degrees of freedom.

  14. Propagation law of impact elastic wave based on specific materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmin CHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the propagation law of the impact elastic wave on the platform, the experimental platform is built by using the specific isotropic materials and anisotropic materials. The glass cloth epoxy laminated plate is used for anisotropic material, and an organic glass plate is used for isotropic material. The PVDF sensors adhered on the specific materials are utilized to collect data, and the elastic wave propagation law of different thick plates and laminated plates under impact conditions is analyzed. The Experimental results show that in anisotropic material, transverse wave propagation speed along the fiber arrangement direction is the fastest, while longitudinal wave propagation speed is the slowest. The longitudinal wave propagation speed in anisotropic laminates is much slower than that in the laminated thick plates. In the test channel arranged along a particular angle away from the central region of the material, transverse wave propagation speed is larger. Based on the experimental results, this paper proposes a material combination mode which is advantageous to elastic wave propagation and diffusion in shock-isolating materials. It is proposed to design a composite material with high acoustic velocity by adding regularly arranged fibrous materials. The overall design of the barrier material is a layered structure and a certain number of 90°zigzag structure.

  15. The Profile of Inelastic Collisions from Elastic Scattering Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Dremin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the unitarity relation in combination with experimental data about the elastic scattering in the diffraction cone, it is shown how the shape and the darkness of the inelastic interaction region of colliding protons change with increase of their energies. In particular, the collisions become fully absorptive at small impact parameters at LHC energies that results in some special features of inelastic processes. Possible evolution of this shape with the dark core at the LHC to the fully transparent one at higher energies is discussed that implies that the terminology of the black disk would be replaced by the black toroid. The approach to asymptotics is disputed. The ratio of the real to imaginary parts of the nonforward elastic scattering amplitude is briefly discussed. All the conclusions are only obtained in the framework of the indubitable unitarity condition using experimental data about the elastic scattering of protons in the diffraction cone without any reference to quantum chromodynamics (QCD or phenomenological approaches.

  16. Elastic properties of LaSnxNi5-x compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeheskel, O.; Nattrass, C.E.; Leisure, R.G.; Jacob, I.; Bowman, R.C. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic methods were used to measure the room-temperature elastic moduli of polycrystalline LaSn x Ni 5-x compounds for 0≤x≤0.5. These materials are of great importance for their hydrogen storage properties. The samples, prepared by a hot isostatic pressing method, had near-theoretical densities with calculated porosities ranging from 0 to 1.5%. The porosity-corrected moduli decreased with increasing x. Poisson's ratio was approximately constant at 0.314 for all the compounds. The Debye temperature, calculated from the RT polycrystalline moduli, decreased from 359 to 344 K as x increased from 0 to 0.5. The results were used to calculate the elastic interaction energy of an interstitial hydrogen atom with the strain fields of all the other interstitial hydrogen. This energy was in turn used to calculate the critical temperature below which phase separation occurs in LaM x Ni 5-x H y compounds (M=Sn or Al). It was found that the critical temperature decreases with increasing x, confirming in a more general way a conclusion drawn for a specific case from earlier thermodynamic measurements. It is suggested that the lowering of the critical temperature plays a role in limiting the width of the plateaus in pressure-composition isotherms for the two-phase regions of these compounds. This suggestion implies a relation between the elastic properties and the maximum hydrogen capacity

  17. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  18. Elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire of zincblende heterostructures with interface elasticity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Liu, Yifei

    2018-04-01

    This work formulates the solutions to the elastic and piezoelectric fields around a quantum wire (QWR) with interface elasticity effect. Closed-form solutions to the piezoelectric potential field of zincblende QWR/matrix heterostructures grown along [111] crystallographic orientation are found and numerical results of InAs/InP heterostructures are provided as an example. The piezoelectric potential in the matrix depends on the interface elasticity, the radius and stiffness of the QWR. Our results indicate that interface elasticity can significantly alter the elastic and piezoelectric fields near the interface. Additionally, when the elastic property of the QWR is considered to be anisotropic in contrary to the common isotropic assumption, piezoelectric potentials are found to be distinct near the interface, but the deviations are negligible at positions far away from the interface.

