WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding ash disposal

  1. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  2. Fly-ash poisoning in the surroundings of foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupka, E

    1955-01-01

    Chronic articular swellings were observed in colts and cattle grazing in the vicinity of two factories. Postmortem findings included an increased synovial content and a detachment of articular cartilage from the underlying bone. Several of the colts also developed roaring due to paralysis of the recurrent nerves. Analysis of fly-ash samples from the two foundries revealed the following: lead, 16.87 percent and 44.79 percent; zinc, 23.41 percent and 5.28 percent; sulfur, 12.53 percent and 8.20 percent; and arsenic, 0.52 percent and 0.22 percent, respectively. Cadmium levels of 2.22 percent were also found in the dust from one of foundries, while cerium (5.00 percent) was detected in the dust from the other foundry. Identical articular lesions were reproduced in two colts receiving dietary rations containing the forge dusts. Manifestations of pharyngoparalysis also appeared, resulting in pneumonia in one case due to pharyngeal dysphagia. Lead poisoning, complicated by other toxic substances, was suggested as the cause. Analyses of several colt livers revealed contents exceeding 0.2 mg/100 g in all cases.

  3. Geochemistry of Coal Ash in the Equatorial Wet Disposal System Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kolay P. K.; Singh H.

    2013-01-01

    The coal utilization in thermal power plants in Malaysia has increased significantly which produces an enormous amount of coal combustion by-product (CCBP) or coal ash and poses severe disposal problem. As each coal ash is distinct, this study presents the geochemistry of the coal ash, in particular fly ash, produced from the combustion of local coal from Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia. The geochemical composition of the ash showed a high amount of silica, alumina, iron oxides and alkalies which w...

  4. An analysis of impact on the environmental pollution under accident conditions due to the disposal of ashes from the Nikola Tesla B thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovanovic, D.; Zlvkovic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The ash disposal area of Nikola Tesla B TPP is presenting considerable potential source of environmental pollution. Due to its vast area, that is for an effective plot of about 400 ha, under unfavorable meteorological conditions the emerging of ash cloud spreading over the surrounding area at distances of over 15 km could be produced. This paper deals with accident conditions at ash disposal area which, after stopping of sprinkling operation or in case of an inadequate sequence of ash tapping, when larger portions of disposal area are dried, turn into area of air polluting sources. Computations of particle dispersions under such conditions have been performed for different meteorological conditions and the results are represented as space distribution of particle deposition on the soil and their concentration in the air. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs

  5. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste using high-calcium fly ash. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogburn, C.O.; Hodgson, L.M.; Ragland, R.C.

    1986-04-01

    The feasibility of using calcium-rich fly ash from coal-fired power plants in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was examined. The proposed areas of use were: (1) fly-ash cement as a trench lining material; (2) fly ash as a backfill material; and (3) fly ash as a liquid waste solidifier. The physical properties of fly-ash cement were determined to be adequate for trench liner construction, with compressive strengths attaining greater than 3000 psi. Hydraulic conductivities were determined to be less than that for clay mineral deposits, and were on the order of 10 -7 cm/sec, with some observed values as low as 10 -9 cm/sec. Removal of radioisotopes from acidified solutions by fly ash was good for all elements tested except cesium. The removal of cesium by fly ash was similar to that of montmorillonite clay. The corrosive effects on metals in fly ash environments was determined to be slight, if not non-existent. Coatings at the fly-ash/metal interfaces were observed which appeared to inhibit or diminish corrosion. The study has indicated that high-calcium fly ash appears to offer considerable potential for improved retention of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow land disposal sites. Further tests are needed to determine optimum methods of use. 8 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heru Sriwahyuni; Sastrowardoyo, Pratomo B.; Teddy Sumantri; Dewi Susilowati; Hendra Adhi Pratama; Syarmufni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

  7. Evolution of coal ash solidification properties with disposal site depth and age, 'Gacko' Thermal power plant case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Dinko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash with high calcium content is produced by coal combusting in 'Gacko' thermal power plant (Bosnia and Herzegovina. Result of controlled mixture of water and ash is spontaneous ash solidification on disposal site. Speed and solidification efficiency depends on content of calcium-oxide in ash and water: ash mass ratio, which was determined by previous research. Mass ratio that was chosen as the most suitable ratio for industrial usage (roughly was 1:1. Samples of ash of different age were taken after 6.5 years of exploitation and their chemical, physical, mineralogical and geotechnical characteristics were analyzed. Disposed ash was stratified and very heterogeneous. It was shown that great impact on solidification process in practice have climate conditions, proper handling slurry processing, work continuity and disposal site preparation. Great impact of water is noticed which is, because of its water permeability filtrated into lower layers and significantly alters it characteristic.

  8. Ash dust co-centration in the vicinity of the ash disposal site depending on the size of the pond (“Water Mirror”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Gršić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power plants Nikola Tesla “A” and “B” are large sources of ash from their ashes/slag deposit sites. Total sizes of ashes/slag depots are 600ha and 382ha, with active cassettes having dimensions ∼200 ha and ∼130 ha. The active cassettes of the disposal sites are covered by rather large waste ponds, the sizes of vary depending on the working condition of a sluice system and on meteorological conditions. Modeling of ash lifting was attempted using results from the dust lifting research. The relation between sizes of ponds and air dust concentration in the vicinity of ash disposal sites was analyzed. As expected, greater sizes of dried disposal site surfaces in combination with stronger winds gave greater dust emission and greater air dust concentration.

  9. Modeling of reactive chemical transport of leachates from a utility fly-ash disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.; Zhu, M.; Kitanidis, P.K.; Freyberg, D.L.; Ronan, A.D.; Itakagi, S.

    1991-04-01

    Fly ash from fossil-fuel power plants is commonly slurried and pumped to disposal sites. The utility industry is interested in finding out whether any hazardous constituents might leach from the accumulated fly ash and contaminate ground and surface waters. To evaluate the significance of this problem, a representative site was selected for modeling. FASTCHEM, a computer code developed for the Electric Power Research Institute, was utilized for the simulation of the transport and fate of the fly-ash leachate. The chemical evolution of the leachate was modeled as it migrated along streamtubes defined by the flow model. The modeling predicts that most of the leachate seeps through the dam confining the ash pond. With the exception of ferrous, manganous, sulfate and small amounts of nickel ions, all other dissolved constituents are predicted to discharge at environmentally acceptable concentrations

  10. Disposal strategies and radioactive waste management in surrounding of SR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, B.I.

    2000-01-01

    As of the end 1996, 18 countries in Europe had electricity-generating nuclear power reactors in operation or under construction. There are currently 217 operating units, with a total capacity of about 165 GWe. In addition, there are 26 units under construction, which would bring the total electrical generation capacity to about 190 GWe. Generating electrical power, whether the energy source is coal, oil or nuclear, results in a by-product. In the case of nuclear power, the by-product of concern is radioactive waste. Waste management disposal policy in surroundings countries are presented in this paper (author)

  11. Natural radioactivity of airbone particulates in coal-ash disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masanori; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made on the actual concentrations of U, Th and Po in air-borne dust and soil around coal power stations, to study the effect of coal-ash disposal site on natural radioactivity of environmental samples. Samples were collected at a coal-ash disposal and its reference places. The results obtained are summaried as follows; (1) Concentrations of U, Th and Po in air-borne dust at the disposal place was nealy equal to those at the reference place. (2) Origin of those α-emitting elements in the dust was successfully deduced, on the basis of correlating concentrations of Sc and Cl elements in the dust. (3) It was inferred that elements of both U and Po in the dust at disposal site came from soil by about 80% and artificial origin such as exhausted gas by remainder. Almost all Th element were from soil. It was therefore concluded that effect of disposal site on radioactivity concentrations of dusts was negligible. (author)

  12. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    Some existing alternative applications of coal fly ash such as cement manufacturing; road construction; landfill; and concrete and waste stabilisation use fresh ash directly collected from coal-fired power generating stations. Thus, if the rate of usage continues, the demand for fresh ash for various applications will exceed supply and use of weathered dry disposed ash will become necessary alternative. As a result it's imperative to understand the chemistry and pH behaviour of some metals inherent in dry disposed fly ash. The bulk chemical composition as determined by XRF analysis showed that SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 were the major oxides in fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ashes. The unsaturated weathered ashes are relatively depleted in CaO, Fe2O3, TiO2, SiO2, Na2O and P2O5 due to dissolution and hydrolysis caused by chemical interaction with ingressing CO2 from the atmosphere and infiltrating rain water. Observed accumulations of Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, K2O, Na2O and SO3 and Zn, Zr, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co in the lower layers indicate progressive downward movement through the ash dump though at a slow rate. The bulk mineralogy of unsaturated weathered dry disposed ash, as determined by XRD analysis, revealed quartz and mullite as the major crystalline phases; while anorthite, hematite, enstatite, lime, calcite, and mica were present as minor mineral phases. Pore water chemistry revealed a low concentration of readily soluble metals in unsaturated weathered ashes in comparison with fresh ash, which shows high leachability. This suggests that over time the precipitation of transient minor secondary mineral phases; such as calcite and mica might retard residual metal release from unsaturated weathered ash. Chloride and sulphate species of the water soluble extracts of weathered ash are at equilibrium with Na+ and K+; these demonstrate progressive leaching over time and become supersaturated at the base of unsaturated weathered ash. This suggests that the ash dump does not

  13. Relationships between waste physicochemical properties, microbial activity and vegetation at coal ash and sludge disposal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woch, Marcin W; Radwańska, Magdalena; Stanek, Małgorzata; Łopata, Barbara; Stefanowicz, Anna M

    2018-06-11

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between vegetation, physicochemical and microbial properties of substrate at coal ash and sludge disposal sites. The study was performed on 32 plots classified into 7 categories: dried ash sedimentation ponds, dominated by a grass Calamagrostis epigejos (AH-Ce), with the admixture of Pinus sylvestris (AH-CePs) or Robinia pseudoacacia (AH-CeRp), dry ash landfill dominated by Betula pendula and Pinus sylvestris (AD-BpPs) or Salix viminalis (AD-Sv) and coal sludge pond with drier parts dominated by Tussilago farfara (CS-Tf) and the wetter ones by Cyperus flavescens (CS-Cf). Ash sites were covered with soil layer imported as a part of technical reclamation. Ash had relatively high concentrations of some alkali and alkaline earth metals, Mn and pH, while coal sludge had high water and C, S, P and K contents. Concentrations of heavy metals were lower than allowable limits in all substrate types. Microbial biomass and, particularly, enzymatic activity in ash and sludge were generally low. The only exception were CS-Tf plots characterized by the highest microbial biomass, presumably due to large deposits of organic matter that became available for aerobic microbial biomass when water level fell. The properties of ash and sludge adversely affected microbial biomass and enzymatic activity as indicated by significant negative correlations between the content of alkali/alkaline earth metals, heavy metals, and macronutrients with enzymatic activity and/or microbial biomass, as well as positive correlations of these parameters with metabolic quotient (qCO 2 ). Plant species richness and cover were relatively high, which may be partly associated with alleviating influence of soil covering the ash. The effect of the admixture of R. pseudoacacia or P. sylvestris to stands dominated by C. epigejos was smaller than expected. The former species increased NNH 4 , NNO 3 and arylsulfatase activity, while the latter reduced activity of

  14. Geochemical anomalies from bottom ash in a road construction--comparison of the leaching potential between an ash road and the surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Bo B; Norrman, Jenny; Larsson, Lennart B; Ohlsson, Sten-Ake; Bristav, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A study was performed between June 2001 and December 2004 with the primary objective of assessing long-term leaching from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in a test road construction in relation to a reference road made up of conventional materials and the natural geochemical conditions in the surroundings. The metal leaching from the test road and the reference road was compared with the natural weathering in the regional surroundings for three time scales: 16, 80 and 1000 years. The results show that Cu and Zn cause a geochemical anomaly from the test road compared with the surroundings. The leaching of Cu from the test road is initially high but will decline with time and will in the long term be exceeded by natural weathering. Zn on the other hand has low initial leaching, which will increase with time and will in the long term exceed that of the test road and the surroundings by a factor of 100-300. For the other metals studied, Al, Na, K and Mg, there is only very limited leaching over time and the potential accumulation will not exceed the background values in a 1000 years.

  15. An urgent need for an EPA standard for disposal of coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemly, A. Dennis

    2014-01-01

    EPA, the White House, and electric utilities are stalled in a struggle over a proposed new rule on coal ash disposal. Although this rule is long overdue, EPA now stands on the cusp of bringing forward a landmark decision that could benefit aquatic resources in the USA for decades to come and also set an important regulatory leadership example for the international community to follow. However, multi-million dollar wildlife losses are continuing to pile up as things stall in Washington. In this commentary I use a newly reported example, Wildlife Damage Case 23, to further illustrate serious flaws in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System that EPA's new rule can address. Case 23 provides additional impetus for EPA and the White House to move swiftly and decisively to end surface impoundment disposal of coal ash and the associated toxic impacts to wildlife. - Wildlife poisoning from coal combustion waste shows how regulatory policy is influenced by politics and industry rather than prudent decisions based on credible scientific investigation

  16. Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan; Teddy Sumantry; Heru Sriwahyuni; Hendra A Pratama; Nurul Efri E; Achmad Sjarmufni; Pratomo Budiman; Dadang Suganda; Soegeng Waluyo; Ari Pudyo; Dewi Susilowati; Marwoto

    2008-01-01

    The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

  17. Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

  18. Natural revegetation of coal fly ash in a highly saline disposal lagoon in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, L.M. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Biology

    2008-08-15

    Question: What is the relationship of the naturally colonizing vegetation and substrate characteristics in fly ash lagoons? Location: West lagoon, Deep Bay, a 13-ha coastal lagoon in Hong Kong in subtropical Southeast Asia. Methods: Vegetation establishment was examined in a coal fly ash lagoon two years after its abandonment to investigate the distribution of vegetation in relationship to the chemical properties of the fly ash in the lagoon. A greenhouse experiment assessed the limits imposed on plant growth in fly ash. Results: The fly ash was saline, slightly alkaline and very poor in organic matter and nitrogen. Ash from bare and vegetated areas differed significantly in their salinity and extractable concentrations of inorganic nitrogen and various metals. Bare ash had a significantly higher conductivity and extractable sodium, aluminum, manganese, potassium. and lead. In total 11 plant species that belonged to seven families were found growing on the fly ash: all species except the shrub Tamarix chinensis were herbaceous. Using discriminant analysis, the most important factors in distinguishing bare and vegetated ashes were conductivity and sodium. Cluster analysis of bare samples gave two distinct groups, one from the periphery of the lagoon, which had lower sodium, conductivity, organic carbon, potassium and copper, and the other from a second group that contained ashes from the central region of the lagoon. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that the inhibition of plant growth was significantly correlated with the presence of soluble toxic elements in ash. Conclusion: Toxicity and salinity seem to be the major limiting factors to plant establishment in fly ash, and these factors must be ameliorated for the successful reclamation of these fly ash lagoons.

  19. Evaluation of the ecological risks to terrestrial wildlife associated with a coal ash disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1955 and 1989, coal ash was deposited within an impounded watershed on the Oak Ridge Reservation, creating the 3.6 ha-Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP). The site has subsequently become vegetated, providing habitat for wildlife. To evaluate the risks that metals in the ash may pose to wildlife, ash, surface water, small mammal, and vegetation samples were collected and metal residues were determined. Metal concentrations, As and Se in particular, were elevated in ash, surface water, plant foliage, and small mammals relative to reference materials. Estimates of metal exposures received from food, water, and ash consumption were calculated for short-tailed shrews, white-footed mice, white-tailed deer, red fox, and red-tailed hawks. While shrews and mice were assumed to reside exclusively at and receive 100% exposure from the site, exposure experienced by deer, fox, and hawks was assumed to be proportional to the size of the site relative to their home range. Because deer had been observed to consume ash presumably for it's high sodium content, exposure experienced by deer consuming ash to meet sodium requirements was also estimated. To assess the risk of coal ash to wildlife, exposure estimates were compared to body-size adjusted toxicity data for each metal. These comparisons suggest that metals at the site may be detrimental to reproduction and survivorship of mice, shrews, deer and fox; hawks do not appear to be at risk

  20. Soluble salt removal from MSWI fly ash and its stabilization for safer disposal and recovery as road basement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, F; Cioffi, R; Montagnaro, F; Santoro, L

    2012-06-01

    Fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) is classified as hazardous in the European Waste Catalogue. Proper stabilization processes should be required before any management option is put into practice. Due to the inorganic nature of MSWI fly ash, cementitious stabilization processes are worthy of consideration. However, the effectiveness of such processes can be severely compromised by the high content of soluble chlorides and sulphates. In this paper, a preliminary washing treatment has been optimized to remove as much as possible soluble salts by employing as little as possible water. Two different operating conditions (single-step and two-step) have been developed to this scope. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that stabilized systems containing 20% of binder are suitable for safer disposal as well as for material recovery in the field of road basement (cement bound granular material layer). Three commercially available cements (pozzolanic, limestone and slag) have been employed as binders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Copper leaching of MSWI bottom ash co-disposed with refuse: effect of short-term accelerated weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lianghu; Guo, Guangzhai; Shi, Xinlong; Zuo, Minyu; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Aihua; Zhao, Youcai

    2013-06-01

    Co-disposal of refuse with municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash (IBA) either multi-layered as landfill cover or mixed with refuse could pose additional risk to the environment because of enhanced leaching of heavy metals, especially Cu. This study applied short-term accelerated weathering to IBA, and monitored the mineralogical and chemical properties of IBA during the weathering process. Cu extractability of the weathered IBA was then evaluated using standard leaching protocols (i.e. SPLP and TCLP) and co-disposal leaching procedure. The results showed that weathering had little or no beneficial effect on Cu leaching in SPLP and TCLP, which can be explained by the adsorption and complexation of Cu with DOM. However, the Cu leaching of weathered IBA was reduced significantly when situated in fresh simulated landfill leachate. This was attributed to weakening Cu complexation with fulvic acid or hydrophilic fractions and/or intensifying Cu absorption to neoformed hydr(oxide) minerals in weathered IBA. The amount of total leaching Cu and Cu in free or labile complex fraction (the fraction with the highest mobility and bio-toxicity) of the 408-h weathered IBA were remarkably decreased by 86.3% and 97.6% in the 15-day co-disposal leaching test. Accelerated weathering of IBA may be an effective pretreatment method to decrease Cu leaching prior to its co-disposal with refuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae and ashing analysis: A decrement solution for nuclide and heavy metal disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingxue [Life Science and Engineering College, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Dong, Faqin, E-mail: fqdong@swust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Zhang, Wei [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Nie, Xiaoqin [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Sun, Shiyong [Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education of China, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Wei, Hongfu; Luo, Lang; Xiang, Sha; Zhang, Gege [Life Science and Engineering College, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A programmed gradient descent biosorption process was designed. • The adsorption and bioaccumulation quantity of strontium ions by yeast cell were measured. • The decrement of biosorbents after biosorption by ashing was analyzed. • A technological flow process of decrement solution for waste disposal was proposed. - Abstract: One of the waste disposal principles is decrement. The programmed gradient descent biosorption of strontium ions by Saccaromyces cerevisiae regarding bioremoval and ashing process for decrement were studied in present research. The results indicated that S. cerevisiae cells showed valid biosorption for strontium ions with greater than 90% bioremoval efficiency for high concentration strontium ions under batch culture conditions. The S. cerevisiae cells bioaccumulated approximately 10% of strontium ions in the cytoplasm besides adsorbing 90% strontium ions on cell wall. The programmed gradient descent biosorption presented good performance with a nearly 100% bioremoval ratio for low concentration strontium ions after 3 cycles. The ashing process resulted in a huge volume and weight reduction ratio as well as enrichment for strontium in the ash. XRD results showed that SrSO{sub 4} existed in ash. Simulated experiments proved that sulfate could adjust the precipitation of strontium ions. Finally, we proposed a technological flow process that combined the programmed gradient descent biosorption and ashing, which could yield great decrement and allow the supernatant to meet discharge standard. This technological flow process may be beneficial for nuclides and heavy metal disposal treatment in many fields.

  3. Revegetation on a coal fine ash disposal site in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Rensburg, L.; De Sousa Correia, R.I.; Booysen, J. [Potchefstroom Univ. for Christian Higher Education (South Africa). Research Inst. for Reclamation Ecology; Ginster, M. [Sastech Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa)

    1998-11-01

    Eight medium amendments were conducted on top of a fine ash coal dump (i) to evaluate a few cost-effective treatments that could determine the minimum fertility status required for the local ash to support the establishment of a viable vegetation cover, and (ii) to select suitable grass species that would establish on the ash and could serve as a foundation for long-term rehabilitation. Degree and success of grass establishment per medium amelioration treatment is expressed in terms of total biomass, percentage basal cover, and in terms of a condition assessment model. Both the chemical and physical nature of the ash medium before and after amendment was characterized, as were the concentrations of some essential and potentially toxic elements in leaf samples. In terms of medium amelioration 5000 kg ha{sup {minus}1} compost, or 500 kg ha{sup {minus}1} kraal manure or 480 kg 2:3:2 ha{sup {minus}1} proved to be most effective. The grass species that occurred with the highest frequency, irrespective of treatment, were the perennials bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers. var dactylon], weeping lovegrass [Eragrostis curvula (Schrader) Nees], and the annual teff [Eragrostis tef (Zuccagni) Trotter]. Of the potentially toxic extractable metals monitored in the leaves of vegetation on the dump, only Se accumulated to an average level of 4.4 mg kg{sup {minus}1} that could be toxic to livestock.

  4. Design modification of the El Cabril disposal facility for the treatment of steelyard ASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Santos, M.; Ugarte Pallares, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper described in general terms the management performed at the El Cabril Disposal Facility for the radioactive wastes generated as a result of the incident involving the meltdown of a Cs-137 source at a steelyard in Los Barrios (Cadiz), in the Bay of Algeciras. The greater part of this waste stream, consisting of dust from fumes, dry sludges, inert wastes, slag, earths and refractory materials, will be conditioned by mixing them with the waste package blocking mortar in the containers. This conditioning will allow the wastes to be immobilized in a solid matrix, without them occupying any additional volume at the facility and without altering the configuration of the disposal unit of the El Cabril Disposal Facility. The rest of the wastes generated: plastics, rubber, cloths and dust filters, will be conditioned by pressing, this producing compacted slabs which will be immobilized in containers or incinerated, as the case may be. (Author)

  5. Isotopic identification of the source of methane in subsurface sediments of an area surrounded by waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackley, K.C.; Liu, C.L.; Trainor, D.

    1999-01-01

    The major source of methane (CH 4 ) in subsurface sediments on the property of a former hazardous waste treatment facility was determined using isotopic analyses measured on CH 4 and associated groundwater. The site, located on an earthen pier built into a shallow wetland lake, has had a history of waste disposal practices and is surrounded by landfills and other waste management facilities. Concentrations of CH 4 up to 70% were found in the headspace gases of several piezometers screened at 3 different depths (ranging from 8 to 17 m) in lacustrine and glacial till deposits. Possible sources of the CH 4 included a nearby landfill, organic wastes from previous impoundments and microbial gas derived from natural organic matter in the sediments.Isotopic analyses included δ 13 C, δD, 14 C, and 3 H on select CH 4 samples and δD and δ 18 O on groundwater samples. Methane from the deepest glacial till and intermediate lacustrine deposits had δ 13 C values from -79 to -82per thousand, typical of natural 'drift gas' generated by microbial CO 2 -reduction. The CH 4 from the shallow lacustrine deposits had δ 13 C values from -63 to -76per thousand, interpreted as a mixture between CH 4 generated by microbial fermentation and the CO 2 -reduction processes within the subsurface sediments. The δD values of all the CH 4 samples were quite negative ranging from -272 to -299per thousand. Groundwater sampled from the deeper zones also showed quite negative δD values that explained the light δD observed for the CH 4 . Radiocarbon analyses of the CH 4 showed decreasing 14 C activity with depth, from a high of 58 pMC in the shallow sediments to 2 pMC in the deeper glacial till. The isotopic data indicated the majority of CH 4 detected in the till deposits of this site was microbial CH 4 generated from naturally buried organic matter within the subsurface sediments. However, the isotopic data of CH 4 from the shallow piezometers was more variable and the possibility of some

  6. Isotopic identification of the source of methane in subsurface sediments of an area surrounded by waste disposal facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Keith C.; Liu, Chao-Li; Trainor, D.

    1999-01-01

    The major source of methane (CH4) in subsurface sediments on the property of a former hazardous waste treatment facility was determined using isotopic analyses measured on CH4 and associated groundwater. The site, located on an earthen pier built into a shallow wetland lake, has had a history of waste disposal practices and is surrounded by landfills and other waste management facilities. Concentrations of CH4 up to 70% were found in the headspace gases of several piezometers screened at 3 different depths (ranging from 8 to 17 m) in lacustrine and glacial till deposits. Possible sources of the CH4 included a nearby landfill, organic wastes from previous impoundments and microbial gas derived from natural organic matter in the sediments. Isotopic analyses included ??13C, ??D, 14C, and 3H on select CH4 samples and ??D and ??18O on groundwater samples. Methane from the deepest glacial till and intermediate lacustrine deposits had ??13C values from -79 to -82???, typical of natural 'drift gas' generated by microbial CO2-reduction. The CH4 from the shallow lacustrine deposits had ??13C values from -63 to -76???, interpreted as a mixture between CH4 generated by microbial fermentation and the CO2-reduction processes within the subsurface sediments. The ??D values of all the CH4 samples were quite negative ranging from -272 to -299???. Groundwater sampled from the deeper zones also showed quite negative ??D values that explained the light ??D observed for the CH4. Radiocarbon analyses of the CH4 showed decreasing 14C activity with depth, from a high of 58 pMC in the shallow sediments to 2 pMC in the deeper glacial till. The isotopic data indicated the majority of CH4 detected in the fill deposits of this site was microbial CH4 generated from naturally buried organic matter within the subsurface sediments. However, the isotopic data of CH4 from the shallow piezometers was more variable and the possibility of some mixing with oxidized landfill CH4 could not be completely

  7. First international ash marketing and technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A total of 42 papers were presented in sessions with the following headings: production and disposal of ash - an international review; environmental, health, safety, and legal aspects of ash handling; marketing of ash; development of new uses for ash; cementitious use of ash; ash in manufactured products; and geotechnical uses of ash.

  8. Numerical model for a watering plan to wash out organic matter from the municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash layer in closed system disposal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Tanikawa, Noboru

    2009-02-01

    Bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is a main type of waste that is landfilled in Japan. The long-term elution of organic matter from the MSWI bottom ash layers is a concern because maintenance and operational costs of leachate treatment facilities are high. In closed system disposal facilities (CSDFs), which have a roof to prevent rainfall from infiltrating into the waste layers, water must be supplied artificially and its quantity can be controlled. However, the quantity of water needed and how to apply it (the intensity, period and frequency) have not been clearly defined. In order to discuss an effective watering plan, this study proposes a new washout model to clarify a fundamental mechanism of total organic carbon (TOC) elution behavior from MSWI bottom ash layers. The washout model considers three phases: solid, immobile water and mobile water. The parameters, including two mass transfer coefficients of the solid-immobile water phases and immobile-mobile water phases, were determined by one-dimensional column experiments for about 2 years. The intensity, period and frequency of watering and other factors were discussed based on a numerical analysis using the above parameters. As a result, our washout model explained adequately the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurred (pH approximately 8.3). The determined parameters and numerical analysis suggested that there is a possibility that the minimum amount of water needed for washing out TOC per unit weight of MSWI bottom ash layer could be determined, which depends on the two mass transfer coefficients and the depth of the MSWI bottom ash layer. Knowledge about the fundamental mechanism of the elution behavior of TOC from the MSWI bottom ash layer before carbonation occurs, clarified by this study, will help an effective watering plan in CSDFs.

  9. Preliminary modelling study of geochemical interactions between a used-fuel disposal vault and the surrounding geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurry, J.

    1995-10-01

    In the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and the related documents that describe the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept (AECL 1994), it has been assumed that a disposal vault would have no significant geochemical impact on the geosphere, and so no such effects were included explicitly in the postclosure assessment model. The purpose of this study was to estimate the general magnitude and significance of vault-induced geochemical changes over an expected range of temperatures. The results of the preliminary modelling are used broadly to evaluate the implications of these changes for the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. The geochemical modelling program PHREEQE was used to calculate the changes in mineral solubilities that would result from the transfer of aqueous species from the vault to the geosphere or that would result from groundwater-granite interactions enhanced by vault-derived elevated temperatures. Twelve representative vault water compositions, derived from predicted interactions with buffer material and backfill over a range of temperatures up to 95 deg C, were used in the modelling. For the conditions modelled it was determined that the interactions of the geosphere with dissolved vault constituents, and the relatively modest maximum increase in groundwater temperature produced by a vault, would have a limited impact on the geosphere. The conclusions of this preliminary study are qualified by some of the simplifying assumptions used in the modelling. More realistic modelling of natural systems requires a more detailed representation of water-solid interactions with a variety of vault materials at elevated temperatures. (author) 48 refs., 13 tabs, 4 figs

  10. Solid waste disposed in the surrounding of Caetés Ecological Station - PE: opportunity of environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Megumi Nishiwaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several human activities have affected the integrity and balance of conservation unit, compromising the efficiency of the preservation of biodiversity, natural resources and cultural. This work aims to study the solid waste irregular disposition in the surrounding of Caetés Ecological Station (PE and the impacts on site, as well as presenting a proposal of environmental education program involving the local community. The problem has been identified through visiting areas, resulting in primary data, which were crossed with secondary data about solid waste and its negative effects, as well as on environmental education in communities. The environmental education program developed consists in lectures, dynamics, workshops, partnerships with local schools and training. The community mobilization expected in the program will rescue of the history of the Caetés Ecological Station.

  11. Use of fly ash, phosphogypsum and red mud as a liner material for the disposal of hazardous zinc leach residue waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2010-01-15

    Increasing amounts of residues and waste materials coming from industrial activities in different processes have become an increasingly urgent problem for the future. The release of large quantities of heavy metals into the environment has resulted in a number of environmental problems. The present study investigated the safe disposal of the zinc leach residue waste using industrial residues such as fly ash, phosphogypsum and red mud. In the study, leachability of heavy metals from the zinc leach residue has been evaluated by mine water leaching procedure (MWLP) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Zinc removal from leachate was studied using fly ash, phosphogypsum and red mud. The adsorption capacities and adsorption efficiencies were determined. The adsorption rate data was analyzed according to the pseudo-second-order kinetic, Elovich kinetic and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models. The pseudo-second-order kinetic was the best fit kinetic model for the experimental data. The results show that addition of fly ash, phosphogypsum and red mud to the zinc leach residue drastically reduces the heavy metal content in the leachate and could be used as liner materials.

  12. Salt shell fallout during the ash eruption at the Nakadake crater, Aso volcano, Japan: evidence of an underground hydrothermal system surrounding the erupting vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Hiroshi; Geshi, Nobuo; Yokoo, Akihiko; Ohkura, Takahiro; Terada, Akihiko

    2018-03-01

    A hot and acid crater lake is located in the Nakadake crater, Aso volcano, Japan. The volume of water in the lake decreases with increasing activity, drying out prior to the magmatic eruptions. Salt-rich materials of various shapes were observed, falling from the volcanic plume during the active periods. In May 2011, salt flakes fell from the gas plume emitted from an intense fumarole when the acid crater lake was almost dry. The chemical composition of these salt flakes was similar to those of the salts formed by the drying of the crater lake waters, suggesting that they originated from the crater lake water. The salt flakes are likely formed by the drying up of the crater lake water droplets sprayed into the plume by the fumarolic gas jet. In late 2014, the crater lake dried completely, followed by the magmatic eruptions with continuous ash eruptions and intermittent Strombolian explosions. Spherical hollow salt shells were observed on several occasions during and shortly after the weak ash eruptions. The chemical composition of the salt shells was similar to the salts formed by the drying of the crater lake water. The hollow structure of the shells suggests that they were formed by the heating of hydrothermal solution droplets suspended by a mixed stream of gas and ash in the plume. The salt shells suggest the existence of a hydrothermal system beneath the crater floor, even during the course of magmatic eruptions. Instability of the magmatic-hydrothermal interface can cause phreatomagmatic explosions, which often occur at the end of the eruptive phase of this volcano.

  13. Thermal properties of fly ash substituted slag cement waste forms for disposal of Savannah River Plant salt waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Kaushal, S.; Licastro, P.H.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Waste processing at the Savannah River Plant will involve reconstitution of the salts (NaNO 3 , NaNO 2 , NaOH, etc.) into a concentrated solution (32 weight percent salts) followed by solidification in a cement-based waste form for burial. The stability and mechanical durability of such a 'saltstone monolith' will depend largely on the temperature reached due to heat of hydration and the thermal properties of the waste form. Fly ash has been used as an inexpensive constituent and to moderate the hydration and setting processes so as to avoid reaching prohibitively high temperatures which could cause thermal stresses. Both high-calcium and low-calcium fly ashes have been studied for this purpose. Other constituents of these mixes include granulated blast furnace slag and finely crushed limestone. Adiabatic temperature increase and thermal conductivity of these mixes have been studied and related x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies carried out to understand the hydration process

  14. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  15. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  16. Disposal - practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hycnar, J.; Pinko, L.

    1995-01-01

    Most Polish power plants have stockyards for storage of fly ash and slag. This paper describes the: methods of fly ash and slag storage used, methods of conveying the waste to the stockpiles (by railway cars, trucks, belt conveyors or hydraulically); construction of wet stockyards and dry stockyards and comparison of the ash dumped, development of methods of ash disposal in mine workings; composition and properties of fly ash and slag from hard coal; and the effects of ash storage yards on the environment (by leaching of trace elements, dust, effect on soils, and noise of machinery). 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Evaluation of the effects of hydrothermal curing on the mechanical behavior or mortars characterized by MSWI bottom ash fine aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caprai, V.; Schollbach, K.; Florea, M.V.A.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    Nowadays, the production of MSWI bottom ash (BA) is necessary for the optimization of the disposal of household waste. However, a main concern is linked to the leaching of contaminants, such as heavy metals and salts, in the surrounding environment. By washing, BA is cleaned from most of the salts,

  18. Fly ash aggregates. Vliegaskunstgrind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    A study has been carried out into artificial aggregates made from fly ash, 'fly ash aggregates'. Attention has been drawn to the production of fly ash aggregates in the Netherlands as a way to obviate the need of disposal of fly ash. Typical process steps for the manufacturing of fly ash aggregates are the agglomeration and the bonding of fly ash particles. Agglomeration techniques are subdivided into agitation and compaction, bonding methods into sintering, hydrothermal and 'cold' bonding. In sintering no bonding agent is used. The fly ash particles are more or less welded together. Sintering in general is performed at a temperature higher than 900 deg C. In hydrothermal processes lime reacts with fly ash to a crystalline hydrate at temperatures between 100 and 250 deg C at saturated steam pressure. As a lime source not only lime as such, but also portland cement can be used. Cold bonding processes rely on reaction of fly ash with lime or cement at temperatures between 0 and 100 deg C. The pozzolanic properties of fly ash are used. Where cement is applied, this bonding agent itself contributes also to the strength development of the artificial aggregate. Besides the use of lime and cement, several processes are known which make use of lime containing wastes such as spray dry absorption desulfurization residues or fluid bed coal combustion residues. (In Dutch)

  19. Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, D. A.; Velasco, A.; Rosas, A.; Volke-Sepúlveda, T.

    The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (˜26000 ton day -1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of LFG from five MSW disposal sites with different operational characteristics and stages, in order to identify their contribution as potential pollutant sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Important methane (CH 4) contents (>55%) in LFG were registered at three of the five sites, while two sites were found in semi-aerobic conditions (CH 4clay cover. High values of the TGM air/LFG ratio were also related to external TGM sources of influence, as a landfill in operation stage located at a highly industrialized area.

