WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding classroom instruction

  1. Archery: Success through Classroom Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Ralph W.

    1982-01-01

    For maximum early success in mastering the sport of archery, the first few days of instruction should be taken in the classroom. Two positions, the grip and the anchor, which can be taught and rehearsed in the classroom, are described. (JN)

  2. Alternative Approaches to Classroom Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1992-01-01

    Reexamines the notion of "teaching." Drawing on data from a range of classrooms, as well as from recently published teaching texts, particular attention is focused on the question: "What do we mean by teaching/instruction?" (eight references) (Author/JL)

  3. Alternative Approaches to Classroom Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1992-01-01

    Reexamines the notion of "teaching." Drawing on data from a range of classrooms, as well as from recently published teaching texts, particular attention is focused on the question: "What do we mean by teaching/instruction?" (eight references) (Author/JL)

  4. Guidelines for Language Classroom Instruction1(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig Chaudron; Graham Crookes

    2008-01-01

    @@ In"Guidelines for Language Classroom Instruction,"Crookes and Chaudron review research and practice in both second and foreign language contexts.The main areas of classroom instruction described are:presentational modes and focus on form,types of activities and parameters of tasks and interaction,classroom organization,teacher control of interaction,and corrective feedback.

  5. Technology: Differentiating Instruction by Flipping the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2014-01-01

    Flipping the classroom can be an effective instructional strategy for differentiating instruction for gifted and talented students. The author presents a rationale for using the strategy with gifted students, possible problems educators might encounter, and practical tips for beginning the process of flipping the classroom.

  6. Classroom Instruction: The Influences of Marie Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…

  7. Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Cummins

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three inter-related assumptions regarding best practice in second/foreign language teaching and bilingual/immersion education continue to dominate classroom instruction. These assumptions are that: (a the target language (TL should be used exclusively for instructional purposes without recourse to students’ first language (L1; (b translation between L1 and TL has no place in the language classroom; and (c within immersion and bilingual programs, the two languages should be kept rigidly separate. Research evidence provides minimal support for these assumptions and they are also inconsistent with the instructional implications of current theory in the areas of cognitive psychology and applied linguistics. Based on current research and theory, a set of bilingual instructional strategies are proposed and concrete examples are provided to illustrate how these strategies can be used together with monolingual strategies in a balanced and complementary way.

  8. Analyzing Classroom Instruction in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, William L.

    A method for analyzing instructional techniques employed during reading group instruction is reported, and the characteristics of the effective reading teacher are discussed. Teaching effectiveness is divided into two categories: (1) how the teacher acts and interacts with children on a personal level and (2) how the teacher performs his…

  9. Thinking Skills Instruction for All Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichter, Carol L.

    1988-01-01

    This updated 1987 article argues that teaching of thinking skills, common in gifted education, has wider value in regular school instructional programs. It describes programs which have implemented Talents Unlimited, a classroom-level, research-based model for teaching creative- and critical-thinking skills which encompasses productive thinking,…

  10. Out of Classroom Instruction in the Flipped Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Timcenko, Olga

    2015-01-01

    This article presents experiences and student perceptions on the introduction of the flipped classroom model in two consecutive semesters at Media Technology department of Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark. We introduced the flipped instruction model to a statistics course and a mathematics...... workshop. We collected data by two online survey studies, which show support for student perceptions that out-of-classroom instruction with online resources enhances learning, by providing visual and in depth explanations, and can engage the learner. However, students stated that they miss just......-in-time explanations when learning with online resources and they questioned the quality and validity of some of them. Based on these findings and our own experience, we discuss requirements for resources and activities in flipped classrooms in order for the student to engage and learn. Finally, we present a framework...

  11. Question Driven Instruction with Classroom Response Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerace, William; Beatty, Ian

    2007-10-01

    Essentially, a classroom response system is technology that: 1) allows an instructor to present a question or problem to the class; 2) allows students to enter their answers into some kind of device; and 3) instantly aggregates and summarizes students' answers for the instructor, usually as a histogram. Most response systems provide additional functionality. Some additional names for this class of system (or for subsets of the class) are classroom communication system (CCS), audience response system (ARS), voting machine system, audience feedback system, and--most ambitiously--CATAALYST system (for ``Classroom Aggregation Technology for Activating and Assessing Learning and Your Students' Thinking''). UMPERG has been teaching with and researching classroom response systems since 1993. We find that the technology has the potential to transform the way we teach science in large lecture settings. CRSs can serve as catalysts for creating a more interactive, student-centered classroom in the lecture hall, thereby allowing students to become more actively involved in constructing and using knowledge. CRSs not only make it easier to engage students in learning activities during lecture but also enhance the communication among students, and between the students and the instructor. This enhanced communication assists the students and the instructor in assessing understanding during class time, and affords the instructor the opportunity to devise instructional interventions that target students' needs as they arise.

  12. Using Technology with Classroom Instruction that Works. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Matt; Hubbell, Elizabeth R.; Pitler, Howard

    2012-01-01

    If you've upgraded to the second edition of the landmark book "Classroom Instruction That Works," you need this companion guide to help you use technology to support research-based instruction. The authors follow the revised Instructional Planning Guide that makes it easier for you to know when to emphasize each of the instructional strategies,…

  13. Instructional scientific humor in the secondary classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wizner, Francine

    This study is an examination of the manner in which educators employ scientific content humor and how that humor is perceived by their students. Content humor is a useful strategy in drawing the attention of students and improving their receptivity toward scientific information. It is also a useful tool in combating the growing distractions of the electronic classroom. Previous studies have found that humor has a positive effect on knowledge, memory, and understanding. However, few studies have been conducted below the undergraduate level and mainly quantitative measures of student recall have been used to measure learning. This study employed multiple data sources to determine how two secondary biology teachers used humor in order to explain scientific concepts and how their students perceived their teachers' use of scientific instructional humor. Evidence of student humor reception was collected from four students in each of the two classes. All of the scientific instructional humor used in the studied classrooms was cognitive in nature, varying among factual, procedural, conceptual, and metacognitive knowledge. Teachers tended to use dialogic forms of humor. Their scientific humor reflected everyday experiences, presented queries, poked fun at authority, and asked students to search out new perspectives and perform thought experiments. Teachers were the primary actors in performing the humorous events. The events were sometimes physical exaggerations of words or drawings, and they occurred for the purpose of establishing rapport or having students make connections between scientific concepts and prior knowledge. Student perceptions were that teachers did employ humor toward instructional objectives that helped their learning. Helping students become critical thinkers is a trademark of science teachers. Science teachers who take the risk of adopting some attributes of comedians may earn the reward of imparting behaviors on their students like critical thinking

  14. Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners Participant's Workbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jane D.; Bjork, Cynthia Linnea

    2008-01-01

    Everyone who participates in your workshop on "Classroom Instruction That Works with English Language Learners" needs this participant's workbook to gain expertise in strategies that are effective with ELL (English Language Learners) students.

  15. Response Switching and Self-Efficacy in Peer Instruction Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide…

  16. A Handbook for Classroom Instruction That Works, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Perfect for self-help and professional learning communities, this handbook makes it much easier to apply the teaching practices from the ASCD-McREL best-seller "Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, 2nd Edition." The authors take you through the refined Instructional Planning Guide, so you…

  17. Exploring the Amount and Type of Writing Instruction during Language Arts Instruction in Kindergarten Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Greulich, Luana

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 minute instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.

  18. Crafting Instructions Collaboratively: Student Questions and Dual Addressivity in Classroom Task Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Oliver; Cromdal, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This study examines classroom task instructions--phases traditionally associated with noninteractional objectives and operations--and reveals their composition as interactionally complex and cocrafted. Analyses of video sequences of task instructional activity from three different secondary school lessons show that student questions routinely…

  19. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  20. Reading Comprehension Instruction in Irish Primary Classrooms: Key Insights into Teachers' Perspectives on Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon-Gibney, Tara; Murphy, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Despite a wealth of international research indicating the importance but also the dearth of explicit reading comprehension instruction in classrooms, current classroom reading pedagogy does not appear to have acknowledged and addressed this shortcoming to any significant degree. This is cause for some considerable concern, as today's students…

  1. Changing Classroom Instruction: One Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, Penelope P.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the struggles teachers face when they attempt to change their teaching style in order to achieve an ideal mathematics classroom. With the implementation of the Common Core State Standards, many of the behaviors associated with an ideal mathematics classroom appear within the Standards for Mathematical Practice, on which…

  2. Changing Classroom Instruction: One Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, Penelope P.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the struggles teachers face when they attempt to change their teaching style in order to achieve an ideal mathematics classroom. With the implementation of the Common Core State Standards, many of the behaviors associated with an ideal mathematics classroom appear within the Standards for Mathematical Practice, on which…

  3. Design Principles for Online Instruction: A New Kind of Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil TOPORSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1900’s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or “canned” broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed DE to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb model, where content was disseminated in about the same time constraints as a traditional class: taught at scheduled times throughout the week–almost anywhere but not always anytime. Moreover, the modes of presentation in classic DE seemed to hinder the kinds of human interactions normally experienced in the traditional classroom, fostering individualized and isolated learning experiences.Online learning is a hybrid between the traditional classroom and the DE experience. Like the traditional classroom, instruction is teacher-facilitated. The student is enrolled in a conventional course with topic (lecture presentations, reading and homework assignments, classroom discussions, and class projects. Unlike the traditional classroom, courses are web-based and distributed from a distance, using an assortment of synchronous and asynchronous computer technologies and offered anywhere and anytime. In this way, online learning is different from the classic DE model by encouraging decentralized and collaborative learning environments. So that in this presentation will be discuss design principles for online instruction as being a new kind of classroom.

  4. Classroom instruction versus roadside training in traffic safety education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schagen, I; Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of different approaches to training complex cognitive and psychomotor skills within the framework of road safety education for primary school children. A method involving roadside behavioral training, a classroom instruction method and a method combining these t

  5. Blogging as an Instructional Tool in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featro, Susan Mary; DiGregorio, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Theories on emerging technologies have stated that using blogs in the classroom can engage students in discussion, support peer learning, and improve students' literacy skills. Research has pointed to many ways that blogging is beneficial to student learning when used as an instructional tool. The researchers conducted a project that investigated…

  6. Research into Practice: Listening Strategies in an Instructed Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers research and practice relating to listening in instructed classroom settings, limiting itself to what might be called unidirectional listening (Macaro, Graham & Vanderplank 2007)--in other words, where learners listen to a recording, a TV or radio clip or lecture, but where there is no communication back to the speaker(s).…

  7. Classroom instruction versus roadside training in traffic safety education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schagen, I; Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of different approaches to training complex cognitive and psychomotor skills within the framework of road safety education for primary school children. A method involving roadside behavioral training, a classroom instruction method and a method combining these

  8. Use of Instructional Technologies in Science Classrooms: Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasci Açikalin, Funda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how science teachers use instructional technologies in science classrooms. Participants were 63 teachers who have just completed an alternative teaching certificate program in one of the largest universities in Turkey. They were asked to make a lesson plan based on any topic by assuming that they had an…

  9. Joining Theory and Best Practice To Drive Classroom Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhler, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes three theories supporting reading instruction--schema theory, the constructivist approach, and literary response theory--and offers best classroom practices that support these theories. Provides a sample lesson illustrating possible cross-curricular interactions, also considered a best practice. (EV)

  10. Spatial Mapping as a Method for Observing Classroom Art Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Frank D.

    1985-01-01

    Spatial mapping is a category system for directly observing instruction in art classrooms. A rationale for studying the spatial dimensions of teaching is presented, how to train observers is explained, procedures involved in a mapping episode are described, methods for analyzing data are suggested, and examples of instruments are presented.…

  11. Revisiting the Role of Explicit Genre Instruction in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the twentieth century, genre theorists and practitioners debated the possibility of explicitly teaching genres in classrooms. Though the debate is decades old, it continues to be relevant to contemporary discussions about literacy instruction because it addresses questions about how to provide all students with access to genres of…

  12. Using Focus-on-Form Instruction in the Second Language classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧

    2013-01-01

    As applied teaching, it refers to focus-on-form instruction and focus-on-meaning instruction which have been used in the second language classroom. By analyzing what the effectiveness of focus-on-form instruction is, what the disadvantages of focus-on-meaning instruction are? Therefore, it makes the conclusion: focus-on-form instruction is better than focus-on-meaning instruction within the second language classroom.

  13. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  14. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  15. Redefining Classroom Culture through Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais; Bakar, Zainab Abu; Maidinsah, Hamidah; Muhamad, Aminuddin

    2007-01-01

    This critical assessment attempts to define a good instructional design through the eyes and the minds of renowned scholars and the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Gagne, John Keller, Jerome Bruner, and Richard E. Mayer and so on. This examination also discusses ways in directing the mental map of students for better knowledge…

  16. Integrating Technology Into Classroom Instructions for Reduced Misconceptions in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizam Alias

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Misconceptions in statistics among students of non-statistics major are quite common. This paper will present the humble efforts of the author in trying to reduce misconceptions among her statistics students using technology. The examples were drawn from the teaching and learning of statistics to Master of Technical and Vocational Education students in the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. EXCEL spreadsheet, power point presentation slides and a concept-mapping tool were integrated into classroom instructions on descriptive statistics. Increased class-room interactions were observed through out the learning process and a decrease in the percentage of students committing the specific misconceptions were recorded.

  17. Guidelines for Language Classroom Instruction(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Graham Crookes; Craig Chaudron

    2008-01-01

    continued from Issue 10 4.FacilitationA major role of the instructor is to arrange matters so the material presented gets used and thereby learned.This may be far more critical in the learning of a cognitive skill,in which practice assumes major dimensions,than in the learning of most school subjects,in which declarative knowledge(Anderson 1982;O'Malley,Chamot,and Walker 1987)is being presented and clear presentation may be sufficient in itself to ensure learning(of.West 1960).We need,therefore,to give some consideration to such matters as the overall organization of the classroom.

  18. Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Teacher Use of Reading Comprehension Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this observational study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in elementary classrooms. Additional objectives were to determine which reading comprehension instructional strategies were most employed by teachers in elementary classrooms. In 3,000 minutes of direct classroom observation in 20 first-…

  19. Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ceri B.; Stone, BJ; Hubbell, Elizabeth; Pitler, Howard

    2012-01-01

    First published in 2001, "Classroom Instruction That Works" revolutionized teaching by linking classroom strategies to evidence of increased student learning. Now this landmark guide has been reenergized and reorganized for today's classroom with new evidence-based insights and a refined framework that strengthens instructional planning. Whether…

  20. Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Ceri B.; Stone, BJ; Hubbell, Elizabeth; Pitler, Howard

    2012-01-01

    First published in 2001, "Classroom Instruction That Works" revolutionized teaching by linking classroom strategies to evidence of increased student learning. Now this landmark guide has been reenergized and reorganized for today's classroom with new evidence-based insights and a refined framework that strengthens instructional planning. Whether…

  1. Management and Instruction Strategies for Heterogeneous Elementary School Classrooms. R&D Report No. 6009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    A variety of methods can be used for instructing classes having highly heterogeneous students, including individualization of instruction, homogeneous grouping, team teaching, and modifying whole-class instruction. Through classroom observations and teacher interviews, the prevalence of such methods in 32 second- and third-grade classrooms were…

  2. Adult Students in Mixed-Age Postsecondary Classrooms: Implications for Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panacci, Adam G.

    2017-01-01

    This article will explore instructional approaches that enhance the classroom learning experience of adult students in light of recurring patterns of differences in classroom instructional needs and expectations of effective instructional approaches between adult students and traditional students in research of mixed-age undergraduate and…

  3. On Creating Authentic Communicative Situations in Classroom Instruction%On Creating Authentic Communicative Situations in Classroom Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏华

    2011-01-01

    The traditional method for classroom instruction in China is teacher-centered and exam-oriented, which results in students' misunderstanding the information given by the teacher and poor ability in using English. This essay focuses on how to create communicative situations to develop students' oral skill, Some pratical and effective suggestions are given in the essay to help English teachers in China to achieve this goal.

  4. Equity Conscious Instruction in Problem-based Multilingual Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth

    This dissertation examines the instructional and relational moves implemented by an equity-conscious teacher in service of supporting discursive participation among her English Learners specifically in a problem-based science classroom. The research included also examines the evolution of discursive participation among English Learners as well as the nature of collaboration among English Learners and their English Fluent peers. Initial findings suggest that there were productive, unproductive, and problematic responses to the teacher's caring approach. Students saw the teacher as approachable and accessible which resulted in students seeking the teacher out, which in turn meant that the teacher was able to scaffold instruction for her students. Students recognized and appreciated teacher strategies, but did not generally take up or adopt her instructional supports when working with their peers. English Fluent students shielded English Learners from more rigorous participation in an effort to prevent them from feeling uncomfortable. Furthermore, English Learners and their English Fluent peers defined "help" in the context of group work differently. The implications for this work include further addressing the ways in which teachers support and scaffold science instruction, thinking more critically about the ways in which teachers are explicit in modeling instructional strategies, and working with students to better understand the implications of differences in the ways that they define help and collaborate.

  5. Factors impacting teachers' argumentation instruction in their science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Katsh-Singer, Rebecca; González-Howard, María; Loper, Suzanna

    2016-08-01

    Science education research, reform documents and standards include scientific argumentation as a key learning goal for students. The role of the teacher is essential for implementing argumentation in part because their beliefs about argumentation can impact whether and how this science practice is integrated into their classroom. In this study, we surveyed 42 middle school science teachers and conducted follow-up interviews with 25 to investigate the factors that teachers believe impact their argumentation instruction. Teachers responded that their own learning goals had the greatest impact on their argumentation instruction while influences related to context, policy and assessment had the least impact. The minor influence of policy and assessment was in part because teachers saw a lack of alignment between these areas and the goals of argumentation. In addition, although teachers indicated that argumentation was an important learning goal, regardless of students' backgrounds and abilities, the teachers discussed argumentation in different ways. Consequently, it may be more important to help teachers understand what counts as argumentation, rather than provide a rationale for including argumentation in instruction. Finally, the act of trying out argumentation in their own classrooms, supported through resources such as curriculum, can increase teachers' confidence in teaching argumentation.

  6. Classroom Assessment in Web-Based Instructional Environment: Instructors' Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available While a great deal has been written on the advantage and benefits of online teaching, little is known on how..assessment is implemented in online classrooms to monitor and inform performance and progress. The..purpose of this study is to investigate the dynamics of WebCT classroom assessment by analyzing the..perceptions and experience of the instructors. Grounded theory method was employed to generate a - process..theory- . The study included 10 faculties who taught WebCT classes, and 216 students in the College of..Education in an urban university in the Mid west. Interviews and classroom observations were undertaken..on line. The findings indicated that, performance-based assessment, writing skills, interactive assessment..and learner autonomy were major assessment aspects to inform teaching and enhance learning. If one of..the major roles of online instruction is to increase self-directed learning, as part of the pedagogical..mechanism, web-based classroom assessment should be designed and practiced to impact learner autonomy.

  7. Flipped Instruction in a High School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Jonathan; Puzio, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-experimental study examining the effectiveness of flipped instruction in a 9th grade biology classroom. This study included four sections of freshmen-level biology taught by the first author at a private secondary school in the Pacific Northwest. Using a block randomized design, two sections were flipped and two remained traditional. The quiz and posttest data were adjusted for pretest differences using ANCOVA. The results suggest that flipped instruction had a positive effect student achievement, with effect sizes ranging from +0.16 to +0.44. In addition, some students reported that they preferred watching video lectures outside of class and appreciated more active approaches to learning.

  8. Response switching and self-efficacy in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or

  9. Subject matter knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.

  10. The Use of Videos as a Cognitive Stimulator and Instructional Tool in Tertiary ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Dalwinder; Yong, Esther; Zin, Norhayati Mohd; DeWitt, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Even though technology is known to have a transformative effect on teaching and learning, videos are not widely used as an instructional tool in the classrooms in Malaysia. This paper focuses on using videos a cognitive stimulator and an instructional tool especially in tertiary ESL classrooms. This paper the potential of using videos for…

  11. Teacher Self-Efficacy as a Long-Term Predictor of Instructional Quality in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künsting, Josef; Neuber, Victoria; Lipowsky, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined teachers' self-efficacy as a long-term predictor of their mastery goal orientation and three dimensions of instructional quality: supportive classroom climate, effective classroom management, and cognitive activation. Mastery goal orientation was also analyzed as a predictor of instructional quality.…

  12. Cognitive Complexity of Mathematics Instructional Tasks in a Taiwanese Classroom: An Examination of Task Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Yu; Silver, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined geometric calculation with number tasks used within a unit of geometry instruction in a Taiwanese classroom, identifying the source of each task used in classroom instruction and analyzing the cognitive complexity of each task with respect to 2 distinct features: diagram complexity and problem-solving complexity. We found that…

  13. Principals' Performance in Supervision of Classroom Instruction in Ebonyi State Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egwu, Sarah Oben

    2015-01-01

    Effective principals use a variety of techniques to develop productive climates and to motivate students' learning. One of such techniques for effective classroom management is supervision of instruction. This study was therefore conducted to ascertain principals' performance in supervision of classroom instruction in Ebonyi State secondary…

  14. Relationship between Preferred and Actual Opinions about Inquiry-Based Instruction Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2017-01-01

    Based on 10 preservice science teachers in 4 schools, this study presents a detailed analysis of how preservice teacher expectation interacts with school practicum and authentic classroom action of inquiry-based instruction. Classroom observation, lesson plan analysis, and interviews revealed that inquiry-based instruction in the expectation and…

  15. Teacher Self-Efficacy as a Long-Term Predictor of Instructional Quality in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künsting, Josef; Neuber, Victoria; Lipowsky, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined teachers' self-efficacy as a long-term predictor of their mastery goal orientation and three dimensions of instructional quality: supportive classroom climate, effective classroom management, and cognitive activation. Mastery goal orientation was also analyzed as a predictor of instructional quality.…

  16. Comparing Vignette Instruction and Assessment Tasks to Classroom Observations and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Carolyn; Maeder, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    The growing body of research on the use of vignettes in teacher education courses suggests that vignette-based instruction and assessment tasks may represent a viable alternative to traditional forms of scaffolded instruction and reflective essays following classroom observations, thereby creating a bridge between college and K-12 classrooms for…

  17. The ISI Classroom Observation System: Examining the Literacy Instruction Provided to Individual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Fishman, Barry J.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Glasney, Stephanie; Underwood, Phyllis S.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Crowe, Elizabeth Coyne; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Individualizing Student Instruction (ISI) classroom observation and coding system is designed to provide a detailed picture of the classroom environment at the level of the individual student. Using a multidimensional conceptualization of the classroom environment, foundational elements (teacher warmth and responsiveness to students, classroom…

  18. Dimensions of Classroom Instruction: A Programmatic Approach to the Description of the Classroom Environment. Planning Report No. 5076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, R. O.

    An ongoing research project, Dimensions of Classroom Instruction (DCI) is described. The primary data source is a study of reading in nine second-grade classrooms using such observation techniques as categorical observation, ethnographic observation, and videotaping. Three major objectives for the project are stated: 1) developing methods of…

  19. Using electronic dialogue to augment traditional classroom instruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    This paper demonstrates how an electronic dialogue with a panel of human factors experts was used effectively as an augmentation to traditional classroom instruction. Nine students spent a one and one- half hour class session using a variety of commercial electronic mail software packages available on their own desk-tops (not in a university computer lab) to engage in discussion with remotely distributed instructors on topics generated by the students themselves. Ninety eight messages were exchanged, with about 60% having technical content. Interaction content and style were analyzed, and a survey was distributed to participants to evaluate the session. Process observations by this author augmented these data. Strengths and weaknesses of using technology not specifically designed for this function are discussed.

  20. Block scheduling: Instructional practices in high school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelsoph, Barry

    Proponents of block scheduling perceive this approach to be a 'structural lever' to invite and impel teachers to change their teaching (Marshak, 1997). This desired shift is supposed to be manifest in movement from the traditional classroom structure, focusing on the teacher as lecturer or transmitter of subject matter, to that of teacher as coach with students as active learners, engaged in a variety of activities involving them individually and collaboratively in their education (Canady & Rettig, 1995). Block scheduling changes the formal structure of the school day, but does it really change pedagogical practices in high school science classrooms? Fraser's Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) the instrument used in this study of science classes in five block-scheduled high schools in Connecticut, incorporates the tenets for an enriched classroom environment in its five scales or constructs: Participation---Extent to which students are encouraged to participate rather than be passive learners; Personalization---Emphasis on opportunities for individual students to interact with the teacher and on concern for the personal welfare and social growth of the individual; Investigation---Emphasis on the skills and processes of inquiry and their use in problem solving and investigation. Independence---Extent to which students are allowed to make decisions and have control over their own learning environment and behavior; Differentiation---Emphasis on the selective treatment of students on the basis of ability, learning style, interests, and rate of working (Fraser, 1990). The results and conclusions from this research study suggested that the block-scheduled high school science classes that participated in this research do promote, to varying degrees, those tenets that define an enriched classroom environment. Both the teachers and their classes of students perceived opportunities for Participation, Personalization, and Investigation constructs as

  1. Teaching Astronomy using a Flipped Classroom Model of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Matthew; Impey, Chris D.; Rivera Chavez, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    Astronomy: State of the Art is a MOOC specifically developed to study student participation in an online learning environment. The project aims to serve multiple audiences of learners. For this project we focused on college students who use the online environment for lectures and quizzes but whose classroom time is devoted to hands-on activities and group work; this is the “flipped classroom” model.In spring 2014, Astronomy: State of the Art was co-convened with “The Physical Universe,” a Natural Sciences course taught at the University of Arizona that satisfies a General Education requirement for non-science majors. Using the same core material as Astronomy - State of the Art (with additional modules on the physics of radiation, atomic structure, energy, and gravity that are not necessary for the informal learners), the local course employed a “flipped” model where the students access lectures and podcasts online but are in a face-to-face classroom two times a week for labs and hands-on activities, lecture tutorials, group discussions, and other research-validated tools for enhancing learning. A flipped or hybrid model gives students flexibility, uses the online medium for the aspects of instruction where interaction with an instructor isn’t required, and optimizes the scarce resource of time in a large classroom.Final student grades were closely related to their attendance, however, performance in this class was not correlated with completion of the online video lectures, even though the quizzes were closely tied to the content of these videos. The course will next be taught using Coursera which allow instructors to more closely examine the relationship between students use of course materials and understanding of course topics. The eventual goal is to recruit undergraduates from anywhere in the United States and award them transferrable credit for completing the class.

  2. Quality of Language and Literacy Instruction in Preschool Classrooms Serving At-Risk Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Mashburn, Andrew; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Policy-makers, administrators, researchers, and teachers are increasingly vested in ensuring the quality of preschool instruction, particularly in the areas of language and literacy. This research was conducted to characterize the quality of language and literacy instruction in 135 publicly-funded preschool classrooms serving at-risk pupils. As all teachers in these classrooms were implementing the same language and literacy curriculum, we also studied the interrelationships among procedural fidelity to a prescribed curriculum and the quality of language and literacy instruction, determining whether procedural fidelity is associated or disassociated with quality instruction. Results showed that the quality of language and literacy instruction in classrooms was low, with few teachers delivering high quality instruction. Although teachers were able to implement a prescribed language and literacy curriculum with a high degree of procedural fidelity, this was not associated with quality instruction. Few structural characteristics of classrooms of teachers were systematically associated with quality of instruction. Findings have important implications for professional development of teachers by suggesting a need for a sustained and coherent focus on the process of instruction to elevate instructional quality in language and literacy.

  3. Pre-Service Teachers: An Analysis of Reading Instruction in High Needs Districts Dual Language Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Whitacre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers need opportunities to apply theory and connect to best practices as they teach in classroom settings be it, whole or small group. For many pre-service teachers often times their experience is limited to simply watching instruction or working with small groups of students (Pryor & Kuhn, 2004. The student teaching experience is a critical component of the teacher preparation program. Through the use of the English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI, and researcher observation the hope is that these will aid in bringing to light the instructional activities used by pre-service teachers during reading instruction with ELLs. This study explores how pre-service bilingual teachers connect theory into practice by examining their instruction in the following categories: Instructional Practices, Interactive Teaching, English-Language Development, and Content Specific to Reading as listed in The English Language Learner Classroom Observation Instrument (ELLCOI developed by Haager, Gersten, Baker, and Graves (2003. To capture these instructional events video tape recordings of eight South Texas pre-service teachers were taken during a reading language arts lesson in order to observe instruction in high need districts’ dual language/bilingual classrooms. Data were compiled to capture the nature and quality of instruction on key essential elements, as well as reading instructional practices specific to the teaching/learning process in the dual language classroom. The findings portray the results of the ELLCOI with bilingual/ESL pre- service teachers and how they make sense of their instructional practices as a means to instruction in one-way dual language public school classrooms.

  4. Dynamic variables of science classroom discourse in relation to teachers' instructional beliefs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaya, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines if the occurence of dynamic variables namely, authentic questions, uptake, high-level evaluation and student questions in primary science classrooms vary by teachers' instructional beliefs...

  5. Conceptual question response times in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to in-class, conceptual questions [ConcepTests (CTs)] in two introductory physics courses taught using Peer Instruction and use item response theory to determine the difficulty of the CTs. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers both before and after the peer discussion for CTs of varying difficulty. We also determine the relationship between response time and student performance on a standardized test of incoming physics knowledge, precourse self-efficacy, and gender. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response time for correct answers is significantly faster than for incorrect answers, both before and after peer discussion, especially for easy CTs. Second, students with greater incoming physics knowledge and higher self-efficacy respond faster in both rounds. Third, there is no gender difference in response rate after controlling for incoming physics knowledge scores, although males register significantly more attempts before committing to a final answer than do female students. These results provide insight into effective CT pacing during Peer Instruction. In particular, in order to maintain a pace that keeps everyone engaged, students should not be given too much time to respond. When around 80% of the answers are in, the ratio of correct to incorrect responses rapidly approaches levels indicating random guessing and instructors should close the poll.