  19. ELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF Eucalyptus citriodora WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  20. Demand Elasticity on the Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The elasticity of demand for traffic se1vices is the adaptationof traffic supply to traffic demand. The elasticity of suchdemand is low which is specific of the transport market, especiallyfrom the aspect of designing traffic demand.The essence of the problem of low elasticity can be noticedin three basic properties:First, in the change of place which determines the traffic demandor traffic relation.Second is the continuity of the need to transport goods andpassengers.Third, the needs for transport may vmy according to thechanges in society and economy, and they also change thesources of traffic demand. Therefore, the elasticity of demandfor traffic se1vices is relatively low.

  1. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhenchun; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Guo, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion

  2. Thermo-elastic optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wu, Min; Wieser, Wolfgang; Amenta, Gaetano; Draxinger, Wolfgang; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Huber, Robert; Soest, Gijs van

    2017-09-01

    The absorption of nanosecond laser pulses induces rapid thermo-elastic deformation in tissue. A sub-micrometer scale displacement occurs within a few microseconds after the pulse arrival. In this Letter, we investigate the laser-induced thermo-elastic deformation using a 1.5 MHz phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. A displacement image can be reconstructed, which enables a new modality of phase-sensitive OCT, called thermo-elastic OCT. An analysis of the results shows that the optical absorption is a dominating factor for the displacement. Thermo-elastic OCT is capable of visualizing inclusions that do not appear on the structural OCT image, providing additional tissue type information.

  3. Elastic scattering of slow positrons by helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Shapiro, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The s-, p-, d- and f-wave phaseshifts for elastic scattering of slow positrons by He are calculated using a simplified version of the random phase approximation with exchange, with virtual positronium formation effect taken into account. (author)

  4. Elastic and Anelastic Structure Beneath Eurasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekstrom, Goran

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this work has been to map the variations of elastic mantle properties beneath Eurasia over horizontal length scales of approximately 1000-1500 kilometers and vertial length...

  5. Elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepffer, C.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Richter, A.

    1977-02-01

    In the field of elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering, the following issues are dealt with: semiclassical descriptive approximations, optical potentials, barriers, critical radii and angular momenta, excitation functions and the application to superheavy ions and high energies. (WL) [de

  6. Elastic spheres can walk on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Hurd, Randy C; Jandron, Michael A; Bower, Allan F; Truscott, Tadd T

    2016-02-04

    Incited by public fascination and engineering application, water-skipping of rigid stones and spheres has received considerable study. While these objects can be coaxed to ricochet, elastic spheres demonstrate superior water-skipping ability, but little is known about the effect of large material compliance on water impact physics. Here we show that upon water impact, very compliant spheres naturally assume a disk-like geometry and dynamic orientation that are favourable for water-skipping. Experiments and numerical modelling reveal that the initial spherical shape evolves as elastic waves propagate through the material. We find that the skipping dynamics are governed by the wave propagation speed and by the ratio of material shear modulus to hydrodynamic pressure. With these insights, we explain why softer spheres skip more easily than stiffer ones. Our results advance understanding of fluid-elastic body interaction during water impact, which could benefit inflatable craft modelling and, more playfully, design of elastic aquatic toys.

  7. Solitary waves on nonlinear elastic rods. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction betwe...... nonlinearity. The balance between dispersion and nonlinearity in the equation is investigated.......Acoustic waves on elastic rods with circular cross section are governed by improved Boussinesq equations when transverse motion and nonlinearity in the elastic medium are taken into account. Solitary wave solutions to these equations have been found. The present paper treats the interaction between...... the solitary waves numerically. It is demonstrated that the waves behave almost like solitons in agreement with the fact that the improved Boussinesq equations are nearly integrable. Thus three conservation theorems can be derived from the equations. A new subsonic quasibreather is found in the case of a cubic...

  8. Ultrastructural relationship of the phagophore with surrounding organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazik, Joanna; Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Phagophore nucleates from a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) termed the omegasome and also makes contact with other organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi complex, plasma membrane and recycling endosomes during its formation. We have used serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SB-EM) and electron tomography (ET) to image phagophore biogenesis in 3 dimensions and to determine the relationship between the phagophore and surrounding organelles at high resolution. ET was performed to confirm whether membrane contact sites (MCSs) are evident between the phagophore and those surrounding organelles. In addition to the known contacts with the ER, we identified MCSs between the phagophore and membranes from putative ER exit sites, late endosomes or lysosomes, the Golgi complex and mitochondria. We also show that one phagophore can have simultaneous MCSs with more than one organelle. Future membrane flux experiments are needed to determine whether membrane contacts also signify lipid translocation.

