WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding cold fusion

  1. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  2. Cold nuclear fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    ...... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion...

  3. Cold fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  4. Cold nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  5. The status of cold fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  6. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  7. Fusion, cold fusion, and space policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotegard, D. (CST Ltd. (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper critiques Americal science policy through a consideration of two examples-cold fusion and asteroid mining. It points out that the failure of central planning in science and technology policy is just as marked as in more mundane activities. It highlights the current low level of debate and points out some technical issues that need to be addressed. It concludes with evidence that the alliance of flawed policy options is further lowering the level of debate. (author).

  8. Cold fusion reactors and new modern physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The author of the "modern physics classical particle quantization orbital motion model general solution", referred to as the “new modern physics” a book. “The nuclear force constraint inertial guidance cold nuclear fusion collides” patent of invention referred to as the “cold nuclear fusion reactor” detailed technical data. Now provide to you, hope you help spread and the mainstream of modern physics of academic and fusion engineering academic communication. We work together to promote the cause of science and technology progress of mankind to contribute

  9. Cold nuclear fusion reactor and nuclear fusion rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available "Nuclear restraint inertial guidance directly hit the cold nuclear fusion reactor and ion speed dc transformer" [1], referred to as "cold fusion reactor" invention patents, Chinese Patent Application No. CN: 200910129632.7 [2]. The invention is characterized in that: at room temperature under vacuum conditions, specific combinations of the installation space of the electromagnetic field, based on light nuclei intrinsic magnetic moment and the electric field, the first two strings of the nuclei to be bound fusion on the same line (track of. Re-use nuclear spin angular momentum vector inherent nearly the speed of light to form a super strong spin rotation gyro inertial guidance features, to overcome the Coulomb repulsion strong bias barrier to achieve fusion directly hit. Similar constraints apply nuclear inertial guidance mode for different speeds and energy ion beam mixing speed, the design of ion speed dc transformer is cold fusion reactors, nuclear fusion engines and such nuclear power plants and power delivery systems start important supporting equipment, so apply for a patent merger

  10. Could spectator electrons legalize cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, L. (Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-12-01

    In this paper the possibility of spectator electrons driving cold d-d fusion in condensed matter to an observation threshold is considered, along with the consequences on the branching ratio of the exit channels. The intrinsic dominance of the t-p channel due to the increased phase space is demonstrated.

  11. Sololuminescence:microwaves and cold fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TVPrevenslik

    1997-01-01

    Sonoluminescence(SL) observed in the cavitation of water is explained by the Planck theory of SL that treats the bubbles as miniature masers converting the velocity of bubble collapes to electromagnetic(EM) waves at microwave(MW) froequencies.The Planck theory of SL is consistent with historical experimental data that shows MW's concurrent with SL are produced in cavitation.As the bubbles collapse,MW's are absorbed and the Planck energy accumulates through the rotation quantum state of the bubble wall molecules,A MW photoelectric effect for accumulated MW photons is identified as a new SL parameter.During ultrasonic cavitation,cold fusion on average betweeen the D's on colliding D2O bubble wall molecules does not occur as the Planck energy is limited to about 2keV,but a limited number of cold fusion events with a Planck energy in excess of 10keV are possible.However,high power microwaves(HPM) pulsed to less than-1ns appear to be a far more efficient way of creating cold fusion in D2O than by ultrasonic cavitation.

  12. Cold fusion, mass media and actual science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orefice, A. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The peculiar affair of cold nuclear fusion, a recent and exemplary pattern of today's scientific and public habits, is considered. An overview is proposed on the contemporary approach to science and technology, both of the mass media and research worlds. It shows how mass media with its power of suggestion and ability to raise financial resources can lead many researchers into unpredictable - if not irresponsible behaviour. Yet, an eccess of empiricism may often induce researchers to rely rather on serendipity than on deeper meditation.

  13. Investigation of the Effect of Mechanical Stress on Cold Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    J. Gittus and J. Bockris (8:105) propose that when local concentrations build to a high enough, but as yet unspecified, level, cold fusion can occur...Diagrams, Volume 2, Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 1986. 8. Gittus , John and James Bockris. "Explanations of Cold Fusion," (Scientific

  14. The Rhetoric of Science: a Case Study of the Cold Fusion Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, David Lee

    This dissertation examines the circumstances surrounding and the rhetoric involved in the cold fusion controversy begun on March 23, 1989, when two University of Utah electrochemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, announced by press conference the discovery of room-temperature nuclear fusion. The dissertation seeks to determine to what extent a rhetorical analysis of cold fusion discourse may increase understanding of the controversy; the success of Fleischmann and Pons as scientific rhetors; the ways in which scientists' attitudes, values, and assumptions manifest themselves in the discourse; and finally, what may be learned about scientific discourse in general by examining the cold fusion controversy in particular. The dissertation employs a method of analysis which combines Lawrence J. Prelli's special theory of scientific rhetoric that identifies relevant issues and lines of argument in scientific discourse, and S. Michael Halloran's method of close textual reading suggested in his study of DNA discourse. Examined were Fleischmann and Pons's initial publication announcing the cold fusion discovery in the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry; Steven E. Jones's initial publication of his cold fusion discovery and several representative discourse samples from the journal Nature; and Fleischmann and Pons's latest article in the Journal of Fusion Technology. Several issues and lines of argument were identified. For the most part, cold fusion discourse addressed evidential issues, questioning the existence of the cold fusion phenomenon. Several lines of argument were evoked to address this issue, including experimental competence, experimental replication, external consistency, communality, and disinterestedness. Also discovered is division between electrochemists and physicists over what constitutes valid evidence: electrochemists looked to excess heat production as proof of fusion; physicists looked to neutron production. The study concludes that

  15. Sonoluminescence:an IRaser creating cold fusion neutrons?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TVPrevenslik

    1996-01-01

    Sonluminescence can be explained by treating the bubbles as IRasers with standing waves in resonance with the bubble dimensions.Since the IRaser resonant radiation is required to satisfy wave boundary conditions,the water molecules lining the bubble walls undergo a continuous population inversion conditions,the water molecules lining the bubble walls undergo a continuous population inversion as the bubble collapses.By stimulated processes,the Planck energy accumulates as the KbT energy of radiation photons is pumped from the surroundings through the rotational state of the water molecule.Bubble collapse occurs almost isothermally with the high IR absorptivity of the water molecule permitting the Planck energy to accumulate to 2-6eV only to be released by VIS-UV photon emission because of the low absorptivity of water at VIS-UV frequencies.As the IRaser cavity dimensions collapse to the spacing between water molecules at liquid density,soft X-rays at about 2keV are predicted.But,this is less than 10keV necessary for cold fusion so that no neutrons is directly expected yet.Therefore,it is suggested that UV laser enhancement is used to accumulate further bubble collapse energy.

  16. Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing; Li, Jun-Qing; Scheid, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Within the concept of the dinuclear system (DNS), a dynamical model is proposed for describing the formation of superheavy nuclei in complete fusion reactions by incorporating the coupling of the relative motion to the nucleon transfer process. The capture of two heavy colliding nuclei, the formation of the compound nucleus and the de-excitation process are calculated by using an empirical coupled channel model, solving a master equation numerically and applying statistical theory, respectively. Evaporation residue excitation functions in cold fusion reactions are investigated systematically and compared with available experimental data. Maximal production cross sections of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions with stable neutron-rich projectiles are obtained. Isotopic trends in the production of the superheavy elements Z=110, 112, 114, 116, 118 and 120 are analyzed systematically. Optimal combinations and the corresponding excitation energies are proposed.

  17. Some Personal Reflections on the Cold Fusion ``Epsisode"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George H.

    2001-04-01

    This talk is largely based on a recent journal article (G. H. Miley, Accountability in Research, Vol. 8), pp 121-135 (2000). I prepared to discuss ethical issues in scientific research based on my experiences during and following the hectic period created by the public announcement of ``Cold Fusion" in 1989 by Drs. Pons and Fleischmann. This will include a personal account of several controversial situations I encountered as one of the early researchers in CF (who has persistently kept going!) and as editor of Fusion Technology (FT) where many of the reviewed papers on the topic have appeared. Finally, the history of the ``new" branch of cold fusion termed ``Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs)"(G. H. Miley, ``Characteristics of Potential Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in Solids," Transactions of ANS, Nashville, TN, June 7-11, 1998. pp 82-83), where the hydrogen and metal electrode material react directly causing ``transmutation" products will be briefly outlined.

  18. Synthesis of the heaviest nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzenberg, G.; Morita, K.

    2015-12-01

    Cold fusion of heavy ions paved the way to superheavy elements. It was proposed by Yu.Ts. Oganessian more than forty years ago in 1974 [1,2]. First experiments were carried out at JINR Dubna, starting with the reaction 40Ar + 208Pb → 248Fm* where several hundreds to thousand atoms were produced on one day. The large production rate indicating an enhancement of the fusion cross section, especially for the evaporation of two or three neutrons, proved the concept of cold-fusion with the use of the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb as a target. The Dubna experiments were extended to the transactinide region beyond rutherfordium. The breakthrough came with the separation in-flight. Two different approaches were used: kinematic separation with the velocity filter SHIP [3] at GSI Darmstadt, and with the gasfilled separator GARIS [4,5] at RIKEN. With SHIP the concept of cold fusion of massive nuclear systems was convincingly confirmed by the observation of the one-neutron evaporation channel in the production of 247Rf in an irradiation of 208Pb with 50Ti [6] in 1981 which opened the way to the transactinide region. At SHIP the elements bohrium (107) to copernicium (112) were discovered [7]. A new closed shell region around hassium was found. The RIKEN experiments started in 2002. They confirmed the GSI results and in addition improved the data on structure and production of elements hassium to copernicium significantly. The heaviest element ever created in a cold fusion reaction, Z = 113, was observed at GARIS [8,9].

  19. On the observation of charged particles in cold fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Bo U. R.; Håkansson, Per; Hedin, Allan; Bucur, Romulus V.; Johansson, Börje; Wäppling, Roger

    1989-09-01

    With the aim to confirm or reject the recent claim of observation of cold d-d fusion, an experimental effort has been made to try to observe MeV protons which should be emitted as a result of d-d fusion. Pd foils, thin enough to allow all protons produced to escape the foil, were electrolytically charged with deuterium. A Si(SB) detector was placed close to the Pd foil during charging in order to detect any protons emitted. The deuterium content was measured to be the expected 0.7 D per Pd. Monte Carlo simulations were made to estimate the detection efficiency of 3.02 MeV protons produced in the Pd foil. The background in the experiment was so low that fusion rates considerably lower than those reported on by Jones et al. could be detected. A number of experiments have been performed where the charging conditions were varied. In spite of that and the good sensitivity of the experiment no evidence for cold fusion has been found.

  20. On the observation of charged particles in cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, B.U.R.; Haakansson, P.; Hedin, A. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Ion Physics); Bucur, R.V. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry); Johansson, B.; Waeppling, R. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics)

    1989-09-01

    With the aim to confirm or reject the recent claim of observation of cold d-d fusion, an experimental effort has been made to try to observe MeV protons which should be emitted as a result of d-d fusion. Pd foils, thin enough to allow all protons produced to escape the foil, were electrolytically charged with deuterium. A Si(SB) detector was placed close to the Pd foil during charging in order to detect any protons emitted. The deuterium content was measured to be the expected 0.7 D per Pd. Monte Carlo simulations were made to estimate the detection efficiency of 3.02 MeV protons produced in the Pd foil. The background in the experiment was so low that fusion rates considerably lower than those reported on by Jones et al. could be detected. A number of experiments have been performed where the charging conditions were varied. In spite of that and the good sensitivity of the experiment no evidence for cold fusion has been found. (orig.).

  1. ULTRASOUND INDUCED AND LASER ENHANCED COLD FUSION CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.V.Prevenslik

    1995-01-01

    The standard model of sonoluminescence suggests that the coulomb barrer to deuterium fusion may be overcome by high bubble gas temperatures caused by compression heating if the bubble diameter remains spherical during bubble collapse.However,in the more likely collapse geometry of a pancake shape,the temperature rise in the bubbles is negligible.But the collapsing pancake bubble is fund to significantly increase the frequency of the infrared energy available in the vibrational state of the water molecules at ambient temperature.For a collapse to liquied density,ultraviolet radiation at about 10eV is fund.Although the ultraviolet radiation is of a low intensity,higher intensities may be possible if the bubble collapse is enhanced by visible and infrared lases.Neither hot nor cold fusion is predicted in bubble collapse but the ultraviolet energy at about 10eV developed in the bubble is sufficient to provide the basis for a new field of chemistry called ultrasound induced and laser enhanced cold fusion chemistry.

  2. Social Aspects of Cold Fusion: 23 Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski L.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The field of Cold Fusion, now called Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS, re- mains controversial. The original 1989 claim made by M. Fleischmann and S. Pons was that a chemical process in an electrolytic cell could initiate a nuclear reaction–fusion of two deuterium nuclei. More recent CMNS claims, made by experimental scientists, are: emission of charged nuclear projectiles during electrolysis; accumulation of 4 He; production of radioactive isotopes; and transmutation of elements. In the US, CMNS claims have been evaluated in two Department of Energy (DOE investigations, in 1989 and 2004, as summarized in this article. These investigations did not lead to any resolu- tion of the controversy. Scientists and adminstrators are not ideal; competition among them, as among other groups of people, tends to have both positive and negative influ- ences.

  3. To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the 'acoustic CF' could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics.

  4. A REALISTIC EXAMINATION OF COLD FUSION CLAIMS 24 YEARS LATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, K.

    2012-10-22

    On March 29, 1989, chemists Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced they had discovered an effect whose explanation was required to lie in the realm of nuclear reactions. Their claim, and those subsequent to it of roughly similar nature, became known as ‘cold fusion’. Research continues to this day on this effect, but what has become clear is that whatever it is, it is not a conventional fusion process. Thus the ‘cold fusion’ moniker is somewhat inappropriate and many current researchers in the field prefer the term “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)”, although other terms have been coined for it as well. the results developed out of the LENR research do in fact show something is happening to produce signals which might be interpreted as supporting nuclear reactions (which is what encourages and sustains LENR researchers), but which can also be interpreted via a set of unique and interesting conventional processes. The focus of this document is to describe and address recent objections to such processes so that subsequent LENR research can be guided to develop information that will determine whether either set of explanations has merit. It is hoped that criteria delineated herein will aid the USDOE and other agencies in determining if LENR proposals are meritorious and worthy of support or not.

  5. May 1, 1989- A Critical Turning Point in the Cold Fusion Saga: APS, MIT and the Real Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallove, Sc. D.; Eugene, F.; Chubb, Talbot

    2001-04-01

    As Chief Science Writer at the MIT News Office from 1987 through 1991, and as an engineer (MIT, S.B. 1969, S.M. 1970) familiar with heat measurements and the various other experiment claims, I was in a position to ascertain the true facts surrounding: the media and Press Conference events at MIT before and after May 1, 1989; the ill-fated calorimetric experiment performed by the MIT Plasma Fusion Center; and the MIT Administration's so-called investigation of this experiment. This activity led to wide-spread disparagement of the Fleischmann-Pons claims. A reconstruction of these events will be outlined, together with original supporting evidence that confirm that the "standard story" of how cold fusion was "debunked" at the May 1, 1989 APS meeting in Baltimore is not only wrong, but catastrophically so(Eugene Mallove, Fire from Ice: Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor. (John Wiley & Sons, 1991))^,(Infinite Energy Magazine, Issue #24, March/April 1999, 10th Anniversary of Cold Fusion issue. (Includes time-lines and 55-page "MIT Special Report") ).

  6. Critical factors in transitioning from fuel cell to cold fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcgraw, T.F.; Davis, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    The fuel cell industry possesses much of the required manufacturing equipment and knowledge-base (e.g., proton conduction and hydrogen safety) necessary to develop cold fusion systems. Key factors in making a transition to cold fusion technology are discussed. Loading of reaction material can be provided by electrolytic charging and high gas over-pressure. Effective pressures over 10,000 atmospheres are required in cold fusion systems, giving a loading of H/M = 1; and a combination of loading methods is highly desirable. Systems must be designed to provide continuous flow of hydrogen ions ({much{underscore}gt}10{sup 17}/sec for ten kilowatts), with an input power source of 50 watts (est.). Cold fusion experiments have shown that helium is formed during the reaction, and physical changes occur in the reaction material. These revelations impact design and operation of cold fusion systems, as the reaction material must be replaced periodically, while the systems must maintain integrity during operation. Safety and cost are also highly important considerations.

  7. Challenges Surrounding the Injection and Arrival of Targets at LIFE Fusion Chamber Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, R; Spaeth, M; Manes, K; Amendt, P; Tabak, M; Bond, T; Kucheyev, S; Latkowski, J; Loosmore, G; Bliss, E; Baker, K; Bhandarkar, S; Petzoldt, R; Alexander, N; Tillack, M; Holdener, D

    2010-12-01

    IFE target designers must consider several engineering requirements in addition to the physics requirements for successful target implosion. These considerations include low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, the ability of the target to survive the injection into the fusion chamber and arrive in a condition and physical position consistent with proper laser-target interaction and ease of post-implosion debris removal. This article briefly describes these considerations for the Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) targets currently being designed.

  8. Investigations of mechanisms and occurrence of meteorologically triggered cold fusion at the Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, N.; Yi, S. Sh; Qi, X. Zh.; Li, X. D.; Wang, L.; Zu, Q. X.

    1991-05-01

    Morrison' at CERN notes regional variation in fusion cell results and various workers have ascribed this to possible sociological factors. In view of the observation by other workers of gamma and neutrons from electric storms, the present paper seeks physical causes of such variation in terms of meteorological conditions. Previous work on Abrikosov vortices (rotating strings of electron Cooper pairs responsible for Type-II superconductivity) and their possible availability in near or actual electric storm conditions is reviewed. This work suggests fusion may be found in certain standard open cells, but not where lack of meteorological availability or the use of closed cells prevents the Abrikosov vortices being available inside the apparatus. No general method of direct testing for Abrikosov vortices is known, so no opinion for or against these ideas is offered. Tests made at the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the presence of meteorological triggers (of any type) for fusion events are described. Both continuous and short-burst fusion are reported to occur if, and only if, the meteorological trigger-conditions are present. This is taken as being possibly the first observation of meteorological triggers for cold fusion and the first reported observation of continuous fusion from this source. Various possible causal mechanisms behind the detailed results are discussed. A future experimental program to confirm and further define these effects is outlined. No claim can yet be made for definite confirmation of the Abrikosov vortex hypothesis, or any other cold fusion trigger or reaction details.

  9. Using Allaire's ColdFusion to Deliver Web-Based Information to Distance Learning Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arashiro, Peter; Milton, Kirby

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Lansing Community College's (Michigan) Virtual College, initiated in 1997 and now offering 47 courses for online delivery. Reviews ColdFusion 3.1, a database-driven Web application server, and describes how the college has successfully used it to support students and faculty. (EMH)

  10. Preserving Data about the Knowledge Creation Process: Developing an Archive on the Cold Fusion Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the creation of the Cold Fusion Archive at Cornell University and raises questions about documenting how scientific knowledge is created, diffused, and evaluated. Types of materials collected are described; issues involving the acquisition, organization, and preservation of materials are addressed; and the scope and limitations of…

  11. Upgrading a ColdFusion-Based Academic Medical Library Staff Intranet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Hart, Robert; Ingrassia, Barbara; Mayotte, Kerry; Palmer, Lisa A.; Powell, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This article details the process of upgrading and expanding an existing academic medical library intranet to include a wiki, blog, discussion forum, and photo collection manager. The first version of the library's intranet from early 2002 was powered by ColdFusion software and existed primarily to allow staff members to author and store minutes of…

  12. Effects of Isospin Equilibrium on Cold Fusion of Superheavy Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zu-Hua; BAO Jing-Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ The neutron flow model predicts that neutrons start to flow freely between the approaching nuclei 58Fe and 208 Pb at s = 3fm, a length in which the effective surfaces of these nuclei are 3fm apart. As a result of neutron flow,the N/Z value rapidly reaches an equilibrium distribution. Meanwhile the system, originally in the fusion valley,is injected into the asymmetric fission valley. The dynamic process of the composite nucleus in the asymmetric fission valley is treated with a two-parameter Smoluchowski equation. It is shown that the probability to overcome the asymmetric fission barrier and to achieve compound nucleus configuration, hence the fusion cross section is obviously suppressed due to the effect of isospin equilibrium.

  13. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  14. Influence of projectile neutron number on cross section in cold fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragojevic, Irena; Dragojevic, I.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Nelson, S.L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Elements 107-112 [1,2] have been discovered in reactions between {sup 208}Pb or {sup 209}Bi targets and projectiles ranging from {sup 54}Cr through {sup 70}Zn. In such reactions, the compound nucleus can be formed at excitation energies as low as {approx}12 MeV, thus this type of reaction has been referred to as 'cold fusion'. The study of cold fusion reactions is an indispensable approach to gaining a better understanding of heavy element formation and decay. A theoretical model that successfully predicts not only the magnitudes of cold fusion cross sections, but also the shapes of excitation functions and the cross section ratios between various reaction pairs was recently developed by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski [3,4]. This theoretical model, also referred to as Fusion by Diffusion, has been the guide in all of our cold fusion studies. One particularly interesting aspect of this model is the large predicted difference in cross sections between projectiles differing by two neutrons. The projectile pair where this difference is predicted to be largest is {sup 48}Ti and {sup 50}Ti. To test and extend this model, {sup 208}Pb({sup 48}Ti,n){sup 255}Rf and {sup 208}Pb({sup 50}Ti,n){sup 257}Rf excitation functions were recently measured at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) 88-Inch Cyclotron utilizing the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator (BGS). The {sup 50}Ti reaction was carried out with thin lead targets ({approx}100 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}), and the {sup 48}Ti reaction with both thin and thick targets ({approx}470 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}). In addition to this reaction pair, reactions with projectile pairs {sup 52}Cr and {sup 54}Cr [5], {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Fe [6], and {sup 62}Ni [7] and {sup 64}Ni [8] will be discussed and compared to the Fusion by Diffusion predictions. The model predictions show a very good agreement with the data.

  15. Finding the Missing γ in D+Darrow ^4He Cold Fusion Excess Heat:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2002-03-01

    The source of Cold Fusion (CF)Excess Heat is a novel form of D+Darrow ^4He reaction in which no high energy γ rays are emitted (http:// www.aps.org/meet/MAR01/baps/abs/S7640003.html) . An important source of confusion concerning this point is the apparent lack of consensus about known effects associated even with the conventional D+Darrow^4He+γ reaction. In fact, although little information about D+Darrow ^4He+γ appears in the conventional fusion literature, the photo-dissociation reaction ^4He+γarrowD+D not only has been widely studied but is known to occur through a quadrupolar (E2) transition in which the two particle wave function associated with the D-nuclei is required to preserve Bose symmetry, in the far field regions, where the Electromagnetic Interaction EMI is dominant. Also in this reaction coupling occurs between strong and EMI's that invalidates the separability requirements that are present in the remaining D+D fusion reactions. These facts lend credibility to the notion that coherent many-body effects, involving D-exchange can alter the reaction in such a way that γ ray emission is not required.

  16. Mission to Mars by catalyzed nuclear reactions of the commercialized cold fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The chemical compound source is deficient to reach to the power as much as the journey to Mars, unless the massive equipment is installed like the nuclear fusion reactor. However, there is very significant limitations of making up the facility due to the propellant power. Therefore, the light and cheap energy source, Low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs), powered rocket has been proposed. In this paper, the power conditions by LENRs are analyzed. After the successful Apollo mission to Moon of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the U.S. government, the civilian companies have proposed for the manned mission to Mars for the commercial journey purposes. The nuclear power has been a critical issue for the energy source in the travel, especially, by the LENR of LENUCO, Champaign, USA. As the velocity of the rocket increases, the mass flow rate decreases. It could be imaginable to take the reasonable velocity of spacecraft. The energy of the travel system is and will be created for the better one in economical and safe method. There is the imagination of boarding pass for spacecraft ticket shows the selected companies of cold fusion products. In order to solve the limitations of the conventional power sources like the chemical and solar energies, it is reasonable to design LENR concept. Since the economical and safe spacecraft is very important in the long journey on and beyond the Mars orbit, a new energy source, LENR, should be studied much more.

  17. Accountability in Science During the Information Era: Lessons Drawn from the "Cold Fusion Furor"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2001-04-01

    As guest editor of a recent Ethics in Science publication(S. R. Chubb, Accountability in Research, v 8), #'s 1 and 2, 1 (2000). (http://www.gbhap us.com/journals/149/149-top.htm), I requested key players, from both sides of the Cold Fusion (CF) debate, to attempt to go beyond questions involving the merits of CF, by addressing a more basic issue: have CF claims been judged effectively. All participants agreed that this has not occurred. Three factors seem to have been responsible: 1. Errors in the initial neutron measurements, 2. Events immediately prior to and during a specific APS session, held 1 May 1989, and 3. Irresponsible use of FAX machines and the Internet. The resulting furor, fueled by these Information Era Technologies (IET's), has evolved into such a serious breakdown in communication that, even after 11 years, it is impossible to rule-out the possibility that a number of important new discoveries may have occurred. Regardless of the merits of the claims, two lessons can be drawn from the debate: 1. Individuals and groups must be held accountable for their actions and statements, 2. When IET users fail to respect each other, IET's can seriously impede communication.

  18. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  19. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  20. 2D DEM analyses for T-M coupling effects of extreme temperatures on surrounding rock-supporting system of a tunnel in cold region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉军; 杨朝帅; 王永刚

    2013-01-01

    Taking the Kunlunshan Tunnel on Qinghai Tibet Railway as an engineering background, the curved wall-inverted arch lining of the tunnel was simplified into the straight wall-umbrella arch one, and the fractured rock mass with developed joints was treated as a discrete medium in the calculation. Using the UDEC code, the numerical simulations for thermo-mechanical coupling processes in the surrounding rock mass-supporting system were carried out aiming at the conditions of mean temperature, extreme highest temperature and extreme lowest temperature in one year. The distributions and changes of stresses, displacements, plastic zones, temperatures in the rock mass of near field, as well as the loading states in the model-building concrete and bolting were investigated and compared for these three computation cases. The results show that compared with the case of mean temperature, the ranges, where the temperatures of surrounding rock mass change obviously, are 6.0 m and 6.5 m, respectively, for the cases of extreme highest temperature and extreme lowest temperature; the displacements of tunnel are raised by 3.2 9.3 and 5.7 12.7 times, and the thicknesses of plastic zones reach 1.5 2.5 m and 2.0 4.5 m for case 2 and 3, respectively; the extreme temperatures of air have strong effects on the stress, deformation and failure states of supporting structure of tunnel in cold region, and the influence degree of extreme lowest temperature is the highest.

  1. The big experimental manual of Free Energy. Cold Fusion - Tesla-Waves - Space-Quantum-Energy - a.o.; Das grosse Freie Energie Experimentier-Handbuch. Kalte Fusion - Tesla-Wellen - Raum-Quanten-Energie - u.v.m.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, P.; Chmela, H.; Wiedergut, W.

    2004-07-01

    The main topics of the lectures are: Experiments on cold fusion; Information on space-quantum energy; phenomena of rotating magnets; advanced electrostatic motors; generation of scalar waves; complex rotating fields and levitation from an advanced view; free energy converters. (GL)

  2. Nuclear fusion inside condense matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-tang

    2007-01-01

    This article describes in detail the nuclear fusion inside condense matters--the Fleischmann-Pons effect, the reproducibility of cold fusions, self-consistentcy of cold fusions and the possible applications.

