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Sample records for surrounding canadian schools

  1. Association between the food retail environment surrounding schools and overweight in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura M; Pickett, William; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2009-09-01

    There is growing interest in how the physical environment influences obesity. Few studies have considered how the food retail environment surrounding schools influences overweight in students. To determine whether there is a relationship between food retailers surrounding schools and overweight among Canadian youth. Cross-sectional study. SETTING/METHODS/SUBJECTS: The number of food retailers was obtained within a 1 km and 5 km radius around 178 schools in Canada. Retailers included full-service restaurants, fast-food restaurants, sub/sandwich retailers, doughnut/coffee shops, convenience stores and grocery stores. An index of total food retailer exposure was also created. Multilevel analyses were used to control for individual- and area-level covariates. None of the individual food retailers was associated with an increased likelihood of overweight. The total food retailer index was most strongly related to overweight, but in the opposite direction to that hypothesized. At 1 km, students attending schools with at least one food retailer had a lower relative odds of overweight (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.61, 0.81). At 5 km, students attending schools with the highest exposure to the total food retailer index had a lower relative odds of overweight (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.47, 0.68) compared with students attending schools with no exposure. Exposure to various types of food retailers in school neighbourhoods was not associated with an increased likelihood of overweight in Canadian school-aged youth. The opportunity to make healthy choices from a variety of options and the unique Canadian context may explain the findings.

  2. Food and eating environments: in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, H Frances; Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This national study was conducted to examine healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and the food retail environments of schools. A total of 436 Canadian schools were studied. Administrators completed a questionnaire designed to assess school healthy eating programs, healthy eating education, and food retail environment. The number of chain fast food restaurants, chain cafés/coffee shops, and convenience stores within 1 km of schools was measured using geographic information systems food retailer measures from DMTI Spatial Inc. and the Yellow Pages. During the preceding year, 67% of schools had initiated healthy eating lunch programs while 18% had junk food-free days. The majority of schools offered cooking classes (59%) and healthy eating media literacy education (67%), while a minority offered gardening activities (15%) and field trips to farmers' markets (27%) and grocery stores (36%). Fifty-three percent had a school cafeteria, and most had a school tuck shop (75%) and pop/juice vending machines (76%). Fifty percent had a chain fast food restaurant, 33% had a chain café/coffee shop, and 41% had a convenience store within 1 km. An important aspect of addressing childhood obesity will be improving the food environments of schools and their surrounding neighbourhoods, and providing healthy eating education for all students.

  3. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  4. Mathematic Achievement of Canadian Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2013-01-01

    Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…

  5. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  6. Refugees and education in Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaprielian-Churchill, Isabel

    1996-07-01

    This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations of a research project focusing on the nature and needs of refugee students in Canadian schools. The school performance of refugee students is examined under the following headings: immigration regulations; initial identification, assessment, placement and monitoring; unaccompanied youngsters; "at risk" students; academic needs; the conflict of cultures. In particular, the article discusses the changing role of the school in the light of recent immigration trends. Many of the findings are applicable to other national settings.

  7. School Ethnic Composition and Bullying in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoroulis, Irene; Brittain, Heather; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Bullying in ethnically diverse schools varies as a function of the ethnic composition and degree of diversity in schools. Although Canada is highly multicultural, few researchers have focused on the role of context on ethnic majority and minority youths' bullying involvement. In the present study, 11,649 European-Canadian/ethnic majority (77%) and…

  8. Oh, Canada: Bridges and Barriers to Inclusion in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Laura; Katz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion in Canadian schools, both academic and social, is explored through the historic legislative structures that have resulted in a diversity of approaches to meeting the educational needs of Canadians. Innovative programmes that have been developed which showcase Canadian commitment to inclusive academic and social practices are described.…

  9. What predicts performance in Canadian dental schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, S; Catano, V M; Cunningham, D P

    2004-06-01

    The task of selecting the best dental applicants out of an extremely competitive applicant pool is a problem faced annually by dental faculties. This study examined the validity of both cognitive and noncognitive factors used for selection to Canadian dental schools. Interest in personality measurement and the prediction offered by personality measures has escalated and may be applied to the selection of dental candidates. Therefore, the study also assessed whether the addition of a personality measure would increase the validity of predicting performance beyond that achieved by an interview and the Dental Aptitude Test. Results suggest that an interview may be useful in identifying specific behavioral characteristics deemed important for success in dental training. Consistent with previous research, results show that the Dental Aptitude Test is a good predictor of preclinical academic success, with prediction declining when clinical components of the program are introduced into the criterion. Results from the personality measure indicated that Openness to Experience was significantly related to aspects of clinical education, although, contrary to expectations, this relationship was negative. A facet of Openness, Ideas, together with Positive Emotions, a facet of Extroversion, improved prediction of performance in clinical studies beyond that provided by the Dental Aptitude Test and the Interview. Implications of the findings are discussed, and recommendations regarding the admission process to Canadian dental programs are offered.

  10. School Autonomy and 21st Century Learning: The Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul; da Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the policy and practice contexts for school autonomy and twenty-first century learning in Canadian provinces. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports on an analysis of policies in Canadian provinces (particularly the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan). The authors review policies…

  11. Characteristics of first-year students in Canadian medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhalla, Irfan A.; Kwong, Jeff C.; Streiner, David L.; Baddour, Ralph E.; Waddell, Andrea E.; Johnson, Ian L.

    2002-01-01

    Background The demographic and socioeconomic profile of medical school classes has implications for where people choose to practise and whether they choose to treat certain disadvantaged groups. We aimed to describe the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of first-year Canadian medical students and compare them with those of the Canadian population to determine whether there are groups that are over- or underrepresented. Furthermore, we wished to test the hypothesis that medical students often come from privileged socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods As part of a larger Internet survey of all students at Canadian medical schools outside Quebec, conducted in January and February 2001, first-year students were asked to give their age, sex, self-described ethnic background using Statistics Canada census descriptions and educational background. Postal code at the time of high school graduation served as a proxy for socioeconomic status. Respondents were also asked for estimates of parental income and education. Responses were compared when possible with Canadian age-group-matched data from the 1996 census. Results Responses were obtained from 981 (80.2%) of 1223 first-year medical students. There were similar numbers of male and female students (51.1% female), with 65% aged 20 to 24 years. Although there were more people from visible minorities in medical school than in the Canadian population (32.4% v. 20.0%) (p students were less likely than the Canadian population to come from rural areas (10.8% v. 22.4%) (p Canadian population aged 45 to 64), parents' occupation (69.3% of fathers and 48.7% of mothers were professionals or high-level managers, as compared with 12.0% of Canadians) and household income (15.4% of parents had annual household incomes less than $40 000, as compared with 39.7% of Canadian households; 17.0% of parents had household incomes greater than $160 000, as compared with 2.7% of Canadian households with an income greater than $150 000

  12. Linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the "greenness" of school surroundings using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; McNeely, Eileen; Cedeño-Laurent, J G; Pan, Wen-Chi; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Dominici, Francesca; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Su, Huey-Jen; Spengler, John D

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported the physical and mental health benefits from exposure to "green" neighborhoods, such as proximity to neighborhoods with trees and vegetation. However, no studies have explicitly assessed the association between exposure to "green" surroundings and cognitive function in terms of student academic performance. This study investigated the association between the "greenness" of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school's student body based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Researchers used the composite school-based performance scores generated by the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) to measure the percentage of 3rd-grade students (the first year of standardized testing for 8-9 years-old children in public school), who scored "Above Proficient" (AP) in English and Mathematics tests (Note: Individual student scores are not publically available). The MCAS results are comparable year to year thanks to an equating process. Researchers included test results from 2006 through 2012 in 905 public schools and adjusted for differences between schools in the final analysis according to race, gender, English as a second language (proxy for ethnicity and language facility), parent income, student-teacher ratio, and school attendance. Surrounding greenness of each school was measured using satellite images converted into the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in March, July and October of each year according to a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1,000-meter, and 2000-meter circular buffer around each school. Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) estimated the impacts of surrounding greenness on school-based performance. Overall the study results supported a relationship between the "greenness" of the school area and the school-wide academic performance. Interestingly, the results showed a consistently positive significant association between the

  13. Canadian Offshore Schools in China: A Comparative Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Internationalisation is no longer a well-recognised feature unique to higher education. It has permeated K-12 education. However, little research has been done on internationalisation at the K-12 level, particularly on offshore schools. This study examines how Canadian and Chinese policies regarding offshore schools have developed over the years,…

  14. Conflicting Perceptions of Deviance at a Canadian Native School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Reinhild

    1986-01-01

    Presents results of attendance norm violations survey at a Native Canadian adult education school. Examines whether school administrators' perception of violations as deviance is shared by students and Native community representatives. Discusses ambivalence of formal academic expectations versus encouragement for students to retain cultural…

  15. Canadian Indian Children Who Had Never Attended School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lolita

    1973-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the performance on selected intelligence tests of a group of Canadian Indian children who had never been to school with the performance of a similar group of children who were attending school regularly. (Author/RK)

  16. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of naphthenic acids in natural waters surrounding the Canadian oil sands industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew S; Pereira, Alberto dos Santos; Fennell, Jon; Davies, Martin; Johnson, James; Sliva, Lucie; Martin, Jonathan W

    2012-12-04

    The Canadian oil sands industry stores toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) in large tailings ponds adjacent to the Athabasca River or its tributaries, raising concerns over potential seepage. Naphthenic acids (NAs; C(n)H(2n-Z)O(2)) are toxic components of OSPW, but are also natural components of bitumen and regional groundwaters, and may enter surface waters through anthropogenic or natural sources. This study used a selective high-resolution mass spectrometry method to examine total NA concentrations and NA profiles in OSPW (n = 2), Athabasca River pore water (n = 6, representing groundwater contributions) and surface waters (n = 58) from the Lower Athabasca Region. NA concentrations in surface water (< 2-80.8 μg/L) were 100-fold lower than previously estimated. Principal components analysis (PCA) distinguished sample types based on NA profile, and correlations to water quality variables identified two sources of NAs: natural fatty acids, and bitumen-derived NAs. Analysis of NA data with water quality variables highlighted two tributaries to the Athabasca River-Beaver River and McLean Creek-as possibly receiving OSPW seepage. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of NA profiles in surface waters of the region, and demonstrates the need for highly selective analytical methods for source identification and in monitoring for potential effects of development on ambient water quality.

  17. Stages of Gender Education in Canadian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskyi, Vasyl; Kostiuk, Olha

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of educational preconditions of gender education formation and development in Canadian secondary schools. On the basis of conducted scientific and pedagogical literature analysis it has been determined that gender education has undergone three main stages and is currently developing during its fourth, modern…

  18. Linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the "greenness" of school surroundings using remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Da Wu

    Full Text Available Various studies have reported the physical and mental health benefits from exposure to "green" neighborhoods, such as proximity to neighborhoods with trees and vegetation. However, no studies have explicitly assessed the association between exposure to "green" surroundings and cognitive function in terms of student academic performance. This study investigated the association between the "greenness" of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school's student body based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Researchers used the composite school-based performance scores generated by the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS to measure the percentage of 3rd-grade students (the first year of standardized testing for 8-9 years-old children in public school, who scored "Above Proficient" (AP in English and Mathematics tests (Note: Individual student scores are not publically available. The MCAS results are comparable year to year thanks to an equating process. Researchers included test results from 2006 through 2012 in 905 public schools and adjusted for differences between schools in the final analysis according to race, gender, English as a second language (proxy for ethnicity and language facility, parent income, student-teacher ratio, and school attendance. Surrounding greenness of each school was measured using satellite images converted into the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI in March, July and October of each year according to a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1,000-meter, and 2000-meter circular buffer around each school. Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs estimated the impacts of surrounding greenness on school-based performance. Overall the study results supported a relationship between the "greenness" of the school area and the school-wide academic performance. Interestingly, the results showed a consistently positive significant association

  19. School violence : a critical review of Canadian and American studies

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Leigh Anne Deana

    2004-01-01

    School violence in Canada and the United States is a topic of public and media concern following several recent shocking incidents of student killings by their classmates in Canada and the United States. This thesis reviews and critically evaluates Canadian and American studies of school violence. Published reports and studies are used as the source of data. The main focus for evaluating the studies is an in-depth analysis of the conceptual frameworks and elements of the research. This includ...

  20. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein,; Bearman,

    2011-01-01

    Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship...

  1. School food environments associated with adiposity in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, C; Datta, G D; Henderson, M; Gray-Donald, K; Kestens, Y; Barnett, T A

    2017-07-01

    Targeting obesogenic features of children's environment that are amenable to change represents a promising strategy for health promotion. The school food environment, defined as the services and policies regarding nutrition and the availability of food in the school and surrounding neighborhood, is particularly important given that students travel through the school neighborhood almost daily and that they consume a substantial proportion of their calories at school. As part of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study, we assessed features of school indoor dietary environment and the surrounding school neighborhoods, when children were aged 8-10 years (2005-2008). School principals reported on food practices and policies within the schools. The density of convenience stores and fast-food outlets surrounding the school was computed using a Geographical Information System. Indicators of school neighborhood deprivation were derived from census data. Adiposity outcomes were measured in a clinical setting 2 years later, when participants were aged 10-12 years (2008-2011). We conducted cluster analyses to identify school food environment types. Associations between school types and adiposity were estimated in linear regression models. Cluster analysis identified three school types with distinct food environments. Schools were characterized as: overall healthful (45%); a healthful food environment in the surrounding neighborhood, but an unhealthful indoor food environment (22%); or overall unhealthful (33%). Less healthful schools were located in more deprived neighborhoods and were associated with greater child adiposity. Despite regulatory efforts to improve school food environments, there is substantial inequity in dietary environments across schools. Ensuring healthful indoor and outdoor food environments across schools should be included in comprehensive efforts to reduce obesity-related health disparities.

  2. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam O Goldstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam O Goldstein, Rachel Sobel BearmanDepartment of Family Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USAIntroduction: This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement.Methods: A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship as represented on the Web sites of all accredited US and Canadian medical schools. The instrument targeted a medical school's mission and vision statements, institutional structure, student and faculty awards and honors, and faculty tenure and promotion guidelines.Results: Medical school Web sites demonstrate little evidence that schools incorporate community engagement in their mission or vision statements or their promotion and tenure guidelines. The majority of medical schools do not include community service terms and/or descriptive language in their mission statements, and only 8.5% of medical schools incorporate community service and engagement as a primary or major criterion in promotion and tenure guidelines.Discussion: This research highlights significant gaps in the integration of community engagement or community-engaged scholarship into medical school mission and vision statements, promotion and tenure guidelines, and service administrative structures.Keywords: medical school, education, community service, mission, tenure, engagement

  3. Community engagement in US and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Adam O; Bearman, Rachel Sobel

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the integration of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship at all accredited US and Canadian medical schools in order to better understand and assess their current state of engagement. A 32-question data abstraction instrument measured the role of community engagement and community-engaged scholarship as represented on the Web sites of all accredited US and Canadian medical schools. The instrument targeted a medical school's mission and vision statements, institutional structure, student and faculty awards and honors, and faculty tenure and promotion guidelines. Medical school Web sites demonstrate little evidence that schools incorporate community engagement in their mission or vision statements or their promotion and tenure guidelines. The majority of medical schools do not include community service terms and/or descriptive language in their mission statements, and only 8.5% of medical schools incorporate community service and engagement as a primary or major criterion in promotion and tenure guidelines. This research highlights significant gaps in the integration of community engagement or community-engaged scholarship into medical school mission and vision statements, promotion and tenure guidelines, and service administrative structures.

  4. African American Physical Education Folklore Surrounding School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Elizabeth A.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Transferring from elementary to secondary school can be difficult for many children, and students making this transition often suffer from anxiety and stress. One source of stress can be found in the scary stories transitioning pupils hear about their new schools, particularly those about physical education and sport. The purpose of this study was…

  5. Comprehensive School Mental Health: An Integrated "School-Based Pathway to Care" Model for Canadian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; Szumilas, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the promotion of mental health and the treatment of mental disorders. Schools are well-positioned to address adolescent mental health. This paper describes a school mental health model, "School-Based Pathway to Care," for Canadian secondary schools that links schools with primary care providers and…

  6. Multilingualism in Canadian schools: Myths, realities and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Duff

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bilingualism and multiculturalism have for four decades been official ideologies and policies in Canada but, as is often the case, the implementation and outcomes of such government policies nationally are less impressive than the rhetoric would suggest. This article reviews the political, theoretical and demographic contexts justifying support for the learning and use of additional languages in contemporary Canadian society and schools, and summarizes research demonstrating that bilingualism and multilingualism are indeed cognitively, socially, and linguistically advantageous for children (and adults, as well as for society. The five studies in this special issue are then previewed with respect to the following themes that run across them: (1 the potential for bilingual synergies and transformations in language awareness activities and crosslinguistic knowledge construction; (2 the role of multiliteracies and multimodality in mediated learning; and (3 the interplay of positioning, identity, and agency in language learning by immigrant youth. The article concludes that more Canadian schools and educators must, like the researchers in this volume, find ways to embrace and build upon students’ prior knowledge, their creativity, their collaborative problem-solving skills, their potential for mastering and manipulating multiple, multilingual semiotic tools, and their desire for inclusion and integration in productive, engaging learning communities.

  7. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura; Pickett, William; Rosu, Andrei; Janssen, Ian

    2013-02-07

    The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students' lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students' self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1-2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3-4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1-2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3-4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near

  8. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seliske Laura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971 who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11, 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82 and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09 were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95, 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13 and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02. Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346. Conclusions There

  9. After-school snack intake among Canadian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jo-Anne; Miller, Doris; Olson, Shannon; St-Pierre, Sylvie

    2012-11-06

    The article describes the after-school (AS) snacking pattern of young Canadians and its relationship with the amount of energy consumed daily and at dinner. We analyzed cross-sectional dietary data, measured by 24h recall, from 9,131 children and adolescents aged 4 to 18 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, cycle 2.2 (2004). We evaluated AS snack intake; i.e., foods consumed Monday to Friday between 3:00 and 6:00 pm, excluding lunch and dinner. We also assessed the consumption frequency of AS snack items, the energy provided by AS snacks and total daily energy intake (TDEI) by age group and sex. Approximately 63% of respondents consumed AS snacks. AS snacks provided on average 1212[95%CI,1157-1268] kJ (290[95%CI,276-303] kcal), representing 13[95%CI,12-13]% of TDEI. Youth who consumed AS snacks contributing 1-418 kJ (1-99 kcal) reported lower TDEI than those who consumed no snack. Among AS snack consumers, TDEI was higher in groups consuming the highest amount of energy from AS snacks. Fruits were among the most frequently consumed food categories. However, the largest energy contributors were mostly foods that may be energy-dense and nutrient-poor, such as cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets. Considering that the majority of children and adolescents consumed AS snacks, that these snacks provided about 13% of their TDEI, and that the majority of the most frequently consumed snacks were generally energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods, the AS time period presents an opportunity to promote healthy eating in order to improve diet quality and potentially influence TDEI among Canadian children and adolescents.

  10. Student and school characteristics associated with use of nicotine replacement therapy: a multilevel analysis among Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Natasha E; Leatherdale, Scott T; Dubin, Joel A; Hammond, David

    2012-07-01

    Research indicates that it is common for youths to use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) despite limited empirical evidence for its effectiveness within this population. Since very little is known about the characteristics associated with NRT use by youth, the current study examined the association between ever and current use of NRT as a function of student characteristics and the characteristics of the schools they attend. This study used nationally representative student-level data from 29,296 grade 9 to 12 students who participated in the 2008-2009 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). School-level data on the built environment surrounding schools were provided by DMTI-Spatial, and data on school location were provided by the Canadian Census. Two multilevel logistic regression models were used to predict ever use of NRT and current use of NRT as a function of student and school characteristics among current smokers. Overall, 21.1% of youth smokers in Canada had ever used NRT and 5.1% were currently using NRT. Odds of ever and current NRT use were highest among daily smokers and boys, while youths who had made multiple quit attempts or participated in a quit and win contest were more likely to be ever NRT users. Attending a school located within an urban area increased youths' odds of ever and current NRT use, whereas higher density of pharmacies surrounding a school was inversely associated with current NRT use. Characteristics of students and the schools they attend were associated with the likelihood of youth smokers using NRT. Significant between-school differences in NRT use exist, however further research is needed to identify which school characteristics account for these differences and understand how youth are accessing NRT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Canadian Innovation: A Brief History of Canada's First Online School Psychology Graduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drefs, Michelle A.; Schroeder, Meadow; Hiebert, Bryan; Panayotidis, E. Lisa; Winters, Katherine; Kerr, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a brief historical review and survey of the current landscape of online graduate psychology programs within the Canadian context. Specific focus is given to outlining the establishment and evolution of the first Canadian online professional specialization program in school psychology. The article argues that given the virtual…

  12. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding "Greenness" on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Eitland, Erika; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Allen, Joseph

    2017-02-20

    Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM 2.5 ) within 250 m and 1000 m respectively of each public school in Massachusetts during the 2012-2013 academic year using satellite-based data. We modeled chronic absenteeism rates in the same year as a function of PM 2.5 and NDVI, controlling for race and household income. Among the 1772 public schools in Massachusetts, a 0.15 increase in NDVI during the academic year was associated with a 2.6% ( p value schools.

  13. Examining Disproportionality in School Discipline Practices for Native American Students in Canadian Schools Implementing PBIS

    OpenAIRE

    Greflund, Sara; McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H; May, Seth L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the extent to which Canadian students with Aboriginal status (i.e., Native American students) receive disproportionate levels of Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs) and more severe administrative consequences relative to students without Aboriginal status. The participants were all 1750 students in five British Columbia and Alberta elementary and middle schools implementing PBIS, with adaptations to be more responsive to Aboriginal cultu...

  14. School and community predictors of smoking: a longitudinal study of Canadian high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Chris; Watts, Allison; Brown, K Stephen; Lee, Derrick; Sabiston, Catherine; Nykiforuk, Candace; Eyles, John; Manske, Steve; Campbell, H Sharon; Thompson, Mary

    2013-02-01

    We identified the most effective mix of school-based policies, programs, and regional environments associated with low school smoking rates in a cohort of Canadian high schools over time. We collected a comprehensive set of student, school, and community data from a national cohort of 51 high schools in 2004 and 2007. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to predict school and community characteristics associated with school smoking prevalence. Between 2004 and 2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 13.3% to 10.7% in cohort schools. Predictors of lower school smoking prevalence included both school characteristics related to prevention programming and community characteristics, including higher cigarette prices, a greater proportion of immigrants, higher education levels, and lower median household income. Effective approaches to reduce adolescent smoking will require interventions that focus on multiple factors. In particular, prevention programming and high pricing for cigarettes sold near schools may contribute to lower school smoking rates, and these factors are amenable to change. A sustained focus on smoking prevention is needed to maintain low levels of adolescent smoking.

  15. Do surrounding figures' emotions affect judgment of the target figure's emotion? Comparing the eye-movement patterns of European Canadians, Asian Canadians, Asian international students, and Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takahiko; Wang, Huaitang; Ishii, Keiko; Ito, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Although the effect of context on cognition is observable across cultures, preliminary findings suggest that when asked to judge the emotion of a target model's facial expression, East Asians are more likely than their North American counterparts to be influenced by the facial expressions of surrounding others (Masuda et al., 2008b). Cultural psychologists discuss this cultural variation in affective emotional context under the rubric of holistic vs. analytic thought, independent vs. interdependent self-construals, and socially disengaged vs. socially engaged emotion (e.g., Mesquita and Markus, 2004). We demonstrate that this effect is generalizable even when (1) photos of real facial emotions are used, (2) the saliency of the target model's emotion is attenuated, and (3) a specific amount of observation time is allocated. We further demonstrate that the experience plays an important role in producing cultural variations in the affective context effect on cognition.

  16. Linking Student Performance in Massachusetts Elementary Schools with the “Greenness” of School Surroundings Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; McNeely, Eileen; Cedeño-Laurent, J. G.; Pan, Wen-Chi; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Dominici, Francesca; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Su, Huey-Jen; Spengler, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported the physical and mental health benefits from exposure to “green” neighborhoods, such as proximity to neighborhoods with trees and vegetation. However, no studies have explicitly assessed the association between exposure to “green” surroundings and cognitive function in terms of student academic performance. This study investigated the association between the “greenness” of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school’s student body based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Researchers used the composite school-based performance scores generated by the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) to measure the percentage of 3rd-grade students (the first year of standardized testing for 8–9 years-old children in public school), who scored “Above Proficient” (AP) in English and Mathematics tests (Note: Individual student scores are not publically available). The MCAS results are comparable year to year thanks to an equating process. Researchers included test results from 2006 through 2012 in 905 public schools and adjusted for differences between schools in the final analysis according to race, gender, English as a second language (proxy for ethnicity and language facility), parent income, student-teacher ratio, and school attendance. Surrounding greenness of each school was measured using satellite images converted into the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in March, July and October of each year according to a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1,000-meter, and 2000-meter circular buffer around each school. Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) estimated the impacts of surrounding greenness on school-based performance. Overall the study results supported a relationship between the “greenness” of the school area and the school-wide academic performance. Interestingly, the results showed a consistently positive significant

  17. Too few, too weak: conflict of interest policies at Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnier, Adrienne; Lexchin, Joel; Mintzes, Barbara; Jutel, Annemarie; Holloway, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI) policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9) and for gifts and scholarships (0.8). This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate.

  18. "We have been forced to move away from home": print news coverage of Canadians studying abroad at Caribbean offshore medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jeffrey; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2017-11-23

    Canadian international medical graduates are Canadian-citizens who have graduated from a medical school outside of Canada or the United States. A growing number of Canadians enroll in medical school abroad, including at Caribbean offshore medical schools. Often, Canadians studying medicine abroad attempt to return to Canada for postgraduate residency training and ultimately to practice. The authors conducted a qualitative media analysis to discern the dominant themes and ideologies that frame discussion of offshore medical schools, and the Canadian medical students they graduate, in the Canadian print news. We carried out structured searches on Canadian Newsstand Database for print media related to offshore medical schools. Canadian news articles used two frames to characterize offshore medical schools and the Canadian international medical graduates they train: (1) increased opportunity for medical education for Canadians; and (2) frustration returning to Canada to practice despite domestic physician shortages. Frames deployed by the Canadian print media to discuss Caribbean offshore medical schools and Canadians studying abroad define two problems: (1) highly qualified Canadians are unable to access medical school in Canada; and (2) some Canadian international medical graduates are unable to return to Canada to practice medicine. Caribbean offshore medical schools are identified as a solution to the first problem while playing a central role in creating the second problem. These frames do not acknowledge that medical school admissions are a primary means to control the make-up of the Canadian physician workforce and they do not address the nature of Canadian physician shortages.

  19. Talking about Americans: The Image of the United States in English-Canadian Schools, 1900-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heyking, Amy

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, English-Canadian schools have attempted to create citizens of good character who were loyal to a Canadian nation defined by its role in the British Empire. Because of the country's experience in World War I, Canadians refined their identity in the 1920s, keeping it distinct from its relationship with…

  20. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  1. School Experiences Influence Personal Health and Interpersonal Relationships of Adolescents: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Canadian data from the 1998 Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children were analyzed to examine the effects of school experiences on personal health (physical health, mental health, self-esteem, helplessness, and body image) and interpersonal relationships (number of close friends and making friends) among adolescents.…

  2. Beyond the Dialectics and Polemics: Canadian Catholic Schools Addressing LGBT Youth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M.; Travers, Robb; St. John, Alex

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Canadian media coverage on Bill 13--an Ontario legislative proposal to require all publicly funded schools to support Gay-Straight Alliances as a means of addressing issues concerning bullied lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students--instigated a divisive exchange among representatives of the Ontario Catholic school sector.…

  3. Publicly-Reported Indicators of School System Success: A Comparative Study of Three Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauseman, D. Cameron

    2015-01-01

    This comparative study paper seeks to investigate the nature of reported measures of school success currently reported in Ontario with two other Canadian jurisdictions with similar school systems and student populations (Alberta and British Columbia). As education in Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia is, for the most part, a government…

  4. How are we 'doing' cultural diversity? A look across English Canadian undergraduate medical school programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Diana L; Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Cultural diversity education is a required curriculum component at all accredited North American medical schools. Each medical school determines its own content and pedagogical approaches. This preliminary study maps the approaches to cultural diversity education in English Canadian medical schools. A review of 14 English Canadian medical school websites was undertaken to identify the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity education. A PubMed search was also completed to identify the recent literature on cultural diversity medical education in Canada. Data were analysed using 10 criteria that distinguish pedagogical approaches, curricular structure, course content and theoretical understandings of cultural diversity. Based on the information posted on English Canadian medical school websites, all schools offer cultural diversity education although how each 'does' cultural diversity differs widely. Two medical schools have adopted the cultural competency model; five have adopted a critical cultural approach to diversity; and the remaining seven have incorporated some aspects of both approaches. More comprehensive research is needed to map the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity at Canadian medical schools and to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of these approaches on improving physician-patient relationships, reducing health disparities, improving health outcomes and producing positive learning outcomes in physicians.

  5. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Ofer; Abernethy, Rebecca; Brauer, Michael; Davies, Hugh; Allen, Ryan W

    2011-12-21

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances school proximity to major roads, urban density, and indicators of socioeconomic status. Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00), while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km²: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16). Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  6. Providing a Safe Learning Environment for Queer Students in Canadian Schools: A Legal Analysis of Homophobic Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews Canadian administrative law regarding homophobic bullying and school board decision making. Depending on the provincial legislation, school boards either have a mandatory or a discretionary duty to provide queer students with a safe learning environment. However, Canadian case law has arguably limited that discretion. Recent…

  7. Proximity of public elementary schools to major roads in Canadian urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amram Ofer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies have linked exposure to traffic-generated air and noise pollution with a wide range of adverse health effects in children. Children spend a large portion of time at school, and both air pollution and noise are elevated in close proximity to roads, so school location may be an important determinant of exposure. No studies have yet examined the proximity of schools to major roads in Canadian cities. Methods Data on public elementary schools in Canada's 10 most populous cities were obtained from online databases. School addresses were geocoded and proximity to the nearest major road, defined using a standardized national road classification scheme, was calculated for each school. Based on measurements of nitrogen oxide concentrations, ultrafine particle counts, and noise levels in three Canadian cities we conservatively defined distances Results Addresses were obtained for 1,556 public elementary schools, 95% of which were successfully geocoded. Across all 10 cities, 16.3% of schools were located within 75 m of a major road, with wide variability between cities. Schools in neighborhoods with higher median income were less likely to be near major roads (OR per $20,000 increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.00, while schools in densely populated neighborhoods were more frequently close to major roads (OR per 1,000 dwellings/km2: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.16. Over 22% of schools in the lowest neighborhood income quintile were close to major roads, compared to 13% of schools in the highest income quintile. Conclusions A substantial fraction of students at public elementary schools in Canada, particularly students attending schools in low income neighborhoods, may be exposed to elevated levels of air pollution and noise while at school. As a result, the locations of schools may negatively impact the healthy development and academic performance of a large number of Canadian children.

  8. Interprofessional education in U.S. and Canadian dental schools: an ADEA Team Study Group report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J; Andrieu, Sandra C; Buchanan, Judith A; Childs, Gail Schneider; Gibbs, Micaela; Inglehart, Marita R; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Pyle, Marsha A; D'Abreu, Kim; Evans, Lauren

    2012-09-01

    The state of interprofessional education (IPE) in U.S. and Canadian dental schools was studied by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Team Study Group on Interprofessional Education. The study group reviewed the pertinent IPE literature, examined IPE competencies for dental students, surveyed U.S. and Canadian dental schools to determine the current and planned status of IPE activities, and identified best practices. Members of the study group prepared case studies of the exemplary IPE programs of six dental schools, based on information provided by those schools; representatives from each school then reviewed and approved its case study. Six reviewers critiqued a draft of the study group's report, and study group members and reviewers met together to prepare recommendations for schools. This report identifies four domains of competence for student achievement in IPE and summarizes responses to the survey (which had an 86 percent response rate). It also includes the case descriptions of six schools' IPE programs and the study group's recommendations for dental schools. The report concludes that there is general recognition of the goals of IPE across U.S. and Canadian dental schools, but a wide range of progress in IPE on the various campuses. Challenges to the further development of IPE are discussed.

  9. Canadian Courts, Constitution, Charter and Catholic Schools: Intersecting Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Erin; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines outcomes, tensions, and variables contained in eight Canadian legal cases, which are important because of their profound implications for current and future stakeholders of Catholic education. These cases prompt educators to re-examine the understanding of student rights, teacher rights, and the rights of the Catholic school…

  10. Current state of interprofessional education in Canadian medical schools: Findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Peng; Malik, Nauman; Scott, Grace; Fung, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is being increasingly recognised and prioritised in undergraduate medical education. While efforts are underway to integrate IPE into health professional curricula across Canada, the state of IPE in Canadian medical schools remains unclear. This study aims to assess the current practice of IPE in Canadian undergraduate medical curricula. An online survey was distributed to IPE directors (or designees) of all Canadian medical schools. The survey gathered details of the IPE experiences offered, curriculum structure, and perceived barriers to the programmes. The survey was completed by 12 of 17 Canadian medical schools and revealed that IPE is generally well represented in Canadian undergraduate medical education curricula. Reported barriers to IPE efforts included scheduling and funding limitations. By comparison, student interest was one of the least commonly cited issues. It would appear that students and faculty are interested in advancing the state of IPE in undergraduate medical education. The results of this study are crucial as IPE continues to evolve as a component of undergraduate medical curricula across the globe.

  11. Too few, too weak: conflict of interest policies at Canadian medical schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Shnier

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The education of medical students should be based on the best clinical information available, rather than on commercial interests. Previous research looking at university-wide conflict of interest (COI policies used in Canadian medical schools has shown very poor regulation. An analysis of COI policies was undertaken to document the current policy environment in all 17 Canadian medical schools. METHODS: A web search was used to initially locate COI policies supplemented by additional information from the deans of each medical school. Strength of policies was rated on a scale of 0 to 2 in 12 categories and also on the presence of enforcement measures. For each school, we report scores for all 12 categories, enforcement measures, and summative scores. RESULTS: COI policies received summative scores that ranged from 0 to 19, with 0 the lowest possible score obtainable and 24 the maximum. The highest mean scores per category were for disclosure and ghostwriting (0.9 and for gifts and scholarships (0.8. DISCUSSION: This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of all 17 Canadian medical school-specific COI policies. Our results suggest that the COI policy environment at Canadian medical schools is generally permissive. Policy development is a dynamic process. We therefore encourage all Canadian medical schools to develop restrictive COI policies to ensure that their medical students are educated based on the best clinical evidence available, free of industry biases and COI relationships that may influence the future medical thinking and prescribing practices of medical students in Canada once they graduate.

  12. The Role and Status of Food and Nutrition Literacy in Canadian School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather; Falkenberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in North America has given greater attention to food and nutrition literacy in Canadian schools. However, the review of relevant literature on food and nutrition literacy reveals quite a range of understandings of what such literacy means. This raises the question of what understanding of food and nutrition literacy is…

  13. Canadian High School Athletics and the Saga of Continuing Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    In most Canadian jurisdictions, high school athletics are still governed by outdated and sexist views about participation. The author argues that the current approach is discriminatory and violates human rights laws. In addition, a careful analysis of the jurisprudence reveals a host of specious arguments that keeps athletically talented female…

  14. Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) Members' Engagement with Sex Education in Canadian High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an examination of gay-straight alliance (GSA) members' engagement with sex education, sexual health, and prejudice and discrimination in Canadian public high schools. It explores how five students' (four straight and one gay-identifying) participation in GSAs served as a springboard for learning about and challenging stereotypes;…

  15. Family Language Policy and School Language Choice: Pathways to Bilingualism and Multilingualism in a Canadian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a survey with 170 school-age children growing up with two or more languages in the Canadian province of Ontario where English is the majority language, French is a minority language, and numerous other minority languages may be spoken by immigrant or Indigenous residents. Within this context the study focuses on minority…

  16. Violence in the Schools: Programs and Policies for Prevention. A Report from the Canadian Education Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Jyl

    This publication offers some insight into the problem of violence in Canadian schools and provides examples of ways to reduce it. The forms of violent activities examined include youth/youth-gang violence, violence against teachers, bullying, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Each chapter presents research findings and examples of programs…

  17. Perspectives from Japanese Staff in Canadian ESL Schools regarding Japanese Students' Groupism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoko

    2006-01-01

    The present study, which stems from a critical approach to common perceptions about ESL learners in the TESOL community, examines the perspectives of Japanese-speaking staff in Canadian ESL institutions on their students' school performance. From September 2003 to April 2004, qualitative data were gathered from 11 staff members through mail…

  18. Cariology Education in Canadian Dental Schools: Where Are We? Where Do We Need to Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonova, Svetlana; Girard, Félix; Fontana, Margherita

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document cariology education across Canadian dental schools. Ten faculty members who supervise cariology education at each of the ten Canadian dental schools were invited to participate in the study in 2016. An adapted version of the European Organization for Caries Research-Association for Dental Education in Europe cariology curriculum group questionnaire was used. Representatives of all ten dental schools completed the questionnaire, for a 100% response rate. In four schools, cariology and restorative dentistry were taught by the same department. Five schools had didactic/laboratory courses focusing primarily on cariology as well as a specific written curriculum. Six schools provided cariology-related hands-on workshops/laboratories before students started working with patients. In teaching cariology, seven institutions included dental hard tissues defects. The following caries detection methods were addressed didactically in cariology education: visual (10/10 total schools), tactile (9/10), International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria (6/10), caries activity assessment (9/10), radiographic (10/10), and other detection tools (8/10). Seven schools charted activity of carious lesions in clinic. Only one school used the concept of caries risk assessment regularly in clinic. Clinical cariology teaching was carried out mostly by private dentists hired as clinical instructors (7/10) and faculty members involved in didactic cariology education (9/10). Calibration of faculty members for caries detection criteria was reported by only one school. The main concern reported by all institutions was the difficulty of implementing didactic instruction on cariology into clinical training. This study found that contemporary cariology concepts are in the process of being implemented in didactic education across Canadian dental schools, but all schools lacked appropriate integration of cariology education into clinical training. These

  19. "Nutritional Wastelands": Vending Machines, Fast Food Outlets, and the Fight over Junk Food in Canadian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidney, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In light of a growing obesity crisis among children and concern about junk food in schools, this article investigates the attempt by food and beverage companies to gain entry into Canadian schools. Focusing in particular on the introduction of fast-food franchises in cafeterias and on school boards' secret exclusivity deals with soft drink manufacturers in the 1990s, it examines how and why this process occurred, public reactions to it, and government responses. Placing this phenomenon within a larger pattern of commercialization in North American schools, it argues that long-lasting reforms require government intervention and enforcement.