  9. Elastic form factors at higher CEBAF energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petratos, G.G. [Kent State Univ., OH (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The prospects for elastic scattering from few body systems with higher beam energies at CEBAF is presented. The deuteron and{sup 3}He elastic structure functions A(Q{sup 2}) can be measured at sufficiently high momentum transfers to study the transition between the conventional meson-nucleon and the constituent quark-gluon descriptions. Possible improvements in the proton magnetic form factor data are also presented.

  10. Extremal Overall Elastic Response of Polycrystalline Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P; Lipton, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Polycrystalline materials comprised of grains obtained froma single anisotropic material are considered in the frameworkof linear elasticity. No assumptions on the symmetry of thepolycrystal are made. We subject the material to independentexternal strain and stress fields with prescribed mean...... values.We show that the extremal overall elastic response is alwaysachieved by a configuration consisting of a single properlyoriented crystal. This result is compared to results for isotropicpolycrystals....

  11. Laboratory Tests of Bitumen Samples Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, E. R.; Usmanov, S. A.; Khasanov, D. I.; Khamidullina, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the elastic and acoustic properties of bitumen core samples. The travel velocities of the ultrasonic P- and S-waves were determined under in-situ simulation conditions. The resulting data were then used to calculate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The authors studied the correlation between the elasticity and the permeability and porosity. In addition, the tests looked into how the acoustic properties had changed with temperature rise.

  12. On the use of elastic-plastic material characteristics for linear-elastic component assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Silcher, H.; Eisele, U.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the procedure of safety assessment of components by fracture mechanics analysis as recommended in TECDOC 717 is applied to two standard specimens of ductile cast iron. It is shown that the use of a pseudo-elastic K IJ -value in linear elastic safety analysis may lead to non-conservative results, when elastic-plastic material behaviour can be expected. (author)

  13. Positron interactions with water–total elastic, total inelastic, and elastic differential cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattersall, Wade; Chiari, Luca; Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P.; White, Ron D.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, Stephen J.; Garcia, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions

  14. Diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and surroundings (presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzesova, A.; Galusova, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation is a summary of the results of floristic research aimed at determining diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and its surroundings. Plant taxa we determined using the designation keys. We have compiled a list of plant species occurring in the monitored area, we evaluated the selected botanical-phytogeographical characteristics of flora, we've put together a list of local protected, endangered and rare species and a list of local invasive and expansive species according to sources. (Authors)

  15. Methods of Assessing Noise Nuisance of Real Estate Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopińska Kinga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing what factors create the market value of real estate is key information when preparing property valuations as well as other opinions and professional evaluations on the basis of which court verdicts or administrative decisions are made. One of the factors influencing the value of some real estate is the level of noise present in the surroundings, which can lead to the occurrence of noise nuisance negatively affecting social relations.

  16. The characteristics of cerebral meningiomas and surrounding tissues on dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinkins, J.R.; Sener, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic CT was utilized to evaluate 11 patients with histologically benign meningiomas. While it was found that all demonstrated macroscopic neovascularity, subtle differences in the dynamic perfusion curves were identified both between different meningiomas and from region to region within the same tumor. Other than basic anatomic differences, these changes may reflect intratumoral ischemia and hypothetically herald cystic/necrotic alteration within the neoplasm. The dynamic calculations over the surrounding brain showed areas of gross hyper- and hypoperfused cerebral cortex, and hypoperfused white matter in regions of peritumoral edema. These latter findings are of uncertain clinical importance. The dynamic examination also confirmed cases of dural venous sinus invasion and calvarial permeation by tumor. In addition, the dynamic series showed macroscopic neovascularity in one case with a completely negative selective cerebral arteriogram. It is felt that certain cases which have previously been evaluated by static CT may benefit from further study utilizing the dynamic method. (orig.)

  17. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  18. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-17

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.

