WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding area june-july

  1. Burford Lake Wildlife Management Area Narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Burford Lake Wildlife Management Area outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Burford Lake Wildlife Management Area Narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Burford Lake Wildlife Management Area outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Burford Lake Wildlife Management Area Narrative report : May, June, July, and August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Burford Lake Wildlife Management Area outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. LLWnotes - Volume 11, Number 5, June/July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    This document is the June/July 1996 issue of LLWnotes. It contains articles and news items on the following topics: news items related to states and compacts; Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Forum activities; court rulings and calendars; waste disposal in the Marshall Islands; NRC nuclear power plant license renewal rule; NRC withdraws LLW disposal rule for reactor site; and NRC issues import license.

  5. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...

  6. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  7. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear

  8. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  10. Idea of tourist management of the Radojewo palace park and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mikołajczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a proper tourist trails in the palace park in Radojewo and surrounding areas, according to protected areas requirements, local space management plan, as well as with harmony with natural and landscape values. The ecotourism was found as the only possible kind of tourism in this area. The present areas management is not sufficient, hence the proposition of supplementation presented here, such as information tables and small architecture elements. Radojewo and its surroundings are a high tourism potential areas. The new bicycle trail is proposed in the neighbourhood of the park. It is meant to create a better communication with surrounding areas. Two kinds of pedestrian trails are suggested on the park area together with proper tourist infrastructure. There is also a necessity to assign the palace as a historical object.

  11. Enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography: comparison with pathological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; Schepper, A. de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Schelfout, K.; Colpaert, C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kersschot, E. [Department of Radiology, OLV Hospital, Aalst (Belgium); Tjalma, W.A. [Department of Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Weyler, J. [Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    The enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography is correlated with findings from pathological examination. We studied 194 patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MR mammography. Of all malignant lesions presenting with an enhancing surrounding area on MR mammography, morphologic features including long spicules, a ductal pattern, diffuse enhancement or nodules were evaluated and compared with histopathological examination. A double breast coil was used; we performed a 3D FLASH sequence with contiguous coronal slices of 2 mm, before and after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg GD-DTPA, and subtraction images were obtained. In total, 297 malignant lesions were detected at MR mammography and 101 of them had one or more types of enhancing surrounding area. In 49 of the 53 cancers with long spicules and in 49 of the 55 cancers with surrounding ductal pattern of enhancement, pathological examination showed in situ and/or invasive carcinoma. Multiple nodules adjacent to the carcinoma were seen in 20 patients and corresponded with six cases of invasive and ten cases of ductal in situ carcinoma. A diffuse enhancing area next to a mass was seen in ten patients and consisted of carcinoma in all cases: seven in situ and three invasive carcinomas. Enhancing areas including long spicules, a ductal pattern, noduli, or diffuse enhancement surrounding a carcinoma corresponded with in situ or invasive extension of the carcinoma in 92.5, 89, 80 and 100% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Tidal propagation in the Gulf of Khambhat, Bombay High, and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    -diurnal and diurnal constituents at forty-two ports in the Gulf and surrounding areas is sued to define characteristics of the tides. A barotropic numerical model based on shallow water wave equations to simulate the sea level and circulation in the region is used...

  13. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  14. Scenario analysis of land use change in Horqin Desert and its surrounding area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.M.; Zhao, S.; Verburg, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Horqin desert and its surrounding area(41°17'~45°24' N,116°21'~123°30' E),loca-ted in the eastern part of agro-pas ture transitional zone in northern China,is an area sensitive to environmental change due to transitional location and the high potential for sandy desert-if ication.During the past dec

  15. Lead identification in soil surrounding a used lead acid battery smelter area in Banten, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adventini, N.; Santoso, M.; Lestiani, D. D.; Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Rixson, L.

    2017-06-01

    A used lead acid battery smelter generates particulates containing lead that can contaminate the surrounding environment area. Lead is a heavy metal which is harmful to health if it enters the human body through soil, air, or water. An identification of lead in soil samples surrounding formal and informal used lead acid battery smelters area in Banten, Indonesia using EDXRF has been carried out. The EDXRF accuracy and precision evaluated from marine sediment IAEA 457 gave a good agreement to the certified value. A number of 16 soil samples from formal and informal areas and 2 soil samples from control area were taken from surface and subsurface soils. The highest lead concentrations from both lead smelter were approximately 9 folds and 11 folds higher than the reference and control samples. The assessment of lead contamination in soils described in Cf index was in category: moderately and strongly polluted by lead for formal and informal lead smelter. Daily lead intake of children in this study from all sites had exceeded the recommended dietary allowance. The HI values for adults and children living near both lead smelter areas were greater than the value of safety threshold 1. This study finding confirmed that there is a potential health risk for inhabitants surrounding the used lead acid battery smelter areas in Banten, Indonesia.

  16. Comparison of Socioeconomic Factors between Surrounding and Non-Surrounding Areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway before and after Its Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s highest railway, and the longest highland railway, the Qinghai–Tibet Railway (QTR has been paid considerable attention by researchers. However, most attention has been paid to the ecological and environmental issues affecting it, and sustainable ecological, social, and economic development-related studies of the QTR are rare. In this study, by analyzing the passenger traffic, freight traffic, passenger-kilometers, and freight-kilometers of the QTR for the period 1982–2013 and the transport structure of the Tibetan Plateau (TP for 1990–2013, the evolutionary process of the transport system in the TP following the construction of the QTR has been revealed. Subsequently, by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP, population, industrial structure, and urbanization level at the county and 1 km scales between surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the QTR, the differences in socioeconomic performance before and after its construction were detected. The results show that (1 in the TP, the highway-dominated transport system will break up and an integrated and sustainable transport system will form; (2 at the county scale, the annual growth rates of GDP of counties surrounding the QTR were greater than those of non-surrounding counties for the period 2000–2010. At the 1 km scale, following the opening of the completed line, the GDP of surrounding areas had a greater growth rate than before; (3 analysis at the county and 1 km scales indicated that population was not aggregated into the surrounding areas of the QTR in the period 2000–2010; (4 in terms of industrial structure, the proportion of primary industry decreased continuously, while the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries increased overall in the period 1984–2012. The QTR had no obvious impact on changes in the urbanization level of its surrounding areas.

  17. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  18. Statistical analysis of the 2003-2016 seismicity of Azerbaijan and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Kadirov, Fakhraddin; Yetirmishli, Gurban; Safarov, Rafig; Babayev, Gulam; Ismaylova, Saida

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to furnish a detailed picture of the space-time-magnitude statistical properties of the instrumental seismic catalogue of Azerbaijan and surrounding regions from 2003 to 2016. Although Azerbaijan is one of the most seismically active areas in the world, an exhaustive description of the statistical properties of the time, space, and magnitude distribution of its seismicity is still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this work is to fill this scientific gap.

  19. Land cover change in Ningbo and its surrounding area of Zhejiang Province,1987~2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ningbo and its surrounding area is the forefront in the rapid economic development in the Yangtse delta, and the main production area for food supplies, cotton, edible oil and hemp;and at the same time, is the main area for wetland protection in Zhejiang Province. Our objectives were to quantify land cover change in Ningbo and its surrounding area from 1987 to 2000 and to analyze the causative factors of the change. Using 30-m resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ data and maximum likelihood classification method, we classified the study area into six land cover types: forest, agriculture, urban, freshwater, seawater and bottomland.The research results showed that significant changes in land cover occurred in the study area, and that agriculture and urban land cover change dominated most of the land cover change and were main causes for the changes of other types with human activities,such as urbanization, industrialization, etc. being the main factor while it was not very obvious whether climatic conditions have any role in the land cover changes. Agriculture, bottomland and other nature dominated land cover types are undergoing significant changes due to industrialization and urbanization, which threaten the stabilization of the environment. The study conclusion called for finding reasonable ways to solve the problems between land cover change and land use.

  20. General Description of Oak Ridge Site and Surrounding Areas - Hazards Evaluation, Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struxness, E. G. [ORNL

    1962-08-21

    Purposeful or accidental releases of radioactive materials to the immediate environs of ORNL and surrounding areas have been examined. Evaluation of the consequences of releases requires rather detailed knowledge of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the Iithosphere. By various means the vulnerability of the area to concentrated radioactive fallout or to radioactive Iiquids released onto or into the terrain and water courses must be determined. Factual data are provided, and an attempt has been made to relate these to the control of radioactive contamination .

  1. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Toa Vaca, Puerto Rico, June-July 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2004-01-01

    The Lago Toa Vaca dam is located in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, and is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority. Construction was completed in 1972 as the first phase of a multi-purpose project that contemplated four possible diversions from other basins to mitigate the rapid storage capacity loss of Lago Guayabal, located immediately downstream of the Toa Vaca dam. The latter phases of the intra-basin diversions were cancelled, and currently, the reservoir receives runoff from only 56.8 square kilometers of its drainage area. Lago Toa Vaca reservoir when constructed was to be used for irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plain. The reservoir had an original storage capacity of 68.94 million cubic meters. Sedimentation has reduced the storage capacity by only 7 percent between 1972 and 2002 to 64.08 million cubic meters. This represents a long-term sedimentation rate of about 162,000 cubic meters per year. Based on the 2002 sedimentation survey, Lago Toa Vaca has a sediment trapping efficiency of about 98 percent and a drainage area-normalized sedimentation rate of about 3,086 cubic meters per square kilometer per year between 1972 and 2002. At the current long-term sedimentation rate the reservoir would lose its storage capacity by the year 2400.

  2. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEJONO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the

  3. Notes from the field: malnutrition and elevated mortality among refugees from South Sudan - Ethiopia, June-July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Ellen; Bilukha, Oleg O; Menkir, Zeray; Gayford, Megan; Kavosa, Millicent; Wtsadik, Mulugeta; Maina, Gidraf; Gose, Mesfin; Nyagucha, Irene; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2014-08-15

    As a result of armed civil conflict in South Sudan that started in mid-December of 2013, an estimated 1.1 million persons were internally displaced, and approximately 400,000 refugees fled South Sudan to neighboring countries (primarily to Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, and Kenya). Refugees from South Sudan arriving in Ethiopia are sheltered in three refugee camps located in Gambella region: Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi. The camps were established during January-May 2014 and have estimated refugee populations of 47,000, 51,000, and 50,000, respectively. Reports from health clinics and humanitarian agencies providing assistance to refugees suggested poor nutritional status of arriving refugees and elevated mortality rates. To assess the nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and mortality rates (crude [all ages] and aged Refugee and Returnee Affairs (an Ethiopian government aid agency), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Programme, and United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with CDC, conducted cross-sectional population-representative surveys in Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi camps during June-July 2014. Anthropometric measurements in children were taken using standard procedures, and nutritional status was classified based on 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards. Hemoglobin was measured using HemoCue Hb 301. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO thresholds. Retrospective mortality rates in Leitchuor and Kule were measured using a household census method.

  4. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  5. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  6. Ground-water-quality data for Albany and surrounding areas, Southwest Georgia, 1951-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Debbie; Easoz, Jamie A.; Priest, Sherlyn

    2002-01-01

    This report presents ground-water-quality data from the surficial, Upper Floridan, Claiborne, Clayton, and Upper Cretaceous aquifers in the Albany and surrounding areas of southwest Georgia. Water-quality data from about 186 wells in Baker, Calhoun, Dougherty, Lee, Mitchell, Terrell, and Worth Counties are presented for the period from 1951 through 1999. The data include field water-quality parameters collected during 1951-99, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds collected during 1981-97, inorganic compounds collected during 1951-99, trace metals collected during 1964-99, radiochemicals collected during 1993-95, herbicides and insecticides collected during 1980-97, and recovery data for laboratory surrogate compounds (used for quality control and quality assurance for organic samples) collected during 1993-97. Ground-water quality data are presented in tables by data type and arranged by well number. Illustrations in this report contain information about study area location, well location, stratigraphy, and formation water-bearing properties. Ground-water-quality data are presented in text files and in a data base that includes geographic and tabular data. Data presented in this report provide a base with which to better define and interpret the quality of ground water in Albany, Ga., and surrounding areas. Although some of these data may have been published in previous reports associated with water-resources investigations, water-quality data are compiled as a useful resource.

  7. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Drugă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  8. Centre-surround organization of fast sensorimotor integration in human motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubbioso, Raffaele; Raffin, Estelle; Karabanov, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial representat...... in M1HAND. Like homotopic SAI, heterotopic SAF was somatotopically expressed in M1HAND. Together, the results provide first-time evidence that fast sensorimotor integration involves centre-inhibition and surround-facilitation in human M1HAND....

  9. A groundwater-flow model for the Treasure Valley and surrounding area, southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Vincent, Sean

    2017-04-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and Idaho Water Resource Board (IWRB), will construct a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Treasure Valley and surrounding area. Resource managers will use the model to simulate potential anthropogenic and climatic effects on groundwater for water-supply planning and management. As part of model construction, the hydrogeologic understanding of the aquifer system will be updated with information collected during the last two decades, as well as new data collected for the study.

  10. Transmission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from broiler chicken farms to surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Rösler, U

    2014-08-27

    Although previous studies have demonstrated high carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock, especially in broiler chickens, data on emission sources of these bacteria into the environment are still rare. Therefore, this study was designed to systematically investigate the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry, air (inside animal houses), ambient air (outside animal houses) and on soil surfaces in the areas surrounding of seven ESBL/AmpC-positive broiler chicken fattening farms, including investigation of the possible spread of these bacteria via the faecal route and/or exhaust air into the environment. Seven German broiler fattening farms were each investigated at three points in time (3-36 h after restocking, 14-18 and 26-35 days after housing) during one fattening period. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC genes in the investigated samples was confirmed by PCR, detecting blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCMY-genes, and, if necessary, by sequencing and/or the disc diffusion method. The results showed a wide spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in broiler farms, as well as emissions into the surroundings. 12 out of 14 (86%) slurry samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Additionally, 28.8% (n=23/80) of boot swabs taken from various surfaces in the areas surrounding of the farms as well as 7.5% (n=3/40) of the exhaust air samples turned out to be positive for these microorganisms. Moreover, a small proportion of air samples from inside the barns were ESBL/AmpC-positive. By comparing selected isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we proved that faecal and airborne transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing microorganisms from broiler fattening farms to the surrounding areas is possible. Two isolates from farm G2 (slurry and boot swab 50 m downwind), two isolates from farm G3 (slurry and individual animal swab) as well as two isolates from farm G6 (air sample in the barn and air sample 50 m downwind) showed 100% similarity in

  11. Surround suppression sharpens the priority map in the lateral intraparietal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Annegret L; Krishna, B Suresh; Goldberg, Michael E

    2010-09-22

    In the visual world, stimuli compete with each other for allocation of the brain's limited processing resources. Computational models routinely invoke wide-ranging mutually suppressive interactions in spatial priority maps to implement active competition for attentional and saccadic allocation, but such suppressive interactions have not been physiologically described, and their existence is controversial. Much evidence implicates the lateral intraparietal area as a candidate priority map in the macaque (Macaca mulatta). Here, we demonstrate that the responses of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) to a task-irrelevant distractor are strongly suppressed when the monkey plans saccades to locations outside their receptive fields. Suppression can be evoked both by flashed visual stimuli and by a memorized saccade plan. The suppressive surrounds of LIP neurons are spatially tuned and wide ranging. Increasing the monkey's motivation enhances target-distractor discriminability by enhancing both distractor suppression and the saccade goal representation; these changes are accompanied by correlated improvements in behavioral performance.

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  13. Narrative report May, June, July and August, 1962 Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Waterfowl production areas - District IVA

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  14. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-01

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  16. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C, Aprilia Puspita [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesian, Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  17. Clinical Observation of Vascular Dementia Treated by Surrounding-acupuncture of the CT-located Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Xin; FENG Bi-fang; RONG Li; YANG Wen-hui

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical effect of "Surrounding Needling Technigue through CT Location" in treating vascular dementia. Method Fifty cases of vascular dementia were randomly divided into surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups, 25 cases in each group,and were given surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture respectively. Results The effective rates in surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups were 88% and 60% respectively, and there was significant difference between the two groups, P < 0.01.Conclusion Therapeutic effect of surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location in treating vascular dementia was satisfactory, and better than that of routine acupuncture.

  18. Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnykh, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was

  19. Precipitation Depth-Duration-Frequency Analysis for the Nevada National Security Site and Surrounding Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences; Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences

    2016-08-01

    Accurate precipitation frequency data are important for Environmental Management Soils Activities on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are important for environmental assessments performed for regulatory closure of Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Sites, as well as engineering mitigation designs and post-closure monitoring strategies to assess and minimize potential contaminant migration from Soils CAU Sites. Although the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14 (Bonnin et al., 2011) provides precipitation frequency data for the NNSS area, the NNSS-specific observed precipitation data were not consistent with the NOAA Atlas 14 predicted data. This is primarily due to the NOAA Atlas 14 products being produced from analyses without including the approximately 30 NNSS precipitation gage records, several of which approach or exceed 50 year of record. Therefore, a study of precipitation frequency that incorporated the NNSS precipitation gage records into the NOAA Atlas 14 dataset, was performed specifically for the NNSS to derive more accurate site-specific precipitation data products. Precipitation frequency information, such as the depth-duration-frequency (DDF) relationships, are required to generate synthetic standard design storm hydrographs and assess actual precipitation events. In this study, the actual long-term NNSS precipitation gage records, some of which are the longest gage records in southern and central Nevada, were analyzed to allow for more accurate precipitation DDF estimates to be developed for the NNSS. Gridded maps of precipitation frequency for the NNSS and surrounding areas were then produced.

  20. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils surrounding oil waste disposal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Zong, Meihan

    2016-02-01

    More attention is being devoted to heavy metal pollution because heavy metals can concentrate in higher animals through the food chain, harm human health and threaten the stability of the ecological environment. In this study, the effects of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg) emanating from oil waste disposal on surrounding soil in Jilin Province, China, were investigated. A potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the damage of heavy metals and concluded that the degree of potential ecological damage of heavy metals can be ranked as follows: Hg > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. The average value of the potential ecological harm index (Ri) is 71.93, thereby indicating light pollution. In addition, this study researched the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals by means of ArcGIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis software. The results showed that the potential ecological risk index (R) of the large value was close to the distance from the oil waste disposal area; it is relatively between the degree of heavy metals in soil and the distance from the waste disposal area.