  20. Creating a Healthy School Using the Healthy School Report Card: An ASCD Action Tool. Canadian Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrmann, David; Vamos, Sandra; Yeung, Paul

    2011-01-01

    How well does your school support the health and well-being of students and staff members? Explore the answer with this ASCD Action Tool and accompanying online scoring and analysis tool. Updated to reflect current research, new standards, and best practices, the Canadian second edition of the action tool guides you through the four steps of the…

  1. “We have been forced to move away from home”: print news coverage of Canadians studying abroad at Caribbean offshore medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Morgan; Valorie A. Crooks; Jeremy Snyder

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Canadian international medical graduates are Canadian-citizens who have graduated from a medical school outside of Canada or the United States. A growing number of Canadians enroll in medical school abroad, including at Caribbean offshore medical schools. Often, Canadians studying medicine abroad attempt to return to Canada for postgraduate residency training and ultimately to practice. Methods The authors conducted a qualitative media analysis to discern the dominant them...

  2. Bedside ultrasound education in Canadian medical schools: A national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmetz

    2016-04-01

    Results:  Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1-5 hours/year in 50% of schools, format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools, and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools. The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%, and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. Conclusions: This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada.

  3. Canadian National Guidelines and Recommendations for Integrating Career Advising Into Medical School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Kelly; Harris, June; Dalgarno, Nancy

    2017-11-01

    Career planning, decision making about specialty choice, and preparation for residency matching are significant sources of stress for medical students. Attempts have been made to structure and formalize career advising by including it in accreditation standards. There is an expressed need for national guidelines on career advising for medical students. The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Implementation Project was created to ensure Canadian medical trainees receive the best education possible. From this, a diverse sub-working group (SWG), representing different Canadian regions, was formed to review career advising processes across the country. The SWG developed, through a modified formal consensus methodology, a strategy for medical student career advising that is adaptable to all schools in alignment with existing accreditation standards. The SWG outlined five guiding principles and five essential elements for Canadian universities offering an MD degree with recommendations on how to integrate the elements into each school's career advising system. The five essential elements are a structured approach to career advising, information about available career options, elective guidance, preparation for residency applications, and social accountability. This Perspective endorses the view of the FMEC PG Implementation Project that national guidelines are important to ensure Canadian medical schools are consistently meeting accreditation standards by providing reliable and quality career advising to all medical students. The SWG's position, based on national and provincial feedback, is that these guidelines will stimulate discourse and action regarding the requirements and processes to carry out these recommendations nationwide and share across borders.

  4. School start time and sleep in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariépy, Geneviève; Janssen, Ian; Sentenac, Mariane; Elgar, Frank J

    2017-04-01

    Insufficient sleep is a serious problem in adolescents and school start time is thought to be a key contributor. This study provided the first comprehensive assessment of school start times across Canada and examined whether school start times were associated with sleep duration and tiredness among adolescents. We collected information on school start times from 362 schools that participated in the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. We calculated sleep duration from weekday bedtime and wake time reported by 29 635 students (aged 10-18 years). We classified weekday sleep as sufficient if it met national recommendations, and used data on self-reported tiredness at school in the morning. Random-effects regression models estimated the association of school start time with sleep duration, sleep sufficiency and tiredness. On average, schools started at 08:43 hours. Students slept an average of 8:36 h on weekdays and 69% met sleep duration recommendations, but 60% reported feeling tired in the morning. Every 10-min delay in school start time corresponded with 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.5] additional minutes of sleep, a 1.6% (95% CI: 0.5, 2.8) greater probability of sufficient sleep and a 2.1% (95% CI: 1.0, 3.2) smaller probability of feeling tired at school in the morning. Students from schools that started later slept longer, were more likely to meet sleep recommendations and were less likely to report feeling tired in the morning. The study adds weight to the mounting evidence that delaying school start time benefits adolescent sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. “We have been forced to move away from home”: print news coverage of Canadians studying abroad at Caribbean offshore medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Morgan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian international medical graduates are Canadian-citizens who have graduated from a medical school outside of Canada or the United States. A growing number of Canadians enroll in medical school abroad, including at Caribbean offshore medical schools. Often, Canadians studying medicine abroad attempt to return to Canada for postgraduate residency training and ultimately to practice. Methods The authors conducted a qualitative media analysis to discern the dominant themes and ideologies that frame discussion of offshore medical schools, and the Canadian medical students they graduate, in the Canadian print news. We carried out structured searches on Canadian Newsstand Database for print media related to offshore medical schools. Results Canadian news articles used two frames to characterize offshore medical schools and the Canadian international medical graduates they train: (1 increased opportunity for medical education for Canadians; and (2 frustration returning to Canada to practice despite domestic physician shortages. Conclusion Frames deployed by the Canadian print media to discuss Caribbean offshore medical schools and Canadians studying abroad define two problems: (1 highly qualified Canadians are unable to access medical school in Canada; and (2 some Canadian international medical graduates are unable to return to Canada to practice medicine. Caribbean offshore medical schools are identified as a solution to the first problem while playing a central role in creating the second problem. These frames do not acknowledge that medical school admissions are a primary means to control the make-up of the Canadian physician workforce and they do not address the nature of Canadian physician shortages.

  6. School recess, social connectedness and health: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lauren; Colley, Paige; Franklin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Children need opportunities to establish positive social connections at school, yet many school playgrounds are challenged by social conflict that can undermine these connections. When children's social needs go unmet, the resultant feelings of loneliness, isolation and self-doubt can cumulatively lead to mental and physical illness. Because recess is typically the only time during the school day that children are free to socialize and play, we propose a more thoughtful way of thinking about it: from the lens of belongingness. Schools are, historically, designed for instruction. We argue, however, that we need to attend to children's social needs at school. We highlight current research from social neuroscience, belonging and social connectedness in order to delineate the pathways between daily school recess and developmental health trajectories. We then consolidate an array of research on play, social interaction and school change to suggest four areas that could benefit from consideration in research, practice and policy: (i) the culture of recess, (ii) the importance of healthy role models on the playground, (iii) the necessity of activities, options and variety during recess and (iv) the significance of space and spatial layout (indoor and outdoor). We bridge our discussion with the conception of health as described in the Ottawa Charter and emphasize the need to build alliances across sectors to assist schools in their efforts to support children's overall health needs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Investigating Canadian medical school attrition metrics to inform socially accountable admissions planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Yannick; Kealey, Liane; Slade, Steve; Hanson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Attrition from Canadian medical degree programs was never described despite differences in admissions requirements at the 17 faculties of medicine. Knowledge on attrition metrics could help the faculties evaluate new avenues for addressing the Association of Faculties of Medicine's (AFMC) Future of Medical Education in Canada (FMEC MD) recommendation to enhance admissions practices with the goal to improve social accountability and student diversity. AFMC databases were used to track medical degree completion of all Canadian M.D. students who enrolled between 2003 and 2007. Students were followed and assigned an M.D. completion status as of by July 1, 2013. Bivariate statistics were used to evaluate if demographic, admission and degree progression variables were associated with medical school attrition. Of 11,454 students enrolled in Canadian M.D. programs from 2003 to 2007, only 197 (1.7%) did not complete. Québec had significantly higher attrition than other jurisdictions with age, educational attainment at time of enrolment, MCAT completion and struggling academically associated with attrition. Attrition from Canadian MD programs is rare and associated with differences in admission requirements and possibly suggests an optimum life stage for medical studies. Improved knowledge of attrition-related factors may offer an additional level of evidence for improving the alignment between admissions policies and the social accountability objectives of medical schools.

  8. Ubiquitous technology integration in Canadian public schools: Year one study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sclater

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was an exploration of the first year of a multi-year project designed to provide every Grade 3 to Grade 11 student throughout an English school board in Quebec with a laptop computer. Data were collected from 403 elementary and 270 secondary students from the experimental school board and also from 330 students in the control school board. In addition, questionnaire data were collected from 60 elementary school teachers and 51 secondary school teachers. Finally, interviews were conducted with 72 students and 20 teachers. Potentially the most interesting finding was the difference in achievement scores between the experimental and control boards. Secondary students from the experimental board had higher scores on the CAT-3 reading test and indicated making six times more frequent use of computer technology in their English classes, suggesting a possible treatment effect. In contrast, math scores were higher at the control board where neither board indicated high levels of computer use. Nevertheless, these findings must be interpreted with some caution until the threats to validity of selection bias are more clearly overcome.

  9. A survey study of evidence-based medicine training in US and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Maria A; Capello, Carol F; Dorsch, Josephine L; Perry, Gerald; Zanetti, Mary L

    2014-07-01

    The authors conducted a survey examining (1) the current state of evidence-based medicine (EBM) curricula in US and Canadian medical schools and corresponding learning objectives, (2) medical educators' and librarians' participation in EBM training, and (3) barriers to EBM training. A survey instrument with thirty-four closed and open-ended questions was sent to curricular deans at US and Canadian medical schools. The survey sought information on enrollment and class size; EBM learning objectives, curricular activities, and assessment approaches by year of training; EBM faculty; EBM tools; barriers to implementing EBM curricula and possible ways to overcome them; and innovative approaches to EBM education. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for data analysis. Measurable learning objectives were categorized using Bloom's taxonomy. One hundred fifteen medical schools (77.2%) responded. Over half (53%) of the 900 reported learning objectives were measurable. Knowledge application was the predominant category from Bloom's categories. Most schools integrated EBM into other curricular activities; activities and formal assessment decreased significantly with advanced training. EBM faculty consisted primarily of clinicians, followed by basic scientists and librarians. Various EBM tools were used, with PubMed and the Cochrane database most frequently cited. Lack of time in curricula was rated the most significant barrier. National agreement on required EBM competencies was an extremely helpful factor. Few schools shared innovative approaches. Schools need help in overcoming barriers related to EBM curriculum development, implementation, and assessment. Findings can provide a starting point for discussion to develop a standardized competency framework.

  10. From Sorting to Learning: Developing Deep Learning in Canadian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Linda; Halbert, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Observations in many intermediate and secondary classrooms and interviews with learners indicate that many young people are under-engaged or disengaged with the learning opportunities in their schools. This disengagement of adolescent learners underlines the need for a shift from systems focused on sorting to systems passionate about deep…

  11. Lunch-time food source is associated with school hour and school day diet quality among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugault-Lafleur, C N; Black, J L; Barr, S I

    2018-02-01

    There is limited research on the dietary behaviours of Canadian children at school, including where students obtain food from during school hours or whether lunch-time food source influences diet quality. Nationally representative cross-sectional data from 24-h dietary recalls were analysed from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 4589). Dietary outcomes included school hour and school day dietary intakes and School Healthy Eating Index (S-HEI) scores. Survey-weighted covariate-adjusted linear regression models examined differences in dietary outcomes across lunch-time food source groups. The majority of children (72.8%) reported bringing lunch from home, whereas fewer students obtained lunch from off-campus locations (11.6%), schools (9.6%) or skipped lunch (5.9%). Compared to off-campus lunches, home-packed lunches were significantly higher in fibre, vitamins A, D and C, thiamin, magnesium, iron, grains, vegetables and fruit, but lower in total calories, fat and calories from minimally nutritious foods. Average school hour diet quality required improvement for all age groups, although S-HEI scores did not differ significantly by lunch-time food source among 6-8-year-old children. However, for children age 9-17 years, bringing a home-packed lunch was associated with significantly higher S-HEI scores compared to students obtaining lunch from off-campus locations. After adjusting for age and sex, lunch-time food source was also significantly associated with whole day dietary quality. Although the nutritional quality of off-campus lunches was lower than home-packed lunches, the quality of foods was suboptimal, regardless of food source. Strategies are needed to enhance access to nutritious foods on campus and improve the nutritional quality of packed lunches, which supply the majority of lunch-time foods consumed by Canadian children. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding “Greenness” on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Eitland, Erika; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Allen, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) within 250 m and 1000 m respectively of each public school in Massachusetts during the 2012–2013 academic year using satellite-based data. We modeled chronic absenteeism rates in the same year as a function of PM2.5 and NDVI, controlling for race and household income. Among the 1772 public schools in Massachusetts, a 0.15 increase in NDVI during the academic year was associated with a 2.6% (p value schools. PMID:28230752

  13. High school health curriculum and health literacy: Canadian student voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begoray, Deborah L; Wharf-Higgins, Joan; Macdonald, Marjorie

    2009-12-01

    This study explores the relevance of health literacy, and its development through a health curriculum, as a necessary but insufficient component to facilitate healthy living among adolescents through comprehensive school health models. This paper presents qualitative findings from focus groups with students (N = 33) in four schools toward the end of their experience in a health class that focused on topics related to healthy living, healthy relationships, health information and decision-making. Students reported mostly negative experiences citing repetitive course content, routinely delivered by teachers and passively received by students. As well, students described their experiences of using health information sources beyond the classroom, such as the media. The findings suggest that the curriculum, and particularly its implementation, have had limited effect on health literacy: students' abilities to access, understand, communicate and evaluate health information. The paper concludes with recommendations for improving health education.

  14. Tobacco dependence education: A survey of US and Canadian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joan M; Arnett, Margie R; Loewen, Jill; Romito, Laura; Gordon, Sara C

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and premature mortality and is a significant factor in the development of oral disease. Tobacco dependence education (TDE) has not, however, been consistently integrated into predoctoral education. The authors conducted a study assessing the content and extent of TDE and intervention skills in US and Canadian dental schools. In 2013, the authors contacted the academic deans of the 74 accredited US and Canadian dental schools to identify the educator who would be most appropriately described as the tobacco-use cessation "champion" at their institution. The authors e-mailed an introductory letter to each school's champion with a hyperlink to a 45-item survey; 2 follow-up emails were sent with links to the survey. The response rate was 66% (N = 49). TDE was taught at 92% of dental schools; 90% of respondents indicated that faculty members were confident to extremely confident in teaching tobacco-related pathology. Only 49% reported this level of confidence in teaching students how to help patients quit tobacco. TDE is taught in periodontics (82%), oral pathology (77%), clinic (66%), oral diagnosis (59%), public health dentistry (55%), pharmacology (55%), oral medicine (52%), and other disciplines (less than 50%). The survey responses revealed that TDE is not a curricular component in all US and Canadian dental schools. Faculty members were most confident in teaching tobacco-related pathology but may lack the interest and skills needed to integrate TDE as part of patient care. Patients who use tobacco in any form are at an increased risk of developing periodontitis, developing oral cancer, and having poorer surgical outcomes, emphasizing the need for the dental team to be well-prepared through predoctoral dental education. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. School differences in adolescent health and wellbeing: findings from the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Hana; Klinger, Don

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between student- and school-level factors and student health and wellbeing outcomes, and to estimate the variability present at each of the student and school levels for each of three selected health-related outcomes. The data are from the 2006 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged children (HBSC) study in which Grades 6-10 students (N=9670) and administrators (N=187) were surveyed. The three outcome measures are Self-Rated Health (SRH), Emotional Wellbeing (EWB), and Subjective Health Complaints (SHC). Individual and school-level effects on the three outcomes were estimated using multi-level modeling. Both individual and school-level factors were associated with students' health. Gender, family wealth, family structure, academic achievement and neighbourhood were significant student-level predictors. We identified random associations between the student-level variables and reported health outcomes. These random effects indicate that the relationships between these student variables and health are not consistent across schools. Student Problem Behaviours at the school were significant predictors of SRH and SHC, while Student Aggression and the school's average socioeconomic standing were significant school-level predictors of EWB. Findings suggest that the environment and disciplinary climate in schools can predict student health and wellbeing outcomes, and may have important implications for school initiatives aimed at students who are struggling both emotionally and academically. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors associated with physical activity among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Carly; Irwin, Melinda; Griffith, Jane; Xue, Lin; Fradette, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    Identifying multi-level factors affecting physical activity (PA) levels among adolescents is essential to increasing activity to promote health within this population. This study examines the associations between PA and 11 independent factors among Manitoba high school students. The sample included 31,202 grade 9-12 students who completed the Manitoba Youth Health Survey. Associations between PA and independent factors were examined separately and through multivariate regression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Perception of athletic ability, school location, parental encouragement and number of active friends were strong predictors of activity for moderately active and active males and females. Grade was a significant predictor of PA for females at both levels of activity but only significant for males when comparing active to inactive students. Perception of schoolwork and means of transport were minimally associated with PA. Results highlight the importance of targeting multiple levels of influence to increase PA among youth. Programs should focus on older students, females and those who are inactive or moderately active. In addition, social modeling of PA and increasing self-efficacy around activity should be encouraged.

  17. Sustained improvements in students? mental health literacy with use of a mental health curriculum in Canadian schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. Methods We cond...

  18. Organizational models of educational technology in U.S. and Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kevin H; Kamin, Carol; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Moses, Anna; Heestand, Diane

    2008-07-01

    To examine the organizational structure of educational technology units within U.S. and Canadian medical schools in order to (1) identify organization models that support educational technology, (2) describe key attributes of these models, and (3) discuss the strengths and challenges associated with these models. The authors distributed a survey to 88 schools that had previously provided information on their educational technology services and infrastructure. The authors developed the survey through a series of pilots and, then, from the data for each respondent school, created concept maps, which were used to identify organizational models. The authors conducted analyses to determine differences among models. The authors coded the comments about organizational models and identified themes. The authors received adequate data for analysis from 61 schools (69%). Four models for educational technology organizations emerged: (1) centralized units located in the school of medicine, (2) centralized units located at the health science center, (3) centralized units at the comprehensive university, and (4) no centralized unit (Dispersed Model). The majority (75%) of schools relied on some type of centralized organization. Whereas few organization attributes proved to be statistically significant, the centralized models have more resources devoted to educational technology and a closer alignment with the academic mission than the Dispersed Model. Medical schools primarily use central models. The authors recommend that schools structuring their educational technology resources consider exploration of a central model because of its focused use of resources to improve teaching and learning.

  19. Formative Evaluation of the Computer-Assisted Learning Pilot Project in Canadian Federal Penitentiary Schools. August 1983-March 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Marthena; Dostaler, Ann

    The computer-assisted learning (CAL) pilot project in Canadian penitentiary schools involved the use of computer courseware supplied from a central computer via telephone lines to terminals in the schools. Courseware was in three curricular areas: mathematics, English language arts, and the BASIC programming language. The evaluation was conducted…

  20. An environmental scan of academic pediatric emergency medicine at Canadian medical schools: Identifying variability across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, Jennifer D; Meckler, Garth; Argintaru, Niran; Lim, Roderick; Stiell, Ian G

    2018-01-28

    To complement our environmental scan of academic emergency medicine departments, we conducted a similar environmental scan of the academic pediatric emergency medicine programs offered by the Canadian medical schools. We developed an 88-question form, which was distributed to pediatric academic leaders at each medical school. The responses were validated via email to ensure that the questions were answered completely and consistently. Fourteen of the 17 Canadian medical schools have some type of pediatric emergency medicine academic program. None of the pediatric emergency medicine units have full departmental status, while nine are divisions, two are sections, and three have no status. Canadian academic pediatric emergency medicine is practised at 13 major teaching hospitals and one specialized pediatric emergency department. There are 394 pediatric emergency medicine faculty members, including 13 full professors and 64 associate professors. Eight sites regularly take pediatric undergraduate clinical clerks, and all 14 provide resident education. Fellowship training is offered at 10 sites, with five offering advanced pediatric emergency medicine fellowship training. Half of the sites have at least one physician with a Master's degree in education, totalling 18 faculty members across Canada. There are 31 clinical researchers with salary support at nine universities. Eleven sites have published peer-reviewed papers (n=423) in the past five years, ranging from two to 102 per site. Annual academic budgets range from $10,000 to $2,607,515. This comprehensive review of academic activities in pediatric emergency medicine across Canada identifies the variability across the country, including the recognition of sites above and below the national average, which may prompt change at individual sites. Sharing these academic practices may inspire sites to provide more support to teachers, educators, and researchers.

  1. School bus travel is associated with bullying victimization among Canadian male, but not female, middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A; Larouche, Richard

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has found a link between active school transportation and bullying victimization among school-aged children. However, the link with other school travel modes (such as car, school bus, and public transportation) and bullying victimization is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between school travel mode and report of bullying victimization among Canadian middle and high school students. The sample consisted of 5065 students aged 11-20 years (mean age: 15.2±1.9 years; 56% females) who participated in the 2013 Ontario Students Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). Overall, 24.7% of students reported school bullying victimization in the past year. Females (27.2%) were more likely than males (22.3%) to be victims of school bullying (pschool transportation, school bus travel to (adjusted odd ratio (OR)=1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.25-2.68) and from (OR=1.79; 95% CI=1.70-2.67) school was associated with greater odds of bullying victimization among males, but not females. However, the use of public transportation to get to school was associated with lower odds of bullying victimization compared to active transportation among females only (OR=0.59; 95% CI=0.36-0.97). These findings suggest that school travel mode should be considered when considering risks for bullying victimization. Bullying prevention efforts should target school buses to make children's commute a safe and enjoyable experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of shared faculty in U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Darryl T; Farrar, Suzanne K; Caplan, Daniel J; Lanphier, Terrence F; Panza, Jeanne C; Ritter, André V

    2013-03-01

    Dental schools are facing substantial financial challenges and a shortage of faculty members. One solution to address these issues has been to hire "shared" faculty members, i.e., faculty members whose primary appointment is at one institution who are hired by another institution to teach a course or part of a course. This is a controversial concept. A survey of academic deans at U.S. and Canadian dental schools was conducted for this study; thirty-nine (54 percent) of the seventy-two academic deans completed the online survey. This survey found that the use of shared faculty members is not rare amongst U.S. and Canadian dental schools and that the opinions of the academic deans about the use of shared faculty members ranged widely-from strong support to strong disapproval. Using shared faculty members has advantages and disadvantages for students, the shared faculty members, and both institutions. Many of the disadvantages could be potentially minimized by stakeholders' working together to develop collaborative arrangements. Networks could be developed in which institutions coordinate hiring of shared faculty members based on what expertise is needed. Financial challenges and shortages of faculty members are unlikely to be resolved in the near future, but use of shared faculty members is one promising approach to begin to meet these challenges.

  3. A survey of digital rectal examination training in Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nensi, Alysha; Chande, Nilesh

    2012-07-01

    The digital rectal examination (DRE) is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada. Clinical skills coordinators from the 14 English-speaking medical schools in Canada were invited to participate in the survey and to respond to questions regarding DRE teaching at their respective schools. Thirteen of the 14 schools (93%) responded to the survey. The DRE is taught in various ways: 69% of schools use anatomical rectal models, 62% use video tutorials and 62% involve physician instruction. Most schools (85%) offer one formal teaching session before clerkship. Generally, there is no formal DRE teaching session during clerkship. Preclerkship students in 62% of the schools perform competence in their students as well as provide more opportunities for students to obtain the necessary experience performing DREs during their clinical training.

  4. Hunger and overweight in Canadian school-aged children: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gariepy, Geneviève; McKinnon, Britt; Elgar, Frank J

    2016-12-27

    The last decade saw a higher prevalence of overweight reported among food-insecure families in Canada, but no robust evidence exists on the covariate-adjusted association in children. In this study, we examined the association between hunger and overweight in Canadian students, using a propensity score matching analysis to reduce confounding. This research used data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study on a representative national sample of students in Grades 6 through 10. Students self-reported their height and weight and how often they have gone to school or to bed hungry due to a lack of food at home. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted on the total sample (N = 17,694) and on the sample matched on propensity scores (n = 7,788). The overall prevalence of overweight among students was 20.2% with a significant difference between students who reported hunger (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-26.0) and students who did not (19.0%; 95% CI: 17.9-20.2). Analysis on the matched sample revealed a significant association between hunger and overweight in children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). A substantial number of Canadian students have reported being hungry because of a lack of food at home. These students are at increased risk of overweight, regardless of their social class. Child hunger and household food insecurity exist in Canada and constitute a call for policy action at a national level.

  5. Building a framework for global health learning: an analysis of global health concentrations in Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Rita; Matthews, David; Bach, Paxton; Kherani, Irfan; Halpine, Mary; Meili, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    This study set out to explore the current state of global health concentrations in Canadian medical schools and to solicit feedback on the barriers and challenges to implementing rigorous global health concentration programs. A set of consensus guidelines for global health concentrations was drafted through consultation with student and faculty leaders across Canada between May 2011 and May 2012. Drawing on these guidelines, a formal survey was sent to prominent faculty at each of the 14 English-speaking Canadian medical schools. A thematic analysis of the results was then conducted. Overall, the guidelines were strongly endorsed. A majority of Canadian medical schools have programs in place to offer global health course work, extracurricular learning opportunities, local community service-learning, low-resource-setting clinical electives, predeparture training, and postreturn debriefing. Although student evaluation, global health mentorship, and knowledge translation projects were endorsed as important components, few schools had been successful in implementing them. Language training for global health remains contested. Other common critiques included a lack of time and resources, and difficulties in setting standards for student evaluation. The results suggest that these guidelines are appropriate and, at least for the major criteria, achievable. Although many Canadian schools offer individual components, the majority of schools have yet to develop formally structured concentration programs. By better articulating guidelines, a standardized framework can aid in the establishment and refinement of future programs.

  6. Issues Surrounding the Deployment of a New Statewide Virtual Public School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kevin; Osborne, Jason; Patel, Ruchi; Kleiman, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    The North Carolina Virtual Public School completed its first session during the summer of 2007. Evaluation results revealed differences between accelerated and credit recovery students, including a significantly higher likelihood for accelerated students to rate their courses as high quality, to express interest in taking another online course,…

  7. Students' perceptions of and amount of diabetes education in Canadian schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Kerry; Mansell, Holly; Neubeker, Wendell; Drake, Haley

    2017-05-01

    To determine the amount of diabetes content taught at Canadian schools of pharmacy, and students' perceptions of diabetes education. Between September 23 and October 23, 2015, faculty members at each pharmacy school were asked to provide the amount of didactic, interactive, and elective hours devoted to diabetes education. These faculty members subsequently emailed an electronic web-survey to all fourth year pharmacy students to ascertain their perceptions of the amount of diabetes-related material they received and comfort level pertaining to diabetes education. Representatives from each pharmacy school (10/10; 100%) reported the amount of diabetes education provided at their schools (range of 18-43.5hours; mean 25.3hours). Student responses were obtained from 90% (9/10) of pharmacy schools; a total of 313/1216 (25.7%) students completed the questionnaire. The majority of pharmacy students (53.2%; 166/313) reported feeling the overall amount of diabetes content in their curriculum was just right while 46.2% (144/313) felt there was too little. 95.6% (299/313) disagreed diabetes received too much attention in the curriculum. A post-hoc analysis revealed that students who attended schools with more contact hours or a diabetes-specific elective felt more comfortable with dealing with certain diabetes patients and situations. Pharmacy schools vary in the amount of diabetes content taught in their curriculum. Students were split between feeling they received enough diabetes education or too little; students who received more content reported greater comfort in dealing with most diabetes patients and situations. This information is useful for pharmacy schools looking to evaluate their curricular diabetes content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment.

  9. Using High School Football to Promote Life Skills and Student Engagement: Perspectives from Canadian Coaches and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camiré, Martin; Trundel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, adolescent boys have been shown to have a higher high school dropout rate compared to girls. This situation is particularly evident in the country's second largest province by population, Quebec. The sport of Canadian football has recently gained in popularity in Quebec as many people believe that the sport can be used to promote both…

  10. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding “Greenness” on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers MacNaughton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12 schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5 within 250 m and 1000 m respectively of each public school in Massachusetts during the 2012–2013 academic year using satellite-based data. We modeled chronic absenteeism rates in the same year as a function of PM2.5 and NDVI, controlling for race and household income. Among the 1772 public schools in Massachusetts, a 0.15 increase in NDVI during the academic year was associated with a 2.6% (p value < 0.0001 reduction in chronic absenteeism rates, and a 1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 during the academic year was associated with a 1.58% (p value < 0.0001 increase in chronic absenteeism rates. Based on these percentage changes in chronic absenteeism, a 0.15 increase in NDVI and 1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 correspond to 25,837 fewer students and 15,852 more students chronically absent each year in Massachusetts respectively. These environmental impacts on absenteeism reinforce the need to protect green spaces and reduce air pollution around schools.

  11. Relationship between Canadian medical school student career interest in emergency medicine and postgraduate training disposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Scott, Ian M; Gowans, Margot C

    2017-06-01

    Canada has two independent routes of emergency medicine (EM) training and certification. This unique situation may encourage medical students with EM career aspirations to apply to family medicine (FM) residencies to subsequently acquire College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) training and certification in EM. We sought answers to the following: 1) Are medical students who indicate EM as their top career choice on medical school entry, and then complete a FM residency, more likely to undertake subsequent CFPC-EM training than other FM residents who did not indicate EM as their top career choice; and 2) What are the characteristics of medical students in four predefined groups, based upon their early interest in EM as a career and ultimate postgraduate training disposition. Data were accessed from a survey of medical students in 11 medical school classes from eight Canadian universities and anonymously linked to information from the Canadian Residency Matching Service between 2006 and 2009. Of 1036 participants, 63 (6.1%) named EM as their top career choice on medical school entry. Of these, 10 ultimately matched to a Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) EM residency program, and 24 matched to a FM residency program, nine of whom went on to do a one-year CFPC-EM residency program in contrast to 57 of the remaining 356 students matching to FM residency programs who did not indicate EM was their top career choice (37.5% vs 16.0%, p=0.007). Statistically significant attitudinal differences related to the presence or absence of EM career interest on medical school entry were found. Considering those who complete CFPC-EM training, a greater proportion indicate on admission to medical school that EM is their top career choice compared to those who do not. Moreover, students with an early career interest in EM are similar for several attitudinal factors independent of their ultimate postgraduate training disposition. Given the current issues and

  12. Family influences on breakfast frequency and quality among primary school pupils in Warsaw and its surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Monika; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gajda, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Regular consumption of a well balanced breakfast is a pre-requisite for normal growth and child development, along with the acquisition of proper eating habits. The family environment is crucial place where children learn such patterns of behaviour that form the basis for their development. To determine how family factors affect the regular eating of breakfast and types of foodstuffs consumed in primary school pupils, including food purchases made from vending machines and school tuck shops. Subjects were 836 pupils (435 girls and 401 boys, aged 6 - 13) from Warsaw and the surrounding areas. Appropriate socio-demographic data and relevant eating habits were obtained from direct interviewing of the subjects by means of a custom designed questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed by the Kohonen type cluster analysis model and Chi-square test (Chi(2)); (p≤0.05). Three clusters of pupils were identified by their differing socio-demographics and eating habits (eg. rates of breakfast consumption, buying from vending machines or school tuck shops). The first and third clusters were mainly pupils from two-parent families with parents proportionally spending similar times at work, where respective breakfast (87% and 91%) and second breakfast (77% and 72%) consumption rates were also similar together with food shopping rates during school time (respectively 69% and 63%). Pupils with single-parents, multi-generation families or if both parents were profession- ally active, predominated in the second cluster. These ate breakfast (73%) and second breakfast (67%) more rarely, but more frequently shopped for food at school (84%). A small number of pupils had a packed second breakfast from home, rarely ate sandwiches, fruit and/or vegetables and dairy products but ate more sweets, sweet rolls and savoury snacks. However, a large number of subjects bought sandwiches, fresh fruit and/or vegetables and fast-food at school. Family factors were found to affect eating habits

  13. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  14. Do Surrounding Figures’ Emotions Affect Judgment of the Target Figure’s Emotion? Comparing the Eye-Movement Patterns of European Canadians, Asian Canadians, Asian International Students, and Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taka eMasuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the effect of context on cognition is observable across cultures, preliminary findings suggest that when asked to judge the emotion of a target model’s facial expression, East Asians are more likely than their North American counterparts to be influenced by the facial expressions of surrounding others (Masuda, Ellsworth, Mesquita, Leu, Tanida, & van de Veerdonk, 2008. Cultural psychologists discuss this cultural variation in affective emotional context under the rubric of holistic vs. analytic thought, independent vs. interdependent self-construals, and socially disengaged vs. socially engaged emotion (e.g., Mesquita & Markus, 2004. We demonstrate that this effect is generalizable even when (a photos of real facial emotions are used, (b the saliency of the target model’s emotion is attenuated, and (c a specific amount of observation time is allocated. We further demonstrate that the socialization factor plays an important role in producing cultural variations in the affective context effect on cognition.

  15. Calling for a broader conceptualization of diversity: surface and deep diversity in four Canadian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Meredith E; Razack, Saleem; Hanson, Mark D; Slade, Steve; Varpio, Lara; Dore, Kelly L; McKnight, David

    2012-11-01

    Policy groups recommend monitoring and supporting more diversity among medical students and the medical workforce. In Canada, few data are available regarding the diversity of medical students, which poses challenges for policy development and evaluation. The authors examine diversity through a framework of surface (visible) and deep (less visible) dimensions and present data regarding a sample of Canadian medical students. Between 2009 and 2011, nine cohorts from four Canadian medical schools completed the Health Professions Student Diversity Survey (HPSDS) either on paper or online. Items asked each participant's age, gender, gender identity, sexual identity, marital status, ethnicity, rural status, parental income, and disability. Data were analyzed descriptively and compared, when available, with national data. Of 1,892 students invited, 1,552 (82.0%) completed the HPSDS. Students tended to be 21 to 25 years old (68.3%; 1,048/1,534), female (59.0%; 902/1,529), heterosexual (94.6%; 1,422/1,503), single (90.1%; 1,369/1,520), and unlikely to report any disability (96.5%; 1,463/1,516). The majority of students identified with the gender on their birth certificate (99.8%; 1,512/1,515). About half had spent the majority of their lives in urban environments (46.7%; 711/1,521), and most reported parental household incomes of over $100,000/year (57.6%; 791/1,373). Overall, they were overrepresentative of higher-income groups and underrepresentative of populations of Aboriginal, black, or Filipino ethnicities in Canada. The authors propose the development of a National Student Diversity Database to support both locally relevant policies regarding pipeline programs and an examination of current application and selection procedures to identify potential barriers for underrepresented students.

  16. "We are not aliens, we're people, and we have rights." Canadian human rights discourse and high school climate for LGBTQ students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey

    2011-08-01

    Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults.

  17. The Sea Stacks Project: Enhancing the Use of Regional Literature in Atlantic Canadian Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Howard

    2012-01-01

    Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canad...

  18. A queer day in Canada: examining Canadian high school students' experiences with school-based homophobia in two large-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine how location (nationally, compared to Canadian regions) is related to indicators of a hostile school environment for sexual minority youth, particularly when physical abuse is used as the outcome variable. Data representing 5,766 Canadian students were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Results from the multivariate analyses showed that non-physical abuse was the most significant predictor of homophobically based physical abuse, for both LGBQ and non-LGBQ students. Findings reiterate the importance of considering the progression of harmful events as an escalation of violence as well as the need to view homophobic bullying as having a significant impact on all students. Finally, while the presence of homophobia is prevalent across all Canadian regions, there are, nevertheless, many regional differences, which could be used to inform region-specific action plans.

  19. The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillico, Heather G; Hammond, David; Manske, Steve; Murnaghan, Donna

    2014-04-07

    Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12's. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors.

  20. Engaging Canadian youth in conversations: Using knowledge exchange in school-based health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Murnaghan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The voice of youth is crucial to advancing solutions that contribute to effective strategies to improve youth health outcomes. The problem, however, is that youth/student voices are often overlooked, and stakeholders typically engage in decision-making without involving youth. The burden of chronic disease is increasing worldwide, and in Canada chronic disease accounts for 89 per cent of deaths. However, currently, youth spend less time being physically active while engaging in more unhealthy eating behaviours than ever before. High rates of unhealthy behaviours such as physical inactivity, unhealthy eating and tobacco use are putting Canadian youth at risk of health problems such as increased levels of overweight and obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Focus group methodology was utilised to conduct 7 focus groups with 50 students in grades 7–12 from schools in Prince Edward Island, Canada. The key themes that emerged included: (1 youth health issues such as lack of opportunities to be physically active, cost and quality of healthy food options, and bullying; (2 facilitators and barriers to health promotion, including positive peer and adult role models, positive relationships with adults and competitiveness of school sports; and (3 lack of student voice. Our findings suggest that actively engaging youth provides opportunities to understand youth perspectives on how to encourage them to make healthy choices and engage in healthy behaviours. Attention needs to be paid to inclusive knowledge exchange practices that value and integrate youth perspectives and ideas as a basis for building health promotion actions and interventions. Keywords: knowledge exchange, youth health, youth engagement

  1. The association between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Williams, Patty L; Willows, Noreen D; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status). Children completed FFQ. Data were prospectively linked to children's performance on standardized exams written one year later. Mixed-effect logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and likelihood of meeting academic expectations adjusting for socio-economic status, diet quality and potential confounders. Nova Scotia, Canada in 2011-2012. Students (n 4105) in grade 5 (10-11 years; 2167 girls) and their parents. Low food security was reported by 9·8 % of households; very low food security by 7·1 % of households. Students from low-income households and reporting poor diet quality were less likely to do well in school. Children who lived in households reporting very low food security had 0·65 times the odds (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) of meeting expectations for reading and 0·62 times the odds (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·86) of meeting expectations for mathematics. Very low household insecurity is associated with poor academic achievement among children in Nova Scotia.

  2. Conflict of Interest Policies at Canadian Universities and Medical Schools: Some Lessons from the AMSA PharmFree Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu, Ghislaine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Launched in 2007, the American Medical Students Association (AMSA PharmFree Scorecard is an annual ranking of conflict of interest (COI policies at American medical centres; it focuses on COIs that may occur when medical education seems likely to be influenced by university-industry relationships, especially those with the pharmaceutical and medical device industries. The PharmFree Scorecard has proven influential in stimulating changes in policy regarding the management of COI at American medical institutions, thus it provides a useful jumping off point for reflection on how and why medical education institutions in other countries – and for our purposes, Canada – should pay more attention to the appropriate identification and management of COI. The PharmFree Scorecard methodology examines a diversity of factors and interests that could influence medical education; as such, it is an interesting approach to analysing the COI policies of medical schools. To test its utility or applicability outside the US, we decided to apply the PharmFree Scorecard to the COI policies of the 16 Canadian universities hosting medical schools. Overall, Canadian institutions rank very poorly, especially in ensuring that education and training tools are provided to staff, students and faculty members to enable the identification and management of COI. However, differences between the US and Canadian medical education contexts, e.g., with regards to the governance and funding of universities, limit to some extent the direct applicability of the AMSA ranking. Canadian medical schools – and their host universities – nonetheless have much to learn from insights provided by the AMSA PharmFree Scorecard ranking, although they can and should go further in developing their own COI policies and procedures.