  19. Income Elasticity Literature Review | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income growth adjustment factors are calculated using a combination of income elasticity estimates and income growth projections, both of which have remained essentially unchanged since 1999. These income elasticity estimates vary according to the severity of illness. EPA recently received advice from the SAB regarding the range of income elasticities to apply as well as the research standards to use when selecting income elasticity estimates. Following this advice, EPA consulted with a contractor to update its income elasticity and income growth projections, and generate new income growth adjustment factors. The SAB would evaluate the income elasticity estimates identified in the EPA-provided literature review, determining the extent to which these estimates are appropriate to use in human health benefits assessments.

  20. Application of elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to surface flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Donald E.; Ernst, Hugo A.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    Fuel tanks that are a part of the External Tank assembly for the Space Shuttle are made of relatively thin 2219-T87 aluminum plate. These tanks contain about 917 m of fusion weld seam, all of which is nondestructively inspected for flaws and all those found are repaired. The tanks are subsequently proof-tested to a pressure that is sufficiently severe to cause weld metal yielding in a few local regions of the weld seam. The work undertaken in the present project was to develop a capability to predict flaw growth from undetected surface flaws that are assumed to be located in the highly stressed regions. The technical challenge was to develop R-curve prediction capability for surface cracks in specimens that contain the flaws of unusual sizes and shapes deemed to be of interest. The test techniques developed and the elastic-plastic analysis concepts adopted are presented. The flaws of interest were quite small surface cracks that were narrow-deep ellipses that served to exacerbate the technical difficulties involved.

  1. Elastic interactions between hydrogen atoms in metals. II. Elastic interaction energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, A.I.; Hall, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    The fully harmonic lattice approximation derived in a previous paper is used to calculate the elastic interaction energies in the niobium-hydrogen system. The permanent-direct, permanent-indirect, induced-direct, and induced-indirect forces calculated previously each give rise to a corresponding elastic interaction between hydrogen atoms. The latter three interactions have three- and four-body terms in addition to the usual two-body terms. These quantities are calculated and compared with the corresponding two-body permanent elastic interactions obtained in the harmonic-approximation treatment of Horner and Wagner. The results show that the total induced elastic energy is approximately (1/3) the size of the total permanent elastic energy and opposite to it in sign. The total elastic energy due to three-body interactions is approximately (1/4) the size of the total two-body elastic energy, while the total four-body elastic energy is approximately 5% of the total two-body energy. These additional elastic energies are expected to have a profound effect on the thermodynamic and phase-change behavior of a metal hydride

  2. Floating Carpets and the Delamination of Elastic Sheets

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J. W.

    2011-07-22

    We investigate the deformation of a thin elastic sheet floating on a liquid surface and subject to a uniaxial compression. We show that at a critical compression the sheet delaminates from the liquid over a finite region forming a delamination "blister." This blistering regime adds to the wrinkling and localized folding regimes that have been studied previously. The transition from wrinkled to blistered states occurs when delamination becomes energetically favorable compared with wrinkling. We determine the initial blister size and the evolution of blister size with continuing compression before verifying our theoretical results with experiments at a macroscopic scale. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  3. Selectron production in quasi-elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Hollik, W.

    1985-08-01

    We calculate the cross section for the production of selectrons in quasi-elastic electron proton scattering at HERA energies. In the region of very small momentum transfer the cross section turns out to be large: e.g. sigma=36 pb for a selectron mass of 60 GeV, tsub(min) 2 ), and photino mass small compared to the selectron mass. Together with the clean experimental signature, this large cross section makes the reaction e+P->e+γ tilde+P one of the most promising HERA-processes in connection with the search for supersymmetric particles. (orig.)

  4. Dependency of plasmon resonance sensitivity of colloidal gold nanoparticles on the identity of surrounding ionic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdel, B.; Aziz, A. Abdul

    2018-03-01

    The plasmon resonance sensitivity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in sodium chloride (NaCl) liquid in near-infrared to the visible spectral region was investigated. The correlation between NaCl concentration and refractive index was analyzed using concentration dependency and Lorenz-Lorenz methods. The first derivative method was applied to the measured absorption spectra to quantitatively evaluate the plasmon resonance sensitivity. To understand the influence of the identity of the surrounding medium on the plasmon resonance sensitivity, experiments were repeated by replacing NaCl with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), followed by phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Experimental results showed that NaCl is the most effective ionic surrounding medium, which gives prominent plasmon resonance response. AuNPs size can have a significant influence on the plasmon resonance sensitivity. For tiny AuNPs (∼10 nm AuNPs), the plasmon resonance is insensitive to the identity of the surrounding medium due to their low cross-section value.