  6. The Flipped Classroom Teaching Model and Its Use for Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold-Garza, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The flipped classroom, a teaching method that delivers lecture content to students at home through electronic means and uses class time for practical application activities, may be useful for information literacy instruction. This article describes many of the characteristics of the flipped classroom teaching model, illustrated with examples from…

  7. The Relationship between Educators' Attitudes towards Instructional Technology and Implementation of the Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating instructional technology within the elementary classroom is required by both state and federal mandates, set forth in the form of standards and guidelines. The integration of technology within the classroom setting requires time, training, and teacher willingness. Teachers are likely to develop beliefs and attitudes regarding the…

  8. Differentiated Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Using DI in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Students come to the music classroom with different educational readiness, learning styles, abilities, and preferences. In addition to these learner differences, classrooms in the United States are becoming more linguistically and culturally diverse each year. Differentiated instruction is an approach to teaching and learning that allows for these…

  9. Effective Classroom Management and Instruction: An Exploration of Models. Executive Summary of Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertson, Carolyn M.; And Others

    A summary is presented of the final report, "Effective Classroom Management and Instruction: An Exploration of Models." The final report presents a set of linked investigations of the effects of training teachers in effective classroom management practices in a series of school-based workshops. Four purposes were addressed by the study: (1) to…

  10. Differentiated Instruction for Students with Disabilities: Using DI in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Students come to the music classroom with different educational readiness, learning styles, abilities, and preferences. In addition to these learner differences, classrooms in the United States are becoming more linguistically and culturally diverse each year. Differentiated instruction is an approach to teaching and learning that allows for these…

  11. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  12. Inclusivity: An Effective Tool for Achieving Quality Mathematics Classroom Instruction in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bature, Iliya Joseph; Atweh, Bill; Treagust, David

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics classrooms instruction in Nigeria secondary schools has been termed a major problem to both teachers and their students. Most classroom activities are teacher-centred with students as mere listeners and recipients of knowledge rather than being active initiators of their knowledge. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of…

  13. SERVQUAL-Based Measurement of Student Satisfaction with Classroom Instructional Technologies: A 2001 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Betty; Shell, L. Wayne

    The researchers, using a variation of the SERVQUAL instrument, repeated a 1999 study to measure students' satisfaction with instructional technology tools used in their classrooms. Student satisfaction varied by course discipline, by instructional technology, by anticipated grade, and by frequency of use. Female respondents were less satisfied…

  14. Instructing Educators in the Use of Assistive Technology Listening Devices in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alodail, Abdullah K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study will present Kemp's design in the classroom setting for students with hearing impairments. Based on his model, the researcher will design various instructional methods of how to teach students with hearing aids in the school, focusing on the instruction of English to America K-12 students. The study will also include a list of…

  15. A Description of the Impact of Multimedia Anchored Instruction on Classroom Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Candyce Williams; Rieth, Herbert J.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Colburn, Linda K.; Peter, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    A study explored effects of a multimedia-based anchored instruction intervention on student/teacher interactions in a social studies classroom with 19 eighth graders, 9 with mild disabilities. Overall, instruction became more interactive as observational and interview data indicated a twofold increase in the number of daily student/teacher…

  16. Implementation and Effects of Explicit Reading Comprehension Instruction in Fifth-Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Rune; Braten, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    In this intervention study, teachers tried to implement four instructional principles derived from the literature on research-based, explicit reading comprehension instruction in their fifth-grade classrooms. The principles focused on relevant background knowledge, reading comprehension strategies, reading-group organization, and reading…

  17. From the Laboratory to the Classroom: The Effects of Equivalence-Based Instruction on Neuroanatomy Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Mylan, Sanaa E.; Brodsky, Julia; Pytte, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Equivalence-based instruction (EBI) has been used to successfully teach college-level concepts in research laboratories, but few studies have examined the results of such instruction on classroom performance. The current study answered a basic question about the ordering of training stimuli as well as an applied question regarding the effects of…

  18. Instruction, Student Engagement, and Reading Skill Growth in Reading First Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Jakobsons, Lara J.; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Meadows, Jane Granger

    2009-01-01

    This study explored first-, second-, and third-grade reading instruction and students' (n = 1,586) reading skill growth in Florida Reading First (RF) classrooms (n = 95). The goal of RF is to improve students' literacy outcomes through the use of research-based instruction, assessment, teacher training, and program evaluation. Whereas survey data…

  19. Enhancing Math Instruction for Korean Special Education Classroom Students Using Design Research to Implement Enhanced Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jungmin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce Enhanced Anchored Instruction (EAI) into Korean special education classrooms, research its effectiveness in student achievement and motivation, to find out what kind of adjustment is needed for successful implementation, and analyze the students' and teachers' experiences of using EAI. Enhanced anchored…

  20. Do science coaches promote inquiry-based instruction in the elementary science classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Rosemary Knight

    The South Carolina Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative established a school-based science coaching model that was effective in improving instruction by increasing the level of inquiry-based instruction in elementary science classrooms. Classroom learning environment data from both teacher groups indicated considerable differences in the quality of inquiry instruction for those classrooms of teachers supported by a science coach. All essential features of inquiry were demonstrated more frequently and at a higher level of open-ended inquiry in classrooms with the support of a science coach than were demonstrated in classrooms without a science coach. However, from teacher observations and interviews, it was determined that elementary schoolteacher practice of having students evaluate conclusions and connect them to current scientific knowledge was often neglected. Teachers with support of a science coach reported changes in inquiry-based instruction that were statistically significant. This mixed ethnographic study also suggested that the Mathematics and Science Coaching Initiative Theory of Action for Instructional Improvement was an effective model when examining the work of science coaches. All components of effective school infrastructure were positively impacted by a variety of science coaching strategies intended to promote inquiry. Professional development for competent teachers, implementation of researched-based curriculum, and instructional materials support were areas highly impacted by the work of science coaches.

  1. Learning Designs Using Flipped Classroom Instruction (Conception d'apprentissage à l'aide de l'instruction en classe inversée)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Amber D.; Brown, Barbara; Jacobsen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment…

  2. A Description of Instructional Practices in Inclusive Classroom Settings

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the experiences of general education students in elementary settings where the inclusion of students with disabilities was responsibly implemented. The research question investigated was: Do general education students have a meaningful opportunity to learn when sharing classrooms with students with disabilities? The participants in this study were assigned to two inclusion classrooms in an elementary school in northeastern North Carolina. The classrooms ...

  3. The Didactical Contract Surrounding CAS When Changing Teachers in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas; Misfeldt, Morten; Marcussen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses three empirical examples of Computer Algebra System (CAS) use in a Danish upper secondary school mathematics class that had experienced a recent change of teacher. All examples lead to didactical problems surrounding the situation and unclear expectations between teacher and students, involving loss of students' mathematical…

  4. Cognitive Research and Elementary Science Instruction: From the Laboratory, to the Classroom, and Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, David; Li, Junlei

    2005-06-01

    Can cognitive research generate usable knowledge for elementary science instruction? Can issues raised by classroom practice drive the agenda of laboratory cognitive research? Answering yes to both questions, we advocate building a reciprocal interface between basic and applied research. We discuss five studies of the teaching, learning, and transfer of the "Control of Variables Strategy" in elementary school science. Beginning with investigations motivated by basic theoretical questions, we situate subsequent inquiries within authentic educational debates—contrasting hands-on manipulation of physical and virtual materials, evaluating direct instruction and discovery learning, replicating training methods in classroom, and narrowing science achievement gaps. We urge research programs to integrate basic research in "pure" laboratories with field work in "messy" classrooms. Finally, we suggest that those engaged in discussions about implications and applications of educational research focus on clearly defined instructional methods and procedures, rather than vague labels and outmoded "-isms."

  5. Vocabulary learning in Head Start: Nature and extent of classroom instruction and its contributions to children's learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Annemarie H; Wasik, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    In the current study, we employed the 2006 cohort of the large-scale, nationally representative, Head Start Family and Child Experiences (FACES) dataset to construct a snapshot of vocabulary instruction and learning in high-poverty preschools. Specifically, we examined Head Start teachers' reports of the frequency of vocabulary instruction in their classrooms as well as the overall quality of their classroom instruction. We also explored the teacher- and center-level factors that predicted these dual aspects of instruction, and the role of that instruction in children's vocabulary development over the preschool year. Participants included 293 teachers in 116 Head Start centers, as well as 2501 children in their classrooms. Results showed that, whereas there was notable variation, most teachers reported providing a variety of vocabulary-focused instructional activities nearly every day. The quality of their classroom instruction was generally modest. Classroom instructional quality was predictive of children's vocabulary learning, with stronger relations apparent for children with lower initial skills and for classrooms with higher quality instruction. The frequency of instruction in vocabulary was not related to children's word learning. Results provide new descriptive data about the state of vocabulary instruction in Head Start preschools and highlight both areas of success and opportunities for additional support.

  6. A Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with University General Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, John; Malone, D. Michael; Stecker, Pamela M.; Greene, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a traditional instructional format and technology-enhanced anchored instruction on the immediate and long-term acquisition of knowledge was evaluated with 100 university students in a special-education course. The CD-ROM-based anchored-instruction group outperformed the traditional instruction group on the multiple-choice follow-up test…

  7. Teaching the Social Curriculum: Classroom Management as Behavioral Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Russ; Ormiston, Heather; Martinez, Sylvia; Cummings, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Psychological science has identified positive classroom management and climate building strategies as a key element in developing and maintaining effective learning environments. In this article, we review the literature that has identified effective strategies that build classroom climates to maximize student learning and minimize disruption. In…

  8. Improving Metacognition in the Classroom through Instruction, Training, and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Aimee A.; Franco-Watkins, Ana M.; Roberts, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately judging one's performance in the classroom can be challenging considering most students tend to be overconfident and overestimate their actual performance. The current work draws upon the metacognition and decision making literatures to examine improving metacognition in the classroom. Using historical data from several semesters of an…

  9. Digital Instructional Strategies and Their Role in Classroom Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Jessica; McKnight, Katherine; Elliott, Stephen; Kurz, Alexander; Wardlow, Liane

    2016-01-01

    Research that examines technology use in the context of daily classroom practices is needed to support the effective digital conversion of classrooms. In this study, 65 seventh- through 10th-grade Mathematics and English Language Arts teachers from six districts across six states logged information about digital strategies they incorporated into…

  10. Teaching the Social Curriculum: Classroom Management as Behavioral Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Russ; Ormiston, Heather; Martinez, Sylvia; Cummings, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Psychological science has identified positive classroom management and climate building strategies as a key element in developing and maintaining effective learning environments. In this article, we review the literature that has identified effective strategies that build classroom climates to maximize student learning and minimize disruption. In…

  11. Classroom observation data and instruction in primary mathematics education: improving design and rigour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-06-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics classroom observational data and student achievement data, and (b) to examine the impact of providing periodic classroom observational data feedback to teachers using a Relational-Feedback-Intervention (RFI) Database Model. This observational research effort focused on an empirical examination of student engagement levels in time spent on specific learning activities observed in primary mathematics classrooms as predictors of student competency outcomes in mathematics. Data were collected from more than 2,000 primary classroom observations in 17 primary schools during 2009-2011 and from standardised end-of-year tests for mathematics achievement. Results revealed predictive relationships among several types of teaching and learning tasks with student achievement. Specifically, the use of mathematics concepts, technology and hands-on materials in primary mathematics classrooms was found to produce substantive predictors of increased student mathematics achievement. Additional findings supported the use of periodic classroom observation data reporting as a positive influence on teachers' decisions in determining instructional tasks for inclusion in primary mathematics classrooms. Study results indicate classroom observational research involving a RFI Database Model is a productive tool for improving teaching and learning in primary mathematics classrooms.

  12. Writing instruction in elementary classrooms: making the connection to Common Core State Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie; Sturm, Janet M; Cali, Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    This study used a survey of primary general education teachers to examine the frequency of writing instructional activities and the genres composed most frequently by students in these classrooms. Surveys were completed by first-, third-, and fifth-grade general education teachers, with questions addressing writing activities, writing instruction, instructional strategies, writing genres, and writing environment. Means of teacher responses were calculated for each grade level to determine how many days per school year each activity occurred. To better understand the changes that occur in writing instructional practices and genres across grade levels, these means are compared and shifts are discussed. Results of this study revealed that the frequency of writing instructional practices and genre usage change across the primary grade levels, but that great variation also exists among teachers at each grade level. Links among the survey results, the Common Core State Standards for writing, and best practices for writing instruction will be made.

  13. Inattentive Behavior in Boys with ADHD during Classroom Instruction: the Mediating Role of Working Memory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Sarah A; Rapport, Mark D; Friedman, Lauren M; Eckrich, Samuel J; Kofler, Michael J

    2017-08-19

    Children with ADHD exhibit clinically impairing inattentive behavior during classroom instruction and in other cognitively demanding contexts. However, there have been surprisingly few attempts to validate anecdotal parent/teacher reports of intact sustained attention during 'preferred' activities such as watching movies. The current investigation addresses this omission, and provides an initial test of how ADHD-related working memory deficits contribute to inattentive behavior during classroom instruction. Boys ages 8-12 (M = 9.62, SD = 1.22) with ADHD (n = 32) and typically developing boys (TD; n = 30) completed a counterbalanced series of working memory tests and watched two videos on separate assessment days: an analogue math instructional video, and a non-instructional video selected to match the content and cognitive demands of parent/teacher-described 'preferred' activities. Objective, reliable observations of attentive behavior revealed no between-group differences during the non-instructional video (d = -0.02), and attentive behavior during the non-instructional video was unrelated to all working memory variables (r = -0.11 to 0.19, ns). In contrast, the ADHD group showed disproportionate attentive behavior decrements during analogue classroom instruction (d = -0.71). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped, serial mediation revealed that 59% of this between-group difference was attributable to ADHD-related impairments in central executive working memory, both directly (ER = 41%) and indirectly via its role in coordinating phonological short-term memory (ER = 15%). Between-group attentive behavior differences were no longer detectable after accounting for ADHD-related working memory impairments (d = -0.29, ns). Results confirm anecdotal reports of intact sustained attention during activities that place minimal demands on working memory, and indicate that ADHD children's inattention during analogue classroom instruction is related, in large part

  14. Simplifying Inquiry Instruction: Assessing the Inquiry Level of Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy L.; Smetana, Lara; Binns, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Inquiry instruction is a hallmark of the current science education reform efforts. Science teachers know that inquiry is important, yet most teachers lack a practical framework of inquiry to inform their instruction. Defining inquiry and assessing how much inquiry is supported by a particular activity or lab can be difficult and confusing. This…

  15. Evaluating Classroom Instruction: Sourcebook of Instruments. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borich, Gary D.; Madden, Susan K.

    During the course of investigations on such topics as the instructional styles, interaction patterns and personality characteristics of teachers, the organizational structure of schools, the technology of instruction, and the affective and cognitive growth of students, researchers have developed hundreds of psychological and educational…

  16. "Yakudoku" EFL Instruction in a Japanese High School Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Greta J.

    "Yakudoku," the traditional, non-oral method of teaching language in Japan, is described and compared with the grammar translation method of language instruction. The methods differ in that "yakudoku" focuses mainly on translation of the foreign language text into Japanese, with grammar instruction a secondary concern, and that…

  17. A Practitioner's Instrument for Measuring Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs Surrounding Learner-Centered Classroom Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischka, Alyson E; Garner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the development and validation of a Mathematics Teaching Pedagogical and Discourse Beliefs Instrument (MTPDBI), a 20 item partial-credit survey designed and analyzed using Rasch measurement theory. Items on the MTPDBI address beliefs about the nature of mathematics, teaching and learning mathematics, and classroom discourse practices. A Rasch partial credit model (Masters, 1982) was estimated from the pilot study data. Results show that item separation reliability is .96 and person separation reliability is .71. Other analyses indicate the instrument is a viable measure of secondary teachers' beliefs about reform-oriented mathematics teaching and learning. This instrument is proposed as a useful measure of teacher beliefs for those working with pre-service and in-service teacher development.

  18. Flipped Classroom versus Traditional Textbook Instruction: Assessing Accuracy and Mental Effort at Different Levels of Mathematical Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Kristina V.

    2015-01-01

    Flipped classrooms are an instructional technology trend mostly incorporated in higher education settings, with growing prominence in high school and middle school (Tucker in Leveraging the power of technology to create student-centered classrooms. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, 2012). Flipped classrooms are meant to effectively combine traditional and…

  19. Measuring instructional congruence in elementary science classrooms: Pedagogical and methodological components of a theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luykx, Aurolyn; Lee, Okhee

    2007-03-01

    This article is situated within a theoretical framework, instructional congruence, articulating issues of student diversity with the demands of academic disciplines. In the context of a large-scale study targeting elementary school science, the article describes a research instrument that aims to combine the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to classroom data. The project-developed classroom observation guideline is a series of detailed scales that produce numerical ratings based on qualitative observations of different aspects of classroom practice. The article's objectives are both pedagogical and methodological, reflecting the dual functionality of the instrument: (a) to concretize theoretical constructs articulating academic disciplines with student diversity in ways that are useful for rethinking classroom practice; and (b) to take advantage of the strengths of qualitative educational research, but within a quantitative analytical framework that may be applied across large numbers of classrooms.

  20. Theoretical Beliefs and Instructional Practices Used for Teaching Spelling in Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Brigid; Kirk, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine teachers' reported spelling assessment and instruction practices. Analysis of the match between teachers' theoretical beliefs about spelling and their reported pedagogy was conducted to elucidate factors that may support or impede the use of evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. An electronic…

  1. Measuring Instructional Practice in Science Using Classroom Artifacts: Lessons Learned from Two Validation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose Felipe; Borko, Hilda; Stecher, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    With growing interest in the role of teachers as the key mediators between educational policies and outcomes, the importance of developing good measures of classroom processes has become increasingly apparent. Yet, collecting reliable and valid information about a construct as complex as instruction poses important conceptual and technical…

  2. Dynamic Variables of Science Classroom Discourse in Relation to Teachers' Instructional Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines if the occurrence of dynamic variables namely, authentic questions, uptake, high-level evaluation and student questions in primary science classrooms vary by teachers' instructional beliefs. Twelve 4th grade teachers from two different schools volunteered to participate in the study. Data was collected through…

  3. Approaches to inclusive English classrooms a teacher's handbook for content-based instruction

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    Mastruserio Reynolds, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This accessible book takes a critical approach towards content-based instruction methods, bridging the gap between theory and practice in order to allow teachers to make an informed decision about best practices for an inclusive classroom. It is a resource for both educators and ESL teachers working within an English learner inclusion environment.

  4. Numeracy in Inclusive Early Childhood Classrooms: Embedding Learning Opportunities and Using Effective Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa Ann

    2012-01-01

    This literature review will address issues to consider related to teaching numeracy and mathematics to children with disabilities in inclusive early childhood classrooms. As inclusive settings and instruction in numeracy/mathematics at an early age become more common, it is important to closely examine teaching strategies and make appropriate…

  5. The Use of Instructional Simulations to Support Classroom Teaching: A Crisis Communication Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflet, Mark; Brown, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how exposure to classroom instruction affected the use of a computer simulation that was designed to provide students an opportunity to apply material presented in class. The study involved an analysis of a computer-based crisis communication case study designed for a college-level public relations…

  6. Classroom Keyboard Instruction Improves Kindergarten Children's Spatial-Temporal Performance: A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.; Zupan, Mary Anne

    2000-01-01

    Determined the effects of classroom music instruction featuring the keyboard on the spatial-temporal reasoning of 62 kindergartners assigned to keyboard or no music conditions. Found that the keyboard group scored significantly higher than the no music group on both spatial-temporal tasks after 4 months of lessons, a difference that was greater in…

  7. Instructions, Feedback, and Reinforcement in Reducing Activity Levels in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Jerome L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Results indicated that the intervention package--including instructions, feedback from an electronic device that measures motor activity, and contingent reinforcement--was successful in reducing activity in the classroom for 8 of the 11 emotionally disturbed Ss (ages 9 to 13 years). (Author/DLS)

  8. Using the DSAP Framework to Guide Instructional Design and Technology Integration in BYOD Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the DSAP Framework to guide instructional design and technology integration for teachers piloting a BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) initiative and to measure the impact the initiative had on the amount and type of technology used in pilot classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were…

  9. Diversifying Instruction and Shifting Authority: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Analysis of Classroom Participant Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Terri; Smithenry, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calls asking science teachers to increase student authority by diversifying instruction appear stalled by a lack of empirical evidence supporting the actual implementation of any such shifts. To better support the practical integration of more student-directed inquiry into the science classroom, we consider one teacher's day-to-day…

  10. Rural High School Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Student Engagement, Instructional Strategies, and Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Tori L.; Krei, Melinda Scott

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in rural high school teachers' (n = 256) self-efficacy in student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom management using selected teacher characteristics. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences between different levels of education in self-efficacy for…

  11. English Vocabulary Instruction in Six Early Childhood Classrooms in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carrie; Rao, Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction during English language learning was observed for one week in six classrooms (three K2 classes for four-year olds and three K3 classes for five-year olds) from three kindergartens in two districts of Hong Kong. From 23 sessions of observations and 535 minutes of data, field notes were coded to identify instances of…

  12. Using the DSAP Framework to Guide Instructional Design and Technology Integration in BYOD Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of the DSAP Framework to guide instructional design and technology integration for teachers piloting a BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) initiative and to measure the impact the initiative had on the amount and type of technology used in pilot classrooms. Quantitative and qualitative data were…

  13. Developing a Positive Mind-Set toward the Use of Technology for Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Mabel C. P. O.; Olinzock, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine various indicators associated with the development of a positive mind-set toward the use of technology for instruction. The paper also examines the resources available to help teachers keep pace with technological innovation. Electronic classrooms have some complexities associated with them; therefore, support…

  14. Classroom Instruction and the Mathematics Achievement of Non-English Learners and English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Melisa S.; Waxman, Hersh C.; Diaz, Zulmaris; Padron, Yolanda N.

    2013-01-01

    The authors, in a nonexperimental randomized study, used national data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to examine present instructional practices for Grade 5 mathematics classrooms and its impact on achievement for White non-Hispanic non-English language learners (ELLs), Hispanic non-ELLs, and Hispanic…

  15. Theoretical and Methodological Challenges in Measuring Instructional Quality in Mathematics Education Using Classroom Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Lena; Jentsch, Armin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze theoretical as well as methodological challenges in measuring instructional quality in mathematics classrooms by examining standardized observational instruments. At the beginning, we describe the results of a systematic literature review for determining subject-specific aspects measured in recent lesson studies in…

  16. From Rata to Rimu: Grouping for Instruction in Best Practice New Zealand Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ian A. G.; Townsend, Michael A. R.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates how a select group of New Zealand teachers organize their classrooms for reading instruction to avoid the pitfalls that may be associated with ability grouping and yet meet the needs of students of diverse backgrounds and abilities. Offers 3 fundamental reasons why these groups may provide effective contexts for learning as one part…

  17. The Meaning of Mathematics Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms: Analyzing the Importance of Responsibility for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Ase

    2012-01-01

    In the multilingual mathematics classroom, the assignment for teachers to scaffold students by means of instruction and guidance in order to facilitate language progress and learning for all is often emphasized. In Sweden, where mathematics education is characterized by a low level of teacher responsibility for students' performance, this…

  18. Teacher Characteristics, Classroom Instruction, and Student Literacy and Language Outcomes in Bilingual Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Paul T.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relation of teacher characteristics, including ratings of teacher quality, to classroom instructional variables and to bilingual students' literacy and oral language outcomes at the end of the kindergarten year. Teacher characteristics included observational measures of oral language proficiency, quality, and classroom…

  19. Instruction in Spanish in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms and Child Outcomes for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret; Field, Samuel; Lopez, Michael L.; Howes, Carollee; Pianta, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships among proportion of instruction in Spanish, observed classroom quality, and preschool-aged children's academic skills. Study participants included 357 Spanish-speaking 4-year-old children who attended state-funded pre-kindergarten programs in 11 states that participated in one of…

  20. Revisiting Cognitive Strategy Instruction in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classrooms: Cautions and Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, Lara J.; Jimenez, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the authors raise concerns regarding the use of cognitive strategy instruction (CSI) in culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) classrooms. The authors recognize the potential benefits afforded by CSI. At the same time, they argue that counter to the intentions of those who have developed CSI, it may be implemented in ways that…

  1. Rural High School Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Student Engagement, Instructional Strategies, and Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Tori L.; Krei, Melinda Scott

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in rural high school teachers' (n = 256) self-efficacy in student engagement, instructional practices, and classroom management using selected teacher characteristics. Analysis of variance showed significant mean differences between different levels of education in self-efficacy for…

  2. Perceptions of Teachers and Principals with Regard to Instructional Problems in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefur, Walter; Turner, William

    During the spring semester of 1991, a survey was taken of a random sample of teachers and principals in the Texas public schools to discover what their perceptions were in regard to 20 selected problems that have an effect on classroom instruction. Participants were asked to check whether they felt that each problem was negligible, moderate,…

  3. Theoretical Beliefs and Instructional Practices Used for Teaching Spelling in Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Brigid; Kirk, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine teachers' reported spelling assessment and instruction practices. Analysis of the match between teachers' theoretical beliefs about spelling and their reported pedagogy was conducted to elucidate factors that may support or impede the use of evidence-based teaching strategies in the classroom. An electronic…

  4. Classroom phonological awareness instruction and literacy outcomes in the first year of school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Karyn L; Gillon, Gail T; Boustead, Therese M

    2013-04-01

    Despite strong investment in raising literacy achievement for all children, significant inequalities in literacy outcomes continue to exist among some of the world's most advanced economies. This study investigated the influence of a short, intensive period of phonological awareness (PA) instruction implemented by classroom teachers on raising the literacy achievement of children with and without spoken language impairment (SLI). A quasi-experimental design was employed to measure the PA, reading, and spelling development of one hundred twenty-nine 5-year-olds. Thirty-four children received 10 weeks of PA instruction from their teachers. Ninety-five children continued with their usual reading program, which included phonics instruction but did not target PA. Children who received PA instruction demonstrated superior literacy outcomes compared to children who followed the usual literacy curriculum. Children with SLI showed significant improvements in PA, reading, and spelling but had a different pattern of response to instruction compared to children with typical language. Importantly, the number of children experiencing word decoding difficulties at the end of the program was 26% among children who followed the usual literacy curriculum compared to 6% among children who received the PA instruction. A short, intensive period of classroom PA instruction can raise the literacy profiles of children with and without spoken language difficulties.

  5. Classroom quality as a predictor of first graders' time in non-instructional activities and literacy achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Leigh; Sparapani, Nicole; Toste, Jessica R; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated how quality of the classroom learning environment influenced first grade students' (n=533) time spent in two non-instructional classroom activities (off-task and in transition) and their subsequent literacy outcomes. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that higher classroom quality was related to higher student performance in reading comprehension and expressive vocabulary. Further, classroom quality predicted the amount of time students spent off-task and in transitions in the classroom, with slopes of change across the year particularly impacted. Mediation effects were detected in the case of expressive vocabulary such that the influence of classroom quality on students' achievement operated through students' time spent in these non-instructional activities. Results highlight the importance of overall classroom quality to how students navigate the classroom environment during learning opportunities, with subsequent literacy achievement impacted. Implications for policy and educational practices are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. E-learning vs. classroom instruction in infection control in a dental hygiene program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate e-learning versus classroom instruction in infection control by comparing outcomes of multiple-choice examination scores and clinical competency-based examinations (CBE) between two groups of first-year dental hygiene students (fall 2008 e-learning: n=26; fall 2009 classroom instruction: n=26). Contents of both instructional units were comparable and were developed by the Organization for Safety, Asepsis, and Prevention. All students in each group were required to complete infection control instruction as part of the preclinical curriculum (didactic and clinical) and were tested on the material using the multiple-choice examination and clinical CBE. Both groups' scores on the multiple-choice examination ranged from 74 percent to 94 percent (n=26 to 33 of 35), with e-learning mean score=82.8 percent, n=29 of 35, and classroom instruction mean score=86.8 percent, n=30 of 35. A two-tailed independent samples t-test indicated a statistically significant difference between the two groups on the multiple-choice examination (p=0.11). The Fisher's exact test indicated no statistically significant difference between the two groups on the first-time pass rate for the clinical CBE (p=0.668). Findings demonstrated little difference between the two methods for teaching infection control. Thus, either method may be chosen. Future research should examine a blended approach with larger samples and longitudinal data.

  7. Teachers' implementation of gender-inclusive instructional strategies in single-sex and mixed-sex science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lesley H.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2002-09-01

    Debate continues over the benefits, or otherwise, of single-sex classes in science and mathematics, particularly for the performance of girls. Previous research and analyses of the circumstances surrounding the implementation of single-sex classes warn that the success of the strategy requires due consideration of the nature of the instructional environment for both boys and girls, together with appropriate support for the teachers involved. This article reports the circumstances under which teachers were able to implement gender-inclusive strategies in single-sex science classes in coeducational high schools and documents some of the difficulties faced. The study was part of the Single-Sex Education Pilot Project (SSEPP) in ten high schools in rural and urban Western Australia. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered during the project from teachers, students and classroom observations. Overall, it was apparent that single-sex grouping created environments in which teachers could implement gender-inclusive science instructional strategies more readily and effectively than in mixed-sex settings. Teachers were able to address some of the apparent shortcomings of the students' previous education (specifically, the poor written and oral communication of boys and the limited experience of girls with 'hands-on' activities and open-ended problem solving). Further, in same-sex classrooms, sexual harassment which inhibited girls' learning was eliminated. The extent to which teachers were successful in implementing gender-inclusive instructional strategies, however, depended upon their prior commitment to the SSEPP as a whole, and upon the support or obstacles encountered from a variety of sources, including parents, the community, students, and non-SSEPP teachers.

  8. Conceptual Question Response Times in Peer Instruction Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to…

  9. Embedding "Clickers" into Classroom Instruction: Benefits and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Erika; Gulchak, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Student response systems, often called clickers, have become more popular and visible in the K-12 classroom in recent years. There are numerous competing systems on the market, but all perform the same function: to allow the student to use a small hand-held device (i.e., a clicker), or even web browsers on laptops or mobile phones, to respond to…

  10. Constructivism: Its Theoretical Underpinnings, Variations, and Implications for Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kaya

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of constructivism and its implications for classroom practices. To that end, it first describes the basic features of constructivism along with its major forms or variations. It then elucidates the constructivist view of knowledge, learning, teaching, and the relationship among these constructs. More specifically,…

  11. Constructive Classroom: A Cognitive Instructional Strategy in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneetha, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study, the extent of constructivist classroom characteristics that exist in ELT (English Language Teaching) Methodology. It is an attempt to explore the constructivist learning activities and evaluation strategies, whether they are useful to the students and the instructors. This paper elevates the contrast of…

  12. Improving Instruction in the Mathematics Methods Classroom through Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofo, Jameel; Zambo, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is a continuing emphasis in the United States on improving students' mathematical abilities, and one approach is to better prepare teachers. To investigate the potential usefulness of Lesson Study to better prepare teachers, one author set out to conduct action research on his classroom practice. Specifically, he sought to determine whether…

  13. The GALAXY Classroom: An Interactive, Thematic Approach to Literacy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewison, Mitzi

    The GALAXY Classroom, developed as a nation-wide reform effort, was designed to make a significant positive difference in the educational lives of elementary school students who have traditionally been labeled "at-risk." As part of a 2-year demonstration and research phase, 39 elementary schools across the United States (and one school…

  14. Integrating Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction into EFL Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…

  15. Instructional Behaviors for Clearer Presentations in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Presents nine guidelines for structuring instructional presentations on all grade levels so that student achievement will be enhanced and lists the correlational and experimental research studies on which the guidelines are based. The importance of precision and structure is emphasized. (119 references) (LRW)

  16. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  17. "The Course Fit Us": Differentiated Instruction in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Mary; Zidon, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    As diversity in higher education increases, the one-size-fits-all, teacher-centered, traditional model of lecture-style teaching sets students up for failure. In addition, the strategic rhetoric of blaming students for academic failures keeps the systemic power in place, justifying the current system. In contrast, differentiated instruction, a…

  18. How Static Is the Statics Classroom? An Investigation into How Innovations, Specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies, Are Adopted into the Statics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Stephanie Leigh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how educational research, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS), is adopted by education practice, specifically within the engineering Statics classroom. Using a systematic approach, changes in classroom teaching practices were investigated from the instructors' perspective.…

  19. Flipped Classroom: A Comparison Of Student Performance Using Instructional Videos And Podcasts Versus The Lecture-Based Model Of Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retta Guy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the results of a study conducted at a comprehensive, urban, coeducational, land-grant university. A quasi-experimental design was chosen for this study to compare student performance in two different classroom environments, traditional versus flipped. The study spanned 3 years, beginning fall 2012 through spring 2015. The participants included 433 declared business majors who self-enrolled in several sections of the Management Information Systems course during the study. The results of the current study mirrored those of previous works as the instructional method impacted students’ final grade. Thus, reporting that the flipped classroom approach offers flexibility with no loss of performance when compared to traditional lecture-based environments.