  3. Sustained improvements in students' mental health literacy with use of a mental health curriculum in Canadian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcluckie, Alan; Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Weaver, Cynthia

    2014-12-31

    Enhancement of mental health literacy for youth is a focus of increasing interest for mental health professionals and educators alike. Schools are an ideal site for addressing mental health literacy in young people. Currently, there is limited evidence regarding the impact of curriculum-based interventions within high school settings. We examined the effect of a high-school mental health curriculum (The Guide) in enhancing mental health literacy in Canadian schools. We conducted a secondary analysis on surveys of students who participated in a classroom mental health course taught by their usual teachers. Evaluation of students' mental health literacy (knowledge/attitudes) was completed before and after classroom implementation and at 2-month follow-up. We used paired-samples t-tests and Cohen's d value to determine the significance and impact of change. There were 265 students who completed all surveys. Students' knowledge significantly improved between pre- and post-tests (p student knowledge and attitudes regarding mental health. This is the first study to demonstrate the positive impact of a curriculum-based mental health literacy program in a Canadian high school population.

  4. The Sea Stacks Project: Enhancing the Use of Regional Literature in Atlantic Canadian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Howard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research over the past two decades has amply demonstrated the importance of literature to the formation of both regional and national cultural identity, particularly in the face of mass market globalization of children’s book publishing in the 21st century as well as the predominance of non-Canadian content from television, movies, books, magazines and internet media. However, Canadian children appear to have only very limited exposure to Canadian authors and illustrators. In Atlantic Canada, regional Atlantic Canadian authors and illustrators for children receive very limited critical attention, and resources for the study and teaching of Atlantic Canadian children’s literature are few. Print and digital information sources on regional children’s books, publishing, authors and illustrators are scattered and inconsistent in quality and currency. This research project directly addresses these key concerns by summarizing the findings of a survey of Atlantic Canadian teachers on their use of regional books. In response to survey findings, the paper concludes by describing the creation of the Sea Stacks Project an authoritative web-delivered information resource devoted to contemporary Atlantic Canadian literature for children and teens.

  5. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don

    2013-01-01

    Background An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents’ consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. Methods We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. Results About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or “other.” Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84–4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90–2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. Interpretation The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of

  6. Gay and Bisexual Male Youth as Educator Activists and Cultural Workers: The Queer Critical Praxis of Three Canadian High-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Andre P.; Wells, Kristopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers how three Canadian high-school students--Ryan, Jeremy, and Bruce--engaged in queer critical praxis intended to free lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans-identified, and queer (LGBTQ) students from the silence, exclusion, and symbolic and physical violence that heterosexism and homophobia provoke in schools. We, the authors, construct…

  7. Development of inquiry-based planetary science resources for Canadian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Gilbert, A.; Brown, P.

    2011-12-01

    abilities) outline the independent variables, and design an experiment. This is conducted in groups after the proposed experiment is approved by the teacher. (4) Students draw conclusions on their experiment, and present results in the lab hand out and to their peers. Learning outcomes based on the Ontario curriculum have been pre-identified allowing the teachers to know what portion of the curriculum is being taught. Future activities include increasing the number of activity-based learning themes and modules available, implementing more Teacher Training Courses and workshops, increasing the number of schools that participate to the programme and continuing to participate in the annual Science Teacher's Association of Ontario Conference. Acknowledgements: Funding from the Canadian Space Agency's Space Awaremess and Learning program and an Interdisciplinary Development Initiative award from Western has made this program possible. Melissa Battler, Anna Chanou, Heather Henry, Emily McCullough, Alexandra Pontefract, and Alaura Singleton are thanked for their participation in this program.

  8. The association between senior student tobacco use rate at school and alternative tobacco product use among junior students in Canadian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Adam G; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative tobacco products (ATPs) has grown in popularity among Canadian youth. This study examined the association between a school-level characteristic (the senior student tobacco use rate) and the current use of manufactured cigarettes, little cigars or cigarillos, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT), and a hookah among junior students. This study used nationally representative Canadian data from 29,495 students in grades 9 to 12 as part of the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. For each ATP, we described rates of senior and junior tobacco use, calculated the variance attributed to school-level factors, and examined the association between the senior student (grades 11 and 12) tobacco use rate and the current use of each ATP among junior students (grades 9 and 10) while accounting for relevant student-level characteristics. SAS 9.3 was used for all analyses. Over half of schools sampled had senior students that reported using each ATP. School-level differences accounted for between 14.1% and 29.7% of the variability in ATP current use among junior students. Each one percent increase in the number of senior students at a school that currently use manufactured cigarettes, SLT, or a hookah was significantly independently associated with an increased likelihood that a junior student at that school currently used manufactured cigarettes (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06), SLT (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.24), or a hookah (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.14). Characteristics of the school environment a junior student attends appear to play an important role in ATP use, and tobacco control programs and policies should be designed to ensure that they include strategies to curb the use of all tobacco products. Additional evidence is needed for the impact of comprehensive school-based tobacco control approaches.

  9. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  10. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  11. Is the food environment surrounding schools associated with the diet quality of adolescents in Otago, New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emma M; Quigg, Robin; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Richards, Rose; Black, Katherine E; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Using a sample of adolescents from schools in Otago, New Zealand, associations between food outlets around schools and dietary quality were investigated. Food outlet environment data were derived using GIS data. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that outlet density, in an 800m buffer around schools, of cafes and restaurants, supermarkets and takeaways was associated with higher Diet Quality Index scores in boys, and distance to nearest outlet for convenience stores, cafes and restaurants and supermarkets with lower scores for girls. Effect sizes were small, suggesting that the food environment around schools plays a minor role in adolescent diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Co-Occurring Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Associations With Mental Health Problems Among Canadian Middle and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the associations between co-occurring cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with poor self-rated mental health, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation and attempts among 4,886 Canadian students in Grades 7-12 and tested whether these associations differed between middle and high school students. There are 12.2% of students who were victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying. After adjusting for covariates, victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying presented the highest odds of poor self-rated mental health (odds ratio [OR] = 5.02; 95% CI [3.75, 6.74]), psychological distress (OR = 5.91; 95% CI [4.38, 7.96]), and suicidal ideation (OR = 6.17; 95% CI [4.44, 8.56]) and attempts (OR = 7.68; 95% CI [3.95, 14.93]). These associations were stronger among middle-school youth than their high school counterparts. Results suggest that victims of both cyberbullying and school bullying may constitute the most vulnerable group and that there is a need for intervention programs addressing both forms of bullying simultaneously, particularly among middle school students.

  13. Factor Structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a Canadian Elementary School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Madison; Martinussen, Rhonda; Wolfe, Richard G.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a 25-item screening measure for emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents aged 4 to 16. Structural equation modeling was used to test the five-factor structure of teacher and parent ratings on the British version of the SDQ in a community sample of 501 Canadian children aged…

  14. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-01-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the…

  15. A Survey of Digital Rectal Examination Training in Canadian Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alysha Nensi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The digital rectal examination (DRE is important for the diagnosis of a variety of gastrointestinal, urological and gynecological disorders. However, it appears that Canadian medical students may not be adequately taught nor provided the opportunity to practice their skills often enough. The present study was an analysis of the current practices in DRE teaching and evaluation in undergraduate medicine programs across Canada.

  16. Knowledge Transfer or Social Competence? A Comparison of German and Canadian Adolescent Students on Their Socio-Motivational Relationships in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael; Bukowski, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-national study investigates the perception of the impact of students' relationships towards teachers and peers on scholastic motivation in a total sample of 1477 seventh and eighth grade German (N?=?1088) and Canadian (N?=?389) secondary school students. By applying Multigroup Confirmatory Latent Class Analysis in Mplus we confirmed…

  17. The Potential Impact of Social Science Research on Legal Issues Surrounding Single-Sex Classrooms and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne Elizabeth; McCall, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the role social science has played in litigation involving public single-sex educational programs. It also explores a body of social science research related to gender and education that we believe could assist the courts and school leaders in better examining the possibilities and the limitations of single-sex…

  18. Organized Extracurricular Activities: Are In-School and Out-of-School Activities Associated with Different Outcomes for Canadian Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guèvremont, Anne; Findlay, Leanne; Kohen, Dafna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Participation in extracurricular activities can have positive effects on youth, with greater participation associated with higher academic as well as better socioemotional and behavioral outcomes. Little research has examined differential effects of in-school and out-of-school activities. Methods: This study examines in-school and…

  19. Associations between the school food environment, student consumption and body mass index of Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet-Fitzgerald, Judith Evelyn; Watts, Allison W; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-26

    Increasing attention has been paid to the school food environment as a strategy to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the school food environment, students' dietary intake, and obesity in British Columbia (BC), Canada. In 2007/08, principal responses about the school environment (N=174) were linked to grades 7-12 students (N=11,385) from corresponding schools, who participated in the BC Adolescent Health Survey. Hierarchical mixed-effect regression analyses examined the association between the school food environment and student's intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), food consumption, and body mass index. Analyses controlled for school setting, neighborhood education level and student's age and sex. School availability of SSBs was positively associated with moderate (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=1.02-1.30) and high (OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.13-1.80) SSB intake as were less healthful school nutrition guidelines for moderate SSB consumers only (OR=0.65, 95% CI=0.48-0.88). Availability of SSBs at school and its consumption were positively associated with student obesity (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.12-2.01 and OR=1.66, 95% CI=1.19-2.34, respectively) but not with overweight. In contrast, consumption of less healthful food was positively associated with overweight (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01-1.06). The results of this study provide further evidence to support the important role of schools in shaping adolescents' dietary habits. Availability and consumption of SSBs, but not less healthful foods, at school were associated with higher adolescent obesity highlighting that other environments also contribute to adolescent obesity.

  20. School Engagement among Youth in Canadian Forces Families: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Karen; Albanese, Patrizia; Harrison, Deborah; Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing body of literature on adolescents in military families since 2002. This research has focused on how frequent moves and parental deployments are two unique potential stressors for youth in military families, and are associated with negative school outcomes. Analyzing data collected from a school in a military community, and…

  1. The Pasternak Case and American Gender Equity Policy: Implications for Canadian High School Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubier, Dean M.; Gadbois, Shannon A.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 twin sisters Amy and Jesse Pasternak competed for the prospect of playing high school hockey, vying for the boys' team rather than the girls'. The sisters' opportunities were negated by the Manitoba High School Athletic Association (MHSAA). This paper examines the 2006 decision by the Manitoba Human Rights Commission and a 2008 judgment by…

  2. Action Research Supporting Students' Oral Language in Northern Canadian Schools: A Professional Development Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Shelley Stagg

    2012-01-01

    Interview, document, and observational data were used to examine grade K-2 teachers' and literacy coaches' perceptions of the benefits and challenges of collaborative action research as a professional development initiative in rural schools. Eleven teachers and five literacy coaches in five northern Ontario school districts participated in…

  3. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga

    Full Text Available The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression.Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years.Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89, plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45 and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27 compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans.These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  4. Associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among Canadian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean ± SD age: 14.3 ± 1.8 years). Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16-5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48-4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63-4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20-3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26-2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18-2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  5. Associations between Cyberbullying and School Bullying Victimization and Suicidal Ideation, Plans and Attempts among Canadian Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Roumeliotis, Paul; Xu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The negative effects of peer aggression on mental health are key issues for public health. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between cyberbullying and school bullying victimization with suicidal ideation, plans and attempts among middle and high school students, and to test whether these relationships were mediated by reports of depression. Methods Data for this study are from the 2011 Eastern Ontario Youth Risk Behaviour Survey, which is a cross-sectional regional school-based survey that was conducted among students in selected Grade 7 to 12 classes (1658 girls, 1341 boys; mean±SD age: 14.3±1.8 years). Results Victims of cyberbullying and school bullying incurred a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation (cyberbullying: crude odds ratio, 95% confidence interval  = 3.31, 2.16–5.07; school bullying: 3.48, 2.48–4.89), plans (cyberbullying: 2.79, 1.63–4.77; school bullying: 2.76, 2.20–3.45) and attempts (cyberbullying: 1.73, 1.26–2.38; school bullying: 1.64, 1.18–2.27) compared to those who had not encountered such threats. Results were similar when adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and sedentary activities. Mediation analyses indicated that depression fully mediated the relationship between cyberbullying victimization and each of the outcomes of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Depression also fully mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and suicide attempts, but partially mediated the relationship between school bullying victimization and both suicidal ideation and plans. Conclusion These findings support an association between both cyberbullying and school bullying victimization and risk of suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. The mediating role of depression on these links justifies the need for addressing depression among victims of both forms of bullying to prevent the risk of subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:25076490

  6. Students' Conceptions of the Nature of Science: Perspectives from Canadian and Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyeran; Nielsen, Wendy; Woodruff, Earl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined and compared students' understanding of nature of science (NOS) with 521 Grade 8 Canadian and Korean students using a mixed methods approach. The concepts of NOS were measured using a survey that had both quantitative and qualitative elements. Descriptive statistics and one-way multivariate analysis of variances examined the quantitative data while a conceptually clustered matrix classified the open-ended responses. The country effect could explain 3-12 % of the variances of subjectivity, empirical testability and diverse methods, but it was not significant for the concepts of tentativeness and socio-cultural embeddedness of science. The open-ended responses showed that students believed scientific theories change due to errors or discoveries. Students regarded empirical evidence as undeniable and objective although they acknowledged experiments depend on theories or scientists' knowledge. The open responses revealed that national situations and curriculum content affected their views. For our future democratic citizens to gain scientific literacy, science curricula should include currently acknowledged NOS concepts and should be situated within societal and cultural perspectives.

  7. How Do Medical Schools Identify and Remediate Professionalism Lapses in Medical Students? A Study of U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziring, Deborah; Danoff, Deborah; Grosseman, Suely; Langer, Debra; Esposito, Amanda; Jan, Mian Kouresch; Rosenzweig, Steven; Novack, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Teaching and assessing professionalism is an essential element of medical education, mandated by accrediting bodies. Responding to a call for comprehensive research on remediation of student professionalism lapses, the authors explored current medical school policies and practices. In 2012-2013, key administrators at U.S. and Canadian medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education were interviewed via telephone or e-mail. The structured interview questionnaire contained open-ended and closed questions about practices for monitoring student professionalism, strategies for remediating lapses, and strengths and limitations of current systems. The authors employed a mixed-methods approach, using descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis based on grounded theory. Ninety-three (60.8%) of 153 eligible schools participated. Most (74/93; 79.6%) had specific policies and processes regarding professionalism lapses. Student affairs deans and course/clerkship directors were typically responsible for remediation oversight. Approaches for identifying lapses included incident-based reporting and routine student evaluations. The most common remediation strategies reported by schools that had remediated lapses were mandated mental health evaluation (74/90; 82.2%), remediation assignments (66/90; 73.3%), and professionalism mentoring (66/90; 73.3%). System strengths included catching minor offenses early, emphasizing professionalism schoolwide, focusing on helping rather than punishing students, and assuring transparency and good communication. System weaknesses included reluctance to report (by students and faculty), lack of faculty training, unclear policies, and ineffective remediation. In addition, considerable variability in feedforward processes existed between schools. The identified strengths can be used in developing best practices until studies of the strategies' effectiveness are conducted.

  8. Faculty and student perceptions of academic integrity at U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kenneth G; Smith, Linda A; Henzi, David; Demps, Elaine

    2007-08-01

    The issues of cheating and plagiarism in educational settings have received a large amount of attention in recent years. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which academic integrity issues currently exist in the dental schools throughout the United States and Canada. An online survey was developed to gather data pertaining to this topic from two key groups in dental education: faculty and students. Responses were obtained from 1,153 students and 423 faculty members. The results of the survey clearly reveal that cheating is a significant problem in dental schools and that significant differences exist between students' and faculty members' perceptions of academic integrity. The challenge for dental schools is to identify effective strategies to prevent cheating opportunities and to implement and enforce effective means of dealing with specific examples of cheating.

  9. African-American/Afro-Canadian Schooling: From the Colonial Period to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Tracing the history of black schooling in North America, this book emphasizes factors in society at large--and sometimes within black communities--which led to black children being separate from the white majority. This separation was continued and reinforced as efforts by European immigrants to provide separate Catholic, Lutheran, and Calvinist…

  10. School Readiness amongst Urban Canadian Families: Risk Profiles and Family Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dillon T.; Wade, Mark; Prime, Heather; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for literature that identifies the effects of broad contextual risk on school readiness outcomes via family mediating mechanisms. This is especially true amongst diverse and urban samples characterized by variability in immigration history. To address this limitation, family profiles of sociodemographic and contextual risk…

  11. Soil 4 Youth: Charting New Territory in Canadian High School Soil Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzic, Maja; Wilson, Julie; Basiliko, Nathan; Bedard-Haughn, Angela; Humphreys, Elyn; Dyanatkar, Saeed; Hazlett, Paul; Strivelli, Rachel; Crowley, Chris; Dampier, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    As global issues continue to place increasing demands on soil resources, the need to provide soil science education to the next generation of soil scientists and the general public is becoming more imminent. In many countries around the world, including Canada, soil is either not included in the high school curriculum or it is not covered in…

  12. Motivation to Study Core French: Comparing Recent Immigrants and Canadian-Born Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie J.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of Allophone students attending public schools in Canada continues to increase (Statistics Canada, 2008), it is clear that a need exists in English-dominant areas to purposefully address the integration of these students into core French. I report the findings of a mixed-method study that was conducted to assess and compare the…

  13. School Readiness and Later Achievement: A French Canadian Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Linda S.; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel

    2010-01-01

    We first replicated the data analytic strategy used in Duncan et al. (2007) with a population-based data set of French-speaking children from Quebec (Canada). Prospective associations were examined between cognitive, attention, and socioemotional characteristics underlying kindergarten school readiness and second grade math, reading, and general…

  14. Household Crowding and Food Insecurity Among Inuit Families With School-Aged Children in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Ayotte, Pierre; Riva, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation of household crowding to food insecurity among Inuit families with school-aged children in Arctic Quebec. Methods. We analyzed data collected between October 2005 and February 2010 from 292 primary caregiver–child dyads from 14 Inuit communities. We collected information about household conditions, food security, and family socioeconomic characteristics by interviews. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between household crowding and food insecurity. Results. Nearly 62% of Inuit families in the Canadian Arctic resided in more crowded households, placing them at risk for food insecurity. About 27% of the families reported reducing the size of their children’s meals because of lack of money. The likelihood of reducing the size of children’s meals was greater in crowded households (odds ratio = 3.73; 95% confidence interval = 1.96, 7.12). After we adjusted for different socioeconomic characteristics, results remained statistically significant. Conclusions. Interventions operating across different levels (community, regional, national) are needed to ensure food security in the region. Targeting families living in crowded conditions as part of social and public health policies aiming to reduce food insecurity in the Arctic could be beneficial. PMID:25602890

  15. CAREER PLANS OF GRADUATES OF A CANADIAN DENTAL SCHOOL: PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A 5-YEAR SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Usama; Fairbanks, Connor; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Kilistoff, Alan; Easton, Rick

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive data on the characteristics and opinions of graduating dental students in Canada are lacking. Specifically, only minimal information is available on graduates' immediate career plans and factors that may influence their decisions regarding these plans. Our aim was to gather such data to allow better understanding of this issue and improve the design of future studies on this topic. The Career Development Committee at the school of dentistry, University of Alberta, designed a short survey to be administered to graduating students over 5 years to gain insight into their immediate career plans and opinions on career services at the school. Preliminary results from 2012-2014 are reported here. With a response rate of close to 90% (n = 99/111), the data reveal considerable differences in immediate career plans between the surveyed students and those in other schools in Canada and the United States. Of the students, 89% were planning to work in a general dental practice and only 9% were planning to enroll in advanced education, including general practice residency training. More research is needed to better understand the factors affecting career path decisions of students.

  16. A survey of Canadian regulated complementary and alternative medicine schools about research, evidence-based health care and interprofessional training, as well as continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin April, Karine; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2013-12-28

    While some effort has been made to integrate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information in conventional biomedical training, it is unclear whether regulated Canadian CAM schools' students are exposed to research activities and continuing education, or whether topics such as evidence-based health care and interprofessional collaboration (IPC) are covered during their training. Since these areas are valued by the biomedical training field, this may help to bridge the attitudinal and communication gaps between these different practices. The aim of this study was to describe the training offered in these areas and gather the perceptions of curriculum/program directors in regulated Canadian CAM schools. A two-phase study consisting of an electronic survey and subsequent semi-structured telephone interviews was conducted with curriculum/program (C/P) directors in regulated Canadian CAM schools. Questions assessed the extent of the research, evidence-based health care, IPC training and continuing education, as well as the C/P directors' perceptions about the training. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the schools', curriculum's and the C/P directors' characteristics. Content analysis was conducted on the interview material. Twenty-eight C/P directors replied to the electronic survey and 11 participated in the interviews, representing chiropractic, naturopathy, acupuncture and massage therapy schools. Canadian regulated CAM schools offered research and evidence-based health care training as well as opportunities for collaboration with biomedical peers and continuing education to a various extent (58% to 91%). Although directors were generally satisfied with the training offered at their school, they expressed a desire for improvements. They felt future CAM providers should understand research findings and be able to rely on high quality research and to communicate with conventional care providers as well as to engage in continuing education

  17. Influences on adolescent self-esteem in multicultural Canadian secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, Nazilla

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the global and current self-esteem levels of adolescents in a community sample of 550 secondary school students in Canada. A cross-sectional design and the survey method were used. Respondents' individual (age and gender) and environmental (cultural background, acculturating group, family circumstances, and perception of support) attributes were considered. Influences that promoted or challenged their current self-esteem were examined. Eighteen percent of respondents and 43.4% of respondents' parents were immigrants. When the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale was used, 27.6% of respondents had the highest global self-esteem level; when the Current Self-Esteem scale was used, 12.7% had the highest current self-esteem level. A significant gender difference was found, with male adolescents having higher self-esteem. The results indicate that, although self-esteem promotion can benefit from lifestyle-oriented activities, its growth takes place in the larger context of adolescents' relationships, school-related experiences, achievements, and attitudes toward themselves. The study findings can contribute to mental health promotion strategies in multicultural and immigrant-receiving community settings.

  18. Homelessness in the Medical Curriculum: An Analysis of Case-Based Learning Content From One Canadian Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; MacLeod, Anna; Hwang, Stephen W

    2016-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Homelessness is a major public health concern. Given that homeless individuals have high rates of mortality and morbidity, are more likely to be users of the healthcare system, and often report unmet health needs, it is important to examine how homelessness is addressed in medical education. We wanted to examine content and framing of issues related to homelessness in the case-based learning (CBL) curriculum and provide insights about whether medical students are being adequately trained to meet the health needs of homeless individuals through CBL. CBL content at a Canadian medical school that featured content related to homelessness was analyzed. Data were extracted from cases for the following variables: curriculum unit (e.g., professionalism/ethics curriculum or biomedical/clinical curriculum), patient characteristics (e.g., age, sex), and medical and social conditions. A thematic analysis was performed on cases related to homelessness. Discrepancies in analysis were resolved by consensus. Homelessness was mentioned in five (2.6%) of 191 CBL cases in the medical curriculum. Homelessness was significantly more likely to be featured in professionalism/ethics cases than in biomedical/clinical cases (p = .03). Homeless patients were portrayed as socially disadvantaged individuals, and medical learners were prompted to discuss ethical issues related to homeless patients in cases. However, homeless individuals were largely voiceless in cases. Homelessness was associated with serious physical and mental health concerns, but students were rarely prompted to address these concerns. Insights: The health and social needs of homeless individuals are often overlooked in CBL cases in the medical curriculum. Moreover, stereotypes of homelessness may be reinforced through medical training. There are opportunities for growth in addressing the needs of homeless individuals through medical education.

  19. Exploring the use of lesson study with six Canadian middle-school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Terry James

    This qualitative case study explores the use of lesson study over a ten-week period with six Ontario middle school science teachers. The research questions guiding this study were: (1) How does participation in science-based lesson study influence these teachers': (a) science subject matter knowledge (science SMK), (b) science pedagogical content knowledge (science PCK), and (c) confidence in teaching science?, and (2) What benefits and challenges do they associate with lesson study? Data sources for this study were: teacher questionnaires, surveys, reflections, pre- and post- interviews, and follow-up emails; researcher field notes and reflections; pre- and post- administration of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument; and audio recordings of group meetings. The teachers demonstrated limited gains in science SMK. There was evidence for an overall improvement in teacher knowledge of forces and simple machines, and two teachers demonstrated improvement in over half of the five scenarios assessing teacher science SMK. Modest gains in teacher science PCK were found. One teacher expressed more accurate understanding of students' knowledge of forces and a better knowledge of effective science teaching strategies. The majority of teachers reported that they would be using three-part lessons and hands-on activities more in their science teaching. Gains in teacher pedagogical knowledge (PK) were found in four areas: greater emphasis on anticipation of student thinking and responses, recognition of the importance of observing students, more intentional teaching, and anticipated future use of student video data. Most teachers reported feeling more confident in teaching structures and mechanisms, and attributed this increase in confidence to collaboration and seeing evidence of student learning and engagement during the lesson teachings. Teacher benefits included: learning how to increase student engagement and collaboration, observing students, including video data

  20. An examination of school- and student-level characteristics associated with the likelihood of students' meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Amanda; Faulkner, Guy; Giangregorio, Lora; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-11-09

    To examine school- and student-level correlates of physical activity. Cross-sectional Year 2 data collected from 45 298 grade 9-12 students attending 89 secondary schools in the COMPASS study were examined using multi-level modelling to predict the likelihood of students a) achieving 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily; and b) achieving the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) activity guideline for youth (60 minutes/MVPA daily, vigorous physical activity at least three days in a week, and resistance training at least three days in a week). The prevalence of students achieving 60 minutes of MVPA daily and meeting the CSEP guideline was 49.3% and 31.0% respectively. Modest between-school variability was identified (1.1% for 60 minutes MVPA and 0.8% for CSEP guideline). School-level characteristics significantly associated with the outcome measures included location, school size, quality of facilities, and accessibility of facilities. Significant student-level correlates included sex, grade, weekly income, binge drinking, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index. Most youth in this large study reported inadequate physical activity levels. Students were more likely to achieve 60 minutes of MVPA if they attended a larger school or a school in an urban location, whereas students were less likely to meet the CSEP guideline if they attended a school in a small urban location. However, student-level factors, such as binge drinking and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, were more strongly associated with the outcomes examined.

  1. Collaborative Evolution: The Context Surrounding the Formation and the Effectiveness of a School Partnership in a Divided Community in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Gavin; Gallagher, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines an initiative promoting collaboration between schools located in a city setting in Northern Ireland, which is broadly divided along ethnic and political lines. The schools involved, like the vast majority of schools in Northern Ireland, educate Protestant and Catholic children separately. This presents particular challenges for…

  2. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee; Kirk, Sara; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed throu...

  3. Extracurricular Activity Participation and the Acquisition of Developmental Assets: Differences between Involved and Noninvolved Canadian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, Tanya; Camiré, Martin; Williamson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In order to prepare students for adulthood and responsible citizenship, most high schools offer extracurricular activities designed to facilitate the learning of a wide range of competencies. The purpose of this study was to examine how participation in a single or a combination of extracurricular school activities for high school students may…

  4. South Asian Canadian experiences of depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, Amarjit

    2010-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the socio-cultural context surrounding depression through semi-structured interviews with six South Asian Canadian participants, who self identified as having experienced depression. The study sought to expand on the knowledge of depression and South Asian Canadians by considering the roles of the family, the community, and the culture in the experiences of depression. Thematic analysis of the participant interviews resulted in five major themes: the exp...

  5. Women in the Canadian Economy: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Sylvia; Staunton, Ted, Ed.

    One of a series of teaching units designed to introduce secondary school students to the Canadian economy, this handbook contains activities on the economic status and roles of Canadian women. The first of 4 sections presents a profile of male and female occupations. Section 2 contains statistics on females in the Canadian labor force. Section 3,…

  6. The Impact on Anxiety and Depression of a Whole School Approach to Health Promotion: Evidence from a Canadian Comprehensive School Health (CSH) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Wijaya; Springett, Jane; Shewring, Tania

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of adopting a comprehensive school health (CSH) approach on reducing anxiety and depression of school-age children. We use the data from 245 schools that received government funding support to adopt a CSH approach in order to build health promoting school environments in Alberta. Using a linear multi-level…

  7. I Am Canadian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Joe

    2011-01-01

    "I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness......."I Am Canadian: Immigration and Multiculturalism in the True North" looks at Canadian immigration history from a contemporary point of view. The article scrutinizes recent discussions on dual nationality and what this may mean for Canadianness....

  8. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students. PMID:26610537

  9. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-11-20

    Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children's long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Our population-based study included students in grades 4-6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.

  10. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA. Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.

  11. A World without Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Innerarity

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the metaphor of “a world without surroundings “which, on one hand, can help us to understand the nature of the world that is currently being configured with the processes of globalisation, and on the other, to assess the most intelligent strategies for shaping it, in accord with the criteria of balance and justice. Our task should be, therefore, to cosmopolitise globalisation; that is, to politicise the processes with new political concepts that no longer allow the use of the old strategies of delimitation or differentiation between “Us” and “Them”, and which are demanding integrative actions.

  12. What information is provided in transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records from Canadian Medical Schools? A retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Robins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates’ documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Methods: Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Results: Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Conclusions: Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.

  13. What information is provided in transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records from Canadian Medical Schools? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Jason A; McInnes, Matthew D F; Esmail, Kaisra

    2014-01-01

    Resident selection committees must rely on information provided by medical schools in order to evaluate candidates. However, this information varies between institutions, limiting its value in comparing individuals and fairly assessing their quality. This study investigates what is included in candidates' documentation, the heterogeneity therein, as well as its objective data. Samples of recent transcripts and Medical Student Performance Records were anonymised prior to evaluation. Data were then extracted by two independent reviewers blinded to the submitting university, assessing for the presence of pre-selected criteria; disagreement was resolved through consensus. The data were subsequently analysed in multiple subgroups. Inter-rater agreement equalled 92%. Inclusion of important criteria varied by school, ranging from 22.2% inclusion to 70.4%; the mean equalled 47.4%. The frequency of specific criteria was highly variable as well. Only 17.7% of schools provided any basis for comparison of academic performance; the majority detailed only status regarding pass or fail, without any further qualification. Considerable heterogeneity exists in the information provided in official medical school documentation, as well as markedly little objective data. Standardization may be necessary in order to facilitate fair comparison of graduates from different institutions. Implementation of objective data may allow more effective intra- and inter-scholastic comparison.

  14. Use of virtual patients in dental education: a survey of U.S. and Canadian dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Robert A; Bentley, Dan A; Halpin, Richard; Valenza, John A

    2012-10-01

    The use of virtual patients in dental education is gaining acceptance as an adjunctive method to live patient interactions for training dental students. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which virtual patients are being utilized in dental education by conducting a survey that was sent to sixty-seven dental schools in the United States and Canada. A total of thirty dental schools responded to the web-based survey. Sixty-three percent of the responding dental schools use virtual patients for preclinical or clinical exercises. Of this group, 31.3 percent have used virtual patients in their curricula for more than ten years, and approximately one-third of those who do use virtual patients expose their students to more than ten virtual patient experiences over the entirety of their programs. Of the schools that responded, 90.5 percent rated the use of virtual patients in dental education as important or very important. An additional question addressed the utilization of interactive elements for the virtual patient. Use of virtual patients can provide an excellent method for learning and honing patient interviewing skills, medical history taking, recordkeeping, and patient treatment planning. Through the use of virtual patient interactive audio/video elements, the student can experience interaction with his or her virtual patients during a more realistic simulation encounter.

  15. Food Purchasing Behaviors and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Canadian Secondary School Students in the COMPASS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn M; Chaurasia, Ashok; Hammond, David; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-02-23

    To examine whether several food purchasing behaviors (ie, sources of meals or snacks) are associated with adolescents' sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and whether these associations vary by province. Cross-sectional observational study. Alberta and Ontario, Canada. Secondary school students from Alberta (n = 3,300) and Ontario (n = 37,999) participating in year 2 (2013-2014) of the Cannabis Use, Obesity, Mental Health, Physical Activity, Alcohol Use, Smoking, Sedentary Behavior (COMPASS) study. Participants' self-reported frequency of consuming 3 SSB types (soft drinks, sweetened coffees/teas, and energy drinks) in a typical week. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses. Participants from Alberta had a significantly (P purchasing meals or snacks from school food outlets compared with their Ontario counterparts. Most of the food purchasing behaviors were significantly (P purchases on weekends (vs weekdays) and from food outlets off school property (vs on school property) had a greater association with SSB consumption. Eating a home-packed lunch was protective against SSB consumption across models. Adolescents' food purchasing behaviors have a significant impact on their propensity for SSB consumption. These data demonstrate potentially important contexts for SSB consumption and have implications for possible settings and strategies for future interventions to reduce adolescents' SSB intake. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Norms and Construct Validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in Canadian High School Populations: Implications for Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Christopher; Bolitho, Floyd; Bertrand, Lorne

    1997-01-01

    Reports on instrument validity regarding self-esteem among high school students (N=2,108) in the Province of Alberta. Results indicate significant variation of mean scores across age-groups within female students even though females had significantly lower self-esteem than males. Findings support the reliability of the self-esteem instrument. (RJM)

  17. Developing and evaluating a relevant and feasible instrument for measuring health literacy of Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D; Begoray, Deborah L; Macdonald, Marjorie; Wharf Higgins, Joan; Frankish, Jim; Kwan, Brenda; Fung, Winny; Rootman, Irving

    2010-12-01

    Health literacy has come to play a critical role in health education and promotion, yet it is poorly understood in adolescents and few measurement tools exist. Standardized instruments to measure health literacy in adults assume it to be a derivative of general literacy. This paper reports on the development and the early-stage validation of a health literacy tool for high school students that measured skills to understand and evaluate health information. A systematic process was used to develop, score and validate items. Questionnaire data were collected from 275, primarily 10th grade students in three secondary schools in Vancouver, Canada that reflected variation in demographic profile. Forty-eight percent were male, and 69.1% spoke a language other than English. Bivariate correlations between background variables and the domain and overall health literacy scores were calculated. A regression model was developed using 15 explanatory variables. The R(2) value was 0.567. Key findings were that lower scores were achieved by males, students speaking a second language other than English, those who immigrated to Canada at a later age and those who skipped school more often. Unlike in general literacy where the family factors of mother's education and family affluence both played significant roles, these two factors failed to predict the health literacy of our school-aged sample. The most significant contributions of this work include the creation of an instrument for measuring adolescent health literacy and further emphasizing the distinction between health literacy and general literacy.

  18. Neighbourhood crime and adolescent cannabis use in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Looze, Margaretha; Janssen, Ian; Elgar, Frank J; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, William

    2015-01-01

    Although neighbourhood factors have been proposed as determinants of adolescent behaviour, few studies document their relative etiological importance. We investigated the relationship between neighbourhood crime and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adolescents. Data from the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey (n=9134 14- and 15-year-olds) were combined with area-level data on crime and socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood surrounding the schools (n=218). Multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that after individual and contextual differences were held constant, neighbourhood crime related to cannabis use (OR 1.29, CI 1.12-1.47 per 1.0 SD increase in crime). This association was not moderated by parental support nor having cannabis-using friends. The amount of explained variance at the neighbourhood level was 19%. Neighbourhood crime is an important factor to consider when designing interventions aimed at reducing adolescent cannabis use. Interventional research should examine the effectiveness of community-based interventions that target adolescents through parents and peers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross Validation of the Gambling Problem Severity Subscale of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Index (CAGI/GPSS) on a Sample of Ontario High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Shi, Jing; Wiebe, Jamie; Boak, Angela; van der Maas, Mark; Mann, Robert E

    2017-11-28

    This paper reports on the cross validation of the Gambling Problem Severity Subscale of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Index (CAGI/GPSS). The CAGI/GPSS was included in a large school based drug use and health survey conducted in 2015. Data from students in grades 9-12 (ages 13-20 years) derived from the (N = 3369 students). The CAGI/GPSS produced an alpha of 0.789. A principle component analysis revealed two eigenvalues greater than one. An oblique rotation revealed these components to represent consequences and over involvement. The CAGI/GPSS indicated that 1% of the students fell into the "red" category indicating a severe problem and an additional 3.3% scored in the "yellow" category indicating low to moderate problems. The CAGI/GPSS was shown to be significantly correlated with gambling frequency (r = 0.36), largest expenditure (r = 0.37), sex (more likely to be male) (r = -0.19), lower school marks (r = -0.07), hazardous drinking, (r = 0.16), problem video game play (r = 0.16), as well as substance abuse. The CAGI/GPSS was cross validated using a shorted version of the short SOGS, r = 0.48. In addition the CAGI/GPSS and short SOGS produced very similar patterns of correlations results. The results support the validity and reliability of the CAGI/GPSS as a measure of gambling problems among adolescents.

  20. We do not smoke but some of us are more susceptible than others: a multilevel analysis of a sample of Canadian youth in grades 9 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaai, Susan C; Brown, K Stephen; Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Stephen R; Murnaghan, Donna

    2014-09-01

    Smoking susceptibility has been found to be a strong predictor of experimental smoking. This paper examined which student- and school-level factors differentiated susceptible never smokers from non-susceptible never smokers among a nationally representative sample of Canadian students in grades 9 to 12. Student-level data from the 2008-2009 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey were linked with school-level data from the 2006 Census, and one built environment characteristic (the density of tobacco retailers surrounding schools). These data were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. The likelihood of a never smoker being susceptible to smoking significantly varied across schools (p=0.0002). Students in this study were more likely to be susceptible never smokers if they reported low self-esteem, held positive attitudes towards smoking, used alcohol or marijuana, had close friends who smoked, and came from homes without a total ban on smoking. The school location (rural versus urban), the socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood surrounding a school, and the density of tobacco retailers that were located within 1-km radius of each school were not associated with students' smoking susceptibility. These findings underscore the continued need to develop school-based tobacco use prevention policies and/or programs that enhance students' self-esteem, address tobacco use misinformation and substance use, and include strategies targeting friends who smoke, and students who come from homes without a total ban on smoking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The more it changes; the more it remains the same: a Foucauldian analysis of Canadian policy documents relevant to student selection for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Saleem; Lessard, David; Hodges, Brian D; Maguire, Mary H; Steinert, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Calls to increase the demographic representativeness of medical classes to better reflect the diversity of society are part of a growing international trend. Despite this, entry into medical school remains highly competitive and exclusive of marginalized groups. To address these questions, we conducted a Foucauldian discourse analysis of 15 publically available policy documents from the websites of Canadian medical education regulatory bodies, using the concepts of "excellence" (institutional or in an applicant), "diversity," and "equity" to frame the analysis. In most documents, there were appeals to broaden definitions of institutional excellence to include concerns for greater social accountability. Equity concerns tended to be represented as needing to be dealt with by people in positions of authority in order to counter a "hidden curriculum." Diversity was represented as an object of value, situated within a discontinuous history. As a rhetorical strategy, documents invoked complex societal shifts to promote change toward a more humanistic medical education system and profession. "Social accountability" was reified as an all-encompassing solution to most issues of representation. Although the policy documents proclaimed rootedness in an ethos of improving the societal responsiveness of the medical profession, our analysis takes a more critical stance towards the discourses identified. On the basis of our research findings, we question whether these calls may contribute to the maintenance of the specific power relations they seek to address. These conclusions lead us to consider the possibility that the discourses represented in the documents might be reframed to take into account issues of power distribution and its productive and reproductive features. A reframing of discourses could potentially generate greater inclusiveness in policy development processes, and afford disadvantaged and marginalized groups more participatory roles in the discussion.