  5. Logistics system as an effort of integration in the Mandalika Special Economic Zone and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suheri, T.; Melinda, W. G.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia as one of the maritime countries with its territory in the form of an archipelago. A SEZ with an integrated logistics system is very influential on the value of tourism, especially marine tourism. The creation of logistics activities in the Mandalika SEZ as a tourism area formed from the export and import of products as a form of tourism promotion will attract many domestic and foreign tourists. The importance of a logistics system for both people and goods can support the investment system in the area of Mandalika SEZ. The logistics system can provide agglomeration of facilities and infrastructure to support tourist activities in terms of cargo distribution both locally and globally. Mandalika SEZ requires an integrated logistics system to improve national competitiveness in the form of physical system support such as commodity availability and city/regional infrastructure as well as non-physical infrastructure such as service providers and regulation in order to be sustainable. The logistics system also plays a strategic role in synchronizing and harmonizing progress between economies and between regions in order to avoid an imbalance with the surrounding area. This study aims to find out the performance of the existing logistics systems in the Mandalika area and its surrounding areas in order to formulate policies to integrate the logistics systems within and outside the region. This research used content analysis methodology.

  6. Comparison of the common spatial interpolation methods used to analyze potentially toxic elements surrounding mining regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qian; Wang, Yong; Zhuang, Dafang

    2018-04-15

    The appropriate spatial interpolation methods must be selected to analyze the spatial distributions of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs), which is a precondition for evaluating PTE pollution. The accuracy and effect of different spatial interpolation methods, which include inverse distance weighting interpolation (IDW) (power = 1, 2, 3), radial basis function interpolation (RBF) (basis function: thin-plate spline (TPS), spline with tension (ST), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquadric (MQ) and inverse multiquadric (IMQ)) and ordinary kriging interpolation (OK) (semivariogram model: spherical, exponential, gaussian and linear), were compared using 166 unevenly distributed soil PTE samples (As, Pb, Cu and Zn) in the Suxian District, Chenzhou City, Hunan Province as the study subject. The reasons for the accuracy differences of the interpolation methods and the uncertainties of the interpolation results are discussed, then several suggestions for improving the interpolation accuracy are proposed, and the direction of pollution control is determined. The results of this study are as follows: (i) RBF-ST and OK (exponential) are the optimal interpolation methods for As and Cu, and the optimal interpolation method for Pb and Zn is RBF-IMQ. (ii) The interpolation uncertainty is positively correlated with the PTE concentration, and higher uncertainties are primarily distributed around mines, which is related to the strong spatial variability of PTE concentrations caused by human interference. (iii) The interpolation accuracy can be improved by increasing the sample size around the mines, introducing auxiliary variables in the case of incomplete sampling and adopting the partition prediction method. (iv) It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of As and Pb pollution, particularly in the central and northern areas. The results of this study can provide an effective reference for the optimization of interpolation methods and parameters for unevenly distributed soil PTE data in mining areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) in Istanbul: Origin, source areas and potential impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Im, U.; Bougiatioti, A.; Yenigun, O.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Water-soluble ions (Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, CO4-, Na +, NH4+, K +, Mg 2+,Ca 2+), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) and trace metals (Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were measured in aerosol PM 10 samples above the megacity of Istanbul between November 2007 and June 2009. Source apportionment analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) indicates that approximately 80% of the PM 10 is anthropogenic in origin (secondary, refuse incineration, fuel oil and solid fuel combustion and traffic). Crustal and sea salt account for 10.2 and 7.5% of the observed mass, respectively. In general, anthropogenic (except secondary) aerosol shows higher concentrations and contributions in winter. Mean concentration and contribution of crustal source is found to be more important during the transitional period due to mineral dust transport from North Africa. During the sampling period, 42 events exceeding the limit value of 50 μg m -3 are identified. A significant percentage (91%; n = 38) of these exceedances is attributed to anthropogenic sources. Potential Source Contribution Function analysis highlights that Istanbul is affected from distant sources from Balkans and Western Europe during winter and from Eastern Europe during summer. On the other hand, Istanbul sources influence western Black Sea and Eastern Europe during winter and Aegean and Levantine Sea during summer.