  1. Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Kluson, Jaroslav

    2008-08-01

    In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3"x3") at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of "Marinelli" container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured

  2. Ordovician eunicid polychaetes of Estonia and surrounding areas: review of their distribution and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hints, O

    2000-12-01

    Scolecodonts, the jaws of polychaete worms, are common and diverse palynomorphs in the Ordovician rocks of Estonia and surrounding areas. Some 120 apparatus-based species representing about 40 genera have been recorded thus far. Relatively long stratigraphical ranges of the majority of species reflect a low rate of evolution of jawed polychaetes. However, some individual species, as well as structural changes in the assemblages, appear to be useful for stratigraphical purposes. Environmental events like those in the middle Caradoc and late Ashgill had some impact on polychaete faunas, but less than on several other groups. In order to study the spatial distribution of eunicids, faunas of particular intervals of the Ordovician were investigated. Quantitative analysis revealed that polychaete assemblages with a very consistent qualitative and quantitative composition were widespread over long distances within the belts of similar facies conditions in the Baltoscandian Palaeobasin. On the other hand, it appears that species of Ordovician jawed polychaetes were strongly influenced by particular facies, and accordingly well differentiated along the palaeobasin gradient. The decrease in diversity and abundance towards the deeper-water part of the palaeobasin indicates that the majority of Ordovician eunicids preferred relatively shallow-water conditions. The increase in differentiation of environments is accompanied by an increase in differentiation of polychaete assemblages.

  3. Local earthquake tomography of the Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gökalp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selected travel time data from the aftershock series of the Erzincan earthquake (March, 1992, Ms=6.8 were inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D Vp and Vs structure. The general features of the 3D velocity structure of the upper crust of Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area, one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Turkey were investigated. The data used for this purpose were 2215 P-wave and 547 S-wave arrival times from 350 local earthquakes recorded by temporary 15 short-period seismograph stations. Thurber’s simultaneous inversion method (1983 was applied to the arrival time data to obtain a 3D velocity structure, and hypocentral locations. Both 3D heterogeneous P and S wave velocity variations down to 12 km depth were obtained. The acquired tomographic images show that the 3D velocity structure beneath the region is heterogeneous in that low velocity appears throughout the basin and at the southeastern flank, and high velocities occur at south and east of the basin. The low velocities can be related to small and large scale fractures, thus causing rocks to weaken over a long period of the active tectonic faulting process. The ophiolitic rock units mostly occurring around the basin area are the possible reason for the high velocities. The validity of 3D inversion results was tested by performing detailed resolution analysis. The test results confirm the velocity anomalies obtained from inversion. Despite the small number of inverted S-wave arrivals, the obtained 3D S velocity model has similar anomalies with lower resolution than the 3D P-wave velocity model. Better hypocenter locations were calculated using the 3D heterogeneous model obtained from tomographic inversion.

  4. Investigation of Distribution of Beta -Thalassemia Hereditary Mutations in Gaziantep and the Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Öztuzcu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Beta-thalassemia is the most common autosomal recessive disease. More than 200 different mutations determined in beta-globin gene. Beta thalassemia disease has a severe clinical picture. Treatment of the diseases should be maintained properly otherwise quality of life and life period can be affected. In this study, we tried to reveal inherited beta-thalassemia mutations in surrounding areas of Gaziantep. Material and Methods: In this study, we included 208 patients who applied with beta -thalassemia suspicion to the pediatric hematology clinic (age range 4-14. In that study, 138 patients with homozygous mutations and 70 patients’ heterozygous mutations were identified. HBB gene was sequenced by Sanger DNA Sequencing method. Results: Most common homozygote mutations are IVS I-110 G>A, IVS I-1 G>A, IVS II-1 G>A, the heterozygote mutations are IVS I-110 G>A, IVS II-1 G>A, codon 8 (AA del. The incidence of IVS 1.110 (G>A mutation is 24%, 28 in homozygote patients, 29.7% in heterozygote patients. The 8% homozygote patients and 19.7% heterozygote patients were effected with IVS 1.110 (G>A mutation. Conclusion: The consanguinity marriages are very abundant particularly in our region due to fact that we are able to see many autosomal recessive diseased in our region. Reducing incidence of autosomal recessive disease by given genetic counseling could help the solution but it is still a major problem. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7(4: 265-268

  5. Protected areas and their surrounding territory: socioecological systems in the context of ecological solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, Raphaël; Thompson, John D; Folke, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The concept of ecological solidarity (ES) is a major feature of the 2006 law reforming national park policy in France. In the context of biodiversity conservation, the objectives of this study are to outline the historical development of ES, provide a working definition, and present a method for its implementation that combines environmental pragmatism and adaptive management. First, we highlight how ES provides a focus on the interdependencies among humans and nonhuman components of the socioecological system. In doing so, we identify ES within a framework that distinguishes ecological, socioecological, and sociopolitical interdependencies. In making such interdependencies apparent to humans who are not aware of their existence, the concept of ES promotes collective action as an alternative or complementary approach to state- or market-based approaches. By focusing on the awareness, feelings, and acknowledgement of interdependencies between actors and between humans and nonhumans, we present and discuss a learning-based approach (participatory modeling) that allows stakeholders to work together to construct cultural landscapes for present and future generations. Using two case studies, we show how an ES analysis goes beyond the ecosystem management approach to take into account how human interactions with the environment embody cultural, social, and economic values and endorse an ethically integrated science of care and responsibility. ES recognizes the diversity of these values as a practical foundation for socially engaged and accountable actions. Finally, we discuss how ES enhances academic support for a socioecological systems approach to biodiversity conservation and promotes collaboration with decision-makers and stakeholders involved in the adaptive management of protected areas and their surrounding landscapes.

  6. Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria and its surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prager

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the largest mass movements in the Alps cluster spatially in the Tyrol (Austria. Fault-related valley deepening and coalescence of brittle discontinuities structurally controlled the progressive failure and the kinematics of several slopes. To evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution, a first comprehensive compilation of dated mass movements in the Eastern Alps has been made. At present, more than 480 different landslides in the Tyrol and its surrounding areas, including some 120 fossil events, are recorded in a GIS-linked geodatabase. These compiled data show a rather continuous temporal distribution of landslide activities, with (i some peaks of activity in the early Holocene at about 10 500–9400 cal BP and (ii in the Tyrol a significant increase of deep-seated rockslides in the Subboreal at about 4200–3000 cal BP. The majority of Holocene mass movements were not directly triggered by deglaciation processes, but clearly took a preparation of some 1000 years, after ice withdrawal, until slopes collapsed. In view of this, several processes that may promote rock strength degradation are discussed. After the Late-Glacial, slope stabilities were affected by stress redistribution and by subcritical crack growth. Fracture propagating processes may have been favoured by glacial loading and unloading, by earthquakes and by pore pressure fluctuations. Repeated dynamic loading, even if at subcritical energy levels, initiates brittle fracture propagation and thus substantially promotes slope instabilities. Compiled age dating shows that several landslides in the Tyrol coincide temporally with the progradation of some larger debris flows in the nearby main valleys and, partially, with glacier advances in the Austrian Central Alps, indicating climatic phases of increased water supply. This gives evidence of elevated pore pressures within the intensely fractured rock masses. As a result, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations

  7. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-11-07

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e. 12 and 20 mm for coronary and peripheral sizing, respectively) for different vessel-tissue configurations: (i) blood vessel fully embedded in muscle tissue, (ii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue, and (iii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue with fat covering half of the arterial vessel (anterior portion). The simulations suggest that the parallel conductance and accuracy of measurement is dependent on the inhomogeneous/anisotropic configuration of surrounding tissue, including the asymmetric dimension and anisotropy in electrical conductivity of surrounding tissue. Specifically, the measurement was shown to be accurate as long as the vessel was superficial, regardless of the considerable total surrounding tissue dimension for coronary or peripheral arteries. Moreover, it was shown that the unfavourable impact of parallel conductance on the accuracy of conductance catheter measurement is decreased by the combination of a lower transverse electrical conductivity of surrounding muscle tissue, a smaller electrode spacing and a larger lumen diameter. The present findings confirm that the conductance catheter technique provides an accurate platform for sizing of clinically relevant (i.e. superficial and diseased) arteries.

  8. The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    of higher health risk for the population living under the plume. Additionally, time series analysis helps us to disregard any seasonal effect of certain pathologies and to derive a 12-year risk trend. For 2004-2010, our results are compared to SO2 gas emission rates and plume location data measured by using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopic (DOAS) sensors located around Nyiragongo volcano. Finally, the areas identified as more hazardous are highlighted through a geographical approach (using GIS tools), to generate maps and other relevant information that can be of direct use for risk assessment authorities. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the impact of SO2 emissions doesn't seem to be severe, being its most important effect an increase of ARI in the area surrounding the volcanoes (up to 50km). Our on-going study will help us to better determine the magnitude and geographical extent of the impact of volcanic plumes on the health of the population, as well as locate the areas that are most affected. This will contribute to provide the appropriate sanitation recommendations (water treatment, early warning system, etc.) and lead to a more effective volcanic impact reduction on human health.

  9. Crustal thickness and images of the lithospheric discontinuities in the Gibraltar arc and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Stich, Daniel; Morales, José; Martín, Rosa; Diaz, Jordi; Pazos, Antonio; Córdoba, Diego; Pulgar, Javier A.; Ibarra, Pedro; Harnafi, Mimoun; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    The Gibraltar arc and surrounding areas are a complex tectonic region and its tectonic evolution since Miocene is still under debate. Knowledge of its lithospheric structure will help to understand the mechanisms that produced extension and westward motion of the Alboran domain, simultaneously with NW-SE compression driven by Africa-Europe plates convergence. We perform a P-wave receiver function analysis in which we analyse new data recorded at 83 permanent and temporary seismic broad-band stations located in the South of the Iberian peninsula. These data are stacked and combined with data from a previous study in northern Morocco to build maps of thickness and average vP/vS ratio for the crust, and cross-sections to image the lithospheric discontinuities beneath the Gibraltar arc, the Betic and Rif Ranges and their Iberian and Moroccan forelands. Crustal thickness values show strong lateral variations in the southern Iberia peninsula, ranging from ˜19 to ˜46 km. The Variscan foreland is characterized by a relatively flat Moho at ˜31 km depth, and an average vP/vS ratio of ˜1.72, similar to other Variscan terranes, which may indicate that part of the lower crustal orogenic root was lost. The thickest crust is found at the contact between the Alboran domain and the External Zones of the Betic Range, while crustal thinning is observed southeastern Iberia (down to 19 km) and in the Guadalquivir basin where the thinning at the Iberian paleomargin could be still preserved. In the cross-sections, we see a strong change between the eastern Betics, where the Iberian crust underthrusts and couples to the Alboran crust, and the western Betics, where the underthrusting Iberian crust becomes partially delaminated and enters into the mantle. The structures largely mirror those on the Moroccan side where a similar detachment was observed in northern Morocco. We attribute a relatively shallow strong negative-polarity discontinuity to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary

  10. The activities and perspectives of improvement the polluted waste in surrounding rivers in Bucim mine area

    OpenAIRE

    Danevski, Tome; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar; Gocev, Zivko

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of the influence that the tailing dump or waste as well as the flotation hydro-tailing dump over the environment around the region of copper mine Bucim, surrounding rivers, places, villages, appearance of dust, pollution of ambient air and mine tailing pond. Generally speaking, the monitoring will be done for two periods. The first analysis relating to the period from the year 2005, and the second analysis relating to the period from the year 2010/2012. The monitoring ...

  11. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    current tectonics of the region are controlled by the collision and continuing convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates . The Arabian and...in the Arabian Plate and surrounding regions, Geophys. J. Int. 157: 775–795. Alinaghi, A., I. Koulakov, and H. Thybo (2007). Seismic tomographic...Tectonophysics 50: 307–336. Brune, J. N. (1970). Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 4997-5009. Cong

  12. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima; Experiencias durante el proceso de descontaminacion de areas aledanas a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, G., E-mail: gustavo.molina@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  13. Frequency dependent attenuation of seismic waves for Delhi and surrounding area, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The attenuation properties of Delhi & surrounding region have been investigated using 62 local earthquakes recorded at nine stations. The frequency dependent quality factors Qa (using P-waves and Qb (using S-waves have been determined using the coda normalization method. Quality factor of coda-waves (Qc has been estimated using the single backscattering model in the frequency range from 1.5 Hz to 9 Hz. Wennerberg formulation has been used to estimate Qi (intrinsic attenuation parameter and Qs (scattering attenuation parameter for the region. The values Qa, Qb, Qc, Qi and Qs estimated are frequency dependent in the range of 1.5Hz-9Hz. Frequency dependent relations are estimated as Qa=52f1.03, Qb=98f1.07 and Qc=158f0.97. Qc estimates lie in between the values of Qi and Qs but closer to Qi at all central frequencies. Comparison between Qi and Qs shows that intrinsic absorption is predominant over scattering for Delhi and surrounding region. 

  14. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (pareas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies.

  15. Identifying settlements on the SIR-B images of Rimbobujang and the surrounding areas, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    SIR-B image proves to be a reasonably good tool to identify rural settlement in an open area, especially for that with high density of houses. Its use to identify towns and cities is more recommended.

  16. Geology of the Šalek valley and the surrounding areas from written sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Brezigar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the oldest written records on Natural History, and especially the Earth Sciences concerning the [alek valley and surroundings, and that are of exceptionalcultural heritage value. We translated from archaic German a text by Hacquet from 1784 that discusses the Dobrna hot springs, and supplied it with explanations and comments.Added is the copy of a part of Hacquet’s lithohydrographic map with Šalek valley in its centre, and with our geologic explanations. Among the first geologists(geognostswho studied the Šalek valley the German Keferstein should be mentioned, also author of the first geologic map of Germany,Studer,thewell-known Swiss geologist and founder of the Swiss Geologic Survey, and Ami Boué, one of founders of the French Geologic Society.The first modern geologic map of most of the [alek valley and Dobrna depression was elaborated between 1854 and 1856 by Marko Vincenc Lipold, the first geologist of Slovene origin and for many years the general manager of the Idrija mercury mine. The paper overs also the year 1875 when by drilling through the main lignite seam the rich Velenje coal deposit was recognized. This is considered the starting year of exploitation of the Velenje colliery.

  17. Teleseismic tomography of the Campanian volcanic area and surrounding Apenninic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gori, P.; Cimini, G. B.; Chiarabba, C.; De Natale, G.; Troise, C.; Deschamps, A.

    2001-08-01

    The three-dimensional P-velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Vesuvius volcano and the surrounding Apenninic belt is derived by teleseismic tomography to describe the deep volcanic structure and its relationship with the Adriatic lithosphere subducting beneath the belt. The data consist of 1615 P and PKP travel times derived from 135 teleseismic events. We merged the data recorded by the stations of the Italian Seismic Network located on the southern Apennines with stations deployed in a temporary broad-band experiment around Vesuvius volcano (BROADVES). The traveltime residuals, computed with respect to the IASP91 1D reference model, are inverted using the ACH code. The 3D velocity structure shows a lower crust characterised by strong lateral heterogeneities with velocity perturbations ranging from -5 to +5%. In the lower crust along the Tyrrhenian margin, low-velocity anomalies are found beneath the volcanic complexes, suggesting the presence of deep crustal magmatic reservoirs. An almost continuous high-velocity body is reconstructed in the upper mantle beneath the Apenninic belt from 65 down to 285 km depth. This high-velocity anomaly is interpreted as the signature of the Adriatic lithosphere subducting westward toward the back-arc Tyrrhenian basin. The low-velocity anomaly in the crust beneath Vesuvius, located above the high-velocity zone dipping in the mantle, may indicate that magma is generated by the subducting slab and rises to lower crustal depths where it is stored.

  18. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carmisciano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

  19. [Observations and comparison analysis of air pollution in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Song, Tao; Lin, Hong; Wang, Yue-Si; Jiang, Chang-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    In order to study regional air quality, evaluate the interaction of air quality among Beijing and four cities and assess the effects of regional collaborative emission abatement in Beijing and surrounding areas for the Olympic Games period on regional air quality, and seek an effective means of early warning of air pollution, a monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and four nearby cities which were Zhuozhou, Langfang, Xianghe and Yanjiao, was established to measure concentrations of NO(x), O3 and particulate matter in June 2008. The results show that the primary pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas are particulates during the study periods. The average mass concentrations of PM10 were (114 +/- 66) microg/m3 and (128 +/- 59) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively, while the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 were (77 +/- 47) microg/m3 and (81 +/- 51) microg/m3, respectively. The average maximum hourly mass concentrations of O3 were (164 +/- 52) microg/m3 and (165 +/- 55) microg/m3, as well as the average mass concentrations of NO(x) were (58 +/- 23) microg/m3 and (25 +/- 14) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively. Compared to June, concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO(x) decreased by 69%, 62%, 18% and 41% during the Olympic period (from August 8 to 24) and 56%, 49%, 17% and 16% during the Paralympic Games period (from September 6 to 17) in Beijing. The mass concentration of PM2.5 was affected by the surrounding areas of Beijing seriously. The relative high concentrations of NO(x) in Beijing implied NO(x) had the potential tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. Ozone showed regional pollution characteristics in summer. It shows that the monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas is significant in early warning of air pollution, and could provide scientific support for interregional cooperation of air pollution control.

  20. Emission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from pig fattening farms to surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Salviati, Christina; Laube, Henriette; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

    2015-01-30

    The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock such as pigs has been known for some time. However, to date there is little information about the transmission of these resistant bacteria between pig farms and their surroundings. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore this topic by investigating seven German pig fattening farms. Samples from outside (including ground surfaces, ambient air, slurry and digestate from biogas plants) and, in parallel, from inside the pig barns (including pig feces, dust, barn air, flies and mice feces) were examined for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli and selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. 14/17 (82.4%) slurry samples and three of four samples of digestate from biogas plants tested positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. In the vicinity of the pig barns these resistant bacteria were detected in 14/87 (16.1%) boot swabs taken from various ground surfaces and in 2/36 (6%) ambient air samples. Inside the pig barns, 6/63 (9.5%) barn air samples and a small proportion of flies and mice feces samples were ESBL/AmpC-positive. PFGE analysis proved fecal emission as well as a possible spread via flies, as identical ESBL-E. coli isolates were detected in slurry and on fertilized fields, as well as in flies and pooled feces from inside the barn and slurry. Contaminated slurry presented the major emission source for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the pig fattening farms, but a spread via the airborne route or via different vectors also seems possible.

  1. Mapping of the cumulative β-ray dose on the ground surface surrounding the Fukushima area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nguyen, Thanh T.; Hayashi, Gohei; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of the fission products released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March 2011 was deposited in a wide area from Tohoku to northern Kanto. A map of the estimated cumulative β-ray dose (70 μm dose equivalent) on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident has been prepared using previously reported calculation methods and the 2-km mesh survey data by MEXT. From this map of estimated dose, areas with a high cumulative β-ray dose on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident were found to be located in the Akogi-Teshichiro to Akogi-Kunugidaira region in Namie Town, and in the southern Futaba Town to the northern Tomioka Town region. The highest estimated cumulative β-ray dose was 710 mSv for one year at Akogi-Teshichiro, Namie Town. PMID:26519736

  2. The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rapolla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ground surface, along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Both aeromagnetic maps show the noisy effect of linear anomalies evidently due to the presence of railway lines. To filter out these local anomalies a method based on discrete wavelet transform was used, allowing an accurate local filtering and leaving the rest of the field practically unchanged. The filtered data set was integrated with the existing Agip aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields, leading to a new aeromagnetic map of the whole Phlegrean volcanic area. The compilation of the pole reduced map and of the maps of the Analytic Signal and of the Horizontal Derivative of the integrated data set represents a first step for the interpretation of the maps in terms of geological structures of the whole Phlegrean volcanic district.