  2. Canadian Medical Education Statistics, 1980/81 = Statistiques Relatives a l'enseignement Medical au Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Data for 1980-1981 pertaining to medical education in Canada are presented. Information about Canadian medical schools, population of Canada by province and distribution of medical school openings, tuition, payment scales for post-M.D. clinical trainees, clinical clerkship stipends, and numbers of Canadian medical schools offering instruction in…

  3. "The School of Life": Differences in U.S. and Canadian Settlement Policies and Their Effect on Individual Haitian Immigrants' Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Annie Laurie

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that language proficiency in the main language of the destination country is one of the most significant factors in the integration of immigrants. This study examines the overall differences in U.S. and Canadian settlement policy, using the provision of language courses as a specific example of the ways in…

  4. Challenges to Learning Evidence-Based Medicine and Educational Approaches to Meet These Challenges: A Qualitative Study of Selected EBM Curricula in U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Lauren A; ten Cate, Olle; Chen, H Carrie; Irby, David M; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a fixture in many medical school curricula. Yet, little is known about the challenges medical students face in learning EBM or the educational approaches that medical schools use to overcome these challenges. A qualitative multi-institutional case study was conducted between December 2013 and July 2014. On the basis of the Association of American Medical Colleges 2012 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire data, the authors selected 22 U.S. and Canadian Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools with graduates reporting confidence in their EBM skills. Participants were interviewed and asked to submit EBM curricular materials. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive approach. Thirty-one EBM instructors (17 clinicians, 11 librarians, 2 educationalists, and 1 epidemiologist) were interviewed from 17 medical schools (13 in the United States, 4 in Canada). Four common EBM learning challenges were identified: suboptimal role models, students' lack of willingness to admit uncertainty, a lack of clinical context, and students' difficulty mastering EBM skills. Five educational approaches to these challenges that were common across the participating institutions were identified: integrating EBM with other courses and content, incorporating clinical content into EBM training, EBM faculty development, EBM whole-task exercises, and longitudinal integration of EBM. The identification of these four learner-centered EBM challenges expands on the literature on challenges in teaching and practicing EBM, and the identification of these five educational approaches provides medical educators with potential strategies to inform the design of EBM curricula.

  5. Active Transportation Safety Features around Schools in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Pinkerton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the presence and quality of active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments that relate to pedestrian and bicycle safety. Variations in these features and associated traffic concerns as perceived by school administrators were examined by geographic status and school type. The study was based on schools that participated in 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. ArcGIS software version 10 and Google Earth were used to assess the presence and quality of ten different active transportation safety features. Findings suggest that there are crosswalks and good sidewalk coverage in the environments surrounding most Canadian schools, but a dearth of bicycle lanes and other traffic calming measures (e.g., speed bumps, traffic chokers. Significant urban/rural inequities exist with a greater prevalence of sidewalk coverage, crosswalks, traffic medians, and speed bumps in urban areas. With the exception of bicycle lanes, the active transportation safety features that were present were generally rated as high quality. Traffic was more of a concern to administrators in urban areas. This study provides novel information about active transportation safety features in Canadian school environments. This information could help guide public health efforts aimed at increasing active transportation levels while simultaneously decreasing active transportation injuries.

  6. Framing Canadian federalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saywell, John; Anastakis, Dimitry; Bryden, Penny E

    2009-01-01

    ... the pervasive effects that federalism has on Canadian politics, economics, culture, and history, and provide a detailed framework in which to understand contemporary federalism. Written in honour of John T. Saywell's half-century of accomplished and influential scholarly work and teaching, Framing Canadian Federalism is a timely and fitting t...

  7. News Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Competition: School team launches a rocket Conference: Norway focuses on physics teaching Science on Stage: Canadian science acts take to the stage Particle Physics: Teachers get a surprise at CERN Teaching: Exploring how students learn physics University: Oxford opens doors to science teachers Lasers: Lasers shine light on meeting Science Fair: Malawi promotes science education

  8. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  9. Canadian nuclear risk experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Risk assessment in the Canadian nuclear fuel cycle is a very important and complex subject. Many levels of government are involved in deciding the acceptable limits for the risks, taking into account the benefits for society [fr

  10. Allies of a Kind: Canadian Army-US Army Relations and the Korean War, 1950-1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Detention Barracks 1st Canadian Field Security Service 25th Canadian Public Relations Unit 25th Canadian Field Dental Unit, RCDC Unless formally...rebuilt Korean schools and hospitals because they could take 42 home cement , timber, steel reinforcing rods, and sand bags. A bottle of gin bought a

  11. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Factors Affecting Canadian Teachers' Willingness to Teach Sexual Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.

    2012-01-01

    Non-specialist teachers in Canada are increasingly required to teach sexual health topics. However, research suggests that they do not always do so willingly. This study examined the associations between the characteristics of non-specialist elementary and middle school teachers (n = 294) in Canadian schools and their willingness to provide sexual…

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. The importance of parental beliefs and support for pedometer-measured physical activity on school days and weekend days among Canadian children

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Ploeg, Kerry A; Kuhle, Stefan; Maximova, Katerina; McGavock, Jonathan; Wu, Biao; Veugelers, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Background Parental influences are essential to the behaviours and physical activity of their children. Our study aimed to determine if parental beliefs and support are associated with children’s pedometer measured physical activity levels on school days and weekend days. Methods In the spring of 2009 and 2011, we analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,355 grade five students and parents in 30 schools in Alberta, Canada. Parents reported how much they care about exercising, how much they encour...

  15. Canadian competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, J.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of the Canadian petrochemical industry was outlined, emphasizing the proximity to feedstocks as the principal advantage enjoyed by the industry over its international competitors. Annual sales statistics for 1995 were provided. Key players in the Canadian petrochemical industry (Nova, Dow, DuPont, Methanex, Esso, Union Carbide, Shell and Celanese), their share of the market and key products were noted. Manufacturing facilities are located primarily in Alberta, southern Ontario and Quebec. The feedstock supply infrastructure, historical and alternative ethane pricing in Canada and the US, the North American market for petrochemicals, the competitiveness of the industry, tax competitiveness among Canadian provinces and the US, the Canada - US unit labour cost ratio, ethylene facility construction costs in Canada relative to the US Gulf Coast, and projected 1997 financial requirements were reviewed. 19 figs

  16. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  17. Canadian Irradiation Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The Canadian Irradiation Centre is a non-profit cooperative project between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Radiochemical Company and Universite du Quebec, Institut Armand-Frappier, Centre for Applied Research in Food Science. The Centre's objectives are to develop, demonstrate and promote Canada's radiation processing technology and its applications by conducting applied research; training technical, professional and scientific personnel; educating industry and government; demonstrating operational and scientific procedures; developing processing procedures and standards, and performing product and market acceptance trials. This pamphlet outlines the history of radoation technology and the services offered by the Canadian Irradiation Centre

  18. Canadian beef quality audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) wa...

  19. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  20. Dietary supplementation of high-performance Canadian athletes by age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Kelly Anne; Fung, Tak S; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Verhoef, Marja J; Reimer, Raylene A

    2007-11-01

    To determine dietary supplementation practices and opinions, preferred means for dietary supplement (DS) education, and antidoping opinions among elite Canadian athletes varying in age and gender. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey. Elite athlete training centers in Calgary, Canada and surrounding area. A total of 582 high-performance athletes (314 male, 268 female). High-performance athletes representing 27 sports with a mean age of 19.96+/-3.91 years completed a validated questionnaire assessing DS practices and opinions by recall. Sport categories included varsity, Canadian Sport Centre Calgary (CSCC), and National Sport School (NSS). There was extensive DS use, with 88.4% of participants taking>or=1 DS (mean of 3.08+/-1.87 DS per user) during the previous 6 months. Overall, sport drinks (22.4%), sport bars (14.0%), multivitamins and minerals (13.5%), protein supplements (9.0%), and vitamin C (6.4%) were most frequently reported. Older athletes were significantly more likely to report greater DS usage; to be advised by teammates, health food store retailers, and magazines; to prefer supplementation education via individual interviews; to claim awareness of anti-doping rules; and to perceive anti-doping compliance. Relative to gender, significant differences were observed for the types of DS reported; supplementation advisors; justifications for DS use; and awareness of anti-doping regulations. Utilization of this validated and reliable questionnaire has the potential for broad use and provides insight into the factors that influence DS use in elite athletes.

  1. Canadian gas resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Canadian exports of gas to the United States are a critical component of EMF-9 (North American Gas Supplies). However, it has been noted that there are differences between US expectations for imports and Canadian forecasts of export supply capacity. Recent studies by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) indicate that 1.8 to 2.4 Tcf of imports may be required in the mid to late 1990's; A recent study by Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) indicates that the conventional resource base may not be able to provide continued gas exports to the US after the mid 1990's and that frontier sources would need to be developed to meet US expectations. The discrepancies between US expectations and Canadian estimates of capacity are of great concern to US policymakers because they call into question the availability of secure supplies of natural gas and suggest that the cost of imports (if available) will be high. By implication, if shortages are to be averted, massive investment may be required to bring these higher cost sources to market. Since the long-term supply picture will be determined by the underlying resource base, EMF-9 participants have been asked to provide estimates of critical components of the Canadian resource base. This paper provides a summary of ICF-Lewin's recent investigation of both the Conventional and Tight Gas resource in Canada's Western Sedimentary Basin, which includes both quantitative estimates and a brief sketch of the analysis methodology

  2. Canadian Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, John

    1992-01-01

    It is the view of the Canadian Nuclear Association that continuing creation of economic wealth is vital to sustainable development. A plentiful supply of cheap energy is essential. Nuclear energy provides the cleanest source of bulk energy generation essential to any path of sustainable development

  3. Research Award: Canadian Partnerships

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... universies and civil society organizaons (CSOs) — that is acvely engaged in creang, sharing, and using knowledge to advance our understanding of internaonal ... but programs are also being offered by other facules, including public health and engineering. Some inial research on Canadian study‐abroad ...

  4. "We're Here Because We're Black": The Schooling Experiences of French-Speaking African-Canadian Students with Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Sara; James, Carl E.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the educational experiences of a group of French-speaking Black African-born students who entered Canada as refugees. They were attending a French school and were placed in a separate programme that was designed to meet their particular needs given their limited language skills and level of education. Drawing on critical…

  5. Socio-motivational moderators – Two sides of the same coin?Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eHoferichter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive and test anxiety in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = .53, age span 12–15 years from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = .82, age span 12–16 years were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and test anxiety. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations (MGLMS were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of test anxiety related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of achievement drive; intensifying or mitigating feelings of test anxiety. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985. Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of achievement drive and test anxiety: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  6. Socio-motivational moderators-two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, M age = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12-15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, M age = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12-16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher-student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student-student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role.

  7. Socio-motivational moderators—two sides of the same coin? Testing the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships on achievement drive and test anxiety among German and Canadian secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Frances; Raufelder, Diana; Eid, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current cross-national study investigates the potential buffering role of socio-motivational relationships for the association of achievement drive (AD) and test anxiety (TX) in secondary school students from Canada and Germany. One thousand and eighty-eight students (54% girls, Mage = 13.71, SD = 0.53, age span 12–15 years) from the state of Brandenburg and 389 students from Quebéc (55.9% girls, Mage = 13.43, SD = 0.82, age span 12–16 years) were asked about their socio-motivational relationships with their teachers and peers, their drive for achievement, and TX. Multigroup latent moderated structural equations were conducted to test for the moderator role of socio-motivational relationships that would buffer feelings of TX related to the drive for achievement. The analyses revealed the two-sided role socio-motivational relationships can have for students with different levels of AD; intensifying or mitigating feelings of TX. Thereby, the results of this study extend the buffering hypothesis by Cohen and Wills (1985). Cross-national differences between Canada and Germany were found concerning the studied moderators on the association of AD and TX: While for German students teacher–student relationships acted as moderator, for Canadian students student–student relationships and teachers acting as positive motivators displayed a moderator role. PMID:26583000

  8. The importance of parental beliefs and support for pedometer-measured physical activity on school days and weekend days among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ploeg, Kerry A; Kuhle, Stefan; Maximova, Katerina; McGavock, Jonathan; Wu, Biao; Veugelers, Paul J

    2013-12-05

    Parental influences are essential to the behaviours and physical activity of their children. Our study aimed to determine if parental beliefs and support are associated with children's pedometer measured physical activity levels on school days and weekend days. In the spring of 2009 and 2011, we analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,355 grade five students and parents in 30 schools in Alberta, Canada. Parents reported how much they care about exercising, how much they encourage their child to be physically active, and how frequently they engage in physical activities with their child. Physical activity was assessed from step counts obtained from time-stamped pedometers collected over nine consecutive days. Increased parental encouragement was positively associated with boys' and girls' physical activity on school days (Boys: beta = 1373, 95% CI: 606, 2139; Girls: beta = 632, 95% CI: 108, 1155) and girls' physical activity on weekend days (beta = 997, 95% CI: 130, 1864). Increased parental care was positively associated with boys' physical activity on weekend days (beta = 1381, 95% CI: 85, 2676). Increased parental support and engagement was associated with an additional 632-1381 steps/day for children in this study. Parental care, encouragement and engagement are associated with physical activity levels of children 10-11 years of age. Policy makers and researchers should consider the importance of targeting parents when designing strategies to promote physical activity in children. This is particularly relevant to weekends and holidays when children's activity levels are low.

  9. A Canadian ESL Teacher in China: A Stranger in a Strange Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragoonaden, Karen; Akehurst, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Through a self-study of teacher and teacher education practices, this article explores cultural discontinuities between Canadian teachers and Chinese students enrolled in Canadian offshore schools. The methodology of self-study provides a means to think about, understand and develop teachers' practice in contexts where intercultural diversity…

  10. Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafal (Haval Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.

  11. Canadian fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.S.

    1982-06-01

    The National Research Council of Canada is establishing a coordinated national program of fusion research and development that is planned to grow to a total annual operating level of about $20 million in 1985. The long-term objective of the program is to put Canadian industry in a position to manufacture sub-systems and components of fusion power reactors. In the near term the program is designed to establish a minimum base of scientific and technical expertise sufficient to make recognized contributions and thereby gain access to the international effort. The Canadian program must be narrowly focussed on a few specializations where Canada has special indigenous skills or technologies. The programs being funded are the Tokamak de Varennes, the Fusion Fuels Technology Project centered on tritium management, and high-power gas laser technology and associated diagnostic instrumentation

  12. Financing Canadian international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle, G.

    1996-01-01

    A primer on financing international operations by Canadian corporations was provided. Factors affecting the availability to project finance (location, political risk), the various forms of financing (debt, equity, and combinations), the main sources of government backed financing to corporations (the International Finance Corporation) (IFC), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Overseas Property Insurance Corporation (OPIC), government or agency guarantees, political risk coverage, the use of offshore financial centres, and the where, when and how these various organizations operate, were reviewed. Examples of all of the above, taken from the experiences of Canadian Occidental Petroleum of Calgary in the U.S., in South America, in the Middle and Far East, and in Kazakhstan, were used as illustrations. figs

  13. Canadian Mathematical Congress

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    For two weeks in August, 1975 more than 140 mathematicians and other scientists gathered at the Universite de Sherbrooke. The occasion was the 15th Biennial Seminar of the Canadian Mathematical Congress, entitled Mathematics and the Life Sciences. Participants in this inter­ disciplinary gathering included researchers and graduate students in mathematics, seven different areas of biological science, physics, chemistry and medical science. Geographically, those present came from the United States and the United Kingdom as well as from academic departments and government agencies scattered across Canada. In choosing this particular interdisciplinary topic the programme committee had two chief objectives. These were to promote Canadian research in mathematical problems of the life sciences, and to encourage co-operation and exchanges between mathematical scientists" biologists and medical re­ searchers. To accomplish these objective the committee assembled a stim­ ulating programme of lectures and talks. Six ...

  14. The importance of parental beliefs and support for pedometer-measured physical activity on school days and weekend days among Canadian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Parental influences are essential to the behaviours and physical activity of their children. Our study aimed to determine if parental beliefs and support are associated with children’s pedometer measured physical activity levels on school days and weekend days. Methods In the spring of 2009 and 2011, we analyzed cross-sectional data from 1,355 grade five students and parents in 30 schools in Alberta, Canada. Parents reported how much they care about exercising, how much they encourage their child to be physically active, and how frequently they engage in physical activities with their child. Physical activity was assessed from step counts obtained from time-stamped pedometers collected over nine consecutive days. Results Increased parental encouragement was positively associated with boys’ and girls’ physical activity on school days (Boys: beta = 1373, 95% CI: 606, 2139; Girls: beta = 632, 95% CI: 108, 1155) and girls’ physical activity on weekend days (beta = 997, 95% CI: 130, 1864). Increased parental care was positively associated with boys’ physical activity on weekend days (beta = 1381, 95% CI: 85, 2676). Increased parental support and engagement was associated with an additional 632–1381 steps/day for children in this study. Conclusions Parental care, encouragement and engagement are associated with physical activity levels of children 10–11 years of age. Policy makers and researchers should consider the importance of targeting parents when designing strategies to promote physical activity in children. This is particularly relevant to weekends and holidays when children’s activity levels are low. PMID:24308428

  15. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  16. Tuberculosis in Aboriginal Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon H Hoeppner

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endemic tuberculosis (TB was almost certainly present in Canadian aboriginal people (aboriginal Canadians denotes status Indians, Inuit, nonstatus Indians and metis as reported by Statistics Canada before the Old World traders arrived. However, the social changes that resulted from contact with these traders created the conditions that converted endemic TB into epidemic TB. The incidence of TB varied inversely with the time interval from this cultural collision, which began on the east coast in the 16th century and ended in the Northern Territories in the 20th century. This relatively recent epidemic explains why the disease is more frequent in aboriginal children than in Canadian-born nonaboriginal people. Treatment plans must account for the socioeconomic conditions and cultural characteristics of the aboriginal people, especially healing models and language. Prevention includes bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and chemoprophylaxis, and must account for community conditions, such as rates of suicide, which have exceeded the rate of TB. The control of TB requires a centralized program with specifically directed funding. It must include a program that works in partnership with aboriginal communities.

  17. Dictionaries of Canadian English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Considine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The lexicographical record of English in Canada began with wordlists of the late eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth centuries. From the beginning of the twentieth century onwards, the general vocabulary of English in Canada has been represented in bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, often adapted from American or British dictionaries. In the 1950s, several important projects were initiated, resulting in the publication of general dictionaries of English in Canada, and of dictionaries of Canadianisms and of the vocabulary of particular regions of Can-ada. This article gives an overview of these dictionaries and of their reception, contextualizing them in the larger picture of the lexicography of Canada's other official language, French, and of a number of its non-official languages. It concludes by looking at the future of English-language lexicography in Canada, and by observing that although it has, at its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken.

    Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, CANADIAN ENGLISH, CANADIANISMS, NATIONAL DICTIONARIES, CANADIAN FRENCH, CANADIAN FIRST NATIONS LAN-GUAGES, BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES, REGIONAL DICTIONARIES, UNFINISHED DICTIONARY PROJECTS

    Opsomming: Woordeboeke van Kanadese Engels. Die leksikografiese optekening van Engels in Kanada begin met woordelyste van die laat agtiende, neëntiende en vroeë twintigste eeue. Van die begin van die twintigste eeu af en verder, is die algemene woordeskat van Engels weergegee in tweetalige en eentalige woordeboeke, dikwels met wysiginge ontleen aan Ameri-kaanse en Britse woordeboeke. In die 1950's is verskeie belangrike projekte onderneem wat gelei het tot die publikasie van algemene woordeboeke van Engels in Kanada, en van woordeboeke van Kanadeïsmes en van die woordeskat van bepaalde streke van Kanada. Hierdie artikel gee 'n oorsig van dié woordeboeke, en van hul ontvangs, deur

  18. Inner City Canadian Native and Non-Native Pupils' Achievement in Reading, Writing, and Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschow, Horst G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the findings of a matched-group study showing that the academic achievement of native Canadian elementary school children was not significantly different from that of their nonnative peers. (FL)

  19. The Right to Live and Die. Canadian Critical Issues Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, John; Bourne, Paula

    One of a series adapted from the Canadian Public Issues Project, this book is designed to stimulate discussion and reflection about controversial issues through case studies. The book is based on high school units originally drawn from cases in newspapers, journals, books, legal documents, and government reports. Conflicts from issues arising over…

  20. Culture and Parenting: Psychological Adjustment among Chinese Canadian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Cynthia S. M.; Miller, Lynn D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adolescents' cultural identification, perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting, and psychological adjustment with a sample of 192 Chinese Canadian adolescents. Participants were recruited from public urban high schools and completed 4 self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using…

  1. Graduate Writing Assignments across Faculties in a Canadian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Dong, Yanning

    2015-01-01

    This study examines 143 graduate assignments across 12 faculties or schools in a Canadian university in order to identify types of writing tasks. Based on the descriptions provided by the instructors, we identified nine types of assignments, with scholarly essay being the most common, followed by summary and response, literature review, project,…

  2. A Question of Aims and Assumptions in Canadian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    This article concurs with a critique in the OECD Report that Canadian education is organized along industrial lines and that this organization is for the purpose of achieving academic goals. Major criticism is aimed at the "over academization" of the schools and the influence of this on society. (Author/SJL)

  3. Voices of Canadian and Mexican Youth Surrounded by Violence: Learning Experiences for Peace-Building Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Kathy; Awad, Yomna; Radjenovic, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    How do young people living in high-violence contexts express a sense of democratic agency and hope, and/or frustration and hopelessness, for handling various kinds of social and political conflict problems? The management of conflict is a core challenge and purpose of democracy, severely impeded by the isolation and distrust caused by violence.…

  4. Whether or wither some specialties: a survey of Canadian medical student career interest

    OpenAIRE

    Brenneis Fraser R; Wright Bruce J; Scott Ian M; Gowans Margot C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the looming shortage of physicians in Canada, we wished to determine how closely the career preference of students entering Canadian medical schools was aligned with the current physician mix in Canada. Methods Career choice information was collected from a survey of 2,896 Canadian medical students upon their entry to medical school. The distribution of career choices of survey respondents was compared to the current physician speciality mix in Canada. Results We sho...

  5. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception

  6. Canadian heavy water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.; Lockerby, W.E.; Rae, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews Canadian experience in the production of heavy water, presents a long-term supply projection, relates this projection to the anticipated long-term electrical energy demand, and highlights principal areas for further improvement that form the bulk of the Canadian R and D programme on heavy water processes. Six Canadian heavy water plants with a total design capacity of 4000Mg/a are in operation or under construction. All use the Girdler-Sulphide (GS) process, which is based on deuterium exchange between water and hydrogen sulphide. Early operating problems have been overcome and the plants have demonstrated annual capacity factors in excess of 70%, with short-term production rates equal to design rates. Areas for further improvement are: to increase production rates by optimizing the control of foaming to give both higher sieve tray efficiency and higher flow rates, to reduce the incapacity due to deposition of pyrite (FeS 2 ) and sulphur (between 5% and 10%), and to improve process control and optimization of operating conditions by the application of mathematical simulations of the detailed deuterium profile throughout each plant. Other processes being studied, which look potentially attractive are the hydrogen-water exchange and the hydrogen-amine exchange. Even if they become successful competitors to the GS process, the latter is likely to remain the dominant production method for the next 10-20 years. This programme, when related to the long-term electricity demand, indicates that heavy water supply and demand are in reasonable balance and that the Candu programme will not be inhibited because of shortages of this commodity. (author)

  7. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarecki, C.W.; Smith, R.M.

    1981-12-01

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  8. Canadian health surveys, 1950 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, O; Lipskie, T; MacEachern, S

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of Canadian health surveys and a review of health or health-related surveys from the first national household survey in 1950/51 to the present time. Surveys have evolved from collecting information on health care utilization, health status and some risk behaviours to a wider range of health determinants following the 1974 Lalonde report. In addition to the occasional cross-sectional surveys, there are periodic surveys, longitudinal surveys, school-based surveys and surveys based on subgroups in the population or specific topic areas. The survey review is presented in the following four tables: Table 1 summarizes national surveys including such information as the date(s) and frequency of data collection, topic areas, target population, sample size and response rate for each survey; Table 2 provides the same information for provincial surveys; both tables point to Table 3, which supplements the previous information with survey sponsors and contacts; Table 4 provides similar information for commercial surveys. This reference, which will be updated periodically, is intended to act as a source of information and support in the development of new surveys.

  9. 77 FR 70538 - Final Decision That Certain Canadian-Certified Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    .... 126 for all passenger cars and all multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a GVWR of 4... vehicles, U.S. Standard Canadian standard Passenger cars trucks, and buses with a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000... Protection. CMVSS 214--Side Door X X Strength. FMVSS 222--School Bus Passenger CMVSS 222--School Bus School...

  10. A Canadian Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of the Student Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Troy; Cormier, Damien C.; Hetherington, Jay; Mrazik, Martin; Mousavi, Amin

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Student Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI) were examined using a sample of 404 Grade 6 students from an urban Canadian school system. Students completed the SMALSI and school factors included final school grades, attendance records, and language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies…

  11. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    ... these and other issues at the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians. Situating their work within the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range fr...

  12. Employment and Urban Native Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams-Maclachlan, Caryl; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Measured differences in employment issues between native Canadian Indians and a nonnative comparison group in Toronto. Given similar circumstances, found Native Canadians less formally educated and skill trained than nonnatives of comparable age, sex, and education. Respondents under 25 and over 50 earned substantially less. (Author)

  13. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1988-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for some 30 years. Nearly 90 of the 140 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. The food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada, the factors that influence it, and some significant non-regulatory developments are reviewed. (author)

  14. The Canadian nuclear power industry. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, A.

    1993-12-01

    Nuclear power, the production of electricity from uranium through nuclear fission, is by far the most prominent segment of the nuclear industry. The value of the electricity produced, $3.7 billion in Canada in 1992, far exceeds the value of any other product of the civilian nuclear industry. Power production employs many more people than any other sector, the capital investment is much greater, and nuclear power plants are much larger and more visible than uranium mining and processing facilities. They are also often located close to large population centres. This paper provides an overview of some of the enormously complex issues surrounding nuclear power. It describes the Canadian nuclear power industry, addressing i particular its performance so far and future prospects. (author). 1 tab

  15. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  16. Canadian attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    1977-01-01

    In the past ten years, public interest in nuclear power and its relationship to the environment has grown. Although most Canadians have accepted nuclear power as a means of generating electricity, there is significant opposition to its use. This opposition has effectively forced the Canadian nuclear industry to modify its behaviour to the public in the face of growing concern over the safety of nuclear power and related matters. The paper reviews Canadian experience concerning public acceptance of nuclear power, with special reference to the public information activities of the Canadian nuclear industry. Experience has shown the need for scientific social data that will permit the nuclear industry to involve the public in a rational examination of its concern about nuclear power. The Canadian Nuclear Association sponsored such studies in 1976 and the findings are discussed. They consisted of a national assessment of public attitudes, two regional studies and a study of Canadian policy-makers' views on nuclear energy. The social data obtained were of a base-line nature describing Canadian perceptions of and attitudes to nuclear power at that time. This research established that Canadian levels of knowledge about nuclear power are very low and that there are marked regional differences. Only 56% of the population have the minimum knowledge required to indicate that they know that nuclear power can be used to generate electricity. Nevertheless, 21% of informed Canadians oppose nuclear power primarily on the grounds that it is not safe. Radiation and waste management are seen to be major disadvantages. In perspective, Canadians are more concerned with inflation than with the energy supply. About half of all Canadians see the question of energy supplies as a future problem (within five years), not a present one. A more important aspect of energy is seen by the majority of Canadians to be some form of energy independence. The use of data from these studies is no easy

  17. Dictionaries of Canadian English | Considine | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... its best, reached a high degree of sophistication, there are still major opportunities waiting to be taken. keywords: dictionary, lexicography, canadian english, canadianisms, national dictionaries, canadian french, canadian first nations lan-guages, bilingual dictionaries, regional dictionaries, unfinished diction-ary projects ...

  18. Residents as teachers: survey of Canadian family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Victor K; Burke, Clarissa A; Narula, Archna

    2013-09-01

    To examine Canadian family medicine residents' perspectives surrounding teaching opportunities and mentorship in teaching. A 16-question online survey. Canadian family medicine residency programs. Between May and June 2011, all first- and second-year family medicine residents registered in 1 of the 17 Canadian residency programs as of September 2010 were invited to participate. A total of 568 of 2266 residents responded. Demographic characteristics, teaching opportunities during residency, and resident perceptions about teaching. A total of 77.7% of family medicine residents indicated that they were either interested or highly interested in teaching as part of their future careers, and 78.9% of family medicine residents had had opportunities to teach in various settings. However, only 60.1% of respondents were aware of programs within residency intended to support residents as teachers, and 33.0% of residents had been observed during teaching encounters. It appears that most Canadian family medicine residents have the opportunity to teach during their residency training. Many are interested in integrating teaching as part of their future career goals. Family medicine residencies should strongly consider programs to support and further develop resident teaching skills.

  19. Enhancing Contextualized Curriculum: Integrated Identity in Young Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian Students' Social Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fartousi, May

    2016-01-01

    This research explored 10 young female Shi'i Muslim Arabic-Canadian students' experiences associated with wearing the Hijab (headscarf) within their home, community, and predominantly White Canadian public elementary school environments. The in-depth case study sought to address the dearth of information about Shi'is' experiences in schools…

  20. Using student and school factors to differentiate adolescent current smokers from experimental smokers in Canada: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaai, Susan C; Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Stephen R; Brown, K Stephen

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand the factors that differentiate adolescents who have tried smoking from those who have become established smokers, this study examined which student- and school-level factors differentiated current smokers from experimental smokers among a nationally representative sample of Canadian secondary school students. Student-level secondary data from the 2008-2009 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey was linked with school-level data from the 2006 Census and one built environment characteristic, and examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. The current smoking rates varied (Pschools. The number of tobacco retailers surrounding the schools was associated with current smoking when adjusting for student characteristics. Additionally, students were more likely to be current smokers if they were: male, in higher grades, believed that smoking can help when they are bored, reported low school connectedness, used marijuana, had a sibling or close friend who smoked, and had no smoking bans at home. These study findings suggest that school anti-smoking strategies need to target males, increase students' attachment to their school, address tobacco-related beliefs, and include interventions targeting smoking siblings and friends. The government should consider zoning restrictions to limit sales of tobacco products near schools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    "Voluntary migrants to Canada are generally healthier than the average Canadian, but after ten years in the country they report poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease than those born here...

  2. Canadian gas supply : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the daily production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) from 1986 to 1997 was presented. This presentation also outlined Canadian production trends, Canadian reserves and resources, and supply challenges. Ultimate conventional marketable gas from the WCSB, the Scotian Shelf, the Beaufort Sea and Canada's Arctic region was estimated at 591 TCF. Issues regarding supply and demand of natural gas such as the impact of electricity restructuring on pricing, generation fuel mix, the capacity of the U.S. market to absorb Canadian heavy oil production, and the influence of the rate of technological advances on supply and demand were outlined. The overall conclusion confirmed the health and competitiveness of the Canadian upstream sector and expressed confidence that the WCSB can support rising levels of production to meet the expected continued market growth. tabs., figs

  3. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... What contributes to this deterioration, and how can its effects be mitigated? Engendering Migrant Health brings together researchers from across Canada to address the intersections of gender, immigration, and health in the lives of new Canadians...

  4. The Canadian heavy water situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.

    The Canadian heavy water industry is analyzed. Supply and demand are predicted through 1985. Pricing is broken down into components. Backup R and D contributes greatly to process improvements. (E.C.B.)

  5. Comparative Canadian-American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, Macel D.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines topics for comparative study of Canada and the United States. Includes geography, politics, settlement patterns, economics, education, religion, and sports. Suggests materials to aid teachers in formulating comparative approaches to Canadian and U.S. studies. (DB)

  6. Canadian perspectives on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada has been in the forefront of irradiation technology for over 30 years. Some 83 of the 147 irradiators used worldwide are Canadian-built, yet Canadian food processors have been very slow to use the technology. This paper is an update on the food irradiation regulatory situation in Canada and the factors that influence it. It also reviews some significant non-regulatory developments. (author)

  7. Home Economics/Family Studies Education in Canadian Schools: A Position Paper = L'enseignement de l'economie familiale/etudes familiales dans les ecoles canadiennes: Expose de principes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Home Economics Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    English and French versions of the Canadian Home Economics Association's position paper describe the place of home economics/family studies (HEFS) in education and worldwide trends indicating the need for HEFS. Suggests it is the only subject with the primary focus on preparing students for everyday life in an increasingly complex global society.…

  8. Canadian leadership in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Canadian programme overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluke, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In a severe accident, hydrogen is released into containment. When it is well mixed, the hydrogen mixture is nonflammable because there is sufficient dilution by the large containment volume. This is the desired end point. However, the release may occur into smaller compartments of containment, stratification may occur, and local pockets of flammable mixtures may arise if hydrogen is released faster than processes that mix and disperse it. Long term hydrogen generation from water radiolysis must also be considered. Hydrogen mitigation and control strategies adopted or considered in Canada include fanforced mixing, glow plug igniters, recombiners, venting through filters, or combinations of these. The Canadian hydrogen programme is focussed on understanding hydrogen combustion behaviour and providing the data needed to demonstrate the adequacy of hydrogen mitigation and control strategies. The programme includes both experimental and modelling components of hydrogen combustion and distribution. Experiments include mixing tests, deflagration tests, diffusion flames, transition from deflagration to detonation, and testing the performance of igniters and recombiners. Modelling is focussing on the GOTHIC code as an industry standard. Detailed three dimensional modelling of gas mixing and combustion are underway, and a code validation matrix is being assembled for validation exercises. Significant progress has been made, highlights from which are being presented at this workshop. (author)

  10. Canadian leadership in energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Canada's energy is complex and an important resource as it fuels and funds the economy. The unique character of Canada's energy production and consumption provides strength to the country. The purpose of this booklet was to highlight Canada's energy production and consumption and to demonstrate Canada's rank globally with other major global energy players. The document also presented information on the value of Canada's energy exports, Canada's relationship with the United States, and Canada's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. Specifically, the document discussed Canada's energy in a global context; the value of Canada's energy exports; domestic value of energy; Canada's unique energy mix; Canada's electricity mix; Canada's carbon dioxide emissions; energy strategies; and the importance of energy to Canadians. It was concluded that there are 14 federal, provincial and territorial jurisdictions managing their respective energy resources. All of these regions, with the exception of Saskatchewan have produced an energy strategy document or a climate change action plan focusing on 8 areas of action, notably awareness; benefit; efficiency; development; diversification; electricity; and emissions. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Issues Surrounding Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, David; Kirby, Amanda; Dunford, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Like other developmental disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, specific language impairment and dyslexia, there is no shortage of debate surrounding the condition of Developmental Coordination Disorder. The present article takes a global view of many of these debatable issues, starting with definition and terminology, moving…

  12. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the religious persuasion on the social boundaries surrounding gender. Gender has been a contentious issue that is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. In the light of this, scholars' views on the subject matter were considered. Thus, this indicates ...

  13. Homophobic Discourse Surrounding the Female Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veri, Maria J.

    1999-01-01

    Considers constructs and operation of homophobic discourse surrounding female athletes, employing Foucauldian notions of discipline and discourse and feminist critiques of the gendered body to depict female athletes as nonconformist to the discipline of femininity. The paper argues that homophobic discourse exists in response to this nonconformity…

  14. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  15. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of fuel wood situation and the contribution of agroforestry and woodlot resources to the supply of household fuel wood requirements were carried out in ten villages surrounding Nyamure former refugee camp, Nyanza District in the Southern Province. A total of 158 households were surveyed in February ...

  16. The early life courses of Canadian men: analysis of timing and sequences of events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenaida R. Ravanera

    2002-12-01

    completion, work start, home-leaving, cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth - are examined using data from the 1995 Canadian General Social Survey of the Family. The trends in the timing and spread of each event, the length of transition to adulthood, and the trajectories to marriage indicate that the early life courses of Canadian men have changed tremendously with more diversified family behaviours and significant increases in ages at school completion and at start of regular work.

  17. Global change and Canadians: A teacher's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A report called Global Change and Canadians has been produced by the Royal Society of Canada to answer basic questions being asked about global change issues. A teacher's guide is presented to help teachers make effective use of the report in developing programs with students concerning global change. A basic set of teaching and learning activities related to the major topics in the report is provided, curricular connections between global change topics and school programs are suggested, and some additional resources on global change are listed. The guide is divided into six chapters, each corresponding to the chapters of the global change report. Each chapter contains a summary of the major concepts from the report, some of the learning outcomes that occur when those concepts are addressed, a series of suggested activities or ideas, and a guide for assessing students' abilities relative to the concepts of the chapter. The topics of the chapters cover the nature of global change, the importance of global change to Canada, the causes of global change, the consequences of global change (including climate change and the greenhouse effect), the effects of global change on society, and Canadian responses to global change. 64 refs., 3 figs

  18. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which ...

  19. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is difficult to detect β-SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, β-SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/β-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in ...