  3. Tritium concentrations in the active Pu'u O'o crater, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii: implications for cold fusion in the Earth's interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.E.; Hinkley, T.K.; Reimer, G.M.; Hedge, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    The assertion that deuterium-deuterium fusion may occur at low temperature suggests a potential new source of geothermal heat. If a cold-fusion-like process occurs within the Earth, then a test for its existence would be a search for anomalous tritium in volcanic emissions. The Pu'u O'o crater is the first point at which large amounts of water are degassed from the magma that feeds the Kilauea system. The magma is probably not contaminated by meteoric-source ground water prior to degassing at Pu'u O'o, although mixing of meteoric and magmatic H2O occurs within the crater. Tritium contents of samples from within the crater are lower than in samples taken simultaneously from the nearby upwind crater rim. These results provide no evidence in support of a cold-fusion-like process in the Earth's interior. ?? 1991.

  4. From the similarities between neutrons and radon to advanced radon-detection and improved cold fusion neutron-measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, L.; Espinosa, G.

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons and radon are both ubiquitous in the earth's crust. The neutrons of terrestrial origin are strongly related to radon since they originate mainly from the interactions between the alpha particles from the decays of radioactive-gas (namely Radon and Thoron) and the light nuclei. Since the early studies in the field of neutrons, the radon gas was used to produce neutrons by (α, n) reactions in beryllium. Another important similarity between radon and neutrons is that they can be detected only through the radiations produced respectively by decays or by nuclear reactions. These charged particles from the two distinct nuclear processes are often the same (namely alpha-particles). A typical neutron detector is based on a radiator facing a alpha-particle detector, such as in the case of a neutron film badge. Based on the similarity between neutrons and radon, a film badge for radon has been recently proposed. The radon film badge, in addition to be similar, may be even identical to the neutron film badge. For these reasons, neutron measurements can be easily affected by the presence of unpredictable large radon concentration. In several cold fusion experiments, the CR-39 plastic films (typically used in radon and neutron film-badges), have been the detectors of choice for measuring neutrons. In this paper, attempts will be made to prove that most of these neutron-measurements might have been affected by the presence of large radon concentrations.

  5. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-01

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  6. High-Gain Magnetized Inertial Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetized inertial fusion (MIF) could substantially ease the difficulty of reaching plasma conditions required for significant fusion yields, but it has been widely accepted that the gain is not sufficient for fusion energy. Numerical simulations are presented showing that high-gain MIF is possible in cylindrical liner implosions based on the MagLIF concept [S. A. Slutz et al Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.3333505] with the addition of a cryogenic layer of deuterium-tritium (DT). These simulations show that a burn wave propagates radially from the magnetized hot spot into the surrounding much denser cold DT given sufficient hot-spot areal density. For a drive current of 60 MA the simulated gain exceeds 100, which is more than adequate for fusion energy applications. The simulated gain exceeds 1000 for a drive current of 70 MA.

  7. Research on Two Types of Buffer Zone Impact on Surrounding Office Space Environment in Winter in Cold Climate Zone-a Fieldwork in Architectural Design Institute Building of Tsinghua University, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeHao Song; JunJie Li; Ning Zhu; JiaLiang Wang; ShiMeng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Building buffer zone space is not only one of essential approaches for better mental quality of interior building space, but also an important factor that may influence interior thermal comfort and energy consumption. This study aims to analyze regulative advantages of buffer zone to the surrounding functional spaces. Based on a fieldwork test in a typical office building in cold climate zone in Beijing, China, the monitor data show interior physical performance in the Winter. The research selects two types of different buffer zones in the same building. One is a south⁃faced greenhouse which has large dimension with plenty of vegetation, and the other is a simple atrium in the middle of five floor building with mount of skylights. The factors and their influence to surrounding functional spaces and the whole building are found out from the comparisons of collected data by floor to floor monitor test on both buffer zones at the same time. The comparisons of two types of buffer zones conclude that the greenhouse is more effective to air quality regulation but not so clearly well⁃performed to thermal buffering as expected due to the dominate active central heating in the Winter. This fieldwork test results for building performance can be helpful for both architects and engineers in the early phase of sustainable design.

  8. Cold confusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1989-07-01

    On March 23 two chemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons startled the world with a press conference at the University of Utah where they announced that they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperatures. As evidence they cited the production of ''excess'' amounts of heat in an electrochemical apparatus and observation of neutron production. While the production of heat in a chemical apparatus is not in itself unusual the observation of neutrons is certainly extraordinary. As it turned out, though, careful measurements of the neutron production in electrochemical apparatus similar to that used by Fleischmann and Pons carried out at dozens of other laboratories has shown that the neutron production fails by many orders of magnitude to support the assertion by Fleischmann and Pons that their discovery represents a new and cheap source of fusion power. In particular, independent measurements of the neutron production rate suggest that the actual rate of fusion energy production probably does not exceed 1 trillionth of a watt. This paper discusses the feasibility that cold fusion is actually being achieved. 7 refs.

  9. Cold Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH COLD STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Workers who ... cold environments may be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that ...

  10. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  11. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  12. Cold Urticaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Cold urticaria By Mayo Clinic Staff Cold urticaria (ur-tih-KAR-e-uh) is a skin reaction to cold. Skin that has ... in contact with cold develops reddish, itchy welts (hives). The severity of cold urticaria symptoms varies widely. ...

  13. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall.

  14. Cold Fusion Production and Decay of Neutron-Deficient Isotopes of Dubnium and Development of Extraction Systems for Group V Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, Jacklyn M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-07-31

    Excitation functions for the 1n and 2n exit channels of the 208Pb(51V,xn)259-xDb reaction were measured. A maximum cross section of the 1n exit channel of 2070$+1100\\atop{-760}$ pb was measured at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.8 MeV. For the 2n exit channel, a maximum cross section of 1660$+450\\atop{-370}$ pb was measured at 22.0 ± 1.8 MeV excitation energy. The 1n excitation function for the 209Bi(50Ti,n)258Db reaction was remeasured, resulting in a cross section of 5480$+1730\\atop{-1370}$ pb at an excitation energy of 16.0 ± 1.6 MeV. Differences in cross section maxima are discussed in terms of the fusion probability below the barrier. The extraction of niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) from hydrochloric acid and mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) was studied. The goal of the experiments was to find a system that demonstrates selectivity among the members of group five of the Periodic Table and is also suitable for the study of dubnium (Db, Z = 105). Experiments with niobium and tantalum were performed with carrier (10-6 M), carrier free (10-10 M) and trace (10-16 M) concentrations of metal using hydrochloric acid solution with concentrations ranging from 1 - 11 M. The extraction of niobium and tantalum from mixed hydrochloric acid/lithium chloride media by HDEHP and BEHP as a function of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration was also investigated. The data obtained are used as the basis to discuss the speciation of niobium and tantalum under the conditions studied and to evaluate possible extraction mechanisms. The 74Se(18O,p3n)88gNb excitation function was measured to determine the best energy for producing the 88Nb used in chemistry experiments. A maximum cross section of 495 +- 5 mb was observed at an 18O energy of 74.0 Me

  15. Superheavy nuclei – cold synthesis and structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj K Gupta

    2001-08-01

    The quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT), given for the cold synthesis of new and superheavy elements, is reviewed and the use of radioactive nuclear beams (RNB) and targets (RNT) is discussed. The QMFT is a complete theory of cold nuclear phenomena, namely, the cold fission, cold fusion and cluster radioactivity. Also, the structure calculations based on the axially deformed relativistic mean field (DRMF) approach are presented which predict new regions of spherical magicity, namely = 120 and = 172 or 184, for superheavy nuclei. This result is discussed in the light of recent experiments reporting the cold synthesis of = 118 element.

  16. Common Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nose, coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people ... avoid colds. There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try Getting plenty of rest ...

  17. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...... on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through......Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...

  18. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  19. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  20. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  1. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  2. Cold Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores Canker Sore or Cold Sore? Mouth Sores: Caused By Student Stress? games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | ...

  3. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  4. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  5. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  6. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  7. Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results in predictable healing. Autograft is currently the “gold standard” source of bone for a fusion. The ... pump. With this technique, the patient presses a button that delivers a predetermined amount of narcotic pain ...

  8. TAT-血红素氧合酶-1融合蛋白对大鼠供肝冷保存期炎性反应及肝功能的影响%Effects of TAT-heme oxygenase-1 fusion protein on inflammatory response and liver function during liver cold preservation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳立辉; 陈静; 王茂爱; 赵砚丽; 卢大儒

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of TAT-heine oxygenase-1 (TAT-HO-1) fusion protein on the inflammatory response and liver function during cold preservation of liver in rots. Methods Forty-eight male SD rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the type of preservation solution (n=24 each): control group (group C) and TAT-HO-1 fusion protein group (group P). The livers were harvested according to the method described by Kamada. In control group the livers were flushed and preserved with 4℃ HTK solution while in group P the livers were flushed and preserved with 4℃ HTK solution containing TAT-HO-1 fusion protein 50 μg/ml. Liver specimens and preservation solution samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, and 18 h of cold storage. The activities of aspartato amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminu-transferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the preservation solution were analyzed. TNF-α expression in the liver was determined. The liver histomorphology was observed by light microscopy. Results The AST, ALT and LDH activities in the preservation solution and TNF-α expression in the liver were significantly increased time-dependendy during cold storage in both groups. The AST, ALT and LDH activities and TNF-α expression were significantly lower at 6, 12 and 18 h of cold storage in group P than in group C.Conclusion TAT-HO-1 fusion protein can reduce the inflammatory response of the liver during cold storage in rats, and has protective effect on liver function to some extent.%目的 探讨HIV-1反式激活蛋白-血红素氧合酶-1(TAT-HO-1)融合蛋白对大鼠供肝冷保存期炎性反应及肝功能的影响.方法 成年健康雄性SD大鼠48只,体重250~300 g,开腹游离腹主动脉并结扎,于左右髂总动脉分叉处向心端穿刺腹主动脉,切断肝上下腔静脉,随机灌注4℃HTK液(C组,U=24)或4℃含TAT-HO-1融合蛋白50 μg/ml的HTK液(P组,n=24),至流出灌洗液清亮后停止灌注,取肝脏,

  9. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  10. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  11. Trophoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The villous trophoblast of the human placenta is the epithelial cover of the fetal chorionic villi floating in maternal blood. This epithelial cover is organized in two distinct layers, the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast directly facing maternal blood and a second layer of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts. During pregnancy single cytotrophoblasts continuously fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast to preserve this end-differentiated layer until delivery. Syncytial fusion continuously supplies the syncytiotrophoblast with compounds of fusing cytotrophoblasts such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids as well as organelles. At the same time the input of cytotrophoblastic components is counterbalanced by a continuous release of apoptotic material from the syncytiotrophoblast into maternal blood. Fusion is an essential step in maintaining the syncytiotrophoblast. Trophoblast fusion was shown to be dependant on and regulated by multiple factors such as fusion proteins, proteases and cytoskeletal proteins as well as cytokines, hormones and transcription factors. In this chapter we focus on factors that may be involved in the fusion process of trophoblast directly or that may prepare the cytotrophoblast to fuse.

  12. Common cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a low fever or no fever. Young children often run a fever around 100 to 102°F (37.7 to 38.8°C). Depending on which virus caused your cold, you may also have: Cough Decreased appetite Headache Muscle aches Postnasal drip Sore throat

  13. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  14. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  15. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  16. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-09-27

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm/sup -1/, which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs.

  17. Tame Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.D. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The first section of this paper covers preliminaries. Essentially, the next four cover units. It is shown that a compatible nearring with DCCR is Nnilpotent if and only if every maximal right N-subgroup is a right ideal. The last five sections relate to fusion (I.e., N-groups minimal for being generated by Nsubgroups, where each is N-isomorphic to a given N-group). Right N-subgroups of a tame nearring N with DCCR, minimal for not annihilating a minimal ideal from the left, are self monogenic and N-isomorphic. That this holds for any collection of minimal ideals is significant. Here, the right N-subgroup involved is a 'fusion product' of the 'components'.

  18. Carpal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformatio...

  19. The Science and Technology Challenges of the Plasma-Material Interface for Magnetic Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The boundary plasma and plasma-material interactions of magnetic fusion devices are reviewed. The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the high-temperature, collisionless pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces and the nearby cold high-density collisional plasmas, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. Due to fundamental limits of material response the boundary will largely define the viability of future large MFE experiments (ITER) and reactors (e.g. ARIES designs). The fusion community faces an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices, and even ITER, towards fusion devices typical of that required for efficient energy production. This deficit will be bridged by improving our fundamental science understanding of this complex interface region. The research activities and gaps are reviewed and organized to three major axes of challenges: power density, plasma duration, and material temperature. The boundary can also be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on establishing the use dimensionless parameters to understand this complex system. Proposed technology and science innovations towards solving the PMI/boundary challenges will be examined. Supported by US DOE award DE-SC00-02060 and cooperative agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  20. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  1. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  2. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  3. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  4. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  5. 8th International School of Fusion Reactor Technology "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    Leotta, G G; Muon-catalyzed fusion and fusion with polarized nuclei

    1988-01-01

    The International School of Fusion Reactor Technology started its courses 15 years ago and since then has mantained a biennial pace. Generally, each course has developed the subject which was announced in advance at the closing of the previous course. The subject to which the present proceedings refer was chosen in violation of that rule so as to satisfy the recent and diffuse interest in cold fusion among the main European laboratories involved in controlled thermonuclear research (CTR). In the second half of 1986 we started to prepare a workshop aimed at assessing the state of the art and possibly of the perspectives of muon- catalyzed fusion. Research in this field has recently produced exciting experimental results open to important practical applications. We thought it worthwhile to consider also the beneficial effects and problems of the polarization ofthe nuclei in both cold and thermonuclear fusion. In preparing the 8th Course on Fusion Reactor Technology, it was necessary to abandon the tradi...

  6. Colds, Allergies and Sinusitis - How to Tell the Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colds, Allergies and Sinusitis — How to Tell the Difference This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Cold weather is a ... your surroundings, you may be battling allergies or sinusitis. Proper diag- nosis and treatment can lead to ...

  7. FUSION WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline; 黄颖(翻译)

    2009-01-01

    Fusion World”科技展示体验中心是英国设计公司MET Studio为新加坡科技研究局(A*Star)的科学工程委员会(SERC)所设计的,位于启汇城的办公地点,用于展示该委员会的精选技术作品,以吸引潜在的客户和启汇城内的学生购买群体。

  8. Carpal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformation, Stickler syndrome, thalidomide embryopathy, Turner syndrome and many other conditions as mentioned in Rubinstein-Taybi's book. Sometimes there is no known causative disease.Diagnosis is usually made by plain X-ray during studying a syndrome or congenital disease or could be an incidental finding like our patients. Hand bone anomalies are more common in syndromes or other congenital or non-hereditary conditions, but polydactyly, syndactyly or oligodactyly and carpal fusions are interesting. X-ray is the modality of choice, but MRI and X-ray CT with multiplanar reconstructions may be used for diagnosis.

  9. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  10. Cold Stress at High Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cold at high altitudes has been analysed from a purely physical standpoint. It has been shown that Siple's Wind-Chill Index is not reliable because (i it does not make use of the well established principles governing the physical processes of heat transfer by convection and radiation, and (ii it assumes that the mean radiant temperature of the surroundings is the same as the ambient dry bulb temperature. A Cold Stress Index has been proposed which is likely to be a more reliable guide for assessing the climatic hazards of high altitude environments. The Index can be quickly estimated with the help of two nomograms devised for the purpose.

  11. Heat transfer problems associated with laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, T.G.; Bohachevsky, I.O.; Booth, L.A.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Briefly discussed are the laser-initiated fusion reaction, emissions that are produced, and methods that may be used to protect the walls of reactor cavities from these emissions. Thermal loadings encountered in laser fusion reactors will consist of energy deposition by discrete, short, intense pulses of x and gamma rays, fast alpha and other charged particles, and fusion neutrons. Presented are models of energy deposition in structural walls and blanket regions surrounding the reaction chamber and methods used to calculate resulting temperature increases and thermal stresses in these components. The results of such calculations indicate that the design conditions for the engineering of laser-initiated fusion reactors will be severe and a great amount of ingenuity and analysis will be required to meet them successfully.

  12. Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Gasdynamic Mirror, or GDM, is an example of a magnetic mirror-based fusion propulsion system. Its design is primarily consisting of a long slender solenoid surrounding a vacuum chamber that contains plasma. The bulk of the fusion plasma is confined by magnetic field generated by a series of toroidal-shaped magnets in the center section of the device. the purpose of the GDM Fusion Propulsion Experiment is to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to demonstrate many of the operational characteristics of a full-size plasma can be confined within the desired physical configuration and still reman stable. This image shows an engineer from Propulsion Research Technologies Division at Marshall Space Flight Center inspecting solenoid magnets-A, an integrate part of the Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment.

  13. Cold energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  14. Cold energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, John P., E-mail: jpw@castinganalysis.com [Casting Analysis Corp., PO Box 52, Weyers Cave, VA 24486 (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  15. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  16. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Background: Fusion between two massive nuclei is a very complex process and is characterized by three stages: (a) capture inside the potential barrier, (b) formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus (CN), and (c) statistical decay of the CN leading to a cold evaporation residue (ER) or fission. The second stage is the least understood of the three and is the most crucial in predicting yield of superheavy elements (SHE) formed in complete fusion reactions. Purpose: A systematic study of average fusion probability, PCN> , is undertaken to obtain a better understanding of its dependence on various reaction parameters. The study may also help to clearly demarcate onset of non-CN fission (NCNF), which causes fusion probability, PCN, to deviate from unity. Method: ER excitation functions for 52 reactions leading to CN in the mass region 170-220, which are available in the literature, have been compared with statistical model (SM) calculations. Capture cross sections have been obtained from a coupled-channels code. In the SM, shell corrections in both the level density and the fission barrier have been included. PCN> for these reactions has been extracted by comparing experimental and theoretical ER excitation functions in the energy range ˜5 %-35% above the potential barrier, where known effects of nuclear structure are insignificant. Results: PCN> has been shown to vary with entrance channel mass asymmetry, η (or charge product, ZpZt ), as well as with fissility of the CN, χCN. No parameter has been found to be adequate as a single scaling variable to determine PCN> . Approximate boundaries have been obtained from where PCN> starts deviating from unity. Conclusions: This study quite clearly reveals the limits of applicability of the SM in interpreting experimental observables from fusion reactions involving two massive nuclei. Deviation of PCN> from unity marks the beginning of the domain of dynamical models of fusion. Availability of precise ER cross sections

  17. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  18. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  19. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  20. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  1. Physics of laser fusion. Vol. I. Theory of the coronal plasma in laser-fusion targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, C.E.

    1981-12-01

    This monograph deals with the physics of the coronal region in laser fusion targets. The corona consists of hot plasma which has been evaporated from the initially solid target during laser heating. It is in the corona that the laser light is absorbed by the target, and the resulting thermal energy is conducted toward cold high-density regions, where ablation occurs. The topics to be discussed are theoretical mechanisms for laser light absorption and reflection, hot-electron production, and the physics of heat conduction in laser-produced plasmas. An accompanying monograph by H. Ahlstrom (Vol.II) reviews the facilities, diagnostics, and data from recent laser fusion experiments.

  2. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  3. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  4. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.; Daanen, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cold-induced metabolism. van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Daanen HA. Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesi

  5. Alloy Design for a Fusion Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Fusion power is generated when hot deuterium and tritium nuclei react, producing alpha particles and 14 MeV neutrons. These neutrons escape the reaction plasma and are absorbed by the surrounding material structure of the plant, transferring the heat of the reaction to an external cooling circuit. In such high-energy neutron irradiation environments, extensive atomic displacement damage and transmutation production of helium affect the mechanical properties of materials. Among these effect...

  6. 常温冷熔、逆变脉冲电刷镀、胶接与粘涂复合技术在机械零件再制造中的应用%Advanced technologies of cold fusion, pulsed brush plating, adhesive bonding & coating for machine element remanufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭兴礼

    2012-01-01

    The problems in traditional surface engineering technology are mainly in higher cost and serious pollution of the environment.lt is hard to meet the needs to the surface treatment of the different machine parts from various industries.Three key technologies in Aoyuksin are based on room temperature cold fusion, brush plating .adhesive bonding & coating with remarkable advantages compared with traditional technology.It could save both in time and resource for industial consumers.%长期以来我国的传统表面工程技术存在制作成本过高、不能普遍适用和环境污染严重等问题,难以满足各个行业对关键零配件的表面处理的大量需求.以常温冷熔、逆变脉冲电刷镀、胶接与粘涂三项核心技术为基础组成的奥宇可鑫机械零件特种修复技术,是表面工程维修领域新兴的一项复合修理技术.与传统技术相比,具有常温修复、结合强度高、修复精度高、修复位置准确灵活、修复量可控精确等先进性.并具有低成本、普遍适用、可在线修复和可操作性强的特点,很好地解决了各行业机械零件修复难题,不产生环境污染.为企业节约宝贵的生产抢修时间,并且为国家节约不可再生资源.

  7. Finishing of the cold mass assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 2 The cold mass assembly is resting on special supports in order to allow the finishing operations. Technicians are putting in order the instrumentation wires. The prototype magnets were equipped with numerous sensors to monitor key parameters during the performance tests at cold conditions. Photo 3 View of the lyre-side end of the active part assembly. The extremity of the shrinking cylinder has been bevelled in view of welding the end cover. Photo 4 General view of the finishing station showing the special supporting structures (blue and yellow structures) needed for the geometric measurements and for the alignment operations. One can also see the light building surrounding the finishing station, which purpose is to isolate the laser measuring machines from disturbances. Photo 5 The extremity of the shri...

  8. On Air Shutter for Cold Storage Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Isamu; Tsuji, Katsuhiko

    Air curtains are frequently placed at doorway of cold storage room or freezing chamber. As an opening of jet flow in these air curtains is relatively narrow and speed of jet flow is fast, air entrained from surroundings increases in quantity. Therefore, we consider that jet flow with narrow opening can not effectively isolate inside air from the external atmosphere, but the one with relatively wide opening can decrease air entrained from surroundings. Then, when air curtain which has a wide opening (we call it air shutter) is installed at cold storage room, and isolating performances of air shutter are compared with the air curtain. First, as various conditions can be easily changed in numerical calculation, we compare a velocity and temperature field in cold storage room under these conditions when velocity of jet flow is changed by using numerical method. Second, we measure a temperature and velocity distribution in an actual cold storage room under three conditions (air shutter operates, air curtain operates and no operation). From these results, it was found that air shutter is more efficient than air curtain.

  9. Mitofusin-2 protects against cold stress-induced cell injury in HEK293 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenbin; Chen, Yaomin; Yang, Qun; Che, Honglei; Chen, Xiangjun; Yao, Ting; Zhao, Fang; Liu, Mingchao; Ke, Tao [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chen, Jingyuan, E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Luo, Wenjing, E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2010-06-25

    Mitochondrial impairment is hypothesized to contribute to cell injury during cold stress. Mitochondria fission and fusion are closely related in the function of the mitochondria, but the precise mechanisms whereby these processes regulate cell injury during cold stress remain to be determined. HEK293 cells were cultured in a cold environment (4.0 {+-} 0.1 {sup o}C) for 2, 4, 8, or 12 h. Western blot analyses showed that these cells expressed decreased fission-related protein Drp1 and increased fusion-related protein Mfn2 at 4 h; meanwhile, electron microscopy analysis revealed large and long mitochondrial morphology within these cells, indicating increased mitochondrial fusion. With silencing of Mfn2 but not of Mfn1 by siRNA promoted cold-stress-induced cell death with decreased ATP production in HEK293 cells. Our results show that increased expression of Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are important for mitochondrial function as well as cell survival during cold stress. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of mitochondrial fusion and fission in cold-stress-induced cell injury.

  10. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  11. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings - 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, Gerard; Burgwal, van de Marcel; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it provid

  12. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  13. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  14. Adaptive fusion of infrared and visible images in dynamic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2011-11-01

    Multiple modalities sensor fusion has been widely employed in various surveillance and military applications. A variety of image fusion techniques including PCA, wavelet, curvelet and HSV has been proposed in recent years to improve human visual perception for object detection. One of the main challenges for visible and infrared image fusion is to automatically determine an optimal fusion strategy for different input scenes along with an acceptable computational cost. This paper, we propose a fast and adaptive feature selection based image fusion method to obtain high a contrast image from visible and infrared sensors for targets detection. At first, fuzzy c-means clustering is applied on the infrared image to highlight possible hotspot regions, which will be considered as potential targets' locations. After that, the region surrounding the target area is segmented as the background regions. Then image fusion is locally applied on the selected target and background regions by computing different linear combination of color components from registered visible and infrared images. After obtaining different fused images, histogram distributions are computed on these local fusion images as the fusion feature set. The variance ratio which is based on Linear Discriminative Analysis (LDA) measure is employed to sort the feature set and the most discriminative one is selected for the whole image fusion. As the feature selection is performed over time, the process will dynamically determine the most suitable feature for the image fusion in different scenes. Experiment is conducted on the OSU Color-Thermal database, and TNO Human Factor dataset. The fusion results indicate that our proposed method achieved a competitive performance compared with other fusion algorithms at a relatively low computational cost.

  15. Pinch me - I'm fusing! Fusion Power - what is it? What is a z pinch? And why are z-pinches a promising fusion power technology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DERZON,MARK S.

    2000-03-01

    The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article the author points out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and how it may one day generate electrical power for mankind.

  16. Investigation of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.E.; Berrondo, M.; Czirr, J.B.; Decker, D.L.; Harrison, K.; Jensen, G.L.; Palmer, E.P.; Rees, L.B.; Shelton, D.S.; Taylor, S.; Vanfleet, H.B.; Wang, J.C.; Bennion, D.N.; Harb, J.N.; Pitt, W.G.; Thorne, J.M. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Anderson, A.N. [Idaho Research Software, Inc., Boise, ID (United States); McMurtry, G.; Murphy, N. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics; Goff, F.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-12-29

    Recent research has been directed towards finding means to produce neutron emissions at will, to demonstrate reproducibility, and to permit in-depth studies of the origin of neutron emissions. this goal has been pursued in the Kamiokande detector in Japan and has led to the development of a deep underground laboratory in a tunnel in the Wasatch mountains near Brigham Young University. New counters for low-level neutron emissions are being utilized. Calorimetric tools have also been developed.

  17. Investigation of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.E.; Berrondo, M.; Czirr, J.B.; Decker, D.L.; Harrison, K.; Jensen, G.L.; Palmer, E.P.; Rees, L.B.; Shelton, D.S.; Taylor, S.; Vanfleet, H.B.; Wang, J.C.; Bennion, D.N.; Harb, J.N.; Pitt, W.G.; Thorne, J.M. (Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)); Anderson, A.N. (Idaho Research Software, Inc., Boise, ID (United States)); McMurtry, G.; Murphy, N. (Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawai

    1992-12-29

    Recent research has been directed towards finding means to produce neutron emissions at will, to demonstrate reproducibility, and to permit in-depth studies of the origin of neutron emissions. this goal has been pursued in the Kamiokande detector in Japan and has led to the development of a deep underground laboratory in a tunnel in the Wasatch mountains near Brigham Young University. New counters for low-level neutron emissions are being utilized. Calorimetric tools have also been developed.

  18. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  19. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  20. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  1. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  2. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  3. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  4. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  5. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures...... around 20 C, but at temperatures above 26 C we observe an increase in the scattered intensity due to fusion. The system is unusually well suited for the study of basic mechanisms of vesicle fusion. The vesicles are flexible with a bending rigidity of only a few k(H)T. The monolayer spontaneous curvature...

  6. Adaptation of psychrophilic and psychrotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria to permanently cold marine environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksen, MF; Jørgensen, BB

    1996-01-01

    The potential for sulfate reduction at low temperatures was examined in two different cold marine sediments, Mariager Fjord (Denmark), which is permanently cold (3 to 6 degrees C) but surrounded by seasonally warmer environments, and the Weddell Sea (Antarctica), which is permanently below 0 degr...