  3. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wentao [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Massey Simonich, Staci L. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Xue Miao; Zhao Jingyu; Zhang Na; Wang Rong; Cao Jun [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tao Shu, E-mail: taos@urban.pku.edu.c [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  4. Tomographic imaging beneath Alboran sea and surrounding areas (southern Iberian Peninsula and northern Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, I.; Morales, J.

    2009-04-01

    The main aim of this study is to provide a detailed analysis of the structure of the crust and upper mantle below the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and surrounding regions using the results of global seismic tomography. We have developed a detailed three-dimensional velocity structure of this region to 700-km depth using P-wave arrival times from more than 15,000 local and regional earthquakes and 145 teleseismic events. For teleseismic events we handpicked P-wave arrival times from high-quality original seismograms from 2000 to 2005 belonging to the Andalusian Seismic Network. We also handpicked data from seismic stations belonging to the GSN (Global Seismic Network) and monitored by IRIS. All events are located between 30° and 90° from the seismic networks. This new data set is superior, in terms of both station density and arrival time accuracy, to that used in previous studies because of the higher sensitivity of the seismographs monitored by the new broad band network of the Andalusian Institute of Geophysics. In this study we modified the original tomographic method of Zhao et al. (1992) to combine teleseismic residuals with local and regional earthquake arrival times in tomographic inversions. Several bodies of high P-wave seismic velocity are located between 5 and 15 km depth and the magnetic and gravimetric data indicate superposition of bodies at different depths in this zone with a complex geological structure. Pronounced low-velocity anomalies characterize the upper crust near the Strait of Gibraltar, both in Spain and Morocco, which could be interpreted as a sedimentary basin or crustal deformation in the flysch regions. Two high-velocity anomalies were obtained in the Alboran Sea, the first, located in the middle of the basin could be related to the existence of high density lithologies, while the second, situated in the eastern Rif and trending NE-SW, could be related to the NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly in the eastern Rif. One of the most robust

  5. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ykateryna D. Duka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

  6. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  7. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  8. Phylogeography of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae in southern China and some surrounding areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiostrongylus cantonensis is of increasing public health importance as the main zoonotic pathogen causing eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis, which has been documented all over the world. However, there are very limited studies about its phylogeography and spread pattern. In the present study, the phylogeography of A. cantonensis in southern China (including Taiwan and partial areas of Southeast Asia were studied based on the sequences of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene. A total of 520 individuals of A. cantonensis obtained from 13 localities were sequenced for the analyses and grouped into 42 defined haplotypes. The phylogenetic tree (NJ tree and BI tree revealed a characteristic distribution pattern of the four main lineages, with detectable geographic structure. Genetic differentiation among populations was significant, but demographic expansion could not be detected by either neutrality tests or mismatch distribution analysis, which implied a low gene flow among the local populations in different regions where the samples were collected. Two unique lineages of the A. cantonensis population in Taiwan were detected, which suggests its multiple origin in the island. Populations in Hekou (China and Laos showed the highest genetic diversities, which were supported by both genetic diversity indices and AMOVA. These results together infer that the area around Thailand or Hekou in Yunnan province, China are the most likely origins of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

  9. [Risk factors for unfavorable birth weight in areas surrounding Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, G J; Vega-López, M G

    1995-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the incidence of unfavorable birth weight (UBW) -UBW in the presence or absence of identified risk factors, in Tlaquepaque and Tonal , outlying areas of Greater Metropolitan Guadalajara, Mexico. A sample of live-born infants in 1991, children of mothers covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security were selected from the study area; through multistage probabilistic sampling, random selection was made of Family Medical Units within the study areas, and of physicians' offices within those selected units; finally, all the liveborn infants in 1991 from these selected physicians' offices were studied: a total of 141 newborns were studied Mothers of the newborns chosen were interviewed; a questionnaire with different biomedical, socioeconomic, and demographic items was applied by social workers specially trained for the purpose. Logistic regression models were used lo estimate odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The probability that a child would have UBW in the presence or absence of identified risk factors were also calculated. The results show that 22% of the infants studied were born weighing less than 3000 grams; four risk factors were statistically associated with UBW: mother's age of 35 or older (OR=18.47, CL 1.86-83.54); mother worked outside the home (OR= 3.14, C1:1.15-8.59); mother's pre-pregnancy low weight (OR= 5.04, CL1.04-24.47); and late detection of pregnancy (OR=2.64, CI: 1.02-6.84). In the presence of all the risk factors identified, there is a very high probability (0.97) that a child be born with birthweight less than 3000 g, and in the absence of these factors the probability is reduced substantially (0.04). The findings indicate the magnitude of the problem studied, but also the possibility of health services acting in a timely fashion, since the identified risk factors make it possible lo predict, with relative certainty, the birth of a child weighing less than 3000 g.

  10. Determination of the mineral stability field of evolving groundwater in the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yvonne Sena Akosua; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Addai, Millicent Obeng; Asiedu, Daniel Kwadwo

    2016-09-01

    Conventional graphical techniques, mass balance geochemical modelling, and multivariate statistical methods were jointly applied to hydrogeochemical data of groundwater from the fractured rock aquifer system, and surface water in the Bosumtwi and surrounding areas to reveal evolutionary trends and the characteristics of evolving groundwater in the area. Four clusters distinguished from the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) comprised three main groundwater associations and one surface water group (lake water). Although both water resources are of low mineralization (TDS dolomite, gypsum, k-felspar and talc, and supersaturation with respect to gibbsite, kaolinite, Ca-montmorillonite and k-mica in the area. The PCA and other geochemical interpretation identify weathering of feldspars and carbonate mineral dissolution as predominantly influencing the hydrochemistry of the groundwater. Hydrolysis of the aluminosilicates causes the groundwater to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. In addition to dissolution of silicates, the chemical composition of the lake water has been influenced by evaporation and consequent carbonate saturation.

  11. Primary study on the "θ" letter type overlying multi-strata spatial structure of mining face surrounded by mined areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hua-jun; JIANG Fu-xing

    2007-01-01

    The overlying strata spatial structure academic viewpoint thinks the primary factor which controls the stope presses is the overlying strata spatial structure movement; the spatial structure above the later period coal pillar surrounded by mined areas is the most complex overlying strata spatial structure and study on its evolution law has the important realistic project significance for strata movement control and production safety. The existing research results indicate that the special structure of the first working face of the mine begins to develop lengthways from stratum movement above mined areas and extends level in the exploitation direction. From existing overlying strata spatial structure fundamental research achievement, the spatial structure above the later period coal column surrounded by mined areas have following characteristic: The spatial structure formation is from the top to the lower and from large to small. According to the findings, a formula with the use of rock layer migration angle delta was put forward to estimate isolated island coal column width on which different stratum structure is gonging to form.

  12. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface air temperature variations over the Antarctic and its surrounding area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆龙骅; 卞林根; 贾朋群

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of the spatial distribution, temporal variations trend and oscillation for the surface air temperature variations during 1957-1993 in the Antarctic and its surrounding area were analyzed. The results show that the short-time climate change in the Antarctic is complex both temporally and spatially. The Antarctic is by no means the strongest responding region to the global greenhouse effect. There is a distinguished difference in the trends of the temperature changes for the Antarctic and global mean, which could not be explained simply by the global greenhouse effect.

  13. Digital tabulation of stratigraphic data from oil and gas wells in Cuyama Valley and surrounding areas, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.; Langenheim, V.E.; Shumaker, Lauren E.; Scheirer, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Stratigraphic information from 391 oil and gas exploration wells from Cuyama Valley, California, and surrounding areas are herein compiled in digital form from reports that were released originally in paper form. The Cuyama Basin is located within the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges and north of the western Transverse Ranges, west of the San Andreas fault. Knowledge of the location and elevation of stratigraphic tops of formations throughout the basin is a first step toward understanding depositional trends and the structural evolution of the basin through time, and helps in understanding the slip history and partitioning of slip on San Andreas and related faults.

  14. Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (Łęczna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (Łuszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas. The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in Łuszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in Łuszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek. Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in Łuszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and

  15. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  16. The constraints of antiretroviral uptake in rural areas: the case of Thamaga and surrounding villages, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bene, Matlhogonolo; Darkoh, Michael B K

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the constraints of antiretroviral (ARV) uptake in the villages of Thamaga, Kumakwane, Mankgodi and Gakgatla which are in the Kweneng District of Botswana. The social interactionist approach and theories of health behaviour provided the theoretical basis of the study. Data were obtained by using interviewer-administered questionnaires which were applied to a sample of 145 respondents and 61 people living with HIV/AIDS in the four villages. The results of the study showed that people aged 30-39 years represented the highest proportion of the persons on ARV treatment in the villages. Some of the people living with HIV believed that ARV therapy could better their lives during the initial stages of introduction, but with time, they lost hope and gave up the treatment. Culturally, parents and children in the villages do not discuss sexual matters at home and it was found in the study that there was little communication between parents and children on AIDS and ARV issues. Some churches in the area discouraged the use of ARV. There were also traditional doctors who made their patients mix traditional herbs treatment with ARV treatment. Distance, travel costs, cultural beliefs, stigma and discrimination among others were found to be important socio-economic factors inhibiting ARV uptake. Even though there were constraints on ARV uptake in the villages, efforts were being made by Government and non-governmental organizations to overcome them. The Ministry of Health provided information and education to the public using its strategy known as Information, Education and Communication. Nurses, doctors and chiefs taught people at kgotlas (traditional courts) in the villages about the dangers of the epidemic. Free HIV testing, ARVs and condoms were provided to the villagers. The outlook for ARV uptake looks generally promising for the future. However, if HIV/AIDS is to be contained, sexual behaviour of people in the villages needs to change.

  17. Reconnaissance of ground-water quality in the North Platte Natural Resources District, western Nebraska, June-July 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Sibray, S.S.; Cannia, J.C.; Tanner, D.Q.

    1995-01-01

    One-hundred twenty wells completed in unconfined Quaternary alluvial, Ogallala, Arikaree, Brule fractured, sand and confined Chadron and undifferentiated Cretaceous water-bearing units were sampled in June and July 1991 to characterize the quality of ground water in the study area. More than 75 percent of the water samples had nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen concentrations equal to or less than 6.0 milligrams per liter. Samples from six wells completed in Quaternary alluvial and Brule fractured water-bearing units exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 milligrams per liter nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen. Water from several wells completed in Quaternary alluvial and the Brule water-bearing units had detectable concentrations of alachlor, atrazine, deethylatrazine, or prometon. Major element concentrations in water from 44 wells indicated that the water-bearing units had distinct chemistry. Water from unconfined water- bearing units generally was a calcium bicarbonate type and water from the confined water-bearing units generally was a sodium bicarbonate type. Measurements of pH and concentrations of dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, arsenic, beryllium, manganese, adjusted gross alpha activities, radon, and uranium in ground water exceeded final or proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Levels or Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels.

  18. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Model Volcanic Hazard Risk Levels in Areas Surrounding the Copahue Volcano in the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, A. M.; Weigel, A. M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Copahue is a stratovolcano located along the rim of the Caviahue Caldera near the Chile-Argentina border in the Andes Mountain Range. There are several small towns located in proximity of the volcano with the two largest being Banos Copahue and Caviahue. During its eruptive history, it has produced numerous lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and lahars. This isolated region has steep topography and little vegetation, rendering it poorly monitored. The need to model volcanic hazard risk has been reinforced by recent volcanic activity that intermittently released several ash plumes from December 2012 through May 2013. Exposure to volcanic ash is currently the main threat for the surrounding populations as the volcano becomes more active. The goal of this project was to study Copahue and determine areas that have the highest potential of being affected in the event of an eruption. Remote sensing techniques were used to examine and identify volcanic activity and areas vulnerable to experiencing volcanic hazards including volcanic ash, SO2 gas, lava flow, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ISS ISERV Pathfinder, and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products were used to analyze volcanic hazards. These datasets were used to create a historic lava flow map of the Copahue volcano by identifying historic lava flows, tephra, and lahars both visually and spectrally. Additionally, a volcanic risk and hazard map for the surrounding area was created by modeling the possible extent of ash fallout, lahars, lava flow, and pyroclastic density currents (PDC) for future eruptions. These model results were then used to identify areas that should be prioritized for disaster relief and evacuation orders.

  19. Hospitalized patients with novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: Shanghai, June-July 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hong; LU Shui-hua; OU Qiang; CHEN Ying-ying; HUANG Shao-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background From late May 2009, sporadic imported cases of novel influenza A (H1N1) were continuously confirmed in Shanghai, but there were few reports on its clinical presentation in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the demographic and clinical features of the laboratory-confirmed cases and the treatment with oseltamivir.Method We performed a retrospective study in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center (SHAPHC), reviewing the medical records of the laboratory-confirmed patients derived from June 10 to July 20, 2009. Results Atotal of 156 cases were enrolled, of whom 152 had a history of recent travel. The mean age was 22.6 years and 89 cases (57.1%) were males. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and sore throat, with children more likely to run a temperature above 38.5℃ than adults. The mean leucocyte count was 5.4×10~9/L, the mean neutrophil count 3.2×10~9/L and the mean lymphocyte count 1.4×10~9/L. Other findings included a normal range or elevated level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and a normal or decreased level of prealbumin; the levels of prealbumin and CRP were significantly lower in the children than in the adults. Fifty-two patients had abnormal chest CT results, with small unilateral or bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, axillary and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and local pleural thickening, while no cases showed symptoms of hypoxia. All the patients received oseltamivir and recovered without complications, but the duration of fever and virus shedding were significantly longer in the children than in the adults. Conclusions Travel-related circulation may be an important reason for the H1N1 epidemic in the non-epidemic areas, and the virus caused mild respiratory symptoms. The infection in children was more severe in terms of prealbumin levels, temperature, the duration of fever and virus shedding. Oseltamivir was effective for H1N1, but more effective in the adults than in the children.

  20. The physical oceanographic conditions along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north of the Azores in June July 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søiland, H.; Budgell, W. P.; Knutsen, Ø.

    2008-01-01

    During the MAR-ECO expedition in June and July 2004, 39 deep CTD stations were occupied with uneven spacing along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between 41°N and 61°N. The CTD stations coincided with the biological sampling stations and thus gave a detailed vertical description of the water properties at these locations. Many different water masses were identified. However, using the predominant water mass in the upper 500 m, four different hydrographic regions were identified. Stations in the vicinity of the Reykjanes Ridge north of 57°N were dominated by Modified North Atlantic Water (MNAW). Stations south of 56°30'N and north of the Sub-Polar Front (SPF) were dominated by Sub-Arctic Intermediate Water (SAIW). CTD data combined with along-track continuous surface temperature and salinity measurements, satellite sea-level anomaly data and sea-surface temperature (SST) and along-track current data (ADCP data) showed that the position of the SPF was at about 52°N, at the southern edge of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ). South of the SPF a Frontal Region with both North Atlantic Central Water (NACW) and SAIW present was observed, and south of about 50°N the predominant water mass in the upper 500 m was NACW. A ship-mounted RDI 75 kHz ADCP was operated during the cruise and yielded high quality data during the first leg. The currents showed large variations over short distances and were strongly affected by topography. The ADCP data was be used to describe the mesoscale eddy field along the MAR and to detect three jets in the North Atlantic Current (NAC). Data from a current meter mooring left for 10 months after the cruise at a seamount just to the south of CGFZ showed the dominance of the tidal currents in the area. Typical spring tidal currents were about 0.15 m s -1 and the mean flow an order of magnitude smaller, about 0.03 m s -1. A short-term mooring on a seamount farther south showed tidal currents of 0.3 m s -1. Binned 8-day, 4-km SST satellite

  1. Analysis of Individual Carbonaceous Particles Emitted from the Las Conchas Wildfire, Los Alamos, NM, in June-July 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Flowers, B. A.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosol emitted from biomass burning contributes significantly to atmospheric aerosol loadings regionally and globally. The net direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosol can be positive and/or negative and this depends on its composition, morphology and mixing state. Biomass burning aerosols can also change the cloud properties as they can act as cloud condensation nuclei. In this study we investigated biomass burning particles emitted from the Las Conchas wildfire in northern New Mexico that started on June 26, 2011 and burned an area of 245 square miles. Aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore filters at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the third week of the wildfire event. Individual particles (~4000) were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to distinguish different carbonaceous particles and their shape, size, elemental composition and mixing state. A thermo-denuder was used to remove compounds that are volatile at temperatures up to 200 C, leaving behind the black carbon and any compounds that did not volatize completely. Smoke particles consisted of a) tar balls, which are amorphous spherical carbonaceous organic aerosols; b) organic particles with inorganic inclusions, c) soot particles and (d) soot with various inclusions. Two distinct kinds of tar balls, "electronically" dark and bright, were found using the field-emission scanning electron microscopy and were characterized for ambient and denuded conditions to understand coating effects and aging. It was found that dark tar balls are generally larger in size than the bright ones. Additionally, the difference between the size of ambient-bright and the size of denuded-bright tar balls was larger than the difference between the size of ambient-dark and the size of denuded-dark tar balls. EDS analysis showed that 70% of the dark tar balls had higher (~60%) relative oxygen content than in the bright

  2. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed.

  3. A meteorological and chemical overview of the DACCIWA field campaign in West Africa in June-July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippertz, Peter; Fink, Andreas H.; Deroubaix, Adrien; Morris, Eleanor; Tocquer, Flore; Evans, Mat J.; Flamant, Cyrille; Gaetani, Marco; Lavaysse, Christophe; Mari, Celine; Marsham, John H.; Meynadier, Rémi; Affo-Dogo, Abalo; Bahaga, Titike; Brosse, Fabien; Deetz, Konrad; Guebsi, Ridha; Latifou, Issaou; Maranan, Marlon; Rosenberg, Philip D.; Schlueter, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    In June and July 2016 the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) project organised a major international field campaign in southern West Africa (SWA) including measurements from three inland ground supersites, urban sites in Cotonou and Abidjan, radiosondes, and three research aircraft. A significant range of different weather situations were encountered during this period, including the monsoon onset. The purpose of this paper is to characterise the large-scale setting for the campaign as well as synoptic and mesoscale weather systems affecting the study region in the light of existing conceptual ideas, mainly using objective and subjective identification algorithms based on (re-)analysis and satellite products. In addition, it is shown how the described synoptic variations influence the atmospheric composition over SWA through advection of mineral dust, biomass burning and urban pollution plumes.The boreal summer of 2016 was characterised by Pacific La Niña, Atlantic El Niño and warm eastern Mediterranean conditions, whose competing influences on precipitation led to an overall average rainy season. During the relatively dusty pre-onset Phase 1 (1-21 June 2016), three westward-propagating coherent cyclonic vortices between 4 and 13° N modulated winds and rainfall in the Guinea coastal area. The monsoon onset occurred in connection with a marked extratropical trough and cold surge over northern Africa, leading to a breakdown of the Saharan heat low and African easterly jet and a suppression of rainfall. During this period, quasi-stationary low-level vortices associated with the trough transformed into more tropical, propagating disturbances resembling an African easterly wave (AEW). To the east of this system, moist southerlies penetrated deep into the continent. The post-onset Phase 2 (22 June-20 July 2016) was characterised by a significant increase in low-level cloudiness, unusually dry conditions and strong northeastward

  4. Factor analysis of rock, soil and water geochemical data from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area, Salem, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayanan, M.; Eswaramoorthi, S.; Subramanian, S.; Periakali, P.