  20. Missing the mark: Current practices in teaching the male urogenital examination to Canadian undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, Kristen; Steele, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The urogenital physical examination is an important aspect of patient encounters in various clinical settings. Introductory clinical skills sessions are intended to provide support and alleviate students' anxiety when learning this sensitive exam. The techniques each Canadian medical school uses to guide their students through the initial urogenital examination has not been previously reported. This study surveyed pre-clerkship clinical skills program directors at the main campus of English-speaking Canadian medical schools regarding the curriculum they use to teach the urogenital examination. A response rate of 100% was achieved, providing information on resources and faculty available to students, as well as the manner in which students were evaluated. Surprisingly, over one-third of the Canadian medical schools surveyed failed to provide a setting in which students perform a urogenital examination on a patient in their pre-clinical years. Additionally, there was no formal evaluation of this skill set reported by almost 50% of Canadian medical schools prior to clinical training years. To ensure medical students are confident and accurate in performing a urogenital examination, it is vital they be provided the proper resources, teaching, and training. As we progress towards a competency-based curriculum, it is essential that increased focus be placed on patient encounters in undergraduate training. Further research to quantify students' exposure to the urogenital examination during clinical years would be of interest. Without this commitment by Canadian medical schools, we are doing a disservice not only to the medical students, but also to our patient population.

  1. Canadian perspectives in evaluating transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's mission is to regulate the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect the health, safety, and security of Canadians and the environment, as well as to respect Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. In 2001, the CNSC established a vision to be one of the best nuclear regulators in the world and established four strategic priorities of effectiveness, transparency, excellence in staff, and efficiency. While fulfilling a very comprehensive mandate, the CNSC operates with a. very clear vision of its clientele - the Canadian people. That commitment guides every employee and every action of the CNSC and ensures a firm commitment to transparency. The presentation will begin with a brief overview of the worldwide context of transparency and transparency measurement, with a look at what lessons can be learned from other organizations and initiatives. It will look broadly at the Canadian context and the government framework that establishes transparency, including the keystone legislation of the Access to Information Act. The presentation will then focus on the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The CNSC is firmly committed to putting additional measures in place to ensure transparency, which is being done concurrently with an overall organisational performance measurement system. It is within this framework that the presentation will address the transparency efforts at the CNSC as well transparency measurement activities. And, finally, the presentation will look at future directions for transparency and its measurement at the CNSC. (author)

  2. The development of the canadian veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J F

    1985-05-01

    A proposal for the development of Canadian veterinary education and of the organization of the profession is described. There should be one veterinary school with four branches (the current colleges). A student would train at any college in comparative medicine for two and one-half years and then train for 12 months or more in a specialty taught at one or more colleges. These specialties are general veterinary practice, poultry practice, public health and regulatory medicine, ruminant practice, swine practice, equine practice, small animal practice, fish medicine, fur-bearing and exotic animal medicine and research. After graduation in the chosen area there would be a period (six months or longer) of probationary licensing while field experience was gained before a final examination in the specialty was taken. The advantages and disadvantages of this proposal are discussed.

  3. Chernobyl - a Canadian technical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howieson, J.Q.; Snell, V.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this report we present the design review done to date in Canada by AECL. From the Canadian point of view it covers: 1) relevant information on the Chernobyl design and the accident, both as presented by the Soviets at the Post-Accident Review Meeting (PARM) held in Vienna from August 25-29, 1986, and as deduced from publicly available Soviet documentation; and 2) details of AECL's technical review of the CANDU PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) against the background of the Chernobyl accident, and implications of the Chernobyl accident. Reviews of operational aspects are underway by the Canadian electrical utilities and a review by the Canadian regulatory agency (the Atomic Energy Control Board) is near completion

  4. Responsible Canadian energy progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents oil and gas companies throughout Canada; its members produce over 90% of Canada's natural gas and crude oil output. The aim of the Association is to improve the economics of the Canadian upstream petroleum sector in an environmentally and socially responsible way. The aim of this Responsible Canadian Energy report is to present the performance data of CAPP's members for the year 2009. Data, trends, and performance analyses are provided throughout the document. This analysis makes it possible to determine where progress has been made and where performance improvement is necessary. It also presents success stories and best practices so that other companies can learn from them how to improve their own performance. This paper provides useful information on the performance of the upstream petroleum industry in Canada and highlights where the focus should be for further improvement in its performance.

  5. Enlisting Canadians for greater impact | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Image. IDRC Communications. Increased collaboration, bolder solutions. OBJECTIVE: IDRC will engage Canadians in research for development through ... The Global Citizenship Small Grants, for example, enable Canadian organizations to address issues of social and economic justice, environmental protection, ...

  6. Issues in Canadian LLRW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the issues which are of concern in Canada are similar to those being discussed in the US because Canadian low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) production is similar in quantity and characteristics to that which will be handled by some state compacts. This paper gives a Canadian viewpoint of: the choice between interim storage and permanent disposal; the importance of considering inadvertent intrusion; the role of waste categorization and stability; and the concerns in assessing disposal performance. The discussion is related to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's LLRW disposal program, and its approach to resolving these issues

  7. Canadian attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.; Dobson, J.K.; Baril, R.G.

    1977-05-01

    A national assessment was made of public attitudes towards nuclear power, along with regional studies of the Maritimes and mid-western Canada and a study of Canadian policy-makers' views on nuclear energy. Public levels of knowledge about nuclear power are very low and there are marked regional differences. Opposition centers on questions of safety and is hard to mollify due to irrational fear and low institutional credibility. Canadians rate inflation as a higher priority problem than energy and see energy shortages as a future problem (within 5 years) and energy independence as a high priority policy. (E.C.B.)

  8. Transnational archives: the Canadian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Creet

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the concept of the transnational archive as a counterpoint to the idea that a national archive is necessarily a locus of a static idea of nation. The Canadian national archives is used as a case study of an archives that was transnational in its inception, and one that has continued to change in its mandate and materials as a response to patterns in migration and changing notions of multiculturalism as a Canadian federal policy. It introduces the most recent formation of the transnational archive and its denizens: the genealogical archive inhabited by family historians.

  9. Financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedenberg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The financial outlook for the Canadian gas industry depends on the outlook for gas prices at Canadian producing basins, the cost of producing in Canada and the volume of production of Canadian natural gas. Price, cost and volume determine the health of the Canadian industry. Industry's costs are the basis of the supply (volume) offered on the market and price is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. (author)

  10. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF). The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFS-RF) is a collaborative program of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and IDRC valued at CA $61 654 707 (CIDA: CA $50 000 000; IDRC: CA $11 654 707). The program ...

  11. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  13. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Canadian ERTS program progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, L. W.; Mcquillan, A. K.

    1974-01-01

    Progress of the Canadian ERTS program is provided along with statistics on the production and role of ERTS images both from the CCRS in Ottawa and from the Prince Albert Saskatchewan satellite station. The types of products, difficulties of production and some of the main applications in Canada are discussed.

  15. Nuclear regulation - the Canadian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.

    1981-09-01

    Although the Atomic Energy Control Board was established 35 years ago the basic philosophy of nuclear regulation in Canada and the underlying principles of the regulatory process remain essentially unchanged. This paper outlines the Canadian approach to nuclear regulation and explains in practical terms how the principles of regulation are applied. (author)

  16. Engendering migrant health: Canadian perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on the context of Canadian policy and society, the contributors illuminate migrants' testimonies of struggle, resistance, and solidarity as they negotiate a place for themselves in a new country. Topics range from the difficulties of Francophone refugees and the changing roles of fathers, to the experiences of queer newcomers and the importance of social unity to communal and individual health."--pub. desc.

  17. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  18. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  19. Shared Canadian Curriculum in Family Medicine (SHARC-FM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, David A.; Scott, Ian; Sylvester, Michael; Tan, Amy; Horrey, Kathleen; Weston, W. Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed In 2006, leaders of undergraduate family medicine education programs faced a series of increasing curriculum mandates in the context of limited time and financial resources. Additionally, it became apparent that a hidden curriculum against family medicine as a career choice was active in medical schools. Objective of program The Shared Canadian Curriculum in Family Medicine was developed by the Canadian Undergraduate Family Medicine Education Directors and supported by the College of Family Physicians of Canada as a national collaborative project to support medical student training in family medicine clerkship. Its key objective is to enable education leaders to meet their educational mandates, while at the same time countering the hidden curriculum and providing a route to scholarship. Program description The Shared Canadian Curriculum in Family Medicine is an open-access, shared, national curriculum (www.sharcfm.ca). It contains 23 core clinical topics (determined through a modified Delphi process) with demonstrable objectives for each. It also includes low- and medium-fidelity virtual patient cases, point-of-care learning resources (clinical cards), and assessment tools, all aligned with the core topics. French translation of the resources is ongoing. Conclusion The core topics, objectives, and educational resources have been adopted by medical schools across Canada, according to their needs. The lessons learned from mounting this multi-institutional collaborative project will help others develop their own collaborative curricula. PMID:28404720

  20. A cross-sectional examination of modifiable risk factors for chronic disease among a nationally representative sample of youth: are Canadian students graduating high school with a failing grade for health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Rynard, Vicki

    2013-06-11

    Substance use and weight gain among youth increase the risk for future disease. As such, the purpose of this study is to examine how many Canadian youth are currently failing to meet substance use and weight gain related public health guidelines. Data from the 2010-11 Youth Smoking Survey were used to examine grade 9 to 12 students meeting seven different guidelines by sex and by grade. Among Canadian youth, 8.8% were current smokers, 18.8% were current marijuana users, 25.5% were current binge drinkers, 22.5% were considered overweight or obese, 31.2% did not meet physical activity guidelines, 89.4% exceeded sedentary behaviour guidelines, and 93.6% reported inadequate fruit and vegetable intake. The mean number of risk factors per student was 2.9 (±1.2); only 0.5% of youth reported having none of the risk factors. Students rarely met all seven public health guideline examined, and the vast majority of actually reported having two or more modifiable risk factors for disease.

  1. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by…

  2. Religious Diversity in the Public Sphere: The Canadian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori G. Beaman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the contours of religious and nonreligious diversity in the Canadian public sphere. The ever-changing (nonreligious landscape offers an opportunity to consider the flow of ideas from this new diversity to responses and choices at the individual, group, and state levels to inclusion and exclusion. The paper first begins with a descriptive approach to religious diversity, identifying the normatively-charged nature inherent to measures of religion. It then turns to the notion of choices, considering the somewhat uniquely Canadian contributions of multiculturalism, reasonable accommodation, and the recent complication of nonreligion as a category of religious identity. The paper then considers three case studies which reveal the tensions embedded in the new diversity and responses to it in Canada, including (1 the Saint-Sacrement Hospital crucifix incident; (2 Zunera Ishaq’s challenge to the citizenship ceremony niqab ban; and (3 school controversies in Ontario’s Peel Region.

  3. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  5. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  9. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r_hblack hole to become thermodynamically stable.

  10. Towards Semantic Understanding of Surrounding Vehicular Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of multiple low-cost visual sensors to obtain a surround view of the ego-vehicle for semantic understanding. A multi-perspective view will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies (NDS), by automating the task of data reduction of the observed sequences...... is tested on ten sequences of real-world data collected on U. S. highways. The results show the potential use of multiple low-cost visual sensors for semantic understanding around the ego-vehicle....... into events. A user-centric vision-based framework is presented using a vehicle detector and tracker in each separate perspective. Multi-perspective trajectories are estimated and analyzed to extract 14 different events, including potential dangerous behaviors such as overtakes and cut-ins. The system...

  11. Provincialism, Rurality and Canadian Masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dunk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Images of provincial rural life are often key symbols in the construction of national identities, even in highly urbanized wealthy nations. Some 60 percent of the Canadian population lives in just four urban concentrations around Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, and the Calgary-Edmonton corridor and a very significant proportion consists of immigrants, many of them from Asia, Africa, the Caribbean and South America. Canada is still a dominion within the British Commonwealth but everyday metropolitan life in Canada is far more diverse and international than the historic connections to Britain, or France, might suggest. Nonetheless, it is the provincial hinterlands and rural regions that are most often used to imagine Canada and Canadians.

  12. The prospects for Canadian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1983-07-01

    The 1980s have seen a decline in markets for uranium concentrate, largely as a result of falling estimates for reactor fuel requirements and rising inventories. Spot market prices fell to $44 in September 1982, but have since risen back to $60. World production also fell in 1982 and is not expected to increase significantly before 1990. Some opportunities exist for Canadian producers with new low-cost deposits to replace high-cost producers in Canada and other countries, particularly the United States. There will be strong competition between Canadian producers as well as from Australia. Australia's reserves are somewhat larger than Canada's, although the reported ore grades tend to be lower than those of Saskatchewan

  13. Canadian accelerator breeder system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1982-11-01

    A shortage of fissile material at a reasonable price is expected to occur in the early part of the twenty-first century. Converting fertile material to fissile material by electronuclar methods is an option that can extend th world's resources of fissionable material, supplying fuel for nuclear power stations. This paper presents the rationale for electronuclear breeders and describes the Canadian development program for an accelerator breeder facility that could produce 1 Mg of fissile material per year

  14. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  15. Canadian wind energy industry directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The companies and organizations involved, either directly or indirectly, in the wind energy industry in Canada, are listed in this directory. Some U.S. and international companies which are active or interested in Canadian industry activities are also listed. The first section of the directory is an alphabetical listing which includes corporate descriptions, company logos, addresses, phone and fax numbers, e-mail addresses and contact names. The second section contains 54 categories of products and services associated with the industry

  16. Catalog of Canadian Industrial Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    be recalled for use in constructing maps and charts, updating existing maps, comparing changes from previous photographs etc. Many tasks can be...quantity 8 switches) Hughes Aircraft Company 192 Company: SCIEX Inc Address: 55 Glencameron Road #202 Thornhill, Ontario, Canada L3T IP2 History: SCIEX Inc...was incorporated in 1970 and is Canadian owned. The original name was Sciex Ltd, but was changed to the present name in 1977. The company has a US

  17. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Canadian fusion fuels technology project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project was launched in 1982 to coordinate Canada's provision of fusion fuels technology to international fusion power development programs. The project has a mandate to extend and adapt existing Canadian tritium technologies for use in international fusion power development programs. 1985-86 represents the fourth year of the first five-year term of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP). This reporting period coincides with an increasing trend in global fusion R and D to direct more effort towards the management of tritium. This has resulted in an increased linking of CFFTP activities and objectives with those of facilities abroad. In this way there has been a continuing achievement resulting from CFFTP efforts to have cooperative R and D and service activities with organizations abroad. All of this is aided by the cooperative international atmosphere within the fusion community. This report summarizes our past year and provides some highlights of the upcoming year 1986/87, which is the final year of the first five-year phase of the program. AECL (representing the Federal Government), the Ministry of Energy (representing Ontario) and Ontario Hydro, have given formal indication of their intent to continue with a second five-year program. Plans for the second phase will continue to emphasize tritium technology and remote handling

  19. The Radioisotope Industry - Canadian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D. J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Canada is the world's largest producer, while the Canadian share of total cyclotron isotope production is very much smaller. This is a direct reflection of the country's nuclear history. The NRC reactor, which went critical in 1947, was at that time the world's highest flux nuclear reactor. NRC, which followed in 1956, gave access to even higher fluxes and irradiation volumes. Isotope production in Canada began almost coincidentally with the start-up of NRC and I-131 was exported to the United Stated in 1948, followed by C-14 before 1950. The above specific isotope applications, together with the earlier commentary on the overall Canadian historical experience clearly indicates the value of an indigenous isotope industry in Canada's case. It should be noted, of course, that the Canadian domestic applications base also involves all the other technological areas covered by other speakers at this Conference. While Canada is unique in that domestic self-sufficiency has led to an even more important export industry, there is no doubt that the development of domestic self-reliance in the isotope applications area is in its own right a valuable off-shoot of any country's nuclear R and D and power programs

  20. Providing cleaner air to Canadians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    This booklet is designed to explain salient aspects of the Ozone Annex, negotiated and signed recently by Canada and the United States, in a joint effort to improve air quality in North America. By significantly reducing the transboundary flows of air pollutants that cause smog, the Ozone Annex will benefit some 16 million people in central and eastern Canada and provide an example for a future round of negotiations to address concerns of the millions of Canadians and Americans who live in the border area between British Columbia and Washington State. The brochure provide summaries of the Canadian and American commitments, focusing on transportation, monitoring and reporting. The Ozone Annex complements other air quality initiatives by the Government of Canada enacted under the Environmental Protection Act, 1999. These measures include regulations to reduce sulphur content to 30 parts per million by Jan 1, 2005; proposing to restrict toxic particulate matter (PM) to less than 10 microns; establishing daily smog forecasts in the Maritimes and committing to a national program built upon existing smog advisories and forecasts in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia; and investing in more clean air research through the newly created Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences

  1. Conference summaries. Canadian Nuclear Association 29. annual conference; Canadian Nuclear Society 10. annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers from the twenty-ninth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Association. Abstracts were also prepared for the 102 papers from the tenth Annual Conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society

  2. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  3. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Aoudia, A.; Pontevivo, A.; Chimera, G.; Raykova, R.

    2003-02-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea, likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria. (author)

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. Adhesion rings surround invadopodia and promote maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Branch

    2012-06-01

    Invasion and metastasis are aggressive cancer phenotypes that are highly related to the ability of cancer cells to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM. At the cellular level, specialized actin-rich structures called invadopodia mediate focal matrix degradation by serving as exocytic sites for ECM-degrading proteinases. Adhesion signaling is likely to be a critical regulatory input to invadopodia, but the mechanism and location of such adhesion signaling events are poorly understood. Here, we report that adhesion rings surround invadopodia shortly after formation and correlate strongly with invadopodium activity on a cell-by-cell basis. By contrast, there was little correlation of focal adhesion number or size with cellular invadopodium activity. Prevention of adhesion ring formation by inhibition of RGD-binding integrins or knockdown (KD of integrin-linked kinase (ILK reduced the number of ECM-degrading invadopodia and reduced recruitment of IQGAP to invadopodium actin puncta. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed that the rate of extracellular MT1-MMP accumulation at invadopodia was greatly reduced in both integrin-inhibited and ILK-KD cells. Conversely, KD of MT1-MMP reduced invadopodium activity and dynamics but not the number of adhesion-ringed invadopodia. These results suggest a model in which adhesion rings are recruited to invadopodia shortly after formation and promote invadopodium maturation by enhancing proteinase secretion. Since adhesion rings are a defining characteristic of podosomes, similar structures formed by normal cells, our data also suggest further similarities between invadopodia and podosomes.

  8. Global Real Activity for Canadian Exports: GRACE

    OpenAIRE

    Binette, André; Chernis, Tony; De Munnik, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Canadian exports have often disappointed since the Great Recession. The apparent disconnect between exports and the Bank of Canadafs current measure of foreign demand has created an impetus to search for an alternative. Based on a dynamic factor model (DFM) methodology, we use a broad range of international economic indicators (close to 300) to estimate external demand for Canadian exports. The new measure, Global Real Activity for Canadian Exports (GRACE), follows Binette et al. (201...

  9. Americanizing Canadian Nursing: Nursing Regulation Drift

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen MacMillan; Judith Oulton; Rachel Bard; Wendy Nicklin

    2017-01-01

    Recent regulatory changes mean Canadian nurses are writing a US-based entry to practice exam and a US company is assessing credentials of internationally educated nurses (IENs) for Canadian registration. This paper asserts that this policy direction has significant consequences for Canadian content and integrity of education programs, francophone parity in testing, and the future of primary health care and health system reform. Furthermore, writing a US exam means Canada is at risk of losin...

  10. Integration and Acculturation of Cooperative Behavior Among Blackfoot Indian and Non-Indian Canadian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. G.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of acculturation on intragroup cooperation and competition among Blackfoot and White Canadian children; teams of boys from an integrated elementary school played a game on the Madsen Cooperation Board. (Author/JM)

  11. Quality in Family Child Care: A Focus Group Study with Canadian Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of American, Canadian and English preschoolers regularly participate in family child care making its quality of vital importance for the children concerned, their parents, the school system and the society in which they live. This article discusses the seven key caregiver behaviors and physical space characteristics…

  12. The Impact of Canadian Social Discourses on L2 Writing Pedagogy in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalan, Amir

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to illustrate the impact of Canadian social, political, and academic discourses on second language writing pedagogy in Ontario schools. Building upon the views that regard teacher knowledge as teachers' sociocultural interactions and lived experiences, and not merely intellectual capabilities gained within teacher preparation,…

  13. Interprofessional Education in Canadian Nursing Programs and Implications for Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Emily; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; MacEwan, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing, the accrediting body for nursing programs in Canada, became part of the Accreditation of Interprofessional Health Education initiative. In turn, interprofessional education (IPE) is now a requirement in nursing curricula. Although the requirement is formally in place, how it is achieved…

  14. Beyond the "Rural Myth": The Business Side of Western Canadian History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Allan G.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the conflict between elevator and railway operators and the grain farmers of western Canada was not so one-sided as typically presented in high school textbooks. Concludes that the 'courts' of Canadian history have promoted a 'rural myth' of the grain growers associations, the cooperative spirit of the 'Wheat Pools,' and the political…

  15. A Comparison of Saudi and Canadian Children's Knowledge of the Causes of Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felimban, Huda; Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Dare, Lynn; Brown, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this comparative study, students from inclusive schools in Canada and Saudi Arabia shared their beliefs about factors associated with learning difficulties. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 36 Canadian and 62 Saudi elementary students in Grades 5 and 6. Thematic analysis uncovered six themes: lack of knowledge,…

  16. The Canadian Association for the Study of International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Revue canadienne des études en développement) publishes research by the Canadian community and ... It stimulates Canadian graduate students to work in this field and enhances IDRC's visibility within the Canadian academic community.

  17. Canadian Council for Area Studies Learned Societies - 2007-2008 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCASLS) provides a shared secretariat for four area studies associations: the Canadian Association of African Studies (CAAS); the Canadian Asian Studies Association (CASA): the Canadian Association of Latin American and Caribbean Studies ...

  18. Canadian pesticide air sampling campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y.; Harner, T.; Blanchard, P.; Li, Y.F.; Aulagnier, F. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Meteorological Service of Canada; Tuduri, L. [Laboratoire de Physico Toxicochimie des Systemes Naturels, Talence (France). Equipe Perigourdine de Chimie Appliquee; Waite, D.; Belzer, W. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Murphy, C. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Protection Service

    2005-07-01

    Although pesticides are widely used in Canada, little is known about the presence, distribution, and fate of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in the Canadian atmosphere. This paper provided details of a campaign conducted in 2003 to provide information on air and precipitation levels of CUPs. The objective of the campaign was to create pesticide emission inventories and to identify important pesticide issues related to environmental fate, exposure, and risk assessment in order to develop effective pesticide policies. A Canadian atmospheric network for currently used pesticides was established, which was then followed by an intensive field study in the Canadian prairies. Air samples were collected weekly using high volume PS-1 samplers with polyurethane foam (PUF) XAD sandwiches and glass fibre filters. Precipitation samples were collected each month using MIC samplers equipped with XAD columns. Passive air samplers were deployed at many of the sites for periods of 1 to 3 months. Results of the study showed relatively high concentrations of endosulfan at all sites. High levels of chloropyrifos, malathion, and carbofurans were also detected from air samples. High concentrations of lindane were also observed. Alachlor, metochlor, and trifluralin concentrations were detected in most Ontario and Quebec air and rainfall samples. Eleven target pesticides were detected from air samples during the prairie study. High concentrations of triallate were observed, and good correlations between air concentration trends and dry deposition trends were seen for triallate, 2,4-D, MCPA, dicamba, and bromoxynil. Results of the campaign are now being modelled using a simplified gridded pesticide emission and residue model. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the Canadian government committed to reporting annual national indicators of air quality, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and freshwater quality in order to provide Canadians with more regular and consistent information on the state of the environment and how it is linked with human activities. The national air quality indicators in this report focused on human exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). The report showed that from 1990 to 2004, the ozone indicator showed year-to-year variability, with an averaged increase of 0.9 per cent per year. Stations in southern Ontario reported the highest levels of ozone and PM 2.5 in the country in 2004. There was no discernible upward or downward trend in PM 2.5 levels at the national level for the 2000 to 2004 period, and GHG emissions rose 27 per cent from 1990 to 2004. In 2004, emissions were 35 per cent above the target to which Canada committed under the Kyoto Protocol. However, while total emissions rose, emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 14 per cent from 1990 to 2004. GHG emissions also grew faster than the Canadian population, resulting in a 10 per cent rise in emissions per person. The freshwater quality indicator presented in this report covered the period from 2002 to 2004, and focused on the ability of Canada's surface waters to support aquatic life. For the 340 sites selected across southern Canada, water quality was rated as good or excellent at 44 per cent of sites, fair at 34 per cent of sites, and marginal or poor at 22 per cent of sites. The report included a chapter which attempted to integrate the indicators with other environmental impacts, measures of economic performance, and indices of social progress to improve the ability of the report to influence decision-making that fully accounts for environmental sustainability. 63 refs., 18 figs

  20. The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Schade, D.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC) is the world's largest astronomical data center, holding over 0.5 Petabytes of information, and serving nearly 3000 astronomers worldwide. Its current data collections include BLAST, CFHT, CGPS, FUSE, Gemini, HST, JCMT, MACHO, MOST, and numerous other archives and services. It provides extensive data archiving, curation, and processing expertise, via projects such as MegaPipe, and enables substantial day-to-day collaboration between resident astronomers and computer specialists. It is a stable, powerful, persistent, and properly supported environment for the storage and processing of large volumes of data, a condition that is now absolutely vital for their science potential to be exploited by the community. Through initiatives such as the Common Archive Observation Model (CAOM), the Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO), and the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), the CADC is at the global forefront of advancing astronomical research through improved data services. The CAOM aims to provide homogeneous data access, and hence viable interoperability between a potentially unlimited number of different data collections, at many wavelengths. It is active in the definition of numerous emerging standards within the International Virtual Observatory, and several datasets are already available. The CANFAR project is an initiative to make cloud computing for storage and data-intensive processing available to the community. It does this via a Virtual Machine environment that is equivalent to managing a local desktop. Several groups are already processing science data. CADC is also at the forefront of advanced astronomical data analysis, driven by the science requirements of astronomers both locally and further afield. The emergence of 'Astroinformatics' promises to provide not only utility items like object classifications, but to directly enable new science by accessing previously undiscovered or intractable

  1. Fuels for Canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feraday, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper includes some statements and remarks concerning the uranium silicide fuels for which there is significant fabrication in AECL, irradiation and defect performance experience; description of two Canadian high flux research reactors which use high enrichment uranium (HEU) and the fuels currently used in these reactors; limited fabrication work done on Al-U alloys to uranium contents as high as 40 wt%. The latter concerns work aimed at AECL fast neutron program. This experience in general terms is applied to the NRX and NRU designs of fuel

  2. Canadian gas - where's it headed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominy, D.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of gas transportation in Canada was described. The issue of what is needed and what can change in the current North American market for gas transportation was also discussed. The transportation values of natural gas from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) to New York, Chicago and California for 1993 to 1997 were reviewed. Export and domestic capacity additions and WCSB gas completions were also outlined. The question of how much new capacity is needed, where the gas will come from, and where will it go, was also discussed

  3. Towards a regional siting approach for canadian nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The proposal to construct a nuclear fuel waste (NFW) disposal facility in Canada is fraught with difficulties, particularly with respect to gaining public acceptance and consent. Public perceptions of risk associated with a disposal facility are generally negative. Indeed, it was found that over 60% of residents in northern Ontario communities are opposed to the possibility of a disposal facility being constructed within 120 km of their community. Even after being offered the possibility of compensation and incentives, the majority of residents are strongly opposed. Canadian decision makers have generally endorsed a siting framework known as the open siting approach. The major characteristic of this approach is that it allows for substantial public participation in any siting process. It is premised on the notion that only communities where a majority of citizens favour the siting of a facility will be considered as potential hosts. However, given that the majority of residents on the Ontario portion of the Canadian Shield are strongly opposed to a NFW facility, the open approach will not be a panacea for a successful siting process. The major limitation of this approach is the fact that a single community cannot be isolated from its surrounding region and communities. The purpose of this paper is to work towards the development of a regional siting strategy for Canadian nuclear fuel waste management. There are no clear precedents of a regional siting approach to facility location in Canada. However, some analogous planning regimes and initiatives have been attempted. Common to these initiatives is the consideration of a large geographical region and attempts to integrate, at least formally, social, cultural, political and environmental concerns in a coherent and comprehensive manner. Under this type of 'siting strategy' NFW management would be considered within a broad array of resource management initiatives, social and cultural priorities, and institutional

  4. Making Schools Safe and Inclusive: Gay-Straight Alliances and School Climate in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…

  5. Stress levels experienced by parents of children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during the back-to-school period: results of a European and Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Otero, Isabel; Doddamani, Lakshman; Dutray, Benoit; Gagliano, Antonella; Haertling, Fabian; Bloomfield, Ralph; Ramnath, Gracita

    2015-03-01

    The back-to-school stress survey was designed to compare stress in parents of children/ adolescents with/without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in six European countries and Canada when children prepare to return to school. Parents of children/adolescents (6-17 years) with/without ADHD were recruited and interviewed by a consumer research organization. Parents rated potentially stress-causing situations (both standard and specifically related to the return to school) on a scale from 1 (low stress) to 10 (high stress). Mean scores were compared using Student's t-test. In Europe, 613/693 (mean [SD] age: 40.7 [7.0]/40.1 [6.9] years) and in Canada, 102/150 (mean [SD] age: 44.4 [8.1]/44.1 [7.2] years) parents of children with/without ADHD, respectively, participated in the survey. Children with ADHD (mean [SD] age: 11.2 [3.2]/12.6 [3.2] years in Europe/Canada) had generally similar characteristics in both samples. Parents in the ADHD group showed higher stress levels than parents in the non-ADHD group in all situations (p school was considered one of the most stressful events during the year. In Europe and Canada, ADHD has a significant impact on parental stress, particularly during the back-to-school period. This can have important implications as parental stress can affect presentation of ADHD symptoms.

  6. Canadian photovoltaic commercial activity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkinson, D.J.; Royer, J.

    1992-01-01

    A survey was performed on the activities of the Canadian photovoltaic (PV) industry during 1988 for the three years of 1985-1987, and a similar survey was carried out in 1989. The findings of the latest survey are reported and compared with the previous survey. Market growth rates in the order of 15%/y and greater in the international market are reflected in the Canadian scene with an estimated 1989 activity in the range of $15 million. Details are presented of the distribution of firms across Canada, the distribution of annual sales activities by application, annual PV module sales in Europe and globally, breakdown of PV module powers produced by the United States, Japan, Europe, and others, breakdown of reported sales in Canada by source/destination, regional distribution of sales for installation in Canada, distribution by purchaser type for sales of PV equipment in Canada, and a summary of sales classified by application. In 1989 for the first time global demand for PV modules exceeded supply. 8 refs., 9 tabs

  7. Centre-Surround Interactions in the Aging System: Effects of Centre-Surround Contrast and Stimulus Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison McKendrick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The perceived contrast of a sinusoidal grating patch depends on its surrounding contrast. Normal aging alters these types of contrast related contextual effects, with older adults showing increased surround suppression relative to younger adults (Karas and McKendrick, 2009 Journal of Vision 9.5.11. This study aimed to determine whether age related increases in surround suppression manifest for particular contrast conditions, or specific contrast ratios between centre and surround. We also varied stimulus duration to determine whether group differences could arise due to between-group differences in surround adaptation. Fifteen younger (20–30 years and 15 older adults (65–79 years participated. Center-surround contrast discrimination (the Chubb contrast illusion was measured for a 0.67 deg diameter circular patch of 4 c/deg grating, surrounded by a 4 deg diameter annulus of grating of the same orientation, phase, and spatial frequency. Nine contrast conditions were tested (all combinations of centre/surround for stimuli of 20, 40, and 80% contrast with a stimulus duration of 500 ms. The 40% centre, 80% contrast surround was also tested with a stimulus duration of 100 ms. Surround suppression was increased in the older group [F(1,28 = 6.88, p = .01], particularly for low centre contrasts (interaction between group and centre contrast, p = .01. Increased surround suppression was present for both 500 ms and 100 ms presentations [main effect of group F(1,26 = 10.78, p= .01].

  8. Are we there yet? Preparing Canadian medical students for global health electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kelly C; Slatnik, Michael A; Pereira, Ian; Cheung, Eileen; Xu, Kunyong; Brewer, Timothy F

    2012-02-01

    To understand the current landscape and the evolution of predeparture training (PDT) in Canadian medical education. The authors surveyed one faculty and one student global health leader at each of Canada's 17 medical schools in February 2008 and May 2010 to assess the delivery of and requirements for PDT at each institution. The authors then used descriptive statistics to compare responses across schools and years. In 2008, one faculty and one student representative from each of the 17 Canadian medical schools completed the survey; in 2010, 17 faculty and 16 student representatives responded. The number of medical schools offering PDT grew substantially from 2008 to 2010 (11/17 [65%] versus 16/17 [94%]). Three of the five new programs in 2010 were student run. The number of schools with mandatory PDT nearly doubled (6/17 [35%] versus 11/17 [65%]). However, institutional funding remained scarce, as 10 of 16 programs had budgets of less than $500 in 2010. PDT content, frequency, and format varied from school to school. Medical students have been responsible for organizing the majority of new PDT. To ensure quality and sustainability, however, faculty must play a more central role in the planning and implementation of such training programs. Medical schools must continue to reevaluate how best to maximize global health electives for trainees and the communities in which they study. PDT offers one avenue for schools to ensure that students are safe and socially accountable during their time abroad.

  9. Realization of entry-to-practice milestones by Canadians who studied medicine abroad and other international medical graduates: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Maria; Kandar, Rima; Slade, Steve; Yi, Yanqing; Beardall, Sue; Bourgeault, Ivy

    2017-06-19

    International medical graduates must realize a series of milestones to obtain full licensure. We examined the realization of milestones by Canadian and non-Canadian graduates of Western or Caribbean medical schools, and Canadian and non-Canadian graduates from other medical schools. Using the National IMG Database (data available for 2005-2011), we created 2 cohorts: 1) international medical graduates who had passed the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I between 2005 and 2010 and 2) those who had first entered a family medicine postgraduate program between 2005 and 2009, or had first entered a specialty postgraduate program in 2005 or 2006. We examined 3 entry-to-practice milestones; obtaining a postgraduate position, passing the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part II and obtaining a specialty designation. Of the 6925 eligible graduates in cohort 1, 2144 (31.0%) had obtained a postgraduate position. Of the 1214 eligible graduates in cohort 2, 1126 (92.8%) had passed the Qualifying Examination Part II, and 889 (73.2%) had obtained a specialty designation. In multivariate analyses, Canadian graduates of Western or Caribbean medical schools (odds ratio [OR] 4.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.82-5.71) and Canadian graduates of other medical schools (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.31-1.70) were more likely to obtain a postgraduate position than non-Canadian graduates of other (not Western or Caribbean) medical schools. There was no difference among the groups in passing the Qualifying Examination Part II or obtaining a specialty designation. Canadians who studied abroad were more likely than other international medical graduates to obtain a postgraduate position; there were no differences among the groups in realizing milestones once in a postgraduate program. These findings support policies that do not distinguish postgraduate applicants by citizenship or permanent residency status before medical school. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its

  10. Surround suppression maps in the cat primary visual cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Vanni, Matthieu P.; Casanova, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the primary visual cortex and higher-order areas, it is well known that the stimulation of areas surrounding the classical receptive field of a neuron can inhibit its responses. In the primate area middle temporal (MT), this surround suppression was shown to be spatially organized into high and low suppression modules. However, such an organization has not been demonstrated yet in the primary visual cortex. Here, we used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to spatially evaluate surround s...

  11. Input-gain control produces feature-specific surround suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Alexander R; Born, Richard T

    2015-03-25

    In primary visual cortex (V1), neuronal responses are sensitive to context. For example, responses to stimuli presented within the receptive field (RF) center are often suppressed by stimuli within the RF surround, and this suppression tends to be strongest when the center and surround stimuli match. We sought to identify the mechanism that gives rise to these properties of surround modulation. To do so, we exploited the stability of implanted multielectrode arrays to record from neurons in V1 of alert monkeys with multiple stimulus sets that more exhaustively probed center-surround interactions. We first replicated previous results concerning center-surround similarity using gratings representing all combinations of center and surround orientation. With this stimulus set, the surround simply scaled population responses to the center, such that the overall population tuning curve had the same shape and peak response. However, when the center contained two superimposed gratings (i.e., a visual "plaid"), one component of which always matched the surround orientation, suppression selectively affected the portion of the response driven by the matching center component, thereby producing shifts in the peak of the population orientation tuning curve. In effect, the surround caused neurons to respond predominantly to the component grating of the center plaid that was unmatched to the surround grating, as if by reducing the effective strength of whichever stimulus attributes were matched to the surround. These results provide key physiological support for theoretical models that propose feature-specific, input-gain control as the mechanism underlying surround suppression. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354973-10$15.00/0.

  12. Factors affecting food selection in Canadian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, M; Riediger, N; Moghadasian, M H

    2008-11-01

    To establish health-related reasons behind Canadian food choices, and how variables such as education, income, gender, ethnicity and age may affect food selection. Approximately 98 733 Canadians responded to the 12 questions regarding food choices in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.1, conducted by the Canadian Government in 2003. These included 13 727 adolescents (12-19 years), 19 089 young adults (20-34 years), 31 039 middle-aged adults (35-54 years), 25 338 older adults (55-74 years) and 9580 elderly (75+ years). Approximately 70% of Canadian adolescents in the sample indicated that their food choices were independent of health concerns. Body weight management was a major concern for food selection by adolescents and adults, while the elderly stated heart disease as their main concern. Among all participants, females, and individuals with high levels of education and income reported the highest response to choosing or avoiding foods due to health concerns and food content. Our data indicate that several factors significantly affect food choices for health-related reasons in the Canadian population. Among them, age- and gender-related gaps, particularly between adolescents and adults, are profound. This observation may urge authorities to implement effective strategies to educate Canadians, especially adolescents, that selection of appropriate foods may prevent chronic diseases.

  13. Nuclear communications : A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macpherson, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Times have changed since the early days of nuclear energy when it was a symbol of a brave new world, Public information strategies have evolved to meet increasing public concerns, and have shifted from being a largely unfocused attempt at publicity to being more concerned with managing issues and solving problems. This paper describes some of the salient features of the Canadian experience in nuclear communications and examines four key aspects: opinion and attitude research; media relations; coeducation; and advertising. It also addresses the challenge of responding to the allegations and tactics of those who are actively hostile to nuclear energy, and recommends that the principles of Total Quality Management and of organizational effectiveness be applied more thorough and more consistently to the public affairs function

  14. Tritium technology. A Canadian overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmings, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the various tritium research and operational activities in Canada is presented. These activities encompass tritium processing and recovery, tritium interactions with materials, and tritium health and safety. Many of these on-going activities form a sound basis for the tritium use and handling aspects of the ITER project. Tritium management within the CANDU heavy water reactor, associated detritiation facilities, research and development facilities, and commercial industry and improving the understanding of tritium behaviour in humans and the environment remain the focus of a long-standing Canadian interest in tritium. While there have been changes in the application of this knowledge and experience over time, the operating experience and the supporting research and development continue to provide for improved plant and facility operations, an improved understanding of tritium safety issues, and improved products and tools that facilitate tritium management. (author)

  15. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  16. A perspective on Canadian shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Mike; Davidson, Jim; Mortensen, Paul

    2010-09-15

    In a relatively new development over just the past few years, shale formations are being targeted for natural gas production. Based on initial results, there may be significant potential for shale gas in various regions of Canada, not only in traditional areas of conventional production but also non-traditional areas. However, there is much uncertainty because most Canadian shale gas production is currently in experimental or early developmental stages. Thus, its full potential will not be known for some time. If exploitation proves to be successful, Canadian shale gas may partially offset projected long-term declines in Canadian conventional natural gas production.