  7. The concept of isochoric central spark ignition and its fuel gain in inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmin, A D

    2004-01-01

    One of the best methods in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is the concept of central spark ignition, consisting of two distinct regions named as hot and cold regions and formed by hydro-dynamical implosion of fuel micro-sphere central spark ignition method in inertial fusion and fuel pellet design condition in fusion power plant has been investigated and fuel gain for isochoric model in this method is calculated. We have shown the effects of different physical parameters of inertial fusion on fuel gain and optimized limit for fuel density and fuel pellet radius has been calculated.

  8. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-08-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  9. COLD-WORKED HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Strizhak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The different types of cold-worked accessory are examined in the article. The necessity of development of such type of accessory in the Republic of Belarus due to requirements of market is shown. High emphasis is placed on the methods of increase of plasticity of cold-worked accessory from usual mill of RUP and CIS countries.

  10. Cold Sores (HSV-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold Sores (HSV-1) KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold Sores (HSV-1) A A A What's in this article? ... or around a person's lips, are caused by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) . But they don't ...

  11. Working in the Cold

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-02-08

    During the winter, many workers are outdoors, working in cold, wet, icy, or snowy conditions. Learn how to identify symptoms that tell you there may be a problem and protect yourself from cold stress.  Created: 2/8/2016 by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 2/8/2016.

  12. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports A A A What's in this article? ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  13. Coping with Colds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have heard that chicken soup can cure a cold. There's no real proof of this, but sick people have been swearing by it for more than 800 years. When Should I Go to the Doctor? Teens who catch colds usually don't get very sick or need ...

  14. How Cold is Cold Dark Matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models, however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter. The latter imply that its velocity dispersion extrapolated to the present has to be smaller than 56 m/s. Cold dark matter has t...

  15. Identification of -SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond medium using weak Raman surface phonons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla; Harish Ojha; Vadali Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth

    2013-11-01

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its volume content when relatable, will affect the resultant Raman response of -SiC phase as seen in the present case of diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin films.

  16. Instability of Magnetized Ionization Fronts Surrounding H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm M2} \\leq 1$. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor $\\alpha$ by a factor of $1+1/(2\\beta_1)$ compared to the unmagnetized case, with $\\beta_1$ denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations due to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber as well as the upstream flow ...

  17. Divertor for a linear fusion device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94550 (United States); Yushmanov, P. N.; Barnes, D. C.; Putvinski, S. V. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Linear fusion devices can use large magnetic flux flaring in the end tanks to reduce the heat load on the end structures. In order to reduce parallel electron heat loss, one has to create conditions where the neutral gas density in the end tanks is low, as otherwise cold electrons produced by the ionization of the neutrals would cool down the core plasma electrons. The processes determining the neutral gas formation and spatial distribution are analysed for the case where neutrals are formed by the surface recombination of the outflowing plasma. The conditions under which the cooling of the core plasma is negligible are formulated.

  18. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Katsov; M Müller; M Schick

    2005-06-01

    The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by transient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified. Self-consistent field theory is applied to examine the free energy barriers in the different scenarios.

  19. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  20. Complementary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    homographic computer vision image fusion, out-of-sequence measurement and track data handling, Nash bargaining approaches to sensor management... homographic fusion notions are identified together with the Nash approach, the pursuit-evasion approach to threat situation outcome determination, and the

  1. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  2. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  3. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appe...

  4. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  5. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  6. Studies on virus-induced cell fusion. Progress report, July 1, 1978-July 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, S.

    1979-08-01

    We have determined the extent of fusion in mixed Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) cell populations. Labeled, sparse, infected cells were surrounded by unlabeled, excess, uninfected (or infected) cells to determine if fusion inhibition is active when present in the same cell as fusion factor, when present in cells that do not contain fusion factor, or in both situations. We found that wild type infected cells fuse to the same extent with each other as with uninfected cells. Therefore fusion inhibitor is active when present in the same cell as fusion factor. Other experiments indicate that the inhibition activity can also cause a small decrease of fusion when fusion factor and fusion inhibitor are present in different, but neighboring, cells. Marked variations are found in the capacity of different cell types, such as human embryonic lung (HEDL) and HEp-2 to support fusion by particular syn mutants. The difference in fusion capacity of the two cell types may be due to a difference in a cellular factor affecting the activity of viral, fusion-associated molecules, and not to cell surface differences of the uninfected cells. (PCS)

  7. Astrochemical Properties of Planck Cold Clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatematsu, Ken’ichi; Liu, Tie; Ohashi, Satoshi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Nguyễn Lu’o’ng, Quang; Hirota, Tomoya; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Thompson, Mark A.; Fuller, Gary; Wu, Yuefang; Li, Di; Di Francesco, James; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wang, Ke; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Juvela, Mika; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Cunningham, Maria; Saito, Masao; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tóth, L. Viktor; He, Jinhua; Sakai, Takeshi; Kim, Jungha; JCMT Large Program “SCOPE” collaboration; TRAO Key Science Program “TOP” collaboration

    2017-02-01

    We observed 13 Planck cold clumps with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 and with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The N2H+ distribution obtained with the Nobeyama telescope is quite similar to SCUBA-2 dust distribution. The 82 GHz HC3N, 82 GHz CCS, and 94 GHz CCS emission are often distributed differently with respect to the N2H+ emission. The CCS emission, which is known to be abundant in starless molecular cloud cores, is often very clumpy in the observed targets. We made deep single-pointing observations in DNC, HN13C, N2D+, and cyclic-C3H2 toward nine clumps. The detection rate of N2D+ is 50%. Furthermore, we observed the NH3 emission toward 15 Planck cold clumps to estimate the kinetic temperature, and confirmed that most targets are cold (≲20 K). In two of the starless clumps we observed, the CCS emission is distributed as it surrounds the N2H+ core (chemically evolved gas), which resembles the case of L1544, a prestellar core showing collapse. In addition, we detected both DNC and N2D+. These two clumps are most likely on the verge of star formation. We introduce the chemical evolution factor (CEF) for starless cores to describe the chemical evolutionary stage, and analyze the observed Planck cold clumps.

  8. Fusion Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  10. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic

  11. The cold reading technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, D L

    1988-04-15

    For many people, belief in the paranormal derives from personal experience of face-to-face interviews with astrologers, palm readers, aura and Tarot readers, and spirit mediums. These encounters typically involve cold reading, a process in which a reader makes calculated guesses about a client's background and problems and, depending on the reaction, elaborates a reading which seems to the client so uniquely appropriate that it carries with it the illusion of having been produced by paranormal means. The cold reading process is shown to depend initially on the Barnum effect, the tendency for people to embrace generalized personality descriptions as idiosyncratically their own. Psychological research into the Barnum effect is critically reviewed, and uses of the effect by a professional magician are described. This is followed by detailed analysis of the cold reading performances of a spirit medium. Future research should investigate the degree to which cold readers may have convinced themselves that they actually possess psychic or paranormal abilities.

  12. A Cold Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Since the end of 2009, north China has been repeatedly struck by arctic-like blasts of cold weather. As temperatures have plummeted to historic lows, they have inflicted considerable suffering as well.

  13. A Cold Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since the end of 2009, north China has been repeatedly struck by arctic-like blasts of cold weather. As temperatures have plummeted to historic lows, they have inflicted considerable suffering as well.

  14. Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, David A

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we consider the control of fusion in fusion systems, proving three previously known, non-trivial results in a new, largely elementary way. We then reprove a result of Aschbacher, that the product of two strongly closed subgroups is strongly closed; to do this, we consolidate the theory of quotients of fusion systems into a consistent theory. We move on considering p-soluble fusion systems, and prove that they are constrained, allowing us to effectively characterize fusion systems of p-soluble groups. This leads us to recast Thompson Factorization for Qd(p)-free fusion systems, and consider Thompson Factorization for more general fusion systems.

  15. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  16. Characterizing the Microenvironment Surrounding Phosphorylated Protein Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Cai Fan; Xue-Gong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in various cellular processes. Due to its high complexity, the mechanism needs to be further studied. In the last few years, many methods have been contributed to this field, but almost all of them investigated the mechanism based on protein sequences around protein sites. In this study, we implement an exploration by characterizing the microenvironment surrounding phosphorylated protein sites with a modified shell model, and obtain some significant properties by the rank-sum test, such as the lack of some classes of residues, atoms, and secondary structures. Furthermore, we find that the depletion of some properties affects protein phosphorylation remarkably. Our results suggest that it is a meaningful direction to explore the mechanism of protein phosphorylation from microenvironment and we expect further findings along with the increasing size of phosphorylation and protein structure data.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  19. Active inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzik, D.J.; Person, S.; Read, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that syn mutant-infected cells fuse less well with nonsyncytial virus-infected cells than with uninfected cells, a phenomenon defined as function inhibition. The present study characterizes the kinetics as well as the requirements for expression of fusion inhibition. Initially, the capacity of sparse syn mutant-infected cells to fuse with uninfected surrounding cells was determined throughout infection. Of seven syn mutants examined, including representatives with alterations in two different viral genes that affect cell fusion, all showed an increase in fusion capacity up to 12 hr after infection and a decrease at later times. Fusion inhibition was examined in experiments employing sparse syn20-infected cells which had been incubated to a maximum fusion capacity; it was shown that surrounding cells infected with KOS, the parent of syn20, began to inhibit fusion by the syn20-infected cells at about 4 hr after infection, and that the maximum ability to inhibit fusion was attained at about 6 hr after infection. The metabolic blocking agents actinomycin D (RNA), cycloheximide (protein), 2-deoxyglucose, and tunicamycin (glycoslyation of glycoproteins) all showed the ability to inhibit the expression of fusion inhibition by KOS-infected cells if added shortly after infection. It is concluded that fusion inhibition is an active process that requires the synthesis of RNA, proteins, and glycoproteins. 17 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  1. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  2. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  3. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  4. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  5. The effect of the recent 17O(p,α14N and 18O(p,α15N fusion cross section measurements in the nucleosynthesis of AGB stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmerini S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Trojan Horse Method (THM has been used to investigate the low-energy cross sections of the 17O(p,α14N and 18O(p,α15N fusion reactions and to extract the strengths of the resonances that more contribute to the reaction rates at astrophysical energies. Moreover, the strength of the 65 keV resonance in the 17O(p,α14N reaction, measured by means of the THM, has been used to renormalize the corresponding resonance strength in the 17O + p radiative capture channel. Since, proton-induced fusion reactions on 17O and 18O belong to the CNO cycle network for H-burning in stars, the new estimates of the cross sections have been introduced into calculations of Asymptotic giant branch (AGB star nucleosynthesis to determine their impact on astrophysical environments. Results of nucleosynthesis calculations have been compared with geochemical analysis of ”presolar” grains. These solids form in the cold and dusty envelopes that surround AGB stars and once that have been ejected by stellar winds, come to us as inclusions in meteorites providing invaluable benchmarks and constraints for our knowledge of fusion reactions in astrophysical environments.

  6. Economically competitive fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Ward

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not since the oil crisis of the 1970s has the perception that energy is a crucial and precious resource been as strong as it is today. The need for a new approach to world energy supply, driven by concerns over resources, pollution, and security, is leading to a reappraisal of fusion. Fusion has enormous potential and major safety and environmental advantages, and hence could make a large difference to energy supplies.

  7. Fusion ignition research experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Meade

    2000-07-18

    Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

  8. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  9. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiulianoF.Panza; AntonellaPontevivo; GiordanoChimera; RenetaRaykova; AbdelkrimAoudia

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by sur-face wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion.Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithos-phere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, iden-tified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the prmctpat recent votca-noes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria, a lithospheric dou-bling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenos-phere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea,likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria.

  10. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  11. HIV-Envelope–Dependent Cell-Cell Fusion: Quantitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Huerta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction in vitro between cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and surrounding, uninfected, target cells often leads to cell fusion and the formation of multinucleated cells, called syncytia. The presence in HIV-infected individuals of virus strains able to induce syncytia in cultures of T cells is associated with disease progression and AIDS. Even in the asymptomatic stage of infection, multinucleated cells have been observed in different organs, indicating that fused cells may be generated and remain viable in the tissues of patients. We used lymphocytic cells transfected for the expression of the HIV-envelope (Env glycoproteins to develop a method for the direct quantification of fusion events by flow cytometry (Huerta et al., 2006, J. Virol. Methods 138, 17–23; López-Balderas et al., 2007, Virus Res. 123, 138–146. The method involves the staining of fusion partners with lipophilic probes and the use of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET to distinguish between fused and aggregated cells. We have shown that such a flow-cytometry assay is appropriate for the screening of compounds that have the potential to modulate HIV-Env–mediated cell fusion. Even those syncytia that are small or few in numbers can be detected. Quantitative analysis of the fusion products was performed with this technique; the results indicated that the time of reaction and initial proportion of fusion partners determine the number, relative size, and average cellular composition of syncytia. Heterogeneity of syncytia generated by HIV-Env–mediated cell-cell fusion may result in a variety of possible outcomes that, in turn, may influence the biological properties of the syncytia and surrounding cells, as well as replication of virus. Given the myriad immune abnormalities leading to AIDS, the full understanding of the extent, diverse composition, and role of fused cells in the pathogenesis of, and immune response to, HIV infection is an

  12. HIV-envelope-dependent cell-cell fusion: quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Leonor; López-Balderas, Nayali; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Sandoval, Guadalupe; Gómez-Icazbalceta, Guillermo; Villarreal, Carlos; Lamoyi, Edmundo; Larralde, Carlos

    2009-08-11

    Interaction in vitro between cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and surrounding, uninfected, target cells often leads to cell fusion and the formation of multinucleated cells, called syncytia. The presence in HIV-infected individuals of virus strains able to induce syncytia in cultures of T cells is associated with disease progression and AIDS. Even in the asymptomatic stage of infection, multinucleated cells have been observed in different organs, indicating that fused cells may be generated and remain viable in the tissues of patients. We used lymphocytic cells transfected for the expression of the HIV-envelope (Env) glycoproteins to develop a method for the direct quantification of fusion events by flow cytometry (Huerta et al., 2006, J. Virol. Methods 138, 17-23; López-Balderas et al., 2007, Virus Res. 123, 138-146). The method involves the staining of fusion partners with lipophilic probes and the use of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to distinguish between fused and aggregated cells. We have shown that such a flow-cytometry assay is appropriate for the screening of compounds that have the potential to modulate HIV-Env-mediated cell fusion. Even those syncytia that are small or few in numbers can be detected. Quantitative analysis of the fusion products was performed with this technique; the results indicated that the time of reaction and initial proportion of fusion partners determine the number, relative size, and average cellular composition of syncytia. Heterogeneity of syncytia generated by HIV-Env-mediated cell-cell fusion may result in a variety of possible outcomes that, in turn, may influence the biological properties of the syncytia and surrounding cells, as well as replication of virus. Given the myriad immune abnormalities leading to AIDS, the full understanding of the extent, diverse composition, and role of fused cells in the pathogenesis of, and immune response to, HIV infection is an important, pending issue.

  13. Cold asymmetrical fermion superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Heron

    2003-12-19

    The recent experimental advances in cold atomic traps have induced a great amount of interest in fields from condensed matter to particle physics, including approaches and prospects from the theoretical point of view. In this work we investigate the general properties and the ground state of an asymmetrical dilute gas of cold fermionic atoms, formed by two particle species having different densities. We have show in a recent paper, that a mixed phase composed of normal and superfluid components is the energetically favored ground state of such a cold fermionic system. Here we extend the analysis and verify that in fact, the mixed phase is the preferred ground state of an asymmetrical superfluid in various situations. We predict that the mixed phase can serve as a way of detecting superfluidity and estimating the magnitude of the gap parameter in asymmetrical fermionic systems.

  14. Theoretical relation between water flow rate in a vertical fracture and rock temperature in the surrounding massif

    CERN Document Server

    Maréchal, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    A steady-state analytical solution is given describing the temperature distribution in a homogeneous massif perturbed by cold water flow through a discrete vertical fracture. A relation is derived to express the flow rate in the fracture as a function of the temperature measured in the surrounding rock. These mathematical results can be useful for tunnel drilling as it approaches a vertical cold water bearing structure that induces a thermal anomaly in the surrounding massif. During the tunnel drilling, by monitoring this anomaly along the tunnel axis one can quantify the flow rate in the discontinuity ahead before intersecting the fracture. The cases of the Simplon, Mont Blanc and Gotthard tunnels (Alps) are handled with this approach which shows very good agreement between observed temperatures and the theoretical trend. The flow rates before drilling of the tunnel predicted with the theoretical solution are similar in the Mont Blanc and Simplon cases, as well as the flow rates observed during the drilling....

  15. A fusion reactor for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammash, T.; Galbraith, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    A novel approach to fusion power that combines the favorable aspects of magnetic and inertial confinements has recently been proposed in the ''magnetically insulated inertial confinement fusion'' (MICF) reactor. In contrast to conventional inertial confinement schemes, this approach relies on generating the needed plasma inside of a spherical shell by zapping the inside surface of a hollow pellet with an intense laser beam. Physical confinement is provided by the metallic shell that surrounds the deuterium-tritium fuel-coated inner surface, while very strong, plasma-generated magnetic fields provide the desired thermal insulation of the plasma from the surrounding surface. Because of these unique properties, the inertial confinement time can be increased by about two orders of magnitude relative to that of conventional inertial confinement schemes, with the result that truly impressive energy multiplication factors can result. Carbon dioxide lasers of hundreds of kilojoules may be readily employed for such reactors, and, since they are relatively efficient and can be chemically driven, these systems lend themselves nicely to such space applications as space-based power sources or rocket propulsion.

  16. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  17. Formation of Superheavy Nuclei in Massive Fusion Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Zhao-qing; JIN Gen-ming; LI Jun-qing; Scheid Werner

    2009-01-01

    Within the concept of the dinuclear system(DNS),by incorporating the coupling of the relative motion to the nucleon transfer process,a dynamical model is proposed for describing the formation of superheavy residue nucleus in massive fusion reactions,in which the capture of two heavy colliding nuclei,the formation of compound nucleus and the de-excitation process are calculated using empirical coupled channel model,solving master equation numerically and statistical theory,respectively.By using the DNS model,the evaporation-residue excitation functions in the ~(48)Ca induced fusion reactions and in the cold fusion reactions are investigated systematically and compared with available experimental data.Optimal evaporation channels and combinations as well as the corresponding excitation energies are proposed.The possible factors that influencing the isotopic dependence of the production cross sections are analyzed.The formation of the superheavy nuclei based on the isotopes U with different projectiles are also investigated.

  18. Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...

  19. Cold regions isotope applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids. (TFD)

  20. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  1. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  2. Commemoration of a cold war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farbøl, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together the fields of Cold War studies and memory studies. In Denmark, a remarkable institutionalisation of Cold War memory has taken place in the midst of a heated ideological battle over the past and whether to remember the Cold War as a ‘war’. Using Danish Cold War museums...... and heritage sites as case studies, this article sheds new light on the politics of history involved in Cold War commemoration. It suggests that the Cold War is commemorated as a war, yet this war memory is of a particular kind: it is a war memory without victims....

  3. A novel technique using hydrophilic polymers to promote axonal fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a considerable concern for clinicians. With minimal innovations in surgical technique and a limited number of specialists trained to treat peripheral nerve injury, outcomes of surgical intervention have been unpredictable. The inability to manipulate the pathophysiology of nerve injury (i.e., Wallerian degeneration has left scientists and clinicians depending on the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/day. When axons are severed, the endings undergo calcium-mediated plasmalemmal sealing, which limits the ability of the axon to be primarily repaired. Polythethylene glycol (PEG in combination with a bioengineered process overcomes the inability to fuse axons. The mechanism for PEG axonal fusion is not clearly understood, but multiple studies have shown that a providing a calcium-free environment is essential to the process known as PEG fusion. The proposed mechanism is PEG-induced lipid bilayer fusion by removing the hydration barrier surrounding the axolemma and reducing the activation energy required for membrane fusion to occur. This review highlights PEG fusion, its past and current studies, and future directions in PEG fusion.

  4. A novel technique using hydrophilic polymers to promote axonal fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Bamba; D Colton Riley; Nathaniel D Kelm; Mark D Does; Richard D Dortch; Wesley P hTayer

    2016-01-01

    The management of traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a considerable concern for clinicians. With minimal innovations in surgical technique and a limited number of specialists trained to treat peripheral nerve injury, outcomes of surgical intervention have been unpredictable. The inability to manipulate the pathophysiology of nerve injury (i.e., Wallerian degeneration) has left scientists and clinicians depending on the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/day). When axons are severed, the endings undergo calcium-mediated plasmalemmal sealing, which limits the ability of the axon to be primarily re-paired. Polythethylene glycol (PEG) in combination with a bioengineered process overcomes the inability to fuse axons. The mechanism for PEG axonal fusion is not clearly understood, but multiple studies have shown that a providing a calcium-free environment is essential to the process known as PEG fusion. The proposed mechanism is PEG-induced lipid bilayer fusion by removing the hydration barrier surrounding the axolemma and reducing the activation energy required for membrane fusion to occur. This review highlights PEG fusion, its past and current studies, and future directions in PEG fusion.

  5. Detection of cold pain, cold allodynia and cold hyperalgesia in freely behaving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolf Clifford J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is elicited by cold, and a major feature of many neuropathic pain states is that normally innocuous cool stimuli begin to produce pain (cold allodynia. To expand our understanding of cold induced pain states we have studied cold pain behaviors over a range of temperatures in several animal models of chronic pain. Results We demonstrate that a Peltier-cooled cold plate with ± 1°C sensitivity enables quantitative measurement of a detection withdrawal response to cold stimuli in unrestrained rats. In naïve rats the threshold for eliciting cold pain behavior is 5°C. The withdrawal threshold for cold allodynia is 15°C in both the spared nerve injury and spinal nerve ligation models of neuropathic pain. Cold hyperalgesia is present in the spared nerve injury model animals, manifesting as a reduced latency of withdrawal response threshold at temperatures that elicit cold pain in naïve rats. We also show that following the peripheral inflammation produced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant, a hypersensitivity to cold occurs. Conclusion The peltier-cooled provides an effective means of assaying cold sensitivity in unrestrained rats. Behavioral testing of cold allodynia, hyperalgesia and pain will greatly facilitate the study of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in cold/cool sensations and enable measurement of the efficacy of pharmacological treatments to reduce these symptoms.

  6. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  7. Multibiometrics Belief Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Gupta, Phalguni

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a multimodal biometric system through Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) for face and ear biometrics with belief fusion of the estimated scores characterized by Gabor responses and the proposed fusion is accomplished by Dempster-Shafer (DS) decision theory. Face and ear images are convolved with Gabor wavelet filters to extracts spatially enhanced Gabor facial features and Gabor ear features. Further, GMM is applied to the high-dimensional Gabor face and Gabor ear responses separately for quantitive measurements. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to estimate density parameters in GMM. This produces two sets of feature vectors which are then fused using Dempster-Shafer theory. Experiments are conducted on multimodal database containing face and ear images of 400 individuals. It is found that use of Gabor wavelet filters along with GMM and DS theory can provide robust and efficient multimodal fusion strategy.

  8. Fusion research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  9. Medical Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rafizadeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in medical imaging in the past two decades have enable radiologists to create images of the human body with unprecedented resolution. MRI, PET,... imaging devices can quickly acquire 3D images. Image fusion establishes an anatomical correlation between corresponding images derived from different examination. This fusion is applied either to combine images of different modalities (CT, MRI or single modality (PET-PET."nImage fusion is performed in two steps:"n1 Registration: spatial modification (eg. translation of model image relative to reference image in order to arrive at an ideal matching of both images. Registration methods are feature-based and intensity-based approaches."n2 Visualization: the goal of it is to depict the spatial relationship between the model image and refer-ence image. We can point out its clinical application in nuclear medicine (PET/CT.

  10. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...... to the occupied and empty regions. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors are interpreted using gaussian probabilistic error models. The use of occupancy grids is proposed for representing the sensor readings. The Bayesian estimation approach is applied to update the sonar array......  and the SIFT descriptors' uncertainty grids. The sensor fusion yields a significant reduction in the uncertainty of the occupancy grid compared to the individual sensor readings....

  11. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  12. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  13. Finger cold induced vasodilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    There are indications that subjects with a reduced finger CIVD response are more prone to get local cold injuries, but more epidemiological research is needed to establish a firm relationship. Although it was observed that an early CIVD onset was associated with initially superior manual performance

  14. Teaching "In Cold Blood."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbrich, Joan D.

    1967-01-01

    The Truman Capote nonfiction novel, "In Cold Blood," which reflects for adolescents the immediacy of the real world, illuminates (1) social issues--capital punishment, environmental influence, and the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots," (2) moral issues--the complexity of man's nature, the responsibility of one…

  15. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can be knocked over, potentially starting a fire. Check your furnace before the cold weather sets in to make ... avoided because of the risk of burns or fire. Heated pet mats should also be used ... to burrow, get them back inside quickly because they are showing signs of ...

  16. Cold-induced metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenbelt, W. van Marken; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review Cold response can be insulative (drop in peripheral temperature) or metabolic (increase in energy expenditure). Nonshivering thermogenesis by sympathetic, norepinephrine-induced mitochondrial heat production in brown adipose tissue is a well known component of this metabolic respon

  17. Chilling Out With Colds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some feel-better tips if you get a cold: Bring on the heat. Hot drinks soothe coughs and sore throats while also clearing mucus. So eat (or drink) your chicken soup! Get steamed up. A steamy shower helps stuffy or irritated noses. Or run a ...

  18. Out in the cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jane

    2016-05-04

    Every now and then, you say something to a patient and wonder whether you should have kept quiet. On this occasion, a female patient and I were indulging in a moment of shared empathy over an annoying symptom we both experience - permanently cold feet.

  19. Cold War Propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  20. Recent Cold War Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  1. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  2. Cold production followed by cyclic steam simulation in thin oil sands reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Gates, I.D. [Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Western Canada, thermal recovery methods are required to extract bitumen and heavy oil from reservoirs, due to their high viscosity. One method is cyclic steam simulation (CSS). Steam is injected into the reservoir through a single well and fluids are produced from the reservoir at different times; a depletion chamber has to be initialized successfully so the process can perform optimally. This paper aimed at understanding how cold production can help with starting CSS. Simulations were undertaken with a heterogeneous reservoir model to explore the impact of cold production on subsequent CSS in the Bluesky oil sands formation. Results showed that a depletion zone grows in the surroundings of the well during cold production and that steam conformance is then better during CCS than without cold production. This paper showed that using cold production before CSS is a good solution when the reservoir is cold producible.

  3. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  4. Fusion Welding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    RD-AlSO 253 FUSION WELDING RESEARCH(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH L/I CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING T W EAGAR ET AL. 30 RPR 85...NUMBER 12. GOV’ ACCESSION NO. 3. RECICIE-S CATALOG NUMBER 4. T TL V nd Subtitle) S. P OFRPR PERIOD COVERED 5t h A~nnual Technical Report Fusion Welding ...research S on welding processes. Studies include metal vapors in the arc, development of a high speed infrared temperature monitor, digital signal

  5. Quantum controlled fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Gruebele, Martin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-controlled motion of nuclei, starting from the nanometer-size ground state of a molecule, can potentially overcome some of the difficulties of thermonuclear fusion by compression of a fuel pellet or in a bulk plasma. Coherent laser control can manipulate nuclear motion precisely, achieving large phase space densities for the colliding nuclei. We combine quantum wavepacket propagation of D and T nuclei in a field-bound molecule with coherent control by a shaped laser pulse to demonstrate enhancement of nuclear collision rates. Atom-smashers powered by coherent control may become laboratory sources of particle bursts, and even assist muonic fusion.