  20. Overview of hydraulic ash and slag transport in the Power Plantt 'Oslomej': Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanoski Radomir K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AD ELEM Skopje Subsidiary REK 'Oslomej' s. Oslomej is a part of the energy system with an installed power of 125 MW and the net average annual production of 500 GWh of electricity. The basic fuel is coal with an average of 7600 KJ/kg. Coal from the mine is provided Oslomej - west and old mine (Oslomej-east wherein 2009. excavated 1.156.709 t. The main aim of the project is solving environmental problems in Power Plant Oslomej and its surrounding area that creates the existing system of transport and disposal of ash and slag (transport of moist ash by conveyor belt at an open landfill, so the main task of this Project is introducing new technologies of transport and disposal of ash and slag in the form of hydro mixtures.

  1. A Molecular and Whole Body Insight of the Mechanisms Surrounding Glucose Disposal and Insulin Resistance with Hypoxic Treatment in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. A. Mackenzie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the mechanisms are largely unidentified, the chronic or intermittent hypoxic patterns occurring with respiratory diseases, such as chronic pulmonary disease or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and obesity, are commonly associated with glucose intolerance. Indeed, hypoxia has been widely implicated in the development of insulin resistance either via the direct action on insulin receptor substrate (IRS and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt or indirectly through adipose tissue expansion and systemic inflammation. Yet hypoxia is also known to encourage glucose transport using insulin-dependent mechanisms, largely reliant on the metabolic master switch, 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. In addition, hypoxic exposure has been shown to improve glucose control in type 2 diabetics. The literature surrounding hypoxia-induced changes to glycemic control appears to be confusing and conflicting. How is it that the same stress can seemingly cause insulin resistance while increasing glucose uptake? There is little doubt that acute hypoxia increases glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and does so using the same pathway as muscle contraction. The purpose of this review paper is to provide an insight into the mechanisms underpinning the observed effects and to open up discussions around the conflicting data surrounding hypoxia and glucose control.

  2. Effective dose of individuals from the surrounding public to the facilities of the Abadia de Goiás radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, E.; Borges, A.F. de Almeida; Camargos, K.M.; Santos, E.E. dos; Correa, R. da S.; Ferreira, N.C.; Ribeiro, N.V.

    2017-01-01

    The study presents the level of effective annual dose that individuals from the public - surrounding the repository of wastes with Cs-137, located in Abadia de Goiás, GO, Brazil - have received, according to analyzes carried out from June 2015 to July 2016. It was considered reference to the annual effective radiation dose limit of 0.3 mSv / year established by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for the impact of repositories on individuals in the public. Cs-137 activity determinations were performed on samples of surface water (ASU), groundwater (ASB), river bottom sediments (SED), soil (SOL) and vegetation (VEG). With these results, the effective doses were estimated for ASU and BSA consumption of 6.64 x 10 -4 mSv / year and for SED exposure, 3.92 x 10 - 6 mSv / year and for ASB use, 6.22 x 10 -3 mSv / year. For SOL and VEG, activity values of Cs-137 were used as indicators of contamination. It was observed that the effective annual doses were below the limit established by the norms, which can be inferred that the installation has been operating safely, without causing a radiological impact to the environment and individuals of the public

  3. [Effects of sulphur compounds on the volatile characteristics of heavy metals in fly ash from the MSW and sewage sludge co-combustion plant during the disposal process with higher temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yong; Sun, Shui-Yu

    2012-11-01

    Fly ash sample was collected from a MSW co-combustion with sewage sludge plant and the volatilization of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn was investigated before and after the water washing of fly ash, meanwhile, the influence of adding different sulphur compounds (S, NaS, Na2 SO3, Na2 SO4) on the volatilization of heavy metals was studied. The results showed that the contents of Zn, Pb and Mn were high, the Ni content was low and the Cd content reached 29.4 mg x kg(1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn increased, while that of Cd reduced in the fly ash after water washing. TG-DTG curves of fly ash showed highest weight loss in ranges of 579-732 degrees C and 949-1 200 degrees C, with 690 degrees C and 1 154 degrees C as the inflection point temperatures. The volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, following the order of Pb > Cd > Zn > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Pb was more than 80% and that of Cu was less than 30%. After water washing, the volatilization of different heavy metals showed great difference in the volatilization rate, with the order of Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu, in which the volatilization rate of Zn was more than 20%. With the pretreatment of adding Na2 SO3 and Na2 SO4, the evaporation rates of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd) were significantly decreased. After adding S, the evaporation rate of Zn was reduced, whereas the addition of Na2S reduced the evaporation rates of Cd and Zn. The evaporation rates of the four heavy metals were all reduced after adding Na2S in the washed fly ash. The evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were reduced with addition of S and Na2SO3 and the evaporation rate of Cd was reduced by adding the four sulfides. The results can provide a basis for the harmless disposal and maximized resource utilization and recycling of fly ash.

  4. Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jansen, P.G.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Ambient systems are networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments and supporting people in their activities. These systems will create a Smart Surrounding for people to facilitate and enrich daily life and increase productivity at work. Such systems will be quite different from

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (Igeo and pollution load indices (PLI were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69, Pb (143.80, Cr (99.30, and Cd (7.54 in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  6. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M; Esena, R; Fosu-Mensah, B; Yirenya-Tawiah, D

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites.

  7. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils around a Hospital Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Dumps Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adama, M.; Esena, R.; Fosu-Mensah, B.; Yirenya-Tawiah, D.

    2016-01-01

    Waste incineration is the main waste management strategy used in treating hospital waste in many developing countries. However, the release of dioxins, POPs, and heavy metals in fly and bottom ash poses environmental and public health concerns. To determine heavy metal (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ag) in levels in incinerator bottom ash and soils 100 m around the incinerator bottom ash dump site, ash samples and surrounding soil samples were collected at 20 m, 40 m, 60 m, 80 m, 100 m, and 1,200 m from incinerator. These were analyzed using the absorption spectrophotometer method. The geoaccumulation (I geo) and pollution load indices (PLI) were used to assess the level of heavy metal contamination of surrounding soils. The study revealed high concentrations in mg/kg for, Zn (16417.69), Pb (143.80), Cr (99.30), and Cd (7.54) in bottom ash and these were above allowable limits for disposal in landfill. The study also found soils within 60 m radius of the incinerator to be polluted with the metals. It is recommended that health care waste managers be educated on the implication of improper management of incinerator bottom ash and regulators monitor hospital waste incinerator sites. PMID:27034685

  8. Mosses accumulate heavy metals from the substrata of coal ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vanja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants that are able to accumulate and tolerate extraordinarily high concentrations of heavy metals (hyperaccumulators can be used for phytoremediation (removal of contaminants from soils or phytomining (growing a crop of plants to harvest the metals. Two moss species, Bryum capillare Hedw. and Ceratodon purpureus Hedw., were tested as potential phytoremedies under in vivo conditions on a coal ash disposal site in the surroundings of Obrenovac (NW Serbia. The content of various heavy metals (iron, manganese zinc, lead, nickel, cadmium, and copper in the mosses and substrata were investigated over a period of three years. Iron and zinc were found to have the highest concentration in the mosses.

  9. Study of radon exhalation and emanation rates from fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumari; Jain, Ravinder; Kant, Krishan; Gupta, Nitin; Garg, Maneesha; Yadav, Mani Kant

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash, a by-product of burnt coal is technologically important material being used for manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. The increased interest in measuring radon exhalation and emanation rates in fly ash samples is due to its health hazards and environmental pollution and the same have been measured to assess the radiological impact of radon emanated from fly ash disposal sites. Samples of fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB) were collected and analysed for the measurements. For the measurement, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. Gamma spectrometry and can technique was used for the measurements. The experimental data show that fly ash samples emanate radon in significant amount and this consequently, may result in increased radon levels in dwellings built by using fly ash bricks and excessive radiation exposure to workers residing in the surroundings of fly ash dumping sites. (author)

  10. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Wood Ash and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Grau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomasses are organic materials that are derived from any living or recently-living structure. Plenty of biomasses are produced nationwide. Biomasses are mostly combusted and usually discarded or disposed of without treatment as biomass ashes, which include wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes. Thus, recycling or treatment of biomass ashes leads to utilizing the natural materials as an economical and environmental alternative. This study is intended to provide an environmental solution for uncontrolled disposal of biomass ashes by way of recycling the biomass ash and replacing the soils in geotechnical engineering projects. Therefore, in this study, characteristic tests of wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes that are considered the most common biomass ashes are conducted. The test of chemical compositions of biomass ashes is conducted using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and heavy metal analysis is also conducted. Engineering behaviors including hydraulic conductivity, constrained modulus and shear modulus are examined. Also, coal fly ash Class C is used in this study for comparison with biomass ashes, and Ottawa 20/30 sands containing biomass ashes are examined to identify the soil replacement effect of biomass ashes. The results show that the particle sizes of biomass ashes are halfway between coal fly ash Class C and Ottawa 20/30 sand, and biomass ashes consist of a heterogeneous mixture of different particle sizes and shapes. Also, all heavy metal concentrations were found to be below the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA maximum limit. Hydraulic conductivity values of Ottawa 20/30 sand decrease significantly when replacing them with only 1%–2% of biomass ashes. While both the constrained modulus and shear modulus of biomass ashes are lower than Ottawa 20/30 sand, those of mixtures containing up to 10% biomass ashes are little affected by replacing the soils with biomass ashes.

  11. Characterisation of major component leaching and buffering capacity of RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash in relation to reuse or disposal scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocca, S.; Zomeren, van A.; Costa, G.; Dijkstra, J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Lombardi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal treatment of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is considered a promising solution to reduce waste volumes for disposal, while improving material and energy recovery from waste. Incineration is commonly applied for the energetic valorisation of RDF, although RDF

  12. Hospital waste ashes in Portland cement mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genazzini, C.; Zerbino, R.; Ronco, A.; Batic, O.; Giaccio, G.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, most concretes incorporate mineral additions such as pozzolans, fly ash, silica fume, blast furnace slag, and calcareous filler among others. Although the technological and economical benefits were the main reasons for the use of mineral additions, the prevention of environmental contamination by means of proper waste disposal becomes a priority. The chance of incorporating hospital waste ashes in Portland cement-based materials is presented here. Ash characterization was performed by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, radioactive material detection, and fineness and density tests. Conduction calorimetry and setting time tests were developed on pastes including ash contents from 0% to 100%. Mortars were prepared including ash contents up to 50% of cement. The results of setting time, temperature development, flexural and compressive strengths, water absorption, density, and leachability are analyzed. Results indicate that Portland cement systems could become an alternative for the disposal of this type of ashes

  13. Liver histopathology of the southern watersnake, Nerodia fasciata fasciata, following chronic exposure to trace element-contaminated prey from a coal ash disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganser, L.R.; Hopkins, W.A.; O' Neil, L.; Hasse, S.; Roe, J.H.; Sever, D.M. [St Marys College, Notre Dame, IN (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the accumulation of arsenic, cadmium, selenium, strontium, and vanadium in livers of Southern Watersnakes fed fish from a coal-ash contaminated site. Our study is the first to investigate effects of trace element accumulation on cytology of snake liver. Snakes were born in the laboratory and raised for one or two years on diets consisting of varying proportions of contaminated fish. The majority (71%) of snakes fed contaminated prey did not exhibit any differences in liver histology when compared to control snakes fed an uncontaminated diet. In the remaining contaminant-exposed snakes, some aberrations were noted. The most prevalent pathology involved the proliferation of collagen fibers that resulted in narrowing or occlusion of sinusoids and increasing the mass of the intersinsuoidal parenychma. Fibrosis of the liver as a result of chronic injury has been reported previously in reptiles, but this is the first report that links such tissue damage to dietary contamination.

  14. Prospects for ash pond reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyyam, A.K.; Shukla, K.S.; Agrawal, D. (National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., New Delhi (India))

    1993-01-01

    A typical modern coal fired station in India burns 0.7 t/MWh of coal and consequently generates ash at 0.245 t/MWh. The physical nature of ash, low available concentrations of certain plant nutrients and the presence of phytotoxic trace elements render fly ash marginally adequate for plant growth. As fly ash itself was thought to be an inappropriate growth medium for plants, regulators decided that a soil cover is mandatory. There is ample data to suggest that the attributes of fly ash detrimental to plant growth can be ameliorated, allowing the establishment of vegetation directly on fly ash surfaces. The natural revegetation of fly ash disposal sites has been reported in the world. The natural vegetation pioneered by Cynodon at different stages of ecological succession and comprising of species such as [ital Calotropis gigantea], [ital Lippia nodiflora], [ital Ipomea, cornea], [ital Xanthium parviflorum] has been noted at one of the NTPC projects, in Badarpur Thermal Power Station. Since natural reclamation is a time-consuming process, experimental trials of growing some species over the temporary ash lagoon directly (without soil cover) were carried out at Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Project (RSTPP) of NTPC, in South India to achieve faster results than the natural process. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  16. Pyrolysis of the mixture of MSWI fly ash and sewage sludge for co-disposal: Effect of ferrous/ferric sulfate additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuyan; Yang, Fan; Chen, Fangfang; Feng, Yuheng; Chen, Dezhen; Dai, Xiaohu

    2018-05-01

    Co-pyrolysis with sewage sludge was proved to be an efficient pre-treatment for sanitary landfill of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash (FA). In this study, to improve the stabilization effect of heavy metals, mixed ferrous/ferric sulfate was added into the FA/SS mixture before pyrolysis. To examine the feasibility of the landfill of co-pyrolysis char, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (HJ/T300) was conducted. In addition, physio-chemical characteristics of char were also tested to explain the stability of heavy metals, including the speciation, mineralogical composition and the morphological features of them. The results indicated that within the range that the obtained char could meet the standard for landfill (GB16889-2008), the appropriate addition of mixed ferrous/ferric sulfates benefit to raising the FA ratio in the FA/SS mixture. The maximum ratio of 67 wt% is achieved when the additive was 1.5 wt% of dried SS (based on iron element) and the pyrolysis temperature was 500 °C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytoextraction crop disposal--an unsolved problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas-Nowosielska, A.; Kucharski, R.; Malkowski, E.; Pogrzeba, M.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Krynski, K.

    2004-01-01

    Several methods of contaminated crop disposal after phytoextraction process (composting, compaction, incineration, ashing, pyrolysis, direct disposal, liquid extraction) have been described. Advantages and disadvantages of methods are presented and discussed. Composting, compaction and pyrolysis are the pretreatment steps, since significant amount of contaminated biomass will still exist after each of the process. Four methods of final disposal were distinguished: incineration, direct disposal, ashing and liquid extraction. Among them, incineration (smelting) is proposed as the most feasible, economically acceptable and environmentally sound. - Methods of contaminated crop disposal are described and evaluated

  18. Basic soil benefits from ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, D.C.; Plank, C.O.

    1970-01-01

    The beneficial effects of fly ash application shown herein are expected to encourage future disposal of the material in agricultural soils. It is foreseen, however, that fly ash disposal in agricultural soils would be unsuccessful if adverse effects on crop production result from its misuse. It seems evident, therefore, that quality control measures will be required to insure proper disposal of the material in agricultural soils. It will be necessary to consider differences in chemical properties of various samples of fly ash and in chemical reactions of samples of fly ash and soils. Differences in tolerances of plants to soluble salt damage and to specific nutrient deficiencies and toxicities will also have to be taken into account. 9 tables.

  19. Characterization of ash pond ashes from 3rd thermal power plant by SEM/EDX and XRD methods

    OpenAIRE

    A Minjigmaa; Ts Zolzaya; E Bayanjargal; B Davaabal; J Temuujin

    2014-01-01

      Coal combustion by products from ash pond of 3rdthermal power plant of Ulaanbaatar city have been collected in 2010 and 2013 years. The ash samples have been characterized by XRD, XRF and SEM-EDX methods in order to evaluate their chemical and mineralogical composition changes with disposed times. The mineralogical composition of ash varies with time though the chemical composition of the ashes were close each other. Possibly, inefficient operating condition of the TPS shows influence on th...

  20. Utilization of pulverized fuel ash in Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, Josette; Sammut, Michael; Montesin, Franco E.

    2006-01-01

    In Malta all of the waste produced is mixed and deposited at various sites around the island. None of these sites were purpose built, and all of the waste is above groundwater level. The landfills are not engineered and do not contain any measures to collect leachate and gases emanating from the disposal sites. Another waste, which is disposed of in landfills, is pulverized fuel ash (PFA), which is a by-product of coal combustion by the power station. This has been disposed of in landfill, because its use has been precluded due to the radioactivity of the ashes. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the pulverized fuel ash and to attempt to utilize it as a cement replacement in normal concrete mixes in the construction industry. The levels of radiation emitted from the ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The results of this study revealed that although at early ages cement replacement by PFA resulted in a reduction in compressive strength (P = 0), when compared to the reference concrete at later ages the strengths measured on concrete cores were comparable to the reference concrete (P > 0.05). The utilization of PFA up to 20% cement replacement in concrete did not raise the radioactivity of the concrete. In conclusion, utilization of PFA in the construction industry would be a better way of disposing of the ashes rather than controlling the leachate and any radioactivity emitted by the landfilled ashes

  1. Reduction of metal leaching in brown coal fly ash using geopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankowski, P.; Zou, L.; Hodges, R.

    2004-01-01

    Current regulations classify fly ash as a prescribed waste and prohibit its disposal in regular landfill. Treatment of the fly ash can reduce the leach rate of metals, and allow it to be disposed in less prescribed landfill. A geopolymer matrix was investigated as a potential stabilisation method for brown coal fly ash. Precipitator fly ash was obtained from electrostatic precipitators and leached fly ash was collected from ash disposal ponds, and leaching tests were conducted on both types of geopolymer stabilised fly ashes. The ratio of fly ash to geopolymer was varied to determine the effects of different compositions on leaching rates. Fourteen metals and heavy metals were targeted during the leaching tests and the results indicate that a geopolymer is effective at reducing the leach rates of many metals from the fly ash, such as calcium, arsenic, selenium, strontium and barium. The major element leachate concentrations obtained from leached fly ash were in general lower than that of precipitator fly ash. Conversely, heavy metal leachate concentrations were lower in precipitator fly ash than leached pond fly ash. The maximum addition of fly ash to this geopolymer was found to be 60 wt% for fly ash obtained from the electrostatic precipitators and 70 wt% for fly ash obtained from ash disposal ponds. The formation of geopolymer in the presence of fly ash was studied using 29Si MAS-NMR and showed that a geopolymer matrix was formed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed the interaction of the fly ash with the geopolymer, which was related to the leachate data and also the maximum percentage fly ash addition

  2. Fly ash dynamics in soil-water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Fulekar, M.H.; Jayalakshmi, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Studies regarding the effluents and coal ashes (or fly ash) resulting from coal burning are numerous, but their disposal and interactions with the soil and water systems and their detailed environmental impact assessment with concrete status reports on a global scale are scanty. Fly ash dynamics in soil and water systems are reviewed. After detailing the physical composition of fly ash, physicochemical changes in soil properties due to fly ash amendment are summarized. Areas covered include texture and bulk density, moisture retention, change in chemical equilibria, and effects of fly ash on soil microorganisms. Plant growth in amended soils is discussed, as well as plant uptake and accumulation of trace elements. In order to analyze the effect of fly ash on the physicochemical properties of water, several factors must be considered, including surface morphology of fly ash, pH of the ash sluice water, pH adjustments, leachability and solubility, and suspended ash and settling. The dynamics of fly ash in water systems is important due to pollution of groundwater resources from toxic components such as trace metals. Other factors summarized are bioaccumulation and biomagnification, human health effects of contaminants, and the impact of radionuclides in fly ash. Future research needs should focus on reduction of the environmental impact of fly ash and increasing utilization of fly ash as a soil amendment. 110 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-06-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  4. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  5. Solubility and transport of arsenic coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe, R.; Cruickshank, C.; Vega, E.; Silva, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental method combined with a numerical model allows a comparison of two methods for the disposal of ash that contains arsenic, from the Rio Escondido coal-fired power plant. The calculation yields significant differences in aquifer migration times for the site. The wet disposal method gave 10 years time and the dry method gave 22 years. Experiments were performed on the rate of dissolution of the arsenic from ash samples; and these results indicate a first order kinetics reaction. 8 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Greenlandic Waste Incineration Fly And Bottom Ash As Secondary Resource In Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Today, 900 tons incineration fly ash is shipped abroad annually from Greenland for deposits, whereas the 6,000 tons incineration bottom ash is deposited locally. These incineration ashes could be valuable in concrete production, where the cement has to be shipped to Greenland. For this purpose...... and cement with fly ash. Based on the compressive strength tests, it is found that using Greenlandic incineration ashes in mortar as 5% cement replacement could consume all ash instead of disposals, and could thus turn the ashes into a local resource and simultaneously reduce the import of cement....

  7. Evaluating Growth of Zeolites on Fly Ash in Hydro-Thermally Heated Low Alkaline Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bhagwanjee; Singh, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    Fly ash has been well established materials for synthesis of zeolites, under hydrothermally heated aqueous NaOH solution. Efficacy of such technique is reported to be improved when high molarity of NaOH is used. Consequently, highly alkaline waste solution, as by-product, is generally disposed of in the surrounding, which may contaminate the environment. In this context, less alkaline NaOH solution may become a safer option, which has not been tried in the past as per the literature. With this in view, the present study demonstrates effectiveness of the 0.5 M NaOH solution and critically monitors transition on the fly ash after hydrothermal treatment. As an enhancement over previous researchers, such activation of the fly ash finally results in remarkable morphological and mineralogical growth on the bulk material (the residue), which comprises of new nano-sized crystals (the zeolites Na-P1 and natrolite), after 24 h of activation of the fly ash.

  8. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    supply managers include: monitoring turbidity levels in raw water intakes, and if necessary increasing chlorination to compensate for higher turbidity; managing water demand; and communicating monitoring results with the public to allay fears of contamination. Ash can cause major damage to wastewater disposal systems. Ash deposited onto impervious surfaces such as roads and car parks is very easily washed into storm drains, where it can form intractable masses and lead to long-term flooding problems. It can also enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), both through sewer lines and by direct fallout. Damage to modern WWTPs can run into millions of dollars. Ash falls reduce visibility creating hazards for ground transportation. Dry ash is also readily remobilised by vehicle traffic and wind, and dry and wet ash deposits will reduce traction on paved surfaces, including airport runways. Ash cleanup from road and airports is commonly necessary, but the large volumes make it logistically challenging. Vehicles are vulnerable to ash; it will clog filters and brake systems and abrade moving parts within engines. Lastly, modern telecommunications networks appear to be relatively resilient to volcanic ash fall. Signal attenuation and interference during ash falls has not been reported in eruptions over the past 20 years, with the exception of interference from ash plume-generated lightning. However, some telecommunications equipment is vulnerable to airborne ash, in particular heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which may become blocked from ash ingestion leading to overheating. This summary of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure provides insight into the relative vulnerability of infrastructure under a range of different ashfall scenarios. Identifying and quantifying these impacts is an essential step in building resilience within these critical systems. We have attempted to consider interdependencies between sectors in a holistic way using

  9. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  10. European Technical Approval dor mixed coal ash: A Portuguese experience

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, A.; Cunha, C.; Ribeiro, F.

    2010-01-01

    When Sines power station started its operation, boilers were equipped with a wet bottom ash removal system. In a system like this, ash is collected in a water-filled hopper at the bottom of the furnace. When a sufficient amount of bottom ash drops into the hopper, it is removed by means of high-pressure water jets and conveyed by sluiceways either to a disposal pond or to a decant basin for dewatering and then transported for disposal. The operation of this system revealed some disadvan...

  11. Silica from Ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    management, polymer composites and chemical process design. Figure 1 Difference in color of the ash ... The selection of ash is important as the quality of ash determines the total amount as well as quality of silica recoverable Ash which has undergone maximum extent of combustion is highly desirable as it contains ...

  12. Radiobiological waste treatment-ashing treatment and immobilization with cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengtao, Feng; Li, Gong; Li, Cheng; Benli, Wang; Lihong, Wang [China Inst. for Radiation Protection, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China)

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of the study on the treatment of radioactive biological waste in the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP). The possibility of radiobiological waste treatment was investigated by using a RAF-3 type rapid ashing apparatus together with the immobilization of the resulted ash. This rapid ashing apparatus, developed by CIRP, is usually used for pretreatment of samples prior to chemical analysis and physical measurements. The results show that it can ash 3 kg of animal carcasses a batch, the ashing time is 5-7 h and the ash content is less than 4 wt%. The ashing temperature not exceeding 450 deg. C was used without any risk of high losses of radionuclides. The ash from the rapid ashing apparatus was demonstrated to be immobilized with ordinary silicate cement. The optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form was 35 {+-} 5 wt% cement, 29 {+-} 2 wt% water, and 36 {+-} 6 wt% ash. The performance of the waste form was in compliance with the technical requirements except for impact resistance. Mixing additives in immobilization formulations can improve the performance of the cemented ash waste form. The additives chosen were DH{sub 4A} flow promoter as a cement additive and vermiculite or zeolite as a supplement. The recommended formulation, i.e. an improved formulation of the cemented ash waste form is that additives DH{sub 4A} flow promoter and vermiculite (or zeolite) are added on the ground of optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form, the dosage of water, DH{sub 4A} and vermiculite (or zeolite) is 70 wt%, 0.5 wt% and {<=} 5 wt% of the cement dosage, respectively. The cemented ash waste forms obtained meet all the requirements for disposal. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs.

  13. Radiobiological waste treatment-ashing treatment and immobilization with cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shengtao; Gong Li; Cheng Li; Wang Benli; Wang Lihong

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of the study on the treatment of radioactive biological waste in the China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP). The possibility of radiobiological waste treatment was investigated by using a RAF-3 type rapid ashing apparatus together with the immobilization of the resulted ash. This rapid ashing apparatus, developed by CIRP, is usually used for pretreatment of samples prior to chemical analysis and physical measurements. The results show that it can ash 3 kg of animal carcasses a batch, the ashing time is 5-7 h and the ash content is less than 4 wt%. The ashing temperature not exceeding 450 deg. C was used without any risk of high losses of radionuclides. The ash from the rapid ashing apparatus was demonstrated to be immobilized with ordinary silicate cement. The optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form was 35 ± 5 wt% cement, 29 ± 2 wt% water, and 36 ± 6 wt% ash. The performance of the waste form was in compliance with the technical requirements except for impact resistance. Mixing additives in immobilization formulations can improve the performance of the cemented ash waste form. The additives chosen were DH 4A flow promoter as a cement additive and vermiculite or zeolite as a supplement. The recommended formulation, i.e. an improved formulation of the cemented ash waste form is that additives DH 4A flow promoter and vermiculite (or zeolite) are added on the ground of optimum cement/ash/water formulation of the cemented waste form, the dosage of water, DH 4A and vermiculite (or zeolite) is 70 wt%, 0.5 wt% and ≤ 5 wt% of the cement dosage, respectively. The cemented ash waste forms obtained meet all the requirements for disposal. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  14. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  15. Laboratory study on metal attenuation capacity of fine grained soil near ash pond site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Somnath; Sarkar, Sujoy; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-10-01

    Waste settling tanks of earthen containment nature are common in India for disposal of solid waste in slurry form. For a large pond system, e.g. ash slurry disposal tank of coal base thermal power plant, leachate generation and its migration pose a serious problem. A natural attenuation of controlling the migratory leachate is to use locally available clay material as lining system due to the adsorption properties of soil for reducing some metallic ions. The present investigation was carried out to explore the Ni2+ and Cr6+ removal capacity of surrounding soil of the ash pond site of Super Thermal Power Plant in West Bengal, India through some laboratory scale and field studies. The soil and water samples collected from the site showed the existence of Ni2+ and Cr6+ in excess to permissible limit. A two-dimensional adsorption behaviour of these pollutants through soil was assessed. The results showed that more than 80% of nickel and 72% of chromium were found to be sorbed by the soil corresponding to initial concentrations of two ions, i.e. 1.366 mg/L and 0.76 mg/L respectively. The batch adsorption data are tested Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and found reasonably fit. Breakthrough adsorption study uptake also showed a good adsorption capacity of the soil. The experimental results found to fit well with the existing two dimensional (2D) mathematical models as proposed by Fetter (1999).

  16. Optimization of heat-liberating batches for ash residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlackova, G.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Tivansky, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ash residue obtained after incineration of solid radioactive waste is a dusting poly-dispersed powder like material that contains radioactive nuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu, hor ( ellipsis)). Specific radioactivity of the ash can be about 10 5 --10 7 Bq/kg. In order to dispose of the ash, residue shall be stabilized by producing a monolith material. The ash residue can be either vitrified or stabilized into a ceramic matrix. For this purpose the ash residue is mixed with fluxing agents followed by melting of obtained composition in the different type melters. As a rule this requires both significant energy consumption and complex melting equipment. A stabilization technology of ash residue was proposed recently by using heat liberating batches-compositions with redox properties. The ash residue is melted due to exothermic chemical reactions in the mixture with heat-liberating batch that occur with considerable release of heat. Stabilization method has three stages: (1) preparation of a mixture of heating batch and ash residue with or without glass forming batch (frit); (2) ignition and combustion of mixed composition; (3) cooling (quenching) of obtained vitreous material. Combustion of mixed composition occurs in the form of propagation of reacting wave. The heat released during exothermic chemical reactions provides melting of ash residue components and production of glass-like phase. The final product consists of a glass like matrix with embedded crystalline inclusions of infusible ash residue components

  17. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  18. Producing zeolites from fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayalu, S.; Labhestwar, N.K.; Biniwale, R.B.; Udhoji, J.S.; Meshram, S.U.; Khanna, P.

    1998-01-01

    Fly ash has virtually become a menace of thermal power generation, leading to its devastating effects on the environment. Development of alternate methods of its disposal - especially those with recourse to recovery of valuable materials-has thus become imperative. This paper deals with the utilisation of fly ash for the production of high value-added products, viz., commercial grade zeolites. The physico-chemical and morphological characteristics of fly ash based Zeolite-A (FAZ-A) compares well with commercial Zeolite-A. High calcium binding capacity, appropriate particle/pore size and other detergency characteristics of FAZ-A brings forth its potential as a substitute for phosphatic detergent builder. The technology is extremely versatile, and other products like Zeolite-X, Zeolite-Y, sodalite and mordenite are also amenable for cost effective production with modifications in certain reaction parameters. Low temperature operations, ready availability of major raw materials, simplicity of process and recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of the process. (author)

  19. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  20. Development, testing, and demonstration of geotechnical and cement-based encapsulant materials for the stabilization of radioactive and hazardous waste disposal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Cammann, J.W.; Benny, H.L.; Serne, R.J.; Martin, P.F.; Ames, L.L.

    1991-09-01

    A zeolite fluidized-bed treatment system is being developed and tested for the treatment of radioactive and hazardous waste-contaminated subsurface disposal structures. Formulations of cement, fly ash, and slag slurries and sequestering agents also are being tested and evaluated. Leach resistance of radionuclides, heavy metals, and hazardous inorganic compounds in the solidified cement-based encapsulant has been determined. These results simulate the resistance to water leaching of the solidified product after it has been injected an open and interstitial void volume in and proximal to liquid waste disposal structures. Micro- and macro-encapsulation of contaminants within and geologic media surrounding subsurface disposal structures is being demonstrated as an alternative technology for waste site remediation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    , it is. "This has some impact on the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles," says Ferdinando Patat. "This kind of supernovae is used to measure the rate of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, assuming these objects behave in a uniform way. But asymmetries can introduce dispersions in the quantities observed." "Our discovery puts strong constraints on any successful models of thermonuclear supernova explosions," adds Wang. Models have suggested that the clumpiness is caused by a slow-burn process, called 'deflagration', and leaves an irregular trail of ashes. The smoothness of the inner regions of the exploding star implies that at a given stage, the deflagration gives way to a more violent process, a 'detonation', which travels at supersonic speeds - so fast that it erases all the asymmetries in the ashes left behind by the slower burning of the first stage, resulting in a smoother, more homogeneous residue.

  2. Disposal safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    International consensus does not seem to be necessary or appropriate for many of the issues concerned with the safety of nuclear waste disposal. International interaction on the technical aspects of disposal has been extensive, and this interaction has contributed greatly to development of a consensus technical infrastructure for disposal. This infrastructure provides a common and firm base for regulatory, political, and social actions in each nation

  3. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  4. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  5. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  6. Radioactivity of wood ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M.

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg -1 , in decreasing order: 137 Cs, 40 K, 90 Sr, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 134 Cs, 235 U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and 210 Pb was hardly detectable. The NH 4 Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  7. Clay formation and metal fixation during weathering of coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevenbergen, C.; Bradley, J.P.; Reeuwijk, L.P. Van; Shyam, A.K.; Hjelmar, O.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-01-01

    The enormous and worldwide production of coal fly ash cannot be durably isolated from the weathering cycle, and the weathering characteristics of fly ash must be known to understand the long-term environmental impact. The authors studied the weathering of two coal fly ashes and compared them with published data from weathered volcanic ash, it's closest natural analogue. Both types of ash contain abundant aluminosilicate glass, which alters to noncrystalline clay. However, this study reveals that the kinetics of coal fly ash weathering are more rapid than those of volcanic ash because the higher pH of fresh coal fly ash promotes rapid dissolution of the glass. After about 10 years of weathering, the noncrystalline clay content of coal fly ash is higher than that of 250-year-old volcanic ash. The observed rapid clay formation together with heavy metal fixation imply that the long-term environmental impact of coal fly ash disposal may be less severe and the benefits more pronounced than predicted from previous studies on unweathered ash. Their findings suggest that isolating coal fly ash from the weathering cycle may be counterproductive because, in the long-term under conditions of free drainage, fly ash is converted into fertile soil capable of supporting agriculture

  8. Utilisation of high carbon pulverised fuel ash

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Maythem Naji

    2011-01-01

    Coal combustion by-products generated from coal-fired power plant and cause enormous problems for disposal unless a way can be found to utilize these by-products through resource recovery programs. The implementation of air act regulations to reduce NOx emission have resulted millions of tonnes of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) accumulated with high percentage of unburned carbon made it un-saleable for the cement industry. Moreover, alternative fuels such as biomass and import coals were suggested...

  9. Dynamic evaluation of municipal solid waste ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, T.L.; Gardner, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    The incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) produces ashes which are concentrated in many inorganic species. The release of toxic elements from the ash to the aqueous environment is of concern as present methods of ash disposal consist primarily of landfilling. It was the goal of this paper to achieve an understanding of the mechanisms by which elements are transported from the solid ash phase to the aqueous phase. Twelve ash samples were collected from six different incinerators with varying designs and capacities. The leaching experiments were conducted using small (mini) dynamic columns to investigate the variation of leachate chemical characteristics with time. In analyzing the data, a multicomponent chemical equilibrium model was used to determine chemical speciation and component activities. Auxiliary experiments included an array of physical measurements, and aqueous batch leach tests

  10. Managing ash from the combustion of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that with millions of tons of refuse being combusted each year, increasing concern over the environment impact of the residue produced has caused both regulators and the resource recovery industry to address the technical and regulatory issues relating to the safe handling and disposal of ash. The basic issue concerning solid waste combustion ash management in this country is how, based on past, recent, and ongoing scientific research, solid waste combustion ash should be handled. Typically, refuse contains approximately 20 to 25 percent residue, which is collected either on grates at the bottom of the combustion chamber or filtered from the exhaust gases by the air pollution control equipment. The fly ash component of the total residue stream is between 10 and 30 percent of the total residue while the bottom ash content ranges from 70 to 90 percent of the total weight, depending upon the air pollution control equipment utilized, especially acid gas scrubbing equipment

  11. Synthesis and characterization of fly ash-zinc oxide nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Yeole

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash, generated in thermal power plants, is recognized as an environmental pollutant. Thus, measures are required to be undertaken to dispose it in an environmentally friendly method. In this paper an attempt is made to coat zinc oxide nano-particles on the surface of fly ash by a simple and environmentally friendly facile chemical method, at room temperature. Zinc oxide may serve as effective corrosion inhibitor by providing sacrificial protection. Concentration of fly ash was varied as 5, 10 and 15 (w/w % of zinc oxide. It was found that crystallinity increased, whereas particle size, specific gravity and oil absorption value decreased with increased concentration of fly ash in zinc oxide, which is attributed to the uniform distribution of zinc oxide on the surface of fly ash. These nanocomposites can potentially be used in commercial applications as additive for anticorrosion coatings.