  17. Leading Lean: a Canadian healthcare leader's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Benjamin A; Golden, Brian; Hannam, Rosemary; Morra, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Canadian healthcare organizations are increasingly asked to do more with less, and too often this has resulted in demands on staff to simply work harder and longer. Lean methodologies, originating from Japanese industrial organizations and most notably Toyota, offer an alternative - tried and tested approaches to working smarter. Lean, with its systematic approaches to reducing waste, has found its way to Canadian healthcare organizations with promising results. This article reports on a study of five Canadian healthcare providers that have recently implemented Lean. We offer stories of success but also identify potential obstacles and ways by which they may be surmounted to provide better value for our healthcare investments.

  18. Factors associated with lack of awareness and uncontrolled high blood pressure among Canadian adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Marianne E; Bienek, Asako; McAlister, Finlay A; Robitaille, Cynthia; Joffres, Michel; Tremblay, Mark S; Johansen, Helen; Campbell, Norm R C

    2012-05-01

    Approximately 17% of Canadians with high blood pressure were unaware of their condition, and of Canadians aware of having the condition, approximately 1 in 5 have uncontrolled high blood pressure despite high rates of pharmacotherapy. The objectives of the current study are to estimate the prevalence of resistant hypertension and examine factors associated with (1) lack of awareness and (2) uncontrolled hypertension despite pharmacotherapy. Using the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (N = 3473, aged 20-79 years) and logistic regression, we quantified relationships between characteristics and (1) presence of hypertension, (2) lack of awareness (among those with hypertension), and (3) uncontrolled high blood pressure (among those treated for hypertension). Older age, lowest income, and less than high school education were associated with presence of hypertension. Men (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2) and adults high blood pressure (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.1-5.2) despite treatment. Elevated systolic blood pressure was the issue in over 90% of women and 80% of men with uncontrolled hypertension. Depending on the definition employed, 4.4% (95% CI, 2.4-6.4) to 7.8% (95% CI, 6.0-9.6) of the population with hypertension had resistant hypertension. Messaging or interventions encouraging screening may be helpful for all younger Canadian adults and men; programs encouraging blood pressure control may help older women. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability ...

  20. Where in the World are Canadian Oil and Gas Companies? An Introduction to the Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloo Hojjati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In April 2013, The School of Public Policy formally launched the Extractive Resource Governance Program, a platform to harness Canadian and international research and technical expertise to assist resource-rich jurisdictions in establishing sustainable and mutually beneficial policies for governance of the extractive sector. The program delivers applied policy research, technical assistance and executive training programs to countries with emerging or established extractive resources, working in collaboration with governments, regulatory bodies, academia, civil society, and industry. Begun in 2011 as an internal research tool for the development of the Extractive Resource Governance Program, this project was conceived as a means to identify jurisdictions where Canadian companies had ongoing projects and activities around the world. This paper introduces the methodology used to answer the question: Where in the world are Canadian oil and gas companies? To answer this question, firm-level data from publicly traded Canadian companies were collected and analyzed culminating in the development of an online tool for public use. This paper accompanies an interactive website launched by The School’s Extractive Resource Governance Program and describes the data available online as well as in the annual reports released by The school. The website and annual reports allow interested users to geographically locate jurisdictions around the world where publicly traded Canadian oil and gas companies have activities, over time. The website is available at http://www.policyschool.ca/research-teaching/teachingtraining/extractive-resource-governance/ergp-map/. While Canada is a well-recognized oil and gas jurisdiction within its own borders, the extent of activity that Canadian companies undertake in the international arena is less well known. For instance, while Natural Resources Canada collects and publishes regular data on Canadian mining assets and

  1. The Canadian Assessment of Physical literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Claire E; Longmuir, Patricia E; Boyer, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) was conceptualized as a tool to monitor children's physical literacy. The original model (fitness, activity behavior, knowledge, motor skill) required revision and relative weights for calculating/interpreting scores were required. M...

  2. Canadians' access to insurance for prescription medicines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...

  3. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I.; Summerell, I.; Totland, M.; Jonkmans, G.; Whitlock, J.; El-jaby, A.; Inrig, E.

    2015-01-01

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  4. The Canadian Forces Recruitment/Attrition Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wait, Tracey

    1998-01-01

    ...), as part of its mandate to provide analysis of potential impacts of trends and change on defense and defense related issues, has designed a prototype model of recruitment and attrition of the Canadian Forces (C F...

  5. Manufacture of components for Canadian reactor programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, L.P.

    Design features, especially those relating to calandrias, are pointed out for many CANDU-type reactors and the Taiwan research reactor. The special requirements shouldered by the Canadian suppliers of heavy reactor components are analyzed. (E.C.B.)

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Questionnaire for Pruritus Assessment for use in the French Canadian burn survivor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent-Vachon, M; Parnell, L K S; Rachelska, G; Lasalle, L; Nedelec, B

    2008-02-01

    Severe pruritus after burn continues to be a clinical challenge. To address this challenge, thorough documentation of burn survivors' itch experience is required. A "Questionnaire for Pruritus Assessment" has been developed to capture the sensory and affective experiences associated with itch as well as its functional and quality of life implications, but to evaluate the Quebec burn survivor population, a Canadian French version is required. Thus, the purpose of this study was to generate a Canadian French cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire suitable for the burn survivor population. Cross-cultural adaptation followed six steps: forward translation into Canadian French, back translations into English, resolution between the two versions, synthesis of the Canadian French versions, revision by a committee of experts, and testing of the pre-final version. The adaptation process resolved issues surrounding translation, content validity, burn survivor-specific modifications, and format, resulting in a Canadian French pre-final version that was pilot-tested among 32 burn survivors. Content validity of the Canadian French version was assessed by a committee of experts and the participants. The results showed good item completion and adequate distribution of scores without a ceiling or floor effect. This study resulted in a Canadian French version of the "Questionnaire for Pruritus Assessment" that can confidently be compared to other investigations utilizing the same tool. The adapted questionnaire also provides a valuable data collection means, enabling more thorough documentation of the burn survivor itch experience.

  7. How Canadians feel about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    A survey conducted by Decima Research in April 1989 showed that 50% of Canadians were somewhat or strongly in favour of nuclear energy, the percentage varying from 37% in British Columbia to 65% in Ontario. A majority (56%) questioned the nuclear industry's ability to handle its waste safely, but 45% believed that it was working hard to solve the problem. It was evident that an advertising campaign by the Canadian Nuclear Association had an effect

  8. Waste management in Canadian nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are described. Recycling actinides through reactors is being studied. Low and medium level waste treatments such as reverse osmosis concentration, immobilization in bitumen and plastics, and incineration are under study. Spent fuel can be stored dry in concrete canisters above ground and ultimate storage of wastes in salt deposits or hard rock is appropriate to Canadian conditions. (E.C.B.)

  9. The Canadian nuclear industry - a national asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The economic importance of the Canadian nuclear industry in saving costs and creating jobs is expounded. The medical work of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is also extolled. The Canadian Nuclear Association urges the federal government to continue to support the industry at home, and to continue to promote nuclear exports. This report was prepared in response to the Federal Finance Minister's 'A New Direction for Canada'

  10. Canadian Manufacturing Malaise: Three Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Krzepkowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The danger in politicians promoting the idea that “Dutch Disease” is responsible for the decline of the Ontario manufacturing sector is that the suggestion implies that Canada’s manufacturing sector will bounce back if only we could slow down oil sands development, or if the Canadian dollar were to devalue. In reality, evidence suggests that the decline in Ontario manufacturing is the result of long-term structural changes in the economy, independent of the rise of the country’s natural-resource sector and the rising dollar. And the sooner policymakers realize that, and stop blaming the decline in manufacturing on Dutch Disease (which holds that a booming natural-resource sector that drives up our dollar makes our manufacturing exports less competitive the sooner they can get to work on helping manufacturing-dependent regions transition to the evolving economy. A closer analysis of Canada’s manufacturing sector shows that jobs in that sector have been disappearing across the country since the end of the Second World War, with the sector’s share of employment falling dramatically well before rapid development began to take hold in the oil sands, and back when Canada’s dollar was still worth far less than the American dollar. It is a trend that has been occurring among most of our OECD peers, including the United States, which may be due to the widespread reallocation of production to lower cost countries. But it is also true that Canada’s manufacturing productivity performance in particular has been declining for a generation, with especially poor performance in the last decade, when labour productivity in Canada grew at just a quarter of the U.S. rate. Meanwhile, capital investment that may have improved the competitiveness of Canadian manufacturing has been anemic. Yet there is no particular reason to lament the scaling-down of manufacturing jobs in Ontario. The province remains just as economically important, as a share of

  11. Microlog and the “Canadian Public Policy Collection” – A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Moon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been some discussion of late, in academic library circles, surrounding the relative merits of Microlog (Micromedia-ProQuest and the Canadian Public Policy Collection (CPPC – Gibson Library Connections. Microlog is a long-standing resource, providing fiche copies of Canadian government documents (Federal, Provincial, and Municipal, with over 200,000 titles. Microlog MARC records are available for loading into library catalogues. CPPC is an online collection of over 22,000 Think Tank and policy institute reports, along with a selection of Federal and Provincial government documents. This paper provides a comparative analysis of Microlog and CPPC to help clarify their roles in academic library collections. This analysis considers measures of growth, coverage, and content, along with additional features associated with each of these collections. The analysis concludes that these collections are largely distinct, and tend to be more complementary than competitive.

  12. Visual-Motor Skills Performance on the Beery-VMI: A Study of Canadian Kindergarten Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Coallier B.Sc.O.T.; M.Sc.; PhD student

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Beery VMI is one of the standardized assessment tools most widely used by occupational therapists to assess visual-motor integration. Currently, no specific norms exist for Canadian children. This study was developed to assess whether kindergarten children in Canada compared similarly to the norms established in the U.S. sample of the Beery VMI in order to validate its use with Canadian children. Possible gender differences were also examined. The Beery VMI was administered to 151 kindergarten children, aged 5 to 6 years, at the end of the school year. The data collection took place in seven schools, where the participants were individually assessed. T-tests were used to compare the mean standard scores of the Canadian sample to those provided in the Beery VMI, as well as gender differences. Overall, the study sample showed a similar score (p = .997 compared to the U.S. norms, as well as a significant gender difference; girls obtained higher mean scores than boys (p = .003. These findings support the use of the Beery VMI reference norms to interpret performance results obtained by Canadian kindergarten children. However, the significant gender difference observed should be addressed in future studies.

  13. Canadian industry program for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The Canadian Industry Program for Energy Conservation (CIPEC) is an industry administered, government sponsored program for promoting and monitoring energy efficiency throughout the Canadian manufacturing and mining industries. CIPEC was established as a result of deliberations between the Federal Ministers of the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources and the Department of Trade and Commerce and 50 of industry's most senior representatives. It now consists of 14 different industrial task forces that represent a broad spectrum of Canadian manufacturing and mining industries. The programs objectives in promoting energy conservation are to: promote energy productivity improvement in Canadian industry; maintain an effective forum for industry/government dialogue on energy utilization and productivity matters; forecast aggregate energy productivity improvement based on Canadian industry programs; collect data and report on energy productivity of Canadian industry. Industry's energy use per unit of output for 1989 remained at the same level as 1988: 28.8% less than the base year of 1973 and 4.8% less than 1985. It is likely that industry will be unable to reach the 1990 goal of 31% reduction over 1973 levels of energy consumption. New energy reduction goals should be established which take into account factors such as industrial globalization, economic restructuring, provincial and local energy conservation programs, and environmental considerations. 5 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. The Food Retail Environment in School Neighborhoods and its Relation to Lunchtime Eating Behaviors in Youth from Three Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Mariane; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Currie, Dorothy; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the chain food retail environment surrounding schools, youths’ lunchtime eating behavior, and youths’ obesity levels across three countries. Participants consisted of 26,778 students 13–15 years old from 687 schools across Canada, Scotland and the US. The density of convenience stores, chain fast food restaurants, and chain cafés within 1 km of each school was measured. Lunchtime eating behaviors, weight, and height were self-reported. Although the density of chain food retailers was highest in the US, fewer American students (2.6%) routinely ate their lunch at a food retailer during the school week than did Canadian (7.7%) and Scottish (43.7%) students. The density of chain food retailers was associated with eating lunch at a food retailer in Canada only whereby students attending schools with 1–2, 3–4, and 5+ chain food retailers within 1 km from their schools were 1.39 (95% CI: 0.84–2.29), 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.20), and 2.50 (95% CI: 1.56–4.01) times more likely to eat at a chain food retailer compared to students attending schools with no nearby chain food retailers. No associations were found between chain food retailer density and obesity. PMID:23041489

  15. Factors affecting recruitment into psychiatry: a canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Timothy; Zamani, Delara; Lee, Elliott Kyung; Asli, Khashayar D; Gill, Jasbir; Brager, Nancy; Hawa, Raed; Song, Wei-Yi; Gill, Eunice; Fitzpatrick, Renee; Menezes, Natasja M; Pham, Vu H; Douglass, Alan Bruce; Allain, Suzanne; Meterissian, Greg B; Gagnon, Nadine; Toeg, Hadi; Murphy, Cheryl

    2015-06-01

    There is a projected shortage of psychiatrists in Canada in forthcoming years. This study assessed factors in medical school education that are associated with students selecting psychiatry first and matching as a discipline. The Canadian Organization of Undergraduate Psychiatry Educators (COUPE) conducted telephone interviews and sent e-mail questionnaires to the 17 medical schools across Canada; all schools provided data for 2012. Relevant data were obtained from the Canadian Resident Matching Service. Statistics were performed using v12 STATA program, and significance was set at a p value of psychiatry as their first choice for residency. Final match results yielded similar numbers at 5.0 ± 0.6 %. Ten out of 17 programs filled all psychiatry residency positions, whereas the remaining 7 programs had vacancy rates from 5 to 100 % (mean = 43.4 ± 15.1 %). Medical students were exposed to an average of 2.8 ± 0.5 pre-clerkship psychiatry weeks and 6.2 ± 0.3 clerkship weeks. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the percentage of graduating medical students entering a psychiatry residency program could be predicted from the number of weeks of pre-clerkship exposure (p = 0.01; R(2) = 0.36) but not from the number of clerkship weeks (p = 0.74). This study indicates that the duration of pre-clerkship exposure to psychiatry predicts the number of students selecting psychiatry as their first choice as a discipline. Thus, increasing the duration of pre-clerkship exposure may increase the enrollment of medical students into psychiatry.

  16. Educational Administrators' Perceptions of Racism in Diverse School Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James

    2003-01-01

    Examined how Canadian school principals perceived racism in their schools, noting the extent to which they believed racism existed in their schools and how they understood it. Interview and survey data indicated that principals were reluctant to acknowledge racism in their schools, and those who acknowledged it emphasized its insignificance.…

  17. Superintendent's Frustration: There Should Be More Takers for an Alternative School that Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Too much of students' high school experience is impersonal. It leaves them feeling alone, vulnerable, and alienated. Evidence from The Learning Bar's "Tell Them From Me," the widely subscribed Canadian student survey, tells that only half of the students in Canadian high schools find their learning interesting, enjoyable, and relevant…

  18. Canadian photovoltaic industry directory --1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The directory is intended to help potential PV customers identify Canadian-based companies who can meet their needs, and to help product manufacturers and distributors identify potential new clients and/or partners within the PV industry for new and improved technologies leading to greater end-use customer satisfaction. The principal feature of the directory is an information matrix that identifies the product and service types offered by each firm and the primary clients served. There is also a list of companies by province and territory, followed by an alphabetical listing of all companies, with detailed information including, mailing address, contact person, prime activity, geographic area served, languages in which services are provided, and a brief company profile. Additional information provided by the companies themselves, dealing with items such as number of systems sold, the total installed capacity, etc., is included in an 'experience matrix' for each firm. Sources of additional information on photovoltaic systems are included in a list at the end of the directory

  19. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  20. Canadian natural gas price forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.

    1998-01-01

    The basic factors that influenced NYMEX gas prices during the winter of 1997/1998 - warm temperatures, low fuel prices, new production in the Gulf of Mexico, and the fact that forecasters had predicted a mild spring due to El Nino - were reviewed. However, it was noted that for the last 18 months the basic factors had less of an impact on market direction because of an increase in Fund and technical trader participation. Overall, gas prices were strong through most of the year. For the winter of 1998-1999 the prediction was that NYMEX gas prices will remain below $2.00 through to the end of October 1998 because of high U.S. storage levels and moderate temperatures. NYMEX gas prices are expected to peak in January 1999 at $3.25. AECO natural gas prices were predicted to decrease in the short term because of increasing levels of Canadian storage, and because of delays in Northern Border pipeline expansions. It was also predicted that AECO prices will peak in January 1999 and will remain relatively strong through the summer of 1999. tabs., figs

  1. In Canada, Business Schools Lead Push for Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewington, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    At Canadian universities, business schools are light-years ahead of the rest of the campus in raising their global profile. Intensive foreign-student-recruitment efforts, friendly Canadian immigration rules, mandatory study-abroad requirements, and, in some cases, the option to pursue programs in multiple languages have combined to pack a punch in…

  2. Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help

  3. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  4. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  5. Research and Evidence in Education Decision-Making: A Comparison of Results from Two Pan-Canadian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, Gerald; Sheppard, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare the use of research and other evidence in the decision-making practices of two groups of education policy elites, situated in different contexts--provincial education ministries and school districts. Data are derived from two pan-Canadian studies: Galway (2006) and Sheppard, Galway, Brown and Wiens (2013). The findings…

  6. History as a "GPS": On the Uses of Historical Narrative for French Canadian Students' Life Orientation and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that analyses students' historical narratives of the nation in relation to historical consciousness and how their sense of self-identification with groups affects their narrative structure and orientation. This study was conducted with French Canadian students registered in two high schools (n = 58) and…

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) among Samples of French Canadian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Dion, Jacinthe; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre; Collin-Vezina, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Explore the psychometric properties of the French Canadian version of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28, Resilience Research Center, 2009; Ungar et al., 2008) in youth samples. Method: Two investigations were conducted. Participants in Study 1 were 589 youth (60% female) in grades 10-12 from 2 urban public high schools.…

  8. Activating knowledge for patient safety practices: a Canadian academic-policy partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Margaret B; Nicklin, Wendy; Owen, Marie; Godfrey, Christina; McVeety, Janice; Angus, Val

    2012-02-01

    Over the past decade, the need for healthcare delivery systems to identify and address patient safety issues has been propelled to the forefront. A Canadian survey, for example, demonstrated patient safety to be a major concern of frontline nurses (Nicklin & McVeety 2002). Three crucial patient safety elements, current knowledge, resources, and context of care have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO 2009). To develop strategies to respond to the scope and mandate of the WHO report within the Canadian context, a pan-Canadian academic-policy partnership has been established. This newly formed Pan-Canadian Partnership, the Queen's Joanna Briggs Collaboration for Patient Safety (referred throughout as "QJBC" or "the Partnership"), includes the Queen's University School of Nursing, Accreditation Canada, the Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and is supported by an active and committed advisory council representing over 10 national organizations representing all sectors of the health continuum, including patients/families advocacy groups, professional associations, and other bodies. This unique partnership is designed to provide timely, focused support from academia to the front line of patient safety. QJBC has adopted an "integrated knowledge translation" approach to identify and respond to patient safety priorities and to ensure active engagement with stakeholders in producing and using available knowledge. Synthesis of evidence and guideline adaptation methodologies are employed to access quantitative and qualitative evidence relevant to pertinent patient safety questions and subsequently, to respond to issues of feasibility, meaningfulness, appropriateness/acceptability, and effectiveness. This paper describes the conceptual grounding of the Partnership, its proposed methods, and its plan for action. It is hoped that our journey may provide some guidance to others as they develop patient safety

  9. Socioeconomic gradients in cardiovascular risk in Canadian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shi

    2016-02-01

    systolic BP, HDL and LDL cholesterol. Further studies with large samples are needed to confirm these findings. Conclusion : This study identified important sex difference and socioeconomic gradients in adiposity, aerobic fitness and physiological markers of CVD risk in Canadian school-aged children. Population health interventions to reduce socioeconomic gradients in CVD risk should start in childhood, with a particular focus on preventing obesity in young boys of all SES and girls of low SES, promoting physical fitness especially in girls and in all ages of youth in low-SES groups, and increasing parental awareness, especially those with low educational attainment, of early CVD risks in their children.

  10. Canadian environmental sustainability indicators: highlights 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Canadians' health and their social and economic well-being are fundamentally linked to the quality of their environment. Recognizing this, in 2004 the Government of Canada committed to establishing national indicators of freshwater quality, air quality and greenhouse gas emissions. The goal of these new indicators is to provide Canadians with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with human activity. Canadians need clearly defined environmental indicators - measuring sticks that can track the results that have been achieved through the efforts of governments, industries and individuals to protect and improve the environment. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to further develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the cooperation and input of the provinces and territories. The indicators are: air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; and, freshwater quality. Air quality tracks Canadians' exposure to ground-level ozone - a key component of smog. The indicator measures one of the most common, harmful air pollutants to which people are exposed. The use of the seasonal average of ozone concentrations reflects the potential for long-term health effects. Greenhouse gas emissions tracks the annual releases of the six greenhouse gases that are the major contributors to climate change. The indicator comes directly from the greenhouse gas inventory report prepared by Environment Canada for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. The data are widely used to report on progress toward Canada's Kyoto target for reduced emissions. Freshwater quality reports the status of surface water quality at selected monitoring sites across the country. For this first report, the focus of the indicator is on the protection of aquatic life, such as

  11. Operative Landscape at Canadian Neurosurgery Residency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Michael K; Dakson, Ayoub; Ahmed, Syed Uzair; Bigder, Mark; Elliott, Cameron; Guha, Daipayan; Iorio-Morin, Christian; Kameda-Smith, Michelle; Lavergne, Pascal; Makarenko, Serge; Taccone, Michael S; Wang, Bill; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Sankar, Tejas; Christie, Sean D

    2017-07-01

    Background Currently, the literature lacks reliable data regarding operative case volumes at Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. Our objective was to provide a snapshot of the operative landscape in Canadian neurosurgical training using the trainee-led Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative. Anonymized administrative operative data were gathered from each neurosurgery residency program from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014. Procedures were broadly classified into cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures. A number of prespecified subspecialty procedures were recorded. We defined the resident case index as the ratio of the total number of operations to the total number of neurosurgery residents in that program. Resident number included both Canadian medical and international medical graduates, and included residents on the neurosurgery service, off-service, or on leave for research or other personal reasons. Overall, there was an average of 1845 operative cases per neurosurgery residency program. The mean numbers of cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and miscellaneous procedures were 725, 466, 48, and 193, respectively. The nationwide mean resident case indices for cranial, spine, peripheral nerve, and total procedures were 90, 58, 5, and 196, respectively. There was some variation in the resident case indices for specific subspecialty procedures, with some training programs not performing carotid endarterectomy or endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures. This study presents the breadth of neurosurgical training within Canadian neurosurgery residency programs. These results may help inform the implementation of neurosurgery training as the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons residency training transitions to a competence-by-design curriculum.

  12. 2009 Canadian Radiation Oncology Resident Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, Brock; Banerjee, Robyn; Fairchild, Alysa; Dundas, George; Trotter, Theresa; Yee, Don

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Statistics from the Canadian post-MD education registry show that numbers of Canadian radiation oncology (RO) trainees have risen from 62 in 1999 to approximately 150 per year between 2003 and 2009, contributing to the current perceived downturn in employment opportunities for radiation oncologists in Canada. When last surveyed in 2003, Canadian RO residents identified job availability as their main concern. Our objective was to survey current Canadian RO residents on their training and career plans. Methods and Materials: Trainees from the 13 Canadian residency programs using the national matching service were sought. Potential respondents were identified through individual program directors or chief resident and were e-mailed a secure link to an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses. Results: The eligible response rate was 53% (83/156). Similar to the 2003 survey, respondents generally expressed high satisfaction with their programs and specialty. The most frequently expressed perceived weakness in their training differed from 2003, with 46.5% of current respondents feeling unprepared to enter the job market. 72% plan on pursuing a postresidency fellowship. Most respondents intend to practice in Canada. Fewer than 20% of respondents believe that there is a strong demand for radiation oncologists in Canada. Conclusions: Respondents to the current survey expressed significant satisfaction with their career choice and training program. However, differences exist compared with the 2003 survey, including the current perceived lack of demand for radiation oncologists in Canada.

  13. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  14. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  15. Peacock: 100 years of servicing Canadian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In 1997 Peacock Inc., a supplier of pipeline, filtration, pumping, materials handling and mechanical equipment of all kinds to the Canadian oil and natural gas industries, will celebrate its 100th year of servicing Canadian industry, and 50th year in the oil patch. The company has outlets in several Canadian cities from Halifax to Vancouver. It manufactures, distributes, maintains and repairs all types of industrial equipment. It also manages the Naval Engineering Test Establishment at LaSalle, PQ, for the Department of Defence. Peacock service centres provide 24-hour service response to emergency breakdowns anywhere in Canada; its engineers and technicians are ISO 9003 qualified or better, and are experts in turnarounds and planned maintenance outages, major overhauls of critical equipment, supplying mechanical crews for emergency equipment breakdowns, and grouting of heavy machinery. By close coordination of its four divisions, and by maintaining their dedication to service, the company looks to the future with pride and confidence

  16. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. In 1991, the Atlantic Petroleum Association, the Quebec Petroleum Association, the Ontario Petroleum Association, the Canada West Petroleum Association, and the Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE) were integrated into the CPPI. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. An industry overview is provided, as well as highlights of environmental achievements and challenges, and economics and operations for the year. Lists of CPPI publications, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  17. The importance of nature to Canadians: survey highlights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DuWors, E

    1999-01-01

    .... The 1996 Survey on the Importance of Nature to Canadians (the Nature Survey) also tells us that Canadians commit large amounts of their leisure time to activities that depend on natural areas and wildlife...

  18. Joshua N Haldeman, DC: the Canadian Years, 1926-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph C; Haldeman, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Born in 1902 to the earliest chiropractor known to practice in Canada, Joshua Norman Haldeman would develop national and international stature as a political economist, provincial and national professional leader, and sportsman/adventurer. A 1926 graduate of the Palmer School of Chiropractic, he would maintain a lifelong friendship with B.J. Palmer, and served in the late 1940s as Canada’s representative to the Board of Control of the International Chiropractors’ Association. Yet, he would also maintain strong alliances with broad-scope leaders in Canada and the United States, including the administrators of the National and Lincoln chiropractic schools. Haldeman, who would practice chiropractic in Regina for at least 15 years, was instrumental in obtaining, and is credited with composing the wording of, Saskatchewan’s 1943 Chiropractic Act. He served on the province’s first board of examiners and the provincial society’s first executive board. The following year Dr. Haldeman represented Saskatchewan in the deliberations organized by Walter Sturdy, D.C. that gave rise to the Dominion Council of Canadian Chiropractors, forerunner of today’s Canadian Chiropractic Association. As a member of the Dominion Council he fought for inclusion of chiropractors as commissioned officers during World War II, and participated in the formation of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, which he subsequently served as a member of the first board of directors. Dr. Haldeman also earned a place in the political history of Canada, owing to his service as research director for Technocracy, Inc. of Canada, his national chairmanship of the Social Credit Party during the second world war, and his unsuccessful bid for the national parliament. His vocal opposition to Communism during the war briefly landed him in jail. His 1950 relocation of his family and practice to Pretoria, South Africa would open a new page in his career: once again as professional pioneer, but also as

  19. Canadian municipal carbon trading primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seskus, A.

    2002-01-01

    The trading of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being suggested as an effective economic way to meet Canada's Kyoto target. Emissions trading is a market-based instrument that can help achieve environmental improvements while using the market to absorb the economical and effective measures to achieve emissions reductions. Placing a value on emissions means that in order to minimize costs, companies will be motivated to apply the lowest-cost emission reductions possible for regulatory approval. The two main types of emissions trading that exist in Canada are the trading of emissions that lead to the formation of smog or acid rain, and the trading of greenhouse gas emissions that lead to climate change. Since carbon dioxide is the most prevalent GHG, making up approximately 75 per cent of Canadian GHG emissions, the trading of units of GHGs is often referred to as carbon trading. The impact that emissions trading will have on municipal operations was the focus of this primer. The trading of GHG involves buying and selling of allowances of GHGs between contracting parties, usually between one party that is short of GHG credits and another that has excess credits. The 3 common approaches to emissions trading include allowance trading (cap and trade), credit trading (baseline and credit), and a hybrid system which combines both credit and allowance trading systems. The issues that impact municipalities include the debate regarding who owns the credits from landfills, particularly if power is generated using landfill gas and the power is sold as green power. Other viable questions were also addressed, including who can claim emission reduction credits if a city implements energy efficiency projects, or fuel substitution programs. Also, will municipalities be allowed to trade internationally, for example, with municipalities in the United States, and how should they spend their money earned from selling credits. This report also presents highlights from 3 emissions

  20. The Curse of the Gold: Discourses Surrounding the Project of the Largest Pit-mine in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Egresi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, a Canadian company started geological explorations in the Rosia Montana area in the Romanian Carpathians. Two years later it formed a joint-venture with a Romanian state company to exploit what is believed to be Europe´s largest gold reserves. However, as of June 2011 extraction has not started yet and it may never start due to the opposition of numerous NGO´s that have pointed out the environmental, social and economic unsustainability of this mining project. This situation is highly unusual for a country that is hungry for foreign investment especially since up until very recently the state had supported any project promising to revitalize its mining sector. This paper will investigate the changes in the discourses surrounding this mining project taking into consideration the effects of globalization and the effects of Romania´s EU membership after 2007.

  1. School Smoking Policy Characteristics and Individual Perceptions of the School Tobacco Context: Are They Linked to Students? Smoking Status?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiston, Catherine M.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Ahmed, Rashid; Pullman, Allison W.; Hadd, Valerie; Campbell, H. Sharon; Nykiforuk, Candace; Brown, K. Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore individual- and school-level policy characteristics on student smoking behavior using an ecological perspective. Participants were 24,213 (51% female) Grade 10?11 students from 81 schools in five Canadian provinces. Data were collected using student self-report surveys, written policies collected from schools, interviews with school administrators, and school property observations to assess multiple dimensions of the school tobacco policy. The multi-le...

  2. The Canadian approach to nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, R.J.; Boyd, F.C.; Domaratski, Z.

    1983-07-01

    The development of the Canadian nuclear power safety philosophy and practice is traced from its early roots at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratory to the licensing of the current generation of power reactors. Basic to the philosophy is a recognition that the primary responsibility for achieving a high standard of safety resides with the licensee. As a consequence, regulatory requirements have emphasized numerical safety goals and objectives and minimized specific design or operating rules. The Canadian licensing process is described along with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered. Examples of specific licensing considerations for each phase of a project are included

  3. Climate change 2 - Canadian technology development conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.T.

    2001-01-01

    These Conference Proceedings summarise the program of the 'Climate Change 2: Canadian Technology Development' Conference held on October 3-5, 2001 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Conference program was multidisciplinary, representing diverse science and technology-oriented associations and organizations from across Canada. The conference was designed to provide a forum to explore and showcase Canadian technologies that could be developed and deployed to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and/or remove greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. The Conference brought together national and provincial policy makers and innovators to discover, discuss and develop technologies and strategies to encourage appropriate energy, agriculture and forestry technology

  4. Management of hereditary angioedema: 2010 Canadian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency is a rare blood disorder resulting in angioedema attacks that are debilitating and may be life-threatening. Prophylaxis and therapy of events has changed since our first Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis, therapy and management of HAE. We have formed the Canadian Hereditary Angioedema Network (CHAEN)/Réseau Canadien d'Angioédème Héréditaire (RCAH) - http://www.haecanada.com to advance care of patients with this disorder in Canada. We here present a review of management of HAE in Canada. PMID:20667123

  5. Canadian approach to nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, R.J.; Boyd, F.C.; Domaratzki, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the Canadian nuclear power safety philosophy and practice is traced from its early roots at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to the licensing of the current generation of power reactors. Basic to the philosophy is a recognition that the licensee is primarily responsible for achieving a high standard safety. As a consequence, regulatory requirements have emphasized numerical safety goals and objectives and minimized specific design or operating rules. In this article the Canadian licensing process is described with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered. Examples of specific licensing considerations for each phase of a project are included

  6. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1983-05-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is now well established. This report outlines the generic research and technological development underway in this program to assess the concept of immobilization and subsequent disposal of nuclear fuel waste deep in a stable plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. The program participants, funding, schedule and associated external review processes are briefly outlined. The major scientific and engineering components of the program, namely, immobilization studies, geoscience research and environmental and safety assessment, are described in more detail

  7. The Scholarship of Canadian Research University Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fox

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a national survey of Canadian research university librarians conducted by the author in 2006. The study deals with the motivation of librarians to engage in scholarly activities, the requirement for scholarship by librarians at Canadian research universities, the perceived importance of scholarship as a criterion for promotion and tenure, levels and forms of participation in scholarship, and librarians’ assessment of various types of support for scholarship. The study concluded that 13% of the sample population could be considered active scholars, and suggests that there may be a correlation between level of scholarly intensity and gender. The paper concludes with questions for further study.

  8. Statistics in action a Canadian outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2014-01-01

    Commissioned by the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC), Statistics in Action: A Canadian Outlook helps both general readers and users of statistics better appreciate the scope and importance of statistics. It presents the ways in which statistics is used while highlighting key contributions that Canadian statisticians are making to science, technology, business, government, and other areas. The book emphasizes the role and impact of computing in statistical modeling and analysis, including the issues involved with the huge amounts of data being generated by automated processes.The first two c

  9. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political views of Canadian intellectuals which had influence on the formation of Canadian political culture at the turn of the 20th century. The author confirms that the Canadian intellectual thought was the main ideological factor in the conditions of the formation of Canadian statehood, undeveloped party and political system, the lack of deep traditions of the parliamentary system, insufficient political practice and the lack of distinct ideology of basic political parties in the process of forming the Canadian nation. On the basis of studied Canadian sources, the author makes conclusion that the most of Canadian intellectuals did not participate directly in the political process and they considered themselves its bystanders. Besides, the Canadian intellectuals promoted the British political culture of the Victorian epoch. Although all of them were familiar wih the British socialistic thought – Fabianism, they insisted that the social transformation in the Canadian society is possible only through the improvement of moral system, the education of lower social classes and the maintenance of elite monarch traditions. The American influence on Canadian political culture was peripheral at the beginning of the 20th century. The ideas of the Chicago Sociological School and the European continental thought were not used. The Victorian intellectuals understood their time as the social crisis and their political discussions were often devoted to the problems of imperialism, religion, education and feminism. They undoubtedly influenced the Canadian political elite in the matter of further development of the Canadian nation and state, but they expressed their own unique views on the contemporary society in academic press and in elite clubs discussions. They did not share the opinion of publicity about contemporary social processes, because their position was far from the direct party policy. Though some of them participated as

  10. Providing for the sexual health needs of Canadian immigrants: the experience of immigrants from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Shirpak, Khosro Refaie; Chinichian, Maryam

    2007-01-01

    Sexual health is increasingly understood as an integral part of health. In Canada, education for sexual health is delivered predominantly in middle and secondary school. What of adults who immigrate to Canada from countries where sex education is not delivered to youth? This paper explores the needs and experiences of one such group of Canadian immigrants: those from Iran. Ten married male and 10 married female immigrants from Iran living in a mid-sized Canadian city were recruited using snowball sampling and participated in qualitative interviews. The sample varied in age, education level, duration of marriage, and stay in Canada. Participants addressed three themes: experiences accessing information and health services, necessary content of information, and preferred ways of providing sexual health information and services. Key barriers to accessing and using sexual health services, experienced by all interviewees, regardless of the length of time they were in Canada, included language, cultural misunderstandings, embarrassment, long waits, and limited time that physicians spent with patients. Examples were provided of misunderstandings and inappropriate or even offensive questions or suggestions made by health practitioners who were unfamiliar with patients' cultural norms related to sexuality. Participants believed their needs and questions were different from their Canadian counterparts and wanted a confidential, linguistically and culturally friendly source of information such as a website in the Farsi language. More attention needs to be paid to developing public health and medical services related to sexual health that take account of the cultural diversities represented in the Canadian population.

  11. Something to Chew On: Canadian Fiction for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Beverley

    An annotated bibliography of fiction about Canada or written by Canadian authors is presented. The list is intended as a guide for Canadian young adult readers in search of a literature they can identify as their own. It can also be used by librarians and teachers who need assistance in selecting novels and short stories for young Canadians. Over…

  12. The flow of radionuclides through the Canadian archipelago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.; Smith, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of contaminants to the Canadian Arctic by air and in water and their concentration through the marine food web has lead to enhanced levels of contaminants in several foods of Canadian northern inhabitants. Artificial radionuclides in the marine water can be used to determine water circulation and to trace contaminant transport through the Canadian Archipelago

  13. Next-generation models for Canadian collaboration in international ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through this project, the Canadian Council for International Cooperation (CCIC), in partnership with the Canadian Association for the Study of International Development, will identify and promote new ways for Canadian practitioners, academics, and public policymakers to work together in international development.

  14. Surround Suppression Maps in the Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu P Vanni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the primary visual cortex and higher-order areas, it is well known that the stimulation of areas surrounding the classical receptive field of a neuron can inhibit its responses. In the primate area MT, this surround suppression was shown to be spatially organized into high and low suppression modules. However, such an organization hasn’t been demonstrated yet in the primary visual cortex. Here, we used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to spatially evaluate surround suppression in the cat visual cortex. The magnitude of the response was measured in areas 17 and 18 for stimuli with different diameters, presented at different eccentricities. Delimited regions of the cortex were revealed by circumscribed stimulations of the visual field (cortical response field. Increasing the stimulus diameter increased the spread of cortical activation. In the cortical response field, the optimal stimulation diameter and the level of suppression were evaluated. Most pixels (3/4 exhibited surround suppression profiles. The optimal diameter, corresponding to a population of receptive fields, was smaller in area 17 (22 deg. than in area 18 (36 deg. in accordance with electrophysiological data. No difference in the suppression strength was observed between both areas (A17: 25%, A18: 21%. Further analysis of our data revealed the presence of surround modulation maps, organized in low and high suppression domains. We also developed a statistical method to confirm the existence of this cortical map and its neuronal origin. The organization for center/surround suppression observed here at the level of the primary visual cortex is similar to those found in higher order areas in primates (e.g. area MT and could represent a strategy to optimize figure ground discrimination.