  6. Fusion Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    of propellant can be millions of times greater than the fuel, only a tiny fraction can completely push out the fuel. If the plasma is moving at a... push -plate for various explosive yields. It appears that the maximum specific impulse for such a system is -4000 to 5000 sec and increasing the base...Energy Agency, 1977, p. 507. Bourque, R.F., "OHTE as a Fusion Reactor," Proc. 4th Topl. Mt,. Tecnology of Controlled NV?4clear Fusion, King of Prussia

  7. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  8. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  9. A Stellar Stream Surrounds the Whale Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The -cold dark matter cosmological model predicts that galaxies are assembled through the disruption and absorption of small satellite dwarf galaxies by their larger hosts. A recent study argues that NGC 4631, otherwise known as the Whale galaxy, shows evidence of such a recent merger in the form of an enormous stellar stream extending from it.Stream SignaturesAccording to the -CDM model, stellar tidal streams should be a ubiquitous feature among galaxies. When satellite dwarf galaxies are torn apart, they spread out into such streams before ultimately feeding the host galaxy. Unfortunately, these streams are very faint, so were only recently starting to detect these features.Stellar tidal streams have been discovered around the Milky Way and Andromeda, providing evidence of these galaxies growth via recent (within the last 8 Gyr) mergers. But discovering stellar streams around other Milky Way-like galaxies would help us to determine if the model of hierarchical galaxy assembly applies generally.To this end, the Stellar Tidal Stream Survey, led by PI David Martnez-Delgado (Center for Astronomy of Heidelberg University), is carrying out the first systematic survey of stellar tidal streams. In a recent study, Martnez-Delgado and collaborators present their detection of a giant (85 kpc long!) stellar tidal stream extending into the halo of NGC 4631, the Whale galaxy.Modeling a SatelliteThe top image is a snapshot from an N-body simulation of a single dwarf satellite, 3.5 Gyr after it started interacting with the Whale galaxy. The satellite has been torn apart and spread into a stream that reproduces observations, which are shown in the lower image (scale is not the same). [Martnez-Delgado et al. 2015]The Whale galaxy is a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with a second spiral, NGC 4656. But the authors dont believe that the Whale galaxys giant tidal stellar stream is caused by its interactions with NGC 4656. Instead, based on their observations, they believe

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  11. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Marwah Almasri; Khaled Elleithy; Abrar Alajlan

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot...

  12. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  13. Fusion engineering device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  14. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  15. Trainability of cold induced vasodilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Stoop, M.

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral cold injuries are often reported in mountaineers. Not only low ambient temperatures, but also the hypobaric circumstances are known to be major environmental risk factors. When the fingers are exposed to extreme cold for several minutes, cold induced vasodilation (CIVD) occurs, that is

  16. Trainability of cold induced vasodilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Stoop, M.

    2007-01-01

    Peripheral cold injuries are often reported in mountaineers. Not only low ambient temperatures, but also the hypobaric circumstances are known to be major environmental risk factors. When the fingers are exposed to extreme cold for several minutes, cold induced vasodilation (CIVD) occurs, that is re

  17. Edge Transport in 2D Cold Atom Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    V. W. Scarola; Sarma, S. Das

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically study the observable response of edge currents in two dimensional cold atom optical lattices. As an example we use Gutzwiller mean-field theory to relate persistent edge currents surrounding a Mott insulator in a slowly rotating trapped Bose-Hubbard system to time of flight measurements. We briefly discuss an application, the detection of Chern number using edge currents of a topologically ordered optical lattice insulator.

  18. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  19. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  20. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  1. Synergetic Multisensor Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-30

    technology have led to increased interest in using DEMs for navigation and other applications. In particular, DEMs are attractive for use in aircraft...Multisensor Fusion for Computer Vision [67]. 30 6. POSI!IONAL zSTIM&TION TECEnIQUzs FOR AN OUTDOOR MOBLE ROBOT The autonomous navigation of mobile robots is

  2. Iterative guided image fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-scale image fusion scheme based on guided filtering. Guided filtering can effectively reduce noise while preserving detail boundaries. When applied in an iterative mode, guided filtering selectively eliminates small scale details while restoring larger scale edges. The proposed multi-scale image fusion scheme achieves spatial consistency by using guided filtering both at the decomposition and at the recombination stage of the multi-scale fusion process. First, size-selective iterative guided filtering is applied to decompose the source images into approximation and residual layers at multiple spatial scales. Then, frequency-tuned filtering is used to compute saliency maps at successive spatial scales. Next, at each spatial scale binary weighting maps are obtained as the pixelwise maximum of corresponding source saliency maps. Guided filtering of the binary weighting maps with their corresponding source images as guidance images serves to reduce noise and to restore spatial consistency. The final fused image is obtained as the weighted recombination of the individual residual layers and the mean of the approximation layers at the coarsest spatial scale. Application to multiband visual (intensified and thermal infrared imagery demonstrates that the proposed method obtains state-of-the-art performance for the fusion of multispectral nightvision images. The method has a simple implementation and is computationally efficient.

  3. Muon catalyzed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nagamine, K. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Matsuzaki, T. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawamura, N. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    The latest progress of muon catalyzed fusion study at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility (and partly at TRIUMF) is reported. The topics covered are magnetic field effect, muon transfer to {sup 3}He in solid D/T and ortho-para effect in dd{mu} formation.

  4. Bouillabaisse sushi fusion power

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "If avant-garde cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest that what is true of cooking is true of physics" (1 page)

  5. Hugging fusion and related topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    An important problem related to the synthesis of very heavy nuclides by fusion of two heavy-ions is the extra push effect. To avoid it, we propose a hugging fusion, which is the fusion of two well-deformed heavy-ions. (author)

  6. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  7. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  8. "Miniature Cold War?"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Fu: Relations between America and Russia are one of the most important bilateral ties that could affect the trend of world situation.What's the matter with U. S. -Russia ties? What's wrong with their bilateral relations? People tend to ask these days. Some observers on both sides suggest that post 9/11 honeymoon has turned sour when joint effort against challenges from nontraditional security issues failed to remove original bilateral contradictions over traditional security concerns.Japanese Jiji News Agency saw "a miniature Cold War" evolving and the British Guardian even bluntly pronounced "a new Cold War" on January 3, asserting that disintegration of the former Soviet Union did not terminate bilateral contention, which has only been performed on an international stage more complicated than ever before, with covert scheming against each other replacing overt, direct confrontation. How about starting our discussion with those comments?

  9. Engine Cold Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    14. ABSTRACT These fuels were used for testing a GEP 6.5L turbocharged V-8 diesel engine operation in a cold box. This engine architecture is... engines . The U.S. military currently uses petroleum-based jet fuels in diesel engine -powered ground vehicles and is studying the use of alternative jet...to identify a window, or range, of cetane number which would be acceptable to ensure the reliable operation of diesel engine -powered military ground

  10. Electronic Equipment Cold Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    equations for such a flow regiae. For laainar flow and Moderate teaperature differwwe« between the well «nd coolant, a aodifled Sieder -Tate...con- figuration. The heat-transfer coefficients, therefore, were determined by using both the Sieder -Tate and McAdams equations and the coaputed...values used In the analytical predictions. As with th* previous cold Plates, the Sieder -Tate equation gave too low of values for the heat- transfer

  11. The CMS COLD BOX

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The CMS detector is built around a large solenoid magnet. This takes the form of a cylindrical coil of superconducting cable that generates a field of 3.8 Tesla: about 100,000 times the magnetic field of the Earth. To run, this superconducting magnet needs to be cooled down to very low temperature with liquid helium. Providing this is the job of a compressor station and the so-called “cold box”.

  12. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2006-01-01

    Resulting from ongoing, international research into fusion processes, the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a major step in the quest for a new energy source.The first graduate-level text to cover the details of ITER, Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics introduces various aspects and issues of recent fusion research activities through the shortest access path. The distinguished author breaks down the topic by first dealing with fusion and then concentrating on the more complex subject of plasma physics. The book begins with the basics of controlled fusion research, foll

  13. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, S. [ed.] [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tajima, T. [ed.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.

  14. 1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, S. (ed.) (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Tajima, T. (ed.) (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies)

    1991-10-01

    The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.

  15. Dynamic Assembly of Brambleberry Mediates Nuclear Envelope Fusion during Early Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elliott W.; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L.; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, a mitotic intermediate wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope, which then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. brambleberry is a previously unannotated gene homologous to Kar5p, which participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry localizes to the nuclear envelope with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. Our studies identify the first factor acting in karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres. PMID:22863006

  16. Dynamic assembly of brambleberry mediates nuclear envelope fusion during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Elliott W; Zhang, Hong; Marlow, Florence L; Kapp, Lee; Lu, Sumei; Mullins, Mary C

    2012-08-03

    To accommodate the large cells following zygote formation, early blastomeres employ modified cell divisions. Karyomeres are one such modification, mitotic intermediates wherein individual chromatin masses are surrounded by nuclear envelope; the karyomeres then fuse to form a single mononucleus. We identified brambleberry, a maternal-effect zebrafish mutant that disrupts karyomere fusion, resulting in formation of multiple micronuclei. As karyomeres form, Brambleberry protein localizes to the nuclear envelope, with prominent puncta evident near karyomere-karyomere interfaces corresponding to membrane fusion sites. brambleberry corresponds to an unannotated gene with similarity to Kar5p, a protein that participates in nuclear fusion in yeast. We also demonstrate that Brambleberry is required for pronuclear fusion following fertilization in zebrafish. Our studies provide insight into the machinery required for karyomere fusion and suggest that specialized proteins are necessary for proper nuclear division in large dividing blastomeres.

  17. Alphavirus Entry and Membrane Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kielian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of enveloped animal viruses has greatly advanced our understanding of the general properties of membrane fusion and of the specific pathways that viruses use to infect the host cell. The membrane fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses have many similarities in structure and function. As reviewed here, alphaviruses use receptor-mediated endocytic uptake and low pH-triggered membrane fusion to deliver their RNA genomes into the cytoplasm. Recent advances in understanding the biochemistry and structure of the alphavirus membrane fusion protein provide a clearer picture of this fusion reaction, including the protein’s conformational changes during fusion and the identification of key domains. These insights into the alphavirus fusion mechanism suggest new areas for experimental investigation and potential inhibitor strategies for anti-viral therapy.

  18. Dependence of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced cell fusion on cell type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bzik, D.J.; Person, S.

    1981-04-15

    Syncytial mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), such as syn20, cause extensive fusion of human embryonic lung (HEL) cells but only a small amount of fusion of human epidermoid carcinoma No. 2 (HEp-2) cells. In order to determine the cellular basis of this difference in fusion, sparse cultures of syn20-infected HEL or HEp-2 cells, previously labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine, were surrounded with uninfected, unlabeled HEL or HEp-2 cells. The fusion of radioactive with nonradioactive cells was determined at different times after infection using radioautography. The major difference in the fusion capacity of HEL and HEp-2 cells was not due to a difference in cell-surface receptors for a fusion factor in the two cell types. The process of infection of HEp-2 cells did not cause the plasma membranes of the cells to become refractory to fusion, because syn20-infected HEL cells fused equally well with either uninfected or infected HEp-2 cells. In a mixed infection with equal numbers of MP and its nonsyncytial parent, mP, extensive fusion was observed for infected HEL cells and significantly less fusion was observed for infected African green monkey (CV-1), baby hamster kidney (BHK-21), and HEp-2 cells.

  19. GsLRPK, a novel cold-activated leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase from Glycine soja, is a positive regulator to cold stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Wu, Kangcheng; Gao, Peng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Li, Guangpu; Wu, Zujian

    2014-02-01

    Plant LRR-RLKs serve as protein interaction platforms, and as regulatory modules of protein activation. Here, we report the isolation of a novel plant-specific LRR-RLK from Glycine soja (termed GsLRPK) by differential screening. GsLRPK expression was cold-inducible and shows Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsLRPK is localized in the plasma membrane. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that temperature, salt, drought, and ABA treatment can alter GsLRPK gene transcription in G. soja. However, just protein induced by cold stress not by salinity and ABA treatment in tobacco was found to possess kinase activity. Furthermore, we found that overexpression of GsLRPK in yeast and Arabidopsis can enhance resistance to cold stress and increase the expression of a number of cold responsive gene markers.

  20. New Characterizations of Fusion Bases and Riesz Fusion Bases in Hilbert Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Asgari, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a new notion of bases in Hilbert spaces and similar to fusion frame theory we introduce fusion bases theory in Hilbert spaces. We also introduce a new definition of fusion dual sequence associated with a fusion basis and show that the operators of a fusion dual sequence are continuous projections. Next we define the fusion biorthogonal sequence, Bessel fusion basis, Hilbert fusion basis and obtain some characterizations of them. we study orthonormal fusion systems...

  1. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed.

  2. Fusion Data Grid Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Wang, Nanbor

    2004-11-01

    Simulations and experiments in the fusion and plasma physics community generate large datasets at remote sites. Visualization and analysis of these datasets are difficult because of the incompatibility among the various data formats adopted by simulation, experiments, and analysis tools, and the large sizes of analyzed data. Grids and Web Services technologies are capable of providing solutions for such heterogeneous settings, but need to be customized to the field-specific needs and merged with distributed technologies currently used by the community. This paper describes how we are addressing these issues in the Fusion Grid Service under development. We also present performance results of relevant data transfer mechanisms including binary SOAP, DIME, GridFTP and MDSplus and CORBA. We will describe the status of data converters (between HDF5 and MDSplus data types), developed in collaboration with MIT (J. Stillerman). Finally, we will analyze bottlenecks of MDSplus data transfer mechanism (work performed in collaboration with General Atomics (D. Schissel and M. Qian).

  3. Extensive fusion of mitochondria in spinal cord motor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Owens

    Full Text Available The relative roles played by trafficking, fission and fusion in the dynamics of mitochondria in neurons have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a slow widespread redistribution of mitochondria within cultured spinal cord motor neurons was observed as a result of extensive organelle fusion. Mitochondria were labeled with a photoconvertible fluorescent protein (mitoKaede that is red-shifted following brief irradiation with blue light. The behavior of these selectively labeled mitochondria was followed by live fluorescence imaging. Marking mitochondria within the cell soma revealed a complete mixing, within 18 hours, of these organelles with mitochondria coming from the surrounding neurites. Fusion of juxtaposed mitochondria was directly observed in neuritic processes at least 200 microns from the cell body. Within 24 hours, photoconverted mitoKaede was dispersed to all of the mitochondria in the portion of neurite under observation. When time lapse imaging over minutes was combined with long-term observation of marked mitochondria, moving organelles that traversed the field of view did not initially contain photoconverted protein, but after several hours organelles in motion contained both fluorescent proteins, coincident with widespread fusion of all of the mitochondria within the length of neurite under observation. These observations suggest that there is a widespread exchange of mitochondrial components throughout a neuron as a result of organelle fusion.

  4. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  5. Fusion development and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  6. Fc-fusion mimetics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Fc-fusion mimetic RpR 2 was prepared by disulfide bridging conjugation using a PEG in the place of the Fc. RpR 2 displayed higher affinity for VEGF than aflibercept caused primarily by a slower dissociation rate, which can prolong a drug at its site of action. RpRs have considerable potential for development as stable, organ specific therapeutics.

  7. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Matějíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of materials foreseen for use or already used in fusion devices is given. The operating conditions, material requirements and characteristics of candidate materials in several specific application segments are briefly reviewed. These include: construction materials, electrical insulation, permeation barriers and plasma facing components. Special attention will be paid to the latter and to the issues of plasma-material interaction, materials joining and fuctionally graded interlayers.

  8. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  9. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  10. Radio jets and outflows of cold gas

    CERN Document Server

    Morganti, Raffaella

    2011-01-01

    Massive gas outflows are considered a key component in the process of galaxy formation and evolution. It is, therefore, not surprising that a lot of effort is going in quantifying their impact via detailed observations. This short contribution presents recent results obtained from HI and CO observations of different objects where the AGN - and in particular the radio jet - is likely playing an important role in producing the gas outflows. These preliminary results are reinforcing the conclusion that these outflows have a complex and multiphase structure where cold gas in different phases (atomic and molecular) is involved and likely represent a major component. These results will also provide important constraints for establishing how the interaction between AGN/radio jet and the surrounding ISM occurs and how efficiently the gas should cool to produce the observed properties of the outflowing gas. HI likely represents an intermediate phase in this process, while the molecular gas would be the final stage. Wh...

  11. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF COAL MINING ROADWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹喜正; 侯朝炯; 李华祥

    1996-01-01

    This introduces the calculation of opaper the deformationg .the Surroundings of coaowaysand the divisi of surroundings into 5 levels by means or !fuzzy integral assess mairrx, wnlcnserves-asthe scientific basis for selecting supporting pattern of roadways and determining the, pa-rameters of support.

  12. Optimal Fusion of Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Dall

    within some global frame of reference using a wide variety of sensors providing odometric, inertial and absolute data concerning the robot and its surroundings. Kalman filters have for a long time been widely used to solve this problem. However, when measurements are delayed or the mobile robot...

  13. Microstructure evolution of cold-sprayed coating during deposition and through post-spraying heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang-jiu; LI Wen-ya

    2004-01-01

    The microstructural features of cold-sprayed coatings were investigated using Cu, Ti and Zn feedstocks by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to reveal the microstructure evolution mechanisms in cold spray. Four typical effects including tamping, refinement, impact-induced fusion and annealing were examined on microstrueture. It is found that the microstructure of cold spray coating is remarkably influenced by spray materials. Ti coatings consist of evident porous layer and Cu coatings present a limited porous layer only near the surface. It is clear that the successive tamping effect and dynamic refinement of grains significantly influence the microstructure evolution of cold-sprayed coating. The tamping effect leads to the densification of porous coating layer gradually and the refinement effect leads to the formation of fine microstructure. It is considered that the large difference in the formation of porous layer is attributed to the dynamic impact pressure and hardenability of materials. It is also found that the impact-induced fusion during deposition of Zn coating can also modify the interfacial microstructure between particles in cold spray coating. Moreover, the nanocrystalline phase can be formed at the interfaces among particles resulting from the localized melting of the interfaces and tamping effect. Furthermore, the annealing treatment can modify the microstructure and property of a cold-sprayed coating.

  14. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanbhag, Satish; Spivak, Jerry

    2015-06-01

    Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria is a rare cause of autoimmune hemolytic anemia predominantly seen as an acute form in young children after viral illnesses and in a chronic form in some hematological malignancies and tertiary syphilis. It is a complement mediated intravascular hemolytic anemia associated with a biphasic antibody against the P antigen on red cells. The antibody attaches to red cells at colder temperatures and causes red cell lysis when blood recirculates to warmer parts of the body. Treatment is mainly supportive and with red cell transfusion, but immunosuppressive therapy may be effective in severe cases.

  15. Exception in Cold War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In the Cold War, India mainly focused its Southeast Asia Strategy on preserving the regional peace and stability, fearing that changes in Southeast Asia would impact India. Generally speaking, India would like to see a relatively strong, stable and independent Southeast Asia, which would guarantee the stability of its east wing. However, fettered by its limited power, its non-alignment policy and its special relation with Soviet Union, India's policy toward Southeast Asia remained relatively passive and its relation with Southeast Asia was, to some extent, trapped in a historical "intermission."

  16. Linear optimal control of tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessel, C.E.; Firestone, M.A.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-05-01

    The control of plasma position, shape and current in a tokamak fusion reactor is examined using linear optimal control. These advanced tokamaks are characterized by non up-down symmetric coils and structure, thick structure surrounding the plasma, eddy currents, shaped plasmas, superconducting coils, vertically unstable plasmas, and hybrid function coils providing ohmic heating, vertical field, radial field, and shaping field. Models of the electromagnetic environment in a tokamak are derived and used to construct control gains that are tested in nonlinear simulations with initial perturbations. The issues of applying linear optimal control to advanced tokamaks are addressed, including complex equilibrium control, choice of cost functional weights, the coil voltage limit, discrete control, and order reduction. Results indicate that the linear optimal control is a feasible technique for controlling advanced tokamaks where the more common classical control will be severely strained or will not work. 28 refs., 13 figs.

  17. SABR Fusion-Fission Hybrid Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept is a fast reactor comprised of a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER surrounded by an annular fission core adapted from Integral Fast Reactor designs. Previous work has examined SABR used to help close the nuclear fuel cycle by fissioning the transuranics from spent nuclear fuel. One focus of the present work is a SABR Breeder Reactor to achieve tritium self-sufficieny and a Pu breeding ratio significantly above 1 in order to provide fuel for SABR as well as for MOX-fueled LWR's and other fast reactors. Another focus of this research is the dynamic safety simulation of lloss-of-flow loss-of-heat-sink, loss-of-power, and positive reactivity accidents in the TRU fuel SABR burner reactor. The reactivity effect of thermal-induced bowing of fuel pins has been modeled, which is expected to provide passive safety.

  18. Inertial fusion energy; L'energie de fusion inertielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dir. des Systemes d' Information (CEA/DIF), 91 (France); Le Garrec, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Deutsch, C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Migus, A. [Institut d' Optique Centre scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  19. Fast cold gas in hot AGN outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Tiago; Haehnelt, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the emission from spatially extended cold gas around bright high-redshift QSOs reveal surprisingly large velocity widths exceeding 2000 km s^(-1), out to projected distances as large as 30 kpc. The high velocity widths have been interpreted as the signature of powerful AGN-driven outflows. Naively, these findings appear in tension with hydrodynamic models in which AGN-driven outflows are energy-driven and thus very hot with typical temperatures T = 10^6-7 K. Using the moving-mesh code Arepo, we perform 'zoom-in' cosmological simulations of a z = 6 QSO and its environment, following black hole growth and feedback via energy-driven outflows. In the simulations, the QSO host galaxy is surrounded by a clumpy circum-galactic medium pre-enriched with metals due to supernovae-driven galactic outflows. As a result, part of the AGN-driven hot outflowing gas can cool radiatively, leading to large amounts (> 10^9 M_sun) of cold gas comoving with the hot bipolar outflow. This results in velocity widths of...

  20. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  1. Black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we obtain uncharged∖charged Kiselev-like black holes as a new class of black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in the context of Rastall theory. Then, we study the specific cases of the uncharged∖charged black holes surrounded by regular matter like dust and radiation, or exotic matter like quintessence, cosmological constant and phantom fields. By comparing the Kiselev-like black hole solutions in Rastall theory with the Kiselev black hole solutions in GR, we find an effective perfect fluid behavior for the black hole's surrounding field. It is shown that the corresponding effective perfect fluid has interesting characteristic features depending on the different ranges of the parameters in Rastall theory. For instance, Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by regular matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by exotic matter in GR, or Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by exotic matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by regular matter in GR.

  2. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  3. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  4. Investigation of heat of fusion storage for solar low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    and xanthane rubber. The storage can cool down to surrounding temperature preserving the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion energy. The basis for the calculations is a super low energy house with a space heating demand of 2010 kWh/year and a domestic hot water demand of 2530 kWh/year. For storage...

  5. Synaptotagmin interaction with SNAP-25 governs vesicle docking, priming, and fusion triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohrmann, Ralf; de Wit, Heidi; Connell, Emma

    2013-01-01

    ramifications of proposed SNAP-25 × synaptotagmin-1 interaction in mouse chromaffin cells. We demonstrate that the postulated central binding domain surrounding layer zero covers both SNARE motifs of SNAP-25 and is essential for vesicle docking, priming, and fast fusion-triggering. Mutation of this site caused...

  6. CO Observations and Investigation of Triggered Star Formation toward the N10 Infrared Bubble and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, D. R. G.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Mendoza, E.; Wu, Y.; Yuan, J.

    2016-10-01

    We studied the environment of the dust bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by the GLIMPSE survey at 8.0 μm, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the H ii region on its surroundings and the eventual triggering of star formation at its borders. In this work, we present a multi-wavelength study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting because infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered on the edge of the H ii region. We carried out observations of 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7 m toward N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-millimeter emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding H ii region and the molecular gas. We also estimated the parameters of the denser cold dust condensation and the ionized gas inside the shell. Bright CO emission was detected and two molecular clumps were identified from which we have derived physical parameters. We also estimate the parameters for the densest cold dust condensation and for the ionized gas inside the shell. The comparison between the dynamical age of this region and the fragmentation timescale favors the “Radiation-Driven Implosion” mechanism of star formation. N10 is a case of particular interest with gas structures in a narrow frontier between the H ii region and surrounding molecular material, and with a range of ages of YSOs situated in the region, indicating triggered star formation.

  7. Fusion Advanced Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Guebaly, Laila [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Henderson, Douglass [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilson, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Blanchard, Jake [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-03-24

    During the January 1, 2013 – December 31, 2015 contract period, the UW Fusion Technology Institute personnel have actively participated in the ARIES-ACT and FESS-FNSF projects, led the nuclear and thermostructural tasks, attended several project meetings, and participated in all conference calls. The main areas of effort and technical achievements include updating and documenting the nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT1, performing nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT2, performing thermostructural analysis for ARIES divertor, performing disruption analysis for ARIES vacuum vessel, and developing blanket testing strategy and Materials Test Module for FNSF.

  8. Heavy-ion fusion and scattering with Skyrme energy density functional

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In our recent studies,an empirical barrier distribution was proposed for a unified description of the fusion cross sections of light and medium-heavy fusion systems,the capture cross sections of the reactions leading to superheavy nuclei,and the large-angle quasi-elastic scattering cross sections based on the Skyrme energy-density functional approach.In this paper,we first give a brief review of these results.Then,by examining the barrier distributions in detail,we find that the fusion cross sections depend more strongly on the shape of the left side of the barrier distribution while the quasi-elastic scattering cross sections depend more strongly on the right side.Furthermore,by combining these studies and the HIVAP calculations for the survival probability,the formation probability of the compound nucleus is deduced from the measured evaporation residue cross sections for "cold" and "hot" fusion reactions.

  9. Cold nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dorso, C O; Nichols, J I; López, J A

    2012-01-01

    We study the behavior of cold nuclear matter near saturation density (\\rho 0) and very low temperature using classical molecular dynamics. We used three different (classical) nuclear interaction models that yield `medium' or `stiff' compressibilities. For high densities and for every model the ground state is a classical crystalline solid, but each one with a different structure. At subsaturation densities, we found that for every model the transition from uniform (crystal) to non-uniform matter occurs at \\rho ~ 0.12 fm^(-3) = 0.75 \\rho 0. Surprisingly, at the non-uniform phase, the three models produce `pasta-like' structures as those allegedly present in neutron star matter but without the long-range Coulomb interaction and with different length scales.

  10. Cold dark matter resuscitated?

    CERN Document Server

    White, M; Silk, J; Davis, M; White, Martin; Scott, Douglas; Silk, Joe; Davis, Marc

    1995-01-01

    The Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model has an elegant simplicitly which makes it very predictive, but when its parameters are fixed at their `canonical' values its predictions are in conflict with observational data. There is, however, much leeway in the initial conditions within the CDM framework. We advocate a re-examination of the CDM model, taking into account modest variation of parameters from their canonical values. We find that CDM models with n=0.8--0.9 and h=0.45--0.50 can fit the available data. Our ``best fit'' CDM model has n=0.9, h=0.45 and C_2^{T}/C_2^{S}=0.7. We discuss the current state of observations which could definitely rule out this model.

  11. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real‐world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  12. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  13. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. ... conception, pregnancy, birth and the early months ofparenthood. .... house attended by a traditional birth attendant of a ..... Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional.

  14. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  15. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in w

  16. Cold gelation of globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords : globular proteins, whey protein, ovalbumin, cold gelation, disulfide bonds, texture, gel hardnessProtein gelation in food products is important to obtain desirable sensory and textural properties. Cold gelation is a novel method to produce protein-based gels. It is a two step process in w

  17. Cold Crystal Reflector Filter Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Muhrer, G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical concept of a cold crystal reflector filter will be presented. The aim of this concept is to balance the shortcoming of the traditional cold polycrystalline reflector filter, which lies in the significant reduction of the neutron flux right above (in energy space) or right below (wavelength space) the first Bragg edge.