  12. Beneficial use of CFB ash in pavement construction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Mike Jackson; Scott Schultz; Paul Sander; Lindsay Schopp [Jackson Research Engineers, Inc., Ponte Vedra Beach, FL (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The disposal of ash produced from the combustion of solid fuels has been a major subject of research and product development for many years. An innovative application has recently been employed by JEA to recycle both the bottom ash and fly ash from two new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers as a stabilizer for local sandy soils and pavement base course material. The results of laboratory testing and field applications in the north Florida market area illustrate how this by-product is adding value in pavement and roadway construction applications. 14 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. DETERMINATION OF METAL CONTENT AND AN ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL USE OF WASTE CASHEW NUT ASH (CNSA) AS SOURCE FOR POTASH PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Bosede Ogundiran; Joshua Olajiire Babayemi; Chima Gregory Nzeribe

    2011-01-01

    The potential use of waste cashew nut shell (CNS) ash as a source for potash production was investigated in this study. Managing waste ash generated from cashew nut processing is a major challenge, as land filling and open dumping of the waste ashes have been the main options in management of the ash in Nigeria. Economically viable ways of using waste ash rather than having to dispose of it have to be investigated. The CNS was air-dried for 4 weeks and combusted to ashes; the resulting ash wa...

  14. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  15. Characteristics of wood ash and influence on soil properties and nutrient uptake: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, A; Voundi Nkana, J C; Verloo, M G

    2001-05-01

    Wood industries and power plants generate enormous quantities of wood ash. Disposal in landfills has been for long a common method for removal. New regulations for conserving the environment have raised the costs of landfill disposal and added to the difficulties for acquiring new sites for disposal. Over a few decades a number of studies have been carried out on the utilization of wood ashes in agriculture and forestry as an alternative method for disposal. Because of their properties and their influence on soil chemistry the utilization of wood ashes is particularly suited for the fertility management of tropical acid soils and forest soils. This review principally focuses on ash from the wood industry and power plants and considers its physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics, its effect on soil properties, on the availability of nutrient elements and on the growth and chemical composition of crops and trees, as well as its impact on the environment.

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of geopolymers from fluidised bed gasifier bottom ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluidised bed gasification (FBG) is a clean coal technology suitable for power and fuel generation from low grade coals. However, the resulting bottom ash presents some disposal challenges to the power plants and the environment. The production...

  17. Use of soil-steel slag-class-C fly ash mixtures in subgrade applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    In Indiana, large quantities of recyclable : materials - such as steel slag, blast furnace : slag and fly ash - are generated each year as : by-products of various industries. Instead of : disposing these by-products into landfills, : we can recycle ...

  18. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  19. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  20. Ash Utilisation 2012. Ashes in a Sustainable Society. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Conference themes: Risk assessment, Fly ash- Road construction, Recycling and Greenhouse gases, Storage of ashes, Fertilizer, Metal Mining, Support and Barriers, Construction Material, Civil Engineering, and MSWI bottom ash.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF AMMONIA ADSORPTION ON FLY ASH DUE TO INSTALLATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.F. Brendel; J.E. Bonetti; R.F. Rathbone; R.N. Frey Jr.

    2000-11-01

    This report summarizes an investigation of the potential impacts associated with the utilization of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems at coal-fired power plants. The study was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Emission Control By-Products Consortium, Dominion Generation, the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and GAI Consultants, Inc. SCR systems are effective in reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions as required by the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments. However, there may be potential consequences associated with ammonia contamination of stack emissions and combustion by-products from these systems. Costs for air quality, landfill and pond environmental compliance may increase significantly and the marketability of ash may be seriously reduced, which, in turn, may also lead to increased disposal costs. The potential impacts to air, surface water, groundwater, ash disposal, ash utilization, health and safety, and environmental compliance can not be easily quantified based on the information presently available. The investigation included: (1) a review of information and data available from published and unpublished sources; (2) baseline ash characterization testing of ash samples produced from several central Appalachian high-volatile bituminous coals from plants that do not currently employ SCR systems in order to characterize the ash prior to ammonia exposure; (3) an investigation of ammonia release from fly ash, including leaching and thermal studies; and (4) an evaluation of the potential impacts on plant equipment, air quality, water quality, ash disposal operations, and ash marketing.

  2. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  3. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  4. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  5. Thermal treatment and vitrification of boiler ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Voncken, J H L; Wilson, N

    2008-06-15

    Boiler ash generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators is usually classified as hazardous materials and requires special disposal. In the present study, the boiler ash was characterized for the chemical compositions, morphology and microstructure. The thermal chemical behavior during ash heating was investigated with thermal balance. Vitrification of the ash was conducted at a temperature of 1400 degrees C in order to generate a stable silicate slag, and the formed slag was examined with chemical and mineralogical analyses. The effect of vitrification on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ash was evaluated with acid leaching. The study shows that the boiler ash as a heterogeneous fine powder contains mainly silicate, carbonate, sulfates, chlorides, and residues of organic materials and heavy metal compounds. At elevated temperatures, the boiler ash goes through the initial moisture removal, volatilization, decomposition, sintering, melting, and slag formation. At 1400 degrees C a thin layer of salt melt and a homogeneous glassy slag was formed. The experimental results indicate that leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly reduced compared to the original boiler ash, and the vitrification could be an interesting alternative for a safer disposal of the boiler ash. Ash compacting, e.g., pelletizing can reduce volatilization and weight loss by about 50%, and would be a good option for the feed preparation before vitrification.

  6. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  7. Respiratory and reproductive characteristics of eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) inhabiting a coal ash settling basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staub, B.P.; Hopkins, W.A.; Novak, J.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2004-01-01

    Coal fly ash and effluent from coal ash settling basins negatively affects metabolism and reproduction in a variety of organisms, including a number of fish species. Some species, most notably the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), are known to maintain viable populations in areas contaminated by coal ash. While eastern mosquitofish are present in these systems, their degree of tolerance to coal ash has not been investigated using sublethal metrics of exposure. It is possible that eastern mosquitofish persist in habitats affected by coal ash, but experience significant costs such as changes in metabolism and fecundity. Thus, we investigated the effects of coal ash on standard metabolic rate and reproduction of eastern mosquitofish inhabiting a coal-ash contaminated settling basin. Standard metabolic rates of mosquitofish from the ash contaminated site and a reference site were not significantly different. Despite elevated contaminant concentrations in ash basin females (selenium, arsenic, copper, and cadmium) and their offspring (selenium), brood sizes and offspring viability did not differ between clutches collected from ash basin and reference site females. Our data provide further evidence of the high degree of tolerance of eastern mosquitofish to exposure to aquatic coal ash disposal generated by power plants. However, the basis for such tolerance to ash remains unclear. Further investigations are required to determine whether such tolerance is a result of species-specific characteristics or population characteristics due to local adaptation.

  8. Basic characteristics of leachate produced by various washing processes for MSWI ashes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renbo; Liao, Wing-Ping; Wu, Pin-Han

    2012-08-15

    Approximately 19.2% of Taiwan's municipal solid waste (MSW) that passes through incineration disposal is converted into ashes (including bottom ash and fly ash). Although bottom ash can pass nearly all of the standards of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), its high chloride content makes its reuse limited; it generally cannot be used as a fine aggregate material in concrete applications. This research examined washing four types of bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA) with water to reduce their chloride content. The optimal water intensity for washing pretreated bottom ash was found to be 7-8L of water per kg of bottom ash, and the optimal water intensity for washing untreated fly ash was found to be 20-25 L of water per kg of fly ash. Based on regression analyses of the chloride concentrations of the leachates and their electrical conductivity (EC) values, each MSW incineration plant has its own ash characteristics as well as a specific regression line in bottom or fly ash leachate. Clearly, it is possible to monitor the EC values of the leachates online by estimation from regression equations to determine the chloride concentrations in the leachates. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical properties of millet husk ash bitumen stabilized soil block

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA) and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, ...

  10. Utilisation of Electrodialytically Treated Sewage Sludge Ash in Mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Annemette; Pares Viader, Raimon; Kowalski, Krzysztof Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorous is a scarce resource and there is a need to develop methods for recovery of this irreplaceable nutrient from secondary resources, e.g. from sewage sludge ash (SSA). Today SSA is most often disposed of and the resource is lost. In the present study, about 90% phosphorous was recovered...

  11. Paleocorrosion studies in deep sea sediments and the geological disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, L.; Maurette, M.; Guichard, F.; Havette, A.; Monaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    Uncertainties still surround assessment of the safety of disposal of nuclear wastes incorporated into 'radwaste' matrices. This is mostly due to the long time required for radioactive decay of 237 Np. The present work explores the usefulness of an experimental approach in 'paleocorrosion', which should help in minimizing such uncertainties. In this approach, polished sections of sediments containing high concentrations of natural analogues of radwaste matrices are subjected to element micromapping. Thus it is possible to characterize the long-term interactions of such analogues in their geological repositories, and to identify which generate reaction aureoles and protective and/or unprotective coatings. These analogues include grains incorporated in deep sea sediments (uraninite and quartz from the Oklo uranium ore deposit; volcanic ash particles; magnetic cosmic spherules). The present results indicate that uraninite should be a much more durable radwaste matrix than any type of glass in deep sea sediments. (orig./TWO)

  12. Protecting black ash from the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Benedict

    2010-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....

  13. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  14. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  15. Incinerated sewage sludge ash as alternative binder in cement-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejcirikova, Barbora; Goltermann, Per; Hodicky, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash is characterized by its pozzolanic properties, as cement is. This predetermines its use in a substitution of cement and cementitious materials. Utilization of sewage sludge ash does not only decrease the consumption of cement, one of the largest cause of CO2 emissions, but also...... it can minimize the need of ash landfill disposal. The objective of this study is to show potential use of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA), an industrial byproduct, as possible binder in cement-based materials. Chemical and mechanical characteristics are presented and compared with results obtained...

  16. Power station fly ash. A review of value-added utilization outside of the construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.S.; Scott, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The disposal of fly ash from coal-fired power stations causes significant economic and environmental problems. A relatively small percentage of the material finds application as an ingredient in cement and other construction products, but the vast majority of material generated each year is held in ash dams or similar dumps. This unproductive use of land and the associated long-term financial burden of maintenance has led to realization that alternative uses for fly ash as a value-added product beyond incorporation in construction materials are needed. Utilization of fly ash in such areas as novel materials, waste management, recovery of metals and agriculture is reviewed in this article with the aim of looking at new areas that will expand the positive reuse of fly ash, thereby helping to reduce the environmental and economic impacts of disposal

  17. Characterization of ash pond ashes from 3rd thermal power plant by SEM/EDX and XRD methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Minjigmaa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available   Coal combustion by products from ash pond of 3rdthermal power plant of Ulaanbaatar city have been collected in 2010 and 2013 years. The ash samples have been characterized by XRD, XRF and SEM-EDX methods in order to evaluate their chemical and mineralogical composition changes with disposed times. The mineralogical composition of ash varies with time though the chemical composition of the ashes were close each other. Possibly, inefficient operating condition of the TPS shows influence on the mineralogical composition.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.201Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p61-65

  18. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of coal fly ash water leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2009-03-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to storage or ash ponds located near power stations. This has lain to waste thousands of hectares of land all over the world. Since leaching is often the cause of off-site contamination and pathway of introduction into the human environment, a study on the genotoxic effects of fly ash leachate is essential. Leachate prepared from the fly ash sample was analyzed for metal content, and tested for mutagenicity and genotoxicity. Analyses of metals show predominance of the metals-sodium, silicon, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, and sulphate. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity assay, a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay, was conducted on two-tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a and TA102. For genotoxicity, the alkaline version of comet assay on fly ash leachate was carried in vitro on human blood cells and in vivo on Nicotiana plants. The leachate was directly mutagenic and induced significant (Ppercentage (%), tail length (mum), and olive tail moment (arbitrary units). Our results indicate that leachate from fly ash dumpsites has the genotoxic potential and may lead to adverse effects on vegetation and on the health of exposed human populations.

  19. The effect of fly ash on the sulfate resistance of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    The durability of concrete is determined by its ability to endure the physical and environmental surroundings without losing the functional properties and structural integrity of the original design. Concrete containing fly ash can be proportioned to...

  20. Preliminary environmental assessments of disposal of rock mined during excavation of a federal repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Since the environmental impact of mined rock handling will be dependent not only upon the nature of the material and the way in which it might be disposed but also upon the features of the disposal site area and surroundings, it was necessary to select ''reference environmental locii'' within the regions of geological interest to typify the environmental setting into which the rock would be placed. Reference locii (locations) were developed for consideration of the environmental implications of mined rock from: bedded rock salt from the Salina region, bedded rock salt from the Permian region, dome rock salt from the Gulf Interior region, Pierre shale from the Argillaceous region, granite from the crystalline rock region, volcanic basalt rock from the crystalline ash region, and carbonate rock from the limestone region. Each of these reference locii was examined with respect to those demographic, geographic, physical and ecological attributes which might be impacted by various mined rock disposal alternatives. Alternatives considered included: onsite surface storage, industrial or commercial use, offsite disposal, and environmental blending. Potential impact assessment consists of a qualitative look at the environmental implications of various alternatives for handling the mined rock, given baseline characteristics of an area typified by those represented by the ''reference locus''

  1. Assessment of hardened characteristics of raw fly ash blended self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahalingam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is widely used as a supplementary cementitious material in concrete. Due to the implementation of new thermal power plants as a consequence of electricity demand, generation of fly ash is noticeably increased. In addition to pozzolana blended cement production, it is very imperative to use raw fly ash in concrete. Earlier research studies investigated the performance of processed fly ash in blended cement production as well as in concrete. In general, ground fly ash is used in blended cement production. A comprehensive study on the performance evaluation of raw fly ash in self-compacting concrete is not available in the existing literature. Moreover, utilization of raw fly ash in special concrete such as self-compacting concrete is essential to comprehend the performance of raw fly ash blended concrete compared to ordinary Portland concrete. Additionally, it will help to achieve maximum utilization of raw fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material rather than disposal as a waste, which eventually leads to several environmental issues. In the study, raw fly ash was collected and is directly used in development of self-compacting concrete. Two mixes were cast and hardened characteristics of blended concrete were investigated. Results from the study showed comparable performance with control concrete. Furthermore, significant reduction in chloride permeability was observed for raw fly ash blended concrete.

  2. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase...... layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals...... and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment...

  3. Coal combustion by-products: A survey of use and disposal provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagiella, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    Over 50% of all electricity in the United States is generated by the combustion of coal. Currently, coal fired power plants produce approximately 85 million to 100 million tons of coal combustion byproducts each year. The generation of these byproducts is expected to increase to 120 million tons by the year 2000, an increase of about 72% over 1984 levels. There are four basic types of byproducts produced by coal combustion - fly as, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization sludge (FGD), and are useful as engineering materials in a variety of applications. Fly ash represents nearly 75% of all ash wastes generated in the United States. Fly ash is a powder like substance with bonding properties. The properties of fly ash depend on the type of boiler utilized. The collected fly ash can be used to partially replace cement in concrete or the clay tit bricks or as part of nine reclamation. The technology for use of fly ash in cement concrete and road bases is well developed and has been practical for many years. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recognized the applications of fly ash and promulgated a federal procurement guideline for the use of fly ash in cement and concrete. Although fly ash is the second most widely used waste product, much opportunity remains to expand the use of this product, In 1984, 80% of all fly ash was not recycled but rather disposed of, Ash particles that do not escape in flue gas as fly ash become bottom ash or boiler slag. Bottom ash and boiler slag settles on the bottom of the power plant's boiler. Bottom ash is a sand like substance which has some bonding capability. Depending on the type of boiler, tile bottom ash may be open-quotes dry bottom ashclose quotes or open-quotes wet bottom ashclose quotes, Wet bottom ash falls in a molten state into water

  4. The agronomic landspreading of coal bottom ash: using a regulated solid waste as a resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, N; McIntosh, T; Severance, C; Peterson, A

    1989-02-01

    Within the US, approximately 8860 Mg of dry coal bottom ash is generated daily, the majority of which is disposed of by landfilling. The disposal cost varies significantly depending on location. In Wisconsin, for example, in 1987 public landfill disposal costs ranged from 8.90 US dollars to 30 US dollars per Mg. However, bottom ash appears to be an acceptable soil amendment which may alter texture and improve tilth by making clay soils more friable and decreasing crust formation. If a generic exemption for this material can be developed with the appropriate regulatory bodies, use of coal bottom ash as a soil amendment has societal and economic advantages. This paper describes the key point of an agronomic management plant. An economic comparison indicates that, based on 1987 costs, agronomic use is only 38% as costly as landfill disposal. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  6. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  7. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  8. Environmental issues of disposal of wastes from thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, R.; Sinha, T.K.; Saxena, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to find out means to use the fly ash ponds as useful fertile land which will result in an environment friendly fly ash disposal system. The results showed: (i) fly-ash mixed with 50% or even 25% soil can support on it vegetables like tomato, brinjal, kholrabi, chilly and ladies finger, food crops like wheat, bazra and paddy and pulses like arhar, (ii) fly ash ponds without any amendment can support growth of lemon-grass, (iii) another set of experiments have shown that normal leaching of fly ash by rain water or tap water does not draw any pollutant from it, (iv) long term leaching through months can draw negligible amounts of Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, etc. which may not result in any effective ground water pollution. (author)

  9. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  10. Utilization of power plant bottom ash as aggregates in fiber-reinforced cellular concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H K; Kim, H K; Hwang, E A

    2010-02-01

    Recently, millions tons of bottom ash wastes from thermoelectric power plants have been disposed of in landfills and coastal areas, regardless of its recycling possibility in construction fields. Fiber-reinforced cellular concrete (FRCC) of low density and of high strength may be attainable through the addition of bottom ash due to its relatively high strength. This paper focuses on evaluating the feasibility of utilizing bottom ash of thermoelectric power plant wastes as aggregates in FRCC. The flow characteristics of cement mortar with bottom ash aggregates and the effect of aggregate type and size on concrete density and compressive strength were investigated. In addition, the effects of adding steel and polypropylene fibers for improving the strength of concrete were also investigated. The results from this study suggest that bottom ash can be applied as a construction material which may not only improve the compressive strength of FRCC significantly but also reduce problems related to bottom ash waste.

  11. Durability of incinerator ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Pietrzak, R.; Colombo, P.

    1991-01-01

    Waste form stability under anticipated disposal conditions is an important consideration for ensuring continued isolation of contaminants from the accessible environment. Modified sulfur cement is a relatively new material and has only recently been applied as a binder for encapsulation of mixed wastes. Little data are available concerning its long-term durability. Therefore, a series of property evaluation tests for both binder and waste-binder combinations have been conducted to examine potential waste form performance under storage and disposal conditions. These tests include compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, water immersion, thermal cycling, and leaching. Waste form compressive strength increased with ash waste loadings to 30.5 MPa at a maximum incinerator ash loading of 43 wt %. Biodegradation testing resulted in no visible microbial growth of either bacteria or fungi. Initial radiation stability testing did not reveal statistically significant deterioration in structural integrity. Results of 90 day water immersion tests were dependent on the type of ash tested. There were no statistically significant changes in compressive strength detected after completion of thermal cycle testing. Radionuclides from ash waste encapsulated in modified sulfur cement leached between 5 and 8 orders of magnitude slower than the leach index criterion established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for low-level radioactive waste. Modified sulfur cement waste forms containing up to 43 wt % incinerator fly ash passed EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) criteria for lead and cadmium leachability. 11 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Wood ash to treat sewage sludge for agricultural use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    About 90% of the three million tons of wood ash generated in the United States from wood burning facilities is being landfilled. Many landfills are initiated tipping fees and/or restrictions on the disposal of special wastes such as ash. The purpose of this work was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of using wood ash to stabilize sewage sludge and (2) the fertilizer and liming value of the sludge/ash mixture on plant response and soil pH. Research showed that wood ash, when mixed with sludge, will produce a pH above 12.0, which meets US EPA criteria for pathogen reduction for land application on non-direct food chain crops. Different ratios of wood ash to sludge mixtures were tested and the 1:1 ratio (by weight) was found to be optimal. Five replications of wood ash from four sources were tested for moisture content, pH and fertilizer nutrients. The pH of the ash/sludge mixture (1:1) on day one ranged from 12.4 to 13.2. In most cases the pH remained the same over a 21 day test or only dropped 0.1 to 0.3 units. Analyses of the mixtures showed that heavy metal concentrations (As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Se, Zn) were low. The 1:1 ash/sludge mixture had a calcium carbonate equivalency of 17%. Green house pot studies using tall fescue grass were loadings of 300 to 750 pounds per acre of TKN-N than for 500 lb/acre of 10-10-10 commercial fertilizer. Plant tissue analysis showed N, P, K, Ca, and Mg levels to be within the sufficiency range for tall fescue.

  13. Fly ash. January 1987-November 1991 (Citations from the NTIS Data-Base). Rept. for Jan 87-Nov 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the collection, disposal, and utilization of fly ash. Topics include chemical behavior and composition studies, potential environmental effects, toxicity determinations, management strategies, and materials recovery programs. The employment of fly ash as a cement replacement, and highway construction material is discussed. (Contains 170 citations with title list and subject index.)

  14. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  15. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    -1300°C, and a trend of higher fusion temperatures with increasing contents of Al-silicates and quartz was found.c) Fly ashes, bottom ashes and deposits from coal/straw co-firing were all found to consist mainly of metal-alumina and alumina-silicates. These ashes all melt in the temperature range 1000......The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction......, the biggest deviations being found for salt rich (i.e. straw derived) ashes.A simple model assuming proportionality between fly ash fusion and deposit formation was found to be capable of ranking deposition rates for the different straw derived fly ashes, whereas for the fly ashes from coal/straw co-firing...

  16. An overview on characterization, utilization and leachate analysis of biomedical waste incinerator ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajor, Anita; Xaxa, Monika; Mehta, Ratika; Kunal

    2012-10-15

    Solid waste management is one of the major global environmental issues, as there is continuous increase in industrial globalization and generation of waste. Solid wastes encompass the heterogeneous mass of throwaways from the urban community as well as the homogeneous accumulations of agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. Biomedical waste pose a significant impact on health and environment. A proper waste management system should be required to dispose hazardous biomedical waste and incineration should be the best available technology to reduce the volume of this hazardous waste. The incineration process destroys pathogens and reduces the waste volume and weight but leaves a solid material called biomedical waste ash as residue which increases the levels of heavy metals, inorganic salts and organic compounds in the environment. Disposal of biomedical waste ash in landfill may cause contamination of groundwater as metals are not destroyed during incineration. The limited space and the high cost for land disposal led to the development of recycling technologies and the reuse of ash in different systems. In order to minimize leaching of its hazardous components into the environment several studies confirmed the successful utilization of biomedical waste ash in agriculture and construction sector. This paper presents the overview on the beneficial use of ash in agriculture and construction materials and its leachate characteristics. This review also stressed on the need to further evaluate the leachate studies of the ashes and slag for their proper disposal and utilization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Northeast Regional environmental impact study: Waste disposal technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguinsin, J. L. S.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts associated with the conversion of multiple generating stations in the Northeast is assessed. The estimated quantities and composition of wastes resulting from coal conversion, including ash and SO2 scrubber sludge, are presented. Regulations governing the use of ash and scrubber sludge are identified. Currently available waste disposal schemes are described. The location, capacity, and projected life of present and potential disposal sites in the region are identified. Waste disposal problems, both hazardous and nonhazardous, are evaluated. Environmental regulations within the region as they pertain to coal conversion and as they affect the choice of conversion alternatives are discussed. A regional waste management strategy for solid waste disposal is developed.

  18. A quantitative assessment of the BSE risk associated with fly ash and slag from the incineration of meat-and-bone meal in a gas-fired power plant in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2005-01-01

    and slag are incorporated into the cement or concrete. Our goal was to assess with a Monte Carlo simulation model the bovine spongiform, encephalopathy (BSE) risk to cattle and humans posed by the ash and slag. The results will be used by decision makers to evaluate the need for disposal of the fly ash......It has been recommended that meat-and-bone meal (MBM) be incinerated at 850 degrees C for at least 2 s and the ashes and slag disposed of in controlled landfills, to dispose of animal-derived proteins. Most commonly, the MBM is incinerated in cement works or coal-fired power plants and the ashes...

  19. Ashes to ashes: Large Fraxinus germplasm collections and their fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Paul. Lupo

    2010-01-01

    As the emerald ash borer (EAB) threatens the survival of our ash species, measures should be taken to preserve their genetic variability in the event that we discover a way to restore populations destroyed by the beetle. As it happens, large germplasm collections exist for our most important and widely distributed eastern species of the genus, white ash (...

  20. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  1. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is ∼ 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends ∼1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of ∼1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top

  2. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  3. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Songgeng, E-mail: sgli@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Song, Wenli [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Weigang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • A novel method is proposed to analyze fusion characteristics of biomass ash. • T{sub m} can represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. • Compared with AFT, TMA is the better choice to analyze the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. - Abstract: The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, T{sub m}, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates.

  4. Testing the possibility for reusing mswi bottom ash in Greenlandic road construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Villumsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    requirements (a grain size distribution, wear resistance, visual fraction analysis and bearing capacity) for reuse as fill material in road construction [2]. Environmental classification based on heavy metal content and leachability was also investigated. The tests showed that it will not be possible to use......, which can influence the quality of MWSI residues. About 15,000 tons MSWI bottom ash is produced annually in Greenland and is disposed of at the open disposal sites without leachate collection or encapsulation. The MSWI bottom ash could have value as a secondary resource in construction work in Greenland...... the bottom ash directly after the incineration as the bottom ash did not comply with all the requirements specified by the Danish Road Directorate. These technical requirements could be improved by removing large fractions (> 45mm) and metal parts as well as changing the grain size distribution...

  5. Roles of bentonite in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    Bentonite is used in radioactive waste disposal from the following points; (1) properties (2) now utilization fields (3) how to use in radioactive waste disposal (4) how much consumption and deposits as source at the present time. Bentonite is produced as alteration products from pyroclastic rocks such as volcanic ash and ryolite, and is clay composed mainly smectite (montmorillonite in general). Therefore, special properties of bentonite such as swelling potential, rheological property, bonding ability, cation exchange capacity and absorption come mainly from properties of montmorillonite. Bentonite has numerous uses such as iron ore pelleizing, civil engineering, green sand molding, cat litter, agricultural chemicals and drilling mud. Consumption of bentonite is about 600-700 x 10 3 tons in Japan and about 10 x 10 6 tons in the world. Roles of bentonite to be expected in radioactive waste disposal are hydraulic conductivity, swelling potential, absorption, mechanical strength, ion diffusion capacity and long-term durability. These properties come from montmorillonite. (author)

  6. Development of Mitsui/Juelich Incineration System and hydro-thermal ash solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kamada, S.; Nakamori, Y.; Katakura, M.; Yamazaki, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the developing program for Mitsui/Juelich Incinerated System combined with Hydrothermal ash solidification. The system is an integrated one and capable for volume reduction of various kind of radioactive waste and safe disposal of residual incinerator ash. The system also has an advantage of reducing construction and operation cost. An outline of the incineration plant is also presented in this paper

  7. Life cycle perspective on recycling of ashes; Livscykelperspektiv paa aatervinning av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to, from a life cycle perspective, discuss the consequences of recycling or disposing combustion ashes. The aim was to regard regional as well as global environmental impacts and point at potential conflicts between different environmental objectives, in order to produce basic information for decision-making on criteria and regulations for ash handling.Three different ashes were studied: bottom ash from waste incineration, fly ash from combustion of peat and from forest fuels. For all ashes three different scenarios were studied, two where the ash is recycled, and one where it is disposed. Focus was put on the difference between the three scenarios during 100 years. The use of bottom ash from waste incineration for roads saved crushed rock and energy, but produced more leaching of metals than the disposal alternative. Using this ash in drainage strata saves sand but causes higher metal leaching too. The same conclusions can be drawn for fly ash from peat, here leaching of Arsenic is the main factor. Using the peat ash as road contraction material saves more resources than the use for drainage blankets. For forest fuel ash, both the use as road construction material and recycling to the forest saves resources and energy. Recycling to the forest saves most energy but also the resources of Zinc, Phosphorous and Dolomite. Leaching of metals is most important for the forest recycling, and the nature of this resource recycling can be argued. The results are most sensitive concerning transports and leaching, but also for maintenance of the constructions where the ash is used. For the forest fuel ash, the suppositions about the necessity of compensation for nutrients removed with the fuel, have important effects for the result. Generally it can be said, for all three cases, that the estimates of leaching of metals are very uncertain, and that there is a need to develop the existing models for long term leaching. The three cases demonstrated

  8. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  9. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  10. Processed fly ash for workability: stretching to its limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, M. [Dirk India Pvt Ltd., Nashik (India)

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes use of fly ash produced by the British Multinational Company called Dirk, in a fire grade, Pozzocreta 63 to improve the workability of concrete used to reline tunnels for the disposal of sewage from Mumbai City, 4 km into the Arabian Sea. It mainly involved rehabilitation of 5.5 km of tunnels from Sion to Banda, 30 m below ground level. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  12. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  13. Characterization of bottom ashes from coal pulverized power plants to determine their potential use feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez, E.; Alvaro, A. M.; Argiz, C.; Parra, J. L.; Moragues, A.

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of coal by products represents environmental and economical problems around the world. Therefore, the reuse and valorisation of this waste has become an important issue in the last decades. While high-value construction products containing fly ash were developed and its use is actually totally accepted as an addition to cement, the use of the bottom ash as supplementary cementitious material has not been allow. This paper examines the chemical and physical properties of fly ashes and bottom ashes from two different coal power plants in order to compare them and analyse the potential feasibility of bottom ash as cement replacement. The mechanical properties of cement mortars made with different percentages of both ashes were also study. The results obtained showed similar chemical composition of both kinds of ashes. The compressive strength values of mortars with 10 % and 25 % of cement replacement (at 28 days) were above the limits established in European standards and there were not significant differences between fly ash and bottom ash from both origins. (Author)

  14. Studies of lagoon ash from Sarawak to assess the impact on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabir Kumar Kolay; Harwant Singh [University Malaysia Sarawak, Sarawak (Malaysia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-02-15

    Coal utilization, mainly in thermal power plants, has increased significantly from 4.2 to 13 million tonnes within 2000 to 2005, which resulted in the production of approximately 2 million tonnes of coal ash in Malaysia. Of this only a small percentage is used as a cement ingredient, in concrete industry, as a fill material, etc. and with the rest of the amount being disposed in ash ponds or lagoons. If the lagoons are not properly designed with a landfill liner or if there is spillage from the ash pond, the toxic heavy metal present in coal ash can result in the contamination of the subsurface soil and the ground water. The concentration of heavy metals or trace elements in coal residues depends on the composition of a particular parent coal and the bulk utilization of lagoon ash for various purposes requires a complete characterization of the ash. Hence, this paper analyzes the coal ash for its trace element content and characterizes mainly physical, chemical, mineralogical, morphological and thermal properties of the lagoon ash from a local coal based thermal power plant from Sarawak, Malaysia. The results also indicated that, the concentration of some trace elements is quite high from the environmental perspective in this particular lagoon ash. 43 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons

  16. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M. [CNR — Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00010 Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Sacchi, E. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and CNR-IGG, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sanam, R.; Pujari, P.R.; Labhasetwar, P.K. [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra — India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water–rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. - Highlights: • Ash ponds have wide environmental and social impact in India. • Isotope ratios can be used as tracers for possible pollution of groundwater. • Isotopes of O, H, Sr, U and Ra have been used to investigate the area of Koradi. • Salinity of groundwater is not due to fly ash but linked to local brick kilns. • A model for the residence time of water based on Ra isotopes is described.

  17. UTILIZATION OF TORAY FLY ASH AS FILLER SUBSTITUTION IN THE HOT ROLLED SHEET-WEARING COURSE (HRS-WC MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Candra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In road construction materials, the utilization of fly ash as additive materials is limited and also small in quantity, while the disposal of fly ash is quite high. An abundance of fly ash can be found at PT Toray Company in Jakarta and Surabaya. Toray fly ash is disposed coal ash resulting from coal-fired electricity generating power plants. Toray fly ash in this research is used as substitute mineral filler in asphalt paving mixtures. Research on utilization of Toray fly ash as filler is conducted in the Hot Rolled Sheet – Wearing Course Mixture.  Filler content in the HRS –WC mixture is 9%. Variations of Toray fly ash in the mixture tested are 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and the variations of asphalt content are 6%, 6.5%, 7%, 7.5%, 8%. Marshall test is  performed to determine the Optimum Asphalt Content  and Marshall Stability, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS test and Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR to select the optimum Toray fly ash utilization in the mixture based on the moisture susceptibility of specimens. The research results show that in variations of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% Toray fly ash in the HRS-WC Mixture, the Optimum Asphalt Contents are at 6.8%, 7.0%, 7.0%, 7.1% and 7.6%  and Marshall Stability values of the variations are 1649 kg, 1541 kg, 1568 kg, 1678 kg, 1718 kg respectively. TSR values in variations of Toray fly ash are 98.32%, 90.28%, 89.38%, 87.62%, 64.71% respectively, with Minimum TSR value required is 80%. Based on the overall parameters, the optimum Toray fly ash utilization in the HRS-WC Mixture recommended is 75% of Toray fly ash at 7.1% Optimum Asphalt Content.

  18. Conditioning of radioactive ash residue in a wave of solid-phase exothermal reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlakova, G.A.; Ozhovan, M.I.; Tivanskij, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The abilities for utilization of exothermic reaction heat in solid phase for conditioning the ash residue produced as a result of solid radioactive waste burning are analyzed. It is shown that the process of ash residue making monolithic with obtaining the glass-like finish product containing 50-60 mass % of ash residue which meets the requirements for solidified radioactive wastes may be realized without energy supplying from external heat sources. The conditioning is realized in a special crucible furnace-container designed not only for the process conducting but also for subsequent storage or disposal of the finish product [ru

  19. Reducing Heavy Metal Element from Coal Bottom Ash by Using Citric Acid Leaching Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ahmad Asyari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal ash is the residue that is produced during coal combustion for instance fly ash, bottom ash or boiler slag which was primarily produced from the combustion of coal. With growth in coal burning power station, huge amount of coal bottom ash (CBA considered as hazardous material which are normally disposed in an on-site disposal system without any commercialization purpose. Previous researchers have studied the extraction of silica from agricultural wastes such as palm ash and rice husk ash (RHA and CBA by using leaching treatment method. In this study, the weaker acid, citric acid solution was used to replace the strong acid in leaching treatment process. Result showed that the heavy metal content such as Copper (Cu, Zinc (Zn and Lead (Pb can be decrease. Meanwhile the silica can be extracted up to 44% from coal bottom ash using citric acid leaching treatment under the optimum reaction time of 60 minutes with solution temperature of 60°C and concentration of citric acid more than 2%.

  20. Reprocessing and disposal of used lubricating and process materials. requirements, problems, and solution methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzke, U D

    1978-02-01

    A discussion covers West German laws concerning used oil disposal and re-refining (316,000 tons were reprocessed in 1976); disposal of sulfuric acid resins or tar and fuller's earth containing mineral oils by solidification (with added lime, alkali ash, clay, etc.) or pyrolysis; disposal of rolling mill scale and sludge containing oil and grease by rolling with a solid carbonaceous material and processing to high-grade sponge iron; and the breaking of oil-water emulsions.