  8. New radiochronological data on the Franceville basin and the surrounding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.; Bonhomme, M.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the Francevillian series, the radiochronological data obtained some years ago are discussed, account being taken of possible connections of the series with the intrusive N'Goutou complex on one hand and the metamorphic Ogooue system on the other. If the syenitic N'Goutou intrusion is contemporary with the deposition of the sediments, the age given by the Rb-Sr isochrone of the Franceville basin (1740 or 1800 million years depending on the constants used), which cannot be distinguished from that of the syenites, agrees - within the margin of the analytical errors - with the age of the sedimentation. If, on the other hand, the syenitic intrusion is later, a greater age - possibly of the order of 2000 million years - can be envisaged for the deposition of the sediments. This would be confirmed if it were proved that the Franceville basin merges without any major discordance into the metamorphic Ogooue system, acquiring increasing metamorphism towards the north-west, and if it were demonstrated that a substantial magmatic event subsequently modified the apparent age of the series. The new measurements presented in the paper were performed at Strasbourg by the K-Ar method. The following samples were analysed: veined dolerites which cut through the Franceville basin and the base; a syenite from an intrusive complex in the Chaillu Massif; pelites from the Oklo deposit; a pelite sample obtained by drilling from the extreme base of the series. The dolerites have rather widely differing apparent ages which probably reflect a deposition about 850 million years ago and, in some cases, a more or less complete loss of radiogenic argon due to rearrangement of the fractures in the course of Mayombian folding about 500 million years ago. The Chaillu syenite has an apparent age of 2200 million years, which may be regarded as the latest date for its actual deposition. Thus, these different intrusions are not related in age with the syenitic N'Goutou complex. Whatever their stratigraphic level, the pelitic samples from the Franceville basin have apparent ages consistent with those found previously (1700-1800 million years). On the other hand, two samples from the wall of one of the reaction zones have lost (almost completely in one case) radiogenic argon. This is due to recent effects on the reaction zones of meteoric water circulation in the cracks

  9. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  10. Elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles from sup 46 Ti at E sub. alpha. = 35 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunatha Rao, V.; Sudarshan, M.; Sarma, A.; Singh, R. (North-Eastern Hill Univ., Shillong (India). Dept. of Physics); Banerjee, S.R.; Chintalapudi, S.N. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Variable Energy Cyclotron Project)

    1991-12-01

    Differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of 35 MeV alpha particles have been measured from {theta}{sub lab} =10{sup o} to 100{sup o} in 1{sup o}-2{sup o} steps. An optical model analysis of the elastic scattering data has been carried out using Woods-Saxon and Woods-Saxon squared radial dependences for real as well as imaginary parts of the potential. The most sensitive region of the potential in predicting the elastic scattering cross sections has been determined using a notch perturbation test. The problem of discrete family ambiguity in the optical model analysis of elastic data has also been investigated. The inelastic scattering data have been analysed in terms of the collective model using the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), where the distorted waves are generated by the optical potential obtained from the elastic scattering data. (author).

  11. ZZ ELAST2, Database of Cross Sections for the Elastic Scattering of Electrons and Positrons by Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Historical background and information: This database is an extension of the earlier database, 'Elastic Scattering of Electrons and Positrons by Atoms: Database ELAST', Report NISTIR 5188, 1993. Cross sections for the elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms were calculated at energies from 1 KeV to 100 MeV. Up to 10 MeV the RELEL code of Riley was used. Above 10 MeV the ELSCAT code was used, which calculated the factored cross sections and evaluates the screening factor Kscr in WKB approximation. 2 - Application of the data: This database was developed to provide input for the transport codes, such as ETRAN, and includes differential cross sections, the total cross section, and the transport cross sections. In addition, a code TRANSX is provided that generates transport cross section of arbitrary order needed as input for the calculation of Goudsmit-Saunderson multiple-scattering angular distribution 3 - Source and scope of data: The database includes cross sections at 61 energies for electrons and 41 energies from positrons, covering the energy region from 1 KeV to 100 MeV. The number of deflection angles included in the database is 314 angles. Total and transport cross sections are also included in this package. The data files have an extension (jjj) that represents the atomic number of the target atom. The database includes auxiliary data files that enable the ELASTIC code to include the following optional modifications: (i) the inclusion of the exchange correction for electrons scattering; (ii) the conversion of the cross sections for scattering by free atoms to cross sections for scattering by atoms in solids; (iii) ti reduction of the cross sections at large angles and at high energies when the nucleus is treated as an extended rather than a point charge