  20. The Effects of the Flipped Model of Instruction on Student Engagement and Performance in the Secondary Mathematics Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Clark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many of the secondary classrooms across the country, students are passively engaged in the mathematics content, and academic performance can be described, at best, as mediocre. This research study sought to bring about improvements in student engagement and performance in the secondary mathematics classroom through the implementation of the flipped model of instruction and compared student interaction in the flipped classroom with a traditional format. The flipped model of instruction is a relatively new teaching strategy attempting to improve student engagement and performance by moving the lecture outside the classroom via technology and moving homework and exercises with concepts inside the classroom via learning activities. Changes in the student participants’ perceptions and attitudes were evidenced and evaluated through the completion of a pre- and post-survey, a teacher-created unit test, random interviews, and a focus group session. In addition, the researcher documented observations, experiences, thoughts, and insights regarding the intervention in a journal on a daily basis. Quantitative results and qualitative findings revealed the student participants responded favorably to the flipped model of instruction and experienced an increase in their engagement and communication when compared to the traditional classroom experience. The student participants also recognized improvements in the quality of instruction and use of class of time with the flipped model of instruction. In terms of academic performance, no significant changes were demonstrated between the flipped model of instruction students and those taught in a traditional classroom environment.

  1. The Effects of a Flipped Classroom Model of Instruction on Students' Performance and Attitudes Towards Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo

    2017-02-01

    This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of using flipped model of instruction, students were divided in two groups. For the first group called the experimental group, a "flipped classroom" was used in which the students were given video lessons and reading materials, before the class to be revised at home. On the other hand, the second group followed traditional methodology, and it was used as control. The rate of reaction knowledge test and the chemistry attitude scale were administered. In addition, the researcher documented classroom observations, experiences, thoughts and insights regarding the intervention in a journal on a daily basis in order to enrich the data. Students were interviewed at the end of the research in order to enrich the qualitative data also. Findings from this study reveal that the flipped instruction model facilitates a shift in students' conceptual understanding of the rate of chemical reaction significantly more than the control condition. Positive significant differences were found on all assessments with the flipped class students performing higher on average. Students in the flipped classroom model condition benefited by preparing for the lesson before the classes and had the opportunity to interact with peers and the teacher during the learning processes in the classroom. The findings support the notion that teachers should be trained or retrained on how to incorporate the flipped classroom model into their teaching and learning processes because it encourages students to be directly involved and active in the learning.

  2. The Effects of a Flipped Classroom Model of Instruction on Students' Performance and Attitudes Towards Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olakanmi, Eunice Eyitayo

    2016-10-01

    This study establishes the effects of a flipped classroom model of instruction on academic performance and attitudes of 66 first-year secondary school students towards chemistry. A pre-test and post-test experimental design was employed to assign students randomly into either the experimental or control group. In order to assess the suitability of using flipped model of instruction, students were divided in two groups. For the first group called the experimental group, a "flipped classroom" was used in which the students were given video lessons and reading materials, before the class to be revised at home. On the other hand, the second group followed traditional methodology, and it was used as control. The rate of reaction knowledge test and the chemistry attitude scale were administered. In addition, the researcher documented classroom observations, experiences, thoughts and insights regarding the intervention in a journal on a daily basis in order to enrich the data. Students were interviewed at the end of the research in order to enrich the qualitative data also. Findings from this study reveal that the flipped instruction model facilitates a shift in students' conceptual understanding of the rate of chemical reaction significantly more than the control condition. Positive significant differences were found on all assessments with the flipped class students performing higher on average. Students in the flipped classroom model condition benefited by preparing for the lesson before the classes and had the opportunity to interact with peers and the teacher during the learning processes in the classroom. The findings support the notion that teachers should be trained or retrained on how to incorporate the flipped classroom model into their teaching and learning processes because it encourages students to be directly involved and active in the learning.

  3. Beyond strategies: teacher beliefs and writing instruction in two primary inclusion classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Ruth A Wiebe

    2006-01-01

    Links between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and teaching practices were investigated with respect to process writing instruction. Participants included 5 teachers, 44 general education students, and 23 special education students in 2 elementary multi-age inclusion classrooms. Findings suggested that, although the teachers shared similar views on inclusion and were convinced of the uniqueness of their respective instructional approaches, they nuanced their writing instruction to conform to their implicit theories about teaching, learning, and disability. One set of teachers believed that the writing "breakdowns" of students with disabilities required a structural approach-sequenced, individualized, phonics-based instruction targeting individual performance levels. Another set of teachers advocated a relational approach, wherein students with disabilities are "protected" and "empowered" in learning communities characterized by shared activities, student choice, and interpersonal communication.

  4. The Flipped Classroom Teaching Model and Its Use for Information Literacy Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arnold-Garza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The “flipped classroom” teaching model has emerged in a variety of educational settings. It provides many advantages for students and exploits the affordances of modern technology. This article describes some of the pedagogical and logistical characteristics of the flipped teaching model. It situates the flipped classroom in higher education and library instruction, and make the case that there are characteristics of information literacy instruction that fit well with the flipped teaching model, in addition to providing some unique challenges.

  5. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): the dimensionality of student perceptions of the instructional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M; Demers, Joseph A; Christ, Theodore J

    2014-06-01

    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale items. Participants included 1,465 middle school students across 48 classrooms in the Midwest. Item analysis, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was used to refine a 27-item scale with a second-order factor structure. Results support the interpretation of a single general dimension of the Classroom Teaching Environment with 6 subscale dimensions: Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Presentation, Goal Setting, Differentiated Instruction, Formative Feedback, and Instructional Enjoyment. Applications of REACT in research and practice are discussed along with implications for future research and the development of classroom environment measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. The effects of differentiated instruction on academic achievement in a second-grade science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, Ann M.

    Education in the United States is moving quickly toward holding school districts more accountable for the academic success of all students. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if utilizing differentiated instructional strategies had an impact on student achievement. Differentiated instruction, based on the theory of constructivism, is a means of meeting the needs of all learners within a single classroom. Teachers must vary how and what they teach, as well as how they evaluate. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine the impact instruction using differentiated strategies had on the academic achievement of second-grade students in life science and in physical science. Students in the differentiated instructional classes were found to score significantly greater than their traditionally instructed peers. School districts across the United States can benefit from the findings of this study. Teachers at all levels should be trained in differentiated instruction to better serve their students. Differentiated instruction provides all children better opportunities to learn, resulting in more academically equipped and contributing members of society.

  7. Cutting edge technology to enhance nursing classroom instruction at Coppin State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Crystal Day; Watties-Daniels, A Denyce

    2006-01-01

    Educational technologies have changed the paradigm of the teacher-student relationship in nursing education. Nursing students expect to use and to learn from cutting edge technology during their academic careers. Varied technology, from specified software programs (Tegrity and Blackboard) to the use of the Internet as a research medium, can enhance student learning. The authors provide an overview of current cutting edge technologies in nursing classroom instruction and its impact on future nursing practice.

  8. Managing Inquiry-Based Science: Challenges in Enacting Complex Science Instruction in Elementary and Middle School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher J.; Rooks, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    Effectively enacting inquiry-based science instruction entails considerable changes in classroom management practices. In this article, we describe five interconnected management areas that need to be addressed when managing an inquiry-oriented K-8 science classroom. We introduce a pyramid model as a framework for thinking about these management…

  9. A Study on the Usefulness of Audio-Visual Aids in EFL Classroom: Implications for Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nalliveettil George; Alidmat, Ali Odeh Hammoud

    2013-01-01

    A resourceful English language teacher equipped with eclecticism is desirable in English as a foreign language classroom. The challenges of classroom instruction increases when prescribed English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course books (textbooks) are constituted with too many interactive language proficiency activities. Most importantly, it has…

  10. The Relationship between Educators' Attitudes towards Instructional Technology and Implementation of the Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating instructional technology within the elementary classroom is required by both state and federal mandates, set forth in the form of standards and guidelines. The integration of technology within the classroom setting requires time, training, and teacher willingness. Teachers are likely to develop beliefs and attitudes regarding the…

  11. Live Webcam Coaching to Help Early Elementary Classroom Teachers Provide Effective Literacy Instruction for Struggling Readers: The Targeted Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly…

  12. Classroom tandem – Outlining a Model for Language Learning and Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri KARJALAINEN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedish-medium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.

  13. Integrating Planetarium and Classroom Instruction to Engage Children in the Practices of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, J. D.; Small, K. J.

    2014-07-01

    Children should be learning how to engage in science practices in ways that reflect the domain-specific nature of learning to “do science.” Our work explores methods for engaging children in science practices in astronomy, such as developing representations and models, using evidence, and organizing observations into patterns. We used research literature on learning in formal and informal environments to develop learning environment design principles that integrate classroom and planetarium instruction. These were used to develop an intervention for first-grade students. Children first participated in an anticipatory lesson in their classroom. They next visited the planetarium, where they were engaged in a modular planetarium design program that mixed live interaction with video sequences. Finally, children applied what they learned as they engaged in activities in their classroom. Initial analysis of interviews conducted with children before and after instruction suggest the intervention was successful in improving students' reasoning about the Moon and illustrates successful methods of integrating a field trip with a classroom-based lesson.

  14. Elementary English Language Instruction: Colombian Teachers’ Classroom Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid Múnera Isabel Cristina

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Key words: Public Elementary-English-Language Instruction, English-Foreign Language, Ethnography-Research-Method, Teaching-Methodology Este artículo presenta los resultados preliminares de una investigación etnográfica acerca de las estrategias metodológicas utilizadas por profesores de básica primaria que enseñan inglés como lengua extranjera en 7 escuelas públicas del área metropolitana del municipio de Medellín. En la primera parte se resalta la importancia de esta investigación en nuestro medio y en la segunda, de los 12 profesores participantes y un análisis de la metodología empleada por ellos con respecto a las actividades de clase, los materiales y el rol del estudiante y del profesor. Finalmente, se discuten algunas de las implicaciones de este proyecto de investigación en la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras a niños. Palabras claves: Inglés-Enseñanza-Básica Primaria, Lengua Extranjera-Inglés, Estudio Etnográfico-Investigación, Enseñanza-Metodología

  15. Teacher Progress Monitoring of Instructional and Behavioral Management Practices: An Evidence-Based Approach to Improving Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    In the era of teacher evaluation and effectiveness, assessment tools that identify and monitor educators' instruction and behavioral management practices are in high demand. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS) Observer Form is a multidimensional teacher progress monitoring tool designed to assess teachers' usage of instructional and behavioral…

  16. Phonetics and Technology in the Classroom: A Practical Approach to Using Speech Analysis Software in Second-Language Pronunciation Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    While speech analysis technology has become an integral part of phonetic research, and to some degree is used in language instruction at the most advanced levels, it appears to be mostly absent from the beginning levels of language instruction. In part, the lack of incorporation into the language classroom can be attributed to both the lack of…

  17. Reading Comprehension Strategies in Secondary Content Area Classrooms: Teacher Use of and Attitudes towards Reading Comprehension Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methodology study was to identify the frequency of reading comprehension instruction in middle and high school social studies and science classrooms. An additional purpose was to explore teachers' perceptions of and beliefs about the need for reading comprehension instruction. In 2,400 minutes of direct classroom…

  18. Training Pre-Service Chinese Language Teachers to Create Instructional Video to Enhance Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lih-Ching Chen; Wang, Ming-Chian Ken

    2014-01-01

    Foreign language instruction is a complex and challenging task made even more so by situations in which the learner's native language is radically different from the foreign language being mastered. Nowhere is this more evident than in the case of native English speakers seeking to learn Mandarin Chinese. The rapid increase in the availability and…

  19. Classroom Instructional Quality, Exposure to Mathematics Instruction and Mathematics Achievement in Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottmar, Erin R.; Decker, Lauren E.; Cameron, Claire E.; Curby, Timothy W.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the quality of teacher-child interactions and exposure to mathematics instruction as predictors of 5th grade student's mathematics achievement. The sample was a subset of the children involved in the NICHD-SECC longitudinal study (N = 657). Results indicate that, even after controlling for student demographic…

  20. Use of learner-centered instruction in college science and mathematics classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczyk, Jeffrey J.

    2003-08-01

    Learner-centered approaches to science and mathematics instruction assume that only when students are active participants will learning be deep, enduring, and enjoyable, and transfer to contexts beyond the classroom. Although their beneficial effects are well known, the extent to which learner-centered practices are used in college classrooms may be low. Surveys of undergraduate science and math majors reveal general dissatisfaction with how courses in their majors are taught, and their number is half what it was 2 decades ago. In response, federally funded systemic reform initiatives have targeted increasing the use learner-centered instruction in science and mathematics courses to improve undergraduate education generally and the training of preservice teachers specifically. Few data exist regarding how effective these initiatives have been or how frequently learned-centered instruction occurs as assessed from faculty's perspective, which may not corroborate undergraduate perceptions. Accordingly, a survey was developed to assess the use of learner-centered techniques and was administered to science and math professors of Louisiana over the Internet. The return rate was 28%. Analyses reveal that they are used infrequently, but when used, are applied to all aspects of teaching. Data also suggest that federal funding has been slightly effective in promoting its use.

  1. A case study examining classroom instructional practices at a U.S. dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A

    2005-06-01

    A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.

  2. English language teaching methodology in a call classroom: Testing and evaluating traditional grammar instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Jasmina P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the revised Research Policy issued by the Executive Committee of the European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning, research in the area of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL, should guide language pedagogies rather than the availability of new technologies and functionalities. Accordingly, the aim of this research was to test a combination of methods and techniques rooted in traditional grammar instruction by alternating them in a conventional classroom setting (based on paper and a whiteboard and an experimental CALL setting. The hypothesis was that if the classroom activities were anchored in traditional grammar teaching methodology, the CALL environment would prove as comprehensive as the conventional classroom, thus stimulating and yielding positive results. By means of grammar-based teaching and communicative learning the grammar item 'meaning of modal verbs' was taught. Based on a quasi-experiment and the principles of a repeated measures research design, the performance of 50 students at two English language departments was alternatively measured in both the conventional and the experimental classroom settings in several subsequent instances. The analysis of the data resulted in the conclusion that the overall performance of the participants in the experimental setting exceeded the performance in the conventional setting.

  3. Engagement, Alignment, and Rigor as Vital Signs of High-Quality Instruction: A Classroom Visit Protocol for Instructional Improvement and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Diane M.; Rogge, Ronald D.; Deci, Edward L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates engagement (E), alignment (A), and rigor (R) as vital signs of high-quality teacher instruction as measured by the EAR Classroom Visit Protocol, designed by the Institute for Research and Reform in Education (IRRE). Findings indicated that both school leaders and outside raters could learn to score the protocol with…

  4. College of Education Graduate School Students Examine the Advantages of Integrating Research-Based Instructional Theories into Every Day Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costley, Kevin C.; Tyler, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    College of Education students are always interested in the purpose and use of educational theories and what theories can be used to aid in classroom instruction and learning. This article contains written dialogues from of university educational graduate students elaborating on their personal perceptions of the usefulness of theories in public…

  5. The transfer of learning process: From an elementary science methods course to classroom instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nina Leann

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore the transfer of learning process in student teachers. This was carried out by focusing on information learned from an elementary science methods and how it was transferred into classroom instruction during student teaching. Participants were a purposeful sampling of twelve elementary education student teachers attending a public university in north Mississippi. Factors that impacted the transfer of learning during lesson planning and implementation were sought. The process of planning and implementing a ten-day science instructional unit during student teaching was examined through lesson plan documentation, in-depth individual interviews, and two focus group interviews. Narratives were created to describe the participants' experiences as well as how they plan for instruction and consider science pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Categories and themes were then used to build explanations applying to the research questions. The themes identified were Understanding of Science PCK, Minimalism, Consistency in the Teacher Education Program, and Emphasis on Science Content. The data suggested that the participants lack in their understanding of science PCK, took a minimalistic approach to incorporating science into their ten-day instructional units, experienced inconsistencies in the teacher education program, and encountered a lack of emphasis on science content in their field experience placements. The themes assisted in recognizing areas in the elementary science methods courses, student teaching field placements, and university supervision in need of modification.

  6. Motivating Lessons: A Classroom-Oriented Investigation of the Effects of Content-Based Instruction on EFL Young Learners' Motivated Behaviours and Classroom Verbal Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuei-Min

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of content-based language instruction (CBLI) on EFL young learners' motivated behaviours, namely attention, engagement, and eager volunteering, and classroom verbal interaction. Situational factors play vital roles in shaping language learners' motivation particularly in EFL contexts. While many private schools…

  7. LEARNING STYLE AMONG GRADE V PUPILS OF AN URBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN CAVITE, PHILIPPINES: A BASIS FOR CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S.Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally learning style is a contributory factor in the teaching – learning processes. This study aimed to determine the learning style and its relationship to age, sex, monthly income and academic performance as basis tom improve classroom instruction. It employed the descriptive research method utilizing frequency count, percentage, mean, standard deviation, spearman rank correlation and chi-square test of independence. The study found out the grade V pupils are generally auditory learners. Therefore, they could best learn through listening. It is therefore recommended that the grade V teachers provide classroom instruction like taking down notes, mapping, coupled with lecture and explanation or through listening to a recorded discussion.

  8. Science discourse in a middle-grade classroom attempting learning community-centered science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Mark Arnold

    This dissertation focuses on the development of students' scientific literacy discourse in a middle grade science classroom as the teacher attempted to establish a learning community. Instructional design features included a change in teacher and students' roles such that authority over many classroom decisions was shared and students were encouraged to design their own investigations within the context of extended learning projects. The study followed the progress of two groups of four students, representing diversity in academic performance, gender, and ethnicity, over the course of four months. Target group discourse was recorded once every other school day and then transcribed. Accompanying field notes were written. Classroom artifacts, including a complete set of daily lesson plans, instructional materials, and student products, were collected. The interpretive framework, which highlighted different discourse practices and the instructional moves that supported them, evolved during data analysis as it was repeatedly tried out against the empirical materials through stages of data reduction, display, conclusion drawing, and verification. Analysis of the teacher's practice indicated that he initiated and maintained a classroom learning community by encouraging students to (a) think about their thinking by responding to questions that promoted such reflection; (b) share their reflections and other written products with each other and revise them through peer review; (c) decide for themselves which science content was relevant to their investigations; (d) share problem solving strategies; and (e) debate the meaning of terms so that a common understanding of science concepts could be developed. The teacher modeled and asked questions to promote these reflective and collaborative practices, successively withdrawing his active involvement in group dialogue as the term progressed. Analysis of students' discourse indicated that students increasingly developed

  9. Observing the interactive qualities of L2 instructional practices in ESL and FSL classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zuniga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Discourse features that promote the generation of interactionally modified input and output, such as negotiation for meaning, have been shown to significantly enhance second language acquisition. Research has also identified several characteristics of instructional practices that render them more or less propitious to the generation of these discourse features. While various classroom observation studies have successfully measured the communicative orientation of classroom environments, most of the indicators of interactivity analyzed in those studies were obtained through micro-level discourse analyses and not through macro-level analyses of task-related factors shown to directly influence the interactivity of instructional practices. Such a macro-level scale has potential practical implications for teachers and administrators seeking an efficient tool for assessing and improving the interactivity afforded by a given curriculum. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop macro-level scale to determine the extent to which teachers of French and English as a second language use interaction-friendly instructional practices. Using an observation scheme designed to code data on factors shown to influence interactivity, 63 hours of FSL and ESL classes from secondary schools in the Montreal area were observed and analyzed. Results indicate clear differences between the two groups. While both ESL and FSL classes were less teacher-centered than those observed in previous studies, they were still rated as not-very-interactive. Target language differences showed that the FSL classes were more teacher-centered and characterized by fewer interaction-friendly tasks and activities than the ESL classes. Task characteristics, reasons for ESL and FSL differences and recommendations for improvement are discussed.

  10. The Distribution of Instructional Time and Its Effect on Group Cohesion in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Comparison of Intensive and Standard Format Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinger, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues for the influence of the distribution of instructional time on group cohesion in the foreign language classroom and postulates that concentrating classroom time enhances group cohesion. To test the hypothesis, a comparative classroom study of two groups of Spanish learners in their second year of learning, one following an…

  11. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Interactive Laser Disc and Classroom Video Tape for Safety Instruction of General Motors Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, James; Wagner, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Describes evaluation that assessed the effectiveness of the Interactive Laser Disc System (ILDS) Training Program in comparison with classroom instruction with videotape for training of General Motors workers. Topics discussed include achievement test, attitude scales, opinion surveys, user preference questionnaires, interviews, and variables that…

  12. English-Medium Instruction in Hong Kong: Illuminating a Grey Area in School Policies and Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen; Morrison, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Research into the medium of instruction (MOI) in Hong Kong has traditionally focused on years 7-9; thus, little is known about school policies and classroom practices in the crucial senior-secondary years which fall beyond the ambit of government diktats. This lacuna is particularly conspicuous in the case of Chinese-medium schools, whose students…

  13. Integrating Graphic Nonfiction into Classroom Reading and Content Area Instruction: A Critical Literacy Focus on Selection Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Karla J.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the importance of nonfiction literature in classroom instruction is not new within the field of education. The recent implementation of the Common Core State Standards (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010) has brought an increased policy focus. The Common…

  14. The Influence of Principal Leadership on Classroom Instruction and Student Learning: A Study of Mediated Pathways to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, James; Allensworth, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the influence of principal leadership in high schools on classroom instruction and student achievement through key organizational factors, including professional capacity, parent-community ties, and the school's learning climate. It identifies paths through which leadership explains differences in achievement and…

  15. Associations of Newly Qualified Teachers' Beliefs with Classroom Management Practices and Approaches to Instruction over One School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aus, Kati; Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Poom-Valickis, Katrin; Eisenschmidt, Eve; Kikas, Eve

    2017-01-01

    We focus on assessing whether newly qualified teachers' professional outcome expectations and their beliefs about students' intellectual potential are associated with teachers' self-reported classroom management and instructional practices. One hundred and eighteen novice teachers participating in the induction year programme were studied during…

  16. A Survey of Exemplar Teachers' Perceptions, Use, and Access of Computer-Based Games and Technology for Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Michael D.; Marks, Yaela

    2013-01-01

    This research reports and analyzes for archival purposes surveyed perceptions, use, and access by 259 United States based exemplar Primary and Secondary educators of computer-based games and technology for classroom instruction. Participating respondents were considered exemplary as they each won the Milken Educator Award during the 1996-2009…

  17. Differentiating Instruction "in the Regular" Classroom: How To Reach and Teach All Learners, Grades 3-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heacox, Diane

    This book provides a wide variety of strategies for differentiating instruction for students in grades 3-12. Chapter 1 presents an overview of differentiated content, process, and product, and the role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom. Chapter 2 focuses on the first step of differentiation: gathering information about students. Chapter…

  18. Beyond Measurement-Driven Instruction: Achieving Deep Learning Based on Constructivist Learning Theory, Integrated Assessment, and a Flipped Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, James A.; Fuller, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    The authors focus on the critical role of assessment within a flipped classroom environment where instruction is based on constructivist learning theory and where desired student outcomes are at the higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. While assessment is typically thought of in terms of providing summative measures of performance or achievement, it…

  19. Intensification of the Learning Process: Automated Instructional Resources Retrieval System. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The problem of finding relevant material to answer a classroom need is the focus of this report. The Automated Instructional Resources Retrieval System (AIRR) is designed to assist teachers by storing information in a number of categories, including the following: media type, maturity level, length, producer or publisher, main curriculum area,…

  20. Prospect for Cell Phones as Instructional Tools in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Roksana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of cell phone use in the EFL classroom of Bangladesh as an instructional tool. The researcher conducted a case study on Jahangirnagar University of Bangladesh. For the study, some SMS based class tests were conducted in the English Department of the university where one hundred…

  1. The Relationship between Extrinsic Motivation, Home Literacy, Classroom Instructional Practices, and Reading Proficiency in Second-Grade Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-kum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how students' extrinsic motivation, home literacy and classroom instructional practices were related to the students' reading proficiency of 734 Chinese second-graders (48.2 per cent girls and 51.4 per cent boys) from twenty-two classes in seven primary schools in Hong Kong. The mean student age was 7.5 years. All…

  2. The Effect of Virtual vs. Traditional Classroom Instruction on Creative Thinking of Iranian High School EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzaneh, Soheila Shafiee; Baharlooie, Roya

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of virtual vs. traditional classroom instruction on creative thinking among Iranian High school EFL Learners. One-hundred and forty three female of high and low level of proficiency, who were selected randomly, were assigned to two VLI (N = 60) and TCI group (N = 60) based on their scores in OPT. Then, each group…

  3. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  4. Temperament and Teacher-Child Conflict in Preschool: The Moderating Roles of Classroom Instructional and Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Hawley, Leslie; Molfese, Victoria J.; Tu, Xiaoqing; Prokasky, Amanda; Sirota, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This study is an examination of (a) links between preschool children's temperament (effortful control, shyness, and anger) and teacher-child conflict and (b) classroom instructional and emotional support as moderators of associations between temperament and teacher-child conflict. Children (N = 104) were enrolled in 23…

  5. Understanding Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment within Eighth Grade Science Classrooms for Special Needs Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedell, Kate Elizabeth

    also provided an in-depth interview as part of the data collection. This comprehensive set of over 200 pieces of data, which includes observations and interviews, as well as artifacts and annotations from the ePortfolios, was analyzed using a grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). Six central themes emerged from the data. The findings indicated that teachers incorporated some elements of differentiation, personalization and a limited number of components under UDL to support all learners, including students with special needs. There was no indication that the teachers implemented individualization. In other words, there was limited evidence that teachers planned specifically for meeting the needs of students with a specific disability; rather, they focused on collectively meeting the needs of all learners. They recognized the importance of accounting for student motivation and sought to provide hands-on, authentic learning opportunities to motivate and engage students. Yet, they did not survey and/or ask students for their perception of their classroom experiences. While teachers did utilize the electronic portfolio and found it valuable to varying degrees, they indicated that collaboration and visiting other classrooms were essential to their professional development. Implications from this study include (1) ensuring that teachers understand the differences among differentiation, personalization, individualization and universal design for learning; (2) training for teachers on how to properly differentiate, personalize and individualize instruction, as well as how to implement universal design for learning; (3) providing teachers with follow-up support within the classroom to properly implement the approaches mentioned above; (4) training for teachers on the importance of eliciting students' perceptions and how to gauge those perceptions; (5) properly disseminating information to policymakers on the realities of the classrooms and the challenges in

  6. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J

    1979-01-01

    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase.

  7. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders’ vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L.; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students’ literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students’ comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement. PMID:25400293

  8. Capturing the complexity: Content, type, and amount of instruction and quality of the classroom learning environment synergistically predict third graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Spencer, Mercedes; Day, Stephanie L; Giuliani, Sarah; Ingebrand, Sarah W; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J

    2014-08-01

    We examined classrooms as complex systems that affect students' literacy learning through interacting effects of content and amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction along with the global quality of the classroom-learning environment. We observed 27 third grade classrooms serving 315 target students using two different observation systems. The first assessed instruction at a more micro-level; specifically, the amount of time individual students spent in literacy instruction defined by the type of instruction, role of the teacher, and content. The second assessed the quality of the classroom-learning environment at a more macro level focusing on classroom organization, teacher responsiveness, and support for vocabulary and language. Results revealed that both global quality of the classroom learning environment and time individual students spent in specific types of literacy instruction covering specific content interacted to predict students' comprehension and vocabulary gains whereas neither system alone did. These findings support a dynamic systems model of how individual children learn in the context of classroom literacy instruction and the classroom-learning environment, which can help to improve observations systems, advance research, elevate teacher evaluation and professional development, and enhance student achievement.

  9. Do emotional support and classroom organization earlier in the year set the stage for higher quality instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia

    2013-10-01

    Many teachers believe that providing greater emotional and organizational supports in the beginning of the year strengthens their ability to teach effectively as the year progresses. Some interventions, such as the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach, explicitly embed this sequence into professional development efforts. We tested the hypothesis that earlier emotional and organizational supports set the stage for improved instruction later in the year in a sample of third- and fourth-grade teachers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the RC approach. Further, we examined the extent to which the model generalized for teachers using varying levels of RC practices as well as whether or not teachers were in the intervention or control groups. Teachers' emotional, organizational, and instructional interactions were observed using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) on five occasions throughout the year. Results indicated a reciprocal relation between emotional and instructional supports. Specifically, higher levels of emotional support earlier in the year predicted higher instructional support later in the year. Also, higher levels of instructional support earlier in the year predicted higher emotional support later in the year. Classroom organization was not found to have longitudinal associations with the other domains across a year. This pattern was robust when controlling for the use of RC practices as well as across intervention and control groups. Further, teachers' use of RC practices predicted higher emotional support and classroom organization throughout the year, suggesting the malleability of this teacher characteristic. Discussion highlights the connection between teachers' emotional and instructional supports and how the use of RC practices improves teachers' emotionally supportive interactions with students.

  10. Instructional characteristics in mathematics classrooms: relationships to achievement goal orientation and student engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, Rebecca; Rubach, Charlott

    2017-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning, support for autonomy, and competence in mathematic classrooms (Time 1), and students' achievement goal orientations and engagement in mathematics 6 months later (Time 2). We tested whether student-perceived instructional characteristics at Time 1 indirectly related to student engagement at Time 2, via their achievement goal orientations (Time 2), and, whether student gender moderated these relationships. Participants were ninth and tenth graders (55.2% girls) from 46 classrooms in ten secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. Only data from students who participated at both timepoints were included (N = 746 out of total at Time 1 1118; dropout 33.27%). Longitudinal structural equation modeling showed that student-perceived teaching for meaning and support for competence indirectly predicted intrinsic motivation and effort, via students' mastery goal orientation. These paths were equivalent for girls and boys. The findings are significant for mathematics education, in identifying motivational processes that partly explain the relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning and competence support and intrinsic motivation and effort in mathematics.

  11. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara E.