  1. Preliminary study of radioactive waste disposal in granitic underground caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1984-01-01

    To date, the disposal of radioactive wastes is one of the major problems faced by the nuclear industry. The utilization of granitic underground caves surrounded by a clay envelope is suggested as a safe alternative for such disposal. A preliminary analysis of the dimensions of those deposits is done. (Author) [pt

  2. Quick monitoring of pozzolanic reactivity of waste ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinthaworn, Suppachai; Nimityongskul, Pichai

    2009-05-01

    This article proposes a quick method of monitoring for pozzolanic reactivity of waste ashes by investigating the electrical conductivity of the suspension at an elevated temperature. This suspension is obtained by mixing tested pozzolan with an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) solution produced by mixing ordinary Portland cement with water. For comparison, silica fume, metakaolin, rice husk ash and river sand - whose pozzolanic reactivities range from reactive to inert - were used in the experimental investigation. The electrical conductivity of the suspension was continually recorded by using an electrical conductivity meter and stored by using a personal computer for a period of slightly over 1day. The indicative parameters that can be related to pozzolanic reactivity were discussed and analyzed in detail. It was found that it is possible to determine the pozzolanic reactivity of fly ash within 28h by using the proposed technique, as compared to 7 or 28 days for the determination of strength activity index according to ASTM. This technique would help concrete technologists to speedily investigate the quality of fly ash for use as a cement replacement in order to alleviate pollution caused by cement production and solve disposal problems of waste ashes.

  3. Chromium behavior during thermal treatment of MSW fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donald W; Chan, Chris C Y; Marsh, Hilary

    2002-02-14

    Energy-from-waste incineration has been promoted as an environmentally responsible method for handling non-recyclable waste from households. Despite the benefits of energy production, elimination of organic residues and reduction of volume of waste to be landfilled, there is concern about fly ash disposal. Fly ash from an incinerator contains toxic species such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr which may leach into soil and ground water if landfilled. Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste has been tested and proposed as a treatment option for removal of metal species such as Pb, Cd and Zn, via thermal re-volatilization. However, Cr is an element that remains in the residue of the heat treated fly ash and appears to become more soluble. This Cr solubilization is of concern if it exceeds the regulatory limit for hazardous waste. Hence, this unexpected behavior of Cr was investigated. The initial work involved microscopic characterization of Cr in untreated and thermally-treated MSW fly ash. This was followed by determining leaching characteristics using standard protocol leaching tests and characterization leaching methods (sequential extraction). Finally, a mechanism explaining the increased solubilization was proposed and tested by reactions of synthetic chemicals.

  4. Incineration ash conditioning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Incinerable wastes consist of the following standard composition corresponding to projected wastes from a future mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant with an annual throughput of 1700 kg (i.e. 5.7 m 3 ) of ashes produced by the incineration facility: . 50% polyvinyl chloride (glove box sleeves), . 5% polyethylene (bags), . 35% rubber (equal amounts of latex and neoprene), . 10% cellulose (equal amounts of cotton and cleansing tissues). The work focused mainly on compaction by high-temperature isostatic pressing, is described in some detail with the results obtained. An engineering study was also carried out to compare this technology with two other ash containment processes: direct-induction (cold crucible) melting and cement-resin matrix embedding. Induction melting is considerably less costly than isostatic pressing; the operating costs are about 1.5 times higher than for cement-resin embedding, but the volume reduction is nearly 3 times greater

  5. Impact of co-combustion of petroleum coke and coal on fly ash quality: Case study of a Western Kentucky power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hower, James C.; Thomas, Gerald A.; Mardon, Sarah M.; Trimble, Alan S.

    2005-01-01

    Petroleum coke has been used as a supplement or replacement for coal in pulverized-fuel combustion. At a 444-MW western Kentucky power station, the combustion of nearly 60% petroleum coke with moderate- to high-sulfur Illinois Basin coal produces fly ash with nearly 50% uncombusted petroleum coke and large amounts of V and Ni when compared to fly ash from strictly pulverized coal burns. Partitioning of the V and Ni, known from other studies to be concentrated in petroleum coke, was noted. However, the distribution of V and Ni does not directly correspond to the amount of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash. Vanadium and Ni are preferentially associated with the finer, higher surface area fly ash fractions captured at lower flue gas temperatures. The presence of uncombusted petroleum coke in the fly ash doubles the amount of ash to be disposed, makes the fly ash unmarketable because of the high C content, and would lead to higher than typical (compared to other fly ashes in the region) concentrations of V and Ni in the fly ash even if the petroleum coke C could be beneficiated from the fly ash. Further studies of co-combustion ashes are necessary in order to understand their behavior in disposal

  6. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  7. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Establishment of new disposal capacity for the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albenesius, E.L.; Wilhite, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Two new low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites for decontaminated salt solidified with cement and fly ash (saltstone) and for conventional solid LLW are planned for SRP in the next several years. An above-ground vault disposal system for saltstone was designed to minimize impact on the environment by controlling permeability and diffusivity of the waste form and concrete liner. The experimental program leading to the engineered disposal system included formulation studies, multiple approaches to measurement of permeability and diffusivity, extensive mathematical modeling, and large-scale lysimeter tests to validate model projections. The overall study is an example of the systems approach to disposal site design to achieve a predetermined performance objective. The same systems approach is being used to develop alternative designs for disposal of conventional LLW at the Savannah River Plant. 14 figures

  9. An improved ashing procedure for biologic sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmei, Wu [Zhejiang Province Enviromental Radiation Monitoring Centre (China)

    1992-07-01

    The classical ashing procedure in muffle was modified for biologic samples. In the modified procedure the door of muffle was open in the duration of ashing process, the ashing was accelerated and the ashing product quality was comparable to that the classical procedure. The modified procedure is suitable for ashing biologic samples in large batches.

  10. An improved ashing procedure for biologic sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei

    1992-01-01

    The classical ashing procedure in muffle was modified for biologic samples. In the modified procedure the door of muffle was open in the duration of ashing process, the ashing was accelerated and the ashing product quality was comparable to that the classical procedure. The modified procedure is suitable for ashing biologic samples in large batches

  11. Classification of pulverized coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Van der Hoek, E.E.; De Groot, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1992-09-01

    The leachability of fifty different pulverized coal ashes from utilities in the Netherlands, Federal Republic of Germany and Belgium has been studied. Five different ashes were analyzed according to the complete standard leaching test and the results were published earlier. The examination of a wide variety of ashes under a wide range of pH and Liquid to Solid ratio (LS) conditions creates the possibility of identifying systematic trends in fly ash leaching behaviour and to identify the mechanisms controlling release. 16 figs., 2 tabs., 3 app., 25 refs

  12. Pre-study - Straw ash in a nutrient loop; Foerstudie - Halmaska i ett kretslopp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter; Bjurstroem, Henrik; Johansson, Christina; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Mattsson, Jan Erik

    2009-03-15

    A sustainable production of energy crops requires that the loss of mineral nutrients when removing biomass is compensated naturally or by an addition of plant nutrients. Recycling ash is a natural way to satisfy this need arising after combustion of energy crops. In this pre-study, the prerequisites for recycling straw ash have been investigated. The Danish experience with spreading ash to fields and information in literature on the composition of ash have been collected and presented. Analysis of straw samples taken from four different places in Scania yielded information on cadmium and nutrient concentration in straw and in ash. A balance between removal of nutrient and cadmium with wheat straw and restoring them by recycling straw ash has been computed. Straw ash is a potassium fertiliser with some phosphorus and some liming effect. It is technically difficult to spread the small quantities of ash in solid form, ca 250 kg per hectare and year in average, which a pure recycling would require. It is easier to spread larger quantities, e.g. ca 1 ton per hectare every fourth year, which corresponds to spreading once in a four year crop rotation, but then one provides too much potassium if one considers the actual needs of the coming crops at that occasion, which could lead to potassium being leached out on light soils. Alternatively, one could spread only bottom ash, but this would lead to half of the potassium content not being recycled to agricultural soil and lost with the fly ash that is disposed of. If one spreads about 500 kg bottom ash per hectare every other year, which could be a suitable strategy to avoid overloading soils with potassium, the dose brought to 1 ha may be computed as: 4 - 10 kg phosphorus, 50 - 100 kg potassium, 5 - 15 kg sulphur, 4 - 8 kg magnesium, 0.1 - 0.3 kg manganese and 20 - 40 kg CaO. These basis of these calculations is the results from the analyses performed in this study. The cadmium concentration was significantly higher in wheat

  13. Reuse potential of low-calcium bottom ash as aggregate through pelletization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, S; Ramamurthy, K

    2010-01-01

    Coal combustion residues which include fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag is one of the major pollutants as these residues require large land area for their disposal. Among these residues, utilization of bottom ash in the construction industry is very low. This paper explains the use of bottom ash through pelletization. Raw bottom ash could not be pelletized as such due to its coarseness. Though pulverized bottom ash could be pelletized, the pelletization efficiency was low, and the aggregates were too weak to withstand the handling stresses. To improve the pelletization efficiency, different clay and cementitious binders were used with bottom ash. The influence of different factors and their interaction effects were studied on the duration of pelletization process and the pelletization efficiency through fractional factorial design. Addition of binders facilitated conversion of low-calcium bottom ash into aggregates. To achieve maximum pelletization efficiency, the binder content and moisture requirements vary with type of binder. Addition of Ca(OH)(2) improved the (i) pelletization efficiency, (ii) reduced the duration of pelletization process from an average of 14-7 min, and (iii) reduced the binder dosage for a given pelletization efficiency. For aggregate with clay binders and cementitious binder, Ca(OH)(2) and binder dosage have significant effect in reducing the duration of pelletization process. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from organic solvents by ashes wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Gregorio, M.R.; Garcia-Falcon, M.S.; Martinez-Carballo, E. [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain); Simal-Gandara, J., E-mail: jsimal@uvigo.es [Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, Ourense Campus, E32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be formed during the refinery processes of crude petroleum. Their removal is of great importance. The same happens with other organic solvents used for the extraction of PAHs (hexane, acetonitrile...), which can be polluted with PAHs. Kinetic and equilibrium batch sorption tests were used to investigate the effect of wood ashes wastes as compared to activated carbon on the sorption of three representative PAHs from n-hexane and acetonitrile. Mussel shell ashes were discarded for batch sorption experiments because they were the only ashes containing PAHs. The equilibrium time was reached at 16 h. Physical sorption caused by the aromatic nature of the compounds was the main mechanism that governed the PAHs removal process. Our investigation revealed that wood ashes obtained at lower temperature (300 deg. C) did not show any PAHs sorption, while ashes obtained at higher temperature (>500 deg. C) have adsorbent sites readily available for the PAH molecules. An increase in the molecular weight of PAHs has a strong effect on sorption wood ashes wastes. As low the wood ashes particle size as high the sorption of PAHs, as a result of differences in adsorbent sites. The performance of wood ash wastes vs. activated carbon to remove 10 PAHs from organic solvents is competitive in price, and a good way for waste disposal.

  15. Solidification/stabilization of fly and bottom ash from medical waste incineration facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Christopoulos, Konstantinos; Mousios, Epameinontas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2012-03-15

    In the present work, the stabilization/solidification of fly and bottom ash generated from incinerated hospital waste was studied. The objectives of the solidification/stabilization treatment were therefore to reduce the leachability of the heavy metals present in these materials so as to permit their disposal in a sanitary landfill requiring only a lower degree of environmental protection. Another objective of the applied treatment was to increase the mechanical characteristics of the bottom ash using different amounts of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a binder. The solidified matrix showed that the cement is able to immobilize the heavy metals found in fly and bottom ash. The TCLP leachates of the untreated fly ash contain high concentrations of Zn (13.2 mg/l) and Pb (5.21 mg/l), and lesser amounts of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd and Ba. Cement-based solidification exhibited a compressive strength of 0.55-16.12 MPa. The strength decreased as the percentage of cement loading was reduced; the compressive strength was 2.52-12.7 MPa for 60% cement mixed with 40% fly ash and 6.62-16.12 MPa for a mixture of 60% cement and 40% bottom ash. The compressive strength reduced to 0.55-1.30 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% fly ash, and to 0.90-7.95 MPa when 30% cement was mixed with 70% bottom ash, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Technical note: Vetiver can grow on coal fly ash without DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-02-01

    Fly ash is a by-product of coal-fired electricity generation plants. The prevalent practice of disposal is as slurry of ash and water to open lands or ash ponds located near power plants and this has lain to waste thousands of hectares all over the world. Wind and leaching are often the causes of off-site contamination from fly ash dumpsites. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) grown on fly ash for three months showed massive, mesh-like growth of roots which could have a phytostabilizing effect. The plant achieved this without any damage to its nuclear DNA as shown by comet assay done on the root nuclei, which implies the long-term survival of the plant on the remediation site. Also, when Vetiver is used for phytoremediation of coal fly ash, its shoots can be safely grazed by animals as very little of heavy metals in fly ash were found to be translocated to the shoots. These features make planting of Vetiver a practical and environmentally compatible method for restoration of fly ash dumpsites. Lack of DNA damage in Vetiver has been compared to that in a sensitive plant i.e. Allium cepa. Our results suggested that apart from traditional end-points viz. growth parameters like root length, shoot length and dry weight, comet assay could also be included in a battery of tests for initial, rapid and effective selection of plants for restoration and phytoremediation of polluted sites.

  17. Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO 2 to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO 2 to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms

  18. Publication sites productive uses of combustion ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publication Sites Productive Uses of Combustion Ash For more information contact: e:mail: Public waste combustion ash in landfills. The new technology brief describes recent studies where ash was used

  19. Natural radioactivity of coal and fly ash at the Nikola Tesla B TPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisić Dragica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbian thermal power plants (TPPs produce siliceous fly ash from lignite in the quantity of approximately 6 million tons per year. The potential market for the use of fly ash is operational, but for the time being, only used by cement producers. Fly ash radioactivity could be one of the major points of concern when larger use of fly ash is planned, particularly in the Serbian construction industry. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted regularly for decades. This paper presents the results of a ten-year fly ash radioactivity measurements at the Nikola Tesla B TPP located in Obrenovac. In addition, the paper compares the natural radionuclides coal content data combusted by the Nikola Tesla B TPP boilers coming from the Kolubara Basin and ash created during coal combustion. Fly ash created in the Nikola Tesla TPPs boilers is characterised by the increased concentration of the natural radionuclides content compared to coal. This is the so-called technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (Technologically Enhanced Occurring Radioactive Material - TENORM of industrial waste, whereas the average specific activities: 232Th in coal amount to 25.2 Bq/kg, and in fly ash and coal 84.2 Bq/kg and 238U 38.3 Bq/kg, respectively. Following the obtained natural radionuclides content results it may be concluded that the Nikola Tesla B TPP ash may be disposed into the environment. Ash may be used also in the construction industry (civil engineering. In building construction applications, ash share as the additive to other building materials depends from its physical and chemical characteristics, as well as from the radionuclides activity: 266Ra, 232Th and 40K. Unlike the thermal power plants regularly (once a year testing the specific natural radionuclides activity in the combusted coal and boiler fly ash, Electric Power Industry of Serbia has not performed large-scale investigations of the natural radionuclides content in coal within the Kolubara

  20. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  1. Furnace for degasification and gasification of combustibles rich in ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-05-13

    A furnace is described for the degasification and the gasification of combustibles rich in ashes with continuous-functioning vertical chambers of transversal rectangular sections in which the washing gas flows from one side to the other, traversing the combustible, characterized by the fact that the height of the combustible surrounded by the washing gas stays in a proportion higher than 10:1 to the thickness of the width of combustible.

  2. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. ► Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. ► Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. ► Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA’s Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg

  3. Impact of Collection Equipment on Ash Variability of Baled Corn Stover Biomass for Bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Smith; Jeffery Einerson; Kevin Kenney; Ian J. Bonner

    2014-09-01

    Cost-effective conversion of agricultural residues for renewable energy hinges not only on the material’s quality but also the biorefinery’s ability to reliably measure quality specifications. The ash content of biomass is one such specification, influencing pretreatment and disposal costs for the conversion facility and the overall value of a delivered lot of biomass. The biomass harvest process represents a primary pathway for accumulation of soil-derived ash within baled material. In this work, the influence of five collection techniques on the total ash content and variability of ash content within baled corn stover in southwest Kansas is discussed. The equipment tested included a mower for cutting the corn stover stubble, a basket rake, wheel rake, or shred flail to gather the stover, and a mixed or uniform in-feed baler for final collection. The results showed mean ash content to range from 11.5 to 28.2 % depending on operational choice. Resulting impacts on feedstock costs for a biochemical conversion process range from $5.38 to $22.30 Mg-1 based on the loss of convertible dry matter and ash disposal costs. Collection techniques that minimized soil contact (shred flail or nonmowed stubble) were shown to prevent excessive ash contamination, whereas more aggressive techniques (mowing and use of a wheel rake) caused greater soil disturbance and entrainment within the final baled material. Material sampling and testing were shown to become more difficult as within-bale ash variability increased, creating uncertainty around feedstock quality and the associated costs of ash mitigation.

  4. Can ash clog soil pores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Stoof, Cathelijne; Gevaert, Anouk; Gevaert, Anouk; Baver, Christine; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica; Morales, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Martin, Deborah; Steenhuis, Tammo; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire can greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events, and ash is thought to play a large role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire. Although ash can store rainfall and thereby reduce runoff and erosion for a limited period after wildfires, it has also been hypothesized to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Several researchers have attributed the commonly observed increase in runoff and erosion after fire to the potential pore-clogging effect of ash. Evidence is however incomplete, as to date, research has solely focused on identifying the presence of ash in the soil, with the actual flow processes associated with the infiltration and pore-clogging of ash remaining a major unknown. In several laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ash causes pore clogging to the point that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs. We first visualized and quantified pore-scale infiltration of water and ash in sand of a range of textures and at various infiltration rates, using a digital bright field microscope capturing both photo and video. While these visualization experiments confirm field and lab observation of ash washing into soil pores, we did not observe any clogging of pores, and have not been able to create conditions for which this does occur. Additional electrochemical analysis and measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity indicate that pore clogging by ash is not plausible. Electrochemical analysis showed that ash and sand are both negatively charged, showing that attachment of ash to sand and any resulting clogging is unlikely. Ash also had quite high saturated conductivity, and systems where ash was mixed in or lying on top of sand had similarly high hydraulic conductivity. Based on these various experiments, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that pore clogging by ash contributes to the frequently observed increase in post-fire runoff, at least for the medium to coarse sands

  5. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  6. Coal ash monitoring equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C G; Wormald, M R

    1978-10-02

    The monitoring equipment is used to determine the remainder from combustion (ash slack) of coal in wagons designed for power stations. Next to the rails, a neutron source (252 Cf, 241 Am/Be) is situated, which irradiates the coal with neutrons at a known dose, which produces the reaction 27 Al (n ..gamma..) Al 28. The aluminium content is a measure of the remainder. The 1.78 MeV energy is measured downstream of the rail with a detector. The neutron source can only act in the working position of a loaded wagon.

  7. Assessing dynamics of ash content formation in coal at a working face in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidukov, G L; Lobkin, V M

    1983-05-01

    Factors which influence ash content in coal mined at a working face are analyzed: ash content in coal, stability of rock layers surrounding a coal seam, mechanical and physical properties of the direct roof. A mathematical model of ash content formation at a working face is described. On the basis of the model a computer program has been constructed. The program is used for calculating the mean value of ash content in coal and the standardized deviation. The program considers all causes of ash fluctuation in coal such as mining conditions, coal seam thickness, fluctuations in coal seam thickness, mechanical and physical properties of rocks surrounding a coal seam, particularly in the direct roof, mining systems, narrow or wide web shearer loaders, powered supports, hydraulic props, timber friction props with timber roof bars or with steel roof bars. A classification of rocks considering roof stability used by the program is described. A scheme of the program is given. Examples of using the program for forecasting ash content in coal and ash content fluctuations in Donbass mines are evaluated. (In Russian)

  8. Measurement of natural activity in peat ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1985-01-01

    High proportions of radioactive materials in peat ashes may involve radiation hazards during handling and deposition of these waste materials. Measurements have been performed to determine the content of radioactive materials in ashes from peat burning. The activities in fly ash and ''solid'' ash in seven peat-fired power plants in Sweden are presented. The methods of analysing and measuring peat ashes for activity from different radionuclides are described. The activity levels in ash samples are given

  9. Fly ash classification efficiency of electrostatic precipitators in fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohenoja, Katja; Körkkö, Mika; Wigren, Valter; Österbacka, Jan; Illikainen, Mirja

    2018-01-15

    The increasing use of biomasses in the production of electricity and heat results in an increased amount of burning residue, fly ash which disposal is becoming more and more restricted and expensive. Therefore, there is a great interest in utilizing fly ashes instead of just disposing of it. This study aimed to establish whether the utilization of fly ash from the fluidized bed combustion of peat, wood, and forest residues can be improved by electrostatic precipitator separation of sulfate, chloride, and some detrimental metals. Classification selectivity calculations of electrostatic precipitators for three different fuel mixtures from two different power plants were performed by using Nelson's and Karnis's selectivity indices. Results showed that all fly ashes behaved similarly in the electrostatic separation process SiO 2 resulted in coarse fractions with Nelson's selectivity of 0.2 or more, while sulfate, chloride, and the studied detrimental metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) enriched into fine fractions with varying selectivity from 0.2 to 0.65. Overall, the results of this study suggest that it is possible to improve the utilization potential of fly ashes from fluidized bed combustion in concrete, fertilizer, and earth construction applications by using electrostatic precipitators for the fractionating of fly ashes in addition to their initial function of collecting fly ash particles from flue gases. The separation of the finer fractions (ESP 2 and 3) from ESP 1 field fly ash is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emerald ash borer flight potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Taylor; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robert A. Haack

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and...

  11. Emerald ash borer life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Toby R. Petrice; Houping Liu

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was discovered in southeastern Michigan and nearby Ontario in June of 2002. EAB was identified as the cause of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in approximately 2,500 mi2, and...

  12. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  13. Plant growth on 'fly ash'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, R; Hodgson, D R; Townsend, W N; Wood, J W

    1958-04-12

    Plants were grown in plot and pot experiments to assess the toxicity of the fly ash. It was found that plants grouped into three classes: tolerant, moderately tolerant, and sensitive. Boron was found to be a major compoent of the toxic principle of fly ash.

  14. Emerald ash borer biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah Bauer; Juli Gould; Jian Duan; Mike. Ulyshen

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus) tree mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Ontario, Canada. This destructive beetle apparently arrived in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from...

  15. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  16. Elemental characterization of coal ash and its leachates using sequential extraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Cerbus, J.F.; Larson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Over 50 million tons of coal ash are produced annually in North America. Technological improvements in air pollution control have decreased stack emissions but have also increased contaminant concentrations in the ash of coal-fired boiler applications. The leaching of heavy metals and other elements during regulatory tests may cause coal ash to be classified as hazardous waste, complicating land disposal. The hazardous nature of coal ash remains unclear because current toxicity tests fail to effectively characterize the elemental distribution and chemical solubility of trace metals in the landfill environment. Leaching characteristics of ash samples can be investigated with various laboratory extraction procedures in association with multi-elemental analytical techniques (e.g., neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy). Such methods provide more thorough analyses of coal ash leaching dynamics than the regulatory assessments can demonstrate. Regulatory elements including Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se were shown to remain in largely insoluble forms while elements such as B and S leached at higher levels. Experimental results may assist operators of coal-fired boiler industries in selecting coal types and disposal options to curtail the leaching of potentially toxic inorganic contaminants. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Effect of unground oil palm ash as mixing ingredient towards properties of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, M. A.; Muthusamy, K.; Mat Aris, S.; Rasid, M. H. Mohd; Paramasivam, R.; Othman, R.

    2018-04-01

    Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers generates palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product in increasing quantity. This material which usually disposed as solid waste causes pollution to the environment. Success in converting this waste material into benefitting product would reduce amount of waste disposed and contributes towards cleaner environment. This research explores the potential of unground oil palm ash being used as partial sand replacement in normal concrete production. Experimental work has been conducted to determine the workability, compressive strength and flexural strength of concrete when unground oil palm ash is added as partial sand replacement. A total of five mixes containing various percentage of oil palm ash, which are 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% have been prepared. All specimens were water cured until the testing date. The slump test, compressive strength test and flexural strength test was conducted. The findings show that mix produced using 10% of palm oil fuel ash exhibit higher compressive strength and flexural strength as compared to control specimen. Utilization of unground oil palm ash as partial sand replacement would be able to reduce dependency of construction industry on natural sand supply and also as one of the solution to reuse palm oil industry waste.

  18. Development of bricks with incorporation of coal ash and sludge from water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mauro Valerio da

    2011-01-01

    Sludge from treatment water Brazilian plant station are, frequently, disposed and launched directly in the water bodies, causing a negative impact in the environment. Also, coal ashes is produced by burning of coal in coal-fired power stations and is the industrial solid waste most generated in southern Brazil: approximately 4 million tons/y. The efficient disposal of coal ashes is an issue due to its massive volume and harmful risks to the environment. The aim of this work was study the feasibility of incorporating these two industrial wastes in a mass used in the manufacture of ecological bricks. Samples of fly ashes from a cyclone filter from a coal-fired power plant located at Figueira County in Parana State, Brazil and waterworks sludge of Terra Preta County in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, were used in the study. Fly ash-sludge and fly ash-sludge-soil-cement bricks were molded and tested, according to the Brazilians Standards. The materials were characterized by physical-chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, morphological analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and granulometric analysis. The results indicate that the waterworks sludge and coal ashes have potential to be used on manufacturing soil-cement pressed bricks according to the of Brazilians Standards NBR 10836/94. (author)

  19. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Disposal of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwar Raj

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal facility is a very important link in the nuclear fuel cycle chain. Being at the end of the back-end of the fuel cycle, it forms an interface between nuclear industry and the environment. Therefore, the effectiveness of the disposal facility for safe isolation of radioactive waste is vital. This is achieved by following a systematic approach to the disposal system as a whole. Conditioned waste, engineered barriers, back-fill and surrounding geosphere are main components of the disposal system. All of them play complementary role in isolating the radioactivity contained in the waste for extended period of time

  1. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, M; Spadoni, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Labhasetwar, P K

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra - India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water-rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The cessation of long-term fly-ash dumping: effects on macrobenthos and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrando Perez, S.; Frid, C.L.J. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, North Shields (United Kingdom). Dove Marine Lab., Dept. of Marine Science and Coastal Management

    1998-10-01

    Four decades of continual fly-ash disposal off Northumberland, UK, ended in December 1992. Quantitative sampling of the sediment and the macrobenthos was undertaken in the summer 1993. The offshore portion of the region surveyed bore only traces of fly-ash particles, waste being confined to the region shallower than 45 m. There, disposals have changed local sedimentary conditions increasing the spatial patchiness of sediment types and altering silt-clay dynamics. Inshore of the dumpsite, substrata affected by long-term tipping have effectively become an artificial reef due to the cementation of the waste. The seabed within the designated dumpsite was still composed of pure fly ash, resulting in macrobenthic densities and species richness markedly lower than control areas, though higher than recorded in a previous survey in 1988. Nine months after cessation of dumping recovery was essentially dependent on the decrease in the concentration of the waste.

  3. Volume reduction and solidification of radioactive waste incineration ash with waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hidemi; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste generated from research institutions and hospitals etc. is packed into a container and is kept. The volume reduced state or the unprocessed state by incineration or compression processing are used because neither landfill sites nor disposal methods have been fixed. Especially, because the bulk density is low, and it is easy to disperse, the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash incinerated for the volume reduction is a big issue in security, safety, stability in the inventory location. A safe and appropriate disposal processing method is desired. When the low temperature sintering method in the use of the glass bottle cullet was examined, volume reduction and stabilization of low-level radioactive waste incineration ash were verified. The proposed method is useful for the easy treatment of the low-level radioactive waste incineration ash. (author)

  4. Low temperature setting iron phosphate ceramics as a stabilization and solidification agent for incinerator ash contaminated with transuranic and RCRA metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, P.G.; Hansen, M.; Wood, E.L.; Frank, S.M.; Sidwell, R.W.; Giglio, J.J.; Johnson, S.G.; Macheret, J.

    1997-01-01

    Incineration of combustible Mixed Transuranic Waste yields an ash residue that contains oxides of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and transuranic metals. In order to dispose of this ash safely, it has to be solidified and stabilized to satisfy appropriate requirements for repository disposal. This paper describes a new method for solidification of incinerator ash, using room temperature setting iron phosphate ceramics, and includes fabrication procedures for these waste forms as well as results of the MCC-1 static leach test, XRD analysis, scanning electron microscopy studies and density measurements of the solidified waste form produced

  5. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  6. Application and feasibility of coal fly ash and scrap tire fiber as wood wall insulation supplements in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Lindt, J.W.; Carraro, J.A.H.; Heyliger, P.R.; Choi, C. [Colorado State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Each year, nearly 55% of the fly ash (FA) produced by coal burning power plants in the United States is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds, while the amount of recycled fiber from scrap tires that is beneficially used in end-user markets is virtually negligible. This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate whether it might be possible to increase the thermal efficiency of a light-frame residential structure through addition of a fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite to traditional fiberglass insulation in light-frame wood residential construction. This type of construction represents more than 80% of the building stock in North America. The results of this study suggest that the fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite provides a sustainable supplement to traditional insulation that not only increases the efficiency of traditional insulation but can also help significantly reduce the environmental issues associated with disposal of these waste products. (author)

  7. Application and feasibility of coal fly ash and scrap tire fiber as wood wall insulation supplements in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Lindt, J.W.; Carraro, J.A.H.; Heyliger, P.R.; Choi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Each year, nearly 55% of the fly ash (FA) produced by coal burning power plants in the United States is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds, while the amount of recycled fiber from scrap tires that is beneficially used in end-user markets is virtually negligible. This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate whether it might be possible to increase the thermal efficiency of a light-frame residential structure through addition of a fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite to traditional fiberglass insulation in light-frame wood residential construction. This type of construction represents more than 80% of the building stock in North America. The results of this study suggest that the fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite provides a sustainable supplement to traditional insulation that not only increases the efficiency of traditional insulation but can also help significantly reduce the environmental issues associated with disposal of these waste products. (author)

  8. Thermal co-treatment of combustible hazardous waste and waste incineration fly ash in a rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Florian; Blasenbauer, Dominik; Mallow, Ole; Lederer, Jakob; Winter, Franz; Fellner, Johann

    2016-12-01

    As current disposal practices for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash are either associated with significant costs or negative environmental impacts, an alternative treatment was investigated in a field scale experiment. Thereto, two rotary kilns were fed with hazardous waste, and moistened MSWI fly ash (water content of 23%) was added to the fuel of one kiln with a ratio of 169kg/Mg hazardous waste for 54h and 300kg/Mg hazardous waste for 48h while the other kiln was used as a reference. It was shown that the vast majority (>90%) of the inserted MSWI fly ash was transferred to the bottom ash of the rotary kiln. This bottom ash complied with the legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills, thereby demonstrating the potential of the investigated method to transfer hazardous waste (MSWI fly ash) into non-hazardous waste (bottom ash). The results of a simple mixing test (MSWI fly ash and rotary kiln bottom ash have been mixed accordingly without thermal treatment) revealed that the observed transformation of hazardous MSWI fly ash into non-hazardous bottom ash during thermal co-treatment cannot be referred to dilution, as the mixture did not comply with legal limits for non-hazardous waste landfills. For the newly generated fly ash of the kiln, an increase in the concentration of Cd, K and Pb by 54%, 57% and 22%, respectively, was observed. In general, the operation of the rotary kiln was not impaired by the MSWI fly ash addition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conditioning of ashes from incineration plant in special furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganser, B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report we describe the development of a melting process for radioactive ashes. After a literature survey about the state of the art and investigated ash compositions the in-can-melting was elected for further work. Based on literature data lab experiments with inactive simulates were performed to investigate different additives (net work formers and transformers) for melting point reduction. Na-Tetraborate was most effective. An addition of 50% by weight (concerning ash weight) was sufficient to melt all simulates at 1000 0 C. The products showed similar low leach rates like vitrified HAW. With two different melting furnaces (Naber, LINN) full scale experiments were performed. The results were not quite sufficient because of uncomplete melting (Naber) resp. unsufficient operation (LINN). Nevertheless the results of the lab experiments could be nearly verified (Compressive strength 60-160 N/mm 2 , Diffusion coefficient for Boron E-17 - E-19 m 2 /s). Based on the technical experiments a plant was designed for hot operation. A cost estimation for conditioning and final disposal amounted to 19 DM/kg ash. (orig.) [de

  10. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  11. Phase transformations in synthesis technologies and sorption properties of zeolites from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Б. Котова

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal fly ash is generated in the course of combustion of coal at thermal power plants. Environmental problems increase sharply without disposing that industrial waste. Technologies were tested of hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites from fly ash forming during combustion of coal at thermal power plants of the Pechora coal basin and dependences were identified of the experiment conditions on physical and chemical properties of the end product. It is demonstrated that synthesizing zeolites from fly ash is the first stage of forming ceramic materials (ceramic membranes, which defines the fundamental character (importance of that area of studies. It was for the first time that sorption and structural characteristics and cation-exchange properties of fly ash from the Pechora basin coals were studied with respect to, Ba2+ and Sr2+.

  12. Stabilization of chromium-bearing electroplating sludge with MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guangren; Yang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Shixiang; Zhou, Jizhi; Sun, Ying; Xu, Yunfeng; Liu, Qiang

    2009-06-15

    This work investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices on stabilizing/solidifying industrial chromium-bearing electroplating sludge using MSWI fly ash as the main raw material with a small addition of active aluminum. The compressive strength, leaching behavior and chemical speciation of heavy metals and hydration phases of matrices were characterized by TCLP, XRD, FTIR and other experimental methods. The results revealed that MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices could effectively stabilize chromium-bearing electroplating sludge, the formed ettringite and Friedel phases played a significant role in the fixation of heavy metals in electroplating sludge. The co-disposal of chromium-bearing electroplating sludge and MSWI fly ash-based Friedel matrices with a small addition of active aluminum is promising to be an effective way of stabilizing chromium-bearing electroplating sludge.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Knowledge Transfer from the Forestry Sector to the Agricultural Sector concerning Ash Recycling; Kunskapsoeverfoering fraan skogssektorn till jordbrukssektorn angaaende askaaterfoering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Johanna; Salomon, Eva

    2009-02-15

    Cultivation of energy crops on arable land is increasing in Sweden. More than half these crops can be used for combustion, increasing the amount of ash that can be recycled to arable land. Ash is an interesting agricultural fertiliser, but more knowledge is needed before it can be applied and handled in a controlled way. Knowledge and experience concerning recycling of ash within the forest sector can be transferred to the agricultural sector. This project examined ways for ash producers to ensure safe long-term disposal of ash and to improve plant nutrient recycling. The overall aims were to identify experiences and knowledge within forestry that could be applied in agriculture; to identify gaps in knowledge and research requirements regarding ash recycling to arable land; and to produce recommendations on how to increase ash recycling. Literature describing the conditions for ash application to arable land and existing knowledge about ash recycling to forestry were reviewed. Nutrient balances were drawn up for phosphorus, cadmium, zinc and copper, which are relevant in biofuel ash recycling to agriculture. Data on ash application, mainly on forest land, were collected through telephone interviews. For ash to be more attractive for farmers, the ash product must be a realistic alternative to artificial fertilisers. Research and demonstration projects are needed to study the effects of ash on yield and quality in different crops. Different biofuel ash products have differing qualities and can thus have different fields of application within agriculture and can be applied in varying amounts. For example, clean straw ash has a low P and Cd content and mainly supplies potassium and lime. The balance calculations showed that the highest quality ash for arable land is bottom ash from grate combustion of forest trash with 2-5 % of willow. There are both differences and similarities between ash application in agriculture and forestry. An important feature is the

  16. Hanford grout disposal program - an environmentally sound alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.; Allison, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Hanford Grout Disposal Program (HGDP) is a comprehensive, integrated program to develop technology and facilities for the disposal of ∼ 3.0 x 10 5 m 3 (80 million gal) of the low-level fraction of liquid radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. Environmentally sound disposal via long-term protection of the public and the environment is the principal goal of the HGDP. To accomplish this goal, several criteria have been established that guide technology and facility development activities. The key criteria are discussed. To meet the challenges posed by disposal of these wastes, the HGDP is developing a waste form using grout-forming materials, such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, clays, and Portland cement for solidification and immobilization of both the radioactive and hazardous chemical constituents. In addition to development of a final waste form, the HGDP is also developing a unique disposal system to assure long-term protection of the public and the environment. Disposal of a low-level nonhazardous waste will be initiated, as a demonstration of the disposal system concept, in June 1988. Disposal of higher activity hazardous wastes is scheduled to begin in October 1989

  17. Electrodialytic upgrading of municipal waste incineration fly ash for reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    As incineration becomes a more widespread means of waste treatment, volumes of incineration residues increase and new means of handling become a demand. Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) fly ash is hazardous material, which is presently disposed off as such; primarily due to its high......]. In order to optimize the process and reach the lowest possible leachability of target constituents (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cl, Na and SO4) at minimum time and energy consumption, the present work gives results of 10 pilot scale (8 kg MSWI fly ash each) electrodialysis experiments at different...... to investigate the leachability of salts and toxic elements as a function of treatment time and current density. Results show that a delicate balance between pH and treatment-time exist and that continuous monitoring of pH and conductivity may be used for controlling of the process at an industrial scale...