    2017-09-01

    Geochemical analytical data of 15 representative rock samples, 34 soil samples and 55 groundwater samples collected from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area in Salem, southern India, were subjected to R-mode factor analysis. A maximum of three factors account for 93.8 % variance in rock data, six factors for 84 % variance in soil data, five factors for 71.2 % in groundwater data during summer and six factors for 73.7 % during winter. Total dissolved solids are predominantly contributed by Mg, Na, Cl and SO4 ions in both seasons and are derived from the country rock and mining waste by dissolution of minerals like magnesite, gypsum, halite. The results also show that groundwater is enriched in considerable amount of minor and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr and Co). Nickel, chromium and cobalt in groundwater and soil are derived from leaching of huge mine dumps deposited by selective magnesite mining activity. The factor analysis on trivalent, hexavalent and total Cr in groundwater indicates that most of the Cr in summer is trivalent and in winter hexavalent. The gradational decrease in topographical elevation from northern mine area to the southern residential area, combined regional hydrogeological factors and distribution of ultramafic rocks in the northern part of the study area indicate that these toxic trace elements in water were derived from mine dumps.

  5. Factor analysis of rock, soil and water geochemical data from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area, Salem, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayanan, M.; Eswaramoorthi, S.; Subramanian, S.; Periakali, P.

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical analytical data of 15 representative rock samples, 34 soil samples and 55 groundwater samples collected from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area in Salem, southern India, were subjected to R-mode factor analysis. A maximum of three factors account for 93.8 % variance in rock data, six factors for 84 % variance in soil data, five factors for 71.2 % in groundwater data during summer and six factors for 73.7 % during winter. Total dissolved solids are predominantly contributed by Mg, Na, Cl and SO4 ions in both seasons and are derived from the country rock and mining waste by dissolution of minerals like magnesite, gypsum, halite. The results also show that groundwater is enriched in considerable amount of minor and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr and Co). Nickel, chromium and cobalt in groundwater and soil are derived from leaching of huge mine dumps deposited by selective magnesite mining activity. The factor analysis on trivalent, hexavalent and total Cr in groundwater indicates that most of the Cr in summer is trivalent and in winter hexavalent. The gradational decrease in topographical elevation from northern mine area to the southern residential area, combined regional hydrogeological factors and distribution of ultramafic rocks in the northern part of the study area indicate that these toxic trace elements in water were derived from mine dumps.

  6. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-bo; Ip, Carman C M; Zhang, Gan; Jiang, Gui-bin; Li, Xiang-dong

    2010-05-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201ng/g, with an average of 54.4ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the (210)Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades.

  7. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote–rural village–urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. PMID:20199833

  8. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.T.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Xue, M.A.; Zhao, J.Y.; Zhang, N.; Wang, R.; Cao, J.; Tao, S. [Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2010-05-15

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources.

  9. Transport of gaseous NO2 and SO2 by MAX-DOAS in Beijing and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Li, Ang; Xie, Pinhua; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-04-01

    With the development of industry and urbanization, regional pollution is increasing seriously, and the cross influence between cities is becoming more frequently. Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) has been successfully applied in the remote sensing of gaseous pollutants during the past decade, it is based on scattered light of the sun, and can measure spectral in different directions, measure tropospheric and the whole atmospheric column densities of trace gases combining with radiative transfer model (RTM). This approach is very useful for the investigation of the main path of air pollution transportation. Fifteen MAX-DOAS stations which are in urban and in the path of pollution transport are set up in Beijing and surrounding area including Tianjin and Hebei province to observe the spatial and temporal distributions and regional transport of gaseous NO2 and SO2. The NO2 VCDs and profiles and SO2 VCDs are obtained. The results show that the NO2 column densities in urban are higher than surroundings, it shows that the NO2 in Beijing is mainly from the local; The SO2 column densities in other cities to the south of Beijing are obviously higher than in Beijing, so regional transport from the south of Hebei province will have a significant impact on Beijing. From the results of NO2 and SO2, the whole pollution process including incubation, generation, duration, and dispersion was observed. The vertical distribution show that NO2 concentration is mainly near the surface from 0 to 400m, and SO2 is higher in the transport process.

  10. Mountain Land Use Planning of Metropolitan Suburbs: the Case of the Jinyun Mountain and Its Surrounding area, Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jingan; WEI Chaofu; XIE Deti

    2005-01-01

    Open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain region, has been increasingly becoming the coupling mosaic structure of industrial actions and landscape behaviors. However, the local governments, when making land use planning, often aim at economic development, and rarely refer to the coordination of compatibilities and conflicts between industrial actions and landscape behaviors in the mosaic structure. In this study land use in the Jinyun Mountain and its surrounding area, Chongqing is adjusted by gray multi-objective programming approach and local-level decision-making process to cope with conflicts between objectives for human welfare and objectives for landscape conservation. The results indicate that: 1) the compatibilities and conflicts among different behavior characters and different landscape types result in the compatibilities of landscape to human behavior; 2) a land use planning in the study area is produced based on the sustainable land use and social-eco development, which pays more attention to the resources and environment constraints and economic objectives, and follows the distribution law of rare resources; 3) in the study area, cultivated land of 1,207.27 ha can meet the demands for food and byproducts by the residents there, orchard land and forestland of 632.55 ha, 2,276.61 ha, respectively can provide enough space for the local people to improve their living structure and meet their demands for recreational activities, and urban residential land, rural residential land, mining land and transportation land of 1,107.60 ha, 120.27 ha, 162.48 ha, 100.91 ha, respectively can satisfy the resident's economic development and infrastructures; 4) the equilibrium among industrial actions, landscape accessibility and ecological conservation can be obtained by analyzing the possible impacts of human activities on landscape ecological process in open space of metropolitan suburbs in mountain areas.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background.

  12. Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 11–12 km. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in Northwest India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar. Comparisons with the OMI and MODIS measurements show the unique capability of the CALIPSO lidar to provide unambiguous, altitude-resolved dust measurements.

  13. Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyan Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Airborne dust is a major environmental hazard in Asia. Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 10 km and higher. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in North India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar.

  14. Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitiro Suguio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

  15. Analysis of the Radiopollution of the City of Sarajevo and its Surrounding Area with Regard to Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huremović, J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great attention has been focused on the research of problems related to the environment and processes occurring within it. The accident that occurred at Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl (1986 unquestionably warned that global pollution with radioactive substances on a continent scale may be expected. The past twenty years have been marked with the utilization of metal uranium – a depleted isotope of uranium-235 for various purposes. Today, depleted uranium has found its use in modern armies and it is used as efficient ammunition against armored military systems.There are estimates about the usage of ammunition with depleted uranium deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war (1992–1995. The region of Bosnia and Herzegovina was exposed to the direct influence of the global dispersion processes that had occurred in May 1986 as a consequence of emissions originating from Nuclear Power Plant “Lenin” in Chernobyl. In thiswork the radionuclides fraction analysis (238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K i 137Cs of surface samples (0–5 cm originating from the City of Sarajevo and its surroundings has been presented. The soil samples were taken from nine locations in the city and the surrounding area: Blekin potok, Kobilja glava, Bentbaša, Vraca, Prirodno-matematieki fakultet (PMF, Aziai, Hrasnica, Butmir, and Blažuj. The analyses were performed at the Department for Environment of Jo?ef Štefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Ge HP detector connected to Ortec MCA Gamma Vision 32 Software was used in addition to the Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique (INAA.The results of the analysis were compared with data available for the City of Sarajevo (years 1986, 1987 and 1988 and Slovenia. Analyses were made after Chernobyl catastrophe. Almost all of radionuclides analysed have shown to have a slightly higher specific radioactivity when compared to the data obtained in 1986, 1987 and 1989 for the City of Sarajevo. Our results

  16. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  17. Analysis of the Magnitude and Frequency of Peak Discharge and Maximum Observed Peak Discharge in New Mexico and Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltemeyer, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the magnitude and frequency of peak discharges are necessary for the reliable design of bridges, culverts, and open-channel hydraulic analysis, and for flood-hazard mapping in New Mexico and surrounding areas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Department of Transportation, updated estimates of peak-discharge magnitude for gaging stations in the region and updated regional equations for estimation of peak discharge and frequency at ungaged sites. Equations were developed for estimating the magnitude of peak discharges for recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 500 years at ungaged sites by use of data collected through 2004 for 293 gaging stations on unregulated streams that have 10 or more years of record. Peak discharges for selected recurrence intervals were determined at gaging stations by fitting observed data to a log-Pearson Type III distribution with adjustments for a low-discharge threshold and a zero skew coefficient. A low-discharge threshold was applied to frequency analysis of 140 of the 293 gaging stations. This application provides an improved fit of the log-Pearson Type III frequency distribution. Use of the low-discharge threshold generally eliminated the peak discharge by having a recurrence interval of less than 1.4 years in the probability-density function. Within each of the nine regions, logarithms of the maximum peak discharges for selected recurrence intervals were related to logarithms of basin and climatic characteristics by using stepwise ordinary least-squares regression techniques for exploratory data analysis. Generalized least-squares regression techniques, an improved regression procedure that accounts for time and spatial sampling errors, then were applied to the same data used in the ordinary least-squares regression analyses. The average standard error of prediction, which includes average sampling error and average standard error of regression, ranged from 38 to 93 percent

  18. Petrology of an aegirine-riebeckite gneiss-bearing part of the Hesperian massif: The Galiñeiro and surrounding areas, Vigo, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floor, P.

    1967-01-01

    The investigated area forms part of the crystalline basement of the southwestern half of the Iberian peninsula (Hesperian Massif). In it, Precambrian paragneisses of predominantly greywacke composition surround granite-gneisses with whole-rock Rb-Sr ages of 486-500 m.y. Hercynian granites are intrus

  19. Chapter D. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems in the Willamette River Basin and Surrounding Area, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Johnson, Henry M.; Hughes, Curt A.; Sarantou, Michael J.; Rinella, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 watersheds along a gradient of urbanization in the Willamette River basin and surrounding area, Oregon and Washington, from 2003 through 2005. The study that generated the report is one of several urban-effects studies completed nationally by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural variability caused by factors such as geology, elevation, and climate, and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among watersheds. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, a combination of land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated into a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) to represent the degree of urban development in each watershed. Physical characteristics studied include stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied include sulfate, chloride, nutrients, pesticides, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, and suspended sediment; and biological characteristics studied include algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages. Semipermeable membrane devices, passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization and (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities. Common effects documented in the literature of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased contaminants, increased streamflow flashiness, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in

  20. Distribution of inorganic and organic contaminants in sediments from Sydney Olympic Park and the surrounding Sydney metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Rawson, Christopher A; Kookana, Rai S; Warne, Michael St J; Peng, Ping-An; Li, Xiao-Ming; Laginestra, Edwina; Tremblay, Louis A; Chapman, John C; Lim, Richard P

    2009-09-01

    Organic and inorganic contamination was assessed for sediments from wetlands and water bodies within the Sydney Olympic Park (SOP, remediated sites) and its surroundings (unremediated sites) and urban reference sites in the Sydney Basin. Among the seven elements analysed (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn), Zn concentrations were the highest, followed by Pb, Cu and Cr in the sediments of SOP. Significantly higher concentrations (p 0.05) in concentrations were found for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as DDTs between sediments from SOP and the urban reference sites. Source indicators suggest that PAHs in the sediments originated from combustion processes. Two distinct groups of dioxin profiles were observed within SOP and its surroundings. Levels of dioxins were more than 100 pg WHO-TEQ/g dry weight of sediment at five sites adjacent to the SOP boundaries. Based on the findings of the chemical profiles of the contaminants, the remediated sites in SOP can be regarded as similar to the urban reference sites within the Sydney Basin, while the adjacent unremediated sites have higher concentrations, especially of dioxins, that could still affect organisms in the aquatic environment.

  1. Wide-Area Interference Spectroscopy of the Ionized Gas Surrounding the OCL-352 (IC-1805) Stellar Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomos, Nikolaos

    We investigated the global kinematics of the giant ionized shell IC1805 centred a (l,b)=(134.7deg,+0.92deg)at a distance of -2.3 Kpc and surrounding the Ocl352, within Cassiopeia OB6 stellar association. Fabry-Perot interference spectroscopy data in the light of [SIII]9530.9A have been used to obtain the radial velocity field of the IC1795/IC1805 (W3/W4) region as a means to probe the large scale gas motions around Cass Ocl-352. The observations are discussed and interpreted in conjuction with radioastronomical and optical data available. A new empirical model is proposed to account for the complex kinematical structure of the region. As was suggested by Solomos (Ph.D Thesis, 1991)the region is a leaking HII shell with the ionized gas flowing to the North escaping from the galactic plane.

  2. Environmental assessment of the area surrounding Dam Rio Verde - Parana/Brazil. An overview of environmental geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Carrijo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Sessegolo, Gisele; Passos, Everton

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a brief essay on the situation in which the environment of the dam of the Rio Verde Basin-Parana, from the vision of environmental geomorphology. The area is located between the cities of Campo Magro and Campo Largo, Paraná plateau in the first part of theAlto Iguaçu basin. This study aims to raise the concepts relating to environmental geomorphology, to identify the anthropogenic impacts caused in the reservoir areas, identify the environmental compartments found around the dam and characterize the geologic and physiographic region. It was found that the area has intense anthropogenic influence, as urban growth is present in areas and wavy and rough terrain, subject to mass movements and floods. Besides these aspects, the use of land for agriculture contributes to fragility of the area.

  3. Composition of torched crude oil organic particulate emitted by refinery and its similarity to atmospheric aerosol in the surrounding area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Cecinato, Angelo

    2005-09-01

    The absolute contents and relative distributions of organic aerosols [n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)] were determined in torched gases emitted during the crude oil extraction and in the free atmosphere of the Hassi-Messaoud city (Algeria). Monocarboxylic acids, both saturated and monounsaturated (from 9802 to 20,057 ng m(-3)), accounted for the major fraction of the total particulate organic matter identified both in torch exhaust and atmospheric particulate. n-Alkanes were also abundant both in the direct emission (from 460 to 632 ng m(-3)) and city atmosphere (462 ng m(-3)) and displayed a peculiar fingerprint characterised by the presence of a set of branched congeners around even carbon-numbered homologues and a strong even-to-odd predominance along the whole carbon number range (C16-C34). Whilst n-alkan-2-ones were absent in the city and poor in smokes emitted from the torches (from 31 to 42 ng m(-3)), PAH were present at low extents in all sites (from 18 to 65 ng m(-3)). The incomplete thermal combustion of torched crude oil was very likely the main source of these particle-bound organic constituents in the city and its surrounding region.

  4. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs.

  5. Visual Responsiveness of Neurons in the Secondary Somatosensory Area and its Surrounding Parietal Operculum Regions in Awake Macaque Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hihara, Sayaka; Taoka, Miki; Tanaka, Michio; Iriki, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Previous neurophysiological studies performed in macaque monkeys have shown that the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) is essentially engaged in the processing of somatosensory information and no other sensory input has been reported. In contrast, recent human brain-imaging studies have revealed the effects of visual and auditory stimuli on SII activity, which suggest multisensory integration in the human SII. To determine whether multisensory responses of the SII also exist in nonhuman primates, we recorded single-unit activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli from the SII and surrounding regions in 8 hemispheres from 6 awake monkeys. Among 1157 recorded neurons, 306 neurons responded to visual stimuli. These visual neurons usually responded to rather complex stimuli, such as stimulation of the peripersonal space (40.5%), observation of human action (29.1%), and moving-object stimulation outside the monkey's reach (23.9%). We occasionally applied auditory stimuli to visual neurons and found 10 auditory-responsive neurons that exhibited somatosensory responses. The visual neurons were distributed continuously along the lateral sulcus covering the entire SII, along with other somatosensory neurons. These results highlight the need to investigate novel functional roles-other than somesthetic sensory processing-of the SII.

  6. Compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data, Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas of southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    This document is a compilation of available radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data for volcanic rocks and episodes of hydrothermal activity in Yucca Mountain and the surrounding region of southwestern Nevada. Only the age determinations considered to be geologically reasonable (consistent with stratigraphic relations) are listed below. A number of the potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages of volcanic rocks given by Kistler, Marvin et al., Noble et al., Weiss et al., and Noble et al. are not included as these ages have been shown to be incorrect or disturbed by hydrothermal alteration based on subsequent stratigraphic and/or petrographic data and the recognition of errors in K-Ar age determinations related to incomplete extraction of argon. In cases where absolute ages are tightly constrained by high precision {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages and unequivocal stratigraphic relations, we have omitted the less precise K-Ar age data. Similarly, the more precise single-crystal laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age determinations of certain units are reported and less precise ages by multi-grain bulk-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are not included. This compilation does not include age data for basaltic rocks of Pliocene and Quaternary age in the Yucca Mountain region.

  7. 2009年6至7月华南地区电离层TEC扰动研究%Study of the South China Ionospheric TEC Disturbances During June-July 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄江; 邓柏昌; 刘伟峰; 徐杰; 黄林峰; 赵文化

    2011-01-01

    电离层TEC(Total Electron Content)扰动与多种扰动源相关联.2009年6至7月期间存在地震和日全食的扰动源.利用广州地区GPS监测网在2009年6至7月连续监测到的TEC数据,通过采用前15天数据的滑动窗口对数据进行处理,从时间序列和空间分布两方面分析了华南地区电离层TEC扰动特征.结果显示,2009年6至7月华南地区电离层TEC扰动和该时期发生的地震以及日全食事件可能有关联;2009年7月多个地震发生引起的电离层扰动特征为,震前出现的是正异常,发震当天或震后有可能是正异常,也有可能是负异常;7月22日日全食当天TEC扰动为正异常,推测该正异常是地磁活动、地震活动及日全食综合效应的结果.%There are many origins of ionospheric TEC (Total Electron Content) disturbances during June-July 2009, including several earthquakes and a total solar eclipse. In current study, using the GFS-TEC date observed during June-July 2009 in Guangzhou GPS station and processed by a sliding window with the data of prior 15 days, the characters of South China ionosphere are investigated in spatial and temporal distribution. The results indicate that there are possible relations between the South China ionospheric TEC disturbances and seismic-activities as well as total solar eclipse during June-July 2009. The characters of ionospheric TEC disturbance induced by several earthquakes are commented as follows: positive values before earthquake, positive values or negative values near and after the occurrence of earthquake, even more, that the positive values on the day of total solar eclipse (22 July 2009) may be accounted for magnetic activities, seismic activities and total solar eclipse.