  18. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  19. JENDL fusion file 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yu Baosheng [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Kosako, Kazuaki [Sumitomo Atomic Industries, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamuro, Nobuhiro [Data Engineering Co. Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The double-differential cross sections (DDXs) of secondary neutrons have been evaluated for 79 isotopes and 13 natural elements ranging from H to Bi to improve the accuracy of predictions for the neutronics calculations in the D-T thermonuclear fusion applications. The data given in JENDL-3.1, which was the newest version of JENDL general purpose file when this project was initiated, was combined with new calculations based on the optical model, DWBA, pre-equilibrium and multi-step statistical models, and the DDX data were generated based on various kinds of systematics for medium-mass nuclei. Different methods were employed for light nuclei to which the above method could not be applied. In addition, the DDXs for emission of charged particles (p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particle) were given for {sup 2}H, {sup 9}Be and elements heavier or equal to F. The present results give an overall good description of the measured DDX data of both the neutron and charged particles emission channels. The data were compiled in ENDF-6 format, and released in 1999 as a special purpose file of JENDL family, namely, JENDL Fusion File 99. (author)

  20. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  1. Dynamical Influence and Operational Impacts of an Extreme Mediterranean Cold Surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    in significant flooding over regions surrounding the Mediterranean Sea ( Trigo , Bigg, & Davies 2002). The cold air mass and associated cyclogenesis...119, 17–55. Trigo , I., G. Bigg, and T. Davies, 2002: Climatology of cyclogenesis mechanisms in the Mediterranean. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 549–569

  2. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Huanxin Zou; Shilin Zhou; Cheng Wang; Naser El-Sheimy

    2013-01-01

    Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searc...

  3. Wakes in Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ian Norman

    Plasma wave wakes, which are the collective oscillatory response near the plasma frequency to the propagation of particles or electromagnetic waves through a plasma, play a critical role in many plasma processes. New results from backwards stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS), in which wakes with phase velocities much less than the speed of light are induced by the beating of counter-propagating light waves, and from electron beam stopping, in which the wakes are produced by the motion of relativistically propagating electrons through the dense plasma, are discussed. Both processes play important roles in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). In BSRS, laser light is scattered backwards out of the plasma, decreasing the energy available to compress the ICF capsule and affecting the symmetry of where the laser energy hits the hohlraum wall in indirect drive ICF. The plasma wave wake can also generate superthermal electrons that can preheat the core and/or the ablator. Electron beam stopping plays a critical role in the Fast Ignition (FI) ICF concept, in which a beam of relativistic electrons is used to heat the target core to ignition temperatures after the compression stage. The beam stopping power determines the effectiveness of the heating process. This dissertation covers new discoveries on the importance of plasma wave wakes in both BSRS and electron beam stopping. In the SRS studies, 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using OSIRIS are performed, which model a short-duration (˜500/ω0 --1FWHM) counter-propagating scattered light seed pulse in the presence of a constant pump laser with an intensity far below the absolute instability threshold for plasma waves undergoing Landau damping. The seed undergoes linear convective Raman amplification and dominates over the amplification of fluctuations due to particle discreteness. The simulation results are in good agreement with results from a coupled-mode solver when special relativity and the effects of finite size PIC

  4. Indicative levels of PM in the ambient air in the surrounding villages of the copper smelter complex Bor, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Viša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While information on air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM has been monitored for longer period for EU countries, availability of PM data sets in the Western Balkan countries including the Republic of Serbia are still limited. Studies, related to the particulate pollution research, have been only carried out in the past several years. The main objective of this paper is to present PM levels measured in the ambient air in the surrounding settlements of the Copper Smelter Complex Bor. Also, one of the goals is a comparison of PM levels in the surrounding settlements with those measured in Bor town. The ambient levels of PM particles (PM10, PM2.5 were measured by automatic PM monitors at 4 nearby settlements: Slatina, Oštrelj, Krivelj and Brezonik in the time interval from 2005 to 2010. According to the measurement results, PM10 and PM2.5 levels in the ambient air were higher in the cold, heating, (October-March than in the warm no heating period (April-September. The exceeding of the daily limit of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration levels was observed at all measuring points. A higher number of exceedances were detected in the cold period. The results indicate that there is a significant seasonal change in the level of fine particles at all measuring places in surroundings. In addition, the PM levels in Bor town are more influenced by the air pollution from the Copper Smelter Complex than settlements in the vicinity, where the PM concentrations were greatly influenced by the presence of domestic heating in the cold period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauka Republike Srbije, br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health i br. III41028: “An Integral Study to Identify the Regional Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for the Common Noncommunicable Diseases in the Human Population of Serbia

  5. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  6. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  7. The role of local strains from prior cold work on stress corrosion cracking of α-brass in Mattsson's solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulaganathan, Jaganathan, E-mail: jagan.ulaganathan@mail.utoronto.ca; Newman, Roger C., E-mail: roger.newman@utoronto.ca

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic strain rate ahead of a crack tip formed during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) under a static load is assumed to arise from the crack propagation. The strain surrounding the crack tip would be redistributed as the crack grows, thereby having the effect of dynamic strain. Recently, several studies have shown cold work to cause accelerated crack growth rates during SCC, and the slip-dissolution mechanism has been widely applied to account for this via a supposedly increased crack-tip strain rate in cold worked material. While these interpretations consider cold work as a homogeneous effect, dislocations are generated inhomogeneously within the microstructure during cold work. The presence of grain boundaries results in dislocation pile-ups that cause local strain concentrations. The local strains generated from cold working α-brass by tensile elongation were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The role of these local strains in SCC was studied by measuring the strain distributions from the same regions of the sample before cold work, after cold work, and after SCC. Though, the cracks did not always initiate or propagate along boundaries with pre-existing local strains from the applied cold work, the local strains surrounding the cracked boundaries had contributions from both the crack propagation and the prior cold work. - Highlights: • Plastic strain localization has a complex relationship with SCC susceptibility. • Surface relief created by cold work creates its own granular strain localization. • Cold work promotes crack growth but several other factors are involved.

  8. Regional model simulation of the hydrometeorological effects of the Fucino Lake on the surrounding region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tomassetti

    Full Text Available The drainage of the Fucino Lake of central Italy was completed in 1873, and this possibly caused significant climatic changes over the Fucino basin. In this paper we discuss a set of short-term triple-nested regional model simulations of the meteorological effects of the Fucino Lake on the surrounding region. We find that the model simulates realistic lake-breeze circulations and their response to background winds. The simulations indicate that the lake affects the temperature of the surrounding basin in all seasons and precipitation in the cold season, when cyclonic perturbations move across the region. Some effects of the lake also extend over areas quite far from the Fucino basin. Our results support the hypothesis that the drainage of the lake might have significantly affected the climate of the lake basin. However, longer simulations and further development in some aspects of the model are needed, in order to provide a more statistically robust evaluation of the simulated lake-effects.

    Key words. Hydrology (anthropogenic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; mesoscale meteorology

  9. The quest for fusion power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion power is one of a very few sustainable options to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary energy source. Although the conditions for fusion have been reached, much remains to be done to turn scientific success into commercial electrical power.

  10. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  11. Sensor fusion for social robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Brian R.; Garcia, C; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Hare, G.M.P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of sensor fusion for the visualisation of social robotic behaviour. Experiments with the Virtual Reality Workbench integrate the key elements of Virtual Reality and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. The deliberative focusing of attention and sensor fusion between vision systems and sonar sensors is implemented on autonomous mobile robots functioning in standard office environments

  12. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  13. Multi-sensor fusion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  14. Membrane fusion during poxvirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    Poxviruses comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates. Poxviruses, unlike most DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm and encode enzymes and other proteins that enable entry, gene expression, genome replication, virion assembly and resistance to host defenses. Entry of vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family, can occur at the plasma membrane or following endocytosis. Whereas many viruses encode one or two proteins for attachment and membrane fusion, vaccinia virus encodes four proteins for attachment and eleven more for membrane fusion and core entry. The entry-fusion proteins are conserved in all poxviruses and form a complex, known as the Entry Fusion Complex (EFC), which is embedded in the membrane of the mature virion. An additional membrane that encloses the mature virion and is discarded prior to entry is present on an extracellular form of the virus. The EFC is held together by multiple interactions that depend on nine of the eleven proteins. The entry process can be divided into attachment, hemifusion and core entry. All eleven EFC proteins are required for core entry and at least eight for hemifusion. To mediate fusion the virus particle is activated by low pH, which removes one or more fusion repressors that interact with EFC components. Additional EFC-interacting fusion repressors insert into cell membranes and prevent secondary infection. The absence of detailed structural information, except for two attachment proteins and one EFC protein, is delaying efforts to determine the fusion mechanism.

  15. Fusion research programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shishir Deshpande; Predhiman Kaw

    2013-10-01

    The fusion energy research program of India is summarized in the context of energy needs and scenario of tokamak advancements on domestic and international fronts. In particular, the various technologies that will lead us to ultimately build a fusion power reactor are identified along with the steps being taken for their indigenous development.

  16. Deployment of membrane fusion protein domains during fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, J; Mittal, A

    2000-01-01

    It is clear that both viral and intracellular membrane fusion proteins contain a minimal set of domains which must be deployed at the appropriate time during the fusion process. An account of these domains and their functions is given here for the four best-described fusion systems: influenza HA, sendai virus F1, HIV gp120/41 and the neuronal SNARE core composed of synaptobrevin (syn), syntaxin (stx) and the N- and C-termini of SNAP25 (sn25), together with the Ca(2+)binding protein synaptotagmin (syt). Membrane fusion begins with the binding of the virion or vesicle to the target membrane via receptors. The committed step in influenza HA- mediated fusion begins with an aggregate of HAs (at least eight) with some of their HA2 N-termini, a.k.a. fusion peptides, embedded into the viral bilayer (Bentz, 2000 a). The hypothesis presented in Bentz (2000 b) is that the conformational change of HA to the extended coiled coil extracts the fusion peptides from the viral bilayer. When this extraction occurs from the center of the site of restricted lipid flow, it exposes acyl chains and parts of the HA transmembrane domains to the aqueous media, i.e. a hydrophobic defect is formed. This is the 'transition state' of the committed step of fusion. It is stabilized by a 'dam' of HAs, which are inhibited from diffusing away by the rest of the HAs in the aggregate and because that would initially expose more acyl chains to water. Recruitment of lipids from the apposed target membrane can heal this hydrophobic defect, initiating lipid mixing and fusion. The HA transmembrane domains are required to be part of the hydrophobic defect, because the HA aggregate must be closely packed enough to restrict lipid flow. This hypothesis provides a simple and direct coupling between the energy released by the formation of the coiled coil to the energy needed to create and stabilize the high energy intermediates of fusion. Several of these essential domains have been described for the viral fusion

  17. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Parents > Cough ... cough and cold medicine. Why Do Kids Abuse Cough and Cold Remedies? Before the U.S. Food and ...

  18. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold- ... once the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the air, ...

  19. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least one-half of colds. (5) Cold viruses can only multiply when they are inside of living cells. When on an environmental surface, cold viruses cannot multiply. However, they are still infectious if ...

  20. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  1. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V S Sastry; S Santra

    2000-06-01

    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a ‘fingerprint’ of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method and correct structure information, have been analysed. The barrier distributions derived from these excitation functions including many of the significant channels are featureless, although these channels have considerable effects on the fusion excitation function. However, a simultaneous analysis of the fusion, elastic and quasi-elastic channels would fix the structure and the reaction unambiguously

  2. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    CERN Document Server

    Urichuk, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows, and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  3. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urichuk, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.urichuk@uleth.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  4. Fusion - 2050 perspective (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The results of strongly exothermic reaction of thermonuclear fusion between nuclei of deuterium and tritium are: helium nuclei and neutrons, plus considerable kinetic energy of neutrons of over 14 MeV. DT nuclides synthesis reaction is probably not the most favorable one for energy production, but is the most advanced technologically. More efficient would be possibly aneutronic fusion. The EU by its EURATOM agenda prepared a Road Map for research and implementation of Fusion as a commercial method of thermonuclear energy generation in the time horizon of 2050.The milestones on this road are tokomak experiments JET, ITER and DEMO, and neutron experiment IFMIF. There is a hope, that by engagement of the national government, and all research and technical fusion communities, part of this Road Map may be realized in Poland. The infrastructure build for fusion experiments may be also used for material engineering research, chemistry, biomedical, associated with environment protection, power engineering, security, ...

  5. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  6. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  7. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable

  8. Information integration for data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  9. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  10. Development of 3D Multicomponent Model for Cold Spray Process Using Nitrogen and Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faizan Ur Rab

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cold spray is a unique coating technology that allows for solid state deposition of particles under atmospheric pressure. In this paper, a three dimensional, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD multicomponent model is developed to estimate cold spray gas conditions involving both nitrogen and air. Calibration of the model followed by validation is accomplished by considering the thermal history of substrate exposed to cold spray supersonic jet. The developed holistic multicomponent model is effective in determining the state of gas and particles from injection point to the substrate surface with the advantage of optimizing very rapid cold spray deposition in nanoseconds. The validation of k-ε type CFD multicomponent model is done by using the temperature measured for a titanium substrate exposed to cold spray nitrogen at 800 °C and 3 MPa. Heat transfer and radiation are considered for the de Laval nozzle used in cold spray experiments. The calibrated multicomponent model has successfully estimated the state of propellant gas for the chosen high pressure and high temperature cold spray conditions. Moreover, the multicomponent model predictions are in good agreement with a previous holistic three dimensional cold spray model in which only nitrogen was used as the surrounding as well as the propellant gas.

  11. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy.

  12. Fusion Barrier of Super-heavy Elements in a Generalized Liquid Drop Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBao-Qiu; MAZhong-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The macroscopic deformed potential energies for super-heavy elements Z = 110,112,114,116,118 arc determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). A quasi-molecular mechanism is introduced to describe the deformation of a nucleus in the GLDM and the shell model simultaneously. The macroscopic energy of a twocenter nuclear system in the GLDM includes the volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, the proximity effect at each mass asymmetry, and accurate nuclear radius. The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method and the microscopic single particle energies are derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods-Saxon potential with the quasi-molecular shape. The total potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is applied to predict the fusion barriers of the cold reactions 64Ni + 208 spb → 272 110*, 70Zn + 208pb → 278 112*, 76Ge + 208seb → 284 114*,82Se + 208pb → 29 116*, 86Kr + 208pb → 294 118*. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for the deep valley of the fusion barrier. In the cold fusion path, double-hump fusion barriers could be predicted by the shell corrections and complete fusion events may occur.

  13. Fusion Barrier of Super-heavy Elements in a Generalized Liquid Drop Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bao-Qiu; MA Zhong-Yu

    2004-01-01

    The macroscopic deformed potential energies for super-heavy elements Z = 110,112,114,116,118 are determined within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM). A quasi-molecular mechanism is introduced to describe the deformation of a nucleus in the GLDM and the shell model simultaneously. The macroscopic energy of a twocenter nuclear system in the GLDM includes the volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, the proximity effect at each mass asymmetry, and accurate nuclear radius. The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method and the microscopic single particle energies are derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods-Saxon potential with the quasi-molecular shape. The total potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. The theory is applied to predict the fusion barriers of the cold reactions 64Ni + 208Pb → 272110*, 70Zn + 208Pb → 278112*, 76Ge + 208pb → 284114*,82Se + 208Pb → 290116*, 86Kr + 208Pb → 294118*. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for the deep valley of the fusion barrier. In the cold fusion path, double-hump fusion barriers could be predicted by the shell corrections and complete fusion events may occur.

  14. Dynamin-2 Stabilizes the HIV-1 Fusion Pore with a Low Oligomeric State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Jones

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key research areas surrounding HIV-1 concerns the regulation of the fusion event that occurs between the virus particle and the host cell during entry. Even if it is universally accepted that the large GTPase dynamin-2 is important during HIV-1 entry, its exact role during the first steps of HIV-1 infection is not well characterized. Here, we have utilized a multidisciplinary approach to study the DNM2 role during fusion of HIV-1 in primary resting CD4 T and TZM-bl cells. We have combined advanced light microscopy and functional cell-based assays to experimentally assess the role of dynamin-2 during these processes. Overall, our data suggest that dynamin-2, as a tetramer, might help to establish hemi-fusion and stabilizes the pore during HIV-1 fusion.

  15. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... patterns that increase activation of the innate immune system. Importantly, viral-vectored vaccines that act through the induction of one or more of these factors also may benefit from cytokine coadministration and increased antigen presentation. In order to increase immunogenicity to the level achieved...

  16. Prospects for bubble fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  17. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  18. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterberg, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    Structure formation and transport in stochastic plasmas is a topic of growing importance in many fields of plasma physics from astrophysics to fusion research. In particular, the possibility to control transport in the boundary of confined fusion plasmas by resonant magnetic perturbations has been investigated extensively during recent years. A major research achievement was finding that the intense transient particle and heat fluxes associated with edge localized modes (here type-I ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion plasmas can be mitigated or even suppressed by resonant magnetic perturbation fields. This observation opened up a possible scheme to avoid too large erosion and material damage by such transients in future fusion devices such as ITER. However, it is widely recognized that a more basic understanding is needed to extrapolate the results obtained in present experiments to future fusion devices. The 4th workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas was held in Jülich, Germany, from 2 to 4 March 2009. This series of workshops aims at gathering fusion experts from various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches to exchange knowledge on structure formation and transport in stochastic fusion plasmas. The workshops have attracted colleagues from both experiment and theory and stimulated fruitful discussions about the basics of stochastic fusion plasmas. Important papers from the first three workshops in 2003, 2005 and 2007 have been published in previous special issues of Nuclear Fusion (stacks.iop.org/NF/44/i=6, stacks.iop.org/NF/46/i=4 and stacks.iop.org/NF/48/i=2). This special issue comprises contributions presented at the 4th SFP workshop, dealing with the main subjects such as formation of stochastic magnetic layers, energy and particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields, plasma response to external, non-axis-symmetric perturbations and last but not least application of resonant magnetic perturbations for

  19. Friendly units for coldness

    CERN Document Server

    Fraundorf, P

    2006-01-01

    Measures of temperature that center around human experience get lots of use. Of course thermal physics insights of the last century have shown that reciprocal temperature (1/kT) has applications that temperature addresses less well. In addition to taking on negative absolute values under population inversion (e.g. of magnetic spins), bits and bytes turn 1/kT into an informatic measure of the thermal ambient for developing correlations within any complex system. We show here that, in the human-friendly units of bytes and food Calories, water freezes when 1/kT ~200 ZB/Cal or kT ~5 Cal/YB. Casting familiar benchmarks into these terms shows that habitable human space requires coldness values (part of the time, at least) between 0 and 40 ZB/Cal with respect body temperature ~100 degrees F, a range in kT of ~1 Cal/YB. Insight into these physical quantities underlying thermal equilibration may prove useful for budding scientists, as well as the general public, in years ahead.

  20. Zitterbewegung in Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Poliana; Egues, J. Carlos

    2013-03-01

    In condensed matter systems, the coupling between spatial and spin degrees of freedom through the spin-orbit (SO) interaction offers the possibility of manipulating the electron spin via its orbital motion. The proposal by Datta and Das of a `spin transistor' for example, highlights the use of the SO interaction to control the electron spin via electrical means. Recently, arrangements of crossed lasers and magnetic fields have been used to trap and cool atoms in optical lattices and also to create light-induced gauge potentials, which mimic the SO interactions in real solids. In this work, we investigate the Zitterbewegung in cold atoms by starting from the effective SO Hamiltonian derived in Ref.. Cross-dressed atoms as effective spins can provide a proper setting in which to observe this effect, as the relevant parameter range of SO strengths may be more easily attainable in this context. We find a variety of peculiar Zitterbewegung orbits in real and pseudo-spin spaces, e.g., cycloids and ellipses - all of which obtained with realistic parameters. This work is supported by FAPESP, CAPES and CNPq.

  1. Migraine increases centre-surround suppression for drifting visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Battista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of migraine is incompletely understood, but evidence points to hyper-responsivity of cortical neurons being a key feature. The basis of hyper-responsiveness is not clear, with an excitability imbalance potentially arising from either reduced inhibition or increased excitation. In this study, we measure centre-surround contrast suppression in people with migraine as a perceptual analogue of the interplay between inhibition and excitation in cortical areas responsible for vision. We predicted that reduced inhibitory function in migraine would reduce perceptual surround suppression. Recent models of neuronal surround suppression incorporate excitatory feedback that drives surround inhibition. Consequently, an increase in excitation predicts an increase in perceptual surround suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-six people with migraine and twenty approximately age- and gender-matched non-headache controls participated. The perceived contrast of a central sinusoidal grating patch (4 c/deg stationary grating, or 2 c/deg drifting at 2 deg/sec, 40% contrast was measured in the presence and absence of a 95% contrast annular grating (same orientation, spatial frequency, and drift rate. For the static grating, similar surround suppression strength was present in control and migraine groups with the presence of the surround resulting in the central patch appearing to be 72% and 65% of its true contrast for control and migraine groups respectively (t(44 = 0.81, p = 0.42. For the drifting stimulus, the migraine group showed significantly increased surround suppression (t(44 = 2.86, p<0.01, with perceived contrast being on average 53% of actual contrast for the migraine group and 68% for non-headache controls. CONCLUSIONS: In between migraines, when asymptomatic, visual surround suppression for drifting stimuli is greater in individuals with migraine than in controls. The data provides evidence for a

  2. Cold-formed steel design

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wei-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The definitive text in the field, thoroughly updated and expanded Hailed by professionals around the world as the definitive text on the subject, Cold-Formed Steel Design is an indispensable resource for all who design for and work with cold-formed steel. No other book provides such exhaustive coverage of both the theory and practice of cold-formed steel construction. Updated and expanded to reflect all the important developments that have occurred in the field over the past decade, this Fourth Edition of the classic text provides you with more of the detailed, up-to-the-minute techni

  3. Initial thermal characterization of the Cornell cold neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spern, S.A.; Atwood, A.G.; Clark, D.D.; Hossain, T.Z. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The completed full-scale Cornell cold neutron source, an integral component of the Cornell cold neutron beam facility, has undergone testing prior to its insertion (and consequent activation) in the Cornell 500-kW TRIGA reactor. The source consists of an organic moderator (mesitylene) contained within an aluminum chamber, which is cooled by conduction through a 99.999+ pure 1.90-cm-diam copper rod 267 cm long, coupled to the second (4-W capacity), cooler stage of a helium cryorefrigerator. Approximately 18 h is required to achieve equilibrium chamber temperatures. To lower the radiational T 4 load on the second stage, the chamber and rod are surrounded by an active heat shield, consisting of 99.99+ pure copper (oxygen-free high conductivity) coupled to the first 60-W capacity stage of the cryorefrigerator. Other components include the associated mesitylene handling system (MHS) and vacuum system.

  4. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, Grant R; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen L; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds - a departure from the "hot mode" accretion model - although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z=0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities can precipitate from this hot gas, producing a rain of c...

  5. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction and a realis......We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  6. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Songgeng, E-mail: sgli@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Song, Wenli [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Weigang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • A novel method is proposed to analyze fusion characteristics of biomass ash. • T{sub m} can represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. • Compared with AFT, TMA is the better choice to analyze the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. - Abstract: The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, T{sub m}, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates.

  7. Effect of the Quality Property of Table Grapes in Cold Chain Logistics-Integrated WSN and AOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqing Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Table grapes are very popular for their high nutritional and therapeutic value. The objective of this work was to study the effect of table grapes’ quality property in cold chain logistics for improving the transparency and traceability of table grapes’ cold chain logistics and ensuring the table grapes’ quality and safety. Temperature and relative humidity are monitored by adopting the wireless sensor network (WSN as the fundamental network infrastructure and adaptive optimal weighted data fusion (AOW for the adaptive data fusion. The cold chain process, firmness quality and adaptive data fusion of temperature and relative humidity were evaluated in an actual cold chain logistics. The results indicate that the WSN and AOW methods could effectively reflect the real-time temperature and relative humidity information and quality property, improve the transparency and traceability in the cold chain and ensure the preservation of the quality and safety of table grapes. The AOW performance analysis shows that the AOW, whose mean absolute error and mean relative error of the temperature data are 0.06 °C and 8.61% and relative humidity data are 0.12% and 0.23%, respectively, could fuse the sensor data accurately, efficiently and adaptively and meet the actual application requirements.

  8. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  9. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Prakash, P

    1991-01-01

    Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline fusional vergences but tolerance in about 70% of the cases upto 30% aniseikonia while 25% could tolerate even 35% aniseikonia. However we realise that these indicate the maximal potential and not the symptom free tolerable limits.

  10. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline fusional vergences but tolerance in about 70% of the cases upto 30% aniseikonia while 25% could tolerate even 35% aniseikonia. However we realise that these indicate the maximal potential and not the symptom free tolerable limits.

  11. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  12. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  13. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  14. PANDA: Cold three axes spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Schneidewind

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cold three axes spectrometer PANDA, operated by JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich, offers high neutron flux over a large dynamic range keeping the instrumental background comparably low.

  15. Flu and Colds: In Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studies have evaluated the use of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to prevent colds. A 2011 evaluation of ... E561. Seida JK, Durec T, Kuhle S. North American (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) preparations for ...

  16. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  17. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...

  18. Fifty Years of Magnetic Fusion Research (1958–2008: Brief Historical Overview and Discussion of Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila A. El-Guebaly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago, the secrecy surrounding magnetically controlled thermonuclear fusion had been lifted allowing researchers to freely share technical results and discuss the challenges of harnessing fusion power. There were only four magnetic confinement fusion concepts pursued internationally: tokamak, stellarator, pinch, and mirror. Since the early 1970s, numerous fusion designs have been developed for the four original and three new approaches: spherical torus, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak. At present, the tokamak is regarded worldwide as the most viable candidate to demonstrate fusion energy generation. Numerous power plant studies (>50, extensive R&D programs, more than 100 operating experiments, and an impressive international collaboration led to the current wealth of fusion information and understanding. As a result, fusion promises to be a major part of the energy mix in the 21st century. The fusion roadmaps developed to date take different approaches, depending on the anticipated power plant concept and the degree of extrapolation beyond ITER. Several Demos with differing approaches will be built in the US, EU, Japan, China, Russia, Korea, India, and other countries to cover the wide range of near-term and advanced fusion systems.

  19. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  20. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  1. New trends in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to ignition or to sustained burn using additional heating and a control of plasma-wall interaction and energy and particle exhaust. These lectures address recent advances in plasma science and technology that are relevant to the development of fusion energy. Mention will be made of the inertial confinement line of research, but...

  2. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  3. Data Fusion Concepts and Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, H B

    2012-01-01

    “Data Fusion: Concepts and Ideas” provides a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and idea of multisensor data fusion. This textbook is an extensively revised second edition of the author's successful book: "Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: An Introduction". The book is self-contained and no previous knowledge of multi-sensor data fusion is assumed. The reader is made familiar with tools taken from a wide range of diverse subjects including: neural networks, signal processing, statistical estimation, tracking algorithms, computer vision and control theory which are combined by using a common statistical framework. As a consequence, the underlying pattern of relationships that exists between the different methodologies is made evident. The book is illustrated with many real-life examples taken from a diverse range of applications and contains an extensive list of modern references. The new completely revised and updated edition includes nearly 70 pages of new material including a full new chapter as well as...

  4. Information fusion for palmprint authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangqian; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, David

    2006-04-01

    A palmprint can be represented using different features and the different representations reflect the different characteristic of a palmprint. Fusion of multiple palmprint features may enhance the performance of a palmprint authentication system. This paper investigates the fusion of two types of palmprint information: the phase (called PalmCode) and the orientation (called OrientationCode). The PalmCode is extracted using the 2-D Gabor filters based algorithm and the OrientationCode is computed using several directional templates. Then several fusion strategies are investigated and compared. The experimental results show that the fusion of the PalmCode and OrientationCode using the Product, Sum and Weighted Sum strategies can greatly improve the accuracy of palmprint authentication, which is up to 99.6%.