  18. Characterization of Fly and Bottom Ashes Mixtures Treated using Sodium Lauryl Sulphate and Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C.G.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia promotes coal as an option for solid fuel in electric power generation. Demanding of electricity needs, therefore, has led to increase the coal consumption and thus producing more coal waste products. The disposal of coal waste ashes has been a main concern to power generation station due to the need of disposal sites and operational costs. This study investigates the composition of fly ash (FA and bottom ash (BA mixtures with difference component percentage treated with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA at 1.5 and 2.5 wt% solutions and examined in terms of specific gravity, pH, maximum dry density properties, and its surface morphology. Although the chemical composition of the SLS and PVA treated fly and bottom ashes studied in this current work is not altered extensively, significant changes could be observed in its physicochemical properties. Chemically treated fly and bottom ashes mixtures with SLS and PVA at 1.5 wt% solution exhibited specific gravity of 1.97 to 2.92 and high pH values within range of 9.28 to 10.52. The mixture of BA:FA=0:1 ratio depicting high maximum dry density of 1.35 to 1.56 g/cm3 in both SLS and PVA solutions at 1.5 and 2.5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy image shows distinct surface morphologies of SLS-treated fly and bottom ashes mixture that the particles are packed closely, strongly bonded similar to popcorn shape due to the effect of active silanol groups acted on coal ashes surface with the presence of Al-O/Si-O/other oxides. These findings suggest that higher level of chemical interaction between the fly and bottom ashes particles, significantly enhances pozzolanic reactions such as shear strength, plasticity, cementing properties, and thus other engineering properties.

  19. Characterization of Fly and Bottom Ashes Mixtures Treated using Sodium Lauryl Sulphate and Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, C. G.; Ayob, A.; Zaki, M. F. Muhammad; Razali, M. E.; Lew, E. V.; Hong, P. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Malaysia promotes coal as an option for solid fuel in electric power generation. Demanding of electricity needs, therefore, has led to increase the coal consumption and thus producing more coal waste products. The disposal of coal waste ashes has been a main concern to power generation station due to the need of disposal sites and operational costs. This study investigates the composition of fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) mixtures with difference component percentage treated with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at 1.5 and 2.5 wt% solutions and examined in terms of specific gravity, pH, maximum dry density properties, and its surface morphology. Although the chemical composition of the SLS and PVA treated fly and bottom ashes studied in this current work is not altered extensively, significant changes could be observed in its physicochemical properties. Chemically treated fly and bottom ashes mixtures with SLS and PVA at 1.5 wt% solution exhibited specific gravity of 1.97 to 2.92 and high pH values within range of 9.28 to 10.52. The mixture of BA:FA=0:1 ratio depicting high maximum dry density of 1.35 to 1.56 g/cm3 in both SLS and PVA solutions at 1.5 and 2.5 wt%. Scanning electron microscopy image shows distinct surface morphologies of SLS-treated fly and bottom ashes mixture that the particles are packed closely, strongly bonded similar to popcorn shape due to the effect of active silanol groups acted on coal ashes surface with the presence of Al-O/Si-O/other oxides. These findings suggest that higher level of chemical interaction between the fly and bottom ashes particles, significantly enhances pozzolanic reactions such as shear strength, plasticity, cementing properties, and thus other engineering properties.

  20. Measuring ash content of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the ash content of coal is claimed. It comprises a means for irradiating a known quantity of coal in a transport container with a known dose of neutrons, a means for detecting γ-rays having a predetermined energy emitted by the irradiated coal, the γ-rays being indicative of the presence of an ash-forming element in the coal, a means for producing a signal related to the intensity of the γ-ray emission and a means responsive to the signal to provide an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming element in the coal

  1. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of class-F fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Coal-burning power plants in the United States (US) generate more than 70 million tons of fly ash as a by-product annually. Recycling large volumes of fly ash in geotechnical applications may offer an attractive alternative to the disposal problem as most of it is currently dumped in ponds or landfills. Class-F fly ash, resulting from burning of bituminous or anthracite coals, is the most common type of fly ash in the US. In the present study, the mechanical characteristics (compaction response, compressibility, and shear strength) of class-F fly ash were investigated by performing various laboratory tests (compaction test, one-dimensional compression test, direct shear test and consolidated-drained triaxial compression test) on fly ash samples collected from three power plants in the state of Indiana (US). Test results have shown that despite some morphological differences, class-F fly ash exhibits mechanical properties that are, in general, comparable to those observed in natural sandy soils.

  2. Alternatives for definse waste-salt disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McDonell, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Alternatives for disposal of decontaminated high-level waste salt at Savannah River were reviewed to estimate costs and potential environmental impact for several processes. In this review, the reference process utilizing intermediate-depth burial of salt-concrete (saltcrete) monoliths was compared with alternatives including land application of the decontaminated salt as fertilizer for SRP pine stands, ocean disposal with and without containment, and terminal storage as saltcake in existing SRP waste tanks. Discounted total costs for the reference process and its modifications were in the same range as those for most of the alternative processes; uncontained ocean disposal with truck transport to Savannah River barges and storage as saltcake in SRP tanks had lower costs, but presented other difficulties. Environmental impacts could generally be maintained within acceptable limits for all processes except retention of saltcake in waste tanks, which could result in chemical contamination of surrounding areas on tank collapse. Land application would require additional salt decontamination to meet radioactive waste disposal standards, and ocean disposal without containment is not permitted in existing US practice. The reference process was judged to be the only salt disposal option studied which would meet all current requirements at an acceptable cost

  3. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemann, E.; Allegrini, Elisa; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD....../F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten...... sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355. mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355. mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin...

  4. Management methods ash from combustion of biomass. Review of productions and associated methods. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulday, D.; Marcovecchio, F.

    2016-02-01

    recycling, only way to massively recycle ashes, but which remains fragile, facilitate the development of certain credible valorization methods but not enough proven. The increase of ash flows, combined with a reduction of landfill opportunities (economic constrains, national and European objectives for landfill disposal reduction), pushing European countries to legislate to build a framework more suited to their valuation (for example in France through the decrees of August 26, 2013 for the agricultural recycling). In France and Europe, biomass ashes are mainly concerned by the following two processing pathways: to better characterize the ash and better identify them, especially by drawing a typology for a better use of qualitative and quantitative data, and finally to develop a suitable regulatory framework and move towards more harmonization in Europe to reassure producers. (authors)

  5. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  6. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  7. Ash Stabilization Campaign Blend Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This Stabilization Blend Plan documents the material to be processed and the processing order for the FY95 Ash Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing ash. The source of the ash is from Rocky Flats and the 232-Z incinerator at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The ash is currently being stored in Room 235B and Vault 174 in building 234-5Z. The sludge is to be thermally stabilized in a glovebox in room 230A of the 234-5Z building and material handling for the process will be done in room 230B of the same building. The campaign is scheduled for approximately 12--16 weeks. A total of roughly 4 kg of Pu will be processed

  8. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  9. Aspects Regarding the Installation of Some Invasive Weeds Species on Old Fly Ash Dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pricop

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most Romanian power plants were built in a period when environmental impact of their operation was undervalued, and constraints related to environmental protection were relatively few. Location of power plants and fly ash dumps was chosen most often by arbitrary criteria, and never after the impact that it may have on the environment. Building fly ash dumps have an effect of destruction of soils not only on the surface equivalent to those of dumps but also of the contiguous lands. Old fly ash dumps are a major risk because of the dispersion of pollutants in water and soil by percolation and soil leaching, and because of the unwanted invasion of weeds that are adaptable to arid conditions of the dumps and then invade surrounding areas jeopardizing the surrounding crops. In attempting to install vegetation an old fly ash dumps, the area were invaded by two species of weeds that quickly overgrown the experimental parcel and the surroundings. The present study followed the invasion degree of fly ash dumps with weeds and aspects regarding their development and breeding in the new formed ecosystem.

  10. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  11. Current Methods to Detoxify Fly Ash from Waste Incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, Christine; Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-07-01

    Fly ash from waste incineration contains large amounts of heavy metals and dioxins, which will cause a significant disposal problem within the coming years. The amount of fly ash produced in Sweden is currently approximately 60,000 tons/y. New technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited at standard landfill sites with no risk. Many of these technologies have been tested at industrial scale or in pilot projects. The proposed alternatives include: Thermal treatments; Immobilization/stabilization by cement based techniques; Wet chemical treatments (extractions, immobilizations); Microbiological treatments. Of these, thermal treatments are the most promising solution. Depending on the temperature thermal treatments are classified in two main types: 1) low temperature (below 600 deg C) thermal treatments and 2) high temperature (above 1200 deg C) thermal treatments (vitrification). Most dioxins can be successfully destroyed at temperatures up to 400 deg C under oxygen deficient conditions and at temperatures up to 600 deg C under oxidising conditions. However most heavy metals remain in the fly ash after low temperature treatment. At a temperature of 900 deg C most heavy metals can also be removed in a 10% HCl atmosphere by forming volatile metal chlorides (CT-Fluapur process). During vitrification processes the fly ash melts and forms an inert glassy slag. The product does not leach any significant amount of heavy metals and is free from dioxin. The volume of the fly ash is significantly reduced. The product can be land filled at low costs or used as construction material. The properties of the product depend on the cooling process and on additives such as sand, limestone or waste glass. A series of vitrification methods at industrial size or in pilot scale using different furnaces are studied. Among these, plasma

  12. Effective dose of individuals from the surrounding public to the facilities of the Abadia de Goiás radioactive waste disposal; Dose efetiva dos indivíduos do público circunvizinho às instalações dos repositórios de rejeitos radioativos de Abadia de Goiás

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, E.; Borges, A.F. de Almeida; Camargos, K.M.; Santos, E.E. dos; Correa, R. da S., E-mail: rcorrea@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goiás, GO (Brazil); Ferreira, N.C., E-mail: nclferreira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental; Ribeiro, N.V., E-mail: noely.ribeiro@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiânia, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Estudos Socioambientais

    2017-07-01

    The study presents the level of effective annual dose that individuals from the public - surrounding the repository of wastes with Cs-137, located in Abadia de Goiás, GO, Brazil - have received, according to analyzes carried out from June 2015 to July 2016. It was considered reference to the annual effective radiation dose limit of 0.3 mSv / year established by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for the impact of repositories on individuals in the public. Cs-137 activity determinations were performed on samples of surface water (ASU), groundwater (ASB), river bottom sediments (SED), soil (SOL) and vegetation (VEG). With these results, the effective doses were estimated for ASU and BSA consumption of 6.64 x 10{sup -4} mSv / year and for SED exposure, 3.92 x 10{sup -}6 mSv / year and for ASB use, 6.22 x 10{sup -3} mSv / year. For SOL and VEG, activity values of Cs-137 were used as indicators of contamination. It was observed that the effective annual doses were below the limit established by the norms, which can be inferred that the installation has been operating safely, without causing a radiological impact to the environment and individuals of the public.

  13. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  14. Pengaruh Kombinasi Fly Ash dan Bottom Ash sebagai Bahan Substitusi pada Campuran Beton terhadap Sifat Mekanis

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya, Tengku Tantoni; Kurniawandy, Alex; Djauhari, Zulfikar

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash were waste that generated from the power plant burning coal process. Fly ash and bottom ash has the potential to be developed as a basic ingredient in concrete composites. This research aimed to obtain the properties of fresh concrete and hard concrete of the combined effect of fly ash and bottom ash as a substitute ingredient in composite concrete. This research has examined the influence of a combination of waste fly ash and bottom ash to the compressive strength of a...

  15. Gehlenite and anorthite formation from fluid fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perná, Ivana; Šupová, Monika; Hanzlíček, Tomáš

    2018-04-01

    Fluid fly ash could be considered a waste, but, when well treated, it may also become a useful secondary source material. Its rather high content of calcium-containing phases along with thermally treated alumino-silicate residues resulting from coal combustion can lead to the formation of a stable system with newly formatted phases. The high temperature destroys the clay lattice and activates a new configuration of aluminum ions, changing their coordination to oxygen. The effect is accompanied by changes in charge in the surroundings, which are compensated for by calcium ions. The higher the temperature of the fluid ash treatment, the more pronounced the appearance of gehlenite and anorthite in the final mass. Both are natural materials and, together with mullite and anhydrite, they could ensure safety and protection even if exposed to open fire of up to 1150 °C.

  16. Wood fly ash used for nutrient compensation or as a construction material. Environmental impacts related to different management alternatives; Skogsbraensleaska som naeringsresurs eller konstruktionsmaterial. Miljoeeffekter av olika hanteringsalternativ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Susanna; Kaerrman, Erik; Roennblom, Tobias; Erlandsson, Aasa (Ecoloop AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    The Swedish Forest Agency recommends that wood ash should be recycled to forest land, if the ashes fulfil certain threshold values. But there is also an option to use the ashes as construction material in forest roads. In this project, an environmental systems analysis approach was developed in order to assess the environmental impact from different alternatives. Three alternatives were analysed for the handling of 1 tonnes wood ash (DM) generated at the municipality of Boraas in Sweden: 1) Spreading the ashes to forests, 2) Use the ashes as a construction material in roads and 3) disposal of the ashes. Both the recycling of wood ash on forests and use of the ash for road construction have benefits in terms of saving natural resources and energy compared to disposal on landfill. Forest-recycling is the most energy efficient alternative and saves most of the resources Zn, P and dolomite. The road construction as well as the landfill alternatives results in a net-removal of the heavy metals As, Cd and Pb from the forests in a 100-year perspective, assuming that the content of these substances in the recycled ash is the same as the amount removed through biomass harvesting. Critical parameters for the results were the assumption that nutrient compensation is needed if wood ashes not are used on forests and the system boundaries chosen for assessing the heavy metal leaching. If the nutrient compensation is not considered as necessary, the influence on the results of transports and maintenance increase. One possibility for further work is to use the developed method for various regions in Sweden. The local conditions vary between different regions in terms of ash production, need for nutrient compensation and potential to build gravel roads etc

  17. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  18. The Effects of Eggshell Ash on Strength Properties of Cement-stabilized Lateritic

    OpenAIRE

    Okonkwo U. N; Odiong I. C; Akpabio E. E

    2012-01-01

    Eggshell ash obtained by incinerating Fowls’ eggshells to ash has been established to be a good accelerator for cement-bound materials and this would be useful for road construction work at the peak of rainy seasons for reducing setting time of stabilized road pavements. However this should be achieved not at the expense of other vital properties of the stabilized matrix. This is part of the effort in adding value to agricultural materials which probably cause disposal problems. Thus this stu...

  19. Removal of chloride from fly ash produced in hazardous waste incineration by leaching and displacement washing in a vertical filter press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Huhtanen, Mikko; Penttilä, Mika; Häkkinen, Antti

    2013-02-01

    Fly ash is generated in large quantities by waste incineration processes. Chloride is commonly present in the fly ash produced by the incineration of hazardous materials, such as polyvinylchloride plastic. Major difficulties related to the disposal and handling of fly ash include the high concentration of easily leachable chlorides, heavy metals and toxic compounds. In order to avoid adverse environmental effects from the disposal of fly ash, the content of soluble chlorides must be reduced. One of the most effective options for chloride removal is leaching and displacement washing in a filter press. The primary aim of this study was to obtain efficient removal of chloride from fly ash by utilizing a leaching and displacement washing process, carried out in a filter press. The secondary objective was to obtain high filtration capacities and low filter cake moisture contents. The slurry was prepared by mixing fly ash with water at an ash:water ratio of 1:2 and filtered to separate the solids from the liquid. After solid-liquid separation, most of the dissolved residual chloride was removed from the filter cake by washing the cake with fresh water in the second stage of separation. It was possible to remove up to 98% of the total chloride and to obtain sufficient filtration capacities. The residual moisture content of the filter cakes varied from 22 to 35 wt%, which meant that the cakes could be disposed of in landfill, or possibly utilized as a construction material.

  20. Phytoextraction of rhenium by lucerne (Medicago sativa) and erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens) from alkaline soils amended with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Dong, Zhigang; Pang, Jiayin; Wu, Gao-Lin; Zheng, Jiyong; Zhang, Xingchang

    2018-07-15

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is an industrial waste generated in huge amounts worldwide, and the management of CFA has become an environmental concern. Recovery of valuable metals from CFA is one of the beneficial reuse options of CFA. Rhenium (Re) is one of the rarest metals in the Earth's crust and one of the most expensive metals of strategic significance in the world market. A CFA at the Jungar Thermal Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, contains more Re than two alkaline soils in the surrounding region. Pot experiments were undertaken to grow lucerne (Medicago sativa) and erect milkvetch (Astragalus adsurgens) in a loessial soil and an aeolian sandy soil amended with different rates (5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%) of CFA. The results show that plant growth was considerably enhanced and Re concentration in plants was significantly increased when CFA was applied to the alkaline soils at rates of ≤20%; while in some cases plant growth was also markedly enhanced by the 40% CFA treatment, which increased plant Re concentration the most of all treatments. Both lucerne and erect milkvetch showed potential for phytoextracting Re from CFA-amended alkaline soils. Using CFA for soil amendment not only offers a potential solution for the waste disposal problem of CFA, but the phytoextraction of Re by both lucerne and erect milkvetch may also bring an economic profit in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes from typical municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the alkalinity and high concentration of potentially hazardous heavy metals, fly ash from a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator is classified as hazardous waste, which should be of particular concern. Physical and chemical characterizations of the contrasted fly ashes were investigated to explore the relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes. The results showed that CaClOH, NaCl, Ca(OH) 2 , KCl and SiO 2 were primary mineral compositions in the MSWI fly ashes, and the particle size distribution of fly ash ranged between 10 μm and 300 μm. The smaller the particle size distribution of fly ash, the larger the BET-specific surface area, which was beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. As a result of various pores, it easily accumulated heavy metals as well. The leaching tests exhibited a high leachability of heavy metals and the leaching concentration of Pb in almost all of the fly ash samples went far beyond the Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid Waste. Thereupon, it is necessary to establish proper disposal systems and management strategies for environmental protection based on the characteristics of MSW incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China.

  2. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  3. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  4. Distribution and leaching characteristics of trace elements in ashes as a function of different waste fuels and incineration technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2015-10-01

    Impact of waste fuels (virgin/waste wood, mixed biofuel (peat, bark, wood chips) industrial, household, mixed waste fuel) and incineration technologies on partitioning and leaching behavior of trace elements has been investigated. Study included 4 grate fired and 9 fluidized boilers. Results showed that mixed waste incineration mostly caused increased transfer of trace elements to fly ash; particularly Pb/Zn. Waste wood incineration showed higher transfer of Cr, As and Zn to fly ash as compared to virgin wood. The possible reasons could be high input of trace element in waste fuel/change in volatilization behavior due to addition of certain waste fractions. The concentration of Cd and Zn increased in fly ash with incineration temperature. Total concentration in ashes decreased in order of Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Sb>As>Mo. The concentration levels of trace elements were mostly higher in fluidized boilers fly ashes as compared to grate boilers (especially for biofuel incineration). It might be attributed to high combustion efficiency due to pre-treatment of waste in fluidized boilers. Leaching results indicated that water soluble forms of elements in ashes were low with few exceptions. Concentration levels in ash and ash matrix properties (association of elements on ash particles) are crucial parameters affecting leaching. Leached amounts of Pb, Zn and Cr in >50% of fly ashes exceeded regulatory limit for disposal. 87% of chlorine in fly ashes washed out with water at the liquid to solid ratio 10 indicating excessive presence of alkali metal chlorides/alkaline earths. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Relating fish health and reproductive metrics to contaminant bioaccumulation at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracheil, Brenda M; Marshall Adams, S; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Fortner, Allison M; Greeley, Mark S; Murphy, Cheryl A; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J

    2016-08-01

    A 4.1 million m(3) coal ash release into the Emory and Clinch rivers in December 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in east Tennessee, USA, prompted a long-term, large-scale biological monitoring effort to determine if there are chronic effects of this spill on resident biota. Because of the magnitude of the ash spill and the potential for exposure to coal ash-associated contaminants [e.g., selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] which are bioaccumulative and may present human and ecological risks, an integrative, bioindicator approach was used. Three species of fish were monitored-bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (L. microlophus), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)-at ash-affected and reference sites annually for 5 years following the spill. On the same individual fish, contaminant burdens were measured in various tissues, blood chemistry parameters as metrics of fish health, and various condition and reproduction indices. A multivariate statistical approach was then used to evaluate relationships between contaminant bioaccumulation and fish metrics to assess the chronic, sub-lethal effects of exposure to the complex mixture of coal ash-associated contaminants at and around the ash spill site. This study suggests that while fish tissue concentrations of some ash-associated contaminants are elevated at the spill site, there was no consistent evidence of compromised fish health linked with the spill. Further, although relationships between elevated fillet burdens of ash-associated contaminants and some fish metrics were found, these relationships were not indicative of exposure to coal ash or spill sites. The present study adds to the weight of evidence from prior studies suggesting that fish populations have not incurred significant biological effects from spilled ash at this site: findings that are relevant to the current national discussions on the safe disposal of coal ash waste.

  6. The secondary release of mercury in coal fly ash-based flue-gas mercury removal technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingfeng; Duan, Chenlong; Lei, Mingzhe; Zhu, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    The secondary release of mercury from coal fly ash is a negative by-product from coal-fired power plants, and requires effective control to reduce environmental pollution. Analysing particle size distribution and composition of the coal fly ash produced by different mercury removing technologies indicates that the particles are generally less than 0.5 mm in size and are composed mainly of SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3. The relationships between mercury concentration in the coal fly ash, its particle size, and loss of ignition were studied using different mercury removing approaches. The research indicates that the coal fly ash's mercury levels are significantly higher after injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when compared to regular cooperating-pollution control technology. This is particularly true for particle size ranges of >0.125, 0.075-0.125, and 0.05-0.075 mm. Leaching experiments revealed the secondary release of mercury in discarded coal fly ash. The concentration of mercury in the coal fly ash increases as the quantity of injecting activated carbon or brominating activated carbon increases. The leached concentrations of mercury increase as the particle size of the coal fly ash increases. Therefore, the secondary release of mercury can be controlled by adding suitable activated carbon or brominating activated carbon when disposing of coal fly ash. Adding CaBr2 before coal combustion in the boiler also helps control the secondary release of mercury, by increasing the Hg(2+) concentration in the leachate. This work provides a theoretical foundation for controlling and removing mercury in coal fly ash disposal.

  7. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  8. Removal of metallic ions from aqueous solutions by fluidized bed fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, S.; Delebarre, A.; Hequet, V. [Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Blondin, J. [Cerchar 62 - Mazingarbe (France)

    2001-07-01

    One of the main constraints deriving from the generation of power by coal combustion is to find some use for the fly ashes instead of disposing of them. Fly ashes from two fluidized bed power plants were tested to remove Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cr (III), Ni{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions. Experimental design methodology was used to study the removal and the leaching as a function of (i) the water pollutant content, (ii) the metal concentration in water, (iii) the pH of the solution and (iv) the addition of lime to fly ashes. The results show that the percentage of adsorbed ions was more important when they were in contact with silico-aluminous fly ashes than sulfo-calcic fly ashes, except in the case of the ion Ni{sup 2+}. The removal of metallic ions increases with increasing pH. The metallic canons removal accounting for the leaching test was higher when lime was added to silico-aluminous fly ashes during the adsorption. (authors)

  9. Feasibility of coal fly ash based bricks and roof tiles as construction materials: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M.N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study is to investigate about the potential use of coal fly ash along with other natural and solid wastes for the production of coal fly ash based bricks and roof tiles. The study is based on the comprehensive reviews available from the previous experimental data on coal fly ash based bricks and roof tiles. The study intendeds to provide the essential technical information and data for the use of fly ash mix with other solid wastes and reveal their suitability as construction materials. It has been found that samples were non-hazardous in nature and vigorously used as an additional construction materials and their compositions are perfectly fit to make the strong composite material for bricks and tiles. The three past studies have been demonstrated that, fly ash based bricks and roof tiles provides a sustainable supplement to the traditional clay bricks and roof tiles, that not only increases the efficiency of traditional bricks and roof tiles but also helps significantly to reduce the environmental issues associated with the disposal of these waste materials. In addition to this study highlights the potential use of fly ash for producing sustainable construction materials.

  10. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.F.A.; Aftab, A.; Soomro, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Vafai, K.

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO/sun 4/-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32 percentage, 48 percentage, 50 percentage and 51 percentage, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88 percentage, 92 percentage, 67 percentage and 89 percentage, respectively. (author)

  11. Wet vs dry bottom ash handling compared: one plant's experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianci, V. [Magaldi R & D, Salerno (Italy)

    2007-06-15

    A multi-unit coal-fired power station where both dry and wet bottom ash handling systems are employed provides an opportunity for detailed comparison of the two approaches. The study reported in the article was carried out at a plant which has four 314 MWe coal fired units. It was designed for baseload operation and the wet system, coexisting with the dry Magaldi Ash Cooler (MAC) system has high dependability. The design is in fact a hybrid of water impounded hopper system and a submerged chain conveyor (SCC) system for both bottom ash and pyrites handling. Dry ash technology was introduced in 2004. The dry system resulted in water saving of about 258,000 m{sup 3} per year. It also reduces ash disposal costs and increases boiler efficiency due to recovery of much of the heat leaving the boiler. A net thermal power saving of 1316 KWt per MAC system is made. The study also showed that the Superbelt (a steel mesh belt conveyor coupled with overlapping steel plates) applied to dry ash conveying, as in the MAC system, is much more dependable than a chain conveying system, for both wet and dry systems. By 2008 all four units of the plant will be replaced with dry MAC systems. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Incineration of a typical LWR combustible waste and analysis of the resulting ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Lokken, R.O.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    In this study 4540 kg (10,000 lb) of simulated nuclear power plant combustion wastes were burned in a controlled-air incinerators. The purpose of this work was to generate ashes suitable for solidification, the products of which will be analyzed to determine if they are suitable for disposal. Two different types of waste were burned: resin and simulated crud, and general trash (paper, plastics, wood, rubber, and cloth). Volume-reduction ratios (unburned waste: ash) were 13:1 and 22:1, respectively. Approximately 20% of the ash was lost due to adherence to incinerator walls and entrainment in the off-gas stream. Losses of the volatile species cesium and iodine were 79% and 100%, respectively. The ashes were not hygroscopic, but they exhibited a pH of 4.6 to 5.0 when water was added. Corrosion of mild steel drums would occur within this pH range. The ashes contained a significant quantity of clinkers haveing lengths as great as 20 cm (8 in.). Most of the clinkers were fully incinerated and easy to crush, suggesting that standard comminuting equipment should be effective in reducing the size of clinkers to allow their solidification with the fine ashes

  13. Development of novel ash hybrids to introgress resistance to emerald ash borer into north American ash species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is no evidence that any of the native North American ash species have any resistance to the emerald ash borer (EAB). This means that the entire ash resource of the eastern United States and Canada is at risk of loss due to EAB. In contrast, outbreaks of EAB in Asian ash species are rare and appear to be isolated responses to stress (Bauer et al. 2005,...

  14. Leaching of solidified TRU-contaminated incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Leach rate and cumulative fractional releases of plutonium were determined for a series of laboratory-scale waste forms containing transuranic (TRU) contaminated incinerator ash. The solidification agents from which these waste forms were produced are commercially available materials for radioactive waste disposal. The leachants simulate groundwaters with chemical compositions that are indiginous to different geological media proposed for repositories. In this study TRU-contaminated ash was incorporated into waste forms fabricated with portland type I cement, urea-formaldehyde, polyester-styrene or Pioneer 221 bitumen. The ash was generated at the dual-chamber incinerator at the Rocky Flats Plant. These waste forms contained between 1.25 x 10 -2 and 4.4 x 10 -2 Ci (depending on the solidification agent) of mixed TRU isotopes comprised primarily of 239 Pu and 240 Pu. Five leachant solutions were prepared consisting of: (1) demineralized water, (2) simulated brine, (3) simplified sodium-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaCl/liter), (4) simplified calcium-dominated groundwater (30 meq CaCl 2 /liter), and (5) simplified bicarbonate-dominated groundwater (30 meq NaHCO 3 /liter). Cumulative fractional releases were found to vary significantly with different leachants and solidification agents. In all cases waste forms leached in brine gave the lowest leach rates. Urea-formaldehyde had the greatest release of radionuclides while polyester-styrene and portland cement had approximately equivalent fractional releases. Cement cured for 210 days retained radionuclides three times more effectively than cement cured only 30 days

  15. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  16. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  17. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  18. evaluation of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ashing, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    1Department of Agricultural and Food Science and 2Department of ... used techniques, namely atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-Ashing and ..... fact that more preparation steps were involved in the Ashing procedure and thus.

  19. Ash content of lignites - radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Thuemmel, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of lignites is governed by the ash content varying in dependence upon the geologic conditions. Setup and function of the radiometric devices being used for ash content analysis in the GDR are briefly described

  20. Studies on rheological and leaching characteristics of heavy metals through selective additive in high concentration ash slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, P K; Mohapatra, R; Pani, G K; Mishra, B K

    2012-08-30

    The generation and disposal level of thermal power plant ash in India is a challenging task. The conventional mode of dilute phase ash slurry (10-20% solids by weight) transport through pipelines being practiced in majority of these plants not only consumes huge amount of precious water and pumping energy but also causes serious environmental problem at the disposal site. The present study investigates the rheological and leaching characteristics of an Indian ash samples at high solids concentrations (>50% by weight) using sodium silicate as an additive. The flow behaviour of ash slurry in the concentration range of 50-60% by weight is described by a Bingham-plastic model. It was indicated that the addition of sodium silicate (0.2-0.6% of the total solids) could able to reduce both the slurry viscosity and the yield stress. The analysis of the ash samples for the presence of heavy metals such as Fe, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, As and Hg were carried out following Hansen and Fisher procedure. The addition of sodium silicate affected the leaching characteristics of the ash samples over a period of 300 days resulting in the reduction of leaching of heavy metals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  2. Exploring the molecular and biochemical basis of ash resistance to emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin G.A. Whitehill; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) feed on phloem of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. It is hypothesized that the resistance of Asian species of ash (e.g., Manchurian ash, F. mandshurica) to EAB is due to endogenous defenses present in phloem tissues in the form of defensive proteins and/or...

  3. The leaching of trace elements from municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash at different stages of weathering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meima, J.A.; Comans, R.N.J.

    1999-01-01

    For a proper assessment of the environmental impact of the utilisation and disposal of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash it is necessary to understand weathering processes and their effects on (trace) element leaching. The authors have investigated the processes that control the

  4. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  5. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  6. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  7. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  8. Subseabed disposal safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplick, C.M.; Kabele, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of work performed by Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) in FY'81 on subseabed disposal safety analysis. Safety analysis for subseabed disposal is divided into two phases: pre-emplacement which includes all transportation, handling, and emplacement activities; and long-term (post-emplacement), which is concerned with the potential hazard after waste is safely emplaced. Details of TASC work in these two areas are provided in two technical reports. The work to date, while preliminary, supports the technical and environmental feasibility of subseabed disposal of HLW

  9. Selective mobilization of critical elements in incineration ashes; Selektiv mobilisering av kritiska element hos energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Malin; Herrmann, Inga; Ecke, Holger [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [TEKEDO AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    treated ashes were classified as non-hazardous waste. No negative effects on the geotechnical usage could be found in the classification according to the Waste Decree. A comparison to the general guidance values for contaminated soil according to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency showed that both of the treated ashes did not meet the limit value for less sensitive land use. Since the ash properties deviated from the reference soil in the general guidance values for contaminated soil according to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, a case in point was calculated. The results showed that both ashes met the recommended limit values for less sensitive land use, with and without groundwater usage for households. The main reason for this is that substances which may influence health and environment are maintained much more strongly in the ash as compared to the soil that The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency used in its calculations for the reference values for contaminated soil. This implies that the content of such substances in the groundwater will be low and thereby also any possible effects arising in the different scenarios. (In certain cases it is possible that the ash will behave as a sink for hazardous substances even in cases where the content in the ash will exceed that of the surrounding soil.)

  10. The cost of engineered disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Razor, J.E.; Mills, D.

    1987-01-01

    An improved disposal trench was designed, constructed and placed into operation at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site during the period April 1985 through July 1986. With the improved trench design, the waste packages are placed in clusters and the surrounding space is filled with gravel and grouted with a sand/cement mixture to form walls and cells that surround the waste package. The walls provide structural support for a poly-ethylene reinforced soil beam which in turn supports a multi-layer protective cap. About 2,700 drums of waste (20,250 CF) were placed into the trench. The total cost of the improved trench was $193,500 and the unit cost was $9.56 per cubic foot not including the placement of the waste. The engineered features of the trench (i.e., sidewall infiltration barrier, grout backfill and the soil beam) cost $82,600 for a unit cost of $4.08 per cubic foot of waste. This is compared to the cost of concrete cannisters used for radioactive waste disposal. On a production basis the cannisters are estimated to cost about $1,260. Depending upon the type waste, the cost of the cannisters will range from $2 to $12 per cubic foot of waste. The slightly higher cost of the concrete cannisters is offset by certain performance advantages

  11. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE Ca-K GEOPOLYMER/SOLIDIFIED FLUID FLY-ASH INTERLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Perna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Ca-K geopolymer matrix based on clay material and blast-furnace slag was filled with aggregates, ash pellets made from fluid fly ash, and the interlayer formed between the two components was studied. The scanning electron-microscopy investigation of the inseparable interlayer demonstrated that the pellets were not only enveloped in a geopolymer matrix but also incorporated through a thin, yet identifiable, surface pellet layer. The migration of calcium and potassium ions was detected and that changes in the quantity of these ions arise from their mobility. The interlayer on the edges of ash pellets was also studied by infrared analysis, which in this layer proved bands belonging to both participants, the matrix and the pellets. Based on the results, two different materials prepared from wastes could be used for the preparation of a new composite material and thus facilitate waste-material disposal.