  8. The diurnal and seasonal characteristics of urban heat island variation in Beijing city and surrounding areas and impact factors based on remote sensing satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jiahua; HOU Yingyu; LI Guicai; YAN Hao YANG Limin; YAO Fengmei

    2005-01-01

    Based on the land surface temperature (LST), the land cover classification map,vegetation coverage, and surface evapotranspiration derived from EOS-MODIS satellite data, and by the use of GIS spatial analytic technique and multivariate statistical analysis method, the urban heat island (UHI) spatial distribution of the diurnal and seasonal variabilities and its driving forces are studied in Beijing city and surrounding areas in 2001. The relationships among UHI distribution and landcover categories, topographic factor, vegetation greenness, and surface evapotranspiration are analyzed. The results indicate that: (i) The significant UHI occur in Beijing city areas in the four seasons due to high heat capacity and multi-reflection of compression building, as well as with special topographic features of its three sides surrounded by mountains,especially in the summer. The UHI spatial distribution is corresponding with the urban geometry structure profile. The LST difference is approximately 4-6℃ between Beijing city and suburb areas, comparatively is 8- 10℃ between Beijing city area and outer suburb area in northwestern regions. (ii) The UHI distribution and intensity in daytime are different from nighttime in Beijing city area, the nighttime UHI is obvious. However, in the daytime, the significant UHI mainly appears in the summer, the autumn takes second place, and the UHI in the winter and the spring seem not obvious. The surface evapotranspiration in suburb areas is larger than that in urban areas in the summer, and high latent heat exchange is evident, which leads to LST difference between city area and suburb area. (iii) The reflection of surface landcover categories is sensitive to the UHI, the correlation between vegetation greenness and UHI shows obviously negative.The scatterplot shows that there is the negative correlation between NDVI and LST (R2 = 0.6481).The results demonstrate that the vegetation greenness is an important factor for reducing the UHI

  9. Ground stress and its impact on the stability of the surrounding rock in the Lüliang mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lianguo; Lu Yinlong

    2011-01-01

    Ground stress is the fundamental cause of deformation and failure during underground structural engineering.Field stress measurements in the main coal bed in the Lüliang mining area were made by the bore hole,stress relief method.From these data the ground stress distribution of the mining area was obtained.The relationship between the horizontal principal stress and the deformation and failure of a roadway is discussed with an engineering example.The results indicate that horizontal stress dominates in the shallow crust in the Lüliang mining area.Roadways at different angles to the maximum principal stress have different levels of stress concentration.This leads to a significant difference in stability of the corresponding roadways.These research results provide an important criterion for determining roadway position and direction,stope layout,and roadway support design.

  10. Developing a Spatially Distributed Terrestrial Biogeochemical Cycle Modeling System to Support the Management of Fort Benning and its Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    39  Figure 25. Spatial variation and temporal changes of soil...stock, major management/disturbance events, biomass removal, etc. (3) Any ground measurements (e.g. leaf area index, canopy cover, tree phenology ...Therefore, it is important to incorporate the impacts of spatial variation of soil and vegetation into the calculation of flow accumulation. In this

  11. Developing a Terrestrial Biogeochemical Cycle Modeling System to Support the Management of Fort Benning and its Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    39  Figure 25. Spatial variation and temporal changes of soil erosion and...major management/disturbance events, biomass removal, etc. (3) Any ground measurements (e.g. leaf area index, canopy cover, tree phenology ) that helps...it is important to incorporate the impacts of spatial variation of soil and vegetation into the calculation of flow accumulation. In this study, we

  12. Energy-Efficient Shaping of Contemporary Buildings and Their Surroundings as an Essential Element of Modernization of Built-Up Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocheński, Stanisław; Bocheńska-Skałecka, Anna; Kuczyński, Tadeusz

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive design of a building along with the development of a surrounding land may counterbalance the tendency of housing estates comprising houses built on the basis of "ready-made projects" - which have no references to the existing urban tissue and which do not create a new one. In the first place, the energy intensity of buildings using the so-called passive methods should be lowered, and only then active systems should be applied, considering economic balance. The problem should be considered from two different perspectives i.e. for intensively and for less urbanised areas. The article results in the formulation of guidelines for energy-efficient modernization of contemporary buildings and their surroundings.

  13. Energy-Efficient Shaping of Contemporary Buildings and Their Surroundings as an Essential Element of Modernization of Built-Up Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocheński Stanisław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive design of a building along with the development of a surrounding land may counterbalance the tendency of housing estates comprising houses built on the basis of “ready-made projects” - which have no references to the existing urban tissue and which do not create a new one. In the first place, the energy intensity of buildings using the so-called passive methods should be lowered, and only then active systems should be applied, considering economic balance. The problem should be considered from two different perspectives i.e. for intensively and for less urbanised areas. The article results in the formulation of guidelines for energy-efficient modernization of contemporary buildings and their surroundings.

  14. The impact of atmospheric dust deposition and trace elements levels on the villages surrounding the former mining areas in a semi-arid environment (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Bisquert, David; Matías Peñas Castejón, José; García Fernández, Gregorio

    2017-03-01

    It is understood that particulate matter in the atmosphere from metallic mining waste has adverse health effects on populations living nearby. Atmospheric deposition is a process connecting the mining wasteswith nearby ecosystems. Unfortunately, very limited information is available about atmospheric deposition surrounding rural metallic mining areas. This article will focus on the deposition from mining areas, combined with its impact on nearby rural built areas and populations. Particle samples were collected between June 2011 and March 2013. They were collected according to Spanish legislation in ten specialised dust collectors. They were located near populations close to a former Mediterranean mining area, plus a control, to assess the impact of mining waste on these villages. This article and its results have been made through an analysis of atmospheric deposition of these trace elements (Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). It also includes an analysis of total dust flux. Within this analysis it has considered the spatial variations of atmospheric deposition flux in these locations. The average annual level of total bulk deposition registered was 42.0 g m-2 per year. This was higher than most of the areas affected by a Mediterranean climate or in semi-arid conditions around the world. Regarding the overall analysis of trace elements, the annual bulk deposition fluxes of total Zn far exceeded the values of other areas. While Mn, Cd and Pb showed similar or lower values, and in part much lower than those described in other Mediterranean mining areas. This study confirmed some spatial variability of dust and trace elements, contained within the atmospheric deposition. From both an environmental and a public health perspective, environmental managers must take into account the cumulative effect of the deposition of trace elements on the soil and air quality around and within the villages surrounding metallic mining areas.

  15. Salinity minima, water masses and surface circulation in the Eastern Tropical Pacific off Mexico and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Esther; Beier, Emilio; Godínez, Victor; Castro, Rubén; Desmond Barton, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal variations of the water masses and their interactions are analyzed in the Tropical Pacific off Mexico (TPOM) and four contiguous areas of on the basis of new extensive hydrographic database. The regional water masses intervals are redefined in terms of Absolute Salinity (SA) in g kg-1 and Conservative Temperature (Θ) according to TEOS - 10. The California Current System Water (CCSW) mass is introduced as an improved description of the former California Current Water (CCW) together with the Subarctic Water (SAW) to describe better the characteristics of the components of the California Current System. Hydrographic data, Precipitation-Evaporation balance and geostrophic currents were used to investigate the origin and seasonality of two salinity minima in the area. The shallow salinity minimum of around 33.5 g kg-1 originated in the California Current System and became saltier but less dense water as it traveled to the southeast. It can be identified as a mixture of CCSW and tropical waters. The surface salinity minimum of 32 - 33 g kg-1 was seen as a sharp surface feature in the TPOM from August to November. It was produced by the arrival of tropical waters from the south in combination with the net precipitation in the area during these months. This result provides new evidence of the presence of the poleward-flowing Mexican Coastal Current and, for the first time, of its seasonal pattern of variation.

  16. Ground-water hydrology of Ogden Valley and surrounding area, eastern Weber County, UT, and simulation of ground-water flow in the Valley-fill aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The ground-water resources in Ogden Valley, eastern Weber County, Utah, were the subject of a study to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic system in the valley and to estimate the hydrologic effects of future ground-water development. The study area included the drainage basin of the Ogden River upstream from Pineview Reservoir dam and the drainage basin of Wheeler Creek. Ogden Valley and the surrounding area are underlain by rocks that range in age from Precambrian to Quaternary.The consolidated rocks that transmit and yield the most water in the area surrounding Ogden Valley are the Paleozoic carbonate rocks and the Wasatch Formation of Tertiary age. Much of the recharge to the consolidated rocks is from snowmelt that infiltrates the Wasatch Formation, which underlies a large part of the study area. Discharge from the consolidated rocks is by streams, evapotranspiration, springs, subsurface outflow, and pumping from wells. Water in the consolidated rocks is a calcium bicarbonate type and has a dissolved-solids concentration of less than 250 milligrams per liter.

  17. Preliminary Findings of Petrology and Geochemistry of The Aladaǧ Volcanic System and Surrounding Areas (Kars, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Olgun; Keskin, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    Between the towns of Sarıkamış and Kaǧızman, NE Turkey, a medium-sized strato-volcano with satellite cones and domes on its slopes unconformably overlies the Erzurum-Kars Volcanic Plateau (EKVP) with a subhorizontal contact. It is called the Aladaǧ volcanic system (AVS). Dating results indicate that the AVS is Pliocene in age. The EKVP is known to be formed by a widespread volcanism between Middle Miocene to Pliocene. The young volcanism in E Turkey including the study area is linked to a collision between the Eurasia and Arabian continents, started almost 15 Ma ago. The EKVP lies over 2000 m above the sea level, and is deeply cut by the river Aras. On the slopes of the valley, one of the best volcano-stratigraphic transects of Eastern Anatolia, almost half a km thick, is exposed. That transect is composed of aphyric andesites-dacites, ignimbrites, tuffs, perlite and obsidian bands. Pyroclastic fall and surge-related pumice deposits are also widespread. Top of the plateau is composed of the andesitic to basaltic andesitic lavas containing plagioclase (Plg) and ortho/clino pyroxene (Opx/Cpx) phenocrysts set in glassy groundmass. In the northwest of the study area, an eroded stratovolcano, probably coeval with the plateau sequence is situated. It also consists of high-silica rhyolites and pyroclastic equivalents. The AVS is composed basically of intermediate lavas. The largest volcanic edifice of the Aladaǧ volcanic system, namely the Greater Aladaǧ stratovolcano reaches up to 3000 m height and includes a horseshoe shaped crater open to the North. Small volcanic cones and domes sit on the flanks of the Greater Aladaǧ volcano. The Aladaǧ lavas are divided into four sub-groups on the basis of their stratigraphic positions, mineral assemblages and textural properties. (1) The oldest products of the Greater Aladaǧ stratovolcano are andesitic and dasitic lavas. They directly sit on the EKVP. These are Plg and Opx/Cpx bearing lavas with porphric, vitrophyric

  18. Traditional Versus Congruent Arc Latarjet Technique: Effect on Surface Area for Union and Bone Width Surrounding Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Guillaume D; Vopat, Bryan G; Parada, Stephen; Cohn, Randy; Makani, Amun; Sanchez, George; Golijanin, Petar; Beaulieu-Jones, Brendin R; Sanchez, Anthony; Provencher, Matthew T

    2017-05-01

    To compare the surface area available for bony contact and the width of bone on each side of the Latarjet fixation screws in the traditional Latarjet technique versus the congruent arc modification of the Latarjet technique. Computed tomographic scans of 24 shoulders in patients with glenohumeral instability who underwent multiplanar reconstruction measurements with multiple dimensions of the coracoid. The surface area of the coracoid available for bony contact with the anterior glenoid and width of bone on each side of a 3.5-mm screw was compared for the traditional Latarjet technique versus the congruent arc modification. The surface area available for bony contact to the anterior glenoid was 5.65 ± 1.08 cm(2) using the traditional Latarjet technique compared with 3.64 ± 0.93 cm(2) using the congruent arc modification of the Latarjet technique (P Latarjet technique compared with 4.1 ± 1.0 mm using the congruent arc modification (P Latarjet technique has greater bony contact with the glenoid and greater bone width on each side of the screws compared with the congruent arc modification of the Latarjet technique. This potentially allows for a larger surface for healing in the traditional Latarjet technique. Moreover, because of smaller width of the bone around the screw, the congruent arc modification is potentially less tolerant of screw-positioning error compared with the traditional Latarjet technique. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of Potential Location of High Arsenic Contamination Using Fuzzy Overlay and Spatial Anisotropy Approach in Iron Mine Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanes Weerasiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy overlay approach on three raster maps including land slope, soil type, and distance to stream can be used to identify the most potential locations of high arsenic contamination in soils. Verification of high arsenic contamination was made by collection samples and analysis of arsenic content and interpolation surface by spatial anisotropic method. A total of 51 soil samples were collected at the potential contaminated location clarified by fuzzy overlay approach. At each location, soil samples were taken at the depth of 0.00-1.00 m from the surface ground level. Interpolation surface of the analysed arsenic content using spatial anisotropic would verify the potential arsenic contamination location obtained from fuzzy overlay outputs. Both outputs of the spatial surface anisotropic and the fuzzy overlay mapping were significantly spatially conformed. Three contaminated areas with arsenic concentrations of 7.19±2.86, 6.60±3.04, and 4.90±2.67 mg/kg exceeded the arsenic content of 3.9 mg/kg, the maximum concentration level (MCL for agricultural soils as designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. It is concluded that fuzzy overlay mapping could be employed for identification of potential contamination area with the verification by surface anisotropic approach including intensive sampling and analysis of the substances of interest.

  20. Assessment of potential location of high arsenic contamination using fuzzy overlay and spatial anisotropy approach in iron mine surrounding area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasiri, Thanes; Wirojanagud, Wanpen; Srisatit, Thares

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy overlay approach on three raster maps including land slope, soil type, and distance to stream can be used to identify the most potential locations of high arsenic contamination in soils. Verification of high arsenic contamination was made by collection samples and analysis of arsenic content and interpolation surface by spatial anisotropic method. A total of 51 soil samples were collected at the potential contaminated location clarified by fuzzy overlay approach. At each location, soil samples were taken at the depth of 0.00-1.00 m from the surface ground level. Interpolation surface of the analysed arsenic content using spatial anisotropic would verify the potential arsenic contamination location obtained from fuzzy overlay outputs. Both outputs of the spatial surface anisotropic and the fuzzy overlay mapping were significantly spatially conformed. Three contaminated areas with arsenic concentrations of 7.19 ± 2.86, 6.60 ± 3.04, and 4.90 ± 2.67 mg/kg exceeded the arsenic content of 3.9 mg/kg, the maximum concentration level (MCL) for agricultural soils as designated by Office of National Environment Board of Thailand. It is concluded that fuzzy overlay mapping could be employed for identification of potential contamination area with the verification by surface anisotropic approach including intensive sampling and analysis of the substances of interest.

  1. The geology of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area: A field trip for the 28th International Geological Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKague, H.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Orkild, P.P. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA); Mattson, S.R. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1989-07-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established to provide an area for continental testing of nuclear devices. Geologists from the US Geological Survey (USGS) mapped much of the NTS region. These maps formed the basis for subsequent studies by geologic support groups from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and the USGS. A good geologic understanding of the stratigraphy, structure, geochemistry, and physical properties of the rocks is essential for adequate containment of underground nuclear tests. Many of the recent geologic studies at NTS, particularly in Yucca Flat, Pahute Mesa, and Mid Valley, are aimed at understanding subsurface geology to help ensure complete containment. Studies performed in conjunction with nuclear testing and radioactive waste isolation have addressed many aspects of the geologic history of NTS, which have in turn greatly enhanced our understanding of the geology of the southern Great Basin. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The Bajada del Diablo astrobleme-strewn field, central Patagonia Argentina: Extending the exploration to surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, R. D.; Rabassa, J.; Ponce, J. F.; Martínez, O.; Orgeira, M. J.; Prezzi, C.; Corbella, H.; González-Guillot, M.; Rocca, M.; Subías, I.; Vásquez, C.

    2012-10-01

    The Bajada del Diablo astrobleme-strewn field is a huge domain of enigmatic circular structures located in central Patagonia. Three more localities are herein described, adding to the first area studied so far. Taking into consideration the four areas, a single, blurred crater dispersion ellipse has been identified. The four sectors now have been investigated, mapped, and georreferenced. Their circular structures, with a total of 185 (some of which are partially obliterated by erosion or sediment accumulation), were identified by remote sensing techniques, but many have been evaluated in situ and interpreted as impact craters. Moreover, two of the structures have been surveyed in detail in the field using a total station instrument. In addition to the previously known occurrence of circular structures on the Eruptive Complex Quiñelaf (Miocene basalts), the Pampa Sastre Fm. (Pliocene conglomerates), and of the Pleistocene pediment gravels and sands, and the geomorphological inferences that have suggested the extra-terrestrial origin of this event, we should now add that the recurrent absence of the cited Pliocene stratigraphic unit at the bottom of the craters is found in the pediment gravel and sands. Its removal has been interpreted as directly related to the impact, according to the magnetometric record of existing magnetic anomalies. Other preliminary observations on the collected samples (glass, breccias, and, most relevant, Fe-Ni-bearing spherules picked up within the impact zones) are herein discussed. Two hypotheses have been put forward about the nature of the possible impacting object that formed these astroblemes which, fragmented into hundreds of pieces, hit the surface of the Earth most likely in middle Pleistocene times. One of these hypotheses is related to the impact of a disintegrated asteroid of the rubble pile type, whereas a second hypothesis refers to the collision of a split comet with the Earth surface. The latter hypothesis is favoured since

  3. Determination of benzene, toluene ,ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX in ambient air painting workshops car compared to the air surrounding residential areas during winter 1394 in Yazd city .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Salmani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Title: Determination of benzene, toluene ,ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX in ambient air painting workshops car compared to the air surrounding residential areas during winter 1394 in Yazd city . MH.Salmani1 , MH. Ehrampoush2, MH.Mosadegh3 , SMH. Sharifi4* 1Depatment of Health , School of Health , Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,YAZD, IRAN 2Depatment of Health , School of Health , Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,YAZD, IRAN 3Depatment of Pharmacology , School of Pharmacy , Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,YAZD, IRAN 4Student of M.Sc Environmental Health Enginiering , international branch , Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences,YAZD, IRAN ( Responder Introduction: benzene, toluene , ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX such as volatile organic compounds and air pollutants are important that have similar chemical and physical properties. The compounds in solvents, petrochemicals and colors plentiful and are released and even in small amounts as well as the risks to industry employees and the surrounding residential areas along their industry (50 meters radius around. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of these pollutants in ambient air car paint workshops, as well as residential areas around the city of Yazd. Materials and Methods: In this study, environmental air from air painting workshops Yazd city cars in winter 1394 and residential areas surrounding air workshop by Tedlar bags and personal sampling pump were collected and using gas chromatography (GC / FID analysis and evaluation of data were then with statistical software SPSS-16 were analyzed. Results: The results showed that the average concentration and standard deviation of pollutants benzene, toluene , ethyl benzene and xylene in the ambient air painting workshops are (2/14 ± 0/73 , (4/09 ± 1/97, (1/08 ± 0/290 and (3/05 ± 1/00 ppm  and the average concentration and standard deviation of pollutants benzene