  15. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma surrounding a squamous cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, S M; Gloster, E S; Heilman, E R; Chen, P C; Chen, C K; Anzil, A P; Pozner, J N; Reardon, M J

    1997-03-01

    A 91-year-old man presented with a 9.0 x 7.0 cm exophytic mass on the dorsum of the right foot, surrounded by a scaling hyperkeratotic plaque-like lesion that had been present for many years. He had similar long-standing hyperkeratotic plaque-like lesions on both legs. Histopathologic examination of the exophytic mass revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma surrounded by an eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA). Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy support this diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the only reported case of ESFA being intimately associated with a malignant neoplasm.

  16. In the Field: The Canadian Ecology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Clare

    2000-01-01

    The Canadian Ecology Centre (Ontario) offers year-round residential and day programs in outdoor and environmental education for secondary students, field placement and internship opportunities for college students, and ecotourism programs, while providing employment and tax revenues to the local community. Dubbed consensus environmentalism, the…

  17. Indigenous populations health protection: A Canadian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Katya L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The disproportionate effects of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic on many Canadian Aboriginal communities have drawn attention to the vulnerability of these communities in terms of health outcomes in the face of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Exploring the particular challenges facing these communities is essential to improving public health planning. In alignment with the objectives of the Pandemic Influenza Outbreak Research Modelling (Pan-InfORM team, a Canadian public health workshop was held at the Centre for Disease Modelling (CDM to: (i evaluate post-pandemic research findings; (ii identify existing gaps in knowledge that have yet to be addressed through ongoing research and collaborative activities; and (iii build upon existing partnerships within the research community to forge new collaborative links with Aboriginal health organizations. The workshop achieved its objectives in identifying main research findings and emerging information post pandemic, and highlighting key challenges that pose significant impediments to the health protection and promotion of Canadian Aboriginal populations. The health challenges faced by Canadian indigenous populations are unique and complex, and can only be addressed through active engagement with affected communities. The academic research community will need to develop a new interdisciplinary framework, building upon concepts from ‘Communities of Practice’, to ensure that the research priorities are identified and targeted, and the outcomes are translated into the context of community health to improve policy and practice.

  18. No. 354-Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, Mona; Kennedy, V Logan; Poliquin, Vanessa; Dzineku, Frederick; Dean, Nicola L; Margolese, Shari; Symington, Alison; Money, Deborah M; Hamilton, Scot; Conway, Tracey; Khan, Sarah; Yudin, Mark H

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical information and recommendations for health care providers to assist Canadians affected by HIV with their fertility, preconception, and pregnancy planning decisions. These guidelines are evidence- and community-based and flexible and take into account diverse and intersecting local/population needs based on the social determinants of health. EVIDENCE: Literature searches were conducted by a librarian using the Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Embase databases for published articles in English and French related to HIV and pregnancy and HIV and pregnancy planning for each section of the guidelines. The full search strategy is available upon request. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the SOGC under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to the guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care and through use of the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation instrument for the development of clinical guidelines. Guideline implementation should assist the practitioner in developing an evidence-based approach for the prevention of unplanned pregnancy, preconception, fertility, and pregnancy planning counselling in the context of HIV infection. These guidelines have been reviewed and approved by the Infectious Disease Committee and the Executive and Council of the SOGC. Canadian Institutes of Health Research Grant Planning and Dissemination grant (Funding Reference # 137186), which funded a Development Team meeting in 2016. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Canadian Adult Education: Still a Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Writing recently in this journal, two of Canada's veteran adult educators contemplated the "death" of the Canadian adult education movement. I disagree and argue that adult education in Canada is as vital an activity as ever and one that still fully justifies being called a movement. Specifically, Selman and Selman (2009) list five…

  20. CASID and Canadian Journal of Development Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CASID was founded in 1989 by a group of individuals from the academic and practitioner community to provide a forum for Canadian scholars, policymakers, ... strengthen its capacity to deliver its programs, but also to do so more efficiently and effectively by improving itself as an organization in critical areas of performance.

  1. The Canadian experience in frontier environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Early Canadian frontier exploration (from 1955 onshore and from 1966 for offshore drilling) caused insignificant public concern. The 1967-1968 Torrey Canyon Tanker and Santa Barbara disasters roused public opinion and governments. In Canada, 1969-1970 Arctic gas blowouts, a tanker disaster, and damage to the 'Manhattan' exacerbated concerns and resulted in new environmental regulatory constraints. From 1970, the Arctic Petroleum Operations Association learned to operate safely with environmental responsibility. It studied physical environment for design criteria, and the biological and human environment to ameliorate impact. APOA's research projects covered sea-ice, permafrost, sea-bottom, oil-spills, bird and mammal migration, fish habitat, food chains, oceanography, meteorology, hunters'/trappers' harvests, etc. In 1971 Eastcoast Petroleum Operators' Association and Alaska Oil and Gas Association followed APOA's cooperative research model. EPOA stressed icebergs and fisheries. Certain research was handled by the Canadian Offshore Oil Spill Research Association. By the mid-1980s these associations had undertaken $70,000,000 of environmental oriented research, with equivalent additional work by member companies on specific needs and similar sums by Federal agencies often working with industry on complementary research. The frontier associations then merged with the Canadian Petroleum Association, already active environmentally in western Canada. Working with government and informing environmental interest groups, the public, natives, and local groups, most Canadian frontier petroleum operations proceeded with minimal delay and environmental disturbance

  2. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Don; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada

  3. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan I

    2010-02-01

    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  4. Theoretical Analysis of Canadian Lifelong Education Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukan, Natalia; Barabash, Olena; Busko, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the problem of Canadian lifelong education development has been studied. The main objectives of the article are defined as theoretical analysis of scientific and pedagogical literature which highlights different aspects of the research problem; periods of lifelong education development; and determination of lifelong learning role…

  5. Further Education Pathways of Canadian University Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Through secondary analysis of the National Graduate Survey data, this study examines determinants of choice of further education pathways by Canadian university graduates in early 2000s. This paper extends the Cross' participation model by introducing a typology of path choices that are related to socio-demographic, post-secondary and situational…

  6. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology 2004 Strategic Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Sherman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented below is the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG five year Strategic Plan for July 2004 to June 2009. The Strategic Plan represents an extension of the organization's original 1993 Strategic Plan (1, and directly reflects input from the membership provided via a Strategic Planning Needs Analysis undertaken in the fall of 2002 (2.

  7. Canadian Perspectives on East Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Josephine C.

    In this paper, various studies and surveys on the status of East Indians in Canada and attitudes towards them are summarized. The history of the East Indian immigration into Canada is sketched. A 1976 survey of attitudes of Canadians toward multiculturalism (Berry, Kalin, and Taylor, 1976) is outlined. A study of the intercultural perceptions of…

  8. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Open parliaments were also on the agenda in a session moderated by Senator David Smith, in the Centre Block of the Canadian Parliament Buildings. Increased information about legislative activities and greater opportunities for dialogue between citizens and their parliaments hold the promise of improving governance ...

  9. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, C.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  10. Antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alissa; Paisley, Judy; Bandayrel, Kristofer

    2011-01-01

    Recently, antioxidants have taken centre stage in media and advertising messages. While 80% of Canadians think they are well-informed about nutrition, many are confused about the health effects of specific nutrients. Forty-six percent of Canadians seek information from newspapers and books, and 67% of women rely on magazines. We examined the content and accuracy of antioxidant health messages in Canadian women's magazines. The top three Canadian magazines targeted at women readers were selected. A screening tool was developed, pilot tested, and used to identify eligible articles. A coding scheme was created to define variables, which were coded and analyzed. Seventy-seven percent of 36 magazine issues contained articles that mentioned antioxidants (n=56). Seventy-one percent (n=40) of articles reported positive health effects related to antioxidant consumption, and 36% and 40% of those articles framed those effects as definite and potential, respectively (p<0.01). The articles sampled conveyed messages about positive antioxidant health effects that are not supported by current evidence. Improved standards of health reporting are needed. Nutrition professionals may need to address this inaccuracy when they develop communications on antioxidants and health risk.

  11. Research Awards: Canadian Partnerships Program Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... This award provides young and upcoming professionals with a unique opportunity to strengthen their research skills and gain a fresh perspective on the Canadian community – both in universities and civil society organizations (CSOs) – that is actively engaged in creating, sharing, and using knowledge to ...

  12. Learning to Speak Everyday (Canadian) French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadasdi, Terry; Mougeon, Raymond; Rehner, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the sociolinguistic competence of French immersion students. We first present an overview of the range of variation found in L1 speech and make a distinction between vernacular, informal, formal, and hyper-formal variants. We then compare the use of these forms in the speech of Canadian francophones and Grade 9 and 12…

  13. The changing stance of the Canadian Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Proulx, S.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at policy options taken by the Canadian government in an age of globalization and information. A first part explores federal government initiatives pertaining to Canada's preparedness for the information society. A second part assesses some provincial government policy options,

  14. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity…

  15. Canadian nuclear technology faces tough competition abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guard, R.F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The history of Canadian nuclear exports is related, starting with the CIRUS reactor and ending with the Romanian contract. The sale of the Cordoba reactor to Argentina is set in its historical perspective of continuing competition with German vendors. The Wolsung reactor is mentioned. The author considers that political rather than engineering problems hamper exports. (NDH)

  16. The Canadian nuclear scene - a 1983 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulkes, F.M.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the previous year's performance and future prospects for the Canadian nuclear industry. Continued economic difficulties have meant continued streamlining of the industry. Basic strength is still the year-after-year record performance of the Ontario Hydro CANDU units. Given this performance, flexibility in the structure of the industry, and strong government support commercial success can be achieved eventually

  17. Controversies Concerning the Canadian Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Robert; O'Shaughnessy, Roy; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2017-03-01

    In Canada, individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder are subject to the disposition recommendations of the Provincial or Territorial Review Board of the jurisdiction where the offense was committed. Bill C-14, known as "The Not Criminally Responsible Reform Act" made changes to the postverdict disposition process of these individuals. This legislation was consistent with a broader "tough-on-crime" agenda of the previous federal government. The legislative changes codify that Review Boards take public safety as the "paramount consideration" in making their recommendations. The legislation also creates a new "high-risk" category for certain offenders and imposes limitations on their liberty. Further, Bill C-14 seeks to enhance victim involvement in the disposition process. The passage of this legislation has generated significant controversy in the medical and legal fields. Critics have stated that there is an absence of empirical evidence on which to base the amendments, that the legislation was an overreaction to high-profile cases, and that Bill C-14 is in questionable compliance with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In this review, we explore the potential catalysts involved in the creation of Bill C-14, the controversy surrounding the legislation, and the potential future impact on practicing forensic psychiatrists and on the forensic mental health system in Canada. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  18. Review of Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and his Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschwin de Wolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthony de Jasay is among the most important social thinkers of our time. His oeuvre offers a sustained critique of government and its defenders. In the book Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and His Surroundings, colleagues and friends pay tribute to the man in the form of an inspiring collection of essays.

  19. Endoparasites of donkeys in Dessie and its surroundings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coprocultural examination revealed that (100%) of Cyathostomes spp. and Strongylus vulgaris and (94%) of Trichostrongylus axei, (44.0%) Strongloides westeri and Dictyocaulus arnfieldi. The higher prevalence of parasitosis in working donkeys in Dessie and its surroundings requires appropriate strategic parasitic control ...

  20. Influence of surroundings on photorefractive effect in lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarjanyi, Norbert, E-mail: tarjanyi@fyzika.uniza.sk [Department of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, Zilina, 01026 (Slovakia); Turek, Ivan [Berlinska 4, Zilina, 01008 (Slovakia)

    2012-11-01

    In the paper results of the investigation of the influence of electric properties of the environment surrounding LiNbO{sub 3} crystals on photorefractive effect induced in these crystals by Gaussian Ar{sup +} laser beam with various intensities are presented. We show spatial and temporal dependences of changes of the refractive index obtained experimentally in LiNbO{sub 3}: Fe and LiNbO{sub 3}: Fe:Mn samples surrounded by media with different electric conductivities and different permittivities (water, air, water solution of CaCl{sub 2}). The space and time dependences of the refractive index changes induced by the Ar{sup +} laser beam are observed by means of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer using light from HeNe laser. The experimentally obtained results are in a good agreement with those following from numerical calculations using the manifold mirroring method. The agreement between calculated and experimental results indicates that the polarization charge at the photorefractive crystal/surrounding medium boundary significantly influences the photorefractive process in the crystal. The experimentally observed slow spontaneous decrease of the refractive index change in a sample placed into a slightly conducting medium (air) after switching off the beam also indicates that the polarization charge in the sample's surroundings affects the photorefraction.

  1. Influence of salinity on soil chemical properties and surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to monitor and document the influence of salinity on soil chemical properties and surrounding vegetation of Awe salt mining site, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The soil samples were collected randomly from the salt mining site and 10 m away from the site (control) at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm depths, ...

  2. A 500 PARSEC HALO SURROUNDING THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR NGC 1851

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows 4 mag of main-sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (> 250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of

  3. Ornitocenosis of the Sursky pond and its close the surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacko, J.; Ambrus, B.; Fupso, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the qualitative-quantitative research of fishpond bird community of the Sursky and its surroundings as well as on analysis of seasonal population dynamics of the avifauna as well as on placing the determined species into environmental groups and guilds. Another object is the comparison of our results with recent work focused on research of bird communities on this site.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Termiteria and Surrounding Soil Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, elemental analysis shows significant variability of the elements among sites ranging from 0.02-196 mg/kg and 0.01-172 mg/kg for the termitaria and surrounding soils, respectively. The predominant analyte is Al, which is the most abundant element in the earth crust. The results show that trace elements such as Mn ...

  5. Remarkable extent of the circumstellar gas shell surrounding Betelgeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernat, A.P.; Honeycutt, R.K.; Kephart, J.E.; Gow, C.E.; Sandford, M.T.; Lambert, D.L.

    1978-01-15

    A two-dimensional television system has been used to study the spatial extent of the K I lambda7699 resonance-line emission from the gas shell surrounding the M supergiant Betelgeuse. This emission has been traced out to a minimum radius of 29'' (approx.600 stellar radii).

  6. Effects of particle size and surrounding media on optical radiation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The optical radiation efficiency (η), the ratio of scattering cross-section to extinction cross-section, of spherical metal nanoparticles (M = Al, Ag, Au and Cu) surrounded by glass and water was calculated using classical electrostatics. The effect of varying particle diameter (∼100 nm) on η was also studied for free ...

  7. Acrylate in Phaeocystis colonies does not affect the surrounding bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, DJB; Gieskes, WWC; Gottschal, JC; Forney, LJ; van Rijssel, M

    Acrylate accumulates to concentrations of 1.3-6.5 mM in the mucus of Phaeocystis colonies and may have an effect on the surrounding bacterial community, either as an inhibitor or as a carbon source. Both in the held and in the laboratory, effects of acrylate on bacterial growth and on its

  8. The bird species of pandam wildlife park and the surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of time of day as well as vegetation variables on bird species diversity in the park and surrounding farmlands was also conducted. 10 transects in each study site were surveyed twice between during the dry season and vegetation variables (trees, fingers, finger-rings two- hand, grazing, farming, canopy cover, ...

  9. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  10. Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial attributes and toxic effects on Allium cepa root cells. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home ... The physicochemical analysis and microbial load of polluted Alamuyo River in Ibadan, Nigeria and selected wells along its course were evaluated.

  11. Traditional Indian customs surrounding birth A review | Chalmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1960, only a few studies have been made of traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. Very few of these have described customs followed by Indians in South Africa. A review of these publications is presented here. Customs described include religious, social and psychological aspects of behaviour in ...

  12. Year-Round Schooling: A Catalyst for Pedagogical Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carolyn M.; LaRocque, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    Studies in three Canadian schools indicate that implementation of a year-round school calendar served as a catalyst for innovations in teaching and learning and for school-level capacity-building by facilitating teachers' planning, formal and informal talk about teaching and learning, team teaching, philosophically-based programmatic changes, and…

  13. “History is a Verb: We Learn it Best When We are Doing it!”: French and English Canadian Prospective Teachers and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Lévesque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a Canadian study of prospective history teachers conducted in 2012-2013. Using an online questionnaire to assess a broad range of questions pertaining to their knowledge of history, their trust in historical sources, their experiences in high school and university classes, and their views about school history, it offers new empirical evidence on how the growing generation of Canadian teachers are prepared for the teaching profession. Implications of this study for teacher education and practice teaching are also presented.

  14. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling grating contrast discrimination dippers: The role of surround suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Michelle P S; Chirimuuta, Mazviita; Tolhurst, David J

    2017-10-01

    We consider the role of nonlinear inhibition in physiologically realistic multineuronal models of V1 to predict the dipper functions from contrast discrimination experiments with sinusoidal gratings of different geometries. The dip in dipper functions has been attributed to an expansive transducer function, which itself is attributed to two nonlinear inhibitory mechanisms: contrast normalization and surround suppression. We ran five contrast discrimination experiments, with targets and masks of different sizes and configurations: small Gabor target/small mask, small target/large mask, large target/large mask, small target/in-phase annular mask, and small target/out-of-phase annular mask. Our V1 modeling shows that the results for small Gabor target/small mask, small target/large mask, large target/large mask configurations are easily explained only if the model includes surround suppression. This is compatible with the finding that an in-phase annular mask generates only little threshold elevation while the out-of-phase mask was more effective. Surrounding mask gratings cannot be equated with surround suppression at the receptive-field level. We examine whether normalization and surround suppression occur simultaneously (parallel model) or sequentially (a better reflection of neurophysiology). The Akaike Criterion Difference showed that the sequential model was better than the parallel, but the difference was small. The large target/large mask dipper experiment was not well fit by our models, and we suggest that this may reflect selective attention for its uniquely larger test stimulus. The best-fit model replicates some behaviors of single V1 neurons, such as the decrease in receptive-field size with increasing contrast.

  16. Electrocardiography teaching in Canadian family medicine residency programs: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Baldeep; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2011-04-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) interpretation is an essential skill for a family physician. Teaching and learning electrocardiography is a difficult task, in part due to the erosion of knowledge when interpretation is not part of a daily activity. The objective of this study was to assess the current status of electrocardiography teaching in Canadian family medicine residency programs. A national survey was designed to specifically address the status of the ECG teaching curricula. This national survey was electronically sent to the family medicine program directors of all 17 Canadian accredited medical schools. Approximately 75% of the schools responded to the survey. There was a great variance among Canadian family medicine residency programs with respect to the time allotment, ECG training location, training faculty, and teaching methods utilized. The goals of each respective program are also quite wide-ranging. Family medicine residency programs across Canada are quite diverse regarding ECG training curricula and its goals. The need for a homogeneous way of teaching and evaluating has been identified.

  17. Are experimental smokers different from their never-smoking classmates? A multilevel analysis of Canadian youth in grades 9 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaai, S C; Manske, S R; Leatherdale, S T; Brown, K S; Murnaghan, D

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the characteristics of experimental smoking among youth is critical for designing prevention programs. This study examined which student- and school-level factors differentiated experimental smokers from never smokers in a nationally representative sample of Canadian students in grades 9 to 12. School-level data from the 2006 Canadian Census and one built environment characteristic (tobacco retailer density) were linked with data from secondary school students from the 2008-2009 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey and examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Experimental smoking rates varied across schools (p school (urban vs. rural) was associated with the odds of a student being an experimental smoker versus a never smoker when adjusting for student characteristics. Students were more likely to be experimental smokers if they were in a lower grade, reported low school connectedness, used alcohol or marijuana, believed that smoking can help people relax, received pocket money each week and had a family member or close friend who smoked cigarettes. School-based tobacco prevention programs need to be grade-sensitive and comprehensive in scope; include strategies that can increase students' attachment to their school; and address multi-substance use, tobacco-related beliefs and the use of pocket money. These programs should also reach out to students who have smoking friends and family members. Schools located in rural settings may require additional resources.

  18. Not Just "Sunny Days": Aboriginal Students Connect Out-of-School Literacy Resources with School Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltse, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I report on a school-university collaborative research project that investigated which practices and knowledges of Canadian Aboriginal students not acknowledged in school may provide these students with access to school literacy practices. The study, which took place in a small city in Western Canada, examined ways to merge the…

  19. Medical students' perceptions of nutrition education in Canadian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Leah M; Olstad, Dana Lee; Nasser, Roseanne; Goonewardene, Laki; Raman, Maitreyi; Innis, Sheila; Wicklum, Sonja; Duerksen, Donald; Rashid, Mohsin; Heyland, Daren; Armstrong, David; Roy, Claude

    2010-06-01

    Patients routinely seek physicians' guidance about diet and the relation between nutrition and the prevention and treatment of disease. However, the adequacy of nutrition instruction in undergraduate medical education is questionable. The purpose of this study was to investigate Canadian medical students' perceptions of and satisfaction with their education in nutrition. At 9 universities across Canada, a 23-item survey questionnaire was distributed in English and French to undergraduate medical students after at least 8 months of medical school. Overall, 9 of 17 universities participated in the survey, and 933 of the 3267 medical students approached completed the survey (response rate, 28.6%). Mean satisfaction with nutrition instruction received during medical school was 4.7 (+/-0.06) on a scale of 1-10, where 1 is very dissatisfied and 10 is very satisfied, and there were significant differences among schools (p Students were comfortable in their ability to counsel patients regarding basic nutrition concepts and the role of nutrition in prevention of disease, but were much less comfortable discussing the role of nutrition in the treatment of disease and nutrient requirements across the lifecycle, and in identifying credible sources of nutrition information. Of the 933 respondents, 87.2% believe that their undergraduate program should dedicate more time to nutrition education. The amount of nutrition instruction correlated with student satisfaction (p students are dissatisfied with the nutrition education they receive and their ability to provide relevant and appropriate nutrition counselling. This study paves the way for further discussions and development of strategies to improve nutrition education in medical schools in Canada.

  20. Comparison of Taiwanese and Canadian Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Science Reading, Text, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Ru; Chen, Shin-Feng; Fang, I.; Chou, Ching-Ting

    2014-03-01

    This study used a Chinese-language version of the Index of Science Reading Awareness to explore the science reading metacognition and comprehension of Taiwanese students. Structural equation modelling results confirmed the underlying model comprised three clusters of metacognitive knowledge: beliefs and confidence in science reading, knowledge of structure of science text, and knowledge of science reading strategies. The main contribution of the current research was to provide evidence about the relationship between metacognitive awareness and comprehension of science text. In addition, data comparisons to Canadian (British Columbia) benchmarks from the original development revealed that metacognitive awareness of science reading deteriorated from elementary to middle school in both countries, and there were no significant differences of metacognitive awareness of science reading between Canadian and Taiwanese students. Instructional suggestions for raising students' metacognitive awareness on science reading were discussed.

  1. Apps and Mobile Support Services in Canadian Academic Medical Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Grynoch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine how Canadian academic medical libraries are supporting mobile apps, what apps are currently being provided by these libraries, and what types of promotion are being used. Methods: A survey of the library websites for the 17 medical schools in Canada was completed. For each library website surveyed, the medical apps listed on the website, any services mentioned through this medium, and any type of app promotion events were noted. When Facebook and Twitter accounts were evident, the tweets were searched and the past two years of Facebook posts scanned for mention of medical apps or mobile services/events. Results: All seventeen academic medical libraries had lists of mobile medical apps with a large range in the number of medical relevant apps (average=31, median= 23. A total of 275 different apps were noted and the apps covered a wide range of subjects. Five of the 14 Facebook accounts scanned had posts about medical apps in the past two years while 11 of the 15 Twitter accounts had tweets about medical apps. Social media was only one of the many promotional methods noted. Outside of the app lists and mobile resources guides, Canadian academic medical libraries are providing workshops, presentations, and drop-in sessions for mobile medical apps. Conclusion: While librarians cannot simply compare mobile services and resources between academic medical libraries without factoring in a number of other circumstances, librarians can learn from mobile resources strategies employed at other libraries, such as using research guides to increase medical app literacy.

  2. Cyberbullying in Schools: Nature and Extent of Canadian Adolescents' Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2005-01-01

    This study is an exploration of the cyberbullying issue. The primary focus is on the examination of the nature and extent of adolescents' cyberbullying experiences. Particularly, the following research questions guide this exploration: (1) To what extent do adolescents experience cyberbullying? (2) What are the characteristics of cyberbullying?…

  3. East-Asian Students' Choice of Canadian Graduate Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    This study seeks to explain why and how international graduate students from East Asia choose to come to Canada to pursue advanced education, to assess the strengths and dynamics of the factors influencing the enrollment decision, and to describe possible implications both for education-exporting countries and universities offering graduate…

  4. Wiz Kidz: Fostering School Connectedness through an In-School Student Mentoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne-Foresi, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This study explores a student mentoring program called the Wiz Kidz, located within a Canadian urban elementary school of 420 students. The Wiz Kidz participants, their teachers and parents, and a student comparison group provided data on student connectedness to school, peers, and teachers. Overall findings suggest the students involved in the…

  5. Case Studies of School Community and Climate: Success Narratives of Schools in Challenging Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Darlene Ciuffetelli; Grenville, Heather; Flessa, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a Canadian qualitative case study project funded by the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario. The paper describes success stories of students and communities affected by poverty from a diverse sample of eleven elementary schools throughout the province of Ontario. Over the period of one school year (2007-2008) and…

  6. Whether or wither some specialties: a survey of Canadian medical student career interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenneis Fraser R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the looming shortage of physicians in Canada, we wished to determine how closely the career preference of students entering Canadian medical schools was aligned with the current physician mix in Canada. Methods Career choice information was collected from a survey of 2,896 Canadian medical students upon their entry to medical school. The distribution of career choices of survey respondents was compared to the current physician speciality mix in Canada. Results We show that there is a clear mismatch between student career choice at medical school entry and the current specialty mix of physicians in Canada. This mismatch is greatest in Urban Family Medicine with far fewer students interested in this career at medical school entry compared to the current proportion of practicing physicians. There are also fewer students interested in Psychiatry than the current proportion of practicing physicians. Conclusion This mismatch between the student interest and the current proportion of practicing physicians in the various specialities in Canada is particularly disturbing in the face of the current sub-optimal distribution of physicians. If nothing is done to correct this mismatch of student interest in certain specialities, shortages and misdistributions of physicians will be further amplified. Studies such as this can give a window into the future health human resources challenges for a nation.

  7. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...... penthouse flats, and new urban functions within the area or spectacular new public spaces near it. In this paper the social impact of such transformations are analysed and dis-cussed based on case-studies in 3 Danish areas: Gyldenrisparken, Finland-sparken and Mjølnerparken/Superkilen. The analysis shows...

  8. Ultrastructural relationship of the phagophore with surrounding organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazik, Joanna; Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Phagophore nucleates from a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) termed the omegasome and also makes contact with other organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi complex, plasma membrane and recycling endosomes during its formation. We have used serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SB-EM) and electron tomography (ET) to image phagophore biogenesis in 3 dimensions and to determine the relationship between the phagophore and surrounding organelles at high resolution. ET was performed to confirm whether membrane contact sites (MCSs) are evident between the phagophore and those surrounding organelles. In addition to the known contacts with the ER, we identified MCSs between the phagophore and membranes from putative ER exit sites, late endosomes or lysosomes, the Golgi complex and mitochondria. We also show that one phagophore can have simultaneous MCSs with more than one organelle. Future membrane flux experiments are needed to determine whether membrane contacts also signify lipid translocation.

  9. Mechanical Characteristics Analysis of Surrounding Rock on Anchor Bar Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuan-cheng; Zhou, Pan; Huang, Rong-bin

    2018-03-01

    Through the homogenization method, the composite of rock and anchor bar is considered as the equivalent material of continuous, homogeneous, isotropic and strength parameter enhancement, which is defined as reinforcement body. On the basis of elasticity, the composite and the reinforcement are analyzed, Based on strengthening theory of surrounding rock and displacement equivalent conditions, the expression of reinforcement body strength parameters and mechanical parameters is deduced. The example calculation shows that the theoretical results are close to the results of the Jia-mei Gao[9], however, closer to the results of FLAC3D numerical simulation, it is proved that the model and surrounding rock reinforcement body theory are reasonable. the model is easy to analyze and calculate, provides a new way for determining reasonable bolt support parameters, can also provides reference for the stability analysis of underground cavern bolting support.

  10. Trajectories and Maneuvers of Surrounding Vehicles with Panoramic Camera Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    four visual sensors for a full surround view of a vehicle in order to achieve an understanding of surrounding vehicle behaviors. The framework will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies by automating the task of data reduction of the observed trajectories. To this end, trajectories......Vision-based research for intelligent vehicles have traditionally focused on specific regions around a vehicle, such as a front looking camera for, e.g., lane estimation. Traffic scenes are complex and vital information could be lost in unobserved regions. This paper proposes a framework that uses...... are estimated using a vehicle detector together with a multiperspective optimized tracker in each view. The trajectories are transformed to a common ground plane, where they are associated between perspectives and analyzed to reveal tendencies around the ego-vehicle. The system is tested on sequences from 2.5 h...

  11. Methods of Assessing Noise Nuisance of Real Estate Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopińska Kinga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing what factors create the market value of real estate is key information when preparing property valuations as well as other opinions and professional evaluations on the basis of which court verdicts or administrative decisions are made. One of the factors influencing the value of some real estate is the level of noise present in the surroundings, which can lead to the occurrence of noise nuisance negatively affecting social relations.

  12. Diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and surroundings (presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzesova, A.; Galusova, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation is a summary of the results of floristic research aimed at determining diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and its surroundings. Plant taxa we determined using the designation keys. We have compiled a list of plant species occurring in the monitored area, we evaluated the selected botanical-phytogeographical characteristics of flora, we've put together a list of local protected, endangered and rare species and a list of local invasive and expansive species according to sources. (Authors)

  13. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  14. Influence of surround proximity on induction of brown and darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Steven L; Shelton, Andrew; Stoehr, Brooke; Hadyanto, Vina; Tang, Miaolu; Morimoto, Takuma; DeLawyer, Tanner

    2016-03-01

    A bright white surround makes a yellow long-wavelength target look both browner and darker. We explored the parallel between these two types of induction by examining their dependence on the proximity of the bright surround to the target at two different time scales with 27 ms and 1 s stimulus durations. We assessed (a) brown induction by adjustment of target luminance to perceptual brown and yellow boundaries and (b) darkness induction by a successive matching procedure. We found that brown induction is a quick process that is robust even for 27 ms stimuli. For darkness induction, there was a strong, spatially localized surround proximity effect for the 27 ms stimuli and much weaker proximity effect for the 1 s stimuli. For brown induction, proximity effects were generally weaker but still showed relatively stronger localized proximity effects for 27 ms stimuli than for 1 s stimuli. For these stimuli, darkness induction predicts the relative pattern but not the magnitudes of brown induction. Both brown and darkness inductions show the operation of quick, spatially localized processes that are apparently superseded by other processes for extended stimulus presentations.

  15. Exploring Canadian Echinoderm Diversity through DNA Barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kara K S; Corstorphine, Erin A; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding has proven an effective tool for species identification in varied groups of marine invertebrates including crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and echinoderms. In this study, we further validate its utility by analyzing almost half of the 300 species of Echinodermata known from Canadian waters. COI sequences from 999 specimens were assigned to 145 BINs. In most cases, species discrimination was straightforward due to the large difference (25-fold) between mean intra- (0.48%) and inter- (12.0%) specific divergence. Six species were flagged for further taxonomic investigation because specimens assigned to them fell into two or three discrete sequence clusters. The potential influence of larval dispersal capacity and glacial events on patterns of genetic diversity is discussed for 19 trans-oceanic species. Although additional research is needed to clarify biogeographic patterns and resolve taxonomic questions, this study represents an important step in the assembly of a DNA barcode library for all Canadian echinoderms, a valuable resource for future biosurveillance programs.

  16. Canadian petroleum history bibliography. Release update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2010-01-07

    The petroleum history bibliography was created over several years as a record dedicated to preserving the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. It comprises a list of more than 5000 publications, including books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles and stories of the many companies that have come and gone. It aims to include all publications and audio visual products from the Social Sciences and Humanities on company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry and humour. An author index is included. Most government documents are excluded as they are accessible through Library and Archives Canada. This bibliography is an ongoing piece of work, and welcomes any additions relating to the study and preservation of Canadian petroleum industry history.

  17. International uranium production. An eastern Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Eastern Canadian perspective on uranium production is based on 30 years of continuous mining at Elliot Lake and on the experience of selling uranium over the same time period, mainly to export markets. In Ontario the orebodies are basically contiguous, being part of the same large formation. All the mining is underground. Ore grades are low, but economic extraction is improved by continuity and uniformity of grades, stable ground conditions, and the ability to mine and mill on a large scale. Mining is being carried out by two companies, Denison and Rio Algom. It is unlikely that mine capacity will be increased. Government policies have significant effects on the Eastern Canadian uranium industry in particular, as to U.S. import policies. (L.L.)

  18. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautovich, D.P.; Gierszewski, P.J.; Wong, K.Y.; Stasko, R.R.; Burnham, C.D.

    1987-04-01

    The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project (CFFTP) is a national project whose aim is to develop capability in tritium and robotics technologies for application to international fusion development programs. Activities over the first five years have brought substantial interaction with the world's leading projects such as Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the Joint European Torus (JET), and the Next European Torus (NET), Canadian R and D and engineering services, and hardware are in demand as these major projects prepare for tritium operation leading to the demonstration of energy breakeven around 1990. Global planning is underway for the next generation ignition experiment. It is anticipated this will provide increased opportunity for CFFTP and its contractors among industry, universities and governmental laboratories

  19. Canadian heavy oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, G.

    1997-01-01

    The wealth of business opportunities presented by Canada's vast heavy oil and bitumen resources in the face of declining reserves of light and medium crude were discussed. It was argued that Western Canadian producers, as a group, appear to lack the appreciation of the impacts of midstream and downstream sectors of the heavy oil business. The vertical integration of the heavy oil industry in Venezuela was cited as an example of the direction that Canadian producers should travel to achieve the control over their own destiny through ownership of the means of transportation, refining and marketing that is commensurate with their growing importance in the energy sector. The opportunities are great, but long-term success will require a sophisticated and integrated business approach. 4 figs

  20. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, P.; Meek, M.E.

    1983-11-01

    Because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies in Canada, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. The Canadian studies provide no consistent, convincing evidence of increased cancer risks attributable to the ingestion of drinking water contaminated by asbestos, even though the observed asbestos concentrations were relatively high in several communities. Only one study, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, has shown evidence of increased cancer incidence associated with the ingestion of asbestos in drinking water. 6 references.

  1. Canadian Clinical Practice Guidelines for Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yuka; Tan, Jerry; Baibergenova, Akerke; Barankin, Benjamin; Cochrane, Chris L; Humphrey, Shannon; Lynde, Charles W; Marcoux, Danielle; Poulin, Yves; Rivers, Jason K; Sapijaszko, Mariusz; Sibbald, R Gary; Toole, John; Ulmer, Marcie; Zip, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial inflammatory dermatosis characterized by background facial erythema and flushing and may be accompanied by inflammatory papules and pustules, cutaneous fibrosis and hyperplasia known as phyma, and ocular involvement. These features can have adverse impact on quality of life, and ocular involvement can lead to visual dysfunction. The past decade has witnessed increased research into pathogenic pathways involved in rosacea and the introduction of novel treatment innovations. The objective of these guidelines is to offer evidence-based recommendations to assist Canadian health care providers in the diagnosis and management of rosacea. These guidelines were developed by an expert panel of Canadian dermatologists taking into consideration the balance of desirable and undesirable outcomes, the quality of supporting evidence, the values and preferences of patients, and the costs of treatment. The 2015 Cochrane review "Interventions in Rosacea" was used as a source of clinical trial evidence on which to base the recommendations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Canadian oil and gas survey : 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    An outlook of the Canadian Petroleum Industry, financial and operating statistics of the top 100 Canadian public oil and gas companies and 15 energy income trusts, were summarized for the fiscal year ending in 1996. In general, 1996 was a good year for the industry. Greater industry financing resulted in increased drilling activity and good stock market returns for investors. However, strong commodity prices also resulted in record levels of hedging activity, which meant lost revenues for the industry. The top 100 companies recorded losses of about $800 million in 1996, largely on crude oil hedges. The fact that volumes hedged forward to 1997 are down from 1996 indicate that many companies are rethinking their commitment to risk management. Details of crude oil and natural gas prices and production levels during 1996 were provided. A list of significant corporate mergers and acquisitions during the year under review rounded out the presentation

  3. Canadian Petroleum Products Inst. annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) was created in 1989 as a nonprofit association of Canadian refiners and marketers of petroleum products. The objective of the CPPI is to serve and represent the refining and marketing sectors of the petroleum industry with respect to environment, health and safety, and business issues. CPPI conducts research to develop industry policy on a wide variety of environmental, health, safety and business issues. Key activities include: developing guidelines for the safe handling of petroleum products, establishing environmental policies, managing a national environmental protection network of over 100 centers across Canada; providing information on industry activities to the public; and developing working partnerships with government and public interest groups to address issues of common concern. An overview is provided of industry operations, economics and financial performance, and environmental protection and safety. Lists of CPPI publications, awards, standing committees, and officers are also included. 9 figs

  4. Survey of Canadian hospitals radiation emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the findings of a survey of Canadian hospitals conducted by Social Data Research Ltd. during the Spring and Summer, 1995. The main objective of the survey was to determine the state of readiness of Canadian hospitals in respect of radiation emergency planning. In addition, the AECB was interested in knowing the extent to which a report by the Group of Medical Advisors, 'GMA-3: Guidelines on Hospital Emergency Plans for the Management of Minor Radiation Accidents', which was sponsored and distributed in 1993, was received and was useful to hospital administrators and emergency personnel. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 598 acute care hospitals, and 274 responses were received. The main conclusion of this study is that, with the exception of a few large institutions, hospitals generally do not have specific action plans to handle minor radiation accidents. (author)

  5. Committing Canadian sociology: developing a Canadian sociology and a sociology of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ralph

    2014-05-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of the author's "Outstanding Career Award Lecture" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria, British Columbia on June 6, 2013. The paper distinguishes between Canadian Sociology and the Sociology of Canada. The former involves the explanatory stance that one takes to understanding Canada. The latter addresses the significant social dimensions that underlie Canadian social organization, culture, and behavior. I make a case for a Canadian Sociology that focuses on the unique features of Canadian society rather than adopting a comparative perspective. I also argue that there is a continuing need within the Sociology of Canada to address the issues of staples development. However, I argue that "new" staples analysis must have a directional change from that of the past, in that social processes now largely determine the pattern of staples development. Moreover, new staples analysis must include issues that were never part of earlier staples analysis, such as issues of environmental impacts and of staples depletion under conditions, such as climate change. The paper concludes by analyzing four factors that provide the dominant social contexts for analyzing modern staples development: (1) the rise of neoliberal government, (2) the implementation of globalization and its social consequences, (3) the assumption of aboriginal rights and entitlement, and (4) the rise of environmentalism. These factors were generally not considered in earlier staples approaches. They are critical to understanding the role of staples development and its impact on Canada in the present time.