  12. Co-sintering of treated APC-residues with bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Bergfeldt, Britta; Vehlow, Jürgen

    2001-01-01

    the influence of co-sintering of Ferrox products with bottom ashes on the quality of the residues and the effects on the combustion process. Only few elements showed higher concentrations in the bottom ashes of these co-combustion tests compared to reference tests. No significant effect on the leaching......Air pollution control residues stabilised by means of the Ferrox process can be sager disposed of due to lower contents of soluble salts and lesssoluble heavy metals stabilised in iron oxides. Co-combustion tests in the Karlsruhe test incinerator TAMARA were carried out in order to investigate...... behaviour of the bottom ashes could be found. During the co-combustion process an increase in SO2 concentrations in the raw gas and slightly lower temperatures in the fuel bed could be observed....

  13. A Review: The Effect of Grinded Coal Bottom Ash on Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basirun Nurul Fasihah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a review on the use of grinded coal bottom ash (CBA on the concrete properties as demonstrated by strength test and microstructure test. Amount of CBA from power plant station was disposed in landfill because of the particle shape had a rough particles. By finding an alternative way to gain its surface area by grinding and used as replacement material as cement replacement may give a good side feedback on the strength and morphology of concrete. Most of the prior works studied on the grinded fly ash and grinded rice husk ash. The study on the influence of grinded CBA on the properties of concrete still limited and need more attention Therefore, the review on the effect of grinded CBA on the strength and microstructure of concrete are discussed.

  14. Influence of several experimental parameters on As and Se leaching from coal fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero-Rey, Jose R.; Mato-Fernandez, Maria J.; Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodriguez, Elia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Coal fly ash leaching process for As and Se is studied. Environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, solid-liquid ratio, particle size and leaching time are taken into account in order to simulate As and Se leaching process for disposal coal fly ash. Analysis of reference materials was carried out by using of hydride generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Plackett-Burman experimental design is used to know the significative parameters, and Box-Behnken experimental design is used to refine the results obtained for these significative parameters. pH and temperature shown a hardly influence in leaching process. Furthermore, leaching time was also significative. According our results, it may be assumed that percentage of As and Se leaching in experimental conditions tested is relatively low for acidic fly ashes

  15. Radioactivity of wood ash; Puun tuhkan radioaktiivisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Moring, M

    2000-01-01

    STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has investigated natural and artificial radioactivity in wood ash and radiation exposure from radionuclides in ash since 1996. The aim was to consider both handling of ash and different ways of using ash. In all 87 ash samples were collected from 22 plants using entirely or partially wood for their energy production in 1996-1997. The sites studied represented mostly chemical forest industry, sawmills or district heat production. Most plants used fluidised bed combustion technique. Samples of both fly ash and bottom ash were studied. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in samples of, e.g., dried fly ash from fuel containing more than 80% wood were determined. The means ranged from 2000 to less than 50 Bq kg{sup -1}, in decreasing order: {sup 137}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 210}Pb,{sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 235}U. In bott radionuclide contents decreased in the same order as in fly ash, but were smaller, and {sup 210}Pb was hardly detectable. The NH{sub 4}Ac extractable fractions of activities for isotopes of alkaline elements (K, Cs) in bottom ash were lower than in fly ash, whereas solubility of heavier isotopes was low. Safety requirements defined by STUK in ST-guide 12.2 for handling of peat ash were fulfilled at each of the sites. Use of ash for land-filling and construction of streets was minimal during the sampling period. Increasing this type of ash use had often needed further investigations, as description of the use of additional materials that attenuate radiation. Fertilisation of forests with wood ash adds slightly to the external irradiation in forests, but will mostly decrease doses received through use of timber, berries, mushrooms and game meat. (orig.)

  16. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  17. Disposal leachates treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulomb, I.; Renaud, P. (SITA, 75 - Paris (France)); Courant, P. (FD Conseil, 78 - Gargenville (France)); Manem, J.; Mandra, V.; Trouve, E. (Lyonnaise des Eaux-Dumez, 78 - Le Pecq (France))

    1993-12-01

    Disposal leachates are complex and variable effluents. The use of a bioreactor with membranes, coupled with a reverse osmosis unit, gives a new solution to the technical burying centers. Two examples are explained here.

  18. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science ... or www.earth911.com . Think before disposing of extra pesticides and containers: Never reuse empty pesticide containers. ...

  19. Disposal of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Rogers, G.C.; Williams, C.; Newman, E.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in the nuclear waste management field is the disposal of radioactive iodine-129, which is one of the more volatile and long-lived fission products. Studies have shown that fission products can be fixed in concrete for permanent disposal. Current studies have demonstrated that practical cementitious grouts may contain up to 18% iodine as barium iodate. The waste disposal criterion is based on the fact that harmful effects to present or future generations can be avoided by isolation and/or dilution. Long-term isolation is effective in deep, dry repositories; however, since penetration by water is possible, although unlikely, release was calculated based on leach rates into water. Further considerations have indicated that sea disposal on or in the ocean floor may be a more acceptable alternative

  20. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  1. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  2. Shallow land disposal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillette-Cousin, L. [Nuclear Environment Technology Insitute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of Korea )

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L`Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Shallow land disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillette-Cousin, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L'Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs

  4. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  5. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  6. Coal ash artificial reef demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Brendel, G.F.; Bruzek, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This experimental project evaluated the use of coal ash to construct artificial reefs. An artificial reef consisting of approximately 33 tons of cement-stabilized coal ash blocks was constructed in approximately 20 feet of water in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 9.3 miles west of Cedar Key, Florida. The project objectives were: (1) demonstrate that a durable coal ash/cement block can be manufactured by commercial block-making machines for use in artificial reefs, and (2) evaluate the possibility that a physically stable and environmentally acceptable coal ash/cement block reef can be constructed as a means of expanding recreational and commercial fisheries. The reef was constructed in February 1988 and biological surveys were made at monthly intervals from May 1988 to April 1989. The project provided information regarding: Development of an optimum design mix, block production and reef construction, chemical composition of block leachate, biological colonization of the reef, potential concentration of metals in the food web associated with the reef, acute bioassays (96-hour LC 50 ). The Cedar Key reef was found to be a habitat that was associated with a relatively rich assemblage of plants and animals. The reef did not appear to be a major source of heavy metals to species at various levels of biological organization. GAI Consultants, Inc (GAI) of Monroeville, Pennsylvania was the prime consultant for the project. The biological monitoring surveys and evaluations were performed by Environmental Planning and Analysis, Inc. of Tallahassee, Florida. The chemical analyses of biological organisms and bioassay elutriates were performed by Savannah Laboratories of Tallahassee, Florida. Florida Power Corporation of St. Petersburg, Florida sponsored the project and supplied ash from their Crystal River Energy Complex

  7. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  8. Engineering properties of fly ash concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmi Mahmud

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents some of the engineering properties of Malaysian fly ash concrete. Workability, compressive, flexural, tensile splitting, drying shrinkage, elastic modulus and non destructive tests were performed on fly ash and control OPC concrete specimens. Data show that concrete containing 25% fly ash replacement of cement exhibit superior or similar engineering properties to that normal concrete without fly ash. These encouraging results demonstrated the technical merits of incorporating fly ash in concrete and should pave the way for wide scale use of this versatile material in the Malaysian construction industry. (author)

  9. APC fly ashes stabilized with Portland cement for further development of road sub-base aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, J.; Giro-Paloma, J.; Maldonado-Alameda, A.; Huete-Hernández, S.; Chimenos, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Although waste-to-energy plants allow reducing the mass and volume of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated, an average around 30 % of the total content remains as bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) ashes at the end of combustion process. While weathered bottom ash (WBA) is considered a non-hazardous residue that can be revalorized as a secondary aggregate, APC fly ashes generated during the flue gas treatment are classified as hazardous waste and are handled in landfill disposal after stabilization, usually with Portland cement (OPC). However, taking into account the amount of APC residues produced and the disposing cost in landfill, their revalorization is an important issue that could be effectively addressed. As MSW can be incinerated producing bottom ashes (BA) or air pollutant control (APC) residues, the development of a mortar formulated with APC fly ash as secondary building material is a significant risk to the environment for their content of heavy metals. In this way, Design of Experiment (DoE) was used for the improvement of granular material (GM) formulation composed by APC and OPC for further uses as road sub-base aggregate. DoE analysis was successful in the modelling and optimization the formulation as function of the mechanical properties and APC amount. Consequently, an optimal mortar formulation (OMF) of around 50 wt.% APC and 50 wt.% OPC was considered. The OMF leachates and abrasion resistance have been analyzed. These results have demonstrated the viability of OMF as non-hazardous material feasible to be used as secondary aggregate. Moreover, it would be possible to consider the environmental assessment of a GM composed by ≈20 wt.% of OMF and ≈80 wt.% of WBA in order to improve mechanical properties and heavy metals stabilization.

  10. Properties of concrete modified with waste Low Density Polyethylene and saw dust ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimanikandan, P.; Sreenath, S.

    2017-07-01

    The increase in industrialization creates need for disposal of large quantity of by-products. To overcome the difficulty of disposal, these by-products can be used as a replacement for raw material. In this concern, non-conventional industrial wastes such as plastic bags, PET bottles, pulverized waste Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and biological waste such as saw-dust ash, coconut coir were used as a replacement in concrete. In this project, saw-dust ash and pulverized waste LDPE were introduced as the partial replacement for cement and fine aggregates respectively. 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of sand by volume was replaced with LDPE and 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of cement by volume was replaced with saw dust ash. Standard cube, cylinder and prism specimens were cast to assess the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength of modified concrete after 28 days of curing. Optimum percentage of replacement was found by comparing the test results. The mix with 5% of LDPE and 3% of saw dust ash showed a better result among the other mixes.

  11. Wet treatment of ashes, a survey of methods; Vaat rening av askor, metodoeversikt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Steenari, Britt-Marie [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    Ash contains elements and compounds that are questionable from an environmental point of view, such as very soluble salts, alkali yielding a high pH-value, metals, heavy metals and organic compounds. When ash is to be used, one requires that it is stable, i. e. that it does not influence the immediate surroundings and the environment in a negative way. Stability means that water that comes into contact with ash shall not pick up environmentally disruptive compounds to any significant extent. The presence of heavy metals in the ash does not always lead to their being leached to the surroundings, but it does always imply an uncertainty. It is probable that fly ash from incineration of municipal solid waste has to be treated in some way before it is landfilled. Washing the ash or dissolving it partially with a solvent such as water or an acid is a relatively simple method to reduce the risk for contamination of the environment by removing soluble compounds from the ash. Such methods consist of techniques that in other applications are proven and robust, and that may be adapted to the present conditions: the composition and the properties of the ash. In this report, a survey of methods is presented. Wet treatments may be apprehended as a combined separation and concentration process: on the one hand environmentally disruptive compounds are removed from ash, on the other hand these are concentrated in a remainder survival remission rate. These methods are a perfect pretreatment for various stabilization methods, a. o. thermal treatments such as vitrifying or sintering, or for utilization of the ashes e. g. in public works as they remove the obstacles to a good performance, namely the soluble salts. In this report are presented a systematic description of wet treatments aiming at purification and a survey of methods of industrial interest. A certain number of wet treatment methods are in operation outside Sweden, principally for fly ash from municipal solid waste

  12. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  13. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Nuttall, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    ), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), is a major environmental concern. This work is part of the project ASHBACK (www.ashback.dk) which addresses the potentials and possible problems in re-distributing wood ash to the forest. The aim of this thesis was to determine the effects of biomass ash application...... in a Norway spruce forest where different amounts of wood ash were spread on the soil to study the effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, bioaccumulation of metals in sporocarps, and microbial communities. Laboratory microcosm experiments were run in parallel to the field studies, to compare the effects...... of wood ash with factorial additions of lime and Cd to disentangle the pH and Cd effects of wood ash amendments using community trait distributions. Barley yield, P content, and Cd content were not affected by biomass ashes. Some arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species were reduced when biomass ashes...

  15. Mercury and toxic metals in ash from combustion and incineration processes; Mercurio y metales toxicos en cenizas provenientes de procesos de combustion e incineracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugica, V.; Amador, M.A.; Torres, M.; Figueroa, J. de J. [Universidad Autonomo-Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Reynosa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In Mexico, most of the ashes from combustion and incineration process were not appropriately disposed, they are either left on industrial yards and cliffs or thrown away in open spaces and then carried by the wind to places where they can harm population, affect aquatic environment or soils. For prevention and control, the knowledge on the concentration of trace elements in waste ashes is necessary. In this study, several oxidation methods for digestion of ashes followed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry were evaluated. Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and V were determined in ashes from coal and fuel oil combustion, as well as in ashes from the incineration of municipal, water treatment sludge, and medical wastes. Results showed important concentrations of different trace elements in the ashes. This suggests that adequate disposal of these wastes should be mandatory. On the other hand, concentration of trace elements in the leachates indicated that these wastes are not toxic and they could be disposed in sanitary landfill. 23 refs.

  16. Risk to ash from emerald ash borer: can biological control prevent the loss of ash stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche; Leah S. Bauer; Daniel M. Kashian; Daniel A. Herms

    2015-01-01

    Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) are an important components of both natural forests and urban plantings in the United States and Canada (Federal Register, 2003; Nowak et al., 2003). There are approximately 16 species of Fraxinus native to North America (Harlow et al., 1996; USGS, 2014), each adapted to different ecological niches across...

  17. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden, several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. They notice that the leaching of salts and metals to ground water constitutes the largest risk for the environment during use of bottom ash. Therefore, a quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash (at first hand leaching properties) earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by Sysav. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables. the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and longterm leaching properties. how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements. how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish

  18. Plastic waste disposal apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kito, S

    1972-05-01

    A test plant plastic incinerator was constructed by the Takuma Boiler Manufacturing Co. for Sekisui Chemical Industries, and the use of a continuous feed spreader was found to be most effective for prevention of black smoke, and the use of a venturi scrubber proved to be effective for elimination of hydrogen chloride gas. The incinerator was designed for combustion of polyvinyl chloride exclusively, but it is also applicable for combustion of other plastics. When burning polyethylene, polypropylene, or polystyrene, (those plastics which do not produce toxic gases), the incinerator requires no scrubber for the combustion gas. The system may or may not have a pretreatment apparatus. For an incinerator with a pretreatment system, the flow chart comprises a pit, a supply crane, a vibration feeder, a metal eliminator, a rotation shredder, a continuous screw feeder with a quantitative supply hopper, a pretreatment chamber (300 C dry distillation), a quantitative supply hopper, and the incinerator. The incinerator is a flat non-grid type combustion chamber with an oil burner and many air nozzles. From the incinerator, ashes are sent by an ash conveyor to an ash bunker. The combustion gas goes to the boiler, and the water supplied the boiler water pump creates steam. The heat from the gas is sent back to the pretreatment system through a heat exchanger. The gas then goes to a venturi scrubber and goes out from a stack.

  19. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio; Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax

  20. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: Potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, Giuseppe, E-mail: bonanno.giuseppe@unict.it [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy); Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio [Department of Agri-Food and Environmental Systems Management, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 100, 95123, Catania (Italy); Giudice, Rosa Lo; Pavone, Pietro [Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Via Longo 19, 95125, Catania (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5–3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. - Highlights: • Metal content in ash reflects the element concentrations in Phragmites australis and Arundo donax. • Metal enriched ash of both species may be recycled as fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. • Constructed wetlands may produce a large amount of plant ash-based fertilizers from P. australis and A. donax.

  1. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender. ... is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. ... are necessary in the society it should not be mistaken for gender inequality.

  2. Porous Geopolymer Insulating Core from a Metakaolin/Biomass Ash Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Natali Murri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ashes derived from the combustion of vegetal and animal biomass still represent a mostly unexplored secondary raw material for the production of alkali-activated materials, given their peculiar chemical nature. In this work, calcium phosphate biomass ashes were successfully used as partially reactive fillers in a metakaolin-based geopolymer composite to produce, by direct foaming, sustainable and lightweight boards with thermal insulating properties. The investigated materials were obtained by activating a blend of metakaolin and biomass ash in a weight ratio of 1: 1 and foamed with the addition of H2O2 in measure of 5 wt. %, to maximize the volume of disposed ash and ensure adequate properties to the material at the same time. The obtained geopolymer composite was characterized by microstructural, chemical-physical, mechanical and thermal analysis: the obtained results showed that biomass ash and metakaolin well integrated in the microstructure of the final porous material, which was characterized by a density of about 310 kg/m3 and a thermal conductivity of 0.073 W/mK at a mean test temperature of 30 °C, coupled with an acceptable compressive strength of about 0.6 MPa. Dilatometric and thermogravimetric analysis, performed up to 1000 °C, highlighted the thermal stability of the composite, which could be regarded as a promising material for low-cost, self-bearing thermal insulating partitions or lightweight cores for thermostructural sandwich panels.

  3. Sorption of cadmium and lead by clays from municipal incinerator ash- water suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, W.R.; Krapac, I.G.; Steele, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of Cl complexation in extracts of a flue gas-scrubber incinerator fly ash sample on the sorption of Cd and Pb by kaolinite and illite was investigated using batch-sorption methods. In the pH range of 5 to 9, Cl complexation may reduce sorption and thus increase the mobility of these metals. When an ash-water suspension was acidified to pH 6.85, the dissolution of Cl and Ca essentially eliminated Cd sorption because of complexation and cationic competition. Cadmium would be considered as either mobile or very mobile under these conditions. Lead was not soluble in the pH- 6.85 suspension. At pH 12, the approximate pH of water in contact with flue gas-scrubber fly ash, Cd was essentially insoluble and Pb occurred as anionic Pb hydroxide. Anionic Pb was sorbed by the two clays, and the extent of sorption was not influenced by Cl or carbonate complexation. Sorption constants, derived from isotherms, suggested that Pb would be relatively immobile in saturated soil-water systems. The recent concern that highly alkaline, flue gas-scrubber fly ash may release environmentally significant concentrations of mobile Pb when placed in an ash-disposal site with a soil liner should be reevaluated in light of this study.

  4. Sorption behaviour of some radioactive isotopes on treated fly ash. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Raouf, M W; El-Dessouky, M I; Aly, H F [Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Fly ash is obtained as a by-product from burning mazoute (high molecular weight hydrocarbon) at Northern Cairo Electric Power Generator, was ordinarily disposed in land fill. The carbonaceous material of fly ash was investigated as a possible sorbent for some fission products radionuclides: Cs{sup 134}, Co{sup 60}, and Eu{sup 142+154} at room temperature. The original fly ash was prepared for adsorption studies by sieving to different particle sizes (fractions), and repeated washing by tap water to neutral PH. Some fractions were further treated (after neutralization) by dilute HCl or ethyl alcohol and other fractions were heated at 200, 500, and 800 degree C. The results obtained from sorption on treated fly ash revealed that the percentage uptake (%U) was in accordance with the valency of the cation used: Eu{sup 3+}>Co{sup 2+}>>Cs{sup +} at medium hydrogen ion concentrations. The heated samples at different temperatures showed that % U obeyed the order: 800 degree C >200 degree C. Comparative studies were conducted with pyrolysis residue of domestic waste showed analogous trend in sorption studies. The feasibility of fly ash as a very cheap material in the removal of different fission products from liquid radioactive waste was assessed.

  5. Utilization of fly ash as partial sand replacement in oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazrin Akmal, A. Z. Muhammad; Muthusamy, K.; Mat Yahaya, F.; Hanafi, H. Mohd; Nur Azzimah, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Realization on the increasing demand for river sand supply in construction sector has inspired the current research to find alternative material to reduce the use of natural sand in oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete (OPS LWAC) production. The existence of fly ash, a by-product generated from coal power plant, which pose negative impact to the environment when it is disposed as waste, were used in this research. The effect of fly ash content as partial sand replacement towards workability and compressive strength of OPS lightweight aggregate concrete were investigated. Four concrete mixes containing various percentage of fly ash that are 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% by weight of sand were used in the experimental work. All mixes were cast in form of cubes before subjected to water curing until the testing age. Compressive strength test were conducted at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. The finding shows that the workability of the OPS LWAC decreases when more fly ash are used as sand replacement. It was found that adding of 10% fly ash as sand replacement content resulted in better compressive strength of OPS LWAC, which is higher than the control mix.

  6. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm 3 , weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  7. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin, E-mail: leeam@dlut.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Glass ceramic composite is prepared from oil shale fly ash and MSWI bottom ash. • A novel method for the production of glass ceramic composite is presented. • It provides simple route and lower energy consumption in terms of recycling waste. • The vitrified slag can promote the sintering densification process of glass ceramic. • The performances of products decrease with the increase of oil shale fly ash content. - Abstract: Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2 h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced

  8. Radiochemical studies on Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, T

    1954-01-01

    Decay characteristics of the ashes which were brought back by the crew of the Fukuryu Maru No. 5 were: untreated ash I = ct/sup -1/ /sup 81/, water soluble part t/sup -2/ /sup 71/, insoluble part t/sup -1/ /sup 68/. Radioactive species separated by chemical method with carrier or collector were: nuclide, activity of nuclide (counts/min)/activity of original sample (counts/min), and the date of separation, /sup 89/Sr 6000/80 X 10/sup 4/, April 24; /sup 95/Zr, 280/80 x 10/sup 4/, -; /sup 111/Ag, 200/200 x 10/sup 4/, April 14; /sup 103/Ru, 2.300/25 x 10/sup 4/, etc.

  9. The Ashes of Marci Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kopeć

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses Marci Shore’s social and historical thought, as presented in her books: Caviar and Ashes: A Warsaw Generation’s Life and Death in Marxism, 1918-1968 (2006, The Taste of Ashes (2013, and her essays recently published in Polish translation. The author follows the American historian, presenting her concept of modernity, but focuses on the main theme of her research: the contribution of Jewish writers, poets, artists, and intellectuals to the creation of Marxism. The author acknowledges the great value of Marci Shore’s writings, but argues that her panorama of the 20th century would be fuller if her discussion included a reflection on the religious attitude of many Jewish thinkers to Marxism and the USSR. This topic was discussed by Nikolai Berdyaev and Polish thinkers who published in pre-war social journals.

  10. Quality assurance of MSWI bottom ash. Environmental properties; Kvalitetssaekring av slaggrus. Miljoemaessiga egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Engineering Geology

    2006-04-15

    In Sweden several hundred tonnes of MSWI bottom ash are generated annually at 29 incineration plants for municipal solid waste. So far bottom ash has mainly been disposed in to landfills or used as cover material in landfills or in other construction works at landfills. A few applications of bottom ash in construction works outside landfills have been reported. A large problem for the market of bottom ash and other secondary materials outside Swedish waste treatment plants is the lack of roles and regulations for a non-polluting use. During 2002 Hartlen and Groenholm (HG) presented a proposal to a system to assure the quality of bottom ash after homogenization and stabilization. A quality assurance of environmental properties should be based on leaching tests. The aim of this project was to study how the control of environmental properties of bottom ash earlier described in e.g. a product information sheet should be worked out. The starting-point has been a control system for bottom ash developed by the Sysav company. Different leaching tests illustrate however different aspects of the environmental properties, e.g. short-term and long-term leaching. Limit and target values for different variables could affect both the possibilities to use bottom ash as well as the sampling from storage heaps. We have chosen to investigate: pH, availability and leached amount and the connection between these variables; the possibilities to use pH or the availability to assess both short-term and long term leaching properties; how the number of subsamples that should be collected from a storage heap is affected by different control variables and quality requirements; how bottom ash is stabilized by today's storage technology and how the technology could be improved. Our sample test of bottom ash from Swedish incineration plants indicates that the availability of elements such as Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in bottom ash usually is below Sysav's target values. Extreme values

  11. Characterization of coal fly ash components by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ctvrtnickova, Tereza; Mateo, Mari-Paz; Yanez, Armando; Nicolas, Gines

    2009-01-01

    The high sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the detection of most of the fly ash components enables the analysis of these residues produced during the combustion of coal. Fly ash consists of oxides (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , CaO...) and unburnt carbon which is the major determinant of combustion efficiency in coal fired boilers. For example, an excessive amount of residual carbon dispersed in the fly ash means a significant loss of energy (Styszko et al., 2004). Standard methods employed for the analysis of fly ash make not possible a control of boiler in real time. LIBS technique can significantly reduce the time of analysis, in some cases even an online detection can be performed. For this reason, some studies have been addressed in order to demonstrate the capability of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique for the detection of carbon content in high pressure conditions typical of thermal power plants (Noda et al., 2002) and for the monitoring of unburnt carbon for the boiler control in real time (Kurihara et al., 2003). In particular, the content of unburnt carbon is a valuable indicator for the control of fly ash quality and for the boiler combustion. Depending on this unburnt carbon content, fly ash can be disposed as an industrial waste or as a raw material for the production of concrete in the construction sector. In this study, analyses were performed on specimens of various forms of preparation. Pressed pellets were prepared with two different binders. Presented results concern the nature and amount of the binder used to pelletize the powder, and the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy parameters and procedure required to draw calibration curves of elements from the fly ash. Analysis 'on tape' was performed in order to establish the experimental conditions for the future 'online analysis'.

  12. Development of a sintering process for recycling oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash into glass ceramic composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale fly ash and municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash are industrial and municipal by-products that require further treatment before disposal to avoid polluting the environment. In the study, they were mixed and vitrified into the slag by the melt-quench process. The obtained vitrified slag was then mixed with various percentages of oil shale fly ash and converted into glass ceramic composites by the subsequent sintering process. Differential thermal analysis was used to study the thermal characteristics and determine the sintering temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to analyze the crystalline phase compositions. Sintering shrinkage, weight loss on ignition, density and compressive strength were tested to determine the optimum preparation condition and study the co-sintering mechanism of vitrified amorphous slag and oil shale fly ash. The results showed the product performances increased with the increase of sintering temperatures and the proportion of vitrified slag to oil shale fly ash. Glass ceramic composite (vitrified slag content of 80%, oil shale fly ash content of 20%, sintering temperature of 1000 °C and sintering time of 2h) showed the properties of density of 1.92 ± 0.05 g/cm(3), weight loss on ignition of 6.14 ± 0.18%, sintering shrinkage of 22.06 ± 0.6% and compressive strength of 67 ± 14 MPa. The results indicated that it was a comparable waste-based material compared to previous researches. In particular, the energy consumption in the production process was reduced compared to conventional vitrification and sintering method. Chemical resistance and heavy metals leaching results of glass ceramic composites further confirmed the possibility of its engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Utilisation aspects of ashes and green liquor dregs from an integrated semichemical pulp and board mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manskinen, K.

    2013-09-01

    mobile forms in these ashes, which supports their utilisation instead of final disposal. The green liquor dregs were strongly alkaline (pH 11.7) and had a high neutralizing capacity (34.2% Ca equivalents; d.w.). These results support the utilisation of this residue e.g. as a soil conditioning agent or pH buffer for acidic soils. The relatively low total concentrations of non-process elements in the green liquor dregs and low partitioning of these elements in the sequential extraction procedure support the re-use of this residue. However, if green liquor dregs are to be utilised, an environmental permit is needed. In terms of human health aspects, the careful handling of fly ash and green liquor dregs is recommended to prevent material dusting problems and the penetration of material particles across the human gastrointestinal tract. In order to promote the utilisation of ashes and green liquor dregs, efforts to develop Finnish legislation on waste utilisation is needed. (orig.)

  14. Utilization technology on slurried ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Yoshio; Yasuda, Minoru; Furuki, Yasuhiko [The Coal Mining Research Centre, Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1987-08-01

    Three research results of the utilization technology on slurried ash were reported. As for the utilization as the fly ash quick setting (FQS) backfill grout for tail void in shield works of tunneling, grout blending was simplified, the blended solution of cement, clay, additives and water was stabilized, and a favorable workability and long term durability were obtained. As for the utilization as the material of a SMW (soil mixing wall) method for continuous walls in long shaft digging, a fly ash-gypsum-cement (FGC) stabilizer showed an excellent workability and remarkably high water-tightness as compared with conventional cement bentonite. As for the utilization as the material of an injection method of overlay mats in foundation works of light weight structures on the sea bed mud foundation, since a FGC concrete weight in water was remarkably light as 0.7t/m{sup 3}, no both large mold form strength and vibration compacting were required. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. False deformation temperatures for ash fusibility associated with the conditions for ash preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, T.F.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.; Sanders, R.H.; Creelman, R.A.; Bryant, G.W. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization, Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-07-01

    A study was made to investigate the fusibility behaviour of coal ashes of high ash fusion temperatures. Coals and ashes formed in the boiler were sampled in several Australian power stations, with laboratory ashes being prepared from the coals. The laboratory ashes gave lower values for the deformation temperature (DT) than the combustion ashes when the ash had low levels of basic oxide components. Thermo-mechanical analysis, quantitative X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to establish the mechanisms responsible for the difference. Laboratory ash is finer than combustion ash and it includes unreacted minerals (such as quartz, kaolinite and illite) and anhydrite (CaSO{sub 4}). Fusion events which appear to be characteristic of reacting illite, at temperatures from 900 to 1200{degree}C, were observed for the laboratory ashes, these being associated with the formation of melt phase and substantial shrinkage. The combustion ashes did not contain this mineral and their fusion events were observed at temperatures exceeding 1300{degree}C. The low DTs of coal ashes with low levels of basic oxides are therefore a characteristic of laboratory ash rather than that found in practical combustion systems. These low temperatures are not expected to be associated with slagging in pulverised coal fired systems. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Reigosa, Natalia; Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-04-01

    Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6%), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94%, As(V) >96% and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30% for shell ash; Hg(II) >98%, As(V) >88% and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88% for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45% for shell ash, and between 19 and 0% for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

  17. Fly ash leachate generation and qualitative trends at Ohio test sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solc, J.; Foster, H.J.; Butler, R.D. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, the environmental impact and potential contamination from landfilled fly ash (coal conversion solid residues - CCSRs) have been studied at field sites in Ohio. The progressive increase of moisture content within pilot cells over depth and time facilitated intensive chemical processes and generation of highly alkaline (pH of 10 to 12) leachate. Chemistry of pore water from lysimeters and ASTM leachate from fly ash and soil cores indicate the leachate potential to migrate out of deposit and impact the pore water quality of surrounding soils. Na, SO{sub 4} and, particularly, K, Cl, pH, and EC appeared to be valuable indicator parameters for tracking potential leachate transport both within the cells and below the ash/soil interface.

  18. Landfill disposal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininni, G.; Passino, R.; Spinosa, L.

    1993-01-01

    Landfill disposal is the most used waste disposal system in Italy, due to its low costs and also to the great opposition of populations towards new incineration plants and the adjustment of the existing ones. Nevertheless, landfills may present many environmental problems as far as leachate and biogas are concerned directly influencing water, air and soil. This paper shows the most important aspects to be considered for a correct evaluation of environmental impacts caused by a landfill of urban wastes. Moreover, detection systems for on site control of pollution phenomena are presented and some measures for an optimal operation of a landfill are suggested

  19. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  20. Reversible deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  1. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  2. Proceedings of symposium on ash in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Michler; Matthew D., eds. Ginzel

    2010-01-01

    Includes 5 papers and 30 abstracts covering topics related to the biology and ecology of the ash species, ash utilization and management, emerald ash borer, and other threats to ash, and genetics and conservation of ash species. A paper titled "Population-level variation of Fraxinus americana L. is influenced by climate...

  3. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  4. CCA-treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna; Weitz, Keith; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy; Thorneloe, Susan

    2007-01-01

    in the ash in the WTE scenario, the MSW landfill scenario releases a greater amount of arsenic from leachate in a more dilute form. The WTE scenario releases more chromium from the ash on an annual basis. The WTE facility and subsequent ash disposal greatly concentrates the chromium, often oxidizing it to the more toxic and mobile Cr(VI) form. Elevated arsenic and chromium concentrations in the ash leachate may increase leachate management costs.

  5. Disposal of coal combustion wastes in the hydraulic backfill process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzyna, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    This article presents the results of studies regarding the physical properties of selected combustion by-products (CCPs) currently produced in the energy production industry. These properties have been compared with the requirements of the technologies applied in the Polish underground mines. The article gives special consideration to the application of the products in the hydraulic backfill technology. The possibility of using bottom-ashes and slags was considered. The amount of CCPs disposed in Polish hard coal mines is approximately 1.1 million Mg and the tendency is decreasing. In the past two years, approximately 100-150 thousand Mg of CCPs was used in the hydraulic backfill technology. The percentage of the fraction smaller than 0.1 mm is determining for the possibility of using a given type of CCPs in the backfill material. This practically excludes the possibility of using any fly ashes in that technology. In slags from conventional boilers and bottom ashes from fluidized bed boilers the fraction below 0.1 mm constitutes 25% of the total at maximum, which allows for their use in the materials used in hydraulic backfill as a component comprising from 30% to 60%, respectively. Slags (10 01 01) are characterized by the lack of bonding properties, which, in case of open backfill systems that are exposed to atmospheric conditions, constitutes an advantage in comparison to bottom ashes (10 01 24), which in turn definitely exhibit bonding properties. The solution of the problem of using bottom ashes is their supply and application on a current basis.

  6. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Antoni; Sulistio Aldi Vincent; Wahjudi Samuel; Hardjito Djwantoro; Hardjito Djwantoro

    2017-01-01

    Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In this study, bottom ash was treated by sieve separation and pounding to smaller particle size for use as a sand substitute. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ash were tested after treatment includi...

  7. Hydration of fly ash cement and microstructure of fly ash cement pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiyuan, H.

    1981-01-01

    The strength development and hydration of fly ash cement and the influence of addition of gypsum on those were studied at normal and elevated temperatures. It was found that an addition of a proper amount of gypsum to fly ash cement could accelerate the pozzolanic reaction between CH and fly ash, and as a result, increase the strength of fly ash cement pastes after 28 days.

  8. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  9. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  10. Manufacture of disposal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolvi, L.

    2009-12-01

    The report summarizes the development work carried out in the manufacturing of disposal canister components, and present status, in readiness for manufacturing, of the components for use in assembly of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. The disposal canister consist of two major components: the nodular graphite cast iron insert and overpack of oxygen-free copper. The manufacturing process for copper components begins with a cylindrical cast copper billet. Three different manufacturing processes i.e. pierce and draw, extrusion and forging are being developed, which produce a seamless copper tube or a tube with an integrated bottom. The pierce and draw process, Posiva's reference method, makes an integrated bottom possible and only the lid requires welding. Inserts for BWR-element are cast with 12 square channels and inserts for VVER 440-element with 12 round channels. Inserts for EPR-elements have four square channels. Casting of BWR insert type has been studied so far. Experience of casting inserts for PWR, which is similar to the EPR-type, has been got in co-operation with SKB. The report describes the processes being developed for manufacture of disposal canister components and some results of the manufacturing experiments are presented. Quality assurance and quality control in manufacture of canister component is described. (orig.)

  11. Oil ''rig'' disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the environmental impacts of disposing of the Brent Spar oil platform on land and at sea is presented, with a view to establishing the best decommissioning option in the light of recent controversy. The document is presented as an aid to comprehension of the scientific and engineering issues involved for Members of Parliament. (UK)

  12. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.; Gnirk, P.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the form and final disposal of nuclear wastes; the natural rock and groundwater; the disturbed rock and the groundwater; long-term behavior of the rock and the groundwater; nuclear waste leakage into the groundwater; what does it all mean. (U.K.)