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  12. K--12 science educator perception of instructing students with learning disabilities in the regular classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday-Cashwell, Janet Rose

    2000-10-01

    Selected K--12 public school science educators in 14 eastern North Carolina counties were surveyed to examine their perceptions of their undergraduate preparation programs with regard to instructing students with learning disabilities in the regular classroom. A quantitative study, this research examined science educator preparedness in instructing students with learning disabilities by evaluating educator perception in regard to mainstrearned and inclusive educational settings. Specifically, two null hypotheses were tested. Null hypothesis I stated a significant difference does not exist between selected North Carolina K--12 science educators' perceptions of their undergraduate teacher education preparation programs and their perceptions of their abilities to instruct students needing accommodations on behalf of their learning disabilities in mainstrearned or inclusive settings. Participants' responses to perception as well as value statements regarding opinions, adaptations, and undergraduate training with respect to mainstreaming and inclusion were evaluated through t-test analyses of 22 Likert-scale items. Null hypothesis 1 was not accepted because a statistically significant difference did exist between the educators' perceptions of their undergraduate training and their perceived abilities to instruct students with learning disabilities in mainstreamed or inclusive settings. Null hypothesis 2 stated a significant difference does not exist between selected North Carolina K--12 science educators' attained educational level; grade level currently taught, supervised or chaired; and years of experience in teaching science, supervising science education, and/or chairing science departments in selected North Carolina public schools and their opinions of their undergraduate teacher education program with regard to instructing students with learning disabilities in mainstreamed or inclusive educational settings. Null hypothesis 2 was evaluated through an analysis of

  13. Teaching science in culturally diverse classrooms: The relevance of multicultural coursework on novice teachers' instructional choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Thais B. P. da

    Science education reform in the United States has been slow to reduce the troubling science achievement gap between students from mainstream and non-mainstream backgrounds. Recent data suggest the gap persists in spite of improved attention to the multicultural education of teachers, and in spite of recent, more culturally inclusive and responsive curricular materials and instructional recommendations. In this study, I examine the cases of two European American male novice science teachers in middle schools with highly diverse populations, exploring their perceptions of the necessity of adapting their instructional approaches and the science curricula in order to meet the needs of their predominantly Native American, Mexican American, and African American students. Two theoretical frameworks inform this study, Rodriguez's (2005) sociotransformative constructivism, and Freire's critical pedagogy. I apply a qualitative case study method, to better understand and analyze the classroom setting and power relations of the context. Data consist of semi-structured interviews with each teacher, classroom observation and other field notes, the science curricular and instructional materials, and teachers' lesson plans. Each teacher acknowledged the ethnicities of students positively and noticed distinctive ethnocultural features (e.g., quinceaneras, Mexican Americans). Yet, their teaching approaches were primarily teacher-centric and monocultural. Each followed the book, usually lecturing, and striving dutifully to "cover" the topics. They did not solicit students' knowledge or engage them in dialog to explore their thinking. Even when the curriculum guide detailed relevant science knowledge students of some cultural groups might have, both teachers declined to use it. These well-meaning teachers did not fully perceive that students whose culture was different from their own might have different and relevant knowledge, experiences, or histories which were resources for

  14. Effective Classroom Instruction: Implications of Child Characteristics by Reading Instruction Interactions on First Graders' Word Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Toste, Jessica R.; Lundblom, Erin; Crowe, Elizabeth C.; Fishman, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Too many children fail to learn how to read proficiently with serious consequences for their overall well-being and long-term success in school. This may be because providing effective instruction is more complex than many of the current models of reading instruction portray; there are Child Characteristic x Instruction (CXI) interactions. Here we…

  15. Beginning secondary science teachers' classroom roles and instructional methods: An exploratory study of conflicts within practical theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearden, Kristin Theresa

    There are a myriad of factors which influence a teacher' s classroom behaviors. Taken together, these factors are referred to as a teacher's practical theory. Some of the elements of practical theories are perceptions regarding classroom role, impressions of student abilities, reflection on experiences, and content knowledge. First-year teachers, or beginning teachers, are faced with many new challenges as they embark on their endeavor to facilitate the learning of their students. The congruence of the elements within their practical theories of teaching can provide the foundation for consistency within their classroom practices. The researcher investigated two aspects of the practical theories of beginning secondary science teachers. The first aspect was teachers' perceptions of their roles in the classroom The second aspect was teachers' intended instructional methods. Interview data from 27 beginning secondary science teachers who earned their teacher certification from one of three institutions were used for the study. The interviews were analyzed for information regarding the aforementioned aspects. An interview theme analysis (Hewson, Kerby, & Cook, 1995) was completed for each teacher. The characterization of each teacher's role was based on three categories outlined by Fenstermacher and Soltis (1986): Executive, Therapist, and Liberationist. In describing their classroom role, most of the teachers alluded to an Executive-type approach to teaching, in which their concerns regarding conveyance of content, processes or skills were paramount. In many cases, they mentioned the use of more than one instructional method; topics and variability in student learning styles accounted for the implementation of multiple methods. Methods usually included activities or hands-on experiences. Some teachers mentioned a certain "feel" of the classroom that was necessary for student learning. More than two-thirds of the teachers either expressed conflicts in their interview or

  16. An analysis of science instruction in the fifth-grade science classroom: Investigating activity-based instruction with student-generated discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowell, Julie E.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which debriefing impacts the level of cognitive understanding among students in the fifth-grade science classroom. This mixed methods study involved two fifth-grade science classrooms (N = 39) in a one month exploration of rocks and minerals. Two fifth-grade science classrooms participated in a unit using identical content, but had different pedagogical orientations. The experimental class was taught using the "Do-Talk-Do-Debrief" instructional method and the control class was taught using the "Do-Talk-Do" instructional method without the "Debrief" (metacognitive component). Research for the quantitative portion of this study was conducted using a pretest-posttest control-group design. The design was used to test the hypothesized relationship between an activity-based instructional method with debriefing and students' achievement. Two intact, equivalent fifth-grade classes were randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. Prior to the beginning of the study, a researcher-developed pretest was administered to all participants to assess the students' prior knowledge of rocks and minerals. A posttest measure was given to the participants upon conclusion of the unit to measure knowledge and understanding. Following the posttest, the participants did not receive additional instruction over rocks and minerals. A similar posttest was administered to both groups two weeks later as an added measure for retention. A t-test for independent samples was used to examine differences on the pretest between the experimental and control groups. Likewise, a t-test was used to compare the mean scores on the first posttest (achievement). A separate t-test was conducted on the second posttest (retention) and was followed by a Pearson Product Moment Correlation, conducted by group. Research for the qualitative portion of this study involved classroom observations throughout the rock and mineral unit followed by a teacher

  17. Second Language Learners' Beliefs about Grammar Instruction and Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Shawn; Li, Shaofeng; Fei, Fei; Thompson, Amy; Nakatsukasa, Kimi; Ahn, Seongmee; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2009-01-01

    Learner beliefs are an important individual difference in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, an ongoing debate surrounds the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom. Therefore, this study investigated the beliefs of L2 learners regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error correction. A…

  18. Comparison of student perceptions of classroom instruction: Traditional, hybrid, and distance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Garcia BIGGS

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article reports the results of a project that examined student perceptions of the psychosocial learning environment in a distance education classroom. The study utilized a survey instrument, Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES that was distributed as a pre-test/post-test to three sections of the same course taught in three distinct formats: traditional classroom instruction, distance learning, and hybrid (partially on-line/partially face-to-face. The DELES survey is a web-based tool specifically designed to assess the learning environment using a standardized, validated instrument. At the beginning of the project, the DELES-Preferred was administered to the three pilot groups. It measures the perception of the “actual” environment, perceptions of the preferred environment, or the “ideal” learning environment of the students. In addition, a brief overview of the DELES instrument is described as well as the implications of the research project findings. Project results, based on the DELES administration, indicate that Instructor Support was rated highest by the students enrolled in the course taught in the traditional manner (4.68 mean closely followed by the Hybrid course (4.66 mean while the course taught totally at a distance averaged a 3.62 mean. However, Student Interaction and Collaboration averaged higher scores in the course taught in the Hybrid manner (4.23 followed by the traditional course (3.97 and then the distance course (3.12. Specific scales of Personal Relevance, Authentic Learning, Active Learning, Student Autonomy and Satisfaction (scale of affect are further addressed in the article.

  19. A comparison of the classroom dynamics of a problem-solving and traditional laboratory model of instruction using path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzini, Edward L.; Shepardson, Daniel P.

    The classroom dynamics (class setting, lesson structure, student interactions, and student behaviors) of a traditional laboratory and a problem-solving Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) model of instruction were compared using path analysis. Class setting was based on small-group/large-group settings. Lesson structure variables were problem finding/refining, research designing, data collecting, data analyzing, and evaluating. The student-student interactions variable was determined by student-student responding, student-student initiating, and student (self-) interaction; while the teacher-student interaction variable was based on teacher-student initiating and teacher-student responding. The dependent variables of student behavior consisted of attending, responding, following, soliciting, and giving. A causal model was hypothesized for both instructional models based on the independent and dependent variables. The hypothesized causal model was tested using path-analysis procedures described by Pedhazur (1982). The hypothesized causal models were adjusted based on path coefficients with levels of significance greater than p = 0.05. While the descriptive data indicated a similarity in the classroom dynamics of the two instructional models, path analysis indicated a difference in the classroom dynamics. In the traditional laboratory model, student behaviors did not correlate to lesson structure, class setting, or student interactions, whereas in the SSCS problem-solving model student behaviors correlated to aspects of the lesson structure, class setting, and student interactions.

  20. Predicting Student Achievement in University-Level Business and Economics Classes: Peer Observation of Classroom Instruction and Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the validity of peer observation of classroom instruction for purposes of faculty evaluation. Using both a multi-section course sample and a sample of different courses across a university's School of Business and Economics we find that the results of annual classroom observations of faculty teaching are significantly and positively…

  1. Instructional Technology Innovation in the Liberal Arts Classroom: A Conversation with the Maryville College Faculty Instructional Technology (FIT) Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gina; Berry, Chad; Nugent, Chris; Wentz, Karen; Cowan, Peggy; O'Gorman, Mark

    Maryville College's (Tennessee) first Faculty Instructional Technology (FIT) Fellows, who received funding and release time to develop technology-based instructional materials for their courses, are developing and implementing exciting projects in history, religion, freshman seminar, and political sciences courses. In this paper, the FIT Fellows…

  2. Assessing the Integration of Computational Modeling and ASU Modeling Instruction in the High School Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, John; Schatz, Michael; Burk, John; Caballero, Marcos; Thoms, Brian

    2012-03-01

    We describe the assessment of computational modeling in a ninth grade classroom in the context of the Arizona Modeling Instruction physics curriculum. Using a high-level programming environment (VPython), students develop computational models to predict the motion of objects under a variety of physical situations (e.g., constant net force), to simulate real world phenomenon (e.g., car crash), and to visualize abstract quantities (e.g., acceleration). The impact of teaching computation is evaluated through a proctored assignment that asks the students to complete a provided program to represent the correct motion. Using questions isomorphic to the Force Concept Inventory we gauge students understanding of force in relation to the simulation. The students are given an open ended essay question that asks them to explain the steps they would use to model a physical situation. We also investigate the attitudes and prior experiences of each student using the Computation Modeling in Physics Attitudinal Student Survey (COMPASS) developed at Georgia Tech as well as a prior computational experiences survey.

  3. Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A Critical Analysis of the Role of Biology Teachers and Science Standards in Shaping Evolution Instruction in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean,…

  4. Revisiting Durkin's Dilemma: A Qualitative Analysis of What, When, and How Explicit Comprehension Instruction Is Provided in Today's K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzone, Colleen C.

    2014-01-01

    In the late 1970's, Durkin's landmark study showed that less than 1% of elementary classroom reading instruction was dedicated to comprehension strategies because teachers were not explicit in their instruction. This qualitative study explored the types of questions posed by elementary and middle school teachers to elicit students' responses and…

  5. The Effects of Deductive and Guided Inductive Instructional Approaches on the Learning of Grammar in the Elementary Foreign Language College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Carrie; Herron, Carol; Cole, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of deductive and guided inductive approaches for teaching grammar in college French classrooms. Forty-seven second-semester French students were taught eight grammatical structures: four with a deductive instructional approach and four with a guided inductive instructional approach. A quasi-experimental…

  6. How Can Blogging Help Teachers Realize the Goals of Reform-based Science Instruction? A Study of Nine Classroom Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehmann, April Lynn; Frink, Jeremiah

    2009-06-01

    Science teachers struggle with meeting curricular goals outlined by professional organizations within the constraints of traditional school. Engaging science learners as a community who collaboratively and creatively co-construct scientific understanding through inquiry requires teachers to adopt new tools as well as a different mindset about the kind of classroom culture they need to nurture. Classroom blogs (i.e., blogs that are managed by a teacher for his/her students to post their work and exchange ideas) have been purported in the literature as offering unique opportunities to achieve this goal, although with little empirical support thus far. To fill this gap, nine classroom blogs were selected through an extensive search, and systematically analyzed to determine how the teachers' instructional designs and classrooms' enactment were able to capitalize on the specific affordances blogging may offer to support reform-based learning goals. The shift in teacher mindset needed to realize blogging affordances occurred as teachers engaged with students in the process of `living' the classroom blog.

  7. A Reconsideration of the Instructional Affordances of Classroom Monitoring in English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towndrow, Phillip A.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores teachers' classroom monitoring in English language learning and asks if it has a role to play beyond what we know and recognize as mainstream classroom management. As part of a larger study of pedagogical practices in classrooms in Singapore, researchers collected and analyzed videographic data on the types and…

  8. Laptop Computers in the Elementary Classroom: Authentic Instruction with At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemker, Kate; Barron, Ann E.; Harmes, J. Christine

    2007-01-01

    This case study investigated the integration of laptop computers into an elementary classroom in a low socioeconomic status (SES) school. Specifically, the research examined classroom management techniques and aspects of authentic learning relative to the student projects and activities. A mixed methods approach included classroom observations,…

  9. Learning Designs using Flipped Classroom Instruction | Conception d’apprentissage à l’aide de l’instruction en classe inversée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Danielle Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The flipped classroom is an instructional model that leverages technology-enhanced instruction outside of class time in order to maximize student engagement and learning during class time. As part of an action research study, the authors synthesize reflections about three learning designs and how the flipped classroom model can support teaching, learning and assessment through: (1 guided collaborative discussion, (2 tabletop white boarding and (3 the development of augmented reality auras. Principles for teaching effectiveness are used as a lens to guide the reflection on the benefits and challenges with each of the learning designs. Findings suggest that flipped classroom models that emphasize collaborative learning, group work and accessibility can enable and support inquiry-based learning. Recommendations are provided for educators interested in designing learning using a flipped classroom instructional model, as well as suggestions for future action research agendas. La classe inversée est un modèle pédagogique qui met à profit l’apprentissage hors des heures en classe et qui est rehaussé par la technologie pour maximiser l’engagement et l’apprentissage des apprenants en classe. Dans le cadre de cette étude de recherche-action, les auteurs résument les réflexions sur la façon dont le modèle de la classe inversée peut appuyer l’enseignement, l’apprentissage et l’évaluation par la mise en œuvre de trois conceptions d’apprentissage par investigation : 1 discussion collaborative guidée, 2 tableau blanc de table et 3 développement d’auras en réalité augmentée. Les principes d’enseignement de l’efficacité sont utilisés comme optique guidant la réflexion sur les avantages et les défis de chacune des conceptions d’apprentissage. Les conclusions suggèrent que les modèles de classes inversées qui mettent l’accent sur l’apprentissage collaboratif, le travail en groupe et l’accessibilité peuvent

  10. From Teacher-Centred Instruction to Peer Tutoring in the Heterogeneous International Classroom: A Danish Case of Instructional Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klarissa Lueg

    2014-04-01

    Our study contributes on several levels: firstly, we provide course responsibles with a detailed insight into how a seminar redesign to RPT can be achieved. Secondly, we provide a basis for introducing such change by documenting the positive assessment as an outcome of the monitoring. We thereby address diversity and in-classroom heterogeneity on a didactical level.

  11. A qualitative study of the instructional behaviors and practices of a dyad of educators in self-contained and inclusive co-taught secondary biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Shanon D.

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1997) mandates that students with disabilities have access to the general education curriculum. School districts have developed a variety of service delivery models to provide challenging educational experiences for all students. Co-teaching or collaborative teaching is the most widely used of the different service delivery models. While the philosophy of inclusion is widely accepted, the efficacy of the various inclusion models has recently been the focus of educational research. Researchers have questioned whether the presence of a special educator in the general education classroom has resulted in students with high incidence disabilities receiving specialized instruction. A qualitative study was designed to examine the instructional behaviors and practices exhibited and used by a dyad of educators in self-contained learning disabilities and inclusive co-taught secondary Biology classrooms during a nine-week science instruction grading period. In addition to utilizing interviews, observations, and classroom observation scales to answer the research questions, supporting student data (time-sampling measurement/opportunity to learn and student grades) were collected. The study concluded that the presence of a special educator in a co-taught classroom: (1) did contribute to the creation of a new learning environment, and notable changes in the instructional behaviors and practices of a general educator; (2) did contribute to limited specialized instruction for students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms and embedded (not overt) special education practices related to the planning and decision-making of the educators; (3) did contribute to the creation of a successful co-teaching partnership including the use of effective teaching behaviors; and (4) did impact success for some of the students with disabilities in the co-taught classrooms; but (5) did not ensure the continuation of some of the new

  12. From Teacher-Centered Instruction to Peer Tutoring in the Heterogeneous International Classroom: A Danish Case of Instructional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueg, Klarissa; Lueg, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    This case study documents a seminar redesign from a teacher-centered instruction format to collaborative "reciprocal peer tutoring" (RPT) at Aarhus University, Denmark. Departing from concepts by Bourdieu and Vertovec, we argue that teaching concepts should meet the needs of students within Higher Education (HE). Our student sample is…

  13. Comparing inductive and deductive grammatical instruction in teaching German as a foreign language in Dutch classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Bazhutkina, Iryna; Steringa, Sharon; Hummel, Ingrid; Suhre, Cor

    2016-01-01

    Recent review studies show that explicit instruction is the most effective way when presenting grammar in a foreign language teaching setting. However, they do not distinguish between types of explicit instruction. This study explores what type of explicit instruction (i.e. deductive or inductive in

  14. Comparing inductive and deductive grammatical instruction in teaching German as a foreign language in Dutch classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Bazhutkina, Iryna; Steringa, Sharon; Hummel, Ingrid; Suhre, Cor

    2016-01-01

    Recent review studies show that explicit instruction is the most effective way when presenting grammar in a foreign language teaching setting. However, they do not distinguish between types of explicit instruction. This study explores what type of explicit instruction (i.e. deductive or inductive

  15. Comparing inductive and deductive grammatical instruction in teaching German as a foreign language in Dutch classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Bazhutkina, Iryna; Steringa, Sharon; Hummel, Ingrid; Suhre, Cor

    2016-01-01

    Recent review studies show that explicit instruction is the most effective way when presenting grammar in a foreign language teaching setting. However, they do not distinguish between types of explicit instruction. This study explores what type of explicit instruction (i.e. deductive or inductive in

  16. Chemistry Teachers' Perceived Benefits and Challenges of Inquiry-Based Instruction in Inclusive Chemistry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, F.; Banda, A.; Chabalengula, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on inquiry-based instruction in inclusive science teaching have mainly focused on elementary and middle school levels. Little is known about inquiry-based instruction in high school inclusive science classes. Yet, such classes have become the norm in high schools, fulfilling the instructional needs of students with mild disabilities. This…

  17. Flipped Classroom: A Comparison Of Student Performance Using Instructional Videos And Podcasts Versus The Lecture-Based Model Of Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Retta Guy; Gerald Marquis

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the results of a study conducted at a comprehensive, urban, coeducational, land-grant university. A quasi-experimental design was chosen for this study to compare student performance in two different classroom environments, traditional versus flipped. The study spanned 3 years, beginning fall 2012 through spring 2015. The participants included 433 declared business majors who self-enrolled in several sections of the Management Information Systems course during the study. T...

  18. Thinking outside the classroom: providing student-centered informatics instruction to first- and second-year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    With the increasing amount of health information available, the Association of American Medical Colleges recommends that medical students be proficient in information management. Librarians can and should play a role in teaching students these skills. Medical information management instruction is most effective if integrated into the curriculum. However, if options are limited for librarians to teach within courses, there are ways to reach students outside the classroom. This article describes strategies librarians are implementing, outside the curriculum, to teach Texas A & M Health Science Center's first- and second-year medical students how to use library resources.

  19. How Static is the Statics Classroom? An investigation into how innovations, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies, are adopted into the Statics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Stephanie Leigh

    The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate how educational research, specifically Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS), is adopted by education practice, specifically within the engineering Statics classroom. Using a systematic approach, changes in classroom teaching practices were investigated from the instructors' perspective. Both researchers and practitioners are included in the process, combining efforts to improve student learning, which is a critical goal for engineering education. The study is divided into 3 stages and each is discussed in an individual manuscript. Manuscript 1 provides an assessment of current teaching practices; Manuscript 2 explores RBIS use by Statics instructors and perceived barriers of adoption; and Manuscript 3 evaluates adoption using Fidelity of Implementation. A common set of concurrent mixed methods was used for each stage of this study. A quantitative national survey of Statics instructors (n =166) and 18 qualitative interviews were conducted to examine activities used in the Statics classroom and familiarity with nine RBIS. The results of this study show that lecturing is the most common activity throughout Statics classrooms, but is not the only activity. Other common activities included working examples and students working on problems individually and in groups. As discussed by the interview participants, each of Rogers' characteristics influenced adoption for different reasons. For example, Complexity (level of difficulty with implementation of an RBIS) was most commonly identified as a barrier. His study also evaluated the Fidelity of Implementation for each RBIS and found it to be higher for RBIS that were less complex (in terms of the number of critical components). Many of the critical components (i.e. activities required for implementation, as described in the literature) were found to statistically distinguish RBIS users and non-users. This dissertation offers four contributions: (1) an

  20. Characterization of mathematics instructional practises for prospective elementary teachers with varying levels of self-efficacy in classroom management and mathematics teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carrie W.; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Nietfeld, John L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' (PTs) instructional practises and their efficacy beliefs in classroom management and mathematics teaching. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design was employed. Results from efficacy surveys, implemented with 54 PTs were linked to a sample of teachers' instructional practises during the qualitative phase. In this phase, video-recorded lessons were analysed based on tasks, representations, discourse, and classroom management. Findings indicate that PTs with higher levels of mathematics teaching efficacy taught lessons characterised by tasks of higher cognitive demand, extended student explanations, student-to-student discourse, and explicit connections between representations. Classroom management efficacy seems to bear influence on the utilised grouping structures. These findings support explicit attention to PTs' mathematics teaching and classroom management efficacy throughout teacher preparation and a need for formative feedback to inform development of beliefs about teaching practises.

  1. Characterization of mathematics instructional practises for prospective elementary teachers with varying levels of self-efficacy in classroom management and mathematics teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carrie W.; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Nietfeld, John L.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' (PTs) instructional practises and their efficacy beliefs in classroom management and mathematics teaching. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design was employed. Results from efficacy surveys, implemented with 54 PTs were linked to a sample of teachers' instructional practises during the qualitative phase. In this phase, video-recorded lessons were analysed based on tasks, representations, discourse, and classroom management. Findings indicate that PTs with higher levels of mathematics teaching efficacy taught lessons characterised by tasks of higher cognitive demand, extended student explanations, student-to-student discourse, and explicit connections between representations. Classroom management efficacy seems to bear influence on the utilised grouping structures. These findings support explicit attention to PTs' mathematics teaching and classroom management efficacy throughout teacher preparation and a need for formative feedback to inform development of beliefs about teaching practises.

  2. Instructional Accommodations for Students with Asperger Syndrome in the General High School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Myrna

    2011-01-01

    General education teachers in the secondary sector are held responsible for adapting their lessons and classroom environment for students with Asperger Syndrome. With the growing number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder being placed in general education classrooms, teachers are faced with yet another challenge in making their curriculum…

  3. Influence of University Level Direct Instruction on Educators' Use of Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Angie M.; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research regarding technology integration in education has indicated that when technology is integrated into the classroom with fidelity it can enhance educational experiences. Research has also indicated, however that despite the growing presence of technology in classrooms, it is not being effectively utilized. The present study…

  4. Influence of University Level Direct Instruction on Educators' Use of Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Angie M.; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research regarding technology integration in education has indicated that when technology is integrated into the classroom with fidelity it can enhance educational experiences. Research has also indicated, however that despite the growing presence of technology in classrooms, it is not being effectively utilized. The present study…

  5. Factors Predicting Nurse Educators' Acceptance and Use of Educational Technology in Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Sandra D.

    2014-01-01

    Nurse educators may express a willingness to use educational technology, but they may not have the belief or ability to carry out the technology use in the classroom. The following non-experimental, quantitative study examined factors that predict nurse educators' willingness to accept and use educational technology in the classroom. The sample…

  6. An Application of Flipped Classroom Method in the Instructional Technologies and Material Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özpinar, Ilknur; Yenmez, Arzu Aydogan; Gökçe, Semirhan

    2016-01-01

    A natural outcome of change in technology, new approaches towards teaching and learning have emerged and the applicability of the flipped classroom method, a new educational strategy, in the field of education has started to be discussed. It was aimed with the study to examine the effect of using flipped classroom method in academic achievements…

  7. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  8. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  9. How fifth grade Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma R.

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, sociolinguistic research study examines how bilingual Latino/a students use their linguistic resources in the classroom and laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school in the southwestern United States serving an economically depressed, predominantly Latino population. The object of study was a fifth grade science class entirely comprised of language minority students transitioning out of bilingual education. Therefore, English was the means of instruction in science, supported by informal peer-to-peer Spanish-language communication. This study is grounded in a social constructivist paradigm. From this standpoint, learning science is a social process where social, cultural, and linguistic factors are all considered crucial to the process of acquiring scientific knowledge. The study was descriptive in nature, examining specific linguistic behaviors with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the linguistic functions of students' utterances while participating in science learning. The results suggest that students purposefully adapt their use of linguistic resources in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. What is underscored in this study is the importance of explicitly acknowledging, supporting, and incorporating bilingual students' linguistic resources both in Spanish and English into the science classroom in order to optimize students' participation and facilitate their understanding.

  10. Socioscientific Decision Making in the Science Classroom: The Effect of Embedded Metacognitive Instructions on Students' Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Eggert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cooperative training strategies to enhance students' socioscientific decision making as well as their metacognitive skills in the science classroom. Socioscientific decision making refers to both “describing socioscientific issues” as well as “developing and evaluating solutions” to socioscientific issues. We investigated two cooperative training strategies which differed with respect to embedded metacognitive instructions that were developed on the basis of the IMPROVE method. Participants were 360 senior high school students who studied either in a cooperative learning setting (COOP, a cooperative learning setting with embedded metacognitive questions (COOP+META, or a nontreatment control group. Results indicate that students in the two training conditions outperformed students in the control group on both processes of socioscientific decision making. However, students in the COOP+META condition did not outperform students in the COOP condition. With respect to students' learning outcomes on the regulation facet of metacognition, results indicate that all conditions improved over time. Students in the COOP+META condition exhibited highest mean scores at posttest measures, but again, results were not significant. Implications for integrating metacognitive instructions into science classrooms are discussed.

  11. `They might know a lot of things that I don't know': investigating differences in preservice teachers' ideas about contextualizing science instruction in multilingual classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara; Knox, Corey

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the results from a qualitative study of 72 preservice teachers' initial ideas about contextualizing science instruction with language minority students. Participants drew primarily on local ecological and multicultural contexts as resources for contextualizing instruction. However, preservice teachers enrolled in the bilingual certification program articulated more asset-oriented and less stereotypical ideas than those not seeking bilingual certification. Results can inform teacher education programs that aim to prepare graduates for teaching science in multilingual classrooms.

  12. Effectiveness of teaching automated external defibrillators use using a traditional classroom instruction versus self-instruction video in non-critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiboon, Ismail M; Qamruddin, Reza M; Jaafar, Johar M; Bakar, Afliza A; Hamzah, Faizal A; Eng, Ho S; Robertson, Colin E

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED) usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI) method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV) technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN). A prospective single-blind randomized study was conducted over 7 months (April-October 2014) at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Eighty nurses were randomized into either TCI or SIV instructional techniques. We assessed knowledge, skill and confidence level at baseline, immediate and 6-months post-intervention. Knowledge and confidence were assessed via questionnaire; skill was assessed by a calibrated and blinded independent assessor using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) method. Pre-test mean scores for knowledge in the TCI group was 10.87 ± 2.34, and for the SIV group was 10.37 ± 1.85 (maximum achievable score 20.00); 4.05 ± 2.87 in the TCI and 3.71 ± 2.66 in the SIV (maximum score 11.00) in the OSCE evaluation and 9.54 ± 3.65 in the TCI and 8.56 ± 3.47 in the SIV (maximum score 25.00) in the individual's personal confidence level. Both methods increased the mean scores significantly during immediate post-intervention (0-month). At 6-months, the TCI group scored lower than the SIV group in all aspects 11.13 ± 2.70 versus 12.95 ± 2.26 (p=0.03) in knowledge, 7.27 ± 1.62 versus 7.68 ± 1.73 (p=0.47) in the OSCE, and 16.40 ± 2.72 versus 18.82 ± 3.40 (p=0.03) in confidence level. In NCCN's, SIV is as good as TCI in providing the knowledge, competency, and confidence in performing AED defibrillation.

  13. Higher Education Science Student Perspectives on Classroom Instructional Methods: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlscheid, Jeffri C.; Davis, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Constructivist-based inquiry instruction has been popularized for several decades in primary- and secondary-science education, with overwhelmingly positive results across all sciences. Importantly, higher education faculties have begun to embrace inquiry instruction in many subject areas. In fact, a growing body of literature illustrates the…

  14. Promoting and Supporting Scientific Argumentation in the Classroom: The Evaluate-Alternatives Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an instructional model that science teachers can use to promote and support student engagement in scientific argumentation. This model is called the evaluate-alternatives instructional model and it is grounded in current research on argumentation in science education (e.g., Berland and Reiser 2009; McNeill and Krajcik 2006;…

  15. A Descriptive Case Analysis of Instructional Teaching Practices in Finnish Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Jenni; Hannikainen, Maritta; Poikonen, Pirjo-Liisa; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the diversity of teaching practices to illuminate the qualitative variety of instructional teaching practices among preschool teachers. Further, teachers' self-rated educational goals were explored to complement the multifaceted nature of preschool teachers' instructional teaching practices. The study was carried out…

  16. Counseling Instruction in the Online Classroom: A Survey of Student and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicco, Gina

    2012-01-01

    This article will review the design, procedures, and results of a recent study conducted to survey the perceptions of counseling students and professionals regarding the delivery of counseling instruction in online courses. Few studies have addressed the appropriateness, effectiveness, and evaluation procedures of counseling skills instruction via…

  17. Selecting Instructional Interventions for Students with Mild Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Marie C.; Dangel, Harry L.; Owens, Sherie H.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses factors involved in selecting appropriate inclusion intervention strategies for students with mild disabilities. Teacher-directed and student-directed interventions include direct instruction, precision teaching, time delay, story maps, advance organizers, student-directed task engagement, student-directed instruction,…

  18. Broadening Boundaries: Opportunities for Information Literacy Instruction inside and outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Lorelei; LeMire, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that libraries reimagine their information literacy instructional programs using a broader conceptualization and implementation of information literacy that promotes collaborative and personalized learning experiences for students, faculty, and staff, while embracing scalable instruction and reference strategies to maximize…

  19. Making Room for the Transformation of Literacy Instruction in the Digital Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofkova Hashemi, Sylvana; Cederlund, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Education is in the process of transforming traditional print-based instruction into digital formats. This multi-case study sheds light on the challenge of coping with the old and new in literacy teaching in the context of technology-mediated instruction in the early years of schooling (7-8 years old children). By investigating the relation…

  20. From Tutor Scripts to Talking Sticks: 100 Ways to Differentiate Instruction in K-12 Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Paula; Danaher, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Differentiated instruction engages students of all abilities as active learners, decision-makers, and problem solvers--making educational experiences more meaningful for all. This one-of-a-kind book proves that designing differentiated instruction can be simple and fun! Packed with creative adaptation ideas like fidget bags, doodle notes, and…

  1. Is Project Based Learning More Effective than Direct Instruction in School Science Classrooms? An Analysis of the Empirical Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Clifford

    An increasingly loud call by parents, school administrators, teachers, and even business leaders for "authentic learning", emphasizing both group-work and problem solving, has led to growing enthusiasm for inquiry-based learning over the past decade. Although "inquiry" can be defined in many ways, a curriculum called "project-based learning" has recently emerged as the inquiry practice-of-choice with roots in the educational constructivism that emerged in the mid-twentieth century. Often, project-based learning is framed as an alternative instructional strategy to direct instruction for maximizing student content knowledge. This study investigates the empirical evidence for such a comparison while also evaluating the overall quality of the available studies in the light of accepted standards for educational research. Specifically, this thesis investigates what the body of quantitative research says about the efficacy of project-based learning vs. direct instruction when considering student acquisition of content knowledge in science classrooms. Further, existing limitations of the research pertaining to project based learning and secondary school education are explored. The thesis concludes with a discussion of where and how we should focus our empirical efforts in the future. The research revealed that the available empirical research contains flaws in both design and instrumentation. In particular, randomization is poor amongst all the studies considered. The empirical evidence indicates that project-based learning curricula improved student content knowledge but that, while the results were statistically significant, increases in raw test scores were marginal.