  6. Globalization, health, and the future Canadian metropolis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schrecker, Ted

    2010-01-01

    This chapter represents a preliminary effort to understand the health implications of transnsational economic integration (globalization) for population health in Canadian metropolitan areas, and to inform the development of policy responses and strategies of resistance. Special emphasis is placed on health equity as it is affected by social determinants of health. I first provide a stylized description of the rationale for concentrating on major metropolitan areas, rather than on...

  7. Canadians trying to join US transmission groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, David; Salaff, Stephen.

    1994-01-01

    Various competition problems faced by Canadian utilities and attempts to solve them, were described. E.g. B.C. Hydro and its electricity trade subsidiary Powerex have moved to become members of the Western Regional Transmission Association (WRTA), an association of about 40 utilities which serve part of the western United States. Through the WRTA, Powerex seeks fair terms to ensure its access to the U.S. market. Membership allows fast dispute resolution and enhances sales to California and other western states. Concern was expressed by the U.S Dept.of Energy about the lack of reciprocity.In the year ending March 1994, Powerex exported 2,600 gigawatt-hours of electricity, over 90% to the U.S. This was a l ow water year for hydroelectric-based BC Hydro, in which surplus energy available for export was only about half of what is usually available. Ontario Hydro and other provincially owned utilities were said to be challenged by U.S. industry deregulation and open transmission policies. If Canadian utilities fail to initiate structural changes leading to open access policies, their economic competitiveness may well decline. If on the other hand Canadian utilities decided to adopt open access policies, they would need to shed their monopolistic practices and accelerate restructuring in the face of wholesale competition. They could face direct retail competition in their currently captive provincial markets from U.S. and alternative Canadian suppliers. In an open competition scenario up to 20% of Ontario Hydro's domestic sales were said to be in danger of being displaced by imports from New York and Michigan

  8. Canadian mercury inventories: the missing pieces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagreen, L.A.; Lourie, B.A. [Summerhill Group, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the significance of the deliberate use of mercury in products in Canada and the associated releases from these sources. Through a combination of literature review and new calculations, the reservoir, flux, and releases of mercury from eight product sources were calculated, and these results compared to historical Canadian inventories. Mercury contributions from the waste sector were also assessed and compared to total Canadian mercury releases and to mercury releases from coal-fired generating stations. Results suggest the use and release of mercury associated with its use in products is 4.5 times what previous inventories indicate. Including dental amalgam and sewage sludge, the total releases of mercury to all environmental compartments in Canada totals 20 tonnes per year. This accounts for less than one-half of the 44 tonnes per year of mercury released from mercury waste disposal each year in Canada. Waste mercury contributions from hazardous waste imports, unknown product sources, and incomplete information on the use of mercury in known products may account for this discrepancy. Waste-related mercury releases and transfers for disposal and recycling are 11 times greater than that of electricity generation in Canada. Results indicate that Canadian inventories have underestimated the significance of mercury use and release associated with products, calling into question the current priorities for mercury management. This paper was developed as part of a panel session at the International Joint Commission 'Mercury in the Ecosystem' workshop, February 26-27, 2003, Windsor, ON, Canada, as a complement to the information on Canadian Inventories presented by Luke Trip (Senes Consulting, Ottawa, ON, Canada).

  9. Guide to Canadian Aerospace Related Industries,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Aircraft, DeHavilland, Grumman Aircraft, and Canadian Digital Radar Data Processing - Contract with Fundacao Vickers Ltd. Educacional de Bauru, Brazil...surveyed by 6939 East Hastings St Avco Lycoming, Bendix Energy Control, Cleveland Pneuma- Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5C 5P3 tic , General...backscatter, magne- directly or through its subsidiaries and associates in the manu- tic , and eddy current thickness testing; radiography; facture of electrical

  10. Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view.

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, P; Meek, M E

    1983-01-01

    For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that...

  11. Roundtable Discussion on the Canadian Economy


    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Doug; Ivanova, Iglika; Dobrzanski, Chris; Garrosino, Sandy

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2008 global financial earthquake, the world economy has continued to be turbulent.

The roundtable discussion focussed on the Canadian economy within the 2012 global environment, but with a specific Vancouver and BC based perspective. Each of the panellists, from their own vantage point, talked about concerns with the economy, opportunities in the mid and long term for BC, and public policy ideas that they would put forward to improve the BC economy. The discussion was  followe...

  12. Tornado Mitigation in the Canadian Prairie Region

    OpenAIRE

    Durage, Samanthi, Prof.

    2014-01-01

    Tornadoes are a destructive form of the extreme weather associated with thunderstorms. Canada gets more tornadoes than any other country with the exception of the US. This paper presents some results of a study on tornado mitigation in the Canadian Prairie region. Initially, a regression-based analysis of the Prairie tornado database was conducted, and the trend for the number of tornadoes reported in each year is discussed in this paper. The detection, warning, communication, and evacuation ...

  13. Waste management in Canadian nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyne, P.J.

    1975-08-01

    The report describes the wide-ranging program of engineering developments and applications to provide the Canadian nuclear industry with the knowledge and expertise it needs to conduct its waste management program. The need for interim dry storage of spent fuel, and the storage and ultimate disposal of waste from fuel reprocessing are examined. The role of geologic storage in AECL's current waste management program is also considered. (R.A.)

  14. Canadian Multiculturalism, Same as it ever Was?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Hoyos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War ended, Canada was no longer mainly composed of its two dominant ethnocultural groups, French and English, but rather constituted by polyethnicity; meaning, Canadian culture was made up of many different ethnic groups. Since then, Canada has actively embraced multiculturalism and on 12 July 1988, the House of Commons passed Bill C-93, ‘An Act for the preservation and enhancement of multiculturalism in Canada’. The Canadian multicultural experience has been much portrayed as a celebration of ethnicity where different cultural groups share their customs and learn from each other. However, it is recently being rumoured that the multiculturalism hype is not all it is cut out to be and segregates communities rather than integrate. According to Canadian authors Keith Banting and Will Kymlicka, “in much of the world and particularly in Europe, there is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed” (44. In this paper, I examine some recent common issues of concern, especially, racism and discrimination, through the literary expression of Canadian playwrights and writers such as George F. Walker, Cecil Foster, and Mordecai Richler. These writers are not meant to represent any ethnic group as a whole, but rather try to project a general feeling about the nation in individual ways. I will finally explore the idea of how perhaps multiculturalism in Canada is evolving into another state since migratory patterns and the social circumstances that Canada is facing in the 21st century have changed. Today, the idea of celebrating different ethnicities and customs is no longer as important as celebrating the transcultural or “transnational” aspects of relations between individuals and groups of immigrants.

  15. International surgery: definition, principles and Canadian practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lett, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the Canadian international surgeon, Norman Bethune (1890–1939). International surgery is defined as a humanitarian branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of bodily injuries or disorders by incision or manipulations, emphasizing cooperation and understanding among nations and involving education, research, development and advocacy. In this article I review the colonial past, the dark ages following the Declaration of Alma-Ata, the progress made and the pre...

  16. Diabetic Retinopathy in Native and Nonnative Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Stuart A.; McKenna, Anne; Mozejko, Sheila; Fick, Gordon H.

    2007-01-01

    High prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes are being observed in native Canadian communities. It is believed that native populations have a higher prevalence rate of vascular complications than nonnatives. The Southern Alberta Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) examined the prevalence and incidence of DR and associated metabolic abnormalities in native and nonnative subjects. Prevalence rates of DR in type 2 diabetic native and nonnative subjects were identical, with a prevalence rate of 40%. N...

  17. Science Traverses in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into three parts. Part I is an overview of early expeditions to the High Arctic, and their political consequences at the time. The focus then shifts to the Geological Survey of Canada s mapping program in the North (Operation Franklin), and to the Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a unique organization that resides within the Government of Canada s Department of Natural Resources, and supports mapping projects and science investigations. PCSP is highlighted throughout the presentation so a description of mandate, budgets, and support infrastructure is warranted. In Part II, the presenter describes the planning required in advance of scientific deployments carried out in the Canadian High Arctic from the perspective of government and university investigators. Field operations and challenges encountered while leading arctic field teams in fly camps are also described in this part of the presentation, with particular emphasis on the 2008 field season. Part III is a summary of preliminary results obtained from a Polar Survey questionnaire sent out to members of the Arctic research community in anticipation of the workshop. The last part of the talk is an update on the analog program at the Canadian Space Agency, specifically, the Canadian Analog Research Network (CARN) and current activities related to Analog missions, 2009-2010.

  18. Integrative practices of Canadian oncology health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, A S A; Balneaves, L G; Seely, D; Stephen, J E; Suryaprakash, N; Taylor-Brown, J W

    2008-08-01

    Cancer patients are increasingly known to use complementary medicine (CAM) during conventional treatment, but data are limited on how Canadian oncology health professionals attempt to assist patients with their use of cam in the context of conventional cancer care. As part of a larger qualitative study assessing the perceptions of Canadian oncology health professionals regarding integrated breast cancer care, we undertook an exploration of current integrative practices of oncology health professionals. Using an interpretive description research design and a purposive sampling, we conducted a series of in-depth qualitative interviews with various oncology health professionals recruited from provincial cancer agencies, hospitals, integrative clinics, and private practice settings in four Canadian cities: Vancouver, Winnipeg, Montreal, and Halifax. A total of 16 oncology health professionals participated, including medical and radiation oncologists, nurses, and pharmacists. Findings highlighted two main strategies used by oncology health professionals to create a more integrative approach for cancer patients: acting as an integrative care guide, and collaborating with other health professionals. Although few clear standards of practice or guidance material were in place within their organizational settings, health professionals discussed some integrative roles that they had adopted, depending on interest, knowledge, and skills, in supporting patients with cam decisions. Given that cancer patients report that they want to be able to confer with their conventional health professionals, particularly their oncologists, about their cam use, health professionals who elect to adopt integrative practices are likely offering patients much-welcomed support.

  19. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country's four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs

  20. The Canadian elder standard - pricing the cost of basic needs for the Canadian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Andrews, Doug; Brown, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    We determined the after-tax income required to finance basic needs for Canadian elders living with different circumstances in terms of age, gender, city of residence, household size, homeowner or renter status, means of transportation, and health status. Using 2001 as our base year, we priced the typical expenses for food, shelter, medical, transportation, miscellaneous basic living items and home-based long-term care for elders living in five Canadian cities. This is the first Canadian study of basic living expenses tailored to elders instead of adults in general, prepared on an absolute rather than a relative basis. We also accounted for an individual's unique life circumstances and established the varying effect that they have on the cost of basic expenses, particularly for home care. We found that the maximum Guaranteed Income Supplement and Old Age Security benefit did not meet the cost of basic needs for an elder living in poor circumstances.

  1. The task ahead: a Canadian federal regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, F.F.

    1983-06-01

    The author discusses the role of the Canadian National Energy Board (NEB) in any possible future exports of nuclear-generated electric power. The federal government has already indicated that it would support New Brunswick Power in its efforts to develop a second reactor at Point Lepreau dedicated to power export, and that similar support would be extended to other utilities. The NEB Act requires that a proposed energy export be surplus to reasonable foreseeable Canadian requirements and that the price be just and reasonable. The output of a plant built for power exports would be surplus to Canadian needs, but the problem comes in determining if producing that surplus would result in a net benefit to Canadians. Negotiating sales contracts will not be easy; purchase of Canadian firm power is only one option among others available to US utilities. However, the Canadian policy framework exists and the NEB is ready to receive applications for export licences

  2. Canada's Schools Abroad: Expanding the Pathways. CBIE Market Reports Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Bureau for International Education (CBIE) - Bureau canadien de l’éducation internationale (BCEI), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This CBIE pathways study, jointly supported by the Global Opportunities for Associations (GOA) program and by CBIE, aims to support recruitment efforts by Canadian institutions in priority markets by outlining the current situation and identifying best practices for increasing the number of Canadian offshore school graduates choosing a Canadian…

  3. Students in Nova Scotia Schools Without Teacher-Librarians are not Achieving Department of Education Expectations for Information Literacy Skills. A review of: Gunn, Holly, and Gary Hepburn. “Seeking Information for School Purposes on the Internet.” Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 29.1 (Winter 2003: 67‐88. 24 May 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Bogel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study investigated whether the expectations for Internet searching strategies outlined in provincial curriculumg oals are being met in Nova Scotia Schools. Twelfth-grade students in representative schools were surveyed as to their Internet information seeking strategies and their perceptions of the effectiveness of those strategies. The results are presented as six themes based on the survey questions.Design – Survey questionnaire consisting of yes/no, multiple-choice, Likert style, and open‐ended responses.Setting – Twelfth‐grade students from four high schools in one district in Nova Scotia. Total participants: 198.Subjects – Questionnaires were analyzed from 243 general practitioners, practice nurses, and practice managers in four Nottingham primary care trusts as well as practices in the Rotherham Health Authority area.Methods – Four research questions guided this study: 1. What strategies and techniques do students use that are helpful for information‐seeking on the Internet? 2. What knowledge do students have of the different World Wide Web search engines? 3. How do students perceive their ability to locate information for school purposes on the Internet? 4. How do students learn how to seek information on the Internet for school related assignments? The survey was developed through a literature review of previous research. Each survey item reflected a theme and one of the four research questions. The survey was field tested in a pilot study with two twelfth‐grade students, and two twelfth grade English classes.The sample was assembled by asking principals at the four schools to identify two classes in each of their schools that represented mixed academic abilities. Three schools chose English classes, and one school chose math classes participate in the study. All students had agreed to be a part of the study and only students present in class on the day the questionnaire was given were represented. No

  4. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  5. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...INSTALLATION OF THE CANADIAN MUON CARGO INSPECTION SYSTEM AT CRL 153-30100-REPT-001 Revision 0 2013/02/19 UNRESTRICTED 2013/02/19 ILLIMITÉ 153...30100-REPT-001 2013/02/19 Report, General Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Research and Development 153-30100

  6. Canadian capital spending to slip 4.7% in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Total capital and exploration spending by the Canadian petroleum industry is estimated at $6.579 billion in 1993, a drop of 4.7% from estimated 1992 outlays. Last year Canadian capital spending of $6.9 billion represented a drop of 8.9% from 1991 outlays, according to an Oil and Gas Journal survey. All survey related spending estimates in this paper are in U.S. dollars. All individual company spending estimates are in Canadian dollars

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Driving: A Canadian Thoracic Society and Canadian Sleep Society Position Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib Ayas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA experience sleep fragmentation and poor sleep quality that results in daytime sleepiness, which impairs performance during driving and leads to an increased risk for collisions. Not surprisingly, observational studies have shown that patients with OSA experience a two- to 10-fold higher risk for collision compared with healthy controls. Although treatment would clearly mitigate these risks, there is no current Canadian position on driving and OSA. This article, the first Canadian position statement addressing the issue, provides an overview of provincial regulations and proposes recommendations with regard to driving in patients with OSA.

  8. Cross-language acoustic similarity predicts perceptual assimilation of Canadian English and Canadian French vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Vasiliev, Polina

    2011-11-01

    Monolingual Peruvian Spanish listeners identified natural tokens of the Canadian French (CF) and Canadian English (CE) /ɛ/ and /æ/, produced in five consonantal contexts. The results demonstrate that while the CF vowels were mapped to two different native vowels, /e/ and /a/, in all consonantal contexts, the CE contrast was mapped to the single native vowel /a/ in four out of five contexts. Linear discriminant analysis revealed that acoustic similarity between native and target language vowels was a very good predictor of context-specific perceptual mappings. Predictions are made for Spanish learners of the /ɛ/-/æ/ contrast in CF and CE.

  9. The amazing vanishing Canadian dermatologist: results from the 2006 Canadian Dermatology Association member survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eunice Y; Searles, Gordon E

    2010-01-01

    The 2006 Canadian Dermatology Association (CDA) member survey tracked the Canadian dermatology workforce. Information on use of nondermatologist extenders, impact of financial burden on practice style, and wait times was collected in the survey. To survey Canadian dermatologists for specialty-specific physician resource information including demographics, workload, and future career plans and compare it to results from the 2001 survey. In addition, to explore three other areas not covered in the previous survey: patient access to dermatologic care through wait times, the use of nondermatologist extenders, and potential impact of educational financial debt on practice styles. CDA members in 2006 were surveyed by mail. Follow-up mailings were done for nonresponders. Survey results were compared to those of the 2001 survey. Thirty-six percent (216 of 602) of Canadian dermatologists responded (70% in 2001). The national distribution was identical between surveys. The median age increased to 55 years; two-thirds of dermatologists are male. The median retirement age remained at 65 years. There was a shift from rural to urban practice locations; 78% practice in private offices. Three-fifths of dermatologists do mainly medical dermatology, a decrease between surveys. Pediatric dermatology decreased 10%, whereas surgical dermatology increased 52% between surveys. Fewer practitioners perform noninsured services, and half as many perform research or hospital consultations or teach medical students. Financial debt burden had no impact on selection of practice style. Median wait times for nonurgent consultations doubled from 5 to 10 weeks; follow-up visits increased from 4 to 5 weeks; noninsured consultations increased from 4 to 5 weeks. The national median wait time for a third available consultation appointment was 42 days (range 7-161 days). Seventeen percent of dermatologists reported using nondermatologist extenders. Training programs produce only 60% of new practitioners

  10. Shifting tides in the emigration patterns of Canadian physicians to the United States: a cross-sectional secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas R; Petterson, Stephen; Finnegan, Sean; Bazemore, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources. This analysis was undertaken to re-examine the issue of Canadian physician migration to the US. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2015 American Medical Association (AMA) Masterfile to identify and locate any graduates of Canadian schools of medicine (CMGs) working in the United States in direct patient care. We reviewed annual reports of the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS); the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry (CAPER); and the Canadian Collaborative Centre for Physician Resources (C3PR). Beginning in the early 1990s the number of CMGs locating in the U.S. reached an all-time high and then abruptly dropped off in 1995. CMGs are going to the US for post-graduate training in smaller numbers and, are less likely to remain than at any time since the 1970's. This four decade retrospective found considerable variation in the migration pattern of CMGs to the US. CMGs' decision to emigrate to the U.S. may be influenced by both 'push' and 'pull' factors. The relative strength of these factors changed and by 2004, more CMGs were returning from abroad than were leaving and the current outflow is negligible. This study supports the need for medical human resource planning to assume a long-term view taking into account national and international trends to avoid the rapid changes that were observed. These results are of importance to medical

  11. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  12. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  13. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. The science and questions surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Vin Shen; Madden, Christopher J; Bailes, Julian E; Hunt Batjer, H; Lonser, Russell R

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the pathobiology, causes, associated factors, incidence and prevalence, and natural history of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have been debated. Data from retrospective case series and high-profile media reports have fueled public fear and affected the medical community's understanding of the role of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the development of CTE. There are a number of limitations posed by the current evidence that can lead to confusion within the public and scientific community. In this paper, the authors address common questions surrounding the science of CTE and propose future research directions.

  16. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roots, F.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  17. The impacts of nuclear facilities on property values and other factors in the surrounding communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdek, R.H.; Wendling, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the impact of the siting of nuclear facilities on the adjacent communities. It reviews previous studies on the issue and then empirically examines the impacts of seven major nuclear facilities located throughout the USA on the surrounding communities. The analysis focuses on the effects on local property values, economic growth, tax revenues, public services, community development, jobs and employment, and schools. Using published data, economic and statistical analyses, literature reviews and interviews, it finds that the impacts of these facilities have been largely positive. The findings are placed in perspective, caveats are noted concerning the generalisation of the conclusions derived and recommendations for required further research are provided. (author)

  18. Admission Requirements to Canadian Faculties of Medicine and Their Selection Policies = Conditions d'Admission aux Facultes de Medecine Canadiennes et Leurs Politiques de Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Medical Colleges, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Information is presented to help applicants to Canadian medical colleges realistically assess their chances for gaining admission. The guide is also intended for career counselors in high schools and higher education. One section provides statistics on the following characteristics that are associated with being selected: sex, age, Medical College…

  19. Career development of McMaster University medical graduates and its implications for Canadian medical manpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, C A; Ferrier, B M

    1982-09-15

    A study was undertaken of the career paths and decisions, and the factors influencing the decisions, of the first six graduating classes of McMaster University's medical school. Climate and geography, preference for urban or rural living and influence of spouse were the factors that most influenced the location of practice, although the graduates who moved to the United States considered economic factors important too. Nearly one third of the specialists were practising in the United States. Personal challenge and positive clinical experience in the field were the major influences on choice of medical field. Graduates entering a specialty were more likely than those entering primary care to consider encouragement of others, a positive example set by medical school faculty members, working hours and research experience in the field as important influences on their choice of medical field. Data are needed on the career decisions, and the factors affecting them, of the graduates of all Canadian medical schools if Canadian medical manpower planning is to be realistic.

  20. Beyond nutrition: hunger and its impact on the health of young Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Michaelson, Valerie; Davison, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    In a large Canadian study, we examined: (1) the prevalence of hunger due to an inadequate food supply at home; (2) relations between this hunger and a range of health outcomes, and; (3) contextual explanations for any observed associations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 25,912 students aged 11-15 years from 436 Canadian schools. Analyses were descriptive and also involved hierarchical logistic regression models. Hunger was reported by 25 % of participants, with 4 % reporting this experience "often" or "always". Its prevalence was associated with socio-economic disadvantage and family-related factors, but not with whether or not a student had access to school-based food and nutrition programs. The consistency of hunger's associations with the health outcomes was remarkable. Relations between hunger and health were partially explained when models controlled for family practices, but not the socio-economic or school measures. Societal responses to hunger certainly require the provision of food, but may also consider family contexts and basic essential elements of care that children need to thrive.

  1. Examining international clinical internships for canadian physical therapy students from 1997 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth; Biggar, John M; Leggett, Adrienne; Huang, Adrian; Mori, Brenda; Nixon, Stephanie A; Landry, Michel D

    2010-01-01

    To describe international clinical internships (ICIs) for Canadian physical therapy (PT) students, explore the experiences of individuals involved in ICIs, and develop recommendations for future ICIs based on these findings. This study employed a mixed-methods approach. An online questionnaire surveyed academic coordinators of clinical education (ACCEs, n=14) on the availability, destinations, and number of ICIs from 1997 to 2007. Semi-structured telephone interviews were then conducted with eight PT students, seven ACCEs, and three supervising clinicians to investigate their ICI experiences. Interview transcripts were coded descriptively and thematically using NVivo. ICIs are currently available at 12 of 14 Canadian PT schools. A total of 313 students participated in ICIs in 51 different destination countries from 1997 to 2007. Over this period, increasing numbers of students participated in ICIs and developing countries represented an increasing proportion of ICI destinations. Key themes identified in the interviews were opportunities, challenges, and facilitating factors. ICIs present unique opportunities for Canadian PT students. Recommendations to enhance the quality of future ICIs are (1) clearly defined objectives for ICIs, (2) additional follow-up post-ICI, and (3) improved record keeping and sharing of information on ICI destination countries and host sites.

  2. REMOTE SENSING EFFICIENCY FOR URBAN ANALYSIS OF MECCA AND SURROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  3. Remote Sensing Efficiency for Urban Analysis of Mecca and Surrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Ayman; Alhaddad, Bahaa; Roca, Josep

    2016-06-01

    Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC) since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD) analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC) changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  4. A survey of senior medical students' attitudes and awareness toward teaching and participation in a formal clinical teaching elective: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Hughes, J D; Azzi, Elise; Rose, Gregory Walter; Ramnanan, Christopher J; Khamisa, Karima

    2017-01-01

    To prepare for careers in medicine, medical trainees must develop clinical teaching skills. It is unclear if Canadian medical students need or want to develop such skills. We sought to assess Canadian students' perceptions of clinical teaching, and their desire to pursue clinical teaching skills development via a clinical teaching elective (CTE) in their final year of medical school. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study of Canadian senior medical students, using an online survey to gauge teaching experience, career goals, perceived areas of confidence, and interest in a CTE. Students at 13 of 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in the survey (4154 students). We collected 321 responses (7.8%). Most (75%) respondents expressed confidence in giving presentations, but fewer were confident providing bedside teaching (47%), teaching sensitive issues (42%), and presenting at journal clubs (42%). A total of 240 respondents (75%) expressed interest in participating in a CTE. The majority (61%) favored a two week elective, and preferred topics included bedside teaching (85%), teaching physical examination skills (71%), moderation of small group learning (63%), and mentorship in medicine (60%). Our study demonstrates that a large number of Canadian medical students are interested in teaching in a clinical setting, but lack confidence in skills specific to clinical teaching. Our respondents signaled interest in participating in an elective in clinical teaching, particularly if it is offered in a two-week format.

  5. School site walkability and active school transport - association, mediation and moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Lars; Toftager, M.; Schipperijn, J.

    2014-01-01

    significantly moderated the association between the school walkability index and AST. This research confirms the association between the urban form surrounding schools and AST. Medium and highly walkable school sites in combination with a distance to school below 2. km, no speeding traffic and many paths...

  6. Canadian Hydrogen Association workshop on building Canadian strength with hydrogen systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Hydrogen Association workshop on 'Building Canadian Strength with Hydrogen Systems' was held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada on October 19-20, 2006. Over 100 delegates attended the workshop and there were over 50 presentations made. The Canadian Hydrogen Association (CHA) promotes the development of a hydrogen infrastructure and the commercialization of new, efficient and economic methods that accelerate the adoption of hydrogen technologies that will eventually replace fossil-based energy systems to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This workshop focused on defining the strategic direction of research and development that will define the future of hydrogen related energy developments across Canada. It provided a forum to strengthen the research, development and innovation linkages among government, industry and academia to build Canadian strength with hydrogen systems. The presentations described new technologies and the companies that are making small scale hydrogen and hydrogen powered vehicles. Other topics of discussion included storage issues, hydrogen safety, competition in the hydrogen market, hydrogen fuel cell opportunities, nuclear-based hydrogen production, and environmental impacts

  7. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Sink Potential of Canadian Agricultural Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Junkins, B.; Desjardins, R.; Lindwall, W.; Kulshreshtha, S.

    2004-01-01

    Net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Canadian crop and livestock production were estimated for 1990, 1996 and 2001 and projected to 2008. Net emissions were also estimated for three scenarios (low (L), medium (M) and high (H)) of adoption of sink enhancing practices above the projected 2008 level. Carbon sequestration estimates were based on four sink-enhancing activities: conversion from conventional to zero tillage (ZT), reduced frequency of summerfallow (SF), the conversion of cropland to permanent cover crops (PC), and improved grazing land management (GM). GHG emissions were estimated with the Canadian Economic and Emissions Model for Agriculture (CEEMA). CEEMA estimates levels of production activities within the Canadian agriculture sector and calculates the emissions and removals associated with those levels of activities. The estimates indicate a decline in net emissions from 54 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 in 1990 to 52 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 in 2008. Adoption of the sink-enhancing practices above the level projected for 2008 resulted in further declines in emissions to 48 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 (L), 42 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 (M) or 36 Tg CO2-Eq yr-1 (H). Among the sink-enhancing practices, the conversion from conventional tillage to ZT provided the largest C sequestration potential and net reduction in GHG emissions among the scenarios. Although rates of C sequestration were generally higher for conversion of cropland to PC and adoption of improved GM, those scenarios involved smaller areas of land and therefore less C sequestration. Also, increased areas of PC were associated with an increase in livestock numbers and CH4 and N2O emissions from enteric fermentation and manure, which partially offset the carbon sink. The CEEMA estimates indicate that soil C sinks are a viable option for achieving the UNFCCC objective of protecting and enhancing GHG sinks and reservoirs as a means of reducing GHG emissions (UNFCCC, 1992)

  9. The Changing Health of Canadian Grandparents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Margolis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility postponement and mortality decline are shifting the demography of the grandparent population in Canada. The ways in which the aging of the grandparent population affects families depends in large part on the health of grandparents. In this article, we document the aging of Canadian grandparents between 1985 and 2011. However, despite being older, grandparents are healthier, signaling that the compression of morbidity is outpacing the postponement of grandparenthood. This shift is partly due to the higher educational attainment of this population and partly due to secular improvements in health over time. The improved health of grandparents in Canada has important implications for intergenerational transfers and relationships.

  10. Government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of government intervention in the Canadian nuclear industry are examined by reviewing the general historical evolution of intervention since the Second World War and by a more detailed analysis of three case studies. The case studies are the public sector - private sector content of the initial CANDU reactor program in the 1950's, the regulation of the health and safety of uranium miners in the late 1960's and early 1970's, and the Ontario Hydro decision in 1978 to enter into longer-term (40 year) contracts for uranium for its power reactors. (auth)

  11. Canadian propane industry by the numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts from the 1997 'Canadian Propane Industry Statistical Review in Brief' are provided to illustrate propane production, transportation, industrial, automotive, agricultural, residential, commercial and public administration uses. Of the 12.67 billion litres of propane produced in Canada in 1997, approximately 60 per cent was exported to the United States at an average export price of 14.17 cents per litre. Total value of propane exports to the United States in 1997 exceeded one billion dollars. Ninety-five per cent of all propane produced in Canada originated from gas plants in Alberta. Major refinery production, as well as use as petrochemical feedstock was in Ontario, Alberta and Quebec

  12. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, D; Ng, T; Ahmad, C; Alfakeeh, A; Alruzug, I; Biagi, J; Brierley, J; Chaudhury, P; Cleary, S; Colwell, B; Cripps, C; Dawson, L A; Dorreen, M; Ferland, E; Galiatsatos, P; Girard, S; Gray, S; Halwani, F; Kopek, N; Mahmud, A; Martel, G; Robillard, L; Samson, B; Seal, M; Siddiqui, J; Sideris, L; Snow, S; Thirwell, M; Vickers, M; Goodwin, R; Goel, R; Hsu, T; Tsvetkova, E; Ward, B; Asmis, T

    2016-12-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2016 was held in Montreal, Quebec, 5-7 February. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and infectious diseases involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics: ■ Follow-up and survivorship of patients with resected colorectal cancer■ Indications for liver metastasectomy■ Treatment of oligometastases by stereotactic body radiation therapy■ Treatment of borderline resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer■ Transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma■ Infectious complications of antineoplastic agents.

  13. The Team to Address Bariatric Care in Canadian Children (Team ABC3): Team Grant Research Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    Severe obesity (SO) in Canadian children remains poorly understood. However, based on international data, the prevalence of SO appears to be increasing and is associated with a number of psychosocial, bio-mechanical, and cardiometabolic health risks. The purpose of our national Team to Address Bariatric Care in Canadian Children (Team ABC3) is to develop and lead a series of inter-related studies to enhance the understanding and management of SO in Canadian children and adolescents (0-18 years). From 2015 to 2019, Team ABC3 will conduct a series of projects at the regional, provincial, and national levels using multiple methods and study designs to respond to key knowledge gaps by (i) generating evidence on the prevalence of SO and its impact on health services utilization in children using existing Canadian data sources from primary care settings, (ii) exploring contemporary definitions of SO that link with health outcomes, (iii) comparing and contrasting health risks across the continuum of SO, (iv) understanding potential barriers to and facilitators of treatment success in children with SO, and (v) examining innovative lifestyle and behavioral interventions designed to successfully manage SO in children and their families. Furthermore, to examine the impact of innovative interventions on the management SO, we will (vi) evaluate whether adding a health coach, who provides support via text, email, and/or phone, improves children's ability to adhere to a web-based weight management program and (vii) test the feasibility and impact of a community-based weight management program for pre-school children with SO and their parents that combines group-based parenting sessions with in-home visits. Our research aligns with national priorities in obesity research, brings together leading scientists, clinicians, and stakeholders from across Canada, and will inform health services delivery throughout the country to provide the best care possible for children with SO and

  14. Evolution of gender representation among Canadian OTL-HNS residents: a 27-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorfi, Sarah; Schwartz, Joseph S; Verma, Neil; Young, Meredith; Joseph, Lawrence; Nguyen, Lily H P

    2017-08-29

    The proportion of females enrolling into medical schools has been growing steadily. However, the representation of female residents among individual specialties has shown considerable variation. The purpose of this study was to compare the trends of gender representation in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (OTL-HNS) residency programs with other specialty training programs in Canada. In order to contextualize these findings, a second phase of analysis examined the success rate of applicants of different genders to OTL-HNS residency programs. Anonymized data were obtained from the Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) and from the Canadian Post-M.D. Education Registry (CAPER) from 1988 to 2014. The differences in gender growth rates were compared to other subspecialty programs of varying size. Descriptive analysis was used to examine gender representation among OTL-HNS residents across years, and to compare these trends with other specialties. Bayesian hierarchical models were fit to analyze the growth in program rates in OTL-HNS based on gender. CaRMS and CAPER data over a 27 year period demonstrated that OTL-HNS has doubled its female representation from 20% to 40% between 1990 and 1994 and 2010-2014. The difference in annual growth rate of female representation versus male representation in OTL-HNS over this time period was 2.7%, which was similar to other large specialty programs and surgical subspecialties. There was parity in success rates of female and male candidates ranking OTL-HNS as their first choice specialty for most years. Female representation in Canadian OTL-HNS residency programs is steadily increasing over the last 27 years. Large variation in female applicant acceptance rates was observed across Canadian universities, possibly attributable to differences in student body or applicant demographics. Factors influencing female medical student career selection to OTL-HNS require further study to mitigate disparities in gender

  15. Adherence to Dietary Recommendations Supports Canadian Children's Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Montemurro, Genevieve; Storey, Kate E; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to determine if adherence to established Canadian, American, and WHO-developed nutrition recommendations supported children's academic achievement. Data from a health survey of 1595 grade 5 students in Alberta, Canada, was used. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to recommendations for food group servings, saturated fat intake, and free sugars intake was assessed. Survey data were linked to grade 6 standardized exam results. Multivariable mixed effects linear regression models were employed to assess the association between adherence to recommendations and academic achievement. Boys who met current recommendations for free sugars scored on average 5.67% better on exams (β: 5.67; 95% CI: 3.14, 8.29). Boys who met recommendations for milk and alternatives scored 3.45% better on exams (β: 3.45; 95% CI: 0.67, 6.23). Though results indicated that adhering to dietary recommendations was beneficial for girls' academic achievement, no result was statistically significant. Adherence to current dietary recommendations has benefits for children's academic achievement. This evidence may be used to inform continued development and promotion of dietary recommendations and to support school-based nutrition initiatives.

  16. Teacher Leadership: Everyday Practices Surrounding Work- Related Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiweshe Nigel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes. Insights are drawn from our long-standing engagement in the field where we observed how teaching staff, students, and management interacted. These observations were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 20 teaching staff. Our findings reveal competing demands and practices across the individual intrapersonal environment and the work related environment. There were three key themes that emerged in answer to the core research question: 1 the role of relational practices in managing teacher burnout, 2 the role of surveillance practices in education and 3 the role of assimilating practices in education. Drawing insights from these practices, we develop a conceptual framework that will help us to see relations at work anew, and develop a deeper understanding of ‘sickies’, motivation, learning outcomes and teacher leadership opportunities in education

  17. Physical geography of the Nete basin and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerten, K.

    2011-01-01

    The report briefly describes the main features of the physical geography of the Nete basin (Campine region, Belgium) and its immediate surroundings. First, an integrated overview of the topography, morphology and hydrography is given. This overview serves as the basis for the assessment of the morphological stability of the region and also explains the relationship between the topography and the hydrology. Furthermore, special attention is paid to soil science including a quantitative survey of some soil characteristics data. Another part of this report deals with erosion processes caused by water and wind action, and the (potential) impact on the morphology. Finally, the palaeogeographical evolution during the Quaternary is discussed. This evolution shows that the environment is stable over 10 000 years or more in the current and similar climatic conditions. Altering climatic conditions, notably glacial-interglacial periods, have impacted erosion with periods of strong erosion.

  18. Language barriers surrounding medication use among older Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Jan E; Bacigalupe, Gonzalo; Coppin, Antonia; Gottlieb, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Limited English language proficiency forms a significant challenge for many Latinos in clinical settings. Although medications are commonly used by older individuals as a means of maintaining good health and managing health problems, the extent to which English proficiency is related to medication use among older Latinos is not known. Focus groups were conducted with Latino, community-residing individuals aged 50 and over in eastern Massachusetts. Qualitative evaluation of the group interviews suggests that language is a barrier in dealing with medication for these individuals. Limited English proficiency appears to be related to feelings of being discriminated against in clinical and pharmacy settings. As well, communicating directly with health professionals in a common language is associated with level of trust and confidence in medical settings. Use of formal and informal interpreters, as well as seeking Spanish-speaking physicians and pharmacies with Spanish-speaking staff, are identified as strategies for overcoming health-related obstacles surrounding language.

  19. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (3-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 This 360-degree stereo panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The stereo-anaglyph view presented here is a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction. Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  20. Heavy metals contamination of soils surrounding waste deposits in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matache, M.; Rozylowicz, L.; Ropota, M.; Patroescu, C.

    2003-05-01

    Soils contamination with heavy metals is one of the most severe aspects of environmental pollution in Romania, independently of the origin sources (domestic or industrial activities) or type of disposal (organised landfill or hazardous deposits)[l-2]. This fact is the consequence of the poor state of the existing waste deposits in Romania and of the significant costs involved by the establishing of a new landfill according with the international regulations. The present study is trying to emphasise the contamination of soils surrounding different categories of waste deposits (sewage sludge ponds, domestic and industrial waste landfills, hillocks, sterile deposits) from various regions of Romania. Some case studies show a special interest being localise in a protected area (Iron Gates Natural Park). In order to quantify the concentration of metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mo in soil samples, analysis were performed using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Romanian standards were used as reference values[3].