  4. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  5. Occurrence and hydrogeochemistry of radiochemical constituents in groundwater of Jefferson County and surrounding areas, southwestern Montana, 2007 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Nimick, David A.; DeVaney, Rainie M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Jefferson County and the Jefferson Valley Conservation District, sampled groundwater in southwestern Montana to evaluate the occurrence and concentration of naturally-occurring radioactive constituents and to identify geologic settings and environmental conditions in which elevated concentrations occur. A total of 168 samples were collected from 128 wells within Broadwater, Deer Lodge, Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, Madison, Powell, and Silver Bow Counties from 2007 through 2010. Most wells were used for domestic purposes and were primary sources of drinking water for individual households. Water-quality samples were collected from wells completed within six generalized geologic units, and analyzed for constituents including uranium, radon, gross alpha-particle activity, and gross beta-particle activity. Thirty-eight wells with elevated concentrations or activities were sampled a second time to examine variability in water quality throughout time. These water-quality samples were analyzed for an expanded list of radioactive constituents including the following: three isotopes of uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238), three isotopes of radium (radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228), and polonium-210. Existing U.S. Geological Survey and Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology uranium and radon water-quality data collected as part of other investigations through 2011 from wells within the study area were compiled as part of this investigation. Water-quality data from this study were compared to data collected nationwide by the U.S. Geological Survey through 2011. Radionuclide samples for this study typically were analyzed within a few days after collection, and therefore data for this study may closely represent the concentrations and activities of water being consumed locally from domestic wells. Radioactive constituents were detected in water from every well sampled during this study regardless of location or

  6. Microbial quality of soft drinks served by the dispensing machines in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in Griffin, Georgia, and surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial quality of the soft drinks served by fast food restaurants and gas station convenience stores in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas. The soft drinks were collected from the dispensing machines in 8 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2005 (n = 25) and in 10 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2006 (n = 43) and 2007 (n = 43). One hundred milliliters of each soft drink was filtered through a hydrophobic grid membrane filter. The remaining portion of the soft drink was kept at room temperature for 4 h before sampling in order to mimic the possible holding time between purchase and consumption. The membrane filters were sampled for total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. The microbial counts in the 2006 samples were numerically higher than the counts in the 2007 samples except for the average lactic acid bacteria counts, and were either significantly or numerically higher than the counts in the 2005 samples. Soft drinks sampled after the 4-h holding period had relatively higher counts than those sampled initially, with a few exceptions. Some soft drinks had over 4 log CFU/100 ml of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold cells. The study revealed the microbial quality of soft drinks served by dispensing machines in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas, emphasizing the importance of effective sanitizing practice in retail settings.

  7. Determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations in surface and underground waters in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Obiri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide in water samples in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana have been measured in this study. Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide were found to be above the maximum permissible discharge limit of effluent from mining companies into natural waters set by Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana (GEPA. A comparison of the results obtained in this study with permissible levels set by US Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization reveals that surface waters in the study areas are highly polluted with cyanide and it's not safe for human consumptions. This means that, the resident in and around Bogoso are at risk.

  8. Occurrence and hydrogeochemistry of radiochemical constituents in groundwater of Jefferson County and surrounding areas, southwestern Montana, 2007 through 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Rodney R.; Nimick, David A.; DeVaney, Rainie M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Jefferson County and the Jefferson Valley Conservation District, sampled groundwater in southwestern Montana to evaluate the occurrence and concentration of naturally-occurring radioactive constituents and to identify geologic settings and environmental conditions in which elevated concentrations occur. A total of 168 samples were collected from 128 wells within Broadwater, Deer Lodge, Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, Madison, Powell, and Silver Bow Counties from 2007 through 2010. Most wells were used for domestic purposes and were primary sources of drinking water for individual households. Water-quality samples were collected from wells completed within six generalized geologic units, and analyzed for constituents including uranium, radon, gross alpha-particle activity, and gross beta-particle activity. Thirty-eight wells with elevated concentrations or activities were sampled a second time to examine variability in water quality throughout time. These water-quality samples were analyzed for an expanded list of radioactive constituents including the following: three isotopes of uranium (uranium-234, uranium-235, and uranium-238), three isotopes of radium (radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228), and polonium-210. Existing U.S. Geological Survey and Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology uranium and radon water-quality data collected as part of other investigations through 2011 from wells within the study area were compiled as part of this investigation. Water-quality data from this study were compared to data collected nationwide by the U.S. Geological Survey through 2011. Radionuclide samples for this study typically were analyzed within a few days after collection, and therefore data for this study may closely represent the concentrations and activities of water being consumed locally from domestic wells. Radioactive constituents were detected in water from every well sampled during this study regardless of location or

  9. Assessment of potential migration of radionuclides and trace elements from the White Mesa uranium mill to the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation and surrounding areas, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Marston, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent evaluation of potential offsite migration of radionuclides and selected trace elements associated with the ore storage and milling process at an active uranium mill site near White Mesa, Utah. Specific objectives of this study were (1) to determine recharge sources and residence times of groundwater surrounding the mill site, (2) to determine the current concentrations of uranium and associated trace elements in groundwater surrounding the mill site, (3) to differentiate natural and anthropogenic contaminant sources to groundwater resources surrounding the mill site, (4) to assess the solubility and potential for offsite transport of uranium-bearing minerals in groundwater surrounding the mill site, and (5) to use stream sediment and plant material samples from areas surrounding the mill site to identify potential areas of offsite contamination and likely contaminant sources. The results of age-dating methods and an evaluation of groundwater recharge temperatures using dissolved-gas samples indicate that groundwater sampled in wells in the surficial aquifer in the vicinity of the mill is recharged locally by precipitation. Tritium/helium age dating methods found a "modern day" apparent age in water samples collected from springs in the study area surrounding the mill. This apparent age indicates localized recharge sources that potentially include artificial recharge of seepage from constructed wildlife refuge ponds near the mill. The stable oxygen isotope-ratio, delta oxygen-18, or δ(18O/16O), known as δ18O, and hydrogen isotope-ratio, delta deuterium, or δ(2H/1H), known as δD, data indicate that water discharging from Entrance Spring is isotopically enriched by evaporation and has a similar isotopic fingerprint as water from Recapture Reservoir, which is used as facilities water on the mill site. Water from Recapture

  10. GIS and Remote Sensing based zonation map for volcaniclastic debris flow susceptibility: a case study from area surrounding the Vesuvius (Campania Region, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Marina; Spinetti, Claudia; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The volcanic areas affected by pyroclastic deposits and significant hillslopes can be considered zone with high proneness for triggering volcaniclastic debris flows. In fact, in presence of heavy and/or persistent rainfall, loose pyroclastic covers can be remobilized and generate volcaniclastic flows causing disastrous effects. The most important volcanoclastic debris flow in the Campania Region (Italy) has been the Sarno-Quindici event occurred on May 5-6, 1998 that caused the death of more than 150 people and relevant damages to villages at the foot of the Apennine Mountains in the circumvesuvian area. In order to improve the volcaniclastic flow hazard zonation in the area surrounding the Vesuvius volcano, we propose a methodological approach based on remote sensing analyses combined with morphometric study derived from a Digital Elevation Model having a spatial resolution of 10 meters to identify the drainage basins potentially more prone to generate volcaniclastic flows. The satellite high-medium resolution data will be used to derive the land cover mapping. The elaborations will be performed in the GIS environment and the combination of identified drainage basins with the land cover classes will provide the map classifying the areas according to different degree of susceptibility for triggering debris flows.

  11. Assessment of the impact of petroleum and petrochemical industries to the surrounding areas in Malaysia using mosses as bioindicator supported by multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zahari Bin; Saat, Ahmad Bin; Hamzah, Zaini Bin

    2012-06-01

    Biomonitoring of multi-element atmospheric deposition using terrestrial moss is a well-established technique in Europe. Although the technique is widely known, there were very limited records of using this technique to study atmospheric air pollution in Malaysia. In this present study, the deposition of 11 trace metals surrounding the main petroleum refinery plant in Kerteh Terengganu (eastern part of peninsular Malaysia) has been evaluated using two local moss species, namely Hypnum plumaeforme and Taxithelium instratum as bioindicators. The study was also done by means of observing whether these metals are attributed to work related to oil exploration in this area. The moss samples have been collected at 30 sampling stations in the vicinity of the petrochemical industrial area covering up to 15 km to the south, north, and west in radius. The contents of heavy metal in moss samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. Distribution of heavy metal content in all mosses is portrayed using Surfer software. Areas of the highest level of contaminations are highlighted. The results obtained using the principal components analysis revealed that the elements can be grouped into three different components that indirectly reflected three different sources namely anthropogenic factor, vegetation factor, and natural sources (soil dust or substrate) factor. Heavy metals deposited mostly in the distance after 9 km onward to the western part (the average direction of wind blow). V, Cr, Cu, and Hg are believed to have originated from local petrochemical-based industries operated around petroleum industrial area.

  12. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  13. Outbreak of Human Pneumonic Plague with Dog-to-Human and Possible Human-to-Human Transmission--Colorado, June-July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runfola, Janine K; House, Jennifer; Miller, Lisa; Colton, Leah; Hite, Donna; Hawley, Alex; Mead, Paul; Schriefer, Martin; Petersen, Jeannine; Casaceli, Colleen; Erlandson, Kristine M; Foster, Clayton; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Mason, Gary; Douglas, John M

    2015-05-01

    On July 8, 2014, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) laboratory identified Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague, in a blood specimen collected from a man (patient A) hospitalized with pneumonia. The organism had been previously misidentified as Pseudomonas luteola by an automated system in the hospital laboratory. An investigation led by Tri-County Health Department (TCHD) revealed that patient A's dog had died recently with hemoptysis. Three other persons who had contact with the dog, one of whom also had contact with patient A, were ill with fever and respiratory symptoms, including two with radiographic evidence of pneumonia. Specimens from the dog and all three human contacts yielded evidence of acute Y. pestis infection. One of the pneumonia cases might have resulted through human-to-human transmission from patient A, which would be the first such event reported in the United States since 1924. This outbreak highlights 1) the need to consider plague in the differential diagnosis of ill domestic animals, including dogs, in areas where plague is endemic; 2) the limitations of automated diagnostic systems for identifying rare bacteria such as Y. pestis; and 3) the potential for milder plague illness in patients taking antimicrobial agents. Hospital laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of automated identification systems, and clinicians should suspect plague in patients with clinically compatible symptoms from whom P. luteola is isolated.

  14. Areas to explore surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Areas para exploracion en los alrededores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Exploration plays an important role in tapping underground natural resources-whether water, oil, natural gas or minerals. Exploratory data allow us to learn reservoir conditions, increasing probable reserves and reservoir life span. Around the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, and in the Mexicali Valley in general, exploration had almost stopped but recently was resumed by the Studies Division of Comision Federal de ELectricidad (CFE)'s Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos. The division sent technical personnel to structurally map the northern and eastern portions of Laguna Salada. The paper offers a general outline of the main zones undergoing exploratory studies-studies perhaps culminating in siting exploratory wells to locate more geothermal resources (and ultimately producing them using binary power plants). CFE also wants to site injection wells west of the current production zone, and this is covered, as well. All activities are meant to increase the productive lifespan of the geothermal reservoir. [Spanish] Cuando se trata de la explotacion de recursos naturales del subsuelo, sea agua, gas, petroleo o minerales, la exploracion juega un papel muy importante, ya que permite conocer las condiciones del yacimiento que pudieran llevar a incrementar las reservas de los recursos explotados y extender su vida util. En las zonas aledanas al campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y en general en el Valle de Mexicali, la exploracion estaba practicamente detenida habiendose reactivado a raiz de que la Subgerencia de Estudios de la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) envio personal para realizar mapeos estructurales en las porciones norte y oriente de la Laguna Salada. Este trabajo presenta un panorama general de las areas prioritarias para realizar estudios exploratorios y poder programar, con mas bases, pozos exploratorios enfocados a localizar mas recursos geotermicos, inclusive para generar energia por medio

  15. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, Maite; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC-MSD for a one-year period (2007-2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003-2005, 2010-2011, and 2014-2015years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120pptv) than in VNP (80-100pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources.

  16. The potential of remote sensing for monitoring land cover changes and effects on physical geography in the area of Kayisdagi Mountain and its surroundings (Istanbul).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-05-01

    The effect of land cover change, from natural to anthropogenic, on physical geography conditions has been studied in Kayisdagi Mountain. Land degradation is the most important environmental issue involved in this study. Most forms of land degradation are natural processes accelerated by human activity. Land degradation is a human induced or natural process that negatively affects the ability of land to function effectively within an ecosystem. Environmental degradation from human pressure and land use has become a major problem in the study area because of high population growth, urbanization rate, and the associated rapid depletion of natural resources. When studying the cost of land degradation, it is not possible to ignore the role of urbanization. In particular, a major cause of deforestation is conversion to urban land. The paper reviews the principles of current remote sensing techniques considered particularly suitable for monitoring Kayisdagi Mountain and its surrounding land cover changes and their effects on physical geography conditions. In addition, this paper addresses the problem of how spatially explicit information about degradation processes in the study area rangelands can be derived from different time series of satellite data. The monitoring approach comprises the time period between 1990 and 2005. Satellite remote sensing techniques have proven to be cost effective in widespread land cover changes. Physical geography and particularly natural geomorphologic processes like erosion, mass movement, physical weathering, and chemical weathering features etc. have faced significant unnatural variation.

  17. REPEAT facility. Report for May, June, July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, C. B.

    1981-08-01

    The construction of the REPEAT facility, a test facility for passive and hybrid solar heating systems is reported. The development of a simulation program for envelope type passive solar systems, constructing an envelope test cell, collecting data to validate the program, and application of the program to determine the best envelope type design are discussed. A low cost monitoring system using a dedicated microprocessor system, an inexpensive, high accuracy A/D converter, and minimum system hardware is developed. A method to determine the average temperature and the average daily temperature variation inside a passively heated solar building is presented.

  18. The Gettysburg Campaign, June-July 1863

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Seminary Ridge tree line. The brigades commanded by Brig. Gens. Richard B. Garnett and James L. Kemper formed ranks in front of the farm build- ings...gap just south of the clump of trees. A few yards shy of the wall, both Kemper and Garnett fell—the former severely wounded and the latter killed

  19. A Measure of the Forest Protected Areas Benefits for the Surrounding Population: A Case Study of the Bouaflé Protected Forest (CÔTE D'IVOIRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouame, B. N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Côte d'Ivoire located in West Africa, registers high level of biodiversity which occurs mainly in forest land. The country has suffered severe deforestation. However, deforestation and forest degradation release Greenhouse Gases into the atmosphere which contributes to Climate Change. In order to address the deforestation, many actions are taken, one of which is the implementation of protected areas within countries. These measures put restrictions on the access of local communities to forest services. However, local communities supplement their daily livelihood from forests, especially from timber and non-timber forest products. What are the effects of forests conservation in protected areas on surrounding population? This study focuses on the Bouaflé protected forest (foret classée de Bouaflé) in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire. The forest is 20350 ha and was made a protected forest in 1974. It is one of the most deforested protected areas in the country. Firstly, we described the perception of forest benefits by the population. Secondly, we estimated the benefits of forest conservation using a contingent valuation approach, particularly the Willingness to Pay (WTP) methodology. From our sample size of 156 households, it appears that most of the individuals are aware of the importance of the forest (94 % against 6%). According to the estimate of the benefits, it results on average, people are willing to pay 1658.491F CFA (2.53 Euros). The median WTP is 1000 FCFA. This study will be helpful by adding to the scientific literature and for inducing local people implication in conservation.

  20. Contribution of mine wastes to atmospheric metal deposition in the surrounding area of an abandoned heavily polluted mining district (Rio Tinto mines, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; Gonzalez, Isabel; Romero, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of abandoned mine wastes on the levels and chemical profile of total atmospheric deposition in one of the oldest and largest mining districts in Europe (Rio Tinto mines, Iberian Pyrite Belt), on the basis of a complete geochemical characterization of particulate matter samples periodically collected in five sampling stations located around the mining district between March 2009 and February 2011. The annual levels of total bulk deposition (soluble and insoluble fractions) registered in the Rio Tinto Mining District ranged between 18 and 43 g/m(2) depending on the distance from the sampling station with regard to the mine waste deposits. As a general pattern in the area, high mass levels of Zn and Cu were deposited in a range of 9-62 mg/m(2) not only in the insoluble but also in the soluble fraction. Other potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn and Bi showed greater deposition fluxes in the locations closest to the mine waste deposits. A principal component analysis with a Multilinear Regression Analysis certifies the presence of two common sources in the mining area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals (Al, Ca, Sr, Ti, Li, Mg, Mn, K, Na and Fe), mixed with other anthropogenic species (NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-)) within the village closest to the mine; and 2) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg, SO4(2-) and Sr. In addition, a mine waste factor made up of toxic elements (Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn, Cd and Bi) has been recognized in the sampling sites exposed to dust-bearing winds downwind of the mining area, suggesting that mine wastes are a relevant source of heavy-mineral particles with potentially adverse environmental effects to surrounding soils, plants and humans.

  1. Occurrence, sources, and potential human health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Shangguan, Yuxian; Cheng, Bin; Xu, Yafei; Zhao, Ruifen; Zhang, Yigong; Hua, Xiaozan; Huo, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xiufeng

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, distribution patterns, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. A total of 247 samples collected from agricultural soils from the area were analyzed for sixteen PAHs, including highly carcinogenic isomers. The PAH concentrations had a range of n.d. to 782ngg(-1), with a mean value of 202ngg(-1). The two-three ring PAHs were the dominant species, making up 60 percent of total PAHs. Compared with the pollution levels and carcinogenic potential risks reported in other studies, the soil PAH concentrations in the study area were in the low to intermediate range. A positive matrix factorization model indicates that coal/biomass combustion, coal and oil combustion, and coke ovens are the primary PAH sources, accounting for 33 percent, 26 percent, and 24 percent of total PAHs, respectively. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentrations had a range of n.d. to 476ngg(-1) for PAH7c, with a mean value of 34ngg(-1). The BaPeq concentrations of PAH7c accounted for more than 99 percent of the ∑PAH16, which suggests that seven PAHs were major carcinogenic contributors of ∑PAH16. According to the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines, only six of the soil samples had concentrations above the safe BaPeq value of 600ngg(-1); the elevated concentrations observed at these sites can be attributed to coal combustion and industrial activities. Exposure to these soils through direct contact probably poses a significant risk to human health as a result of the carcinogenic effects of PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Changes in Political Barriers and of Geographic Distance on Kinship Inferred from Surnames and Migration Data in Olivenza, Spain, and Surrounding Portuguese Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Busto, J

    2015-04-01

    The existing relationship between human populations is a function of their migratory and genetic exchange, which will be inversely proportional to the distance separating them. The effect of geographic distance on population structure may be estimated by means of isonymic methods that use information on the surnames present in a territory as an approximation to the distribution of allele frequencies. The objective of this study was to analyze whether the 1801 modification of the political border in an area surrounding the town of Olivenza, which experienced a change of sovereignty from Portugal to Spain, has had a noticeable influence on the migration pattern and isolation by distance in that region. For this purpose, data from marriage records of Olivenza and the neighboring Portuguese municipalities of Alandroal, Juromenha, Elvas, Vila Boim (and Terrugem), Terena, Monsaraz, and Vila Viçosa were analyzed. Rates of diversity and inbreeding coefficients were determined to analyze the population structure before (1775-1801) and after (1802-1825) the change of domain. The results show that after the border modification the migration matrices changed differently according to sex, therefore altering the relationship between the various localities of the territory. In Olivenza inbreeding declined slightly and surnames became more heterogeneous. Moreover, after the change of domain the isolation-by-distance models illustrate a temporal reduction in the relative weight of geographical distance on interpopulation kinship. The political border acted as a factor in population differentiation in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).