  2. A comparative analysis of on-line and classroom-based instructional formats for teaching social work research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Westhuis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research comparing courses taught exclusively in traditional face-to-face settings versus courses taught entirely online have shown similar levels of student satisfaction. This article reports findings from a comparative study of student achievement in research skills from classes using two different instructional formats. One group used a classroom-based instructional format and the other group used an online web-based instructional format. Findings indicate that there were no statistically significant differences between the two class formats for eight out of eleven outcome student performance activities and ten out of 13 pedagogical strategies. There were large effect size differences based on class format on four of the student performance activities and for student satisfaction with six of the pedagogical methods. When statistically significant differences were found, it was determined that student performance on learning activities and satisfaction with pedagogical methods were higher for the students in the traditional class. The findings support the conclusions of several studies concerning the effectiveness of online teaching. Limitations and implications for further studies are also suggested.

  3. Paraeducator Professional Development Curriculum. Module II: Building an Effective Instructional Team. Part Two: Assisting and Supporting the Teacher Through the Use of Effective Classroom Management and Effective Instructional Strategies. Trainer's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory NWREL, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This two-day institute examines the basic concepts of effective classroom management techniques as well as the use of effective instructional strategies for all students that will help paraeducators to support effective learning and teaching environment. This module addresses two goals: (1) to provide participants with an awareness of basic…

  4. Teaching about Modern Germany: Instructional Materials for the Social Studies Classroom. Correlation Charts Indicating Content and Skills Addressed by Each Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4)…

  5. Comparing eLearning and Classroom Instruction on HIV/AIDS Knowledge Uptake and Internalizing among South African and Irish Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Hendra; Visser, Pieter; van Wyk, Elmarie; Laubscher, Ria

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Innovative public health approaches are required to improve human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and prevention among adolescents, one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS. Consequently, elearning and classroom instruction was assessed for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing…

  6. Comparing eLearning and Classroom Instruction on HIV/AIDS Knowledge Uptake and Internalizing among South African and Irish Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Hendra; Visser, Pieter; van Wyk, Elmarie; Laubscher, Ria

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Innovative public health approaches are required to improve human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and prevention among adolescents, one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS. Consequently, elearning and classroom instruction was assessed for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing…

  7. Implications for Language Diversity in Instruction in the Context of Target Language Classrooms: Development of a Preliminary Model of the Effectiveness of Teacher Code-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns the conceptual and pedagogical issues that revolve around target language (TL) only instruction and teacher code-switching in the context of TL classrooms. To this end, I first examine four intertwined ideas (that is, monolingualism, naturalism, native-speakerism, and absolutism) that run through the monolingual approach to TL…

  8. Characterization of Mathematics Instructional Practises for Prospective Elementary Teachers with Varying Levels of Self-Efficacy in Classroom Management and Mathematics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carrie W.; Walkowiak, Temple A.; Nietfeld, John L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between prospective teachers' (PTs) instructional practises and their efficacy beliefs in classroom management and mathematics teaching. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods design was employed. Results from efficacy surveys, implemented with 54 PTs were linked to a sample of…

  9. Healthcare students' experiences when integrating e-learning and flipped classroom instructional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Mark; Senior, Emma

    2017-06-08

    This article describes the experiences of undergraduate healthcare students taking a module adopting a 'flipped classroom' approach. Evidence suggests that flipped classroom as a pedagogical tool has the potential to enhance student learning and to improve healthcare practice. This innovative approach was implemented within a healthcare curriculum and in a module looking at public health delivered at the beginning of year two of a 3-year programme. The focus of the evaluation study was on the e-learning resources used in the module and the student experiences of these; with a specific aim to evaluate this element of the flipped classroom approach. A mixed-methods approach was adopted and data collected using questionnaires, which were distributed across a whole cohort, and a focus group involving ten participants. Statistical analysis of the data showed the positive student experience of engaging with e-learning. The thematic analysis identified two key themes; factors influencing a positive learning experience and the challenges when developing e-learning within a flipped classroom approach. The study provides guidance for further developments and improvements when developing e-learning as part of the flipped classroom approach.

  10. Students' Satisfaction with a Blended Instructional Design: The Potential of "Flipped Classroom" in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Núria Hernández; Rodríguez, Mónica Pérez

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the impact on promoting student satisfaction and improving their involvement in their own learning when applying a "Flipped classroom" design in a first-year bilingual, English-taught module in a non-English-speaking country. "World Economy" is taught in the Faculty of Business and Economics at a…

  11. A Pilot Study of Classroom-Based Cognitive Skill Instruction: Effects on Cognition and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Park, Anne T.; Robinson, Sydney T.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive skills are associated with academic performance, but little is known about how to improve these skills in the classroom. Here, we present the results of a pilot study in which teachers were trained to engage students in cognitive skill practice through playing games. Fifth-grade students at an experimental charter school were randomly…

  12. Classroom Observation Data and Instruction in Primary Mathematics Education: Improving Design and Rigour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carla J.; Davis, Sandra B.

    2014-01-01

    The use of formal observation in primary mathematics classrooms is supported in the literature as a viable method of determining effective teaching strategies and appropriate tasks for inclusion in the early years of mathematics learning. The twofold aim of this study was to (a) investigate predictive relationships between primary mathematics…

  13. Exploring Instructional Practices in a Spanish/English Bilingual Classroom through "Sitios y Lenguas" and "Testimonio"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gabriela; DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Fradkin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from Chicana feminist perspectives and Pérez ("Living Chicana theory." Third Woman Press, Berkeley, pp 87-101, 1998) theories of "sitios y lenguas" (space and discourses) the authors reposition understandings of teaching and learning through a qualitative case study of a first grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom.…

  14. Classroom versus Computer-Based CPR Training: A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Robb S.; Gazzillo Diaz, Linda; Middlemas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether computer-based CPR training is comparable to traditional classroom training. Design and Setting: This study was quantitative in design. Data was gathered from a standardized examination and skill performance evaluation which yielded numerical scores. Subjects: The subjects were 64…

  15. Exploring Instructional Practices in a Spanish/English Bilingual Classroom through "Sitios y Lenguas" and "Testimonio"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Gabriela; DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Fradkin, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from Chicana feminist perspectives and Pérez ("Living Chicana theory." Third Woman Press, Berkeley, pp 87-101, 1998) theories of "sitios y lenguas" (space and discourses) the authors reposition understandings of teaching and learning through a qualitative case study of a first grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom.…

  16. Improving Expository Writing Skills with Explicit and Strategy Instructional Methods in Inclusive Middle School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihak, David F.; Castle, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Forty eighth grade students with and without learning disabilities in an inclusive classroom participated in an adapted Step-Up to Writing (Auman, 2002) intervention program. The intervention targeted expository essays and composing topic, detail, transitional, and concluding sentences. A repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that both students with…

  17. Designing Satellite Instruction for Elementary Students: Importance of the Classroom Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boverie, Patricia; Gunawardena, Charlotte N.; Lowe, Constance A.; Murrell, WM. Gregory; Zittle, Rebecca H.; Zittle, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the implications of delivering satellite courses to elementary grades based on results of the evaluation of two Star Schools projects. Focuses on: how the programs are used, importance of interaction, and role of the classroom teacher. Results suggest a new paradigm for using distance education technology for the elementary grades.…

  18. Academic Instruction or Behavioral Control: An Experimental Study of Teacher Responses to Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriello, Gary; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    An examination of teachers' responses to questionnaires identifying sixteen classroom academic and social behavior problems revealed different reactions to each type. A system was developed to measure the responses which were coded in terms of the extent to which they evidenced the presentation of standards or evidenced warmth. Teachers presented…

  19. Teachers' Code-Switching in Classroom Instructions for Low English Proficient Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    Due to the alarming signals of declining proficiency level among English Language learners in Malaysia, this study set out to learn more about the learners' perceptions of the teachers' code-switching in English Language classrooms. The objectives of this study were to investigate: a) learners' perceptions of teachers' code-switching, b) the…

  20. Universal Grammar in the Classroom: The Effects of Formal Instruction on Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Sasha W.; Weigl, Wilfried

    1991-01-01

    Discusses whether second-language learners have access to universal grammar by looking at the acquisition of German English-as-a-Second-Language high school students. The students were exposed to English exclusively during classroom hours. Results of the study suggest that these students did not have access to universal grammar. (16 references)…

  1. Classroom Strategies Coaching Model: Integration of Formative Assessment and Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Lekwa, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the theory, key components, and empirical support for the Classroom Strategies Coaching (CSC) Model, a data-driven coaching approach that systematically integrates data from multiple observations to identify teacher practice needs and goals, design practice plans, and evaluate progress towards goals. The primary aim of the…

  2. Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Connie J.

    Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their

  3. The Pedagogical Mediation of a Developmental Learner Corpus for Classroom-Based Language Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Julie A.; Vyatkina, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners' responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal "da"-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by…

  4. Aula/The Classroom: Guidelines for the Evaluation of Instructional Materials for Sexism and Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Belen, Edna; Sjostrom, Barbara R.

    1979-01-01

    This essay emphasizes the impact of instructional materials on the development of the individual's self-esteem. It provides guidelines and checklists for the evaluation of sexism and racism, as well as strategies for increasing awareness in the teaching-learning process to help counteract these biases. (Author/DS)

  5. Vocabulary Instruction in K-3 Low-Income Classrooms during a Reading Reform Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristin L.; Dole, Janice A.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the vocabulary teaching of primary-grade teachers (K-3) in low-income schools. A total of 337 observations were conducted during language arts blocks over a three-year period. A coding scheme was developed to analyze teachers' vocabulary instruction. Results indicated that teachers spent less than 5%…

  6. Literature Review of Faculty-Perceived Usefulness of Instructional Technology in Classroom Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a literature review of the research concerning the role of faculty perspectives about instructional technology. Learning management systems, massive open online courses (MOOCs), cloud-based multimedia applications, and mobile apps represent the tools and the language of academia in the 21st century. Research examined…

  7. Exploring the Role of Instructional Technology in Course Planning and Classroom Teaching: Implications for Pedagogical Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Matthew T.; Holden, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    Instructional technology plays a key role in many teaching reform efforts at the postsecondary level, yet evidence suggests that faculty adopt these technology-based innovations in a slow and inconsistent fashion. A key to improving these efforts is to understand local practice and use these insights to design more locally attuned interventions.…

  8. A Blended Learning Study on Implementing Video Recorded Speaking Tasks in Task-Based Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates designing and implementing a speaking course in which face-to-face instruction informed by the principles of Task-Based Learning is blended with the use of technology, the video, for the first-year student teachers of English in Turkish higher education. The study consisted of three hours of task-based classroom…

  9. The Relationship between Teachers' Beliefs of Grammar Instruction and Classroom Practices in the Saudi Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghanmi, Bayan; Shukri, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Teacher cognition (Borg, 2015) of grammar instruction is a relatively new phenomenon that has yet to be explored in the Saudi context. While many studies have focused on the teaching of grammar in general (Ellis, 2006; Corzo, 2013; Braine, 2014), further research needs to be done - particularly when it comes to understanding teachers' beliefs of…

  10. Two CD-ROM Products for Social Studies Classrooms. Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Provides reviews of two CD-ROM products currently available for social studies education. Describes the content, technical requirements, and instructional strategies of "Who Built America?" and "The Revolutionary War." Also contains a review of a videotape about the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II. (CFR)

  11. An Instructional Model for Guiding Reflection and Research in the Classroom: The Educational Situation Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech-Betoret, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present an instructional model entitled the "Modelo de Calidad de Situacion Educativa" (MCSE) and how teachers can use it to reflect and investigate in a formal educational setting. It is a theoretical framework which treat to explain the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating the…

  12. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction Versus Task Structuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, A.W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou

    2015-01-01

    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children’s ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 5

  13. How CIA (Confluent Instructional Approach) Can Help Desegregate Gifted/Talented Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Miriam

    Described is the confluent instructional approach by which students in learning disabled and gifted classes participated in combined ecology studies. It is explained that teachers determined areas of study for each group, the needs of the students, and scheduling matters. In addition to content learning, students are said to have improved peer…

  14. Writing Instruction in Elementary Classrooms: Why Teachers Engage or Do Not Engage Students in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harward, Stan; Peterson, Nancy; Korth, Byran; Wimmer, Jennifer; Wilcox, Brad; Morrison, Timothy G.; Black, Sharon; Simmerman, Sue; Pierce, Linda

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored reasons K-6 teachers did or did not engage students regularly in writing. Interviews with 14 teachers, classified as high, transitional, and low implementers of writing instruction, revealed three themes: hindrances and helps, beliefs concerning practice, and preparation and professional development. Both high and…

  15. The Effects of Music Instruction on Learning in the Montessori Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    The value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized, particularly in the area of mathematics. Despite the amount of literature available regarding the effects of music instruction on academic achievement, little has been written on different Montessori music pedagogies and their effects on students' math scores. This article…

  16. An Instructional Model for Teaching Proof Writing in the Number Theory Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabel, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    I discuss an instructional model that I have used in my number theory classes. Facets of the model include using small group work and whole class discussion, having students generate examples and counterexamples, and giving students the opportunity to write proofs and make conjectures in class. The model is designed to actively engage students in…

  17. The effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammatical instruction in second language classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Arends, Enti; Canrinus, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compares the effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammar instruction and investigates to what extent complexity influences these results. A total of 981 Dutch students in lower secondary education learning German, English or Spanish as a secon

  18. Beyond the Classroom Walls: Edmodo in Saudi Secondary School EFL Instruction, Attitudes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kathiri, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the prospects of integrating Edmodo into Saudi EFL female secondary school instruction. It concentrates on students' perceptions and challenges regarding Edmodo use and its effect on their attitudes towards EFL learning. The 42 participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group received traditional teaching…

  19. Transportability of Equivalence-Based Programmed Instruction: Efficacy and Efficiency in a College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    College students in a psychology research-methods course learned concepts related to inferential statistics and hypothesis decision making. One group received equivalence-based instruction on conditional discriminations that were expected to promote the emergence of many untaught, academically useful abilities (i.e., stimulus equivalence group). A…

  20. Improving Classroom Behavior through Effective Instruction: An Illustrative Program Example Using "SRA FLEX Literacy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Ronald C.; Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated a strong positive correlation between behavior problems and low academic achievement. Student success and/or failures are in large part determined by how well teachers provide effective instruction to their students. This article overviews key behavior-management approaches related to academic and behavioral success that…

  1. The effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammatical instruction in second language classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tammenga-Helmantel, Marjon; Arends, Enti; Canrinus, Esther

    2014-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compares the effectiveness of deductive, inductive, implicit and incidental grammar instruction and investigates to what extent complexity influences these results. A total of 981 Dutch students in lower secondary education learning German, English or Spanish as a secon

  2. Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence Relevant to Classroom Instruction with Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Scott C.; Carbonneau, Kira J.

    2014-01-01

    The papers in this special issue focus on instructional strategies with manipulatives. Often described as "hands-on learning", these strategies emphasize the use of physical and, more recently, virtual objects to represent target information and concepts. These strategies are frequently suggested as effective techniques for teaching…

  3. Learning Spaces in School: Comparing Math Instruction and Learning in School Gardens and Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Christine Mary

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the California legislature released $14 million to the schools of California to create school gardens through the California Instructional School Garden Bill (CA Assembly Bill 1535, 2006). This study examined the differences and similarities of school gardens as learning spaces by exploring a fifth grade school standards-based mathematics…

  4. The Effects of Music Instruction on Learning in the Montessori Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    The value of music in educating the young child is not being recognized, particularly in the area of mathematics. Despite the amount of literature available regarding the effects of music instruction on academic achievement, little has been written on different Montessori music pedagogies and their effects on students' math scores. This article…

  5. Direct Instruction Model to Increase Physical Science Competence of Students as One Form of Classroom Assesment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenno, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    In designing the lesson teachers have to adapt the method or learning model with the material to be taught. In the teaching of measuring concept, students frequently faced with measuring instruments, micrometer, screw, scale, and so on. Direct Instruction Model would be suitable for teaching the measurement concepts specifically the skill of using…

  6. An Instructional Model for Guiding Reflection and Research in the Classroom: The Educational Situation Quality Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech-Betoret, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present an instructional model entitled the "Modelo de Calidad de Situacion Educativa" (MCSE) and how teachers can use it to reflect and investigate in a formal educational setting. It is a theoretical framework which treat to explain the functioning of an educational setting by organizing and relating the…

  7. Advancing Scientific Reasoning in Upper Elementary Classrooms: Direct Instruction versus Task Structuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazonder, Ard W.; Wiskerke-Drost, Sjanou

    2015-01-01

    Several studies found that direct instruction and task structuring can effectively promote children's ability to design unconfounded experiments. The present study examined whether the impact of these interventions extends to other scientific reasoning skills by comparing the inquiry activities of 55 fifth-graders randomly assigned to one of…

  8. Brain-Based Learning and Classroom Practice: A Study Investigating Instructional Methodologies of Urban School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lajuana Trezette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of brain-based instructional strategies by teachers serving at Title I elementary, middle, and high schools within the Memphis City School District. This study was designed to determine: (a) the extent to which Title I teachers applied brain-based strategies, (b) the differences in…

  9. A Case for Explicit Grammar Instruction in English as Second/Foreign Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kent

    2013-01-01

    This paper will provide a review of research--regarding explicit grammar instruction--that groups recent studies into three main categories and then sub-categorizes these studies under key terms in second language acquisition (SLA) research. The overall purpose of this paper is to argue that in light of these issues, recent studies have shown that…

  10. Are We Ready To Abandon the Classroom? The Dark Side of Web Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, LeoNora M.

    This paper discusses four assumptions and four concerns regarding instruction using the World Wide Web. The assumptions address: the novice status of the Web course developer; the developer's appreciation for various aspects of the Web; her high expectations for doing it right; and her commitment to not incurring more costs for distance learners.…

  11. Assessing and enhancing the introductory science course in physics and biology: Peer instruction, classroom demonstrations, and genetics vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Adam Paul

    Most introductory college science courses in the United States are taught in large lectures with students rarely having the opportunity to think critically about the material being presented nor to participate actively. Further, many classes focus on teaching rather than learning, that is, the transfer of information as opposed to actual student understanding. This thesis focuses on three studies about the assessment and enhancement of learning in undergraduate science courses. We describe the results of an international survey on the implementation of Peer Instruction (PI), a collaborative learning pedagogy in which lectures are interspersed with short conceptual questions designed to challenge students to think about the material as it is being presented. We present a portrait of the many instructors teaching with PI and the settings in which it is being used as well as data on the effectiveness of PI in enhancing student learning in diverse settings. The wide variety of implementations suggests that PI is a highly adaptable strategy that can work successfully in almost any environment. We also provide recommendations for those considering adopting PI in their classes. Classroom demonstrations are an important aspect of many introductory science courses, but there is little evidence supporting their educational effectiveness. We explore the effect of different modes of presentation on enhancing student learning from demonstrations. Our results show that students who actively engage with a demonstration by predicting the outcome before it is conducted are better able to recall and explain the scenario posed by that demonstration. As preliminary work for the creation of an inventory of conceptual understanding in introductory biology, we discuss results from a survey of vocabulary familiarity and understanding in an undergraduate genetics course. Students begin introductory classes with significant gaps in their understanding, some of which are retained beyond

  12. Evolution in the Caribbean Classroom: A critical analysis of the role of biology teachers and science standards in shaping evolution instruction in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Elvis Enrique; Pringle, Rose M.; Showalter, Kevin Tyler

    2012-10-01

    A survey of the literature on evolution instruction provides evidence that teachers' personal views and understandings can shape instructional approaches and content delivered in science classrooms regardless of established science standards. This study is the first to quantify evolutionary worldviews of in-service teachers in the Caribbean, specifically in Belize, an English-speaking nation with a high school system guided by a regional biology syllabus and strict standardized tests. Using the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) instrument and knowledge test, we investigated (1) the current level of acceptance and understanding of evolution as given by 97% of high school biology teachers in Belize; (2) the factors associated with acceptance and understanding of evolutionary theory. With an average MATE score of 64.4 and a mean knowledge score of 47.9%, Belizean teachers were classified as having both 'Low Acceptance' and 'Low Understanding' of evolutionary theory. A positive correlation was found between teacher acceptance and understanding of evolution. A review of the Caribbean Secondary Examination Certificate biology syllabus suggests that evolution plays a minimal role in the high school biology classroom. We believe that Belize presents a unique opening for future training on evolution instruction since 57% of the biology teachers self-proclaim to be unprepared to teach evolution. The results of this study have implications for policy, practice and research with teachers' acceptance, understanding and confidence in teaching evolution serving as important predictors for instructional approaches used in the biology classroom.

  13. Codeswitching techniques: evidence-based instructional practices for the ASL/English bilingual classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jean F; Rusher, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a perspective on emerging bilingual deaf students who are exposed to, learning, and developing two languages--American Sign Language (ASL) and English (spoken English, manually coded English, and English reading and writing). The authors suggest that though deaf children may lack proficiency or fluency in either language during early language-learning development, they still engage in codeswitching activities, in which they go back and forth between signing and English to communicate. The authors then provide a second meaning of codeswitching--as a purpose-driven instructional technique in which the teacher strategically changes from ASL to English print for purposes of vocabulary and reading comprehension. The results of four studies are examined that suggest that certain codeswitching strategies support English vocabulary learning and reading comprehension. These instructional strategies are couched in a five-pronged approach to furthering the development of bilingual education for deaf students.

  14. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE IN INDONESIA: THE URGE TO IMPROVE CLASSROOM VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Maria Ivone

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses some important issues regarding the teaching of foreign vocabulary. It draws on the literature reviews in this field and is also based on personal reflections and experiences of the writer. This article critically highlights the teaching of English vocabulary in Indonesian schools and universities. More particularly, it discusses issues dealing with curriculum, teaching techniques, instructional media, and vocabulary assessment. Finally, this article provides recommendations for the improvement of the teaching of English vocabulary in the Indonesian context

  15. Teaching adolescents: Relationships between features of instruction and student engagement in high school mathematics and science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibianca, Richard Paul

    In an examination of the experiences of 375 high school students enrolled in two urban comprehensive high schools, the present study is an effort to identify those elements of high school math and science and instruction that captivate students' interest. Data were gathered over the course of approximately 20 lessons for each of 17 math and science classes using the Experience Sampling Method. A descriptive analysis revealed that the classes were dominated by traditional instructional formats such as lecture, demonstration, recitation, and reviewing problems. Lessons afforded minimal opportunities for students to use technology, instruments, and equipment; to work with other students in order to complete a task; to have any choices regarding the completion of their task; and to apply the lesson topics to the "real world." Features of academic tasks such as these, which have often been proposed to correlate with higher levels of student engagement, were the independent variables for the study. Student engagement---as measured by the student indices of involvement and concentration, as well as their overall desire to be in a given classroom at a given time---was the dependent variable. The general state of engagement among the students was found to be modest. A second set of analyses examined the relationships that each of the study's proposed independent variables had to student engagement. The more an instructional format was student-paced, challenging, and interactive, the higher the levels of student engagement. Novelty also seemed to be at work; engagement levels were frequently higher in those classes that experienced a given format less often than did other classes. Second, the presence of each of the task features that was proposed to enhance student engagement in high school math and science classes did, in fact, correspond to higher levels of student engagement. Finally, the correlation between teacher and student engagement was modest. Throughout the study

  16. The Pedagogical Mediation of a Developmental Learner Corpus for Classroom-Based Language Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A. Belz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners’ responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal da-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by native speakers during interactions with the very learners for whom the units are designed. Thus, we address the issue of authentication in corpus-driven language pedagogy. Finally, we illustrate how an ethnographically supplemented developmental learner corpus may contribute to second language acquisition research via dense documentation of micro-changes in learners’ language use over time.

  17. Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamre, Bridget K; Pianta, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    This study examined ways in which children's risk of school failure may be moderated by support from teachers. Participants were 910 children in a national prospective study. Children were identified as at risk at ages 5-6 years on the basis of demographic characteristics and the display of multiple functional (behavioral, attention, academic, social) problems reported by their kindergarten teachers. By the end of first grade, at-risk students placed in first-grade classrooms offering strong instructional and emotional support had achievement scores and student-teacher relationships commensurate with their low-risk peers; at-risk students placed in less supportive classrooms had lower achievement and more conflict with teachers. These findings have implications for understanding the role that classroom experience may play in pathways to positive adaptation.

  18. The impact of instructional context on classroom on-task behavior: a matched comparison of children with ADHD and non-ADHD classmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Deboutte, Dirk; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Roeyers, Herbert

    2013-08-01

    Classroom inattentiveness is an important reason for clinical referral of children with ADHD and a strong predictor of their educational achievement. This study investigates classroom on-task behavior of Flemish children with ADHD withdrawn from medication as a function of instructional context. Thirty-one pairs of children (one with ADHD and one age- and sex-matched control; 25 boys and 6 girls 6 to 12years of age) were observed in their classroom environment during two consecutive school days. On-task behavior (time on-task and on-task span) of ADHD and non-ADHD individuals was compared in different class contexts (i.e., different class structures and academic content types). Individualized teacher supervision was simultaneously assessed. Generalized estimation equation analyses showed that children with ADHD were significantly less on-task than controls during individual work and whole class group teaching, but not during small group work, and had significantly shorter on-task span during academic tasks (mathematics, language, and sciences) and instructional transitions between tasks, but not during music and arts. These effects persisted even after controlling for the higher levels of teacher supervision observed for ADHD pupils (7%) across all contexts (vs. 4% in controls). Findings suggest that despite receiving more overall teacher supervision, children with ADHD displayed lower levels of on-task behavior in settings that place high self-regulatory, information processing, and motivational demands on them. This finding may have initial implications for classroom interventions in this population.

  19. Pacific CRYSTAL Project: Explicit Literacy Instruction Embedded in Middle School Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert J.; Tippett, Christine D.; Yore, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    Science literacy leading to fuller and informed participation in the public debate about science, technology, society, and environmental (STSE) issues that produce justified decisions and sustainable actions is the shared and central goal of the Pacific CRYSTAL Project. There is broad agreement by science education researchers that learners need to be able to construct and interpret specific scientific discourses and texts to be literate in science. We view these capabilities as components in the fundamental sense of science literacy and as interactive and synergetic to the derived sense of science literacy, which refers to having general knowledge about concepts, principles, and methods of science. This article reports on preliminary findings from Years 1, 2, and 3 of the 5-year Pacific CRYSTAL project that aims to identify, develop, and embed explicit literacy instruction in science programs to achieve both senses of science literacy. A community-based, opportunistic, engineering research and development approach has been utilized to identify problems and concerns and to design instructional solutions for teaching middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8) science. Initial data indicate (a) opportunities in programs for embedding literacy instruction and tasks; (b) difficulties generalist teachers have with new science curricula; (c) difficulties specialist science teachers have with literacy activities, strategies, genre, and writing-to-learn science tasks; and (d) potential literacy activities (vocabulary, reading comprehension, visual literacy, genre, and writing tasks) for middle school science. Preinstruction student assessments indicate a range of challenges in achieving effective learning in science and the need for extensive teacher support to achieve the project’s goals. Postinstructional assessments indicate positive changes in students’ ability to perform target reading and writing tasks. Qualitative data indicate teachers’ desire for external direction

  20. Historical short stories as nature of science instruction in secondary science classrooms: Science teachers' implementation and students' reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Smith, Jennifer Ann

    a science-related career. If NOS instructional materials are to be used effectively, designers must take into account the needs of classroom teachers by limiting the length of the materials and providing additional teacher support resources. Many teachers will likely require professional development opportunities to build their NOS understanding, develop a compelling rationale for teaching NOS and using the stories, observe modeling of effective implementation, and collaborate with other teachers regarding how to mitigate constraints.

  1. At-risk elementary school children with one year of classroom music instruction are better at keeping a beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most.

  2. Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.

    2012-01-01

    As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…

  3. Brownfield Action III - Modular use of hydrogeology instruction in the virtual classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, P.; Liddicoat, J.

    2009-04-01

    Brownfield Action III (BA III) is a network-based, interactive, digital space and simulation developed by Barnard College and the Columbia Center for New Media Teaching and Learning in which students explore and solve problems in environmental forensics. BA III is a proven inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning that, since its inception in 1999, has been recognized as an exemplary curriculum. Indeed, in 2002 it was selected as a national model curriculum by SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and Responsibilities). BA III provides instruction in environmental site assessments and in the remediation of former industrial sites (brownfields) for secondary and higher education students. The initial full-semester, three hours of weekly laboratory instruction that complements lectures in BA II has been revised for modular use in Hydrology, Environmental Science, and Environmental Ethics undergraduate and graduate courses in the United States. The remediation of brownfields is important because they have potential as recreational, residential, and commercial real estate sites. As part of determining the value of such a site, an environmental site assessment (ESA) is required to determine the nature and extent of any contamination. To reach that objective, BA III contains a narrative that is embedded and to be discovered in simulation; it is a story of groundwater contamination complete with underground contaminant plumes in a fictitious town with buildings, roads, wells, water tower, homes, and businesses as well as a municipal government with relevant historical documents. Student companies work collaboratively in teams of two, sign a contract with a development corporation to conduct a Phase One ESA, receive a realistic budget, and compete with other teams to fulfill the contract while maximizing profit. To reach a valid conclusion in the form of a professional-level ESA and 3-D maps of the physical site, teams construct a detailed narrative

  4. Literacy events during science instruction in a fifth-grade classroom: Listening to teacher and student voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Debby

    Concern with science literacy and how to achieve it has a long history in our education system. The goals and definitions established by the National Science Education Standards (1996) suggest that if we are to successfully prepare students for the information age, science education must blend the natural and social sciences. However, research indicates that connections between hands-on science and literacy, as a tool for processing information, do not regularly occur during school science instruction. This case study explored the use of literacy by a second year teacher in a fifth grade class during consecutive science units on chemistry and liquids. The research questions focused on how and why the teacher and students used literacy during science and how and why the teacher and selected focus students believed literacy influenced their learning in science. Data was collected through classroom observations and multiple interviews with the teacher and selected focus students. Interview data was analyzed and coded using an iterative process. Field notes and student artifacts were used to triangulate the data. The study found that the teacher and students used reading and writing to record and acquire content knowledge, learn to be organized, and to facilitate assessment. Although the teacher had learned content literacy strategies in her pre-service program, she did not implement them in the classroom and her practice seemed to reflect her limited science content knowledge and understanding of the nature of science. The focus students believed that recording and studying notes, reading books, drawing, and reading study guides helped them learn science. The findings suggest the following implications: (1) More data is needed on the relationship between teaching approach, science content knowledge, and beliefs about science. (2) Elementary student voices make a valuable contribution to our understanding of science learning. (3) Pre-service candidates should have

  5. Classroom Management and the Librarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Heidi; Hays, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    As librarians take on more instructional responsibilities, the need for classroom management skills becomes vital. Unfortunately, classroom management skills are not taught in library school and therefore, many librarians are forced to learn how to manage a classroom on the job. Different classroom settings such as one-shot instruction sessions…

  6. Does the Method of Instruction Matter? An Experimental Examination of Information Literacy Instruction in the Online, Blended, and Face-to-Face Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Karen; May, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The researchers, a librarian and a faculty member, collaborated to investigate the effectiveness of delivery methods in information literacy instruction. The authors conducted a field experiment to explore how face-to-face, online, and blended learning instructional formats influenced students' retention of information literacy skills. Results are…

  7. Instruction and Students' Declining Interest in Science: An Analysis of German Fourth- and Sixth-Grade Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröbst, Steffen; Kleickmann, Thilo; Lange-Schubert, Kim; Rothkopf, Anne; Möller, Kornelia

    2016-01-01

    Students' interest in science declines substantially in the transition from elementary to secondary education. Using students' ratings of their instruction on the topic of evaporation and condensation, we examined if changes in instructional practices accounted for differences in situational interest in science instruction and enduring individual…

  8. Initial Considerations When Applying an Instructional Sensitivity Framework: Partitioning the Variation between and within Classrooms for Two Mathematics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Drawing inferences about the extent to which student performance reflects instructional opportunities relies on the premise that the measure of student performance is reflective of instructional opportunities. An instructional sensitivity framework suggests that some assessments are more sensitive to detecting differences in instructional…

  9. Applying Banks' Typology of Ethnic Identity Development and Curriculum Goals to Story Content, Classroom Discussion, and the Ecology of Classroom and Community: Phase One. Instructional Resource No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Louise M.