  13. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  15. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  16. Radwaste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehn, L.; Breza, M.; Pekar, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture is given the basic information, that is concerning on the RAW treatment and long term disposal of the treated RAW in repository at Mochovce. Then here is given the basic technical and technological information, that is concerning bituminization, plant, the vitrification unit, center for the RAW-treatment (BSC) and repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  17. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  18. Effect of power-plant waste on farming in the surrounding regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J; Maly, V

    1972-01-01

    The results of research undertaken concerning the waste of two power plants in Czechoslovakia are presented. Increased dust was observed in the proximity of the waste as compared with distant sites. Some dirt was observed in the crops around the waste - this demonstrates the dust infestation of the crops. The content of ash in the organic dry matter in farm crops in the proximity of waste were also higher than in the same crops in unaffected regions. Sulfur compounds were found in the ash of organic matter and in its dry matter that exceed the normal values. Dust blocked the pores of the assimilation organs of crops, although the value was lower than in forest wood species, particularly conifers. In most cases the analyses of soil samples collected around the waste demonstrated an increase in lime content. The soils around the wastes were found to contain sulfates, in some cases in fairly high amounts. Spectral analysis revealed trace amounts of some microelements which might have a toxic effect if their contents were increased (As, Pb, Zn, Cr, Be, Ni, Co). The fly ash had a negative influence on the physical properties of soil in the surrounding fields. In the vicinity of the waste severe dampness of the fields was observed in some cases. The dampness of soil decreased with the distance from the waste although moisture values characteristic of soil dampness were found 400 meters from the waste.

  19. Utilization of Hospital Waste Ash in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement.

  20. Method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    A sulphate ash at least 20% by weight of which consists of sulphates of transuranic elements is immobilised by heating to melting a mixture of the ash, a metal, and a fluxing agent; the metal used is Al, Ce, Sm, Eu or mixtures thereof and it is used in an amount sufficient to reduce the transuranic sulphates in the ash to metal and form an alloy with the metal so produced; sufficient of the fluxing agent is used to reduce the percentage of transuranic sulphates in the mix to form 1% to 10% of the mix and the molten mixture is cooled and the alloy containing the immobilised ash separated. (author)

  1. Utilization of hospital waste ash in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.; Sheikh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement) while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix) showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement. (author)

  2. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  3. Hazards Associated With Recent Popocatepetl Ash Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A.; Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Ferres, D.

    2013-05-01

    Popocatepetl has been producing ash from small eruptions since 1994. Until 2012 about 650 small ash emissions have been recorded at the monitoring system of Popocatépetl Volcano. Ash consists mainly of glassy lithic clasts from the recent crater domes, plagioclase and pyroxene crystals, and in major eruptions, olivine and/or hornblende. Dome forming eruptions produced a fine white ash which covers the coarser ash. This fine ash consists of plagioclase, glass and cristobalite particles mostly under15 microns. During the recent crisis at Popocatépetl, April and May2012 ash fell on villages to the east and west of the volcano, reaching Mexico City (more than 20 million people) and Puebla (2 million people). In 14 cases the plumes had heights over 2 km, the largest on May 2 and 11 (3 and 4 km in height, respectively). Heavier ash fall occurred on April 13, 14, 20, and 23 and May 2, 3, 5, 11, 14, 23, 24 and 25. A database for ash fall was constructed from April 13 with field observations, reports emitted by the Centro Nacional de Comunicaciones (CENACOM), ash fall advisories received at CENAPRED and alerts from the Servicios a la Navegación en el Espacio Aéreo Mexicano (SENEAM). This aim of this database is to calculate areas affected by the ash and estimate the ash fall volume emitted by Popocatépetl in each of these events. Heavy ash fall from the May 8 to May 11 combined with reduced visibility due to fog forced to closure of the Puebla airport during various periods of time, for up to 13 hours. Domestic and international flights were cancelled. Ash eruptions have caused respiratory conditions in the state of Puebla, to the east of the volcano, since 1994 (Rojas et al, 2001), but because of the changing wind conditions in the summer mainly, some of these ash plumes go westward to towns in the State of Mexico and even Mexico City. Preliminary analyses of these eruptions indicate that some ash emissions produced increased respiratory noninfectious problems

  4. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland; David. Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed...

  5. The Role of Biocontrol of Emerald Ash Borer in Protecting Ash Regeneration after Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive Asian beetle that is destroying ash in forests over much of eastern North America because of the high susceptibility of our native ash and a lack of effective natural enemies. To increase mortality of EAB larvae and eggs, the USDA (FS, ARS and APHIS) is carryin...

  6. Factors affecting the survival of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees infested by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; John P. Brown; Robert P. Long

    2013-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) (EAB), an Asian woodboring beetle accidentally introduced in North America, has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees and is spreading rapidly. This study examined the effects of tree- and site-level factors on the mortality of ash trees in stands infested by EAB in OH, USA. Our data...

  7. Use of unwounded ash trees for the detection of emerald ash borer adults: EAB landing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan M. Marshall; Melissa J. Porter; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of multiple trapping techniques and sites within a survey program is essential to adequately identify the range of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestation. Within natural forests, EAB lands on stick band traps wrapped around girdled ash trees at a rate similar to that on unwounded ash trees. The objective of...

  8. Survey for tolerance to emerald ash borer within North American ash species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Mary E. Mason; David W. Carey; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; Daniel A. Herms

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of the emerald ash borer (EAB) near Detroit, MI, in 2002, more than 40 million ash trees have been killed and another 7.5 billion are at risk in the United States. When the EAB outbreak was initially discovered, our native ash species appeared to have no resistance to the pest.

  9. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)

  10. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions......: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  11. Chemical associations and mobilization of heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Gisela; Eggenberger, Urs; Schlumberger, Stefan; Mäder, Urs K

    2017-04-01

    This study focusses on chemical and mineralogical characterization of fly ash and leached filter cake and on the determination of parameters influencing metal mobilization by leaching. Three different leaching processes of fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in Switzerland comprise neutral, acidic and optimized acidic (+ oxidizing agent) fly ash leaching have been investigated. Fly ash is characterized by refractory particles (Al-foil, unburnt carbon, quartz, feldspar) and newly formed high-temperature phases (glass, gehlenite, wollastonite) surrounded by characteristic dust rims. Metals are carried along with the flue gas (Fe-oxides, brass) and are enriched in mineral aggregates (quartz, feldspar, wollastonite, glass) or vaporized and condensed as chlorides or sulphates. Parameters controlling the mobilization of neutral and acidic fly ash leaching are pH and redox conditions, liquid to solid ratio, extraction time and temperature. Almost no depletion for Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd is achieved by performing neutral leaching. Acidic fly ash leaching results in depletion factors of 40% for Zn, 53% for Cd, 8% for Pb and 6% for Cu. The extraction of Pb and Cu are mainly limited due to a cementation process and the formation of a PbCu 0 -alloy-phase and to a minor degree due to secondary precipitation (PbCl 2 ). The addition of hydrogen peroxide during acidic fly ash leaching (optimized acidic leaching) prevents this reduction through oxidation of metallic components and thus significantly higher depletion factors for Pb (57%), Cu (30%) and Cd (92%) are achieved. The elevated metal depletion using acidic leaching in combination with hydrogen peroxide justifies the extra effort not only by reduced metal loads to the environment but also by reduced deposition costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M. R. S., E-mail: monica.fernandes@lanxess.com [Lanxess Elastômeros do Brasil S.A., Brasil and Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Furtado, C. R. G., E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com; Sousa, A. M. F. de, E-mail: russi@globo.com, E-mail: ana.furtado.sousa@gmail.com [Instituto de Química, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  13. Evaluation of rice husk ash as filler in tread compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, M. R. S.; Furtado, C. R. G.; Sousa, A. M. F. de

    2014-01-01

    Rice which is one of the largest agriculture crops produces around 22% of rice rusk during its milling process. This material is mainly used as fuel for energy generation, which results in an ash, which disposal represents an environmental issue. The rice husk ash (RHA) contains over than 70% of silica in an amorphous form and a lot of applications is being developed for it all over the world. The use of silica as a filler in the tire industry is growing since it contributes significantly to the reduction of fuel consumption of the automobiles, allowing at the same time better traction (safety). This paper presents an evaluation of the use of RHA as filler in rubber tread compounds prepared in lab scale and compares its performance with compounds prepared with commercial silica and carbon black, the fillers normally used in tire industry. Mechanical and rheological properties are evaluated, with emphasis for tan delta as an indicator of tread performance related with rolling resistance (fuel consumption) and wet grip/traction (safety)

  14. Porous materials produced from incineration ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Chiu, Wen-Tung; Wang, To-Mai; Chen, Ching-Ting; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2014-06-01

    This study presents a novel thermal plasma melting technique for neutralizing and recycling municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash residues. MSWI ash residues were converted into water-quenched vitrified slag using plasma vitrification, which is environmentally benign. Slag is adopted as a raw material in producing porous materials for architectural and decorative applications, eliminating the problem of its disposal. Porous materials are produced using water-quenched vitrified slag with Portland cement and foaming agent. The true density, bulk density, porosity and water absorption ratio of the foamed specimens are studied here by varying the size of the slag particles, the water-to-solid ratio, and the ratio of the weights of the core materials, including the water-quenched vitrified slag and cement. The thermal conductivity and flexural strength of porous panels are also determined. The experimental results show the bulk density and the porosity of the porous materials are 0.9-1.2 g cm(-3) and 50-60%, respectively, and the pore structure has a closed form. The thermal conductivity of the porous material is 0.1946 W m(-1) K(-1). Therefore, the slag composite materials are lightweight and thermal insulators having considerable potential for building applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Orchid woods and floating islands - the ecology of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P. [Roehampton Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-02-01

    The article reviews the ecology of disused pulverised fuel ash (PFA) from fossil-fuel power plants and suggests methods by which PFA can be used as a conservation resource. Plants which grow on weathered PFA are listed. They include mosses and orchids. PFA contains cenopheres which are hollow and buoyant, known as floaters. Those can accumulate as white scum on ash lagoons and can be colonised by aquatic plants which bind at the roots to form floating islands. Examples of sites where this has happened in the UK are given. Banks of PFA have provided resting place for sand martins and digging ground for badgers and foxes. PFA sites need careful management as floral succession progresses. The successional habitats on PFA and other industrial wastes are a declining ecosystem, owing to the advent of tougher waste-disposal legislation, banning the bad old ways of dumping and forgetting. Unless PFA areas start to be specifically created with conservation in mind, it is unlikely that the next generation will ever see orchid glades in a PFA woodland. 24 refs., 6 photos.

  16. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  17. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  18. HLW disposal dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The radioactive waste is an inevitable residue from the use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine, and from the operation of generating electricity nuclear power stations. The management and disposal of such waste is therefore an issue relevant to almost all countries. Undoubtedly the biggest issue concerning radioactive waste management is that of high level waste. The long-lived nature of some types of radioactive wastes and the associated safety implications of disposal plans have raised concern amongst those who may be affected by such facilities. For these reasons the subject of radioactive waste management has taken on a high profile in many countries. Not one Member State in the European Union can say that their high level waste will be disposed of at a specific site. Nobody can say 'that is where it is going to go'. Now, there is a very broad consensus on the concept of geological disposal. The experts have little, if any doubt that we could safely dispose of the high level wastes. Large sectors of the public continue to oppose to most proposals concerning the siting of repositories. Given this, it is increasingly difficult to get political support, or even political decisions, on such sites. The failure to advance to the next step in the waste management process reinforces the public's initial suspicion and resistance. In turn, this makes the political decisions even harder. In turn, this makes the political decisions even harder. The management of spent fuel from nuclear power plant became a crucial issue, as the cooling pond of the Romanian NPP is reaching saturation. During the autumn of 2000, the plant owner proceeded with an international tendering process for the supply of a dry storage system to be implemented at the Cernavoda station to store the spent fuel from Unit 1 and eventually from Unit 2 for a minimum period of 50 years. The facility is now in operation. As concern the disposal of the spent fuel, the 'wait and see

  19. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Model Volcanic Hazard Risk Levels in Areas Surrounding the Copahue Volcano in the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, A. M.; Weigel, A. M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Copahue is a stratovolcano located along the rim of the Caviahue Caldera near the Chile-Argentina border in the Andes Mountain Range. There are several small towns located in proximity of the volcano with the two largest being Banos Copahue and Caviahue. During its eruptive history, it has produced numerous lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and lahars. This isolated region has steep topography and little vegetation, rendering it poorly monitored. The need to model volcanic hazard risk has been reinforced by recent volcanic activity that intermittently released several ash plumes from December 2012 through May 2013. Exposure to volcanic ash is currently the main threat for the surrounding populations as the volcano becomes more active. The goal of this project was to study Copahue and determine areas that have the highest potential of being affected in the event of an eruption. Remote sensing techniques were used to examine and identify volcanic activity and areas vulnerable to experiencing volcanic hazards including volcanic ash, SO2 gas, lava flow, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ISS ISERV Pathfinder, and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products were used to analyze volcanic hazards. These datasets were used to create a historic lava flow map of the Copahue volcano by identifying historic lava flows, tephra, and lahars both visually and spectrally. Additionally, a volcanic risk and hazard map for the surrounding area was created by modeling the possible extent of ash fallout, lahars, lava flow, and pyroclastic density currents (PDC) for future eruptions. These model results were then used to identify areas that should be prioritized for disaster relief and evacuation orders.

  20. 10 Risk to Ash from Emerald Ash Borer: Can Biological Control Prevent the Loss of Ash Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of EAB, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002. As of February 2014, EAB had been detected in 22 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, killing millions of ash ...

  1. Forest fuel, ashes and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale use of bioenergy is an essential measure if several of the major environmental problems are to be solved. However, it is important to utilize the possibilities available to produce biofuel without creating new environmental problems. Whole-tree removal gives a considerable reduction in the nitrogen lead which, in combination with the return of ashes, counteracts the nutrient imbalance and acidification in southern Sweden. Forestry of that kind should lead to lower total leaching of nitrogen in comparison with conventional forestry. In situations where there is high deposition of atmospheric sulphur and nitrogen, fuel removal with return of a moderate dose of slowly dissolvable ashes should be a good soil management measure. The humus status and flora/fauna always require some kind of consideration. With compensation measures and retained nutrient status there should be no problems with the humus status on most soils. However, on poor and dry soils, it is suitable to avoid whole-tree removal on account of the humus status. Consideration to nature includes, for example, increasing the number of broad-leaf trees, old trees and dead wood (preferably the trunks). These measures concern all types of forestry and are not linked directly with fuel removal. Removal of felling residues and return of ashes are of minor importance in comparison with this and fit well into forestry adapted to natural values. With correct planning and accomplishment of the removal of forest fuel the natural values of the forest can be retained or even improved. Forestry where fuel is also produced can be designed whereby negative effects are avoided at the same time as positive environmental effects are obtained. 68 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the {open_quotes}Disposal Room Model,{close_quotes} describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized.

  3. Waste isolation pilot plant disposal room model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes development of the conceptual and mathematical models for the part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository performance assessment that is concerned with what happens to the waste over long times after the repository is decommissioned. These models, collectively referred to as the open-quotes Disposal Room Model,close quotes describe the repository closure process during which deformation of the surrounding salt consolidates the waste. First, the relationship of repository closure to demonstration of compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard (40 CFR 191 Appendix C) and how sensitive performance results are to it are examined. Next, a detailed description is provided of the elements of the disposal region, and properties selected for the salt, waste, and other potential disposal features such as backfill. Included in the discussion is an explanation of how the various models were developed over time. Other aspects of closure analysis, such as the waste flow model and method of analysis, are also described. Finally, the closure predictions used in the final performance assessment analysis for the WIPP Compliance Certification Application are summarized

  4. Investigation on application of coal ash, lime and gypsum-based compositions. ; Development of technology to utilize and dispose of used desulfurizing agnet. Sekitanbaiter dot sekkaiter dot sekkokei soseibutsu no oyo ni kansuru chosa. ; Shiyozumi datsuryu zai no riyo shori gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, K. (The Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan))

    1991-11-20

    This paper describes the result of an investigation by testing on re-utilizing the used desulfurizing agent discharged from a thermal power plant as a sludge disposer and a deodorant. The used desulfurizing agent used in the test is a nearly neutral substance composed mainly of SiO{sub 2} and CaSO{sub 4}. The paper describes that the tested agent has a character to solidify when added with water, and the solidified substance made from the agent added into a sludge is nearly neutral and usable in the similar manner as in the commercially available sludge solidifying materials. The paper also reports that in a field test for applying this tested agent to cover the sludge surface, a marked effect of improving water quality was recognized, including the increased water transparency. It also states that the tested agent absorbs ammonia actively, and that as a result of investigating its applicability as a deodorant for pet excreta odors, the agent can be handled more easily than the commercially available deodorants and has a deodorizing effect equivalent to or better than them. 4 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  6. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R B; Barnard, J W; Bird, G A [and others

    1997-11-01

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  7. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  8. Disposal of the radioactive contaminated soils from the NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusek, I.; Plsko, J.; Sajtlava, M.; Hulla, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of contaminated soils at site of NPP is one of the most important task within the frame of research and development tasks of the NPP decommissioning. The works within this field can be seen in several areas. Considered soil activity monitoring, observation of its geo-technical and geo-chemical parameters, volume balance, research of the radio nuclides behaviour in the soil and simulation of their influence on the surrounding environment with special emphasis on underground water, project studies and construction of the disposal facility for contaminated soils. This work presents overview of gained results in the mentioned areas of the research and development. (author)

  9. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  10. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  11. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  12. Childhood Suicide and Myths Surrounding It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Dorothea B.

    1994-01-01

    Dispels five misconceptions surrounding the suicide of children: that children under the age of six do not commit suicide; that suicide in latency years is extremely rare; that psychodynamically and developmentally true depression is not possible in childhood; that child cannot understand finality of death; and that children are cognitively and…

  13. Preliminary disposal limits, plume interaction factors, and final disposal limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    In the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), each final disposal limit was constructed as the product of a preliminary disposal limit and a plume interaction factor. The following mathematical development demonstrates that performance objectives are generally expected to be satisfied with high confidence under practical PA scenarios using this method. However, radionuclides that experience significant decay between a disposal unit and the 100-meter boundary, such as H-3 and Sr-90, can challenge performance objectives, depending on the disposed-of waste composition, facility geometry, and the significance of the plume interaction factor. Pros and cons of analyzing single disposal units or multiple disposal units as a group in the preliminary disposal limits analysis are also identified.

  14. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  15. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Save Our Earth series has been designed to appeal to the inquiring minds of ''planet-friendly'' young readers. There is now a greater awareness of environmental issues and an increasing concern for a world no longer able to tolerate the onslaught of pollution, the depletion of natural resources and the effects of toxic chemicals. Each book approaches a specific topic in a way that is exciting and thought-provoking, presenting the facts in a style that is concise and appropriate. The series aims to demonstrate how various environmental subjects relate to our lives, and encourages the reader to accept not only responsibility for the planet, but also for its rescue and restoration. This volume, on nuclear waste disposal, explains how nuclear energy is harnessed in a nuclear reactor, what radioactive waste is, what radioactivity is and its effects, and the problems and possible solutions of disposing of nuclear waste. An awareness of the dangers of nuclear waste is sought. (author)

  16. Flight potential of the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robin A.J. Taylor; Robert A. Haack

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Native to several Asian countries, EAB was discovered in six southeastern Michigan counties and southwestern Ontario in 2002. EAB presumably emerged from infested solid wood...

  17. Biology of emerald ash borer parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....

  18. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  19. Coal combustion ashes: A radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michetti, F.P.; Tocci, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive substances naturally hold in fossil fuels, such as Uranium and Thorium, after the combustion, are subjected to an increase of concentration in the residual combustion products as flying ashes or as firebox ashes. A significant percentage of the waste should be classified as radioactive waste, while the political strategies seems to be setted to declassify it as non-radioactive waste. (Author)

  20. Laboratory rearing of emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Deborah L. Miller; Houping Liu; Toby Petrice

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), native to several Asian countries, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality throughout southeastern Michigan and southwestern Ontario. More isolated infestations continue to be found throughout Lower Michigan, northern...

  1. Emerald ash borer survival in firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to Asia and was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. As of October 2004, EAB was only found to breed in ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. EAB is spreading naturally through adult flight as well as artificially through...

  2. Emerald ash borer biology and invasion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...

  3. Evaluation of atomic absorption Spectrophotometry (ashing, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three commonly used techniques, namely atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-Ashing and AAS-Non Ashing) and titrimetry (potassium permanganate titration) have been evaluated in this study to determine the calcium content in six food samples whose calcium levels ranged from 0 to more than 250mg/100g ...

  4. Determining ash content in flotation wastes by means of the MPOF optical ash meter. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-03-01

    The paper evaluates an experimental unit of the MPOF optical ash meter, developed by the EMAG Research and Production Center for Electrical Engineering and Mining Automation. The MPOF, which is being tested at the coal preparation plant of the 30 lecia PRL mine, is the first system for continuous determination of ash content in flotation tailings developed in Poland. A block scheme of the system is given. It consists of a measuring head and electronic system which processes data supplied by the measuring head and calculates ash content. System operation is based on the principle of determining ash content in a mixture of coal and mineral wastes by measuring mixture reflectivity. Determining ash content in the mixture is possible as reflectivity coefficients for coal and ash are constant. Performance of the MPOF optical ash meter is evaluated; the results are shown in a table and a scheme. Measurement accuracy is satisfactory.

  5. Application of paste technology to mitigate the dust emissions from handling of fly and bottom ash at coal fired power plant : CGTEE in Candiota, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Marques, M.E. [Golder Associates Peru, Lima (Peru); Lima, H. [Golder Associates Brazil, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Mandl, B.; Francoeur, R.; Palkovits, F. [Golder Paste Technology Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Blois, R. [Companhia de Geracao Termica de Energia Electrica, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a method developed to reduce dust emissions generated in a fly ash handling procedure used at a thermal power plant located in the south of Brazil. The fly ash is collected in dry form at several locations in the plant and pneumatically conveyed to storage silos, where it is moistened with water in a mixer, loaded into dump trucks and deposited in a disposal area near a surface coal mine. The new solution created low density fly ash slurry in localized mixing tanks within the power plant. The low density slurry is pumped to an ash conditioning plant where the slurry is then mixed with the bottom ash, dewatered, and densified. The densified slurry is then pumped to an adjacent coal mine disposal site in order to be used as backfill in mined areas. The proposed method will significantly reduce dust emissions both inside and outside the plant, and will substantially reduce truck traffic at the mine. The method will reduce the environmental impacts associated with fly ash dust emissions in the region. 8 figs.

  6. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  7. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  8. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, T A [JK Research Associates, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1990-07-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site.

  9. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  10. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  11. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  12. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  13. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    β-SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman ... Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its .... intensity implies very low graphite content in thin film. In.

  14. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  15. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  16. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  17. Safety assessment for a disposal option of TENORM wastes coming from the electric generation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, Dennys; Gil, Reinaldo; Peralta, Jose L.; Odalys Ramos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was the safety assessment for a disposal option of ashes wastes coming from the electric generation in Cuba. The ashes are planned to be disposed as subsurface layer, covered with soil under controlled conditions. The composition of theses wastes are TENORM ( 226 Ra and 224 Ra) and heavy metals (vanadium, chromium, zinc), therefore, their disposal should accomplish the national and international defined regulations. The adopted safety assessment methodology, allowed the identification and selection of the main scenarios to evaluate, the mathematical models to apply and the comparison against the assessment criteria. According to the assessment context and the site characteristics, the atmospheric and groundwater scenarios were evaluated. During the modelling stage were included the identification of the main exposure pathways and the most relevant assessment processes were modelled (transport of contaminants, radioactive decay, etc.). For atmospheric dispersion, the SCREEN3 model was adopted, including the radioactive decay and other radiological properties. The DRAF model was used for the groundwater scenario. The doses for inhalation, external irradiation and foodstuff ingestion were obtained using several dosimetric models. The results showed that the 226 Ra concentration values were higher than the 228 Ra in the evaluation points, for atmospheric and groundwater scenarios. This behaviour is influenced by the small radioactive inventory, the shorter half life of the 228 Ra and the distance between the disposal site and the evaluation points. The obtained external doses were always below the dose limits for the members of the public and for all scenarios, including the more conservatives. The lower dose (by ingestion) values were associated to the scenarios of radionuclides transport through the geosphere. According the safety assessment and the established scenarios, the evaluated disposal practice does not represent a relevant

  18. Adsorption of oxyanions of As, B, Cr, Mo and Se from coal fly ash leachates using Al3+/Fe3+modified bentonite clay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhahangwele, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ponds. On disposal, coal fly ash leaches out toxic chemical species on contact with the aqueous media hence posing hazardous effects to the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Of prime concern are Oxyanionic species such as As, B, Cr, Mo and Se...

  19. Design of a hydraulic ash transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodskii, V.G.; Mova, M.E.; Korenev, V.E.; Grechikhin, Yu.A. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-04-01

    Discusses general design of a hydraulic ash removal system to be employed at the reconstructed six 225 MW blocks of the Mironov State Regional Power Plant in the USSR. The blocks burn low-grade solid fuel with an ash content of up to 40.5%. Large quantities of ash have to be moved from the plant (total ash production 60 t/h, using 570 t/h of water for cooling and moistening). An optimum hydraulic ash transportation system would include a two-section airlift pumping system, shown in a diagram. Technological advantages of using this airlift system are enumerated, including short pipes, reduction in required water quantity and the possibility of siting hydraulic pumps at zero level.

  20. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  1. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  2. Stabilization/solidification of hot dip galvanizing ash using different binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, S; Montanes, M T; Bednarik, V; Hrivnova, P

    2016-12-15

    This study focuses on solidification of hot dip-galvanizing ash with a high content of zinc and soluble substances. The main purpose of this paper is to immobilize these pollutants into a matrix and allow a safer way for landfill disposal of that waste. Three different binders (Portland cement, fly ash and coal fluidized-bed combustion ash) were used for the waste solidification. Effectiveness of the process was evaluated using leaching test according to EN 12457-4 and by using the variance analysis and the categorical multifactorial test. In the leaching test, four parameters were observed: pH, zinc concentration in leachate, and concentration of chlorides and dissolved substances in leachate. The acquired data was then processed using statistical software to find an optimal solidifying ratio of the addition of binder, water, and waste to the mixture, with the aim to fulfil the requirement for landfill disposal set by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC. The influence on the main observed parameters (relative amount of water and a binder) on the effectiveness of the used method and their influence of measured parameters was also studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Concepts and Technologies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Rock Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernt Brewitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rock salt was selected to host a repository for radioactive waste because of its excellent mechanical properties. During 12 years of practical disposal operation in the Asse mine and 25 years of disposal in the disused former salt mine Morsleben, it was demonstrated that low-level wastes (LLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW can be safely handled and economically disposed of in salt repositories without a great technical effort. LLW drums were stacked in old mining chambers by loading vehicles or emplaced by means of the dumping technique. Generally, the remaining voids were backfilled by crushed salt or brown coal filter ash. ILW were lowered into inaccessible chambers through a borehole from a loading station above using a remote control.Additionally, an in-situ solidification of liquid LLW was applied in the Morsleben mine. Concepts and techniques for the disposal of heat generating high-level waste (HLW are advanced as well. The feasibility of both borehole and drift disposal concepts have been proved by about 30 years of testing in the Asse mine. Since 1980s, several full-scale in-situ tests were conducted for simulating the borehole emplacement of vitrified HLW canisters and the drift emplacement of spent fuel in Pollux casks. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome has been investigated to prove its suitability to host the national final repository for all types of radioactive waste. The “Concept Repository Gorleben” disposal concepts and techniques for LLW and ILW are widely based on the successful test operations performed at Asse. Full-scale experiments including the development and testing of adequate transport and emplacement systems for HLW, however, are still pending. General discussions on the retrievability and the reversibility are going on.

  4. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, E; Allegrini, E; Fruergaard Astrup, T; Hulgaard, T; Riber, C; Jansson, S

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD/F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355 mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355 mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5 kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered a wide size range (0.09-0.355 mm) and possibly a low toxicity fraction could be identified by splitting this fraction into more narrow size ranges. The ashes exhibited uniform PCDD/F homologue patterns which suggests a stable and continuous generation of PCDD/F. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cosmic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y; Morisawa, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-03-01

    The technical and economical possibility and safety of the disposal of highly radioactive waste into cosmos are reviewed. The disposal of highly radioactive waste is serious problem to be solved in the near future, because it is produced in large amounts by the reprocessing of spent fuel. The promising methods proposed are (i) underground disposal, (ii) ocean disposal, (iii) cosmic disposal and (iv) extinguishing disposal. The final disposal method is not yet decided internationally. The radioactive waste contains very long life nuclides, for example transuranic elements and actinide elements. The author thinks the most perfect and safe disposal method for these very long life nuclides is the disposal into cosmos. The space vehicle carrying radioactive waste will be launched safely into outer space with recent space technology. The selection of orbit for vehicles (earth satellite or orbit around planets) or escape from solar system, selection of launching rocket type pretreatment of waste, launching weight, and the cost of cosmic disposal were investigated roughly and quantitatively. Safety problem of cosmic disposal should be examined from the reliable safety study data in the future.

  6. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  7. Effect of fly ash content towards Sulphate resistance of oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, K.; Fadzil, M. Y.; Nazrin Akmal, A. Z. Muhammad; Ahmad, S. Wan; Nur Azzimah, Z.; Hanafi, H. Mohd; Mohamad Hafizuddin, R.

    2018-04-01

    Both oil palm shell (OPS) and fly ash are by-product generated from the industries. Disposal of these by-product as wastes cause negative impact to the environment. The use of both oil palm shell and fly ash in concrete is seen as an economical solution for making green and denser concrete. The primary aim of this research is to determine the effects of FA utilization as sand replacement in oil palm shell lightweight aggregate concrete (OPS LWAC) towards sulphate resistance. Five concrete mixes containing fly ash as sand replacement namely 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% were prepared in these experimental work. All mixes were cast in form of cubes before subjected to sulphate solution for the period of 5 months. It was found that addition of 10% fly ash as sand replacement content resulted in better sulphate resistance of OPS LWAC. The occurrence of pozzolanic reaction due to the presence of FA in concrete has consumed the vulnerable Calcium hydroxide to be secondary C-S-H gel making the concrete denser and more durable.

  8. Effect of Lignite Fly Ash on the Growth and Reproduction of Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarojini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is an amorphous ferroalumino silicate, an important solid waste around thermal power plants. It creates problems leading to environmental degradation due to improper utilization or disposal. However, fly ash is a useful ameliorant that may improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soils and is a source of readily available plant macro and micronutrients when it is used with biosolids. Supply of nutrients from fly ash with biosolids may enhance their agricultural use. The growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida was studied during vermicomposting of fly ash with cowdung and pressmud in four different proportions (T1,T2,T3 & T4 and one control i.e., cow dung and pressmud alone. The growth, cocoon and hatchlings production were observed at the interval of 15 days over a period of 60 days. The maximum worm growth and reproduction was observed in bedding material alone. Next to that the T1 was observed as the best mixture for vermiculture.

  9. The Use of Fly Ash and Lime Sludge as Partial Replacement of Cement in Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Sahu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand of drinking water and power has led huge generation of water treatment plant residue i.e. sludge and the thermal power plant by-product such as fly ash. Large quantities of sludge and fly ash are produced in India and disposed off by landfilling or dumping in and around sites. In this study fly ash and water softening sludge (lime sludge has been utilized in mortar. Two types of mortar (type I and II with four binder combinations have been tried. Binder I consists of 70% fly ash (FA and 30% lime sludge (LS , 0 % gypsum (G, binder II is 70% FA, 30% LS and 1% G, binder III is 50% FA, 30% LS and 20% cement and the binder IV is 40% FA, 40% LS with 20% cement. The effect of various combinations on strength has been discussed here. This paper outlines the composition of the composite material, method of preparation of mortar specimen, testing procedure and salient results thereof.

  10. Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolence, R.C.; Giovannitti, E.

    1997-01-01

    Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

  11. Selenium poisoning of fish by coal ash wastewater in Herrington Lake, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemly, A Dennis

    2018-04-15

    Selenium pollution from the E.W. Brown Electric Generating Station was investigated in Herrington Lake, KY. Coal ash wastewater is discharged as surface water overflow from ash disposal ponds into the lake via a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued by the Kentucky Division of Water, but the permit does not restrict or limit the amount of selenium released. Unpermitted discharges occur from seeps and drainage through leaks in ash pond dams. Together, these discharges have resulted in selenium concentrations in water, sediment, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish that are 2-9 times the level that is toxic for fish reproduction and survival. A large proportion (12.2%, or 25 times background) of juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, the only species examined) exhibited spinal and/or craniofacial malformations that are consistent with selenium poisoning. Teratogenic Deformity Index values indicated a 3.05% population-level impact on the bass fishery, with total selenium-induced mortality (including pre-swimup mortality) estimated to be in excess of 25% per year. These findings confirm that coal ash discharges into Herrington Lake are contributing selenium to the Lake that is poisoning fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Leaching of Cs and Sr from sewage sludge ash buried in a landfill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Umita, Teruyuki; Ito, Ayumi

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has been found in sewage sludge ash produced in eastern Japan. When such contaminated waste contains less than 8,000 Bq/kg radiocesium, it is being disposed in controlled landfill sites. In order to assess the possible spread of the radionuclides by their leaching from the landfill sites, it is important to know the leaching behavior of the radionuclides from the sewage sludge ash and factors influencing the leaching behavior. In this study, leaching experiments using stable Cs and Sr were conducted for sewage sludge ash under several conditions to investigate effects of chemical composition of leachate, pH, and solid/liquid ratio on Cs and Sr leaching behaviors. In the pH range from 6 to 12, the leaching ratio of Cs or Sr was less than 5.2 or 0.21%, respectively. Additionally, the leaching ratio of Sr decreased with increasing pH of the leachate. In contrast, the higher the pH in the leachate was, the higher the leaching ratio of Cs was. Finally, possible radionuclide leaching from contaminated sewage sludge ash and then radionuclide concentrations in an actual landfill leachate were assessed. It could be suggested that 90 Sr leaching from the landfill site had the least effect on the environment, whereas 134+137 Cs leaching needed to be taken into account for spreading radioactive materials from the landfill site to the environment. (author)

  13. Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

    2013-09-01

    A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In this study, bottom ash was treated by sieve separation and pounding to smaller particle size for use as a sand substitute. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ash were tested after treatment including water absorption, sieve analysis, and fineness modulus. Highvolume fly ash (HVFA mortar specimens were made and the compressive strength and flowability test using bottom ash after treatment are compared with that of the sand specimen. Low water to cementitious ratio was used to ensure higher strength from the cementitious paste and superplasticizer demand was determined for each treatment. The result showed that bottom ash can be used as fine aggregate replacement material. Sieve separation of the bottom ash could produce 75% of the compressive strength compared with the control sand specimen, whereas pounded bottom ash could have up to 96% of the compressive strength of the control specimen. A 28-day compressive strength of 45 MPa was achievable with 100% replacement of fine aggregate with bottom ash.