  5. Aneutronic Fusion Spacecraft Architecture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Description: provide framework to realize fusion propulsion for long-range space travel; analyze “hybrid” schemes with a solar or fission primary energy...

  6. PEEK-Halo effect in interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Hogan, Jarred A; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-02-01

    Recent developments have seen poly[aryl-ether-ether-ketone] (PEEK) being increasingly used in vertebral body fusion. More novel approaches to improve PEEK have included the introduction of titanium-PEEK (Ti-PEEK) composites and coatings. This paper aims to describe a potential complication of PEEK based implants relating to poorer integration with the surrounding bone, producing a "PEEK-Halo" effect which is not seen in Ti-PEEK composite implants. We present images from two patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF). The first patient underwent an L5/S1 ALIF using a PEEK implant whilst the second patient underwent L4/L5 ALIF using a Ti-PEEK composite implant. Evidence of osseointegration was sought using CT imaging and confirmed using histological preparations of a sheep tibia model. The PEEK-Halo effect is demonstrated by a halo effect between the PEEK implant and the bone graft on CT imaging. This phenomenon is secondary to poor osseointegration of PEEK implants. The PEEK-Halo effect was not demonstrated in the second patient who received a Ti-PEEK composite graft. Histological analysis of graft/bone interface surfaces in PEEK versus Ti-PEEK implants in a sheep model further confirmed poorer osseointegration of the PEEK implant. In conclusion, the PEEK-Halo effect is seen secondary to minimal osseointegration of PEEK at the adjacent vertebral endplate following a PEEK implant insertion. This effect is not seen with Ti-PEEK implants, and may support the role of titanium in improving the bone-implant interface of PEEK substrates.

  7. Cold shock genes cspA and cspB from Caulobacter crescentus are posttranscriptionally regulated and important for cold adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzon, Ricardo R; Lang, Elza A S; Silva, Carolina A P T; Marques, Marilis V

    2012-12-01

    Cold shock proteins (CSPs) are nucleic acid binding chaperones, first described as being induced to solve the problem of mRNA stabilization after temperature downshift. Caulobacter crescentus has four CSPs: CspA and CspB, which are cold induced, and CspC and CspD, which are induced only in stationary phase. In this work we have determined that the synthesis of both CspA and CspB reaches the maximum levels early in the acclimation phase. The deletion of cspA causes a decrease in growth at low temperature, whereas the strain with a deletion of cspB has a very subtle and transient cold-related growth phenotype. The cspA cspB double mutant has a slightly more severe phenotype than that of the cspA mutant, suggesting that although CspA may be more important to cold adaptation than CspB, both proteins have a role in this process. Gene expression analyses were carried out using cspA and cspB regulatory fusions to the lacZ reporter gene and showed that both genes are regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Deletion mapping of the long 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of each gene identified a common region important for cold induction, probably via translation enhancement. In contrast to what was reported for other bacteria, these cold shock genes have no regulatory regions downstream from ATG that are important for cold induction. This work shows that the importance of CspA and CspB to C. crescentus cold adaptation, mechanisms of regulation, and pattern of expression during the acclimation phase apparently differs in many aspects from what has been described so far for other bacteria.

  8. Magnetic fusion 1985: what next

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Recent budget reductions for magnetic fusion have led to a re-examination of program schedules and objectives. Faced with delays and postponement of major facilities as previously planned, some have called for a near-term focus on science, others have stressed technology. This talk will suggest a different focus as the keynote for this conference, namely, the applications of fusion. There is no doubt that plasma science is by now mature and fusion technology is at the forefront. This has and will continue to benefit many fields of endeavor, both in actual new discoveries and techniques and in attracting and training scientists and engineers who move on to make significant contributions in science, defense and industry. Nonetheless, however superb the science or how challenging the technology, these are means, not ends. To maintain its support, the magnetic fusion program must also offer the promise of power reactors that could be competitive in the future. At this conference, several new reactor designs will be described that claim to be smaller and economically competitive with fission reactors while retaining the environmental and safety characteristics that are the hallmark of fusion. The American Nuclear Society is an appropriate forum in which to examine these new designs critically, and to stimulate better ideas and improvements. As a preview, this talk will include brief discussions of new tokamak, tandem mirror and reversed field pinch reactor designs to be presented in later sessions. Finally, as a preview of the session on fusion breeders, the talk will explore once again the economic implications of a new nuclear age, beginning with improved fission reactors fueled by fusion breeders, then ultimately evolving to reactors based solely on fusion.

  9. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Pradeep; Prakash Prem

    1991-01-01

    Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline f...

  10. Getting started with Clickteam Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-understand, step-by-step guide that shows you how to create 2D video games with Clickteam Fusion. You will learn the magic of game development from scratch without any knowledge of scripting languages.This book is for game enthusiasts who want to create their own 2D video games. No prior knowledge of programming or Multimedia Fusion 2 is necessary.

  11. Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G. [ed.

    1980-08-01

    This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

  12. Data Fusion and Sensors Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we take the model of Laser range finder based on synchronized scanner as example, show how to use data fusion method in the process of sensor model designing to get more robust output. Also we provide our idea on the relation of sensor model, data fusion and system structure, and in the paper, there is a solution that transform the parameter space to get linear model for Kalman filter.

  13. CT navigated lateral interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Liu, John C; Acosta, Frank L

    2013-10-01

    Lateral interbody fusion techniques are heavily reliant on fluoroscopy for retractor docking and graft placement, which expose both the patient and surgeon to high doses of radiation. Use of image-guided technologies with CT-based images, however, can eliminate this radiation exposure for the surgeon. We describe the surgical technique of performing lateral lumbar interbody fusion using CT navigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  15. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  16. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  17. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  18. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  19. Operation of Fusion Reactors in One Atmosphere of Air Instead of Vacuum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. Reece

    2009-07-01

    Engineering design studies of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants have assumed that the plasma will undergo fusion reactions in a vacuum environment. Operation under vacuum requires an expensive additional major system for the reactor-a vacuum vessel with vacuum pumping, and raises the possibility of sudden unplanned outages if the vacuum containment is breached. It would be desirable in many respects if fusion reactors could be made to operate at one atmosphere with air surrounding the plasma, thus eliminating the requirement of a pressure vessel and vacuum pumping. This would have obvious economic, reliability, and engineering advantages for currently envisaged power plant reactors; it would make possible forms of reactor control not possible under vacuum conditions (i.e. adiabatic compression of the fusion plasma by increasing the pressure of surrounding gas); it would allow reactors used as aircraft engines to operate as turbojets or ramjets in the atmosphere, and it would allow reactors used as fusion rockets to take off from the surface of the earth instead of low earth orbit.

  20. Garlic for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissiman, Elizabeth; Bhasale, Alice L; Cohen, Marc

    2014-11-11

    Background Garlic is alleged to have antimicrobial and antiviral properties that relieve the common cold, among other beneficial effects. There is widespread usage of garlic supplements. The common cold is associated with significant morbidity and economic consequences. On average, children have six to eight colds per year and adults have two to four.Objectives To determine whether garlic (Allium sativum) is effective for the prevention or treatment of the common cold, when compared to placebo, no treatment or other treatments.Search methods We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7),OLDMEDLINE (1950 to 1965),MEDLINE (January 1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE(1974 to August 2014) and AMED (1985 to August 2014).Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of common cold prevention and treatment comparing garlic with placebo, no treatment or standard treatment.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently reviewed and selected trials from searches, assessed and rated study quality and extracted relevant data.Main results In this updated review, we identified eight trials as potentially relevant from our searches. Again, only one trial met the inclusion criteria.This trial randomly assigned 146 participants to either a garlic supplement (with 180 mg of allicin content) or a placebo (once daily)for 12 weeks. The trial reported 24 occurrences of the common cold in the garlic intervention group compared with 65 in the placebo group (P value garlic group compared with the placebo group (111 versus 366). The number of days to recovery from an occurrence of the common cold was similar in both groups (4.63 versus 5.63). Only one trial met the inclusion criteria, therefore limited conclusions can be drawn. The trial relied on self reported episodes of the common cold but was of reasonable quality in terms of randomisation and allocation concealment. Adverse effects included rash and odour. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient clinical trial evidence

  1. Image Fusion for Radiosurgery, Neurosurgery and Hypofractionated Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroshi K; Nakajima, Atsushi; Sato, Hiro; Noda, Shin-Ei; Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2015-03-01

    Precise target detection is essential for radiosurgery, neurosurgery and hypofractionated radiotherapy because treatment results and complication rates are related to accuracy of the target definition. In skull base tumors and tumors around the optic pathways, exact anatomical evaluation of cranial nerves are important to avoid adverse effects on these structures close to lesions. Three-dimensional analyses of structures obtained with MR heavy T2-images and image fusion with CT thin-sliced sections are desirable to evaluate fine structures during radiosurgery and microsurgery. In vascular lesions, angiography is most important for evaluations of whole structures from feeder to drainer, shunt, blood flow and risk factors of bleeding. However, exact sites and surrounding structures in the brain are not shown on angiography. True image fusions of angiography, MR images and CT on axial planes are ideal for precise target definition. In malignant tumors, especially recurrent head and neck tumors, biologically active areas of recurrent tumors are main targets of radiosurgery. PET scan is useful for quantitative evaluation of recurrences. However, the examination is not always available at the time of radiosurgery. Image fusion of MR diffusion images with CT is always available during radiosurgery and useful for the detection of recurrent lesions. All images are fused and registered on thin sliced CT sections and exactly demarcated targets are planned for treatment. Follow-up images are also able to register on this CT. Exact target changes, including volume, are possible in this fusion system. The purpose of this review is to describe the usefulness of image fusion for 1) skull base, 2) vascular, 3) recurrent target detection, and 4) follow-up analyses in radiosurgery, neurosurgery and hypofractionated radiotherapy.

  2. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear

  3. Data Fusion in Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The technique of data fusion has been used extensively in information retrieval due to the complexity and diversity of tasks involved such as web and social networks, legal, enterprise, and many others. This book presents both a theoretical and empirical approach to data fusion. Several typical data fusion algorithms are discussed, analyzed and evaluated. A reader will find answers to the following questions, among others: -          What are the key factors that affect the performance of data fusion algorithms significantly? -          What conditions are favorable to data fusion algorithms? -          CombSum and CombMNZ, which one is better? and why? -          What is the rationale of using the linear combination method? -          How can the best fusion option be found under any given circumstances?

  4. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  5. Tritium accountancy in fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, J.E.; Clark, E.A.; Harvel, C.D.; Farmer, D.A.; Tovo, L.L.; Poore, A.S. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Moore, M.L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MCA) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MCA requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBA) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material sub-accounts (MSA) are established along with key measurement points (KMP) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSA. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breeding, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of 'net' tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines. (authors)

  6. Finger and toe temperature response to cold water and cold air exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, N.R. van der; Es, E.M. van; Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Subjects with a weak cold-induced vasodilatation response (CIVD) to experimental cold-water immersion of the fingers in a laboratory setting have been shown to have a higher risk for local cold injuries when exposed to cold in real life. Most of the cold injuries in real life, however,

  7. Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of this classic text presents a complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion, written by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field.  It offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of the subject matter and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. This outstanding text offers students a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly.  In a wholly lucid manner the second edition covered charged-particle motions, plasmas as fluids, kinetic theory, and nonlinear effects.  For the third edition, two new chapters have been added to incorporate discussion of more recent advances in the field.  The new chapter 9 on Special Plasmas covers non-neutral plasmas, pure electron plasmas, solid and ultra-cold plasmas, pair-ion plasmas, d...

  8. The properties and weldability of materials for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, B.A.; Kee, C.K.; Wilcox, R.C. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-11-15

    Low-activation austenitic stainless steels have been suggested for applications within fusion reactors. The use of these nickel-free steels will help to reduce the radioactive waste management problem after service. one requirement for such steels is the ability to obtain sound welds for fabrication purposes. Thus, two austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn alloys were studied to characterize the welded microstructure and mechanical properties. The two steels investigated were a Russian steel (Fe-11.6Cr19.3Mn-0.181C) and an US steel (Fe-12.lCr-19.4Mn-0.24C). Welding was performed using a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Microscopic examinations of the structure of both steels were conducted. The as-received Russian steel was found to be in the annealed state. Only the fusion zone and the base metal were observed in the welded Russian steel. No visible heat affected zone was observed. Examination revealed that the as-received US steel was in the cold rolled condition. After welding, a fusion zone and a heat affected zone along with the base metal region were found.

  9. Cold Neutron Research Facility begins operating at NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, E.J.

    1991-09-01

    Steady-state neutron beams are generally produced by fission in a nuclear reactor, whereas pulsed beams come from spallation neutron sources. Beams from a reactor have a distribution of wavelengths that is roughly Maxwellian, with a peak wavelength that depends on the temperature of the moderator that surrounds the fuel. Cold neutrons can be selected from the low-energy tail of the distribution, but the flux drops as 1/{lambda}{sup 4}. However, by shifting the whole spectrum to longer wavelengths one can dramatically increase the cold neutron flux. This is achieved by replacing part of the core moderator with a cold moderator, or cold source,' such as liquid deuterium (at about 30 K) or D{sub 2}O ice (at about 40 K). Neutrons lose energy to the moderator through collisions, producing a shifted spectrum from which one can select lower-energy neutrons with a roughly ten-fold improvement in the flux. Neutrons exhibit optical behavior such as refraction and total reflection. Thus one can use neutron guides - analogous to optical fibers - to conduct intense beams of neutrons from the reactor into a large experimental hall, dubbed a guide hall,' where background radiation is low. The Cold Neutron Research Facility was finally funded in 1987 and opened its doors this past June. CNRF is located at the 20-MW NIST research reactor, which began continuous operation in 1969. With some foresight, the designers of the original reactor allowed space for the addition of a cryogenic moderator, which is only now being exploited. NIST will develop 10 experimental stations for use by the research science community. Additional help in financing the facility comes from participating research teams made up of groups from industry, academe and government.

  10. Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brooks

    2011-09-30

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall

  11. Galactic cold cores. IV. Cold submillimetre sources: catalogue and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillaud, J.; Juvela, M.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Malinen, J.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Ristorcelli, I.; Montier, L.; Marshall, D. J.; Marton, G.; Pagani, L.; Toth, L. V.; Zahorecz, S.; Ysard, N.; McGehee, P.; Paladini, R.; Falgarone, E.; Bernard, J.-P.; Motte, F.; Zavagno, A.; Doi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Context. For the project Galactic cold cores, Herschel photometric observations were carried out as a follow-up of cold regions of interstellar clouds previously identified with the Planck satellite. The aim of the project is to derive the physical properties of the population of cold sources and to study its connection to ongoing and future star formation. Aims: We build a catalogue of cold sources within the clouds in 116 fields observed with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments. We wish to determine the general physical characteristics of the cold sources and to examine the correlations with their host cloud properties. Methods: From Herschel data, we computed colour temperature and column density maps of the fields. We estimated the distance to the target clouds and provide both uncertainties and reliability flags for the distances. The getsources multiwavelength source extraction algorithm was employed to build a catalogue of several thousand cold sources. Mid-infrared data were used, along with colour and position criteria, to separate starless and protostellar sources. We also propose another classification method based on submillimetre temperature profiles. We analysed the statistical distributions of the physical properties of the source samples. Results: We provide a catalogue of ~4000 cold sources within or near star forming clouds, most of which are located either in nearby molecular complexes (≲1 kpc) or in star forming regions of the nearby galactic arms (~2 kpc). About 70% of the sources have a size compatible with an individual core, and 35% of those sources are likely to be gravitationally bound. Significant statistical differences in physical properties are found between starless and protostellar sources, in column density versus dust temperature, mass versus size, and mass versus dust temperature diagrams. The core mass functions are very similar to those previously reported for other regions. On statistical grounds we find that

  12. Possibilities of synthesis of unknown isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z > 108 in asymmetric actinide-based complete fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Juhee [Institute for Basic Science, Rare Isotope Science Project, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adamian, G.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The possibilities of production of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z = 109-114 in various asymmetric hot fusion reactions are studied for the first time. The excitation functions of the formation of these isotopes in the xn evaporation channels are predicted and the optimal conditions for the synthesis are proposed. The products of the suggested reactions can fill a gap of unknown isotopes between the isotopes of the heaviest nuclei obtained in cold and hot complete fusion reactions. (orig.)

  13. Possibilities of synthesis of unknown isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z > 108 in asymmetric actinide-based complete fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Juhee; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2016-10-01

    The possibilities of production of new isotopes of superheavy nuclei with charge numbers Z = 109-114 in various asymmetric hot fusion reactions are studied for the first time. The excitation functions of the formation of these isotopes in the xn evaporation channels are predicted and the optimal conditions for the synthesis are proposed. The products of the suggested reactions can fill a gap of unknown isotopes between the isotopes of the heaviest nuclei obtained in cold and hot complete fusion reactions.

  14. Novel Hydrophobin Fusion Tags for Plant-Produced Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritala, Anneli; Linder, Markus; Joensuu, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobin fusion technology has been applied in the expression of several recombinant proteins in plants. Until now, the technology has relied exclusively on the Trichoderma reesei hydrophobin HFBI. We screened eight novel hydrophobin tags, T. reesei HFBII, HFBIII, HFBIV, HFBV, HFBVI and Fusarium verticillioides derived HYD3, HYD4 and HYD5, for production of fusion proteins in plants and purification by two-phase separation. To study the properties of the hydrophobins, we used N-terminal and C-terminal GFP as a fusion partner. Transient expression of the hydrophobin fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed large variability in accumulation levels, which was also reflected in formation of protein bodies. In two-phase separations, only HFBII and HFBIV were able to concentrate GFP into the surfactant phase from a plant extract. The separation efficiency of both tags was comparable to HFBI. When the accumulation was tested side by side, HFBII-GFP gave a better yield than HFBI-GFP, while the yield of HFBIV-GFP remained lower. Thus we present here two alternatives for HFBI as functional fusion tags for plant-based protein production and first step purification. PMID:27706254

  15. Spatial scales of bacterial community diversity at cold seeps (Eastern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop Ristova, Petra; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Ramette, Alban; Felden, Janine; Boetius, Antje

    2015-06-01

    Cold seeps are highly productive, fragmented marine ecosystems that form at the seafloor around hydrocarbon emission pathways. The products of microbial utilization of methane and other hydrocarbons fuel rich chemosynthetic communities at these sites, with much higher respiration rates compared with the surrounding deep-sea floor. Yet little is known as to the richness, composition and spatial scaling of bacterial communities of cold seeps compared with non-seep communities. Here we assessed the bacterial diversity across nine different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea and surrounding seafloor areas. Community similarity analyses were carried out based on automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and high-throughput 454 tag sequencing and were combined with in situ and ex situ geochemical analyses across spatial scales of a few tens of meters to hundreds of kilometers. Seep communities were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and shared, on average, 36% of bacterial types (ARISA OTUs (operational taxonomic units)) with communities from nearby non-seep deep-sea sediments. Bacterial communities of seeps were significantly different from those of non-seep sediments. Within cold seep regions on spatial scales of only tens to hundreds of meters, the bacterial communities differed considerably, sharing cold seep ecosystems contribute substantially to the microbial diversity of the deep-sea.

  16. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  17. Cold flows and large scale tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weygaert, R.; Hoffman, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Within the context of the general cosmological setting it has remained puzzling that the local Universe is a relatively cold environment, in the sense of small-scale peculiar velocities being relatively small. Indeed, it has since long figured as an important argument for the Universe having a low Ω, or if the Universe were to have a high Ω for the existence of a substantial bias between the galaxy and the matter distribution. Here we investigate the dynamical impact of neighbouring matter concentrations on local small-scale characteristics of cosmic flows. While regions where huge nearby matter clumps represent a dominating component in the local dynamics and kinematics may experience a faster collapse on behalf of the corresponding tidal influence, the latter will also slow down or even prevent a thorough mixing and virialization of the collapsing region. By means of N-body simulations starting from constrained realizations of regions of modest density surrounded by more pronounced massive structures, we have explored the extent to which the large scale tidal fields may indeed suppress the `heating' of the small-scale cosmic velocities. Amongst others we quantify the resulting cosmic flows through the cosmic Mach number. This allows us to draw conclusions about the validity of estimates of global cosmological parameters from local cosmic phenomena and the necessity to take into account the structure and distribution of mass in the local Universe.

  18. Accelerator-based fusion with a low temperature target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R. E.; Ordonez, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Neutron generators are in use in a number of scientific and commercial endeavors. They function by triggering fusion reactions between accelerated ions (usually deuterons) and a stationary cold target (e.g., containing tritium). This setup has the potential to generate energy. It has been shown that if the energy transfer between injected ions and target electrons is sufficiently small, net energy gain can be achieved. Three possible avenues are: (a) a hot target with high electron temperature, (b) a cold non-neutral target with an electron deficiency, or (c) a cold target with a high Fermi energy. A study of the third possibility is reported in light of recent research that points to a new phase of hydrogen, which is hypothesized to be related to metallic hydrogen. As such, the target is considered to be composed of nuclei and delocalized electrons. The electrons are treated as conduction electrons, with the average minimum excitation energy being approximately equal to 40% of the Fermi energy. The Fermi energy is directly related to the electron density. Preliminary results indicate that if the claimed electron densities in the new phase of hydrogen were achieved in a target, the energy transfer to electrons would be small enough to allow net energy gain.

  19. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  20. The elementary fusion modalities of osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie; Delaisse, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    , are not known for the osteoclast. Here we show that osteoclast fusion partners are characterized by differences in mobility, nuclearity, and differentiation level. Our demonstration was based on time-laps videos of human osteoclast preparations from three donors where 656 fusion events were analyzed. Fusions......The last step of the osteoclast differentiation process is cell fusion. Most efforts to understand the fusion mechanism have focused on the identification of molecules involved in the fusion process. Surprisingly, the basic fusion modalities, which are well known for fusion of other cell types...... between a mobile and an immobile partner were most frequent (62%), while fusion between two mobile (26%) or two immobile partners (12%) was less frequent (pfusion partner contained more nuclei than the mobile one (p

  1. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments.

  2. Study on Temperature Fieldof Surrounding Rock with BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyzed the characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face, setup its mathematic model, and got its numerical result with the boundary element method(BEM). To calculate in-tra-domain integral, it was transformed into boundary integration with the DRM method. Using the similitude the-ory, the dimensionless differential equation was educed. Finally, the authors calculated two drifting faces of San-hejian Coal Mine using the computer software developed by authors based on the above principium, and got the dis-tribution characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face and the periodic variation intemperature with its periodic moving forward. Comparing the calculated heat dissipating-capacity of surroundingrock with the measured data shows that the computer software is proper.

  3. Experimental Study of Deformation of Surrounding Rock with Infrared Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jun; AN Li-qian; REN Run-hou; FAN Shi-min; MA Nian-jie; LI Jian-hui; JI Yuan-ming

    2005-01-01

    According to the practical conditions of coal roadway in Changcun Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, the deformation of rock surrounding roadway was experimentally studied by means of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging system in the process of confined compressions. It is found that the model surface TIR temperature (TIRT) changes with the increase of load. Furthermore, TIRT changes non-synchronously in different ranges such as the roof, floor, wall, corners and bolted ranges. The TIRT is higher in the location of stress concentration and bolted ranges than that in the location of stress relaxation and broken ranges. The interaction ranges of bolt and rock are determined preliminarily according to the corresponding relationship of TIRT fields and the strain fields of the surrounding rock. The new method of TIR image processing has been proved to be effective for the study of bolt support and observation of roadway stability under mine pressure.

  4. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Borri, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent results in high-resolution spectroscopy on cold molecules. Laser spectroscopy of cold molecules addresses issues of symmetry violation, like in the search for the electric dipole moment of the electron and the studies on energy differences in enantiomers of chiral species; tries to improve the precision to which fundamental physical constants are known and tests for their possible variation in time and space; tests quantum electrodynamics, and searches for a fifth force. Further, we briefly review the recent technological progresses in the fields of cold molecules and mid-infrared lasers, which are the tools that mainly set the limits for the resolution that is currently attainable in the measurements.

  5. COLD-SAT dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Neil S.; Bollenbacher, Gary

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the development and underlying mathematics of a rigid-body computer model of a proposed cryogenic on-orbit liquid depot storage, acquisition, and transfer spacecraft (COLD-SAT). This model, referred to in this report as the COLD-SAT dynamic model, consists of both a trajectory model and an attitudinal model. All disturbance forces and torques expected to be significant for the actual COLD-SAT spacecraft are modeled to the required degree of accuracy. Control and experimental thrusters are modeled, as well as fluid slosh. The model also computes microgravity disturbance accelerations at any specified point in the spacecraft. The model was developed by using the Boeing EASY5 dynamic analysis package and will run on Apollo, Cray, and other computing platforms.

  6. Nanofriction in cold ion traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, A; Vanossi, A; Tosatti, E

    2011-01-01

    Sliding friction between crystal lattices and the physics of cold ion traps are so far non-overlapping fields. Two sliding lattices may either stick and show static friction or slip with dynamic friction; cold ions are known to form static chains, helices or clusters, depending on the trapping conditions. Here we show, based on simulations, that much could be learnt about friction by sliding, through, for example, an electric field, the trapped ion chains over a corrugated potential. Unlike infinite chains, in which the theoretically predicted Aubry transition to free sliding may take place, trapped chains are always pinned. Yet, a properly defined static friction still vanishes Aubry-like at a symmetric-asymmetric structural transition, found for decreasing corrugation in both straight and zig-zag trapped chains. Dynamic friction is also accessible in ringdown oscillations of the ion trap. Long theorized static and dynamic one-dimensional friction phenomena could thus become accessible in future cold ion tribology.

  7. Fusion neutron irradiation of Ni(Si) alloys at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.S.; Guinan, M.W.; Hahn, P.A.

    1987-09-01

    Two Ni-4% Si alloys, with different cold work levels, are irradiated with 14 MeV fusion neutrons at 623 K, and their Curie temperatures are monitored during irradiation. The results are compared to those of an identical alloy irradiated by 2 MeV electrons. The results show that increasing dislocation density increases the Curie temperature change rate. At the same damage rate, the Curie temperature change rate for the alloy irradiated by 14 MeV fusion neutrons is only 6 to 7% of that for an identical alloy irradiated by 2 MeV electrons. It is well known that the migration of radiation induced defects contributes to segregation of silicon atoms at sinks in this alloy, causing the Curie temperature changes. The current results imply that the relative free defect production efficiency decreases from one for the electron irradiated sample to 6 to 7% for the fusion neutron irradiated sample. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Recent developments concerning the fusion; Developpements recents sur la fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquinot, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, DRFC, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Andre, M. [CEA/DAM Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres Le Chatel (France); Aymar, R. [ITER Joint Central Team Garching, Muenchen (Germany)] [and others

    2000-09-04

    Organized the 9 march 2000 by the SFEN, this meeting on the european program concerning the fusion, showed the utility of the exploitation and the enhancement of the actual technology (JET, Tore Supra, ASDEX) and the importance of the Europe engagement in the ITER program. The physical stakes for the magnetic fusion have been developed with a presentation of the progresses in the knowledge of the stability limits. A paper on the inertial fusion was based on the LMJ (Laser MegaJoule) project. The two blanket concepts chosen in the scope of the european program on the tritium blankets, have been discussed. These concepts will be validated by irradiation tests in the ITER-FEAT and adapted for a future reactor. (A.L.B.)

  9. Nuclear Fusion with Polarized Nucleons & PolFusion

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, Ralf; Büscher, Markus; Vasilyev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a detailed examination of the latest work on the potential of polarized fuel to realize the vision of energy production by nuclear fusion. It brings together contributions from nuclear physicists and fusion physicists with the aims of fostering exchange of information between the two communities, describing the current status in the field, and examining new ideas and projects under development. It is evident that polarized fuel can offer huge improvements for the first generation of fusion reactors and open new technological possibilities for future generations, including neutron lean reactors, which could be the most popular and sustainable energy production option to avoid environmental problems. Nevertheless, many questions must be resolved before polarized fuel can be used for energy production in the different reactor types. Readers will find this book to be a stimulating source of information on the key issues. It is based on contributions from leading scientists delivered at the meetin...