    This instructional resource describes ways in which J. A. Banks' typology of the stages of ethnic identity development and related curriculum goals can be applied to literacy instruction. Banks' definitions of the stages of development and the curriculum goals for each stage are provided. Strategies for analyzing materials and developing relevant…

  10. Language use in the EFL classroom : A literature review on the advantages and disadvantages of teachers’ choices of instructional language in the EFL classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Weijnblad, Malin

    2017-01-01

    This literature review investigates what previous research has found regarding target language use in the Elementary EFL classroom, and what different views there might be on communicating in English during English lessons. The study is conducted with Stephen Krashen’s (1982) Second Language Acquisition Theory as theoretical perspective. Findings show that one important reason for target language use in the EFL classroom is increasing the target language exposure to provide opportunities for ...

  11. The effects of the science writing heuristic (SWH) approach versus traditional instruction on yearly critical thinking gain scores in grade 5-8 classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-mei

    Critical Thinking has been identified in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as skills needed to prepare students for advanced education and the future workforce. In science education, argument-based inquiry (ABI) has been proposed as one way to improve critical thinking. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, an immersion argument-based inquiry approach to learning science, on students' critical thinking skills. Guided by a question-claims-evidence structure, students who participated in SWH approach were required to negotiate meaning and construct arguments using writing as a tool throughout the scientific investigation process. Students in the control groups learned science in traditional classroom settings. Data from five data sets that included 4417 students were analyzed cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Yearly critical thinking gain scores, as measured by Form X of Cornell Critical Thinking Test, were compared for students who experienced the SWH approach versus students who experienced traditional instruction in both elementary (5th grade) and secondary schools (6th-8th grades). Analyses of yearly gain scores for data sets that represented a single year of implementation yielded statistically significant differences favoring SWH over traditional instruction in all instances and statistically significant interactions between gender and grade level in most instances. The interactions revealed that females had higher gain scores than males at lower grade levels but the reverse was true at higher grade levels. Analyses from data sets that included two years of implementation revealed higher overall gains for SWH instruction than for traditional instruction but most of those gains were achieved during the first year of implementation. Implications of these results for teaching critical thinking skills in science classrooms are

  12. Adding Rigor to Classroom Assessment Techniques for Non-Traditional Adult Programs: A Lifecycle Improvement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jason E.; Hornsey, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    Formative Classroom Assessment Techniques (CAT) have been well-established instructional tools in higher education since their exposition in the late 1980s (Angelo & Cross, 1993). A large body of literature exists surrounding the strengths and weaknesses of formative CATs. Simpson-Beck (2011) suggested insufficient quantitative evidence exists…

  13. A Study of the Effects of an Organization Change from Streamed to Mixed-Ability Classes upon Science Classroom Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, R. G.; Rowe, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This study quantified possible changes in the classroom learning experiences of high- and low-ability pupils, which might accompany an organizational change from streamed to mixed-ability classes for science learning in secondary schools. Deteriorations in the quality of the classroom interactions of both high- and low-ability pupils were found.…

  14. Reading First kindergarten classroom instruction and students' growth in phonological awareness and letter naming-decoding fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Connor, Carol; Lane, Holly; Kosanovich, Marcia L; Schatschneider, Chris; Dyrlund, Allison K; Miller, Melissa S; Wright, Tyran L

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the role of the amount, content, and implementation of reading instruction provided by 17 kindergarten teachers in eight Reading First elementary schools as it related to students' progress (n=286 students) on early reading assessments of phonological awareness and letter naming-decoding fluency. Children's phonological awareness and letter naming-decoding fluency grew significantly from fall to spring. On average, across the three 60 min observations, teachers provided over 30 min a day of phonological awareness and phonics instruction and 15 min a day of vocabulary and comprehension instruction. Global ratings of instructional quality revealed two implementation factors: explicit and individualized implementation and meaningful interactions around text. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that the amounts of specific instructional content, as well as how this instruction was implemented, was related to students' letter knowledge and phonological awareness skill growth.

  15. Creating Admirable Classroom Surroundings:Strategies based on the Self-Determination Theory%基于自我决定理论的良好课堂氛围创设策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红君

    2014-01-01

    自我决定理论由认知评价理论、有机整合理论、因果定向理论和基本需要理论等子理论组成,该理论建立在人是积极的有机体,具有与生俱来的心理成长和发展的动力这一基本假设上。按照自我决定理论的观点,教师要创设良好的课堂氛围,需要从自主、能力和归属三个基本心理需要出发,紧扣电大学生的心理特点,完成由外部动机向内部动机的转化,从而更好地服务于电大课堂教学。%The self-determination theory ( SDT) consists of 4 sub-theories, i.e.:the cognitive evaluation theory ( CET) , the organismic integration theory ( OIT) , the causality orientations theory ( COT) and the bas-ic needs theory ( BNT) .It is based on the hypothesis that humans are proactive organisms who have inherent tendency toward psychological growth development .According to SDT , in order to create admirable classroom surroundings for students of the open college , the teacher needs to start from their basic psychological needs for autonomy , competence and relatedness , understand their psychological characteristics and facilitate the trans-fer of extrinsic motivation to intrinsic , thereby improving the effect of the open-college classroom teaching .

  16. Instructional Quality and Attitudes toward Mathematics: Do Self-Concept and Interest Differ across Students' Patterns of Perceived Instructional Quality in Mathematics Classrooms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lazarides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a person-centered research approach, the present study explored individual differences in students' perceptions of instructional quality in secondary school mathematics classes and their relations to students' self-concept and interest in mathematics. Drawing on data collected from 425 high school students from ten schools in Berlin, Germany (male: 53.2%; female: 46.3%, latent class analyses (LCA revealed four distinct patterns of perceived quality of instruction. Almost half of the sample (46% had a high likelihood of perceiving an overall low quality in mathematics classes. Those students reported particular low self-concept and interest in mathematics. Compared to male students, female students were significantly more likely to belong to this “challenging pattern.” Consequences for educational practice are discussed and suggest that instruction in mathematics should take into account learners' highly individual ways of perceiving and evaluating their learning environment.

  17. Teacher Conceptions and Approaches Associated with an Immersive Instructional Implementation of Computer-Based Models and Assessment in a Secondary Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waight, Noemi; Liu, Xiufeng; Gregorius, Roberto Ma.; Smith, Erica; Park, Mihwa

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports on a case study of an immersive and integrated multi-instructional approach (namely computer-based model introduction and connection with content; facilitation of individual student exploration guided by exploratory worksheet; use of associated differentiated labs and use of model-based assessments) in the implementation of coupled computer-based models and assessment in a high-school chemistry classroom. Data collection included in-depth teacher interviews, classroom observations, student interviews and researcher notes. Teacher conceptions highlighted the role of models as tools; the benefits of abstract portrayal via visualizations; appropriate enactment of model implementation; concerns with student learning and issues with time. The case study revealed numerous challenges reconciling macro, submicro and symbolic phenomena with the NetLogo model. Nonetheless, the effort exhibited by the teacher provided a platform to support the evolution of practice over time. Students' reactions reflected a continuum of confusion and benefits which were directly related to their background knowledge and experiences with instructional modes. The findings have implications for the role of teacher knowledge of models, the modeling process and pedagogical content knowledge; the continuum of student knowledge as novice users and the role of visual literacy in model decoding, comprehension and translation.

  18. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi

    2013-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students prepared by receiving only live classroom instruction. All students in the four cohorts were given a survey to evaluate the training sessions, and results were analyzed using the analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA). Preceptors at the sites who interacted with students in all four cohorts were surveyed to evaluate which students appeared more prepared; these data were compared using paired t tests. Final assessment data for students in all four cohorts were analyzed using ANOVA. There were statistical differences between the two live training groups, with the second group finding the training to be more beneficial for preparing them, feeling the training length was appropriate and preferring the live modality for delivery. The two internet training cohorts were similar except for perceptions regarding the length of the online training. Comparing responses from those students who received live training with those receiving internet instruction demonstrated a statistical difference with the live groups rating the trainings as more helpful in preparing them for the clinics, rating the training as necessary, and rating their confidence higher in seeing patients. Preceptors rated the live training statistically higher than online training in preparing students. There was no difference between groups on their final site assessments. Live classroom training appears to be superior to the recorded internet training in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings.

  19. Designing evidence-based medicine training to optimize the transfer of skills from the classroom to clinical practice: applying the four component instructional design model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; Cate, Olle Ten; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2015-11-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) skills, although taught in medical schools around the world, are not optimally practiced in clinical environments because of multiple barriers, including learners' difficulty transferring EBM skills learned in the classroom to clinical practice. This lack of skill transfer may be partially due to the design of EBM training. To facilitate the transfer of EBM skills from the classroom to clinical practice, the authors explore one instructional approach, called the Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model, to guide the design of EBM training. On the basis of current cognitive psychology, including cognitive load theory, the premise of the 4C/ID model is that complex skills training, such as EBM training, should include four components: learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice. The combination of these four components can inform the creation of complex skills training that is designed to avoid overloading learners' cognitive abilities; to facilitate the integration of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to execute a complex task; and to increase the transfer of knowledge to new situations. The authors begin by introducing the 4C/ID model and describing the benefits of its four components to guide the design of EBM training. They include illustrative examples of educational practices that are consistent with each component and that can be applied to teaching EBM. They conclude by suggesting that medical educators consider adopting the 4C/ID model to design, modify, and/or implement EBM training in classroom and clinical settings.

  20. How Latino/a bilingual students use their language in a fifth grade classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Alma R.

    This qualitative research study examines how Latino/a bilingual students use their linguistic resources in their homeroom classroom and in the science laboratory during science instruction. This study was conducted in a school district located in the southwestern part of the United States. The school was chosen based on the criterion that the school is located in an area considered economically depressed, with a predominantly Latino student, school, and neighborhood population. The object of study was a fifth grade bilingual (Spanish/English) classroom where English was the means of instruction. Classroom interaction was examined from a sociolinguistics perspective. The study was descriptive in nature with the objective of analyzing the students' use of their linguistic resources while participating in science learning. The results of this study suggest that the students used their linguistic resources purposefully in order to facilitate their participation in science leaning. In the same manner, it was observed the students' reliance on Spanish as a foundation to enhance their comprehension of the scientific concepts and the dynamics involved in the science lessons, with the purpose of making sense, and thus, to express their understanding (orally and in writing) using their linguistic resources, especially their English language, as it was expected from them. Further, the findings disclose the students' awareness of their own bilingualism, preference for speaking Spanish, and their conceptualization of English as the language to achieve academic success. It has also been observed how the pressure put upon the teacher and the students by the accountability system brings about an implicit bias against Spanish, causing the teacher to assume a paradoxical stance regarding the students' use of Spanish, and thereby, placing the students in an ambivalent position, that might affect, to a certain extent, how students use their Spanish language as a resource to

  1. The Effect of Plain-English Vocabulary on Student Achievement and Classroom Culture in College Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoerning, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English on student achievement in college science instruction. The study took place in the context of an introductory microbiology course. Data were collected from course sections instructed with traditional microbiology vocabulary as well as sections…

  2. Classroom interventions for children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Gaastra, Geraldina F.; Tucha, Lara I.; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In a typical classroom, children are instructed to remain seated, perform independent seatwork and follow teachers’ instructions. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may find these classroom demands particularly difficult to adhere to because, by definition, children with A

  3. Variation in external representations as part of the classroom lecture:An investigation of virtual cell animations in introductory photosynthesis instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Eric E; Reindl, Katie M; Johnson, Christina; McClean, Phillip; Offerdahl, Erika G; Schroeder, Noah L; White, Alan R

    2017-05-01

    The use of external representations (ERs) to introduce concepts in undergraduate biology has become increasingly common. Two of the most prevalent are static images and dynamic animations. While previous studies comparing static images and dynamic animations have resulted in somewhat conflicting findings in regards to learning outcomes, the benefits of each have been shown individually. Using ERs developed by the Virtual Cell Animation project, we aim to further investigate student learning using different ERs as part of an introductory biology lecture. We focus our study on the topic of photosynthesis as reports have noted that students struggle with a number of basic photosynthesis concepts. Students (n = 167) in ten sections of introductory biology laboratory were introduced to photosynthesis concepts by instructional lectures differing only in the format of the embedded ERs. Normalized gain scores were calculated, showing that students who learned with dynamic animations outperformed students who learned from static images on the posttest. The results of this study provide possible instructional guidelines for those delivering photosynthesis instruction in the introductory biology classroom. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(3):226-234, 2017. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Unveiling the Teachers' Profiles through an INSET (In Service Training) Course of Greek Primary School Teachers in the Pedagogy of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) In-Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanatidis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for change in the infusion of ICT pedagogy in education a nationwide project was launched in Greece on May 2008. An INSET course for primary school teachers in the pedagogy of ICT in classroom instruction. The writer, aimed to study the teachers' views about certain aspects of the training experience in terms of the…

  5. Teaching neuroscience to science teachers: facilitating the translation of inquiry-based teaching instruction to the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, G H; Michlin, M; Schmitt, L; MacNabb, C; Dubinsky, J M

    2012-01-01

    In science education, inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning provide a framework for students to building critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Teacher professional development has been an ongoing focus for promoting such educational reforms. However, despite a strong consensus regarding best practices for professional development, relatively little systematic research has documented classroom changes consequent to these experiences. This paper reports on the impact of sustained, multiyear professional development in a program that combined neuroscience content and knowledge of the neurobiology of learning with inquiry-based pedagogy on teachers' inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations demonstrated the value of multiyear professional development in solidifying adoption of inquiry-based practices and cultivating progressive yearly growth in the cognitive environment of impacted classrooms.

  6. The use of Web-based GIS data technologies in the construction of geoscience instructional materials: examples from the MARGINS Data in the Classroom project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. G.; McIlrath, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Web-accessible geospatial information system (GIS) technologies have advanced in concert with an expansion of data resources that can be accessed and used by researchers, educators and students. These resources facilitate the development of data-rich instructional resources and activities that can be used to transition seamlessly into undergraduate research projects. MARGINS Data in the Classroom (http://serc.carleton.edu/ margins/index.html) seeks to engage MARGINS researchers and educators in using the images, datasets, and visualizations produced by NSF-MARGINS Program-funded research and related efforts to create Web-deliverable instructional materials for use in undergraduate-level geoscience courses (MARGINS Mini-Lessons). MARGINS science data is managed by the Marine Geosciences Data System (MGDS), and these and all other MGDS-hosted data can be accessed, manipulated and visualized using GeoMapApp (www.geomapapp.org; Carbotte et al, 2004), a freely available geographic information system focused on the marine environment. Both "packaged" MGDS datasets (i.e., global earthquake foci, volcanoes, bathymetry) and "raw" data (seismic surveys, magnetics, gravity) are accessible via GeoMapApp, with WFS linkages to other resources (geodesy from UNAVCO; seismic profiles from IRIS; geochemical and drillsite data from EarthChem, IODP, and others), permitting the comprehensive characterization of many regions of the ocean basins. Geospatially controlled datasets can be imported into GeoMapApp visualizations, and these visualizations can be exported into Google Earth as .kmz image files. Many of the MARGINS Mini-Lessons thus far produced use (or have studentss use the varied capabilities of GeoMapApp (i.e., constructing topographic profiles, overlaying varied geophysical and bathymetric datasets, characterizing geochemical data). These materials are available for use and testing from the project webpage (http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/). Classroom testing and assessment

  7. Using high-resolution satellite imagery to engage students in classroom experiences which meld research, the nature of science, and inquiry-based instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycook, J.; LaRue, M.; Herried, B.; Morin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing the need to bridge the gap between scientific research and the classroom, we have developed an exciting activity which engages students in grades 5-12 using high-resolution satellite imagery to observe Weddell seal populations in Antarctica. Going beyond the scope of the textbook, students experience the challenge researchers face in counting and monitoring animal populations in the field. The activity is presented in a non-expert, non-technical exercise enriched for students, with background information, tutorials, and satellite imagery included. Teachers instruct their class in how to use satellite imagery analysis techniques to collect data on seal populations in the McMurdo Sound region of the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Students participate in this inquiry-based, open-ended exercise to evaluate changes in the seal population within and between seasons. The activity meets the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through inquiry-based, real-world application and supports seven Performance Expectations (PE) for grade 5-12. In addition, it offers students a glimpse into the work of a field biologist, promoting interest in entering the STEM career pipeline. As every new Antarctica season unfolds, new imagery will be uploaded to the website allowing each year of students to add their counts to a growing long-term dataset for the classroom. The activity files provide 1) a tutorial in how to use the images to count the populations, 2) background information about Weddell seals in the McMurdo Sound region of the Ross Sea for the students and the teachers, and 3) collections of satellite imagery for spatial and temporal analysis of population fluctuations. Teachers can find all activity files to conduct the activity, including student instructions, on the Polar Geospatial Center's website (http://z.umn.edu/seals). Satellite image, Big Razorback Island, Antarctica Weddell seals,Tent Island, Antarctica

  8. Analysis on Current Undergraduate Classroom Instruction Quality Evaluation%高校本科课堂教学质量评价现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白菲; 谭豫之

    2012-01-01

    课堂教学质量评价是高校本科教学质量监控的重要环节。基于对国内近四十所高等院校的课堂教学评价指标及实施办法等相关文件资料的搜集和整理,分析了我国高校本科课堂教学质量评价工作的不足,即以奖惩性评价为主、评价指标体系专业针对性不足、一线教师对教学评价参与少,在实际工作中应使教学评价向有利于教师发展的方向转变,避免"一表多课",重视开展教师的自我评价。%Classroom instruction quality evaluation is an important link of the teaching quality monitoring system in colleges and universities.On the basis of reviewing the undergraduate classroom instruction quality assessment index and implementation methods of about forty domestic institutions of higher learning,this paper analyzed the shortcomings in the evaluation system of China's colleges and universities: the predominance of reward and punishment appraisal,over-generalized assessment index,insufficient involvement of front-line teachers in the assessment,etc.The author suggests that the assessment should be reformed to be more favorable for the career development of faculty,to avoid the use of a single omnipotent form for all classes and to promote the self-evaluation of teachers.

  9. Investigating How German Biology Teachers Use Three-Dimensional Physical Models in Classroom Instruction: a Video Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sonja; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; von Kotzebue, Lena; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2017-07-01

    To obtain a general understanding of science, model use as part of National Education Standards is important for instruction. Model use can be characterized by three aspects: (1) the characteristics of the model, (2) the integration of the model into instruction, and (3) the use of models to foster scientific reasoning. However, there were no empirical results describing the implementation of National Education Standards in science instruction concerning the use of models. Therefore, the present study investigated the implementation of different aspects of model use in German biology instruction. Two biology lessons on the topic neurobiology in grade nine of 32 biology teachers were videotaped (N = 64 videos). These lessons were analysed using an event-based coding manual according to three aspects of model described above. Rasch analysis of the coded categories was conducted and showed reliable measurement. In the first analysis, we identified 68 lessons where a total of 112 different models were used. The in-depth analysis showed that special aspects of an elaborate model use according to several categories of scientific reasoning were rarely implemented in biology instruction. A critical reflection of the used model (N = 25 models; 22.3%) and models to demonstrate scientific reasoning (N = 26 models; 23.2%) were seldom observed. Our findings suggest that pre-service biology teacher education and professional development initiatives in Germany have to focus on both aspects.

  10. How To Use Differentiated Instruction with Students with Developmental Disabilities in the General Education Classroom. DDD Prism Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Imbeau, Marcia; Perner, Darlene E.

    This book discusses how educators can achieve inclusive classrooms that give students with different abilities the maximum opportunity for growth. It provides frameworks for planning learning environments, content, process, and products that enable students with learning challenges to succeed with meaningful curriculum. Decision-making guidelines…

  11. Making a Success of "Algebra for All": The Impact of Extended Instructional Time and Classroom Peer Skill in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Takako; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, Chicago launched "Double-Dose Algebra," requiring students with pretest scores below the national median to take two periods of math--algebra and supplemental coursework. In many schools, assignment to Double Dose changed the peer composition of the algebra classroom. Using school-specific instrumental variables within a…

  12. Language Anxiety Caused by the Single Mode of Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms: The Case of African Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonsela, S.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to use language is unique from one individual to another. This could also depend on the individual's exposure to a language. This article aims to contribute to the growing area of research on language anxiety by exploring the extent to which language anxiety affects learners' performance in learning in multilingual classrooms,…

  13. Making a Success of "Algebra for All": The Impact of Extended Instructional Time and Classroom Peer Skill in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Takako; Raudenbush, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, Chicago launched "Double-Dose Algebra," requiring students with pretest scores below the national median to take two periods of math--algebra and supplemental coursework. In many schools, assignment to Double Dose changed the peer composition of the algebra classroom. Using school-specific instrumental variables within a…

  14. Exploring Relationships between Teachers' Philosophical Beliefs and Practices Relative to Unforeseen Interruptions in Elementary Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Faye Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge, goals, beliefs, and decision-making activities were explored individually and combined relative to their philosophical beliefs and practices in the elementary classroom setting in response to unforeseen interruptions. Schoenfeld's Theory of Teaching-in-Context and Brown's "The Experimental Mind in…

  15. Asperger Syndrome in the Middle and High School Classroom: Special Interest Areas and Strength-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer-White, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The fact that most teenagers with Asperger syndrome (AS) are now educated in mainstream or inclusion classrooms presents problems for many of their teachers who have reported feeling ill-equipped to deal with the often conflicting learning profiles these students present. At issue is the restricted, circumscribed, or special interest areas (SIAs)…

  16. New Literacies and Pedagogical Migration: Exploring Impacts of New Literacies on Instruction and Learning in High School Content Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Melody Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impacts of integrating new literacies practices into high school curriculum content classrooms. This study examined data collected through observations and semi-structured interviews conducted with four high school content curriculum teachers. Analysis of the data resulted in essential findings emerging…

  17. Should professional development include analyzing and coaching ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction in elementary classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zee, Emily H.

    2009-12-01

    In this commentary, I first consider what Oliveira defines inquiry-based science instruction to be. Next I discuss what the discourse practices are that he is advocating. Then I examine what he presents as evidence of changes in two teachers' discourse practices due to a summer institute and how their pragmatic awareness seems to have been enhanced through institute activities. Finally I ponder whether, when, how, and why professional development should include a focus on ways of speaking during inquiry-based science instruction.

  18. Classroom Pragmatics Instruction Abroad in the Past Three Decades%国外课堂语用教学研究三十年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜占好; 陶源; 周保国

    2011-01-01

    This article probes into the classroom instructions on interlanguage pragmatic development abroad in the past 30 years in terms of necessity,approaches,effect assessment and instruction period.Both the implicit nature of pragmatic knowledge and the existe%本文从必要性、教学方法、评估手段和教学时间四个层面探讨了国外近30年课堂语用教学状况,以期对我国课堂语用教学有所启示。研究发现:语用知识隐性特征和语用教学实践成果使得课堂语用教学成为必然,语用知识特征决定了课堂语用教学多使用显性手段,语用教学效果的评估要集中在能折射学习者语用知识运用的开放式的方法上,语用教学时间与教学效果成正相关。

  19. 基于策略培训的大学英语课堂教学模式%Strategy,Training Model in College English Classroom Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑄瑄

    2011-01-01

    The use of learning strategies affects learners' learning efficiency and ability of autonomous learning. Based on the strategic instructional models proposed by foreign researchers ,this paper puts forward the strategy training model in college English Classroom instruction, i.e. to emotionally start the class with ques- tions, to present the strategy through directional guidance, to apply the strategy through group work, to appraise the strategy through summarization, and to internalize the strategy through assignment.%学习策略的使用对学习者的学习效率和自主学习能力均产生影响。在国外策略培训模式的基础上,提出基于策略培训的大学英语课堂教学模式:设置问题,情感启动;呈现策略,定向引导;运用策略,小组活动;概括总结,评价策略;布置作业,内化策略。

  20. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: Millennials, Teaching and Learning, and the Elephant in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Sherwyn P.; Staley, Constance M.

    2016-01-01

    The essays that comprise "Communication Education's" Forum on Instructional Communication and Millennial Students provide excellent summaries of existing research on this new generational cohort as college students. Taken as a whole, the writings paint an intriguing picture of this cohort, including both challenges and opportunities to…

  1. Cognition and Misrecognition: A Bourdieuian Analysis of Cognitive Strategy Instruction in a Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, Lara J.; Jimenez, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports data from a year-long ethnographic case study of a third-grade teacher's literacy instruction for her linguistically and culturally diverse students. Specifically, we use Bourdieu's social practice theory (1991, 1998) to examine the teacher's linguistic and literate habitus and the discourses of the field converge in her use of…

  2. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: Millennials, Teaching and Learning, and the Elephant in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Sherwyn P.; Staley, Constance M.

    2016-01-01

    The essays that comprise "Communication Education's" Forum on Instructional Communication and Millennial Students provide excellent summaries of existing research on this new generational cohort as college students. Taken as a whole, the writings paint an intriguing picture of this cohort, including both challenges and opportunities to…

  3. Historical Short Stories as Nature of Science Instruction in Secondary Science Classrooms: Science Teachers' Implementation and Students' Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Smith, Jennifer Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of historical short stories as nature of science (NOS) instruction in thirteen secondary science classes. The stories focus on the development of science ideas and include statements and questions to draw students' and teachers' attention to key NOS ideas and misconceptions. This study used mixed methods to examine how…

  4. How Clear and Organized Classroom Instruction and Deep Approaches to Learning Affect Growth in Critical Thinking and Need for Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Sheng; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Ribera, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the authors analyze longitudinal student survey data from the 17-institution Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS) to determine the extent that the influence of overall exposure to clear and organized instruction on four-year growth in two measures of cognitive development is mediated by student use of deep approaches…

  5. "Speaking" Deficit into (Or out Of) Existence: How Language Constrains Classroom Teachers' Knowledge about Instructing Diverse Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugh, Patricia Cahill; Dudley-Marling, Curt

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the talk among novice teachers who participated in an inquiry project designed to rethink the instruction for their struggling students by drawing upon competence rather than deficiencies. A critical discourse analysis (CDA) based on theories of systemic functional linguistics and CDA provided tools to explore how their use…

  6. Connecting Brain Research to Classroom Learning: A Mixed-Method Study on How Teachers Apply Brain Research to Their Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine how knowledgeable teachers are in utilizing brain-researched instructional strategies. The research focused on determining which brain-researched strategies are implemented, the accuracy with which they are employed, and the degree to which they are utilized. A literature review revealed the most…

  7. How Clear and Organized Classroom Instruction and Deep Approaches to Learning Affect Growth in Critical Thinking and Need for Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Sheng; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Ribera, Amy K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the authors analyze longitudinal student survey data from the 17-institution Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNS) to determine the extent that the influence of overall exposure to clear and organized instruction on four-year growth in two measures of cognitive development is mediated by student use of deep approaches…

  8. Exploring the Links between Students' Engagement in Cooperative Learning, Their Goal Preferences and Appraisals of Instructional Conditions in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijzen, Daphne; Boekaerts, Monique; Vedder, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggested that social support, belongingness and mastery goals were related to the quality of cooperative learning (CL). In this in-depth study we explored how to differentiate between four effective CL teams and four ineffective CL teams, in terms of students' goals and perceptions of instructional conditions. Apart from the…

  9. Understanding the Development of a Hybrid Practice of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction and Language Development: A Case Study of One Teacher's Journey Through Reflections on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Rankin, Lynn; Austin, Marilyn; Caven, Gennifer

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative case study looks closely at an elementary teacher who participated in professional development experiences that helped her develop a hybrid practice of using inquiry-based science to teach both science content and English language development (ELD) to her students, many of whom are English language learners (ELLs). This case study examines the teacher's reflections on her teaching and her students' learning as she engaged her students in science learning and supported their developing language skills. It explicates the professional learning experiences that supported the development of this hybrid practice. Closely examining the pedagogical practice and reflections of a teacher who is developing an inquiry-based approach to both science learning and language development can provide insights into how teachers come to integrate their professional development experiences with their classroom expertise in order to create a hybrid inquiry-based science ELD practice. This qualitative case study contributes to the emerging scholarship on the development of teacher practice of inquiry-based science instruction as a vehicle for both science instruction and ELD for ELLs. This study demonstrates how an effective teaching practice that supports both the science and language learning of students can develop from ongoing professional learning experiences that are grounded in current perspectives about language development and that immerse teachers in an inquiry-based approach to learning and instruction. Additionally, this case study also underscores the important role that professional learning opportunities can play in supporting teachers in developing a deeper understanding of the affordances that inquiry-based science can provide for language development.

  10. Promoting a practice of active student-centred instruction into the mathematics classroom: matematita's "turnkey laboratory" kits

    CERN Document Server

    Cazzola, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this report is to describe a field trial conducted in Italy during the academic year 2009-10, with primary and secondary school teachers (grades K-8), in order to test prototypes of "ready to use" kits to be used to implement PBL laboratory sessions in the classroom. This work is meant to provide a sort of snapshot of the classroom implementation of the teaching recommendations (so that any readers can conduct their own analysis). The kits were designed by matematita (Interuniversity Research Center for the Communication and Informal Learning of Mathematics, http://www.matematita.it). I wish to thank the "Ufficio Scolastico Regionale della Lombardia" for sponsoring the trial.

  11. Resources ancillary services and classroom instruction: thoughts of a deaf-blind social work student and her teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Teresa V; Smith, Ashleigh

    2006-01-01

    This article is the story of a social work instructor and her deaf-blind student. The chapter includes: (a) an overview of Gallaudet University, focusing on the Social Work Program and the Office of Students with Disabilities program, (b) personal background information about the student and her professor, and (c) perspectives of the educational process by both the student and her instructor. The article concludes with recommendations to both students and instructors for addressing the needs of deaf-blind students in the classroom and university setting.

  12. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  13. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  14. Instructional Coaching. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Julie; Steiner, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Schools and districts invest a great deal of time and money in professional development for teachers through instructional coaching. With this effort comes the responsibility to design coaching programs that have the greatest potential to improve classroom instruction and, in turn, increase student learning. What research is available to help…

  15. Getting to Know and Address Your State Science Standards to Connect Classroom Instruction and Field Trips During IYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, M.; Larsen, K.