  15. Formation and degradation of PCDD/F in waste incineration ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, Lisa

    2007-11-01

    The disposal of combustible wastes by incineration is a controversial issue that is strongly debated by both scientists and environmental activists due to the resulting emissions of noxious compounds, including (inter alia) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), heavy metals and acid gases like sulfur dioxide. Currently available air pollution control devices are capable of effectively cleaning flue gases, and PCDD/F emissions to air from modern municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are low. However, the PCDD and PCDF end up in ash fractions that, in Sweden, are usually deposited in landfills. The European Union has recently set a maximum permitted total concentration of 15 μg TEQ/kg for PCDD/F species in waste. Fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration containing PCDD/Fs at concentrations above this limit will have to be remediated to avoid disposing of them in landfills; an expensive and environmentally unfriendly option. Therefore, effective, reliable and cost-effective methods for degrading PCDD/F in fly ash are required, and a better understanding of the behavior of PCDDs and PCDFs during thermal treatment will be needed to develop them. In the studies this thesis is based upon both the formation and degradation of PCDDs and PCDFs in ashes from MSW incineration were studied. The main findings of the investigations regarding PCCD/F formation were: The concentrations of PCDD and PCDF in fly ash increased with reductions in the temperature in the post-combustion zone. The homologue profile in the ash changed when the temperature in the post-combustion zone changed. The final amounts of PCDD and PCDF present were affected by their rates of both formation and degradation, and the mechanisms involved differ between PCDDs and PCDFs. The main findings from the degradation studies were: The chemical composition of ash has a major impact on the degradation potential of PCDD and PCDF. The presence of oxygen during thermal

  16. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  17. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  18. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  19. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  20. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; de Celis, Reyes; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Alanís, Nancy; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    reached 200 cm height, although thermal peaks recorded 2 cm depth were relatively low (not surpassing 80 °C). After burning, the soil surface was covered by a pattern of white and black ash, indicating varying degrees of fire severity, and areas covered by water repellent or hydrophilic ash were selected using the ethanol percentage test (EPT). The EPT provides an indirect measurement of the surface tension of the ground and, therefore, indicates the intensity of soil water repellency and is based on the different surface tension of a number of standardized solutions of ethanol in water. The procedure consists in applying drops (0.05 mL) of different ethanol solutions with different concentrations onto the surface of the ash layer observing if infiltration occurs in a period that not exceed 5 s (Jordán et al., 2010) . Every drop is allowed to fall from a distance not bigger than 15 mm to avoid the excess of kinetic energy that can affect infiltration. Applying drops with decreasing surface tension (that is, with concentrations of increasing ethanol) until a drop resists the infiltration allows the classification of the ground in a particular class of surface tension between two concentrations of ethanol: that in which infiltration occurs immediately (in less than 5 s) and the above solution of weaker concentration. Thus, it is assumed that solution whose drop is infiltrated within the first 5 s after application has a lower surface tension than soil surface. Fifteen representative points were selected at wettable or water-repellent ash zone. At each selected point, surrounded by white/wettable or dark/water-repellent ash to a minimum distance of 0.5 m, splash sediment collection device was installed. This system consist on a couple of funnels (100 mm in diameter) arranged one inside the other, with a paper filter beween both. Each device was inserted in soil until only 10 mm protruding the ground surface in order to avoid capturing runoff sediments. Sediments collected

  1. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  2. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  3. Waste disposal experts meet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-01-15

    Problems connected with the disposal into the sea of radioactive wastes from peaceful uses of atomic energy are being examined by a panel of experts, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. These experts from eight different countries held a first meeting at IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 4-9 December 1958, under the chairmanship of Dr. Harry Brynielsson, Director General of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company. The countries represented are: Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. The group will meet again in 1959. (author)

  4. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  5. Environmental impact of coal ash on tributary streams and nearshore water or Lake Erie. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, K.G.

    1978-08-01

    The environmental impact of coal ash disposal at a landfill site in north-central Chautauqua County, New York was studied from June 1975 through July 1977. Water samples taken from wells, ponds, and streams at 67 sites were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfate and zinc. Evidence suggests that ponds at the landfill were high in Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and SO/sub 4/ compared to control pands. A stream adjacent to the site contained greater Mn (207 ug/1) and SO/sub 4/ (229 ppm) than control streams. Shallow alkaline test wells in the landfill had elevated As, Ca, and Se. Acid-neutral test wells had elevated As, Ca, Cr, Mg and Mn. Household wells in the vicinity of the landfill showed no evident contamination from the landfill. Average iron concentrations in the biota were tripled, and manganese concentrations doubled in biota affected by the coal ash dump. However, any effects of the disposal area on the distribution of the biota could not be separated from effects of varying environment factors such as water movements, substrate composition and food availability. No harmful effects could be demonstrated on the biota in the creek which flowed past the disposal area.

  6. Suitability of leaching test methods for fly ash and slag: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Tiwari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash and slag leachate pollution can be of great environmental concern due to generation of these wastes in huge quantities from their respective industrial units, mainly coal-based thermal power plants and iron and steel plants. For simulation of natural leaching in laboratory, various leaching methods are available, but selection of a method that can exactly simulate the real-life scenario for accurate estimation of various pollutants is challenging; particularly, the heavy metals present and impact due to reuse or disposal of these wastes. For choosing the most suitable leaching method according to specific situation, one must primarily consider the chemical and physical properties of wastes, the composition of the source, age of waste disposal, and the climatic conditions of the disposal area. Since these factors may not be specified, a variety of leaching methods with relevant equipment have been proposed by researchers; that are based on their required information to particular conditions in absence of a prescribed protocol and non standardization of equipment. The present review is an attempt to investigate the suitable leaching method for coal fly ash and slag.

  7. Development process for the stabilization of incinerator bottom ash and sizing baghouse dust material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, L.F.; Boehmer, A.M.

    1987-04-01

    EG ampersand G Idaho Inc. has initiated a program to develop safe, efficient, cost-effective treatment methods for the stabilization and subsequent disposal of some of the hazardous and mixed wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lab-scale testing has shown that Extraction Procedure (EP) toxic wastes can be successfully stabilized by solidification, using various binders to produce nontoxic, stable waste forms for safe, long-term disposal. The purpose of this report is to present the results of drum-scale testing of WERF incinerator bottom ash and WERF sizing baghouse dust. The drum-scale test program was conducted to determine if a production procedure that would produce a waste form which was suitable for disposal as a low-level radioactive waste could be developed. The use of 71-gallon square drums for solidification processing were also evaluated. During the test program, eleven drums of ash material were solidified. All of the samples from all of the drums passed the EPA leach test criteria. Although there is a distinct weight addition associated with the solidification process, there is no relative volume increase. 4 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  8. HIGH-TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION OF RDF WASTE AND MELTING OF FLY ASH OBTAINED FROM THE INCINERATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Lázár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this paper is to describe innovative solutions of thermal processing of selected components of municipal waste (so-called RDF waste using low-ionized depended plasma arc generated by a progressive and promising technology, which is plasma reactor. Its application can transform hazardous waste into inert waste while significantly reducing the volume of waste. Results given in this paper indicate experimentally achieved outputs with thermal disposal of RDF waste and ash from municipal waste. 

  9. NEW TECHNOLOGY OF ASH AND SLAG CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO T. M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Purpose. Development of scientific-technical bases of manufacture and application of concrete on the basis of ash and slag mixes of thermal power plants. Methods. It is proposed a new technology of preparation of ash and slag concrete mixes. First the ash and slag mix is dispersed through the sieve with meshes 5 mm in a fine-grained fraction and slag. Then, in accordance with the composition of the concrete, obtained fine-grained fraction, slag, cement and tempering water are separately dosed into the mixer. Results. It is proven the high efficiency of the proposed technology of manufacture of ash and slag concretes. It is established that this technological solution allows to increase the strength of concrete by 20...30%, and in the preparation of full-strength concrete to reduce the cement consumption by 15...20%. Scientific novelty. It is developed the new technology of ash and slag mixes application. The concrete mix on the basis of ash and slag mix has an optimal particle size distribution, which ensures the best compaction and, accordingly, the greatest strength of ash and slag concrete with the given cement consumption. Practical significance. The research results promote the mass application of ash and slag mixes of thermal power plants in construction, obtaining of products from the proposed concretes of low cost with high physical-mechanical properties. Conclusion. It is proven the high efficiency of the proposed technology of production of ash and slag concretes. It is established that this technological solution allows increasing concrete strength, and obtaining full-strength concrete to reduce cement consumption. The extensive application of such concrete in construction makes it possible to solve the problem of aggregates for concrete, promotes recycling of TPP waste and consequently the protection of the environment.

  10. Encapsulating fly ash and acidic process waste water in brick structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseoglu, K.; Polat, M.; Polat, H.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash contains metals such as cadmium, iron, lead, aluminum and zinc in its structure in appreciable amounts. These metals can leach out into surface and ground waters if fly ash is not properly disposed of. A similar problem also exists for acidic process waste waters discharged by numerous industries. The purpose of this study was to utilize such wastes as additives in the production of construction quality bricks for the purpose of waste elimination. The bricks produced were subjected to flexural strength and water retention capacity tests along with heavy metal leaching experiments in order to determine the applicability of the procedure and the best possible recipes. This paper summarizes the results obtained in these tests along with the possible mechanisms involved in stabilizing the two wastes in the brick structure.

  11. Hypocotyl derived in vitro regeneration of pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micah E. Stevens; Paula M. Pijut

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush) is at risk for extirpation by an exotic insect, the emerald ash borer (EAB). Pumpkin ash is limited to wetland areas of the Eastern United States, and has been listed as an endangered species because of EAB activity. Pumpkin ash provides many benefits to the ecosystem, and its wood is used in the...

  12. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    was investigated with the aim of enabling reuse of the ashes. The ashes originated from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. A series of laboratory scale electrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted with each ash. The initial Cd...

  13. An Early-Warning System for Volcanic Ash Dispersal: The MAFALDA Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, S.; Nannipieri, L.; Neri, A.

    2006-12-01

    Forecasts of the dispersal of volcanic ash is a fundamental goal in order to mitigate its potential impact on urbanized areas and transport routes surrounding explosive volcanoes. To this aim we developed an early- warning procedure named MAFALDA (Modeling And Forecasting Ash Loading and Dispersal in the Atmosphere). Such tool is able to quantitatively forecast the atmospheric concentration of ash as well as the ground deposition as a function of time over a 3D spatial domain.\\The main features of MAFALDA are: (1) the use of the hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian code VOL-CALPUFF able to describe both the rising column phase and the atmospheric dispersal as a function of weather conditions, (2) the use of high-resolution weather forecasting data, (3) the short execution time that allows to analyse a set of scenarios and (4) the web-based CGI software application (written in Perl programming language) that shows the results in a standard graphical web interface and makes it suitable as an early-warning system during volcanic crises.\\MAFALDA is composed by a computational part that simulates the ash cloud dynamics and a graphical interface for visualizing the modelling results. The computational part includes the codes for elaborating the meteorological data, the dispersal code and the post-processing programs. These produces hourly 2D maps of aerial ash concentration at several vertical levels, extension of "threat" area on air and 2D maps of ash deposit on the ground, in addition to graphs of hourly variations of column height.\\The processed results are available on the web by the graphical interface and the users can choose, by drop-down menu, which data to visualize. \\A first partial application of the procedure has been carried out for Mt. Etna (Italy). In this case, the procedure simulates four volcanological scenarios characterized by different plume intensities and uses 48-hrs weather forecasting data with a resolution of 7 km provided by the Italian Air Force.

  14. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice....... In this study, a fly ash sample from an operating Danish power plant based on wood biomass was collected, chemically characterized and investigated for its leaching release of nutrients and heavy metals. A column leaching test was employed. The strongly alkaline pH of all the collected eluates suggested...

  15. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  16. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues...... related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system...

  17. Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ots, A. A., E-mail: aots@sti.ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2012-03-15

    The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R{sub B/A} of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R{sub B/A} is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

  18. Caving thickness effects of surrounding rocks macro stress shell evolving characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Guang-xiang; YANG Ke

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the influence of different caving thicknesses on the MSS dis-tribution and evolving characteristics of surrounding rocks in unsymmetrical disposal and fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC), based on unsymmetrical disposal characteris-tics, the analyses of numerical simulation, material simulation and in-situ observation were synthetically applied according to the geological and technical conditions of the 1151(3) working face in Xieqiao Mine. The results show that the stress peak value of the MSS-base and the ratio of MSS-body height to caving thickness are nonlinear and inversely proportional to the caving thickness. The MSS-base width, the MSS-body height, the MSS-base distance to working face wall and the rise distance of MSS-base beside coal pillar are nonlinear and directly proportional to the caving thickness. The characteristics of MSS distribution and its evolving rules of surrounding rocks and the integrated caving thickness effects are obtained. The investigations will provide lots of theoretic references to the surrounding rocks' stability control of the working face and roadway, roadway layout, gas extraction and exploitation, and efficiency of caving, etc.

  19. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.52 Land disposal... wastes by placing in disposal units which are sufficiently separated from disposal units for the other... between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer zone...

  20. Borehole disposal design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANDRIAMAROLAHY, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    In Madagascar, the sealed radioactive sources are used in several socioeconomic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. This work entitled 'Borehole disposal design concept' consists in putting in place a site of sure storage of the radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. This type of storage is favorable for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The cost of construction depends on the volume of waste to store and the depth of the Borehole. The Borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid the human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the radiations ionizing is then assured. [fr

  1. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  2. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  3. Mine tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, P.A.; Adams, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    The hydrologic evaluation of mine tailings disposal sites after they are abandoned is considered in relation to their potential environmental impact on a long term basis. There is a direct relation between the amounts and types of water leaving a disposal site and the severity of the potential damage to the environment. The evaluation of the relative distribution of the precipitation reaching the ground into evaporation, runoff and infiltration is obtained for a selected site and type of tailings material whose characteristics and physical properties were determined in the soils laboratory. A conceptual model of the hydrologic processes involved and the corresponding mathematical model were developed to simulate the physical system. A computer program was written to solve the set of equations forming the mathematical model, considering the physical properties of the tailings and the rainfall data selected. The results indicate that the relative distribution of the precipitation depends on the surface and upper layer of the tailings and that the position of the groundwater table is governed by the flow through the bottom of the profile considered. The slope of the surface of the mass of tailings was found to be one of the principal factors affecting the relative distribution of precipitation and, therefore, the potential pollution of the environment

  4. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological processes taking place in an argilite-type geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes. Content: 1 - introduction: goal, input data, time and space scales, long-time forecasting of the phenomenological evolution; 2 - the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, the HLLL wastes and the disposal concepts: impact of the repository architecture; 3 - initial state of the geologic environment prior to the building up of the repository: general framework, geologic formations, tectonics and fractures, surface environment, geologic synthesis; 4 - phenomenological processes: storage-related processes, geodynamics-related processes, time scales of processes and of radionuclides migration, independence and evolution similarities of the repository and of the geologic environment; 5 - heat loads: heat transfers between containers and geologic formations, spatial organization of the thermal load, for C-type wastes and spent fuels, for B-type wastes, synthesis of the repository thermal load; 6 - flows and liquid solution and gas transfers: hydraulic behaviour of surrounding Jurassic formations (Tithonian, Kimmeridgian, Callovian, Oxfordian); 7 - chemical phenomena: chemical evolution of ventilated facilities (alveoles, galleries, boreholes), chemical evolution of B-type waste alveoles and of gallery and borehole sealing after closure, far field chemical evolution of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites and of other surrounding formations; 8 - mechanical evolution of the disposal and of the surrounding geologic environment: creation of an initial excavated damaged zone (EDZ), mechanical evolution of ventilated galleries, alveoles and sealing before and after closure, large-scale mechanical evolution; 9 - geodynamical evolution of the Callovo-Oxfordian and other surrounding formations and of the surface environment: internal

  5. Outlook for ash in your forest: results of emerald ash borer research and implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight

    2014-01-01

    Since its accidental introduction near Detroit, Michigan, in the mid-1990s, emerald ash borer (EAB) has rapidly spread through much of the U.S. and adjacent Canada, leaving millions of dead ash trees in Midwestern states (4,11). Unfortunately, EAB attacks trees as small as an inch in stem diameter and it attacks all five ash species native to the region - white, green...

  6. Determining the ash content of coal flotation tailings using an MPOF optical ash meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-01-01

    The block layout, a description of the design and principles of operation of an automatic optical, continuous action MPOF type ash meter are presented. The difference in the optical properties of coal and rock is used in the ash meter. The identification of the ash content is conducted on the basis of the spectral characteristics of reflection of a finely dispersed aqueous coal and rock suspension.

  7. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  9. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  10. Conditioning CANDU reactor wastes for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamer, N.V.; Bourns, W.T.; Buckley, L.P.; Speranzini, R.A.

    1981-12-01

    A Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) is being constructed at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories to develop and demonstrate processes for converting reactor wastes to a form suitable for disposal. The WTC contains a starved air incinerator for reducing the volume of combustible solid wastes, a reverse osmosis section for reducing the volume of liquid wastes and an immobilization section for incorporating the conditioned wastes in bitumen. The incinerator is commissioned on inactive waste: approximately 16.5 Mg of waste packaged in polyethylene bags has been incinerated in 17 burns. Average weight and volume reductions of 8.4:1 and 32:1, respectively, have been achieved. Construction of the reverse osmosis section of WTC is complete and inactive commissioning will begin in 1982 January. The reverse osmosis section was designed to process 30,000 m 3 /a of dilute radioactive waste. The incinerator ash and concentrated aqueous waste will be immobiblized in bitumen using a horizontal mixer and wiped-film evaporator. Results obtained during inactive commissioning of the incinerator are described along with recent results of laboratory programs directed at demonstrating the reverse osmosis and bituminization processes

  11. Alternatives for the disposal of NORM [naturally occurring radioactive materials] wastes in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.; Pollard, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the Texas wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have been disposed of in a uranium mill tailings impoundment. There is currently no operating disposal facility in Texas to accept these wastes. As a result, some wastes containing extremely small amounts of radioactivity are sent to elaborate disposal sites at extremely high costs. The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority has sponsored a study to investigate lower cost, alternative disposal methods for certain wastes containing small quantities of NORM. This paper presents the results of a multipathway safety analysis of various scenarios for disposing of wastes containing limited quantities of NORM in Texas. The wastes include pipe scales and sludges from oil and gas production, residues from rare-earth mineral processing, and water treatment resins, but exclude large-volume, diffuse wastes (coal fly ash, phosphogypsum). The purpose of the safety analysis is to define concentration and quantity limits for the key nuclides of NORM that will avoid dangerous radiation exposures under different waste disposal scenarios

  12. Review of ecosystem level impacts of emerald ash borer on black ash wetlands: What does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Anthony W. D' Amato; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Robert A. Slesak; Thomas G. Pypker; Melissa B. Youngquist; Alexis R. Grinde; Brian J. Palik

    2018-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) is rapidly spreading throughout eastern North America and devastating ecosystems where ash is a component tree. This rapid and sustained loss of ash trees has already resulted in ecological impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and is projected to be even more severe as EAB invades black ash-dominated wetlands of the western...

  13. Methods to Improve Survival and Growth of Planted Alternative Species Seedlings in Black Ash Ecosystems Threatened by Emerald Ash Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Bolton; Joseph Shannon; Joshua Davis; Matthew Grinsven; Nam Noh; Shon Schooler; Randall Kolka; Thomas Pypker; Joseph Wagenbrenner

    2018-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) continues to spread across North America, infesting native ash trees and changing the forested landscape. Black ash wetland forests are severely affected by EAB. As black ash wetland forests provide integral ecosystem services, alternative approaches to maintain forest cover on the landscape are needed. We implemented simulated EAB infestations...

  14. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Project ash cultch: A report on optimal oyster cultch based on a prepared fly ash substratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.S.; Hansen, K.M.; Schlekat, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a three year study involving setting, growth, mortality, oyster condition, and metals accumulation, the evidence is extensive and convincing that stabilized coal ash is an acceptable oyster growing cultch (substratum). Oyster larvae are attracted to set on coal ash cultch at commercial fishery densities, tend to grow as well as on natural substrata (oyster shell), and are moderately more exposed to predators on the puck shaped ash materials as produced for this study. Oysters grown for one to two years on coal ash do not accumulate heavy metals and generally are in good health as measured by several biological condition indexes

  16. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  17. Producing New Composite Materials by Using Tragacanth and Waste Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Bicer; Serif Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    In present study, two kinds of thermal power plant ashes; one the fly ash and the other waste ash are mixed with adhesive tragacanth and cement to produce new composite materials. 48 new samples are produced by varying the percentages of the fly ash, waste ash, cement and tragacanth. The new samples are subjected to some tests to find out their properties such as thermal conductivity, compressive strength, tensile strength and sucking capability of water. It is found that; the thermal conduct...

  18. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  19. Coal ash parameters by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, Edward; Chau, N.D.; Niewodniczanski, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    The coal parameters, ash content and ash slagging index, may be strongly related to the chemical composition of mineral impurities in coal. Based on this assumption the authors have examined the feasibility of neutron activation techniques, both as a laboratory and a well logging method, by recording induced γ-rays in the two energy intervals with the help of a scintillation γ-ray spectrometer. Results from the Upper Silesiab Coal Basin have shown that the method can be used to evaluate the ash content and ash fusion temperature, both in the laboratory and in well logging; the corresponding mean standard deviations being 1.5 wt% and 35 o C; and 3 wt% and 45 o C respectively. (author)

  20. The Ash Wednesday supper a new translation

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Giordano

    2018-01-01

    Giordano Bruno's The Ash Wednesday Supper presents a revolutionary cosmology founded on the new Copernican astronomy that Bruno extends to infinite dimensions, filling it with an endless number of planetary systems.

  1. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  2. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  3. Greener management practices - ash mound reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, S.L.; Shyam, A.K.; Soni, R. [National Thermal Power Corp. Ltd., New Delhi (India)

    2002-12-01

    The dry ash handling system at Dadri has been pioneered for the first time in India by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The system is similar to that at the Drax power station in England. The paper reports the successful experimental trials carried out on vegetation of temporary ash mounds to assess the growth potential of local herbs, shrubs, trees and grasses directly on ash with no soil cover or fertiliser. These were extended to trials directly on the available (completed) mound surfaces. The grass Cynodon dactylon germinated well as did seeds of tree species including the Casurarina and Eucalyptus. It is hoped that efforts at Dadri will ultimately transform the ash into a productive and self sustaining ecosystem, as leaf fall adds additional organic material and the weathering process continues. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  5. Degradation of cementitious materials associated with salstone disposal units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-01

    The Saltstone facilities at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilize and dispose of low-level radioactive salt solution originating from liquid waste storage tanks at the site. The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives treated salt solution and mixes the aqueous waste with dry cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash to form a grout slurry which is mechanically pumped into concrete disposal cells that compose the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The solidified grout is termed “saltstone”. Cementitious materials play a prominent role in the design and long-term performance of the SDF. The saltstone grout exhibits low permeability and diffusivity, and thus represents a physical barrier to waste release. The waste form is also reducing, which creates a chemical barrier to waste release for certain key radionuclides, notably Tc-99. Similarly, the concrete shell of a saltstone disposal unit (SDU) represents an additional physical and chemical barrier to radionuclide release to the environment. Together the waste form and the SDU compose a robust containment structure at the time of facility closure. However, the physical and chemical state of cementitious materials will evolve over time through a variety of phenomena, leading to degraded barrier performance over Performance Assessment (PA) timescales of thousands to tens of thousands of years. Previous studies of cementitious material degradation in the context of low-level waste disposal have identified sulfate attack, carbonation influenced steel corrosion, and decalcification (primary constituent leaching) as the primary chemical degradation phenomena of most relevance to SRS exposure conditions. In this study, degradation time scales for each of these three degradation phenomena are estimated for saltstone and concrete associated with each SDU type under conservative, nominal, and best estimate assumptions.

  6. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected......-moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases...

  7. Electrolytic recuperation of heavy metals and chlorine from fly-ashes and washwater of a household incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, H.; Carpels, M.; Elslander, H.; Van Houtven, D.; Vereecken, J.; Kinnaer, L.; Hermans, N.; Gielen, C.; Van Kerckhoven, M.; Raats, L. [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO), Mol (Belgium)

    1995-12-31

    The treatment and processing of the residues which result from the household incineration process were investigated in a study conducted in Belgium. Incineration produces large amounts of solid residue, particularly fly-ash, which contains a large degree of heavy metals. Also, the large amount of acid washwater flow which comes from the gas washer is highly concentrated with chlorine, and heavy metals. Presently, both the fly-ash and the wastewater are dumped at disposal sites. Two objectives for waste management were presented. The first was to improve the fly-ash for potential use as, for example, filler in road surfaces. The second was to reduce the wastewater flow and to use neutralizing reagents or an electro-chemical treatment on the washwater, in order to recuperate the chlorine. The fly-ash was treated by leaching with the acid washwater. The leached heavy metals were recuperated by electrolysis. It was concluded, however, that electrolytic recuperation of heavy metals from fly ash was not economically feasible. 2 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  8. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Use of wood ash for road stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Lind, B.

    2009-01-01

    Due to warmer winters in Sweden, the bearing capacity of forestry roads has become increasingly problematic in recent years. Road stabilization is needed in order to get timber out from the forests. This usually involves the addition of cement to the road body. However, wood ash is a possible substitute for cement because it has similar properties. Using wood ash has the added advantage of saving landfill space. This paper presented an ongoing laboratory study on leaching and mechanical stability, as well as frost-sensitivity using a 30 per cent ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timra in central Sweden. The road was being monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The paper discussed the potential of biofuel ashes and the increasing need to reinforce infrastructure due to climate change. The environmental impact from ash use in road constructions was then addressed. It was concluded that the application of ash in road construction would help to strengthen forest roads, make them more resistant to climatic change and render them accessible year-round. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. The UZPI ash content monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, E.P.; Bezverkhii, E.A.; Mozhaev, L.G.

    1987-07-01

    This paper describes the results of industrial trials (in coal preparation plants) to establish the accuracy of the UZPI device which determines coal ash content using X-ray detection. It is designed to monitor ash content in the 4-40% range in coal with a grain size of 0-100 mm and a coal layer thickness of 50-150 mm (depending on the ash content and grain size). The ash frequently contains oxides, and although variations in magnesium, aluminium, silicon and sulfur oxides have virtually no effect on accuracy of the UZPI, changes in the levels of calcium oxides and particularly iron oxides have a considerable influence on measurement accuracy (caused by changes in their gamma ray scattering cross section values and atomic numbers). The overall sensitivity to ash content in coal varies from 1.6 to 2.4% abs./% while that to iron oxides in ash is 0.4% abs./%. Concludes that this device is suitable for use in coal preparation plants on thin layers of coal, but its efficiency is affected by external influences, e.g. fluctuations in conveyor loading.

  11. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  12. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  13. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.; Bruecher, H.

    1981-06-01

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m 3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  15. Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, C. H.; Lee, Y. M.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Park, S. W.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jeong, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    For the purpose of evaluating annual individual doses from a potential repository disposing of radioactive wastes from the operation of the prospective advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Korea, the new safety assessment approaches are developed such as PID methods. The existing KAERI FEP list was reviewed. Based on these new reference and alternative scenarios are developed along with a new code based on the Goldsim. The code based on the compartment theory can be applied to assess both normal and what if scenarios. In addition detailed studies on THRC coupling is studied. The oriental biosphere study ends with great success over the completion of code V and V with JAEA. The further development of quality assurance, in the form of the CYPRUS+ enables handy use of it for information management

  16. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  17. Institutional storage and disposal of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Germain, J.

    1986-01-01

    Storage and disposal of radioactive materials from nuclear medicine operations must be considered in the overall program design. The storage of materials from daily operation, materials in transit, and long-term storage represent sources of exposure. The design of storage facilities must include consideration of available space, choice of material, occupancy of surrounding areas, and amount of radioactivity anticipated. Neglect of any of these factors will lead to exposure problems. The ultimate product of any manipulation of radioactive material will be some form of radioactive waste. This waste may be discharged into the environment or placed within a storage area for packaging and transfer to a broker for ultimate disposal. Personnel must be keenly aware of packaging regulations of the burial site as well as applicable federal and local codes. Fire codes should be reviewed if there is to be storage of flammable materials in any area. Radiation protection personnel should be aware of community attitudes when considering the design of the waste program

  18. Synthesis of fly ash based core-shell composites for use as functional pigment in paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Richa; Tiwari, Sangeeta

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash is a combustion residue, mainly composed of silica, alumina and iron oxides. It is produced by the power industries in very large amounts and usually disposed in landfills, which have represented an environmental problem in recent years1. The need to generate a market for fly ash consumption is the main reason why alternative applications have been studied. It has been applied as an additive in construction materials like cement and pavements2. The present work describes the synthesis of Flyash-Titania core-shell particles by precipitation technique using Titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) which can be used for variety of applications such as NIR reflecting materials for cool coatings, Photocatalysis etc. In this work, Fly ash is used in core and Nano -TiO2 is coated as shell on it. Surfactants are used to improve the adhesion of Nano Titania shell on fly ash core. Effect on adhesion of TiO2 on Fly ash is studied by using different types of surfactant. The preparation of core shells was carried out in absence of surfactant as well as using anionic and non-ionic surfactants. The percentage of surfactant was varied to study the effect of amount of surfactant on the uniformity and size of particles in the shell using Kubelka-Munk transformed reflectance spectra. The morphology of core shell structures was studied using SEM technique. Use of anionic surfactant results in more uniform coating with reduced particle size of the shell material. The composite particles prepared by using anionic surfactant are having good pigment properties and also shows good reflectance in Near Infrared region and hence can be used as a pigment in cool coatings.

  19. Mix design and properties of fly ash waste lightweight aggregates in structural lightweight concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu S. Nadesan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials and has the ability to consume industrial wastes in high volume. As the demand for concrete is increasing, one of the effective ways to reduce the undesirable environmental impact of the concrete is by the use of waste and by-product materials as cement and aggregate substitutes in concrete. One such waste material is fly ash, which is produced in large quantities from thermal power plants as a by-product. A substantial amount of fly ash is left unused posing environmental and storage problems. The production of sintered lightweight aggregate with fly ash is an effective method to dispose of fly ash in large quantities. Due to lack of a proper mix design procedure, the production and application of lightweight aggregate in structural concrete are not much entertained. The absorption characteristic of lightweight aggregate is a major concern, while developing the mix proportioning of lightweight concretes. The present study is an attempt to establish a new mix design procedure for the development of sintered fly ash lightweight aggregate concretes, which is simple and more reliable than the existing procedures. Also, the proposed methodology has been validated by developing a spectrum of concretes having water cement ratios varying from 0.25 to 0.75. From the study, it is obvious that the development of 70 MPa concrete is possible by using cement alone without any additives. Also, it is ensured that all the concretes have densities less than 2000 kg/m3.

  20. Impact assessment of fly ash on ground water quality: An experimental study using batch leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandautiya, Rahul; Singh, Ajit Pratap; Kundu, Sanghamitra

    2018-05-01

    The fly ash, generated at the coal-based thermal power plant, is always a cause of concern to environmentalists owing to its adverse impact on air, water and land. There exists a high environmental risk when it is disposed to the environment. Thus, two different type of fly ash samples (FA-1 and FA-2) have been considered in this study to examine the leaching potential of the elements magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, strontium, cadmium, barium and lead for different types of leachant. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure and ASTM tests have been performed in the laboratory to simulate different natural leaching scenarios. Characterisation of samples have been done through X-ray diffraction and field emission gun scanning electron microscope. The effect of different liquid to solid ratios (i.e. 5, 10, 20 and 50) on the mobilisation of elements has been analysed. The results indicated that the maximum leaching of all elements occurred at a liquid to solid ratio of 5 except for arsenic, barium and silicon. The groundwater analysis has also been done to understand the actual effects of leachate. The elements presenting the highest leachability in the two fly ash samples under all tested conditions were magnesium, aluminium, silicon and calcium. It has been observed that calcium exhibits greater leaching effects than all other constituents. The study presented here has been found very useful for assessing contamination levels in groundwater owing to leaching effects of fly ash under different scenarios, which can be helpful to prevent spreading of the contaminants by efficient management of fly ash.

  1. Distributional Fate of Elements during the Synthesis of Zeolites from South African Coal Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter W. Du Plessis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of zeolites from South African coal fly ash has been deemed a viable solution to the growing economical strain caused by the disposal of ash in the country. Two synthesis routes have been studied thus far namely the 2-step method and the fusion assisted process. Fly ash contains several elements originating from coal which is incorporated in the ash during combustion. It is vital to determine the final destination of these elements in order to unveil optimization opportunities for scale-up purposes. The aim of this study was to perform a material balance study on both synthesis routes to determine the distributional fate of these elements during the synthesis of zeolites. Zeolites were first synthesized by means of the two synthesis routes. The composition of all raw materials and products were determined after which an overall and elemental balance were performed. Results indicated that in the 2-step method almost all elements were concentrated in the solid zeolite product while during the fusion assisted route the elements mostly report to the solid waste. Toxic elements such as Pb, Hg, Al, As and Nb were found in both the supernatant waste and washing water resulting from each synthesis route. It has also been seen that large quantities of Si and Al are wasted in the supernatant waste. It is highly recommended that the opportunity to recycle this liquid waste be investigated for scale-up purposes. Results also indicate that efficiency whereby Si and Al are extracted from fused ash is exceptionally poor and should be optimized.

  2. Selenium bioaccumulation in fish exposed to coal ash at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston spill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Teresa J; Fortner, Allison M; Jett, R Trent; Morris, Jesse; Gable, Jennifer; Peterson, Mark J; Carriker, Neil

    2014-10-01

    In December 2008, 4.1 million cubic meters of coal ash were released into the Emory and Clinch Rivers by the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant. Coal ash contains several contaminants, including the bioaccumulative metalloid selenium (Se). Because Se is predominantly accumulated in aquatic organisms through dietary rather than aqueous exposure, tissue-based toxicity thresholds for Se are currently being considered. The proposed threshold concentrations range between 4 μg/g and 9 μg/g Se (dry wt.) in whole body fish, with a proposed fillet threshold of 11.8 μg/g. In the present study, the authors examined the spatial and temporal trends in Se bioaccumulation and examined the relationship between the Se content in fillets and in whole bodies of fish collected around the Kingston spill site to determine whether Se bioaccumulation was a significant concern at the ash spill site. Whereas Se concentrations in fish (whole bodies and fillets) were elevated at sampling locations affected by the Kingston ash spill relative to reference locations, concentrations do not appear to be above risk thresholds and have not been increasing over the 5-yr period since the spill. These findings are not only relevant to guiding the human health and ecological risk assessments at the Kingston ash spill site, but because of current national discussions on appropriate guidelines for Se in fish as well for the disposal of coal combustion wastes, the results are also relevant to the general understanding of Se bioaccumulation in contaminated water bodies. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Immobilization of Radioactive Waste in Different Fly Ash Zeolite Cement Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of radioactive waste management has been raised from the beginning use of nuclear energy for different purposes. The rad waste streams produced were sufficient to cause dangerous effects to man and its environment. The ordinary portland cement is the material more extensively used in the technologies of solidification and immobilization of the toxic wastes, low and medium level radioactive wastes. The production of portland cement is one of the most energy-intensive and polluting. The use of high energy in the production causes high emission due to the nature and processes of raw materials. The cement industry is responsible for 7% of the total CO 2 emission. Thus, the cement industry has a crucial role in the global warming. The formation of alite (Ca 3 SiO 5 ), which is the main component of the Portland cement clinker, produces a greater amount of CO 2 emission than the formation of belite (Ca 2 SiO 4 ). The proportion of alite to belite is about 3 in ordinary Portland clinker. Therefore, by decreasing this proportion less CO 2 would be emitted. Furthermore, if industrial byproducts such as fly ash from thermal power station or from incineration of municipal solid wastes have the potential to reduce CO 2 used as raw materials and alternative hydrothermal calcination routes are employed for belite clinker production, CO 2 emission can be strongly reduced or even totally avoided. The availability of fly ash will help in reducing the CO 2 emissions and will also help in resolving, to a great extent, the fly ash disposal problem. This thesis is based on focusing on the possibility of using fly ash as raw materials to prepare low cost innovation matrices for immobilization of radioactive wastes by synthesizing new kind of cement of low consuming energy. The synthesis process is based on the hydrothermal-calcination route of the fly ash without extra additions.

  4. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  5. Cost effective disposal of whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zall, R R

    1980-01-01

    Means of reducing the problem of whey disposal are dealt with, covering inter alia the pre-treatment of cheese milk e.g., by ultrafiltration to lower the whey output, utilization of whey constituents, use of liquid whey for feeding, fermenting whey to produce methane and alcohol, and disposal of whey by irrigation of land or by purification in sewage treatment plants.

  6. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  7. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  8. Disposal options for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)

  9. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  10. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  11. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  12. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  13. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes - the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, I.

    1985-01-01

    The paper defends the case for marine disposal of radioactive wastes. The amount of packaged waste disposed; the site for marine disposal; the method of disposal; the radioactivity arising from the disposal; and safety factors; are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  18. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  20. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.