  3. Crustal and Upper Mantle Density Structure Beneath the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Surrounding Areas Derived from EGM2008 Geoid Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As the most active plateau on the Earth, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (TP has a complex crust–mantle structure. Knowledge of the distribution of such a structure provides information for understanding the underlying geodynamic processes. We obtain a three-dimensional model of the density of the crust and the upper mantle beneath the TP and surrounding areas from height anomalies using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008. We refine the estimated density in the model iteratively using an initial density contrast model. We confirm that the EGM2008 products can be used to constrain the crust–mantle density structures. Our major findings are: (1 At a depth of 300–400 km, high-D(ensity anomalies terminate around the Jinsha River Suture (JRS in the central TP, which suggests that the Indian Plate has reached across the Bangong Nujiang Suture (BNS and almost reaches the JRS. (2 On the eastern TP, low-D(ensity anomalies at a depth of 0–300 km and with high-D anomalies at 400–670 km further verified the current eastward subduction of the Indian Plate. The ongoing subduction process provides force that results in frequent earthquakes and volcanoes. (3 At a depth of 600 km, low-D anomalies inside the TP illustrate the presence of hot weak material beneath it, which contribute to the inward thrusting of external material.

  4. Processing the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and the surrounding area by the cellular neural network: application to the southwestern Marmara region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, D.

    2007-04-01

    An image processing technique called the cellular neural network (CNN) approach is used in this study to locate geological features giving rise to gravity anomalies such as faults or the boundary of two geologic zones. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique based on template optimization using the neighborhood relationships of cells. These cells can be characterized by a functional block diagram that is typical of neural network theory. The functionality of CNN is described in its entirety by a number of small matrices (A, B and I) called the cloning template. CNN can also be considered to be a nonlinear convolution of these matrices. This template describes the strength of the nearest neighbor interconnections in the network. The recurrent perceptron learning algorithm (RPLA) is used in optimization of cloning template. The CNN and standard Canny algorithms were first tested on two sets of synthetic gravity data with the aim of checking the reliability of the proposed approach. The CNN method was compared with classical derivative techniques by applying the cross-correlation method (CC) to the same anomaly map as this latter approach can detect some features that are difficult to identify on the Bouguer anomaly maps. This approach was then applied to the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and its surrounding area, in Turkey. Structural features in the area between Bandirma, Biga, Yenice and Gonen in the southwest Marmara region are investigated by applying the CNN and CC to the Bouguer anomaly map. Faults identified by these algorithms are generally in accordance with previously mapped surface faults. These examples show that the geologic boundaries can be detected from Bouguer anomaly maps using the cloning template approach. A visual evaluation of the outputs of the CNN and CC approaches is carried out, and the results are compared with each other. This approach provides quantitative solutions based on just a few assumptions, which makes the method more

  5. Quantification of spatial distribution of vegetation in the Qilian Mountain area with MODIS NDVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, X.; Wan, L.; Zhang, Y.K.; Hu, G.; Schaepman, M.E.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Su, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of vegetation in the Qilian Mountain area was quantified with remote sensing data. The MODIS NDVI values for June, July, August and September are the best indicators for the vegetation growth during a year in this area and thus were used in this study. The results obtained b

  6. Investigation of correlation of the variations in land subsidence (detected by continuous GPS measurements and methodological data in the surrounding areas of Lake Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moghtased-Azar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lake Urmia, a salt lake in the north-west of Iran, plays a valuable role in the environment, wildlife and economy of Iran and the region, but now faces great challenges for survival. The Lake is in immediate and great danger and is rapidly going to become barren desert. As a result, the increasing demands upon groundwater resources due to expanding metropolitan and agricultural areas are a serious challenge in the surrounding regions of Lake Urmia. The continuous GPS measurements around the lake illustrate significant subsidence rate between 2005 and 2009. The objective of this study was to detect and specify the non-linear correlation of land subsidence and temperature activities in the region from 2005 to 2009. For this purpose, the cross wavelet transform (XWT was carried out between the two types of time series, namely vertical components of GPS measurements and daily temperature time series. The significant common patterns are illustrated in the high period bands from 180–218 days band (~6–7 months from September 2007 to February 2009. Consequently, the satellite altimetry data confirmed that the maximum rate of linear trend of water variation in the lake from 2005 to 2009, is associated with time interval from September 2007 to February 2009. This event was detected by XWT as a critical interval to be holding the strong correlation between the land subsidence phenomena and surface temperature. Eventually the analysis can be used for modeling and prediction purposes and probably stave off the damage from subsidence phenomena.

  7. Utilising an LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker approach to assess mycotoxin exposure in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Petchkongkaew, Awanwee; Sulyok, Michael; Krska, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Human exposures to mycotoxins through dietary intake are a major health hazard and may result in various pathophysiological effects. Although Thailand is a country at increased risk due to its climatic conditions, no comprehensive dataset is available to perform proper exposure assessment of its population with regard to mycotoxins. Therefore, this pilot study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the exposure levels of major mycotoxins (aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, zearalenone and trichothecenes). Sixty first-morning urine samples were collected from healthy volunteers who live in the Bangkok metropolitan area and surrounding provinces (Pathumthani, Nonthaburi, Samutprakarn and Samutsakorn). Urine samples were analysed by a LC-MS/MS-based multi-biomarker method following a so-called 'dilute and shoot' approach. Results generally indicated low mycotoxin exposures in most individuals through the determination of the four biomarkers that were detected in urine samples, i.e. aflatoxin M₁, ochratoxin A (OTA), as well as the deoxynivalenol (DON) metabolites DON-3-glucuronide and DON-15-glucuronide in 10 of 60 individuals. The maximum concentrations were used to estimate the daily intake confirming that none of the individuals exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of DON (maximum 26% of TDI) or OTA (maximum 22% of TDI). However, the maximum exposure of aflatoxin B₁, estimated to be 0.91 µg (kg bw)⁻¹ day⁻¹, should raise some concerns and suggests further studies utilising a more sensitive method. Low exposure to Fusarium toxins was also confirmed by the absence of zearalenone, α-zearalanol, β-zearalanol and zearalenone-14-glucuronide as well as T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, nivalenol and free DON. This is the first multi-mycotoxin biomarker study performed in Southeast Asia.

  8. From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Fjellheim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer

  9. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  10. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards: a prewildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.; Miller, Lara W.; Scott, Joe H.; Thompson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can drastically increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although there is no way to know the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire, or the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration before it happens, probabilities of fire and debris-flow occurrence for different locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling efforts. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious, potential, debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in the unburned Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The locations of the greatest debris-flow hazards correlate with the areas of steepest slopes and simulated crown-fire behavior. The four subbasins with the highest computed debris-flow probabilities (greater than 98 percent) were all in the Manzano Mountains, two flowing east and two flowing west. Volumes in sixteen subbasins were greater than 50,000 square meters and most of these were in the central Manzanos and the western facing slopes of the Sandias. Five subbasins on the west-facing slopes of the Sandia Mountains, four of which have downstream reaches that lead into the outskirts of the City of Albuquerque, are among subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings. The bulk of the remaining subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings are located along the highest and steepest slopes of the Manzano Mountains. One

  11. Potential effects of existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals on water levels and natural groundwater discharge in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2017-04-14

    Several U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) agencies are concerned about the cumulative effects of groundwater development on groundwater resources managed by, and other groundwater resources of interest to, these agencies in Snake Valley and surrounding areas. The new water uses that potentially concern the DOI agencies include 12 water-right applications filed in 2005, totaling approximately 8,864 acre-feet per year. To date, only one of these applications has been approved and partially developed. In addition, the DOI agencies are interested in the potential effects of three new water-right applications (UT 18-756, UT 18-758, and UT 18-759) and one water-right change application (UT a40687), which were the subject of a water-right hearing on April 19, 2016.This report presents a hydrogeologic analysis of areas in and around Snake Valley to assess potential effects of existing and future groundwater development on groundwater resources, specifically groundwater discharge sites, of interest to the DOI agencies. A previously developed steady-state numerical groundwater-flow model was modified to transient conditions with respect to well withdrawals and used to quantify drawdown and capture (withdrawals that result in depletion) of natural discharge from existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals. The original steady-state model simulates and was calibrated to 2009 conditions. To investigate the potential effects of existing and proposed groundwater withdrawals on the groundwater resources of interest to the DOI agencies, 10 withdrawal scenarios were simulated. All scenarios were simulated for periods of 5, 10, 15, 30, 55, and 105 years from the start of 2010; additionally, all scenarios were simulated to a new steady state to determine the ultimate long-term effects of the withdrawals. Capture maps were also constructed as part of this analysis. The simulations used to develop the capture maps test the response of the system, specifically the reduction of natural

  12. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, ZiFa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Lin, CaiYan; Xin, JinYuan; Song, Tao; Hu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been used in the companion study to improve ozone forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over this region during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed through application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in the real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecasts over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts (with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs) was noticed at night and in the morning versus significant deterioration during daytime (with 190 % increase of the RMSEs), suggesting that the negative data assimilation impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal-data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. In the same way, NOx emission estimation was improved at night and in the morning even under large biases in the prior emission, while it deteriorated during daytime (except for the case of minor errors in the prior emission). The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable data assimilation, i.e., positive data assimilation impacts on NO2 forecasts over some urban sites, negative data assimilation impacts over the other urban sites, and weak data assimilation impacts over suburban sites, highlighted the limitations of the EnKF under strong nonlinear relationships between chemical variables. Under strong nonlinearity between daytime ozone concentrations and NOx emissions

  13. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  14. Regional Spectral Model simulations of the summertime regional climate over Taiwan and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Teng Lee; Ming-Chin Wu; Shyh-Chin Chen

    2005-01-01

    The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) regional spectral model (RSM) version 97 was used to investigate the regional summertime climate over Taiwan and adjacent areas for June-July-August of 1990 through 2000. The simulated sea-level-pressure and wind fields of RSM1 with 50-km grid space are similar to the reanalysis, but the strength of the...

  15. Amphibians and reptiles associated with the prairie dog grasslands ecosystem and surrounding areas at the janos casas grandes complex, northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Santos Barrera; Jesús Pacheco; Gerardo Ceballos

    2008-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are considered a keystone species that forms extensive colonies in the grasslands of western and central North America. These colonies are characterized by high diversity of associated vertebrates. The largest colonies in North America are located in the Janos region, northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. In this study we present an inventory of the amphibians and reptiles inhabiting at prairie dog grasslands and surrounding mesquite scrublands in the Janos regio...

  16. On the way of Friuli "yellow villages": the use of a calcareous-dolomitic sandstone in the surroundings of the quarrying area through the centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangipane, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The role of local stone building material in cultural and technological heritage is based on the definition of the area of use, as related to ancient transportation networks, allowing the movement of heavy blocks from the quarries to the building sites. It is the case of the result of several surveys carried out for the detection of the architectural elements, dating from Middle Age to 20th century, made of a yellowish calcareous-dolomitic sandstone, which have been found, hidden among renovated buildings and new construction, in Friuli region (NE Italy). on the way between the quarrying piedmont western area and the towns of Udine and Spilimbergo. Starting from the definition of the quarrying area, the contribution give notice of such architectural elements (frames, columns, …), both in vernacular architecture and in relevant buildings, putting in evidence the period of their realisation and their technological features.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of Project Gasbuggy and surrounding area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Date of survey: October 27, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Gasbuggy site, 55 miles (89 kilometers) east of Farmington, New Mexico, on October 27, 1994. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 16-square-mile (41-square-kilometer) area at a 150-foot (46-meter) altitude centered on the Gasbuggy site. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 14 to 20 {micro}R/h at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found.

  18. The rise of the mine water level in the area of the former Kohinoor II mine and the influence on the surrounding aquifer systems of abandoned mines in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mikoláš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the process of terminating the mine water pumping after the liquidation of the Kohinoor II coal mine, situated in the central part of the North Bohemian Brown Coal Basin (NBB and the subsequent resumption of pumping from the surface after the mine water rise in the area of the former mine to the desired level. We analyzed previously known data, particularly the amount of mine water pumped from the mine area and the surrounding abandoned mines in the past. Further the evaluation of known surrounding abandoned mines aquifer systems, accumulated in the coal seam (underground accumulation of water and the evaluation of the effect of increasing the water level in the Kohinoor II mine, focusing on the enlargement of the central mine aquifers and the evaluation of the effects of changes in the way of pumping on the surrounding coal seam and its mining with continued safe brown coal mining at the nearby Bílina mine, that can be ensured for at least another 25 years.

  19. Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmacharya Dibesh B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA in the east. Nineteen (27% scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53% of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females and five (2 males and 3 females in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.

  20. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecast over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Zhu, J.; Wang, Z. F.; Gbaguidi, A.; Lin, C. Y.; Xin, J. Y.; Song, T.; Hu, B.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been validated as an efficient approach for improving ozone forecasts. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over Beijing and surrounding regions during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed during the application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecast over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs was noticed during the night and the morning vs. significant deterioration of the forecasts during daytime with 190 % increase of the RMSEs, suggesting the negative DA impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method, as a further investigation, confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. An improvement of the NOx emission estimation was obtained from the cross-variable assimilation under relatively small errors in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime, while deterioration of the NOx emission estimation was found under large biases in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime. However, the cross-variable assimilation improved the NOx emission estimations during the night and the morning even with large biases in the prior estimations. The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable assimilation, i.e., positive DA impacts on NO2 forecast over some urban sites, negative DA impacts over the other urban sites and weak DA

  1. P and S Wave Velocity Structure of the Crust and Upper Mantle Under China and Surrounding Areas From Body and Surface Wave Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-31

    1.9 to 1.45 s, after the inversion. [14] High velocities dominate in western China. Beneath several large depressed basins, such as the Tarim...velocity image of Moho discontinuity beneath the Weihe fault depression and its adjacent areas obtained by inversion of travel-time data of Sn waves...the crust and upper mantle. Geo- phys. J. Int. 151, 1–18. Sol, S.J., Meltzer , A., Zurek, B., Zhang, X., Zhang, J., 2004. Insight into the

  2. Invasion and Morphological Variation of the Non- Indigenous BarnacleChthamalus challengeri(Hoek, 1883) in Yangshan Port and its Surrounding Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; XUE Junzeng; LIN Junda; WU Huixian

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species generally possess unique characteristics that allow them to survive the invasion process in order to es-tablish and spread in new habitats. Successful invaders must resist both physical and physiological stresses associated with the changing environment. A common littoral barnacle,Chthamalus challengeri Hoek, 1883 (Crustacea, Cirripedia), which is native to Japan, South Korea and northern China, has become established in the high-littoral zone adjacent to Yangshan Port, Shanghai, China. A comparison of the morphology ofChthamlus species from Zhoushan archipelago with previous description indicates the occur-rence of C. challengeri.The new immigrant becomes a dominant species in certain high-intertidal habitats of the adjacent area to of Yangshan Port.C. challengeri was found in part of sampling sites in Zhoushan in 2010; however, it dispersed to all the eleven sam-pling sites in 2012. Densities ofC.challengerihad increased over 10 times in the last 2 years, with the highest mean value reaching 39533±6243ind.m-2 in the new habitat. The specific ratios of both operculum area (Sa) to base area (SA) and average height of pa-rietal plates (H) to length of base (L) revealed thatC. Challengeri displays morphological changes to resist stronger currents in the new habitats for invasion.

  3. Invasion and morphological variation of the non-indigenous barnacle Chthamalus challengeri (Hoek, 1883) in Yangshan Port and its surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Junzeng; Lin, Junda; Wu, Huixian

    2015-06-01

    Invasive species generally possess unique characteristics that allow them to survive the invasion process in order to establish and spread in new habitats. Successful invaders must resist both physical and physiological stresses associated with the changing environment. A common littoral barnacle, Chthamalus challengeri Hoek, 1883 (Crustacea, Cirripedia), which is native to Japan, South Korea and northern China, has become established in the high-littoral zone adjacent to Yangshan Port, Shanghai, China. A comparison of the morphology of Chthamlus species from Zhoushan archipelago with previous description indicates the occurrence of C. challengeri. The new immigrant becomes a dominant species in certain high-intertidal habitats of the adjacent area to of Yangshan Port. C. challengeri was found in part of sampling sites in Zhoushan in 2010; however, it dispersed to all the eleven sampling sites in 2012. Densities of C.challengeri had increased over 10 times in the last 2 years, with the highest mean value reaching 39533 ± 6243 ind. m-2 in the new habitat. The specific ratios of both operculum area ( Sa) to base area ( SA) and average height of parietal plates ( H) to length of base ( L) revealed that C. challengeri displays morphological changes to resist stronger currents in the new habitats for invasion.

  4. On the potential of an RST-based analysis of the MODIS-derived chl-a product over Condor seamount and surrounding areas (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancia, Emanuele; Magalhães Loureiro, Clara; Mendonça, Ana; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Lacava, Teodosio; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria; Tramutoli, Valerio; Martins, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Oceanographic cruises have been conducted on the Condor seamount (SW Faial Island, Azores archipelago, NE Atlantic) since 2009 to collect in situ data and understand potential seamount effects on local biodiversity. Satellite data have been concurrently collected to infer the space-time upper-ocean optical property variability and the associated physical processes. The main limitation of this analysis is the persistent and significant cloud coverage above the region that, especially in some seasons, can significantly hinder satellite data availability. This study was meant to test the robust satellite technique (RST) over the Condor seamount, assess its capability to estimate multiyear trends and identify space-time anomalies. To this aim, 11-year MODIS/AQUA level 2-derived chlorophyll-a (chl-a) data were used. Results achieved for October 2010 show, within a large-scale analysis, the presence of well-defined areas of near-surface chl-a anomalies, highlighting the occurrence of a trapping effect due to flow-topography interaction processes. Regarding the Condor area, the chl-a anomalies detected along the eastern side of the seamount were linked to a strong vertical mixing that provided sufficient inorganic nutrients requested for productivity. The achieved results, whose accuracy was also tested through a comparison with in situ data, are consistent with those independently obtained by other authors who described the phytoplankton variability around the Condor seamount. This study shows the high potential of the RST approach to assess the chl-a variability in the space-time domain in oligotrophic regions such as the Azores, allowing the identification of the most important areas to be preserved and/or managed.