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy activities often pose problems for in-service teachers, especially at the elementary level, as many do not have a solid content background. Often astronomy instruction revolves around reading and answering questions. This is not an effective way to work with abstract concepts or engage students, and also fails to meet the standards of inquiry-based instruction recommended by the National Science Teachers Association and national and state standards. Science museums and planetariums bring unique and exciting perspectives to astronomy education. However, bringing students to the museum can sometimes be perceived as only a ``cool field trip.'' With mounting pressure for teachers to teach to the new standardized tests demanded by No Child Left Behind, and shrinking school budgets, field trips are rapidly becoming an endangered species. Coordinating museum, science center, and planetarium offerings with national and state science standards can renew interest in (and perceived relevance of) field trips. Therefore, university faculty, in-service teachers, and museum/planetarium staff can form successful partnerships which can both improve student learning and increase attendance at informal education science events and facilities. This workshop will first briefly introduce participants to national and representative state standards as well as research on in-service teachers' astronomy content knowledge and the educational value of field trips. For the majority of the workshop, participants will engage in the actual steps of coordinating, planning, and writing inquiry-based astronomy curriculum embedded performance tasks that collectively meet the learning needs of students in elementary, middle, or high school.

  16. Application of Multi-media Technology to Improve Politics Classroom Instructions%用多媒体手段改进思想政治课堂教学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新红

    2014-01-01

    Multi-media technology is one of teaching resources of politics classroom instructions,it has the characteristics of large amount of information, transmission speed and audio-visual features.It can be able to deal with some classroom teahing problems that cannot be sovled by using traditional teaching methods and illustrate by the classroom examlpes.%多媒体教学作为思想政治课程资源之一,具有信息量大、传输快、音画兼备、形象直观等特点。运用多媒体教学可以处理一些传统教学中难以解决的问题,并以课堂实例举例说明。

  17. School-wide implementation of the elements of effective classroom instruction: Lessons from a high-performing, high-poverty urban school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Hilarie

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive

  18. The Classroom Animal: Mealworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes appearance, longevity, and changes in each step of the mealworm life cycle. Guidelines for starting a classroom colony are given with housing and care instructions. Suggested observations, activities, and questions for students are included. (DH)

  19. Information Retrieval in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oley, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Explores aspects of information retrieval skills such as end user training, indexing, controlled vocabulary systems, search protocol, boolean logic, problem analysis, and decision making. Suggests techniques for classroom instruction using simulations of online databases, CD-ROMs, and DIALOG's classroom instruction program. Describes several…

  20. Language and reading instruction in early years' classrooms: the knowledge and self-rated ability of Australian teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hannah L; Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Goldfeld, Sharon R

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to investigate the level of knowledge of language constructs in a cohort of Australian teachers and to examine their self-rated ability and confidence in that knowledge. Seventy-eight teachers from schools across the Australian state of Victoria completed a questionnaire which included items from existing measures, as well as newly developed items. Consistent with a number of earlier Australian and international studies, teachers' explicit and implicit knowledge of basic linguistic constructs was limited and highly variable. A statistically significant correlation was found between (1) total self-rated ability and (2) years since qualification and experience teaching the early years of primary school; however, no relationship was found between self-rated ability and overall performance on knowledge items. Self-rated ability to teach phonemic awareness and phonics had no relationship with demonstrated knowledge in these areas. Teachers were most likely to rate their ability to teach skills including spelling, phonics, comprehension or vocabulary as either moderate or very good. This was despite most respondents demonstrating limited knowledge and stating that they did not feel confident answering questions about their knowledge in these areas. The findings from this study confirm that in the field of language and literacy instruction, there is a gap between the knowledge that is theoretically requisite, and therefore expected, and the actual knowledge of many teachers. This finding challenges current pre-service teacher education and in-service professional learning.

  1. Learning in third spaces: community art studio as storefront university classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm-Bottos, Janis; Reilly, Rosemary C

    2015-03-01

    Third spaces are in-between places where teacher-student scripts intersect, creating the potential for authentic interaction and a shift in what counts as knowledge. This paper describes a unique community-university initiative: a third space storefront classroom for postsecondary students in professional education programs, which also functions as a community art studio for the surrounding neighborhood. This approach to professional education requires an innovative combination of theory, methods, and materials as enacted by the professionals involved and performed by the students. This storefront classroom utilizes collaborative and inclusive instructional practices that promote human and community development. It facilitates the use of innovative instructional strategies including art making and participatory dialogue to create a liminal learning space that reconfigures professional education. In researching the effectiveness of this storefront classroom, we share the voices of students who have participated in this third space as part of their coursework to underscore these principles and practices.

  2. Integrating Real-time, Real-world Geoscience Experiences into Classroom Instruction with EarthLabs and the JOIDES Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, A. S.; Lockwood, J.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Cooper, S. K.; Ledley, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    Inspiring the next generation of geoscientists and preparing students for the 21st century workforce requires lifting science outside of the classroom and giving learners the opportunity to think critically about real-world geoscience problems. The EarthLabs suite of climate science modules challenges students with a variety of learning experiences including current scientific data analysis, computer visualizations, satellite imagery, and engaging videos. Each module includes a series of hands-on activities to allow students to explore Earth's complex and dynamic climate history, leading to a deeper understanding of present and future changes to our planet. A new EarthLabs module in development 'Climate Detectives: An Expedition on board the JOIDES Resolution," focuses on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 to Southern Alaska. The module is structured to allow students to work collaboratively, mimicking scientific research groups on the JOIDES Resolution. As students assume the role of a scientist, learn about data collection methods, and analyze authentic data, they learn about the climate history and tectonic processes of the Southern Alaska continental margin, as well as explore the relationship between climate, sedimentation, and tectonics. The Project Based Learning (PBL) approach used in the module teaches students how to analyze data and solve problems like scientists, strengthening the development of higher order thinking skills and preparing them for college coursework. The 'Climate Detectives' Module also provides students with opportunities to interact with scientists through live video conferencing and pre-recorded video presentations by scientists. In this presentation, Expedition 341 Education Officer, Alison Mote, describes the new module, which takes students on an educational journey as they learn about the scientific objectives, methods, and data collection tools scientists use to conduct research on sediment cores retrieved

  3. Practice What We Preach: Differentiating Instruction and Assessment in a Higher Education Classroom as a Model of Effective Pedagogy for Early Childhood Teacher Education Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griess, Carolyn J.; Keat, Jane B.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher education faculty are experiencing increasingly diverse higher education classrooms. In many ways, the diversities present in collegiate classrooms mirror the differences in classrooms of young children. The diversity may be a result of a range of ethnic, socioeconomic, and linguistic differences. Or it may be differences resulting from…

  4. Not all interactive engagement is the same: Variations in physics professors’ implementation of Peer Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Turpen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available While educational reforms in introductory physics are becoming more widespread, how these reforms are implemented is less well understood. This paper examines the variation in faculty practices surrounding the implementation of educational reform in introductory physics courses. Through observations of classroom practice, we find that professors’ actual practices differ strikingly. We present a framework for describing and capturing instructional choices and resulting variations in enacted practices for faculty who are implementing Peer Instruction. Based on our observations, there are a variety of scientific practices that are supported and modeled in the use of Peer Instruction. In all of the classrooms studied, students were found trying out and applying new physical concepts and discussing physics with their peers. However, there were large discrepancies in students’ opportunities to engage in formulating and asking questions, evaluating the correctness and completeness of problem solutions, interacting with physicists, identifying themselves as sources of solutions, explanations, or answers, and communicating scientific ideas in a public arena. Case studies of six professors demonstrate how these variations in classroom practices, in aggregate, create different classroom norms, such as the relative emphasis on student sense-making vs answer-making during Peer Instruction.

  5. Guidance for Technology Decisions from Classroom Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Talbot

    2012-01-01

    Correlational analysis of two years of classroom observation indicates relationships between technology use and various classroom characteristics, including teacher roles and instructional strategies. Three observers used the ISTE Classroom Observation Tool (ICOT) to record 144 observations of classrooms participating in a variety of educational…

  6. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  7. "Processing Instruction": un tipo di grammatica comunicativa per la classe di lingua straniera. Il caso del futuro italiano. (Processing Instruction: One Type of Communicative Grammar for the Foreign Language Classroom. The Case of the Italian Future Tense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benati, Alessandro

    2000-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and practical rationale for processing instruction as a method of incorporating grammar instruction in a communicative foreign language approach. Presents results of a study on the role of processing instruction on the learning of the Italian future indicative tense by a group of English-speaking students. Results…

  8. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  9. Classroom Management with Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Diane; Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; Sugai, George

    2017-01-01

    Effective and engaging instruction is the cornerstone of any well-managed classroom. Even the best behavior support practices will not lead to academic achievement if the academic instruction is ineffective. Specific teacher practices associated with improved student behavior include high rates of opportunities to respond, direct instruction, and…

  10. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Salvatore

    1989-01-01

    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  11. Opera in the Italian Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Salvatore

    1989-01-01

    Describes class activities for incorporating and teaching about opera into the Italian language instruction classroom, focusing on the enhancement of cultural knowledge and understanding that opera offers. (CB)

  12. Explicit Comprehension Instruction: A Review of Research and a New Conceptualization of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, P. David; Dole, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews representative instructional studies of inference training, reciprocal teaching, and process training. Discusses both the concept of explicit comprehension instruction and potential difficulties in classroom implementation. Raises two important curricular concerns. (NH)

  13. A Fallibilistic Model for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses models in inquiry and of instruction based on critical Fallibilistic philosophy, developed by Karl R. Popper, which holds that all knowledge grows by conjecture and refutation. Classroom applications of strategies which result from the model are presented. (JP)

  14. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2016-06-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  15. How Do We Match Instructional Effectiveness with Learning Curves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Taylor, W. Patrick; Carlson, Coleen D.; Lei, Xiaoxuan; Hunter, C. Vincent; Francis, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness of instruction, the authors confront formidable statistical problems, including multivariate structure of classroom observations, longitudinal dependence of both classroom observations and student outcomes. As the authors begin to examine instruction, classroom observations involve multiple variables for which…

  16. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  17. Emerging Issues in Handwriting Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, Carolyn V.; And Others

    Noting the general lack of research on handwriting instruction, a study examined hand and eye dominance, hand positions, and handwriting production of children. Subjects were 310 children from grades one through five in classrooms of regular children, mainstreamed team teaching classrooms, and self-contained gifted classes in a large elementary…

  18. Co-Teaching Partnerships: How Culture of Schools and Classrooms Affect Practices in Co-Planning and Co-Implementing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalo, Cecilia Gray

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how the school and classroom cultures affected practices of inclusion for students with disabilities and how the inclusionary practice of co-teaching was influenced by the school culture. This study sought to investigate school and classroom cultures and their impact on practices of inclusion. It also…

  19. 智障教育课堂指导语运用探析%The Exploration of the Use of Instructions in the Education Classrooms for Mentally-Retarded Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申承林

    2014-01-01

    智障教育课堂教学中,指导语作为师生信息交换的中介,对于课堂教学的有效实施起着桥梁的作用。智障教育课堂实践中,对于如何恰当使用指导语存在着三个误区“:不清晰“”无指向”和“不存在”。要消除指导语使用的误区,需要明晰智障教育学校指导语的四种功能,即导向功能、反馈功能、强化功能和调节功能;正确把握指导语运用的四个原则:稳定性原则、准确性原则、简洁性原则和差异性原则;提高指导语运用的水平需要教师准确把握课程,细致了解学生,并建立反思习惯。%In the classroom teaching for mentally retarded children, instructions, as the medium for information interchange between teachers and students, play the role of a bridge. In the classroom practice of education for the mentally-retarded, there are three misunderstandings about how to employ instructions properly, namely,“unclearness”,“pointlessness”and“nonexistence”. To clear up the misunderstandings in the use of instructions, four functions of instructions in schools for mentally retarded children should be made clear, namely, orientation, feedback, reinforcement and adjustment; four principles of the use of instructions should be stuck to, that is, stability, accuracy, conciseness and discrepancy;the improvement of the application of the instructions needs the teacher’s knowing well of the curricula, detailed understanding of students and forming the habit of introspection.

  20. Crane. Incidental Classroom Instruction 20295

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Richard Jennings [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this course is to introduce safe hoisting and rigging practices to personnel who are attempting to become LANL incidental crane operators and to review and refresh safe hoisting and rigging practices with existing incidental crane operators.

  1. Classroom Assessments that Inform Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conderman, Greg; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The accountability movement in education has caused school administrators and teachers to think differently about how they report, interpret, and use student assessment data. For example, legislative measures such as No Child Left Behind require school officials to report how all students are progressing toward established standards typically…

  2. Current Taxonomy in Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Laura K.; Pace, Norman R.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to sequence genes has vastly altered our understanding of higher-level relationships among organisms such as those found at the kingdom level. It is important for biology teachers to incorporate these new views and not retain outdated concepts still present in some textbooks. This article provides an overview of our new understanding…

  3. Tablets in English Class: Students' Activities Surrounding Online Dictionary Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Leona

    2015-01-01

    Tablets have become increasingly popular among young people in Sweden and this rapid increase also resonates in school, especially in classrooms for younger children. The aim of the present study is to analyze and describe how the students deal with the open instructions for a task of using online dictionaries on tablets. Specific focus is on how…

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Teacher Instruction and Feedback on Student Adaptive Help-Seeking in Upper-Elementary Literacy Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Carin; Davis, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Ninety-three fourth and fifth-grade students were observed once weekly for one semester during reading and writing instruction. A structured observational protocol was used to record information about instruction and feedback provided to these students by their teachers, as well as the students' participation, regulation, and self-instruction…

  5. "They Might Know a Lot of Things That I Don't Know": Investigating Differences in Preservice Teachers' Ideas about Contextualizing Science Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, Sara; Knox, Corey

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results from a qualitative study of 72 preservice teachers' initial ideas about contextualizing science instruction with language minority students. Participants drew primarily on local ecological and multicultural contexts as resources for contextualizing instruction. However, preservice teachers enrolled in the bilingual…

  6. Nursing education: Flipping the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Karen L

    2016-02-18

    This article will introduce the innovative educational concept of the "flipped classroom." How to implement the flipped learning model will be addressed within the framework of The Intentional Instruction Environment Model.

  7. Rap Music in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Edward

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the background of rap music, its definition, its themes and messages, and rap as a blend of language and music. Offers ideas for its use in the classroom as a way to motivate and instruct students. (SR)

  8. The relationship between classroom quality and students' engagement in secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Tuomo; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Kuorelahti, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement has been identified as an influential mediator between classroom interactional quality and adolescent learning outcomes. This study examined the relationship between classroom quality and student behavioural engagement in secondary school classrooms. Three dimensions of classroom quality (emotional, organisational and instructional support) and the dimension of student engagement were observed in nine classrooms using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System. Self-ratings of...

  9. The Teaching of Reading in Inclusive Classrooms: A Case Study of Regular Teachers Instructional Strategies in Teaching Reading Comprehension to Standard Four Learners in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Chisamba, Chrissie Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The main aim of this study was to explore how regular teachers are teaching reading comprehension in inclusive classrooms in Malawi. The focus was on standard four teachers whose learners are on transit to an all English class (standard five). The recent years have seen the deteriorating in comprehension competencies in the English language amongst most learners in regular schools. With the introduction of inclusive education, regular classrooms now have learners with various needs w...

  10. Direct Reading Instruction and the NYS ELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Carey, Margaret H.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…

  11. 基于翻转课堂的就业指导教学设计探究%Exploration into Instructional Design of Employment Guidance Class Based on Flipped Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高富春

    2015-01-01

    就业指导课采用翻转课堂的教学引发课堂教师角色、教学设计的变革.教师的角色从课堂教学准备者转变为课前视频设计者,从知识传授者演变为生涯教练型指导者;教学设计也从课前教学准备、翻转课堂教学活动设计和教学评价多元化三方面进行变革;有效提高了课堂教学参与度和有效性.%Employment guidance class adopting flipped classroom teaching results in transformation of teachers' role in class and instructional design. The role of teachers is converted from preparer of class teaching into video designer before class, and evolved from knowledge instructor into coaching guider of career. Instructional design is also transformed from three aspects, teaching preparation, instructional activity design of flipped class and teaching evaluation design. It has effectively improved the class teaching involvement and effectiveness.

  12. Personalities in the Classroom: Making the Most of Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rita Coombs; Arker, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' personality traits are reflected in their classroom instruction--especially in their selection of various instructional strategies, the materials they choose, and their classroom management techniques. Moreover, personality styles are positively interrelated with learning styles as well as teaching styles. In many classrooms, however,…

  13. Personalities in the Classroom: Making the Most of Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rita Coombs; Arker, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' personality traits are reflected in their classroom instruction--especially in their selection of various instructional strategies, the materials they choose, and their classroom management techniques. Moreover, personality styles are positively interrelated with learning styles as well as teaching styles. In many classrooms, however,…

  14. Should laptops be allowed in the classroom? Two viewpoints: viewpoint 1: laptops in classrooms facilitate curricular advancement and promote student learning and viewpoint 2: deconstructing and rethinking the use of laptops in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Heiko; von Bergmann, HsingChi

    2014-12-01

    . While the first viewpoint emphasizes the pivotal role of technology in bringing dental education into the contemporary digital world, the second viewpoint focuses on challenges surrounding laptop usage in the classroom including the alignment of instructional methods with learning objectives.

  15. Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

  16. Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

  17. Impact of Huangshigang District School Surrounding Community Ecological Environment to Build Healthy Classroom%黄石港区学校周边社区生态环境对构建健康课堂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉平

    2015-01-01

    社区生态环境是物质环境和精神环境的总和,良好的社区生态环境有利于净化师生的心灵、有利于素质教育的开展、有利于规范师生的心理和行为习惯,也有利于良好师生关系、生生关系的形成。相反,不良的社区生态环境容易扰乱师生的心境、诱发青少年不良的行为习惯,容易使学生形成不良的思想道德品质,也不利于良好师生关系的构建。通过了解黄石港区部分学校周边社区生态环境的现状以及对构建健康课堂的影响,笔者提出了构建黄石港区学校周边社区生态环境的一些思考。%Community ecological environment is the sum of the physical environment and the spiritual environment, good community ecological environment conducive to purify the hearts of teachers and students, contributing to the de-velopment of quality education, teachers and students in favor of standardized psychological and behavior, but also con-ducive to good teacher-student relationship form life and relationships. Conversely, poor ecological community of tea-chers and students easily disrupt mood, induced bad teen behavior, easy for students to form a poor moral quality, is not conducive to building a good relationship between teachers and students. By understanding the current situation surro-unding community school district Huangshigang ecological environment as well as on the construction of part of the health class, I made some thinking to build schools in the districts surrounding communities Huangshigang ecological environment.

  18. Conversation in the Middle School Classroom: Developing Reading, Writing, and Other Language Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Janet I.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that achievement gains in literacy in the middle school classroom revolve around the three elements of "dialogic instruction" orchestrated to support "envisionment-building classrooms" centered around substantive and sustained "curricular conversations." Asserts that effective classroom practices that include…

  19. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  20. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  1. The Flipped Classroom in Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kristen; Milsom, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The flipped classroom is proposed as an effective instructional approach in counselor education. An overview of the flipped-classroom approach, including advantages and disadvantages, is provided. A case example illustrates how the flipped classroom can be applied in counselor education. Recommendations for implementing or researching flipped…

  2. How Let the New Lesson Change Principle Instruction English Classroom Teaching%如何让新课改理念指导英语课堂教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋广飞

    2014-01-01

    教学理念是指导我们教学的重要依据,课堂是我们教学的主阵地,只有将正确的教学理念融入于我们的英语课堂教学中,才能构建高效课堂,我们的英语教育教学才会有效发挥。%The teaching principle is the importance basis that guides our teaching, and the classroom is the main battlefield of our teaching.Only integrate into a correct teaching principle in our English classroom teaching in,so as to set up efficiently classroom,our English educate the teaching would effectively develop.

  3. 小学数学课堂的教师教学质量研究%Study of the Teachers’ Quality Instruction in the Primary Mathematics Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小青; 倪玉菁

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of teachers’ instructional explanation, this study investigated the quality of teachers’ instruction in primary mathematics classes. Thirty-nine fifth grade teachers in a city of the Central China participated in the study. The results indicated that the mathematics teachers scored high on the indices of accuracy and coherence in instructional. However, their scores on the dimension of instructional richness were relatively lower. There was no significant association between teachers’ background factors (i.e., teaching age, and educational level) and their use of instructional explanation. However, curriculum in use affected the quality of teachers’ instructional explanation. The findings of the study contributed to an understanding of the instructional features of mathematics classes. And the results may offer some implications for teacher education.%以中部一城市39名五年级数学教师为研究对象,采用录像观察法,分析教师的课堂教学性解释,考察小学数学课堂的教师教学质量。结果表明:教师教学的准确性及连贯性得分较高,丰富性得分较低。教师使用原课程或新课程影响教师教学性解释的质量。教师教龄、学历等人口学因素与其解释的质量无显著相关。研究有助于了解小学数学课堂的教学特征,并对教师教育提供启示。

  4. The Experimental Design on Efficient Classroom Teaching of Self-regulated Learning Based on the Learning-instructed Plans%基于导学案自主学习的高效课堂教学实验设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旸

    2012-01-01

    真正高效的课堂教学必须以学生愿学和乐学为表现样态。采用不相等实验组控制组前后测准实验研究,在开展学生内在发展需要与教育外在发展要求和谐统一研究的基础上,借助多样化的干预策略,提升师生解读导学案的理念,帮助教师在因学科、学生、自身教学风格等不同而精心研制和有效使用的、具有合理性的导学案中提升能力,从而在课堂教学中以导学案为依托促进学生自主学习、成长和发展,实现具有根基性的高效课堂教学。%A truly effective classroom teaching must be that the student wish to learn and happy to learn. Based on the study of the harmony between the students' inner development needs and education external development request, the research will adopt quasi-experimental research methods and diverse intervention strategies to improve concept of teachers and students to the learning - instructed plans, help teacher develop professional ability of careful research and effective use of the learning-instructed plans, promote students' autonomous learning, growth and development and realize efficient classroom teaching.

  5. Impacts of Flipped Classroom in High School Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ling

    2016-01-01

    As advanced technology increasingly infiltrated into classroom, the flipped classroom has come to light in secondary educational settings. The flipped classroom is a new instructional approach that intends to flip the traditional teacher-centered classroom into student centered. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of the…

  6. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…

  7. An Examination of Interactive Whiteboard Perceptions using the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Stages of Concern and the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow Model of Instructional Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey; Chamblee, Gregory; Slough, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Two high school mathematics teachers who use Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) in the classroom were interviewed annually over the course of three years regarding their perceptions of the technology. During the third year, the two teachers were asked to complete the Concerns-Based Adoption Model Stages of Concern Questionnaire. The data obtained from…

  8. "Real Teaching" in the Mathematics Classroom: A Comparison of the Instructional Practices of Elementary Teachers in Urban High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Sueanne E.; Robinson, Jack; Berube, Clair T.

    2013-01-01

    The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" outlines fundamental elements that are crucial for creating a problem-solving and inquiry-driven classroom learning environment that highlights conceptual understandings of mathematics ideas. Even though this document outlines…

  9. Flipped Instruction: An Investigation into the Effect of Learning Environment on Student Self-Efficacy, Learning Style, and Academic Achievement in an Algebra I Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiginton, Barry Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized an explanatory mixed-methods research design to investigate the effect of learning environment on student mathematics achievement, and mathematics self-efficacy, and student learning style in a ninth grade Algebra I classroom. The study also explored the lived experiences of the teachers and students in the three different…

  10. A Comparison of Live Classroom Instruction and Internet-Based Lessons for a Preparatory Training Course Delivered to 4th Year Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…

  11. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  12. 大学英语课堂语用习得能力培养探究%Exploring a Model for Facilitating Students' Interlanguage Pragmatics Acquisition through English Classroom Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武金锁; 王艳

    2014-01-01

    语际语语用学是20世纪80年代新兴的语用学分支,是在二语习得和语用学理论基础上发展起来的交叉学科。基于此,对语用能力的发展这个语际语语用学研究的主要问题进行概述,并探讨英语课堂语用习得能力培养模式,以期进一步提高大学英语课堂教学质量。%Interlanguage pragmatics is a new interdisciplinary branch of study emerging in 1980s based on the theories of SLA and pragmatics. This paper focuses on the major issue about the study in interlanguage pragmatics,namely,the development of pragmatic competence and the exploration of a model for cultivating students' pragmatic competence through English classroom instruction in order to further improve college English classroom teaching quality.

  13. The Prospects of Instructional Design and Application of Flipped Classroom Model in the Course of Strategic Management%翻转课堂模式及其在企业战略管理课程中的教学设计和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2015-01-01

    Flipped classroom model is a shock to traditional classroom process.It has brought revolution and innovation to traditional teaching models.Aiming at an enrichment of the connotation and practical experiences of flipped classroom, this paper discusses the instructional design and application of flipped classroom model in the course of Strategic Management.%翻转课堂教学模式颠覆了传统的教学流程,带来了教学模式的革命与创新。通过对翻转课堂教学模式的认识与研究,探讨翻转课堂在企业战略管理课程中的教学设计与应用,丰富翻转课堂的研究内涵和实践经验。

  14. The Impact of the Role of an Instructional Technology Facilitator on Teacher Efficacy in Classroom Technology Integration in Two Rural Public Schools in Northwestern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karri Campbell

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a limited body of research on the impact of the role of the school-level instructional technology facilitator on teacher technology efficacy. This mixed-methods study involved the administration of a survey instrument designed to measure teacher technology efficacy, the Computer Technology Integration…

  15. Perceptions of Digital Competency among Student Teachers: Contributing to the Development of Student Teachers' Instructional Self-Efficacy in Technology-Rich Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Adequate self-efficacy is useful for motivating individuals to engage in continued improvement. This study explores the potential antecedents of instructional self-efficacy beliefs among Norwegian student teachers attending a programme for secondary school teachers. The most important finding was the strong association between the student…

  16. Role of Focus-on-Form Instruction, Corrective Feedback and Uptake in Second Language Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Second Language Acquisition Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitska, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…

  17. Managing Mathematics: How Does Classroom Management Affect the Maintenance of High Cognitive Demand Tasks during Lessons with Standards-Based Instructional Materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriteau Phaire, Candace

    2013-01-01

    The teaching and learning of mathematics has been the subject of debate for over 30 years and the most recent reform efforts are in response to concerns regarding the mathematical competence of students in the United States (Ball, Hill, & Bass, 2005; Battista, 1994; Cavanagh, 2008). Standards-based Instructional Materials (SBIM) allows…

  18. Speech Communication Education and Classroom Instruction: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July through December 1982 (Vol. 43 Nos. 1 through 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The eight titles deal with the following topics: (1) the effects of self-instructional and discrimination communication training on the development of confrontation skills in prepracticum counseling trainees, (2) cross-cultural…

  19. An Exploration of the Instructional Practices of Former University Elementary Education Students: Are Research-Based Practices for Teaching Reading Being Implemented in Their Elementary Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Jacquelyn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the instructional reading practices of four elementary teachers, all graduates of a small branch campus of a large Midwestern University, who obtained their Bachelor of Arts in Elementary Education and have been employed in public elementary schools for nearly three years. The four individuals were former university students of…

  20. Role of Focus-on-Form Instruction, Corrective Feedback and Uptake in Second Language Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Second Language Acquisition Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitska, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…

  1. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  2. How to Improve the Instruction Quality of Classroom Examples%如何提高课堂例题的教学质量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓强

    2015-01-01

    对于物理课堂上的例题,可以从语言意境优美化、物理情景新颖化和有趣化、题干内容生活化、渗透情感道德熏陶等角度进行改进,增强例题对学生的吸引力,激发学生的学习热情与兴趣,提高课堂例题的教学质量。%The physics classroom examples can be improved from the beautiful artistic conception ,novel and interesting physical situations , the content of life , emotion ethics point of view , enhance the exam ple attractive to students , and stim ulate students′ interest in learning enthusiasm ,to improve the teaching quality of classroom exam ples .

  3. Tiered Instruction: An Effective Strategy to Differentiation of Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya BELER

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a tiered instructional design on classroom management, attitude and the learning level of students. The instructional program was prepared for an introductory science course for 3rd grade students. The case study research method was used. Observation form, teacher and student interview forms were used to collect data. The teaching program was planned using a tiered instruction method for nine subjects of the “Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow” curriculum theme. The teacher made a short presentation and then students were classified into ability groups. Finally, each group completed learning activity via individual and group tasks based on activities appropriate to their abilities. The results indicate that tiered instruction had positive effects on the learning outcomes of students. All groups completed the classroom activities easily, which increased their motivation. Students participated in activities voluntarily and enthusiastically.

  4. Classroom Goal Structures and HIV/Pregnancy Prevention Education in Rural High School Health Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Anderman, Eric M.; CUPP, PAMELA K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV/pregnancy instruction, three months after instruction, and one year after instruction). Results indicated that classroom goal structures were related to both proximal and distal knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and efficacy beliefs. Results in partic...

  5. Devillainizing Video in Support of Comprehension and Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew; Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    In the classroom, teachers have long used videos as an addendum to the instruction they provide. Still, using video is often seen in a negative light and is used sparingly. This column calls upon research from a variety of fields that supports the use of video to enhance literacy instruction in classrooms. Relying on both theory and practice, the…

  6. Expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This chapter draws on data and findings from several video studies to describe the quality of mathematics teaching in Switzerland. The focus is on features of instructional practice and quality as core components of classroom behavior that reflect the teacher’s expertise in creating optimal learning opportunities. The didactic triangle is used as the basis for describing the profile of expertise in Swiss mathematics instruction in terms of three interdependent dimensions of ins...

  7. Classroom Goal Structures and HIV and Pregnancy Prevention Education in Rural High School Health Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Cupp, Pamela K.; Lane, Derek R.; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L.; O'Connell, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV and pregnancy instruction, 3 months after instruction, and 1 year after instruction). Results indicated…

  8. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  9. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  10. Differentiating Instruction in Early Childhood Care Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    approved preprimary schools totaling 119. This number ... classroom. By one size fit all approach to teaching and learning the individuality of the ... classroom appropriate, to ensure that children learn at their highest potential. Reason .... What is the mean difference in teachers/caregivers' practice in differentiating instruction ...

  11. Surrounded by Water: Talking to Learn in Today's Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst-Slavit, Gisela; Wenger, Kerri J.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore the importance of talk and interaction for learning, particularly in relation to new K-12 standards and the prominent role of academic language in today's educational contexts. The article concludes with a detailed example of a Grade 6 teacher's use of content and language objectives to address the needs and strengths of all…

  12. Mining Classroom Instruction Function to Cultivate Students’ Thinking Quality%挖掘课堂教学功能培养学生思维品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁浩春

    2014-01-01

    由于职高学生的数学基础较差,学习的积极性不高,而教师在课堂数学中采用的依旧是“概念定理-例题-练习”的教学模式,让学生对解题进行简单的模仿,不仅使学生的学习积极性得不到提高,反而压抑了学生的思维能力。本文仅就在课堂教学中培养学生的思维品质谈一些粗浅的看法。%Due to poor math students, learning initiative is not high, but in the classroom teachers used in mathematics is still“concept, examples,exercises theorem”teaching mode, let the student carry on simple imitation of the solution, not only make the student’s study enthusiasm not improve, but depressed students thinking ability. This paper only in the classroom teaching students the quality of thinking about the view of a few shallow.