  12. Presence of VIM-Positive Pseudomonas Species in Chickens and Their Surrounding Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongmin; Liu, Zhihai; Li, Jiyun; Lei, Lei; Yin, Wenjuan; Li, Mei; Wu, Congming; Walsh, Timothy R; Wang, Yang; Wang, Shaolin; Wu, Yongning

    2017-07-01

    Metallo-β-lactamase gene bla VIM was identified on the chromosome of four Pseudomonas sp. isolates from a chicken farm, including one Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate from a swallow ( Yanornis martini ), one Pseudomonas putida isolate from a fly, and two P. putida isolates from chickens. The four isolates shared two variants of bla VIM -carrying genomic contexts that resemble the corresponding regions of clinical metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas spp. Our study suggests that the surveillance of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in livestock and their surrounding environment is urgently needed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Acoustic scattering from a contrast agent microbubble near an elastic wall of finite thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Aired, Leila; Bouakaz, Ayache

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the problem under consideration in this study is motivated by targeted ultrasound imaging where one has to deal with microbubble contrast agents pulsating near blood vessel walls. A modified Rayleigh–Plesset equation is derived that describes the oscillation of a contrast agent microbubble near an elastic wall of finite thickness. It is assumed that the medium behind the wall is a fluid but it is shown that the equation obtained is easily transformable to the case that the medium behind the wall is an elastic solid. In contrast to the model of a rigid wall, which predicts decreasing natural frequency of a bubble near the wall, the elastic wall model reveals that the bubble natural frequency can both decrease and increase, and in cases of interest for medical applications, the bubble natural frequency usually increases. It is found that the influence of an elastic wall on the acoustic response of a bubble is determined by the ratio between a cumulative parameter, which integrally characterizes the mechanical properties of the wall and has the dimension of density, and the density of the liquid surrounding the bubble. It is shown that the acoustic influence of the arterial wall on the bubble is weak and apparently cannot be used to recognize the moment when the bubble approaches the wall. However, in experiments where the behavior of bubbles near various plastic walls is observed, changes in the bubble response, such as increasing natural frequency and decreasing oscillation amplitude, are detectable.

  14. Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic

  15. THE ELASTICITY OF EXPORT DEMAND FOR US COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Laxmi; Houston, Jack E.; Adhikari, Murali; Devkota, Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    There exist conflicting views among the researchers about the magnitudes of US cotton export demand elasticity, ranging from the highly inelastic to highly elastic. An Armington model was used to analyze the export demand elasticity of US Cotton. Our analysis confirms an elastic nature of US cotton export demand.

  16. Appendix F : finite element analysis of end region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    FE (finite element) modeling was conducted to 1) provide a better understanding of the : elastic behavior of the end region prior to cracking and 2) to evaluate the effects of bearing pad : stiffness and width on end region elastic stresses. The FEA ...