  10. High resolution bathymetry of China seas and their surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the oceanic lithospheric flexure and the worldwide bathymetric data ETOPO5, the high resolu tion bathymetry of the China seas and their surroundings is computed from altimeter derived gravity anomalies. The new bathymetry obtained by this study is higher resolution and accuracy than the widely used ETOPO5 data, mean while it shows clearly the seafioor, the tectonic characteristics and the geodynamical processes in the China seas.

  11. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic q...

  12. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  13. Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia by Surround Needling with Electric Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin; YANG Qin-hua

    2005-01-01

    运用电针围刺法治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛29例,获得较好疗效,总有效率为93.1%.%Twenty-nine cases of postherpetic neuralgia of herpes zoster were treated by the surround needling with electric stimulation, and the better therapeutic effect was obtained, the total effective rate was 93.1%.

  14. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  15. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  16. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  17. THE DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SIMULATION SYSTEM ON EARTHQUAKE SURROUNDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈毅力; 杨云; 李天石

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a system that can simulate earthquake surroundings. In the surroundings, people can be familiar with the omen, strong shock and aftershock of earthquake, thus make right choices and get away when the disaster occurs. Methods The system consists of an electro-hydraulic servo system, a whole-information sound system and some lighting device; By using the adaptive inverse control method and LMS algorithms, the inverse model (I.e. The controller) is convergent rapidly; The software based on LabVIEW makes the parameters can be modified easily; There is a double closed-loop structure in the system: an analog closed-loop and a digital closed-loop, and their parameters can be inspected in real time. Results The system is of very high reliability, and the desired vibration signal can be tracked exactly by output. Conclusion Earthquake surroundings is simulated vividly. Through the system, people can be familiar with earthquake phenomena, and know lots of knowledge of earthquake.

  18. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  19. Linear Minimum variance estimation fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yunmin; LI Xianrong; ZHAO Juan

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that a general mulitisensor unbiased linearly weighted estimation fusion essentially is the linear minimum variance (LMV) estimation with linear equality constraint, and the general estimation fusion formula is developed by extending the Gauss-Markov estimation to the random paramem of distributed estimation fusion in the LMV setting.In this setting ,the fused estimator is a weighted sum of local estimatess with a matrix quadratic optimization problem subject to a convex linear equality constraint. Second, we present a unique solution to the above optimization problem, which depends only on the covariance matrixCK. Third, if a priori information, the expectation and covariance, of the estimated quantity is unknown, a necessary and sufficient condition for the above LMV fusion becoming the best unbiased LMV estimation with dnown prior information as the above is presented. We also discuss the generality and usefulness of the LMV fusion formulas developed. Finally, we provied and off-line recursion of Ck for a class of multisensor linear systems with coupled measurement noises.

  20. A Model for Membrane Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatchou, Annita

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland which originates from chromaffin cells and is characterized by the secretion of excessive amounts of neurotransmitter which lead to high blood pressure and palpitations. Pheochromocytoma contain membrane bound granules that store neurotransmitter. The release of these stored molecules into the extracellular space occurs by fusion of the granule membrane with the cell plasma membrane, a process called exocytosis. The molecular mechanism of this membrane fusion is not well understood. It is proposed that the so called SNARE proteins [1] are the pillar of vesicle fusion as their cleavage by clostridial toxin notably, Botulinum neurotoxin and Tetanus toxin abrogate the secretion of neurotransmitter [2]. Here, I describe how physical principles are applied to a biological cell to explore the role of the vesicle SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2 in easing granule fusion. The data presented here suggest a paradigm according to which the movement of the C-terminal of synaptobrevin-2 disrupts the lipid bilayer to form a fusion pore through which molecules can exit.

  1. Lunar cold spots and crater production on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Bandfield, Joshua

    2016-10-01

    A new class of small, fresh impact craters has been recently identified on the Moon through the systematic mapping of lunar surface temperatures by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1]. These craters are distinguished by anomalously low nighttime temperatures at distances ~10–100 crater radii. This thermal behavior indicates that impacts modify the surrounding regolith surfaces making them highly insulating with little evidence for either significant deposition or erosion of surface material [2]. These thermophysically distinct surfaces, or "cold spots", appear to be common to all recent impacts and provide a means of uniquely identifying the most recent impact craters on the Moon. We have conducted a survey of the crater population associated with cold spots. Comparison with existing crater chronology models [e.g., 3] constrains the retention-age of the cold spots to ~200,000 yr with a size-frequency distribution (SFD) slope that is consistent with the modeled production function. This implies the rate at which cold spots fade to background levels is independent of initial cold spot size and that the SFD of crater production in the last 200 ka is similar to the long-term average used to establish modeled production functions, though the rate of cratering may have varied [4]. In addition, we observe a longitudinal heterogeneity in cold spot crater density that is consistent with that predicted to occur as a result of the Moon's synchronous rotation [5] and has been observed in the rayed crater population [6], with the cold spot density at the apex of motion (90°W) nearly twice that observed at the antapex (90°E).[1] Bandfield, J., et al. (2011) JGR 116, E00H02. [2] Bandfield, J., et al. (2014) Icarus, 231, 221-231. [3] Neukum, G., et al. (2001) SSR 96, 55–86. [4] Mazrouei, S. et al. (2015) LPSC 46, 2331. [5] Le Fleuvre, M., and Wieczorek, M. A. (2011) Icarus 214, 1-20. [6] Morota, T. and Furumoto, M. (2002) EPSL

  2. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  3. Cold Tolerance of Plants Used for Cold-Regions Revegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    from tempted to transfer the rye cold-tolerance genome to increased concentrations of solutes in cells and extra- wheat in hybrids. While the gene...Journal, 76: 516-517. Tryon, E.H. and R.P. True (1952) Blister shake of Yelenosky, G. (1988) Capacity of citrus flowers to yellow poplar. Bulletin of the

  4. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Almasri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot’s wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot’s movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes.

  5. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-12-26

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot's wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot's movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes.

  6. Spatial heterogeneity of tungsten transmutation in a fusion device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2017-04-01

    Accurately quantifying the transmutation rate of tungsten (W) under neutron irradiation is a necessary requirement in the assessment of its performance as an armour material in a fusion power plant. The usual approach of calculating average responses, assuming large, homogenised material volumes, is insufficient to capture the full complexity of the transmutation picture in the context of a realistic fusion power plant design, particularly for rhenium (Re) production from W. Combined neutron transport and inventory simulations for representative spatially heterogeneous high-resolution models of a fusion power plant show that the production rate of Re is strongly influenced by the surrounding local spatial environment. Localised variation in neutron moderation (slowing down) due to structural steel and coolant, particularly water, can dramatically increase Re production because of the huge cross sections of giant resolved resonances in the neutron-capture reaction of 186W at low neutron energies. Calculations using cross section data corrected for temperature (Doppler) effects suggest that temperature may have a relatively lesser influence on transmutation rates.

  7. Simulation of global ocean acidification and chemical habitats of shallow- and cold-water coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Di Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the UVic Earth System Model, this study simulated the change of seawater chemistry and analyzed the chemical habitat surrounding shallow- and cold-water coral reefs from the year 1800 to 2300 employing RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5 scenarios. The model results showed that the global ocean will continue to absorb atmospheric CO2. Global mean surface ocean temperature will rise 1.1–2.8 K at the end of the 21st century across RCP scenarios. Meanwhile, the global mean surface ocean pH will drop 0.14–0.42 and the ocean surface mean concentration of carbonate will decrease 20%–51% across the RCP scenarios. The saturated state of sea water with respect to calcite carbonate minerals (Ω will decrease rapidly. During the pre-industrial period, 99% of the shallow-water coral reefs were surrounded by seawater with Ω > 3.5 and 87% of the deep-sea coral reefs were surrounded by seawater with aragonite supersaturation. Within the 21st century, except for the high mitigation scenario of RCP2.6, almost none shallow-water coral reefs will be surrounded by seawater with Ω > 3.5. Under the intensive emission scenario of RCP8.5, by the year 2100, the aragonite saturation horizon will rise to 308 m under the sea surface from 1138 m at the pre-industrial period, thus 73% of the cold-water coral reefs will be surrounded by seawater with aragonite undersaturation. By the year 2300, only 5% of the cold-water coral reefs will be surrounded by seawater with aragonite supersaturation.

  8. Data fusion mathematics theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Raol, Jitendra R

    2015-01-01

    Fills the Existing Gap of Mathematics for Data FusionData fusion (DF) combines large amounts of information from a variety of sources and fuses this data algorithmically, logically and, if required intelligently, using artificial intelligence (AI). Also, known as sensor data fusion (SDF), the DF fusion system is an important component for use in various applications that include the monitoring of vehicles, aerospace systems, large-scale structures, and large industrial automation plants. Data Fusion Mathematics: Theory and Practice offers a comprehensive overview of data fusion, and provides a

  9. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Larchar, Steven W.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Problem Introduction: 1. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Space Shuttle. 1a. The number of cold plate problems had increased from an average of 16.5 per/year between 1990 through 2000, to an average of 39.6 per year between 2001through 2005. 1b. Each complete set of 80 cold plates cost approximately $29 million, an average of $362,500 per cold plate. 1c It takes four months to produce a single cold plate. 2. Prevent Cold Plate Damage in Future Space Vehicles.

  10. Cold-induced exodus of postsynaptic proteins from dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Hsuan; Huang, Zu-Han; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Chow, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Yen-Chung

    2009-02-01

    Dendritic spines are small protrusions on neuronal dendrites and the major target of the excitatory inputs in mammalian brains. Cultured neurons and brain slices are important tools in studying the biochemical and cellular properties of dendritic spines. During the processes of immunocytochemical studies of neurons and the preparation of brain slices, neurons were often kept at temperatures lower than 37 degrees C for varied lengths of time. This study sought to investigate whether and how cold treatment would affect the protein composition of dendritic spines. The results indicated that upon cold treatment four postsynaptic proteins, namely, alpha,beta-tubulins, calcium, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIalpha, and cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain and microtubule-associated protein 2, but not PSD-95 or AMPA receptors, exited from the majority of dendritic spines of cultured rat hippocampal neurons in a Gd(3+)-sensitive manner. The cold-induced exit of tubulins from dendritic spines was further found to be an energy-dependent process involving the activation of Gd(3+)-sensitive calcium channels and ryanodine receptors. The results thus indicate that changes in temperature, calcium concentration, and energy supply of the medium surrounding neurons would affect the protein composition of the dendritic spines and conceivably the protein composition of the subcellular organizations, such as the postsynaptic density, in the cytoplasm of dendritic spines.

  11. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  12. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-06-16

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  13. Development scenario for laser fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Hovingh, J.; Buntzen, R.R.

    1976-03-30

    This scenario proposes establishment of test and engineering facilities to (1) investigate the technological problems associated with laser fusion, (2) demonstrate fissile fuel production, and (3) demonstrate competitive electrical power production. Such facilities would be major milestones along the road to a laser-fusion power economy. The relevant engineering and economic aspects of each of these research and development facilities are discussed. Pellet design and gain predictions corresponding to the most promising laser systems are presented for each plant. The results show that laser fusion has the potential to make a significant contribution to our energy needs. Beginning in the early 1990's, this new technology could be used to produce fissile fuel, and after the turn of the century it could be used to generate electrical power.

  14. The infrared and molecular environment surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star WR130

    CERN Document Server

    Cichowolski, S; Pineault, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Arnal, E M; Flagey, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the molecular CO gas and mid/far infrared radiation arising from the environment surrounding the Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star 130. We use the multi-wavelength data to analyze the properties of the dense gas and dust, and its possible spatial correlation with that of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). We use CO J=1-0 data from the FCRAO survey as tracer of the molecular gas, and mid/far infrared data from the recent WISE and Herschel space surveys to study the dust continuum radiation and to identify a population of associated candidate YSOs. The spatial distribution of the molecular gas shows a ring-like structure very similar to that observed in the HI gas, and over the same velocity interval. The relative spatial distribution of the HI and CO components is consistent with a photo-dissociation region. We have identified and characterized four main and distinct molecular clouds that create this structure. Cold dust is coincident with the dense gas shown in the CO measurements. We have found several ...

  15. Information Fusion and Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    2010. U.S. Government or Federal Purpose Rights License 14. ABSTRACT In sensor fusion one expects that solutions from individual sensors when...Dan Fuhrman • S. S. Iyengar Th K il th• omas a a • Rudy Kalman • R. L. Kashyap • Qilian Liang • S. K. Mitra • Arye Nehorai • Athina Petropulu...SYSTEMS (IEEE MFI 2010) SEPTEMBER 5-7 2010, , The theme of IEEE MFI 2010 was Here the goal of multi-sensor fusion systems is to achieve human

  16. Laser fusion monthly, February 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1981-02-01

    This report is divided into the following sections: (1) facility reports (Argus and Shiva); (2) Nova project; and (3) fusion experiments. In the Fusion Experiments section of this report, the author describes the results of a series of experiments on Shiva which further the understanding of the production and transport of suprathermal electrons. He found that of the suprathermal electrons which strike a laser irradiated disk target or which interact with the rear surface of a half Cairn hohlraum target, a significant fraction of these electrons orbit the target and strike the rear of the disk. These results have significant implications in the interpretation and modeling of the laser irradiated target experiments.

  17. Fusion Energy for Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J. R.; Steinberg, M.; Salzano, F.; Benenati, R.; Dang, V.; Fogelson, S.; Isaacs, H.; Kouts, H.; Kushner, M.; Lazareth, O.; Majeski, S.; Makowitz, H.; Sheehan, T. V.

    1978-09-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approximately 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

  18. Data fusion, the deeplook perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawathe, Adwait

    1998-07-01

    In 1996, eight oil companies and six service companies began cooperation to stimulate the discovery of new breakthrough technologies with the vision of doubling the oil recovery factors. Data fusion in this context means merging and analyzing different sources of information through the use of technology for the purpose of intelligent decision-making. Breakthrough technologies are still premature and need guidance for the utopian data fusion. Soft computing (neural nets, genetic algorithms etc.) and Inverse Modelling promise heterogeneous data integration. Far-market technology should not be ignored and can be carefully adapted to hydrocarbon exploration and production.

  19. The first fusion reactor: ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    Established by the signature of the ITER Agreement in November 2006 and currently under construction at St Paul-lez-Durance in southern France, the ITER project [1,2] involves the European Union (including Switzerland), China, India, Japan, the Russian Federation, South Korea and the United States. ITER (`the way' in Latin) is a critical step in the development of fusion energy. Its role is to provide an integrated demonstration of the physics and technology required for a fusion power plant based on magnetic confinement.

  20. Human-Centered Information Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, David L

    2010-01-01

    Information fusion refers to the merging of information from disparate sources with differing conceptual, contextual and typographical representations. Rather than focusing on traditional data fusion applications which have been mainly concerned with physical military targets, this unique resource explores new human-centered trends, such as locations, identity, and interactions of individuals and groups (social networks). Moreover, the book discusses two new major sources of information: human observations and web-based information.This cutting-edge volume presents a new view of multi-sensor d

  1. Phonon forces and cold denaturatio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    the molecule Is a continuum. The frequencies of the vibrational modes depend on the molecular dimensionality; hence, the zero-point energies for the folded and the denatured protein are estimated to differ by several electron volts. For a biomolecule such an energy is significant and may contribute to cold...

  2. Images of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

  3. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the C

  4. Encyclopedia of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War - a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the

  5. Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion vs. posterolateral instrumented fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A; Høy, K; Bünger, C

    2014-01-01

    Long-lasting low back pain is an increasing problem, and for some patients surgery is the final option for improvement. Several techniques for spinal fusion are available and the optimal technique remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility......-adjusted life year. Sensitivity analysis was conducted and supported the statistical model for handling of missing data. TLIF does not seem to be a relevant alternative to PLF from a socioeconomic, societal point of view.......Long-lasting low back pain is an increasing problem, and for some patients surgery is the final option for improvement. Several techniques for spinal fusion are available and the optimal technique remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness and cost......-utility of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) compared to posterolateral instrumented fusion (PLF) from the societal perspective. 100 Patients were randomized to TLIF or PLF (51/49) and followed for 2 years. Cost data were acquired from national registers, and outcomes were measured using the Oswestry Disability...

  6. Vaccines for the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Franco, Juan Va; Guerra, Claudia V; Felix, Maria L; Hidalgo, Ricardo; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José

    2017-05-18

    The common cold is a spontaneously remitting infection of the upper respiratory tract, characterised by a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, cough, malaise, sore throat, and fever (usually Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (September 2016), MEDLINE (1948 to September 2016), Embase (1974 to September 2016), CINAHL (1981 to September 2016), and LILACS (1982 to September 2016). We also searched three trials registers for ongoing studies and four websites for additional trials (February 2017). We included no language or date restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any virus vaccines compared with placebo to prevent the common cold in healthy people. Two review authors independently evaluated methodological quality and extracted trial data. We resolved disagreements by discussion or by consulting a third review author. We found no additional RCTs for inclusion in this update. This review includes one RCT dating from the 1960s with an overall high risk of bias. The RCT included 2307 healthy participants, all of whom were included in analyses. This trial compared the effect of an adenovirus vaccine against placebo. No statistically significant difference in common cold incidence was found: there were 13 (1.14%) events in 1139 participants in the vaccines group and 14 (1.19%) events in 1168 participants in the placebo group (risk ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 2.02; P = 0.90). No adverse events related to the live vaccine were reported. The quality of the evidence was low due to limitations in methodological quality and a wide 95% confidence interval. This Cochrane Review was based on one study with low-quality evidence. We found no conclusive results to support the use of vaccines for preventing the common cold in healthy people compared with placebo. We identified a need for well-designed, adequately powered RCTs to investigate vaccines for the common cold in healthy people. Any future trials on medical treatments for preventing the

  7. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  8. Image fusion theories, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, HB

    2010-01-01

    This text provides a comprehensive introduction to the theories, techniques and applications of image fusion. It examines in detail many real-life examples of image fusion, including panchromatic sharpening and ensemble color image segmentation.

  9. Fusion energy and nuclear non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, Rob [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, Princeton (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Neutrons from DT fusion can be used to produce {sup 239}Pu or {sup 233}U. However since no fertile nor fissile material need be present in a pure fusion power plant, it would be relatively easy to detect significant covert transmutation in a declared facility. Clandestine fusion-based transmutation does not appear credible. Furthermore, no fissile materials are immediately available in a fusion breakout scenario. DT fusion systems produce and burn 400g of tritium per day, a small fraction of which, if diverted, could be used to enhance the efficiency, reliability and/or safety of a nuclear weapon. Very accurate T accountancy needs to be developed for fusion energy systems. Finally, the spread of inertial fusion energy R and D may result in dissemination of knowledge relevant to the design of nuclear weapons. International agreements to restrain information transfer are required. In summary, fusion is much safer from a proliferation standpoint than fission, but still requires verification and control.

  10. Mechanisms of influenza viral membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijleven, Jelle S; Boonstra, Sander; Onck, Patrick R; van der Giessen, Erik; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2016-12-01

    Influenza viral particles are enveloped by a lipid bilayer. A major step in infection is fusion of the viral and host cellular membranes, a process with large kinetic barriers. Influenza membrane fusion is catalyzed by hemagglutinin (HA), a class I viral fusion protein activated by low pH. The exact nature of the HA conformational changes that deliver the energy required for fusion remains poorly understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HA structure and dynamics, describes recent single-particle experiments and modeling studies, and discusses their role in understanding how multiple HAs mediate fusion. These approaches provide a mechanistic picture in which HAs independently and stochastically insert into the target membrane, forming a cluster of HAs that is collectively able to overcome the barrier to membrane fusion. The new experimental and modeling approaches described in this review hold promise for a more complete understanding of other viral fusion systems and the protein systems responsible for cellular fusion.

  11. Localization in orchards using Extended Kalman Filter for sensor-fusion - A FroboMind component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Jensen, Kjeld; Ellekilde, Lars-Peter

    Using the detected trees seen in gure 4(b) a localised SLAM map of the surroundings area, can be created an used to determine the localisation of the tractor. This kind of sensor-fusion is used, to keep the amount of prior information about outlay of the orchard to a minimum, so it can be used...... in orchards with dierent outlays of the trees....

  12. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  13. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.; Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2015-06-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e. the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the Solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD 46375b, HD 73256b, HD 102195b, HD 130322b and HD 179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9-8.0 × 10-13 M⊙ yr-1) and the wind properties at the position of the hot Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are supermagnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrounding these planets. Assuming planetary magnetic fields similar to Jupiter's, we estimate planetary magnetospheric sizes of 4.1-5.6 planetary radii. We also derive the exoplanetary radio emission released in the dissipation of the stellar wind energy. We find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy, which are challenging to be observed with present-day technology, but could be detectable with future higher sensitivity arrays (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Radio emission from systems having closer hot Jupiters, such as from τ Boo b or HD 189733b, or from nearby planetary systems orbiting young stars, are likely to have higher radio fluxes, presenting better prospects for detecting exoplanetary radio emission.

  14. Common cold - how to treat at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000466.htm Common cold - how to treat at home To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Colds are very common. A visit to your health care provider's office ...

  15. Issues surrounding record keeping in district nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E E

    2000-07-01

    This article examines some aspects of nursing documentation following the publication of the document 'Guidelines for Records and Record Keeping' (UKCC, 1998). The importance of nursing documentation in patient care, in guiding practice and in providing information for members of the interprofessional healthcare team is highlighted. Record keeping forms an important part of the clinical governance initiative in terms of quality improvement and risk management. The issues surrounding the legal requirements of record keeping in district nursing practice are discussed. Suggestions are made for assessing the quality of nursing documentation by audit and research, in order to establish the suitability of using the present systems in the community setting.

  16. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  17. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  18. Problems Surrounding Probation In The South African Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baloyi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate problems surrounding probation periods in the South African Public Service. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the views of both probationers and supervisors managing the probation process. Data was gathered by means of focus groups and individual interviews. Nine key areas were identified as being problematic, viz. clarity regarding the purpose of probation, lack of proper guidelines, the duration of probation, rotation during probation, lack of training, poor management of probation, performance management, anxiety and stress, power and authority. Recommendations are made concerning possible interventions.

  19. Distributed pedestrian detection alerts based on data fusion with accurate localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Fernando; Jiménez, Felipe; Anaya, José Javier; Armingol, José María; Naranjo, José Eugenio; de la Escalera, Arturo

    2013-09-04

    Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner) and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  20. Distributed Pedestrian Detection Alerts Based on Data Fusion with Accurate Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Escalera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Among Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS pedestrian detection is a common issue due to the vulnerability of pedestrians in the event of accidents. In the present work, a novel approach for pedestrian detection based on data fusion is presented. Data fusion helps to overcome the limitations inherent to each detection system (computer vision and laser scanner and provides accurate and trustable tracking of any pedestrian movement. The application is complemented by an efficient communication protocol, able to alert vehicles in the surroundings by a fast and reliable communication. The combination of a powerful location, based on a GPS with inertial measurement, and accurate obstacle localization based on data fusion has allowed locating the detected pedestrians with high accuracy. Tests proved the viability of the detection system and the efficiency of the communication, even at long distances. By the use of the alert communication, dangerous situations such as occlusions or misdetections can be avoided.

  1. First downscattered neutron images from Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guler Nevzat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF are designed to understand and test the basic principles of self-sustaining fusion reactions by laser driven compression of deuterium-tritium (DT filled cryogenic plastic (CH capsules. The experimental campaign is ongoing to tune the implosions and characterize the burning plasma conditions. Nuclear diagnostics play an important role in measuring the characteristics of these burning plasmas, providing feedback to improve the implosion dynamics. The Neutron Imaging (NI diagnostic provides information on the distribution of the central fusion reaction region and the surrounding DT fuel by collecting images at two different energy bands for primary (13–15 MeV and downscattered (10–12 MeV neutrons. From these distributions, the final shape and size of the compressed capsule can be estimated and the symmetry of the compression can be inferred. The first downscattered neutron images from imploding ICF capsules are shown in this paper.

  2. Fusion of Selected Cells and Vesicles Mediated by Optically Trapped Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahadori, Azra

    . In this work, we introduce a novel and extremely flexible physical method which can trigger membrane fusion in a highly selective manner not only between synthetic GUVs of different compositions, but also between live cells which remain viable after fusion. Optical tweezers’ laser (1064 nm) is used to position......Selective fusion of two membrane surrounded volumes is of great interest in nanochemistry and nanomedicine as it can pave the way for performing controlled nanoscale chemical reactions and for delivering a cargo (e.g., chemicals, genetic regulatory factors, etc.) to a desired living cell...... the two desired cells and/or GUVs next to each other and in immediate contact. Then, the same laser is placed in the contact zone between the two adjacent membranes until one or more gold nanoparticles diffuse into the focus. Gold nanoparticles absorb part of near infrared light and dissipate the absorbed...

  3. High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blink, J.A.; Hogam, W.J.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, E.R.; Pitts, J.H. (comps.)

    1985-12-23

    The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) concept to convent inertial confinement fusion energy into electric power has undergone intensive research and refinement at LLNL since 1978. This paper reports on the final HYLIFE design, focusing on five major areas: the HYLIFE reaction chamber (which includes neutronics, liquid-metal jet-array hydrocynamics, and structural design), supporting systems, primary steam system and balance of plant, safety and environmental protection, and costs. An annotated bibliography of reports applicable to HYLIFE is also provided. We conclude that HYLIFE is a particularly viable concept for the safe, clean production of electrical energy. The liquid-metal jet array, HYLIFE's key design feature, protects the surrounding structural components from x-rays, fusion fuel-pellet debris, neutron damage and activation, and high temperatures and stresses, allowing the structure to last for the plant's entire 30-year lifetime without being replaced. 127 refs., 18 figs.

  4. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Benjamin S [Palo Alto, CA; Larenas, Edmund A [Palo Alto, CA; Mitchinson, Colin [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  5. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  6. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces a Predominantly Necrotic Cell Death via the Microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Virard

    Full Text Available Cold plasma is a partially ionized gas generated by an electric field at atmospheric pressure that was initially used in medicine for decontamination and sterilization of inert surfaces. There is currently growing interest in using cold plasma for more direct medical applications, mainly due to the possibility of tuning it to obtain selective biological effects in absence of toxicity for surrounding normal tissues,. While the therapeutic potential of cold plasma in chronic wound, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment is beginning to be documented, information on plasma/cell interaction is so far limited and controversial.Using normal primary human fibroblast cultures isolated from oral tissue, we sought to decipher the effects on cell behavior of a proprietary cold plasma device generating guided ionization waves carried by helium. In this model, cold plasma treatment induces a predominantly necrotic cell death. Interestingly, death is not triggered by a direct interaction of the cold plasma with cells, but rather via a transient modification in the microenvironment. We show that modification of the microenvironment redox status suppresses treatment toxicity and protects cells from death. Moreover, necrosis is not accidental and seems to be an active response to an environmental cue, as its execution can be inhibited to rescue cells.These observations will need to be taken into account when studying in vitro plasma/cell interaction and may have implications for the design and future evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this new treatment strategy.

  7. The cold equation of state of tantalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greeff, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rudin, Sven P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Corckett, Scott D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wills, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In high-pressure isentropic compression experiments (ICE), the pressure is dominated by the cold curve. In order to obtain an accurate semi-empirical cold curve for Ta, we calculate the thermal pressure from ab initio phonon and electronic excitation spectra. The cold curve is then inferred from ultrasonic and shock data. Our empirical cold pressure is compared to density functional calculations and found to be closer to GGA results at low pressure and to approach LDA at high pressure.