  13. 重视朗读指导提升课堂实效%Pay Attention to Enhance the Effectiveness of Classroom Reading Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴航颖

    2014-01-01

    Vivid language teaching classroom cannot do without the wonderful reading. Reading is an important language practice content,it is an important means of language learning students,students learning is one of the goals of the process. In actual teaching, teachers should teach reading skills and methods for students,so that the students can truly understand the text,read the text,but also can make the students to read,to improve the effectiveness of reading,let the language classroom sound reading aloud.%生动的语文教学课堂离不开精彩的朗读。朗读作为一项重要的语文实践内容,它既是学生学习语文的重要手段,又是学生学习过程中追求的目标之一。在实际教学中,教师要教给学生适合的朗读技巧和方法,才能让学生真正读懂文字、读好文字,同时也能够使学生亲近朗读,提高朗读的实效性,让语文课堂书声琅琅。

  14. Closing the Mathematical Achievement Gap Through the Heart To the Brain: A Case Study of Urban High School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of How Their Emotional Intelligence Facilitates Instruction and Learning in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chung-Chieh

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine urban high school mathematics teachers' perceptions of how they manage their own and their students' emotional intelligence (EI) to facilitate instruction and learning; their reports of how they handle their emotions as urban mathematics teachers; and their reports of how they manage the emotions of their students. The study focused on the voices of sixteen urban mathematics teachers and was undertaken in reaction to the significant mathematics achievement gap between urban students and their suburban counterparts. The conceptual framework undergirding the study was synthesized work by Daniel Goleman, (1995) and Mayer and Salovey (1997); categorizing emotional intelligence in emotional selfawareness, managing emotions, harnessing emotions, empathy, and handling relationships. Research questions addressing each category were created and from these categories an interview guide was developed. Data gathered during individual teacher interviews was transcribed and sorted into emergent categories using open coding. The findings were organized and presented according to the study's research questions. Urban math teachers reported passion for their students, their feelings affect teaching and learning, and that humor is an important tool in mediating emotions. The study concludes with multiple recommendations for further research and practices. Future studies should compare teachers assuming paternal vs. mentor role when dealing with their students. The study can evaluate if either role has a significant impact in student teacher relationships. A recommendation for practice is for teachers to have professional development experiences focusing on the proper use of humor in the classroom. Humor used properly promotes a positive classroom environment. This is a skill that would be especially beneficial to urban teachers.

  15. Setting Instructional Expectations: Patterns of Principal Leadership for Middle School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterfeld, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Principal instructional leadership has been found to support improved instruction. However, the methods through which principal leadership influences classroom instruction are less clear. This study investigates how principals' leadership may predict the expectations that mathematics teachers perceive for classroom practice. Results from a…

  16. Instructional Computing. An Action Guide for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, J. Richard; Kansky, Robert J.

    This book is directed to any educator who is interested in the use of the computer to improve classroom instruction. It is a book about the materials, human factors, and decision-making procedures that make up the instructional application of computers. This document's single goal is to promote educators' thoughtful selection and use of both…

  17. The Foresee Approach to Integrated ESL Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Richard; Marquardson, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Foresee Approach to integrating academic content, language, and learning instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL) from kindergarten to grade 12 or in mainstream/part ESL classrooms. The Foresee Model includes theoretical and practical constituents and guides the formulation of instructional objectives in the three target…

  18. ‘Building Core Knowledge - Reconstructing Earth History’: Transforming Undergraduate Instruction by Bringing Ocean Drilling Science on Earth History and Global Climate Change into the Classroom (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, K.; Leckie, R. M.; Jones, M. H.; Pound, K. S.; Pyle, E.; Krissek, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    This NSF-funded, Phase 1 CCLI project effectively integrates scientific ocean drilling data and research (DSDP-ODP-IODP-ANDRILL) with education. We have developed, and are currently testing, a suite of data-rich inquiry-based classroom learning materials based on sediment core archives. These materials are suitable for use in introductory geoscience courses that serve general education students, early geoscience majors, and pre-service teachers. 'Science made accessible' is the essence of this goal. Our team consists of research and education specialists from institutions ranging from R1 research to public liberal arts to community college. We address relevant and timely ‘Big Ideas’ with foundational geoscience concepts and climate change case studies, as well transferable skills valued in professional settings. The exercises are divided into separate but inter-related modules including: introduction to cores, seafloor sediments, microfossils and biostratigraphy, paleomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy, climate rhythms, oxygen-isotope changes in the Cenozoic, past Arctic and Antarctic climates, drill site selection, interpreting Arctic and Antarctic sediment cores, onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, onset of Antarctic glaciation, and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Each module has several parts, and each is designed to be used in the classroom, laboratory, or assigned as homework. All exercises utilize authentic data. Students work with scientific uncertainty, practice quantitative and problem-solving skills, and expand their basic geologic and geographic knowledge. Students have the opportunity to work individually and in groups, evaluate real-world problems, and formulate hypotheses. Initial exercises in each module are useful to introduce a topic, gauge prior knowledge, and flag possible areas of student misconception. Comprehensive instructor guides provide essential background information, detailed answer keys, and alternative implementation

  19. Classroom Demonstrations of Social Psychological Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)

  20. The Role of Formal Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at second language acquisition in a classroom setting. It considers whether formal instruction makes a difference to SLA. This is an important issue, because it address the question of the role played by environmental factors in SLA. It is also an important educational issue, as language pedagogy has traditionally operated on the assumption that grammar can be taught.

  1. Classroom Goal Structures and HIV/Pregnancy Prevention Education in Rural High School Health Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M; Cupp, Pamela K; Lane, Derek R; Zimmerman, Rick; Gray, DeLeon L; O'Connell, Ann

    2011-12-01

    Over 5,000 adolescents enrolled in required rural high school health courses reported their perceptions of mastery and extrinsic goal structures in their health classrooms. Data were collected from all students at three time points (prior to HIV/pregnancy instruction, three months after instruction, and one year after instruction). Results indicated that classroom goal structures were related to both proximal and distal knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and efficacy beliefs. Results in particular indicate that the perception of a mastery goal structure in health education classrooms fosters knowledge, improved attitudes, enhanced efficacy beliefs, and lower intentions to have sexual intercourse.

  2. HTML5 digital classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Osborn, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    This training package - complete with full-color book and instructional video - is the easiest way to learn HTML5!HTML5 boasts extensive new features that allow you to create dynamic web pages and present users with amazing multimedia experiences, and this one-of-a-kind training package is your guide to creating websites that wow! HTML5 Digital Classroom provides step-by-step instruction to help you gain the essential HTML5 knowledge you need to master the latest HTML5 specifications. This book-and-video package will have you creating web pages and web applications using HTML5, styling using

  3. Adaptive Teaching in Literacy Instruction: Case Studies of Two Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Seth A.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers frequently suggest that effective teachers adapt their teaching to navigate the complexity of classroom literacy instruction. However, little research has examined how teachers adapt their instruction, teachers' reflections on their adaptations, or the instructional conditions in which they adapt. To address this gap in the research…

  4. Toward Integration: An Instructional Model of Science and Academic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Malloy, Robert; Smith, Kathy Horak; Marshall, Jenesta Nettles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an instructional model that can be used to optimize science and language learning in the classroom. The authors have developed the 5R instructional model (Weinburgh & Silva, 2010) to support teachers as they integrate academic language into content instruction. The model combines five strategies already…

  5. Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A "Systems" Approach to Instructional Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Classroom research on adaptive teaching indicates few teachers modify instruction for at-risk students in a manner that benefits them. Responsiveness-To-Intervention, with its tiers of increasingly intensive instruction, represents an alternative approach to adaptive instruction that may prove more workable in today's schools.

  6. The effects of instruction on French achievements in the sciences and technology on qualitative measures of attitude and motivation in French classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicelli Bachelder, Francoise Dominique

    1997-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the element of motivation in a second language classroom. The participants in this study were college students who participated voluntarily. A questionnaire on motivation (AMTB) created by Robert Gardner (1985) was given to the students as a pre-test/post-test in order to obtain quantitative measures. Also, a researcher was present during the computer laboratory sessions and a group discussion was conducted at the end of the study to collect qualitative samples. Four classes consisting of a total of 143 students participated in this study. The second language was French and the level was 103, a level intended for students who already had taken French in high school. French 103 reviews in one semester the material that is covered by students in French 101 and French 102 during two semesters. The four classes were divided into two groups, an experimental group and a control group. The study was conducted in a computer laboratory, where each of the four classes attended once a week. The experiment was conducted over an eight-week period at the beginning of the Spring semester 1997, from January 14 to March 4. Both classes from the control group, one arriving at 9:30 a.m. and the other at 1:30 p.m., were exposed to regular classroom material; nothing was done to modify the procedure of the classes' activities. The two experimental classes, one at 8:30 a.m. and the other at 11:30 a.m., both received a treatment of ten minutes at the end of the computer class period. The statistical results of the study did not support the hypothesis that the use of a different cultural input would increase the students' motivation, but the qualitative part of the study provided a fountain of information. Information which demanded reflection. Information which contributed to my personal development as a researcher, as an observer, and, most importantly, as a teacher.

  7. Whole-Group Response Strategies to Promote Student Engagement in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagro, Sarah A.; Hooks, Sara D.; Fraser, Dawn W.; Cornelius, Kyena E.

    2016-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities are often educated in inclusive classrooms alongside their typically developing peers. Although differentiated small-group instruction is ideal for students with learning disabilities, whole-group instruction continues to be the predominant instructional model in inclusive classrooms. This can create major…

  8. Global Education Review is a publication of The School of Education at Mercy College, New York. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Citation: Yukhymenko, M. A., Brown, S. W., Lawless, K. A., Brodowinska, K., & Mullin, G. (2014. Thematic analysis of teacher instructional practices and student responses in middle school classrooms with problem-based learning environment. Global Education Review, 1 (3, 93-109. Thematic Analysis of Teacher Instructional Practices and Student Responses in Middle School Classrooms with Problem-Based Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Yukhymenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A Problem-based learning (PBL environment is a student-centered instructional method based on the use of ill-structured problems as a stimulus for collaborative learning. This study was designed to investigate teachers’ instructional practices, and students’ responses to such practices, in middle school classrooms using a PBL environment through qualitative analyses. A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive thematic analyses was employed and applied to field notes and transcripts of video observations of four PBL classrooms. To do so, a codebook was created based on the descriptions of roles of teachers and students in PBL classrooms in literature, and was then applied to inductive codes that emerged from the data. This study identified a number of specific instructional practices of teachers, as well as responses that students might engage in during PBL instructions. Being able to articulate these roles is an important step in helping new PBL teachers develop their skills to facilitate student-centered classrooms.

  9. ERPs show that classroom-instructed late second language learners rely on the same prosodic cues in syntactic parsing as native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Stefanie; Opitz, Bertram; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2013-12-17

    The loss of brain plasticity after a 'critical period' in childhood has often been argued to prevent late language learners from using the same neurocognitive mechanisms as native speakers and, therefore, from attaining a high level of second language (L2) proficiency [7,11]. However, more recent behavioral and electrophysiological research has challenged this 'Critical Period Hypothesis', demonstrating that even late L2 learners can display native-like performance and brain activation patterns [17], especially after longer periods of immersion in an L2 environment. Here we use event-related potentials (ERPs) to show that native-like processing can also be observed in the largely under-researched domain of speech prosody - even when L2 learners are exposed to their second language almost exclusively in a classroom setting. Participants listened to spoken sentences whose prosodic boundaries would either cooperate or conflict with the syntactic structure. Previous work had shown that this paradigm is difficult for elderly native speakers, however, German L2 learners of English showed very similar ERP components for on-line prosodic phrasing as well as for prosody-syntax mismatches (garden path effects) as the control group of native speakers. These data suggest that L2 immersion is not always necessary to master complex L2 speech processing in a native-like way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Science is for me: Meeting the needs of English language learners in an urban, middle school science classroom through an instructional intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A.

    2011-12-01

    This study involved an intervention in which I explored how the multimodal, inquiry-based teaching strategies from a professional development model could be used to meet the educational needs of a group of middle school students, who were refugees, newly arrived in the United States, now residing in a large urban school district in the northeastern United States, and learning English as a second language. This group remains unmentioned throughout the research literature despite the fact that English Language Learners (ELLs) represent the fastest growing group of K-12 students in the United States. The specific needs of this particular group were explored as I attempted daily to confront a variety of obstacles to their science achievement and help to facilitate the development of a scientific discourse. This research was done in an effort to better address the needs of ELLs in general and to inform best practices for teachers to apply across a variety of different cultural and linguistic subgroups. This study is an autoethnographic case study analysis of the practices of the researcher, working in a science classroom, teaching the described group of students.

  11. What Works in Adult Instruction: The Management, Design and Delivery of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    17 Instructor classroom leadership L M H 18. Instructor classroom role M H H 19. Teachine students how to learn L H M 20. Instructor presentation...in higher Ntudenit achic,,ement and affect thar, large group instruction Teacher roic-s Mn [hC’., i11%r :ng alos raey raneeC of teachine t: aei~.hic

  12. Best Practices for Launching a Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ashley A.; DuFrene, Debbie D.

    2016-01-01

    Popularity is growing for flipped classroom instruction, which replaces lectures with out-of-class delivery of streaming video, reading materials, online chats, and other modalities. Face-to-face class time is spent on instructor-student and student-student interaction, including small group problem solving and discussion. Classroom flipping has…

  13. Translanguaging in Today's Classrooms: A Biliteracy Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; Link, Holly

    2012-01-01

    As US classrooms approach a decade of response to No Child Left Behind, many questions and concerns remain around the education of those labeled as English language learners, in mainstream, English as a Second Language, and bilingual education classrooms. A national policy context where standardized tests dominate curriculum and instruction, and…

  14. Controlling Setting Events in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Paula E.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers face the challenging job of differentiating instruction for the diverse needs of their students. This task is difficult enough with happy students who are eager to learn; unfortunately students often enter the classroom in a bad mood because of events that happened outside the classroom walls. These events--called setting events--can…

  15. Teaching Practices and Elementary Classroom Peer Ecologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students in 39 1st, 3rd and 5th grade classrooms participated in a study of teaching practices and classroom peer networks. Teachers reported on their attitudes towards aggression and withdrawal, provided rationales for their seating arrangements, and were observed on patterns of emotional and instructional support and classroom…

  16. Mesa Redonda (Roundtable). Technology in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern, Nancy Wheaton; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two minipresentations by second-language teachers describe their classroom efforts to instruct their students. The first article focuses on using computers to help students improve their writing skills. The second zeroes in on incorporating speaking activities into the daily life of the classroom. (CK)

  17. Classroom Management and Lesson Plan(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Classroom instructions Task 1 In teaching English to beginning children,would you insist on yourself using more English in the classroom or do you prefer to use more Chinese to begin with?Why and Why not?Please give your reasons in the space below and then compare and discuss them with another teacher.

  18. Classroom Management and Lesson Plan(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Classroom instructions Task 1 In teaching English to beginning children,would you insist on yourself using more Eng-lish in the classroom or do you prefer to usemore Chinese to begin with?Why and Whynot?Please give your reasons in the space be-low and then compare and discuss them with

  19. English Language Learners in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Debra; Kravin, Drew; Coates, Grace Davila; Carroll, Maria Dreux

    2007-01-01

    Whether teaching mathematics in a contained elementary classroom, as a specialized math teacher, or as an ELL teacher, this new resource will help meet the needs of English Language Learners. Offering strategies, guidelines, and classroom vignettes, this book demonstrates how to adjust mathematics instruction to make the learning less…

  20. Mindfulness Promotes Educators' Efficacy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Harris, Alexis R.; Katz, Deirdre A.; Jennings, Patricia A.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for delivering academic instruction, facilitating student learning and engagement, and managing classroom behavior. Stress may interfere with performance in the classroom, however (Tsouloupas, Carson, Matthews, Grawitch, & Barber, 2010), and recent studies suggest that stress is quite common among today's educators. In…

  1. Historical Films in the Latin Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Jeffrey L.

    Guidelines and lesson plans are presented for teachers of Latin using historical films as instructional and support materials. A discussion of the use of historical films addresses these issues in classroom practice: the legality of using films in the classroom (copyrights); techniques for using historical films as sources of cultural information;…

  2. En Francasis: A Supplement of Classroom Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwall, Beverly; Joiner, Elizabeth

    This classroom activity supplement is designed to accompany the "En Francais" language instruction series (programs 1-13) used on closed circuit television in South Carolina. It is intended to enrich classroom follow-up of the film program and to prvide a variety of activities and suggestions for teaching French language skills. Lessons introduce…

  3. Classroom Observation Techniques. IDEA Paper No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, Keith A.

    Techniques for observing the classroom behavior of teachers and students are examined. These techniques provide a framework for analyzing and understanding classroom interaction, for making decisions about what should be happening, and for changing instructional behavior when it is necessary. The observation methods allow collection, analysis, and…

  4. One-to-One Assistant Engagement in Autism Support Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi F.; Locke, Jill; Downey, Margaret Mary; Xie, Ming; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Classroom assistants and one-to-one assistants are an important part of the staffing structure of many autism support classrooms. Limited studies, however, have examined how one-to-one assistants spend their time in the classroom. The purpose of this article was to examine the percentage of time one-to-one assistants were engaged in instruction or…

  5. The Implementation of a Flipped Classroom in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Alongside the rise of educational technology, many teachers have been taking gradual but innovative steps to redesign their teaching methods. For example, in flipped learning or a flipped classroom, students watch instructional videos outside the classroom and do assignments or engage in activities inside the classroom. Language teachers are one…

  6. Development of Classroom Management Scale for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temli-Durmus, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    Students cannot learn in chaotic, badly managed classrooms. In the first years of teaching experiences, teachers revealed that novice teachers came to recognize the importance of discipline skills and classroom management for effective instruction. The purpose of the study was (i) to develop Science teachers' views towards classroom management…

  7. The flipped classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    One of the novel ideas in teaching that heavily relies on current technology is the “flipped classroom” approach. In a flipped classroom the traditional lecture and homework sessions are inverted. Students are provided with online material in order to gain necessary knowledge before class, while...... class time is devoted to clarifications and application of this knowledge. The hypothesis is that there could be deep and creative discussions when teacher and students physically meet. This paper presents design considerations for flipped classrooms, and discusses how Moodle can facilitate...... communication and information sharing in such classrooms. Furthermore, it provides guidelines for supporting out-of-class instruction in the flipped model by using quizzes and feedback in Moodle, and comments on the potential to follow student use of resources by using Moodle reports. This paper concludes...

  8. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  9. Analysing language classrooms through classroom interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Gündüz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research study focuses on teacher-student and student-student interaction, which are considered very important aspects of classroom life. There has been a growth of interest in the analysis of teacher language and interaction in language classrooms and many (e.g. Ellis, 1994; Tsui, 2001 believe that classroom interaction is one of the major variables affecting SLA in formal settings. This study aims to give some insight into classroom interaction and how this interaction shapes L2 learning and teaching in Turkey and England. Systematic classroom observation along with the field notes taken to record observations is the main research method in this study used to describe and examine interaction patterns and to measure learner production in secondary classes in Turkey and England. The participants are foreign language teachers and non-native speaking students. Over a month, more than 50 lessons were observed in the secondary schools in both Turkey and England at two levels (13-14 and 14-15 year age group. In Turkey, English classes were observed whereas in England, the observation was conducted in German and French classes. English is taught as a foreign language in Turkey; German and French are also taught as a foreign language in England. The findings of this research study are expected to provide a better understanding of instructional practices and procedures in L2 classrooms. The results of this research study, however, should be seen as suggestive rather than conclusive since they are derived from a relatively small sample.

  10. Making Earth Science Relevant in the K-8 Classroom. The Development of an Instructional Soils Module for Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Using the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    's STEP Center in the geosciences. The module goals are: 1) Pre-service teachers will apply classification methods, testing procedures and interdisciplinary systems thinking to analyze and evaluate a relevant societal issue in the context of soils, 2) Pre-service teachers will design, develop, and facilitate a standards-based K-8 soils unit, incorporating a relevant broader societal issue that applies authentic geoscientific data, and incorporates geoscientific habits of mind. In addition, pre-service teachers will look toward the NGSS and align activities with content standards, systems thinking, and science and engineering practices. This poster will provide an overview of module development to date as well as a summary of pre-semester survey results indicating pre-service elementary teachers' ideas (beliefs, attitudes, preconceptions, and content knowledge) about teaching soils, and making science relevant in a K-8 classroom.

  11. Design for Analyzing Classroom Activities. R&D Report No. 6130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Walter

    A design for analyzing the narrative records obtained in four studies examined the character of classroom activities and how they are managed by teachers. Focus was on controlling classroom behaviors, classroom rules, handling of disruptive or inappropriate behavior, instructional leadership, classroom organization, and student engagement.…

  12. Video Self-Modeling to Teach Classroom Rules to Two Students with Asperger's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Russell; Shogren, Karrie A.; Machalicek, Wendy; Rispoli, Mandy; O'Reilly, Mark; Baker, Sonia; Regester, April

    2009-01-01

    Classroom rules are an integral part of classroom management. Children with Asperger's may require systematic instruction to learn classroom rules, but may be placed in classrooms in which the rules are not explicitly taught. A multiple baseline design across students with probes for maintenance after the intervention ceased was used to evaluate…

  13. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  14. Cross-cultural Comparison of Sino-Japanese Mathematics Classroom Instruction in Middle School%中日两国中学数学课堂教学的跨文化比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑文; 李清

    2014-01-01

    Through personal observation and video analysis on two mathematics demonstration classes in Japan and China, this paper ifnds that the main common features are:clear teaching objectives;almost same teaching process; using time effectively; putting emphasis on summarization and reflection of the learning content;stressing the intrinsic link among problems. The main differences are:more time is used for discussion and individual communication in Japanese class, while more time is used for lectures and exercises in Chinese class and the exercise problems are more complex. Therefore, Chinese mathematics classroom instruction should focus on individual differences of students and give students more time to understand mathematics so as to improve the effectiveness of inquiry learning.%本文通过对中日两节数学研究课的亲身观察和录像分析,发现中日两国数学课堂教学的主要共性有:教学目标明确;教学过程基本相同;能有效地利用课堂教学时间;重视对学习内容的总结和反思;强调问题之间的内在联系。主要差异有:日本数学课堂用于探究讨论和个别交流的时间多;中国用于讲解和练习的时间多,课堂练习的问题具有较高的复杂性。因此,我国的数学课堂教学应关注学生的个性差异,给学生更多感悟数学的时间,提高探究学习的有效性。

  15. Affirming Identity in Multilingual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim; Bismilla, Vicki; Chow, Patricia; Giampapa, Frances; Cohen, Sarah; Leoni, Lisa; Sandhu, Perminder; Sastri, Padma

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that in classrooms with students from linguistically diverse backgrounds, instruction should explicitly activate prior knowledge. Teachers have the opportunity to create environments that affirm the identities of English language learners, thereby increasing the confidence with which these students engage in language and literacy…

  16. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  17. Using Weblogs in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the author puts people in place to deal with the technology in order to allow teachers to focus on the content and the instruction. Notes how Weblogs allow anyone to publish on the Internet. Describes a variety of uses for Weblogs in the classroom. (SG)

  18. Flexible Grouping as a Means for Classroom Management in a Heterogeneous Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytivaara, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article concerns issues of classroom management in heterogeneous classrooms. Although research in the field of learning styles has yielded mixed results, there is a call for information about how they could be used to individualize instruction, especially in primary schools. This article is part of an ethnographic study aiming to examine…

  19. Two Urban Elementary Science Classrooms: The Interplay between Student Interactions and Classroom Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanpierre, Bobby J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from a case study of two urban elementary teachers' classroom management practices and students' interactions during science instruction. The two teachers had antithetical (i.e., one intrinsic, the other authoritarian) classroom management styles, yet substantial negative student classroom…

  20. Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond: Children and Adolescent Learners. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Whitney, Maria, Ed.; Rilling, Sarah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume in the TESOL Classroom Practice Series presents instructional practices that are particularly successful with children and adolescent language learners. These practices take into account the unique needs and characteristics of these age groups and reflect a wide range of educational contexts, goals, and challenges from classrooms in…

  1. Exploring a Flipped Classroom Approach in a Japanese Language Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefume, Yuko Enomoto

    2015-01-01

    A flipped classroom approach promotes active learning and increases teacher-student interactions by maximizing face-to-face class time (Hamdan, McKnight, Mcknight, Arfstrom, & Arfstrom, 2013). In this study, "flipped classroom" is combined with the use of technology and is described as an instructional approach that provides lectures…

  2. A Conceptual Model (The Six Mirrors of the Classroom) and It's Application to Teaching and Learning about Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mahmood; Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model of instruction "the six mirrors of the classroom" used as a frame for teaching a learning topic, the microorganisms are depicted. The paper consists of four sections: (a) the six mirrors of the classroom model (SMC); (b) the SMC as implemented in the expository and cooperative modes of instruction in classrooms and…

  3. Discussion on Form Focused Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滢

    2007-01-01

    The pedagogy of language teaching has moved from one extreme-Grammar Translation Method to the other-Communicative Language Teaching.Today Form Focused Instruction(FFI) has emerged,intending to bring language forms instruction back to the communicative language classroom.Despite of the approval of this new approach,there is a hot dispute on its two types of application:Focus on Form or Focus on FormS.This article briefly analyzes FFI in recent research studies with focus on the choice between the two types ...

  4. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  5. Improving classroom management skills in secondary school classrooms through the use of limit-setting, an incentive system, and structured teaching

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Discipline in the classroom has been a concern of educators and the general public for years. Numerous programs have been developed to help the classroom teacher with his/her classroom Management. These programs present skills that when properly applied could help to reduce the problems of classroom discipline. One program in particular, the Classroom Management Training Program (CMTP), has stated that the skills of positive instruction and positive discipline will hel...

  6. Managing Performance for Effective Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes the form of a discussion document. A number of ideas surrounding the topics of continuing professional development (CPD), performance management (PM) and effective classrooms in secondary schools are outlined. The paper draws on some of the recent literature in these areas and refers to some current trials within a UK-based…

  7. The Big Three: Instructional Design, Information Literacy, and Information Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamich, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the main goal of this workshop, which is to show how the use of information literacy and instructional design theory and skills have been easily integrated into the normal classroom routine in one Ohio school district. (LRW)

  8. Elementary School Math Instruction: Can Reading Specialists Assist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Audrey S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the contradictions found in recommendations for direction instruction or informal math language development, and some suggestions for practical resolution of disagreements, to enable school reading specialists to provide both background and practical help to classroom instructors teaching math. (HTH)

  9. Educating children with learning disabilities in Foxfire classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, J W

    1995-11-01

    Because every classroom in American schools contains heterogeneous groups of students, inclusion is more than an issue of concern just for special educators. This article provides examples of elementary classrooms that have adopted the Foxfire approach to instruction as a means of developing learning communities that serve all children. The teachers who are described turned to learner-centered instruction not as a method to promote the inclusion of children with learning disabilities, but, rather, as a means of providing optimal learning experiences for all their students. The rationale for developing elementary classrooms that are learner-centered communities is explored, and specific examples of instructional approaches are provided.

  10. Computer-assisted Instruction And Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海晶

    2008-01-01

    From drill-and-practice software,to word-processing programs,to network and hypertext software,the gradual integration of technology in classrooms over the last twenty years has tended to reflect the technological developments and more importantly the theories of learning and instruction developed by scholars.Thus,the introduction of network technologies in education coincided with a shift in education from an interest in cognitive and developmental theories of learning to a social and collaborative view of learning.The present paper focuses on synchronous computer-mediated interaction,namely computer-assisted instruction and discussion in the second language classroom.

  11. Equity and what secondary science teachers bring to the classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Barbara Anne

    The demographics of people working in science-based careers do not match the demographics of the larger society. In particular, people who self-identify as Hispanic are underrepresented among working scientists. One reason may be the influence of formal schooling and more specifically, the behaviors of teachers in secondary science classrooms. This study looks at the practices of eight secondary science teachers at two schools at which 62% of the enrolled students declare their ethnicity as Hispanic. All of the teachers have at least three years of experience. Through interviews with the teachers, classroom observation, and interviews with other faculty, this research elucidates typical behaviors and attitudes surrounding teaching science in these settings. In spite of having a deficit view of their students, they all express interest in and concern about the students they teach. Their characterizations of teaching practices and classroom behaviors do not incorporate strategies designed to promote content learning through culturally relevant curriculum. Instead, they use mainstream-situated approaches that develop science content knowledge, vocabulary, procedures, and skills targeted toward high achievement on state and district standardized tests leading toward graduation or success in college. These approaches are consistent with a view of equity that increases the participation of underrepresented groups in science based careers in that it gives students the skills and knowledge they will need in order to successfully pursue these careers. Additionally, they behave in ways that are consistent with equitable strategies such as using inquiry based teaching, serving as role models, and providing a structured learning environment. This research informs the literature base for instructional systems designers by identifying what that teachers situated in culturally diverse classrooms bring to professional development programs targeted toward making secondary science

  12. The flipped classroom: practices and opportunities for health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngkin, C Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The "flipped classroom" instructional model is being introduced into medical and health sciences curricula to provide greater efficiency in curriculum delivery and produce greater opportunity for in-depth class discussion and problem solving among participants. As educators employ the flipped classroom to invert curriculum delivery and enhance learning, health sciences librarians are also starting to explore the flipped classroom model for library instruction. This article discusses how academic and health sciences librarians are using the flipped classroom and suggests opportunities for this model to be further explored for library services.

  13. Classroom Dimensions and Classroom Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Arthur J.; Solomon, Daniel

    Although classroom "openness" has been much discussed in recent years, there has been little effort to investigate to what degree this openness occurs within a general sample of classrooms. The purpose of this study is to identify significant attributes of classroom activity and organization relevant to the concepts of "traditional" and "open" and…

  14. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  15. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  16. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  17. Teaching Cockpit Automation in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the idea of teaching fundamental cockpit automation concepts and skills to aspiring professional pilots in a classroom setting, without the use of sophisticated aircraft or equipment simulators. Pilot participants from a local professional pilot academy completed eighteen hours of classroom instruction that placed a strong emphasis on understanding the underlying principles of cockpit automation systems and their use in a multi-crew cockpit. The instructional materials consisted solely of a single textbook. Pilots received no hands-on instruction or practice during their training. At the conclusion of the classroom instruction, pilots completed a written examination testing their mastery of what had been taught during the classroom meetings. Following the written exam, each pilot was given a check flight in a full-mission Level D simulator of a Boeing 747-400 aircraft. Pilots were given the opportunity to fly one practice leg, and were then tested on all concepts and skills covered in the class during a second leg. The results of the written exam and simulator checks strongly suggest that instruction delivered in a traditional classroom setting can lead to high levels of preparation without the need for expensive airplane or equipment simulators.

  18. Instruction in Spanish and Outcomes for Pre-Kindergarten English Language Learners. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchinal, Margaret; Field, Samuel; Lopez, Michael L.; Howes, Carollee; Pianta, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between classroom quality, amount of instruction in Spanish, and academic learning of Spanish-speaking 4 years-olds. Findings suggest that gains in reading and math were larger when children received more instruction in Spanish in classrooms with more responsive and sensitive teachers. It is possible that…

  19. The Tower of Babel and the Teaching of Grammar: Writing Instruction for a New Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Considers the teaching of grammar and its importance in the writing classroom. Examines what grammar is; why writing instruction has moved away from grammar; differing opinions regarding grammar and writing instruction; and grammar's place in the writing classroom of the new century. Argues that grammar must be applied to students' own writing.…

  20. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”