  17. Actin filaments growing against an elastic membrane: Effect of membrane tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, Raj Kumar; Chatterjee, Sakuntala

    2018-03-01

    We study the force generation by a set of parallel actin filaments growing against an elastic membrane. The elastic membrane tries to stay flat and any deformation from this flat state, either caused by thermal fluctuations or due to protrusive polymerization force exerted by the filaments, costs energy. We study two lattice models to describe the membrane dynamics. In one case, the energy cost is assumed to be proportional to the absolute magnitude of the height gradient (gradient model) and in the other case it is proportional to the square of the height gradient (Gaussian model). For the gradient model we find that the membrane velocity is a nonmonotonic function of the elastic constant μ and reaches a peak at μ =μ* . For μ membrane energy keeps increasing with time. For the Gaussian model, the system always reaches a steady state and the membrane velocity decreases monotonically with the elastic constant ν for all nonzero values of ν . Multiple filaments give rise to protrusions at different regions of the membrane and the elasticity of the membrane induces an effective attraction between the two protrusions in the Gaussian model which causes the protrusions to merge and a single wide protrusion is present in the system. In both the models, the relative time scale between the membrane and filament dynamics plays an important role in deciding whether the shape of elasticity-velocity curve is concave or convex. Our numerical simulations agree reasonably well with our analytical calculations.

  18. Role of architecture in the elastic response of semiflexible polymer and fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussinger, Claus; Frey, Erwin

    2007-01-01

    We study the elasticity of cross-linked networks of thermally fluctuating stiff polymers. As compared to their purely mechanical counterparts, it is shown that these thermal networks have a qualitatively different elastic response. By accounting for the entropic origin of the single-polymer elasticity, the networks acquire a strong susceptibility to polydispersity and structural randomness that is completely absent in athermal models. In extensive numerical studies we systematically vary the architecture of the networks and identify a wealth of phenomena that clearly show the strong dependence of the emergent macroscopic moduli on the underlying mesoscopic network structure. In particular, we highlight the importance of the polymer length, which to a large extent controls the elastic response of the network, surprisingly, even in parameter regions where it does not enter the macroscopic moduli explicitly. Understanding these subtle effects is only possible by going beyond the conventional approach that considers the response of typical polymer segments only. Instead, we propose to describe the elasticity in terms of a typical polymer filament and the spatial distribution of cross-links along its backbone. We provide theoretical scaling arguments to relate the observed macroscopic elasticity to the physical mechanisms on the microscopic and mesoscopic scales.

  19. Size-dependent elastic/inelastic behavior of enamel over millimeter and nanometer length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Siang Fung; Bortel, Emely L; Swain, Michael V; Klocke, Arndt; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure of enamel like most biological tissues has a hierarchical structure which determines their mechanical behavior. However, current studies of the mechanical behavior of enamel lack a systematic investigation of these hierarchical length scales. In this study, we performed macroscopic uni-axial compression tests and the spherical indentation with different indenter radii to probe enamel's elastic/inelastic transition over four hierarchical length scales, namely: 'bulk enamel' (mm), 'multiple-rod' (10's microm), 'intra-rod' (100's nm with multiple crystallites) and finally 'single-crystallite' (10's nm with an area of approximately one hydroxyapatite crystallite). The enamel's elastic/inelastic transitions were observed at 0.4-17 GPa depending on the length scale and were compared with the values of synthetic hydroxyapatite crystallites. The elastic limit of a material is important as it provides insights into the deformability of the material before fracture. At the smallest investigated length scale (contact radius approximately 20 nm), elastic limit is followed by plastic deformation. At the largest investigated length scale (contact size approximately 2 mm), only elastic then micro-crack induced response was observed. A map of elastic/inelastic regions of enamel from millimeter to nanometer length scale is presented. Possible underlying mechanisms are also discussed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Static and Dynamic Elastic Modules of Different Strength Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyanık, Osman; Sabbaǧ, Nevbahar

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the static and dynamic elastic (Young) modules of concrete with different strength was intended to compare. For this purpose 150mm dimensions 9 for each design cubic samples prepared and they were subjected to water cure during 28 days. After Seismic Ultrasonic P and S wave travel time measurements of samples, P and S wave velocities and taking advantage of elasticity theory the dynamic elastic modules were calculated. Concrete strength was obtained from the uniaxial compression tests in order to calculate the static elastic modules of the samples. The static elastic modulus is calculated by using the empirical relationships used in international standards. The obtained static and dynamic elastic modules have been associated. A curve was obtained from this association result that approximately similar to the stress-strain curve of obtaining at failure criterion of the sample. This study was supported with OYP05277-DR-14 Project No. by SDU and State Hydraulic Works 13th Regional/2012-01 Project No. Keywords: Concrete Strength, P and S wave Velocities, Static, Dynamic, Young Modules