  8. SCIENCES IN COLD AND ARID REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aims and Scope Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, an international Engiish-language journal, is devoted to publishing the latest research achievements on the process and the pattern of Earth surface system in cold and arid regions. Researches in cold regions 1) emphasize particularly on the cold-region-characterized physical, chemical and biological processes and their interactions, and on the response of Cryosphere to Global change and Human activities as well as its effect to environment and the acclimatizable

  9. Cold, clumpy accretion onto an active supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant R; Oonk, J B Raymond; Combes, Françoise; Salomé, Philippe; O'Dea, Christopher P; Baum, Stefi A; Voit, G Mark; Donahue, Megan; McNamara, Brian R; Davis, Timothy A; McDonald, Michael A; Edge, Alastair C; Clarke, Tracy E; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Bremer, Malcolm N; Edwards, Louise O V; Fabian, Andrew C; Hamer, Stephen; Li, Yuan; Maury, Anaëlle; Russell, Helen R; Quillen, Alice C; Urry, C Megan; Sanders, Jeremy S; Wise, Michael W

    2016-06-09

    Supermassive black holes in galaxy centres can grow by the accretion of gas, liberating energy that might regulate star formation on galaxy-wide scales. The nature of the gaseous fuel reservoirs that power black hole growth is nevertheless largely unconstrained by observations, and is instead routinely simplified as a smooth, spherical inflow of very hot gas. Recent theory and simulations instead predict that accretion can be dominated by a stochastic, clumpy distribution of very cold molecular clouds--a departure from the 'hot mode' accretion model--although unambiguous observational support for this prediction remains elusive. Here we report observations that reveal a cold, clumpy accretion flow towards a supermassive black hole fuel reservoir in the nucleus of the Abell 2597 Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), a nearby (redshift z = 0.0821) giant elliptical galaxy surrounded by a dense halo of hot plasma. Under the right conditions, thermal instabilities produce a rain of cold clouds that fall towards the galaxy's centre, sustaining star formation amid a kiloparsec-scale molecular nebula that is found at its core. The observations show that these cold clouds also fuel black hole accretion, revealing 'shadows' cast by the molecular clouds as they move inward at about 300 kilometres per second towards the active supermassive black hole, which serves as a bright backlight. Corroborating evidence from prior observations of warmer atomic gas at extremely high spatial resolution, along with simple arguments based on geometry and probability, indicate that these clouds are within the innermost hundred parsecs of the black hole, and falling closer towards it.

  10. Virtual experiment of pyroelectric fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasseri, Mohammad Mehdi, E-mail: mnasseri@aeoi.org.ir

    2015-11-01

    The virtual experiment of pyroelectric fusion was conducted by Geant4 simulator. Despite the limitations of the code for simulating the pyroelectric fusion experiment precisely, the following interesting results were obtained. Two crystals were separated by a certain distance. A constant electric field with varying intensities was applied between the crystals. As initial particles, deuterium ions were emitted to deuterated polypropylene (CD{sub 2}). This virtual experiment showed that the number of ions that hit the target, for different distances between the crystals, increases with the increase of the intensity of the electric field; however, further increase of the electric field results in the reduction of the number of hit ions, which attains a constant value of about 57% of the initial number of ions. For a (D, D) fusion reaction to occur, the distance between the two crystals should be <1.5 cm and for a (D, T) fusion reaction to occur, this distance could be up to 2 cm. The energy spectra of ions for low and high electric fields were narrow and long and wide and short, respectively.

  11. Magnetic fusion: progress -> stagnation -> degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid

    2012-10-01

    ``The theory of the failure of magnetic fusion,'' created in 2004 and presented to APS-2007 introduced the notion of the ``difficult'' and ``complicated'' stages of the program and described them details. At the first phase the emerging fusion science was created under strong leadership. Progress was visible on year to year basis, and the program was easy to manage. The complicated phase started in the late 1980s, when the plasma physics appeared to be incapable to implement the mission of ITER to test nuclear components of a fusion reactor. Then, the failure of TFTR (PPPL, USA) and JET (Culham, UK) in the mid 1990 to demonstrate QDT=1 and the blindness of their leaders to already visible means to resolve the problem, were a clear indication of an irreversible stagnation. In fact, right after 2007, it became clear that in the case of a large system of human ``particles'' (scientists) two phases have a continuation. The internal degrees of freedom, otherwise protected from external perturbations by a strong dedication to the scientific method, are now eroding and collapsing. The loss of science in addressing confinement, stability, power extraction, fueling, stationary regimes issues makes the current program irrelevant to fusion energy. A fresh approach should be taken.

  12. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING FOR FUSION PLASMAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Blokland, J. W. S.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic model for fusion plasma dynamics governs the large-scale equilibrium properties, and sets the most stringent constraints on the parameter space accessible without violent disruptions. In conjunction with linear stability analysis in the complex tokamak geometry, the MHD parad

  13. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  14. Model based feature fusion approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years different sensor data fusion approaches have been analyzed and evaluated in the field of mine detection. In various studies comparisons have been made between different techniques. Although claims can be made for advantages for using certain techniques, until now there has been no si

  15. Advanced algorithms for distributed fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, A.; Smith, C.; Colony, M.; Bowman, C.; Pei, R.; Huynh, T.; Brown, C.

    2008-03-01

    The US Military has been undergoing a radical transition from a traditional "platform-centric" force to one capable of performing in a "Network-Centric" environment. This transformation will place all of the data needed to efficiently meet tactical and strategic goals at the warfighter's fingertips. With access to this information, the challenge of fusing data from across the batttlespace into an operational picture for real-time Situational Awareness emerges. In such an environment, centralized fusion approaches will have limited application due to the constraints of real-time communications networks and computational resources. To overcome these limitations, we are developing a formalized architecture for fusion and track adjudication that allows the distribution of fusion processes over a dynamically created and managed information network. This network will support the incorporation and utilization of low level tracking information within the Army Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS-A) or Future Combat System (FCS). The framework is based on Bowman's Dual Node Network (DNN) architecture that utilizes a distributed network of interlaced fusion and track adjudication nodes to build and maintain a globally consistent picture across all assets.

  16. What Makes Fusion Cells Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    disbanded to address specific operations (e.g., a fleeting hostage rescue operation). Creation of these issue-based fusion cells would be based off...HQ USSOCOM Library MacDill AFB, FL 6. JSOC Fort Bragg, NC 7. ASD/SOLIC Washington, D.C.

  17. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  18. Genetic variability available through cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.H.; Mastrangelo-Hough, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for the following studies: plant hybridization through protoplast fusion using species of Nicotiana and Petunia; chromosome instability studies on culture-induced chromosome changes and chromosome elimination; chloroplast distribution in parasexual hybrids; chromosomal introgression following fusion; plant-animal fusion; and microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and chromosome-mediated gene transfer. (HLW)

  19. Laser-induced tobacco protoplast fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银妹; 关力劼; 楼立人; 崔国强; 姚湲; 王浩威; 操传顺; 鲁润龙; 陈曦

    1999-01-01

    Laser tweezers can manipulate small particles, such as cells and organdies. When coupling them with laser microbeam selective fusion of two tobacco protoplasts containing some chloroplast was achieved. Physical and biological variables that affect laser trapping and laser-induced fusion were also discussed. The results show that the effect of chloroplast content and distribution on the yield of cell fusion is remarkable.

  20. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future.

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute entitled Physics of Plasma-Wall Interactions in Controlled Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Behrisch, R; Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    1986-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion is one of the possible candidates for long term energy sources which will be indispensable for our highly technological society. However, the physics and technology of controlled fusion are extremely complex and still require a great deal of research and development before fusion can be a practical energy source. For producing energy via controlled fusion a deuterium-tritium gas has to be heated to temperatures of a few 100 Million °c corres­ ponding to about 10 keV. For net energy gain, this hot plasma has to be confined at a certain density for a certain time One pro­ mising scheme to confine such a plasma is the use of i~tense mag­ netic fields. However, the plasma diffuses out of the confining magnetic surfaces and impinges on the surrounding vessel walls which isolate the plasma from the surrounding air. Because of this plasma wall interaction, particles from the plasma are lost to the walls by implantation and are partially reemitted into the plasma. In addition, wall...

  2. Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common cold in babies Symptoms and causes By Mayo Clinic Staff The first indication of the common cold in a baby is often: A congested ... or green Other signs and symptoms of a common cold in a baby may include: Fever Sneezing ...

  3. Analysis of the low- and high-energy fusion cross sections: the case of 58Ni+54Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaei, R.

    2017-04-01

    The importance of the saturation effect of cold nuclear matter (NM) on describing the fusion hindrance phenomenon at extremely low incident energies is investigated for the medium-heavy mass system of 58Ni+54Fe. From the theoretical viewpoint, for considering the mentioned property during the fusion process one can use the double-folding (DF) model which is modified through the repulsive core effects as a basic heavy ion–ion potential. The theoretical calculations of the fusion cross sections are performed using the coupled-channel technique, including couplings to the low-lying {2}+ and {3}- states in target and projectile. It is shown that the corrective effects of the cold NM provide an appropriate description for the energy-dependent behavior of the measured fusion cross sections at extremely low incident energies. Moreover, we find that the calculated results of the astrophysical S factor and the logarithmic derivative based on the modified form of the DF model are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data at these energies. A discussion is also presented about the predictions of the present sudden approach for the behavior of the fusion cross sections at high incident energies. The obtained results reveal that this behavior depends on the nuclear structure of the reacting nuclei.

  4. Compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data, Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas of southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    This document is a compilation of available radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data for volcanic rocks and episodes of hydrothermal activity in Yucca Mountain and the surrounding region of southwestern Nevada. Only the age determinations considered to be geologically reasonable (consistent with stratigraphic relations) are listed below. A number of the potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages of volcanic rocks given by Kistler, Marvin et al., Noble et al., Weiss et al., and Noble et al. are not included as these ages have been shown to be incorrect or disturbed by hydrothermal alteration based on subsequent stratigraphic and/or petrographic data and the recognition of errors in K-Ar age determinations related to incomplete extraction of argon. In cases where absolute ages are tightly constrained by high precision {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages and unequivocal stratigraphic relations, we have omitted the less precise K-Ar age data. Similarly, the more precise single-crystal laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age determinations of certain units are reported and less precise ages by multi-grain bulk-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are not included. This compilation does not include age data for basaltic rocks of Pliocene and Quaternary age in the Yucca Mountain region.

  5. Interactions of the Infrared bubble N4 with the surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Liu, Tie; Dubner, G; Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Molinari, Sergio; Huang, Maohai; Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with HII regions have been considered to be a good sample to investigate triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the HII region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with the surroundings and star formation histories therein, aiming at determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 $\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, mean volume density of about 4.4 $\\times10^{4}$ cm$^{-3}$, and a mean mass of 320 $M_{\\odot}$. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 $\\mu$m, ...

  6. Radio observations of Supernova Remnants and the surrounding molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, G

    2011-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the main source of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The strong SNR shocks provide ideal acceleration sites for particles of at least 10^14 eV/nucleon. Radio continuum studies of SNRs carried out with good sensitivity and high angular resolution convey information about three main aspects of the SNRs: morphology, polarization and spectrum. Based on this information it is possible to localize sites of higher compression and particle acceleration as well as the orientation and degree of order of the magnetic fields, and in some cases even its intensity. All this information, when complemented with the study of the distribution and kinematics of the surrounding interstellar gas, results in a very useful dataset to investigate the role of SNRs as cosmic ray accelerators. In this presentation, I analyze the radio observations of SNRs and surrounding molecular clouds, showing the contribution of these studies to the understanding of the role of SNRs as factories of CRs.

  7. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  8. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Moutou, C; Donati, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e., the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9 to 8.0 $\\times 10^{-13} M_{\\odot}$/yr) and the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are super-magnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrou...

  9. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  10. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  11. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of the...

  12. A Cold Adhesion for Self-fused Alloy Coat by High Frequency Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zeng-zhi; AI Bo

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a method to prepare self-fused alloy coat, which started with a cold adhesion precoating and then induction fusing plus, is presented. It also intended to analyze the mechanism, microstructure and anitwear ability of the coat. The workpiece was precoated with Ni60 powder through an adhesion agent. The oven-dried precoat was then heated by a high frequency induction generated by 100kw power with a frequency of 250kHz. The technological parameters of the method were determined through analysis of the thermal magnetism, thermal resistivity and anti-induction mechanism. By comparing the microstrucrures and properties of the coat produced by cold adhesion, thermal spraying and laser refusing, it is concluded that: (1) One side of the workpiece should be preheated to 200℃ before induction fusion, and the range of induction frequency should be 200~250kHz. (2) The microstrucrure of the coat by cold adhesion is superior to that by thermal spraying, but the particle size range should be 0.047~0.044mm (200~320 meshes) (3) The corrosion resistance of Ni60 coat by cold adhesion is better than that by thermal spraying, and the cold adhesion is the best method to prepare the antiwear coat.

  13. A Cold Adhesion for Self-fused Alloy Coat by High Frequency Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZeng-zhi; AIBo

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a method to prepare self-fused alloy coat, which started with a cold adhesion precoating and then induction fusing plus, is presented. It also intended to analyze the mechanism, microstnlcture and anitwear ability of the coat. The workpiece was precoated with Ni60 powder through an adhesion agent. The oven-dried precoat was then heated by a high frequency induction generated by 100kw power with a frequency of 250kHz. The technological parameters of the method were determined through analysis of tbe thermal magnetism, thermal resislivity, and anti-induction mechanism. By comparing the microsLrUclures and properties of the coat produced by cold adhesion, thermal spraying and laser refusing, it is concluded that: (1) One side of the workpiece should be preheated to 200℃ before induction fusion, and the range of induction frequency should be 200-250kHz. (2) The microstructure of the coat by cold adhesion is superior to that by themal spraying, but the particle size range should be 0.047-0.044mm (200-320 meshes) (3) The corrosion resistance of Ni60 coat by cold adhesion is better than that by thermal spraying, and the cold adhesion is the best method to prepare the antiwear coat.

  14. Ultra-cold molecule production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Serrano, Jamie; Chandler, David W.; Strecker, Kevin; Rahn, Larry A.

    2005-12-01

    The production of Ultra-cold molecules is a goal of many laboratories through out the world. Here we are pursuing a unique technique that utilizes the kinematics of atomic and molecular collisions to achieve the goal of producing substantial numbers of sub Kelvin molecules confined in a trap. Here a trap is defined as an apparatus that spatially localizes, in a known location in the laboratory, a sample of molecules whose temperature is below one degree absolute Kelvin. Further, the storage time for the molecules must be sufficient to measure and possibly further cool the molecules. We utilize a technique unique to Sandia to form cold molecules from near mass degenerate collisions between atoms and molecules. This report describes the progress we have made using this novel technique and the further progress towards trapping molecules we have cooled.

  15. Pseudoneutropenia from cold agglutinin leucoagglutination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momin M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoneutropenia or low leucocyte count secondary to leucoagglutination is caused by ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA or cold agglutinins and is seen in benign and malignant disorders. We report a 34-year-old lady who was admitted with fever, vomiting, respiratory distress and productive cough. Complete blood count (CBC at initial presentation revealed low haemoglobin (11.6 g/dL, total leucocyte count (TLC (5900/mm3 with 50% polymorphs. Peripheral blood smear showed leucocytes in clusters. Another sample was asked for in citrate anticoagulant which showed a TLC of 5900/mm3 with 50% polymorphs and evidence of auto agglutination. Another collected in a prewarmed ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA tube, CBC showed a TLC of 9800/mm3 with 39% neutrophils suggestive of pseudoneutropenia due to cold agglutinins.

  16. Cold dark matter heats up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontzen, Andrew; Governato, Fabio

    2014-02-13

    A principal discovery in modern cosmology is that standard model particles comprise only 5 per cent of the mass-energy budget of the Universe. In the ΛCDM paradigm, the remaining 95 per cent consists of dark energy (Λ) and cold dark matter. ΛCDM is being challenged by its apparent inability to explain the low-density 'cores' of dark matter measured at the centre of galaxies, where centrally concentrated high-density 'cusps' were predicted. But before drawing conclusions, it is necessary to include the effect of gas and stars, historically seen as passive components of galaxies. We now understand that these can inject heat energy into the cold dark matter through a coupling based on rapid gravitational potential fluctuations, explaining the observed low central densities.

  17. Fusion between Satellite and Geophysical images in the study of Archaeological Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamitrou, A. A.; Tsokas, G. N.; Petrou, M.; Maggidis, C.

    2012-12-01

    In this work various image fusion techniques are used between one satellite (Quickbird) and one geophysical (electric resistivity) image to create various combinations with higher information content than the two original images independently. The resultant images provide more information about possible buried archaeological relics. The examined archaeological area is located in mainland Greece near the city of Boetia at the acropolis of Gla. The acropolis was built on a flat-topped bedrock outcrop at the north-eastern edge of the Kopais basin. When Kopais was filled with water, Glas was emerging as an island. At the end of 14th century the two palaces of Thebes and Orchomenos jointly utilized a large scale engineering project in order to transform the Kopais basin into a fertile plain. They used the acropolis to monitor the project, and as a warehouse to storage the harvest. To examine the Acropolis for potential archaeological remnants we use one Quickbird satellite image that covers the surrounding area of Gla. The satellite image includes one panchromatic (8532x8528 pixels) and one multispectral (2133x2132 pixels) image, collected on 30th of August 2011, covering an area of 20 square kilometers. On the other hand, geophysical measurements were performed using the electric resistivity method to the south west part of the Acropolis. To combine these images we investigate mean-value fusion, wavelets fusion, and curvelet fusion. In the cases of wavelet and curvelet fusion we apply as the fusion criterion the maximum frequency rule. Furthermore, the two original images, and excavations near the area suggest that the dominant orientations of the buried features are north-south and east-west. Therefore, in curvelet fusion method, in curvelet domain we enhance the image details along these specific orientations, additionally to the fusion. The resultant fused images succeed to map linear and rectangular features that were not easily visible in the original images

  18. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  19. A novel fuzzy sensor fusion algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hua; YANG Yi-kui; MA Ke; LIU Yu-jia

    2011-01-01

    A novel fusion algorithm was given based on fuzzy similarity and fuzzy integral theory.First,it calculated the fuzzy similarity among a certain sensor's measurement values and the multiple sensors' objective prediction values to determine the importance weight of each sensor and realize multi-sensor data fusion.Then according to the determined importance weight,an intelligent fusion system based on fuzzy integral theory was given,which can solve FEI-DEO and DEI-DEO fusion problems and realize the decision fusion.Simulation results were proved that fuzzy integral algorithm has enhanced the capability of handling the uncertain information and improved the intelligence degrees.

  20. Fusion - An energy source for synthetic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-05-01

    An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  1. Acclimatization to cold in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Greenleaf, John E.

    1989-01-01

    This review focuses on the responses and mechanisms of both natural and artificial acclimatization to a cold environment in mammals, with specific reference to human beings. The purpose is to provide basic information for designers of thermal protection systems for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activities. Hibernation, heat production, heat loss, vascular responses, body insulation, shivering thermogenesis, water immersion, exercise responses, and clinical symptoms and hypothermia in the elderly are discussed.

  2. Superheated rubber for cold storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzenberg, Frank; Heuwers, Benjamin; Tiller, Joerg Christian [Biomaterials and Polymer Science, Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, TU Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-04-26

    Highly stretched rubber cools down upon relaxation. A natural rubber material that stores high elongations up to 1000% strain upon strain-induced crystallization at room temperature is reported. The strain recovered and, with this, the stored ''cold'' is released only by a thermal or athermal trigger. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Micro-Kelvin cold molecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique for direct production of cold molecules using a combination of techniques from atomic optical and molecular physics and physical chemistry. The ability to produce samples of cold molecules has application in a broad spectrum of technical fields high-resolution spectroscopy, remote sensing, quantum computing, materials simulation, and understanding fundamental chemical dynamics. Researchers around the world are currently exploring many techniques for producing samples of cold molecules, but to-date these attempts have offered only limited success achieving milli-Kelvin temperatures with low densities. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project is to develops a new experimental technique for producing micro-Kelvin temperature molecules via collisions with laser cooled samples of trapped atoms. The technique relies on near mass degenerate collisions between the molecule of interest and a laser cooled (micro-Kelvin) atom. A subset of collisions will transfer all (nearly all) of the kinetic energy from the 'hot' molecule, cooling the molecule at the expense of heating the atom. Further collisions with the remaining laser cooled atoms will thermally equilibrate the molecules to the micro-Kelvin temperature of the laser-cooled atoms.

  4. Cold Ion Escape from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fränz, M.; Dubinin, E.; Wei, Y.; Morgan, D.; Andrews, D.; Barabash, S.; Lundin, R.; Fedorov, A.

    2013-09-01

    It has always been challenging to observe the flux of ions with energies of less than 10eV escaping from the planetary ionospheres. We here report on new measurements of the ionospheric ion flows at Mars by the ASPERA-3 experiment on board Mars Express in combination with the MARSIS radar experiment. We first compare calculations of the mean ion flux observed by ASPERA-3 alone with previously published results. We then combine observations of the cold ion velocity by ASPERA-3 with observations of the cold plasma density by MARSIS since ASPERA-3 misses the cold core of the ion distribution. We show that the mean density of the nightside plasma observed by MARSIS is about two orders higher than observed by ASPERA-3 (Fig.1). Combining both datasets we show that the main escape channel is along the shadow boundary on the tailside of Mars (Fig. 2). At a distance of about 0.5 R_M the flux settles at a constant value (Fig. 3) which indicates that about half of the transterminator ionospheric flow escapes from the planet. Possible mechanism to generate this flux can be the ionospheric pressure gradient between dayside and nightside or momentum transfer from the solar wind via the induced magnetic field since the flow velocity is in the Alfvénic regime.

  5. Fusion technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer K.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE engine design builds upon on going progress at the National Ignition Facility (NIF and offers a near-term pathway to commercial fusion. Fusion technologies that are critical to success are reflected in the design of the first wall, blanket and tritium separation subsystems. The present work describes the LIFE engine-related components and technologies. LIFE utilizes a thermally robust indirect-drive target and a chamber fill gas. Coolant selection and a large chamber solid-angle coverage provide ample tritium breeding margin and high blanket gain. Target material selection eliminates the need for aggressive chamber clearing, while enabling recycling. Demonstrated tritium separation and storage technologies limit the site tritium inventory to attractive levels. These key technologies, along with the maintenance and advanced materials qualification program have been integrated into the LIFE delivery plan. This describes the development of components and subsystems, through prototyping and integration into a First Of A Kind power plant.

  6. Measurement of the Fusion Probability, PCN, for Hot Fusion Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Yanez, R; Barrett, J S; Yao, L; Back, B B; Zhu, S; Khoo, T L

    2013-01-01

    Background: The cross section for forming a heavy evaporation residue in fusion reactions depends on the capture cross section, the fusion probability, PCN, i.e., the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve inside the fission saddle point to form a completely fused system rather than re-separating (quasifission), and the survival of the completely fused system against fission. PCN is the least known of these quantities. Purpose: To measure PCN for the reaction of 101.2 MeV 18O, 147.3 MeV 26Mg, 170.9 MeV 30Si and 195.3 MeV 36S with 197Au. Methods: We measured the fission fragment angular distributions for these reactions and used the formalism of Back to deduce the fusion-fission and quasifission cross sections. From these quantities we deduced PCN for each reaction. Results: The values of PCN for the reaction of 101.2 MeV 18O, 147.3 MeV 26Mg, 170.9 MeV 30Si and 195.3 MeV 36S with 197Au are 0.66, 1.00, 0.06, 0.13, respectively. Conclusions: The new measured values of PCN agree roughly with th...

  7. Measurement of the fusion probability, PCN, for hot fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, R.; Loveland, W.; Barrett, J. S.; Yao, L.; Back, B. B.; Zhu, S.; Khoo, T. L.

    2013-07-01

    Background: The cross section for forming a heavy evaporation residue in fusion reactions depends on the capture cross section, the fusion probability, PCN, i.e., the probability that the projectile-target system will evolve inside the fission saddle point to form a completely fused system rather than reseparating (quasifission), and the survival of the completely fused system against fission. PCN is the least known of these quantities.Purpose: We want to determine PCN for the reactions of 101.2 MeV 18O, 147.3 MeV 26Mg, 170.9 MeV 30Si, and 195.3 MeV 36S with 197Au.Methods: We measured the fission fragment angular distributions for these reactions and used the formalism of Back to deduce the fusion-fission and quasifission cross sections. From these quantities we deduced PCN for each reaction.Results: The values of PCN for the reactions of 101.2 MeV 18O, 147.3 MeV 26Mg, 170.9 MeV 30Si, and 195.3 MeV 36S with 197Au are 0.66, 1.00, 0.06, and 0.13, respectively.Conclusions: The new measured values of PCN agree roughly with the semiempirical systematic dependence of PCN upon fissility for excited nuclei.

  8. Acoustically Driven Magnetized Target Fusion At General Fusion: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Peter; Laberge, M.; Donaldson, M.; Delage, M.; the Fusion Team, General

    2016-10-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) involves compressing an initial magnetically confined plasma of about 1e23 m-3, 100eV, 7 Tesla, 20 cm radius, >100 μsec life with a 1000x volume compression in 100 microseconds. If near adiabatic compression is achieved, the final plasma of 1e26 m-3, 10keV, 700 Tesla, 2 cm radius, confined for 10 μsec would produce interesting fusion energy gain. General Fusion (GF) is developing an acoustic compression system using pneumatic pistons focusing a shock wave on the CT plasma in the center of a 3 m diameter sphere filled with liquid lead-lithium. Low cost driver, straightforward heat extraction, good tritium breeding ratio and excellent neutron protection could lead to a practical power plant. GF (65 employees) has an active plasma R&D program including both full scale and reduced scale plasma experiments and simulation of both. Although acoustic driven compression of full scale plasmas is the end goal, present compression studies use reduced scale plasmas and chemically accelerated Aluminum liners. We will review results from our plasma target development, motivate and review the results of dynamic compression field tests and briefly describe the work to date on the acoustic driver front.

  9. Fission Fusion Hybrids: a nearer term application of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

    2011-10-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant. For waste incineration, hybrids burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs). The number of hybrids needed is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of fast reactors (FRs). The highly sub-critical hybrids, with a thermal/epithermal spectrum, incinerate > 95% of the waste in decades rather than the centuries needed for FRs. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for 3-4 times as many LWRs with no fuel reprocessing. Thorium fuel rods exposed to neutrons in the hybrid reach fissile concentrations that enable efficient burning in LWR without the proliferation risks of reprocessing. The proliferation risks of this method are far less than other fuel breeding approaches, including today's gas centrifuge. With this cycle, US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ~ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

  10. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  11. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Abu-Qarn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  12. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  13. The nature of plerions surrounding soft gamma-ray repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    1995-01-01

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  14. Casimir Effect in the Kerr Spacetime Surrounded by Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, V B; Freitas, L F F; Muniz, C R

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the Casimir energy of a massless scalar field in a cavity formed by nearby parallel plates orbiting a rotating spherical body surrounded by quintessence, investigating the influence of the gravitational field on that energy, at zero temperature. This influence includes the effects due to the spacetime dragging caused by the source rotation as well as those ones due to the quintessence. We show that the energy depends on all the involved parameters, as source mass, angular momentum and quintessence state parameter, for any radial coordinate and polar angle. We show that at the north pole the Casimir energy is not influenced by the quintessential matter. At the equatorial plane, when the quintessence is canceled, the result obtained in the literature is recovered. Finally, constraints in the quintessence parameters are obtained from the uncertainty in the current measurements of Casimir effect.

  15. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  16. Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Martirosian, J. R.

    2003-04-01

    Results from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objects surrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample of Kazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of the Kazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% of binary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazarian galaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-ray sources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for complete samples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higher than the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies.

  17. On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.

  18. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O`Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-09-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  19. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O' Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  20. Rotation of the Warm Molecular Gas Surrounding Ultracompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations towards five massive star forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each HII region (as traced by SO_2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the HII region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.