  5. Salmonella in pork retail outlets and dissemination of its pulsotypes through pig production chain in Chiang Mai and surrounding areas, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tansiricharoenkul, Kankanok; Buawiratlert, Tunyamai; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Angchokchatchawal, Kittipat; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Yano, Terdsak; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Rojanasatien, Suvichai; Tadee, Pakpoom

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. is acknowledged as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Contaminated pork consumption is considered as a main cause of human salmonellosis. In the later stage of the pig production chain, poor hygiene and unsuitable storage conditions in retail outlets are considered to be key factors linked to the risk of Salmonella infection. The purpose of current study, which was conducted throughout April 2014 to September 2014, was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork sold at the retail stage in wet markets and supermarkets in the Chiang Mai urban area of Thailand. Additionally, clonal relations between Salmonella strains described in this study and those identified in earlier study from the same geographical area were considered. It is provided as a means of contributing to current knowledge regarding Salmonella epidemiology with an ultimate aim of improved food security and consumer protection in this region. From a total of 82 pork samples analyzed in this study, 41% were positive for Salmonella, with prevalence of 73.2% from wet markets (n=30/41) and 9.8% from supermarkets (n=4/41). Twelve Salmonella serovars were identified, S. Rissen being the most commonly encountered. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was highest for ampicillin and tetracycline (53%), followed by streptomycin (44%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subsequent geographical distribution analysis indicated that the clonal Salmonella strains originated from multiple sources had been spread over a wide area. The existence of a common pig supply chain "farm-slaughterhouse-retail" transmission route is inferred. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella along the entire production chain is needed to reduce contamination loads and to ensure the safety of pork products for end consumers.

  6. Spatial variation of eco-physiological parameters in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea transplanted in an area surrounding a cement plant (S Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucadamo, Lucio; Corapi, Anna; Loppi, Stefano; Paoli, Luca; Gallo, Luana

    2015-08-01

    Thalli of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea were transplanted for 3 months (November 2010-January 2011) at 61 monitoring sites around a cement plant near Castrovillari (Calabria, southern Italy). NH3, NO x and SO2 concentrations were monitored monthly in a subarea of 10 sites (SA10) where the cement plant was located. At the end of the exposure period, the integrity of cell membranes; membrane lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS level); vitality (cell respiration); chlorophyll a; chlorophyll b; carotenoids; phaeophytization quotient; photosynthetic efficiency and thalli concentrations of Al, Ca, Mg, V and Fe were measured. NO x concentrations correlated with the site distance from the cement plant while NH3 concentrations correlated with lichen vitality within SA10. For the monitoring area as a whole, only Fe and Mg concentrations correlated with membrane lipid peroxidation, while TBARS levels showed a significant increase and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids a significant decrease with respect to the lichen origin area. Multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis, cluster analysis and multi-response permutation procedure) of the eco-physiological parameters × monitoring sites data set resulted in four clusters termed C1, C2, C3 and C4. The eco-physiological parameters were compared among the four clusters and lichen origin area by one-way ANOVA. An index of environmental favourableness (IEF) to lichens was calculated to evaluate the spatial recovery of impaired values of TBARS, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, xanthophylls + carotenoids and phaeophytization quotient. The results indicate that there is no clear spatial trend in mycobiont impairment even though the IEF values suggest a higher number of sites with low levels of membrane lipid peroxidation in the 2--3-km distance band from the cement plant (the outermost) than in the two other distance bands (0-1 and 1-2 km). The photobiont seems to be

  7. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr., Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer

    2009-01-31

    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock’s ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock’s primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of

  8. Ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase induction potency in sediment samples from rivers Lepenica and Morawa. Surrounding area of Kragujevac ''hot spot''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoric, S.; Andric, N.; Kovacevic, R. [Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Biology and Ecology; Sudji, J. [Institute of Occupational Health, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Klanova, J. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Jovetic, S.; Vojinovic-Miloradov, M. [Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Sciences, Dept of Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induction of CYP1A1 izozyme, whose activity can be determined by measuring activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) in various species and test systems, are well known bioanalyses for assessment of toxicity of persistent toxic compounds (PTCs). Whereas analytical methods determine the concentrations of known substances, bioanalyses with EROD as an end point may also detect the joint activities of nonanalyzed EROD inducing compounds in environmental samples. The main environmental effects of the bombardments (in 1999) of factory Zastava-Kragujevac were damaged transformers which contained Pyralene oil, leaking of several tons of PCBs into the rivers Zdraljica, Lepenica and Morava, and contamination of groundwater by PCBs and heavy metals. Up to 2,500 kg of oil containing PCBs was released into the environment. Extremely high levels of PCBs were detected in water ecosystems in the area of accident - in the river Lepenica PCB levels were 400-1000mg/l of water. As a consequence of explosions, fires, and PCB combustions, very high levels of PCDDs/Fs were found in soil samples from that area (up to 100,000ng I-TEQ/kg) few months after bombardments. Very high levels of PCBs and PCDDs/Fs were also found in samples taken around the transformers of the power plant (70-74 g/kg of PCBs and 10,200 ng I-TEQ/kg of PCDDs/Fs). Right after spillage there was a flood wave from the river Lepenica that caused transport and sedimentation of the pollutants along nearby agricultural area. In 2000, UNEP/UNOPS Clean-up Project YUG 00-R71 was performed for clean up action of environmental damage of hot spots in SCG. However, further investigations which covered hot spot Kragujevac as a zone possibly contaminated with PCBs revealed that there are still ppm concentrations of PCBs as determined by GC/ECD. In this study we explored if these contaminants still in sediments from rivers Lepenica and Morava. Sediment samples

  9. Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk assessment in the surface sediments of the coastal area surrounding the industrial complex of Gabes city, Gulf of Gabes, SE Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zrelli, Radhouan; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Castet, Sylvie; Michel, Sylvain; Bejaoui, Nejla

    2015-12-30

    In the present study, the concentrations of 6 trace metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr and Zn) were assessed in the surface sediments of the central coastal area of Gabes Gulf to determine their contamination status, source, spatial distribution and ecological risks. The ranking of metal contents was found to be Zn>Cd>Cr>Pb>Cu>Hg. Correlation analysis indicated that Cd and Zn derived mainly from the Tunisian Chemical Group phosphogypsum. The other pollutants may originate from other industrial wastes. Metallic contamination was detected in the south of chemical complex, especially in the inter-harbor zone, where the ecological risk of surface sediments is the highest, implying potential negative impacts of industrial pollutants. The spatial distribution of pollutants seems to be due to the effect of harbor installations and coastal currents. The metallic pollution status of surface sediments of Gabes Gulf is obvious, very worrying and requires rapid intervention.

  10. Differences between Weekday and Weekend Air Pollutant Levels in Atlanta; Baltimore; Chicago; Dallas-Fort Worth; Denver; Houston; New York; Phoenix; Washington, DC; and Surrounding Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, C. L.; Tanenbaum, S.; Lawson, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated day-of-week differences in mean concentrations of ozone (O3) precursors (nitric oxide NO), nitrogen oxides NOx, carbon monoxide CO, and volatile organic compounds VOCs at monitoring sites in 23 states comprising seven geographic focus areas over the period 1998- 2003. Data for VOC measurements were available for six metropolitan areas in five regions. We used Wednesdays to represent weekdays and Sundays to represent weekends; we also analyzed Saturdays. At many sites, NO, NOx, and CO mean concentrations decreased at all individual hours from 6:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. on Sundays compared with corresponding Wednesday means. Statistically significant (p 0.01) weekend decreases in ambient concentrations were observed for 92% of NOx sites, 89% of CO sites, and 23% of VOC sites. Nine-hour (6:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.) mean concentrations of NO, NOx, CO, and VOCs declined by 65, 49, 28, and 19%, respectively, from Wednesdays to Sundays (median site responses). Despite the large reductions in ambient NOx and moderate reductions in ambient CO and VOC concentrations on weekends, ozone and particulate matter (PM) nitrate did not exhibit large changes from weekdays to weekends. The median differences between Wednesday and Sunday mean ozone concentrations at all monitoring sites ranged from 3% higher on Sundays for peak 8-hr concentrations determined from all monitoring days to 3.8% lower on Sundays for peak 1-hr concentrations on extreme-ozone days. Eighty-three percent of the sites did not show statistically significant differences between Wednesday and weekend mean concentrations of peak ozone. Statistically significant weekend ozone decreases occurred at 6% of the sites and significant increases occurred at 11% of the sites. Average PM nitrate concentrations were 2.6% lower on Sundays than on Wednesdays. Statistically significant Sunday PM nitrate decreases occurred at one site and significant increases occurred at seven sites.

  11. Morphology and distribution of neurons expressing serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in the rat hypothalamus and the surrounding diencephalic and telencephalic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Eric; Scrogin, Karie; Dudás, Bertalan

    2010-07-01

    Disorders of serotonergic neurotransmission are involved in disturbances of numerous hypothalamic functions including circadian rhythm, mood, neuroendocrine functions, sleep and feeding. Among the serotonin receptors currently recognized, 5-HT(1A) receptors have received considerable attention due to their importance in the etiology of mood disorders. While previous studies have shown the presence of 5-HT(1A) receptors in several regions of the rat brain, there is no detailed map of the cellular distribution of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the rat diencephalon. In order to characterize the distribution and morphology of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors in the diencephalon and the adjacent telencephalic areas, single label immunohistochemistry was utilized. Large, multipolar, 5-HT(1A)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons were mainly detected in the magnocellular preoptic nucleus and in the nucleus of diagonal band of Broca, while the supraoptic nucleus contained mainly fusiform neurons. Medium-sized 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons with triangular or round-shaped somata were widely distributed in the diencephalon, populating the zona incerta, lateral hypothalamic area, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, substantia innominata, dorsomedial and premamillary nuclei, paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of stria terminalis. The present study provides schematic mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR neurons in the rat diencephalon. In addition, the morphology of the detected 5-HT(1A)-IR neural elements is also described. Since rat is a widely used laboratory animal in pharmacological models of altered serotoninergic neurotransmission, detailed mapping of 5-HT(1A)-IR structures is pivotal for the neurochemical characterization of the neurons containing 5-HT(1A) receptors.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi TcI and TcII transmission among wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs in a conservation unit and surrounding areas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Arrais, Ricardo Corassa; Santos, Jean Pierre; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Cordeir-Estrela, Pedro; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2013-02-01

    Aiming to better understand the ecological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles, wild carnivores, small mammals and dogs were examined for T. cruzi infection in the Serra da Canastra National Park region, Brazil. Isolates were genotyped using mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8 and H3) genomic targets. Trypanosoma cruzi transmission was well established in the area and occurred in both wild and peridomestic environments. Dog seroprevalence was 29·4% (63/214) and TcI and TcII genotypes, besides mixed infections were observed. Only TcI was detected in wild mammals. Marsupials displayed lower relative abundance, but a high prevalence of positive haemocultures (4/22), whereas rodents displayed positive haemocultures (9/113) mainly in the abundant Akodon montensis and Cerradomys subflavus species. The felid Leopardus pardalis was the only carnivore to display positive haemoculture and was captured in the same region where the small mammal prevalence of T. cruzi infection was high. Two canid species, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Cerdocyon thous, were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection (4/8 and 8/39, respectively), probably related to their capacity to exploit different ecological niches. Herein, dog infection not only signals T. cruzi transmission but also the genotypes present. Distinct transmission strategies of the T. cruzi genotypes are discussed.

  13. Geology of the Early Arikareean sharps formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and surrounding areas of South Dakota and Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas H; Dibenedetto, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8-20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group.

  14. Geophysical technique and groundwater monitoring to detect leachate contamination in the surrounding area of a landfill--Londrina (PR--Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Deize Dias; Silva, Sandra M C P; Fernandes, Fernandes; Teixeira, Raquel S; Celligoi, André; Dall'Antônia, Luiz Henrique

    2012-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to define leachate plume by using two techniques: geophysical and groundwater sampling in order to evaluate groundwater contamination. After performing a topographic survey and using geophysics, the leachate plume was identified. With this data, the wells for groundwater monitoring were located. Groundwater samples were analyzed for: COD, BOD, pH, alkalinity, conductivity, TKN and heavy metals. Through the electroresistivity method it was possible to define the shape of plume contamination. This method was important to locate the groundwater monitoring wells. The results of the physicochemical parameters showed the suitability of the geophysical study. The highest values of electric conductivity and alkalinity correspond to the wells located in the area interpreted as contaminated by leachate in the map of the resistivity. Even with seasonal variations, BOD values are low if compared to Brazilian environmental regulations, but COD values are higher up to 40 times the values of BOD. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd and Cu in the groundwater are below the limits established by the potable water quality standards in Brazil, except for Pb whose concentration in groundwater were higher if compared to Brazilian legislation.

  15. Geology of the Early Arikareean Sharps Formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and Surrounding Areas of South Dakota and Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas H.; DiBenedetto, Joseph N.

    2012-01-01

    Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8–20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group. PMID:23110098

  16. Geology of the Early Arikareean sharps formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and surrounding areas of South Dakota and Nebraska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H McConnell

    Full Text Available Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8-20.6 million years ago Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group.

  17. The Origin of the Name of the City of Derbent and the Toponymy of the Surrounding Area in the Context of Ethnolinguistic Situation in the Early Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garun-Rashid Abdul-Kadyrovich Guseynov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Founded in 438 and included on the World Heritage List in 2003, the ancient city of Derbent emerged in the area which, by the time of its foundation, was known under various names which belong, as it is shown in the paper, to different Bulgar (Turkic languages: province of Chor, Ζουάρ-ος fortress, Chora / Djora way, Τζοΰρ, city of Chora, Chola / Choga / Chol, gate of Chola / Choga, province of Sul. These dialectal place names meaning ʻsteep bank, precipiceʼ meet the localization of the city in a narrow passageway between the Greater Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. The author argues that all etymologies of the considered oikonyms and horonyms based on linguistic data other than Bulgar should be recognized as inadequate. Their Bulgar origin is supported by the toponymic landscape and the names of the peoples who lived within its borders in the early Middle Ages. The existence of toponymic parallels outside the region in question is explained by the migration, in the first centuries AD, of the Bulgars from the North-Eastern Caucasus and Dagestan to Eastern and Southern Europe — the Volga region, the Balkans and Crimea.

  18. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  19. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  20. Diversity of Sucking Lice on Small Mammals in the Surrounding Areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan, China%中国云南洱海周边小兽体表吸虱多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of sucking lice on the body surface of small mammals was carried out in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali, Yunnan from 2003 to 2004.From investigation sites, 3 303 small mammal hosts were captured and identified into 7families, 15 genera and 21 species in 4 orders (Rodentia, Insectivora, Scandentia and Carnivora), while 14 635 individuals of sucking lice collected from the body surface of the small mammal hosts are identified into 5 families, 6 genera and 21 species in the Order Anoplura. The sites stand alongside three cordilleras surrounding the Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas are different landscapes within the same zone where the longitude, latitude, altitude and fauna are homologous but isolated by Erhai Lake as inartificial barrier. The aim of this study was to recognize features of the species diversity,abundance, community structure, similarity and distribution of sucking lice in different landscapes within the same zone. The results showed the species diversity of sucking lice was very low with a very simple community structure. The distribution of sucking lice and their corresponding hosts are quite uneven among different oriented areas and this may imply that ecological environment influences the species composition and distribution of sucking li ce and their corresponding hosts. A certain species of hosts usually have theirfixed louse species. The similarity of sucking louse communities is highly consistent with the affinity of small mammal hosts in taxonomy. Species of sucking lice on the same small mam mal host in different oriented areas of Erhai Lake are homologous. The results stronglysuggest a close relationship of co-evolution between sucking lice and their hosts.

  1. Molecular epidemiology traits of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Jiangsu and surrounding areas%江苏及周边地区副溶血性弧菌分子流行病学特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽萍; 陈盛霞; 徐岚; 李薇薇; 裴晓燕; 郭云昌

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解江苏及周边地区副溶血性弧菌的分子流行病学特征.方法 对2010年江苏及周边地区食物中毒事件中分离的、经API生化鉴定的63株副溶血性弧菌进行毒力基因(tdh、trh)测定、血清学分型和脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分型.结果 tdh阳性率79.4% (50/63),trh阳性率1.6% (1/63);病人株血清型以O3∶K6为主(26/57),食品株以O1∶KUT为主(4/6);PFGE分型显示A-E群间相似度大于60%.结论 江苏及周边地区中不同地区的副溶血性弧菌具有高度同源性,该地区副溶血性弧菌引起的食物中毒可能具有相同的污染源.%Objective To understand the molecular epidemiology traits of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Jiangsu and surrounding areas. Methods Biochemical identification, tdh and trh gene detection, serological typing and pulse-field gel electrophoresis ( PFGE) were applied to 63 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from food poisoning incidents occurred in Jiangsu and surrounding areas in 2010. Results The positive rates of tdh and trh were 79.4% (50/63) and 1. 6% (1/63) respectively. The main serological type of strains isolated from patients was 03: K6 (26/57) , and that from food was 01: KUT (4/6). The patterns of PFGE showed that the similarity of groups from A to E was more than 60% . Conclusion Strains isolated from different regions in Jiangsu and surrounding areas were in high homology. The food poisoning incidents occurred in these areas might be contaminated by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from the same source.

  2. 广州市及周边地区胃肠癌发生的独立危险因素分析%The independent risk factors for gastrointestinal cancer in Guangzhou and the surrounding areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪莲; 魏宜胜; 容超贤; 贺意辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨广州市及周边地区人群吸烟、饮酒、体重指数(body mass index,BMI)与胃肠癌的关系.方法 纳入170例胃肠癌病例和166例健康人群,均来自广州及周边地区,年龄(±5岁)和性别相匹配.单因素卡方检验和多因素检验分析BMI、吸烟、饮酒与胃肠癌的关系.结果 单因素卡方检验显示BMI、吸烟与胃肠癌无明显相关(P=0.46;P=0.88),饮酒与胃肠癌明显相关(P=0.03).多因素回归分析显示与不饮酒者相比,曾经饮酒者明显增加胃肠癌的风险(OR1.89,95%CI=1.08-3.33,P=0.03).结论 饮酒是广州市及周边地区人群胃肠癌发生的独立危险因素,应加强卫生宣教.%Objective To investigate the association of the genesis of gastrointestinal cancer with tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, and body mass index(BMI)in Guangzhou and the surrounding areas. Methods 170 patients and 166 healthy controls from Guangzhou and the surrounding areas were included in this study. The patients and the controls were sex- and age-(within 5 years)matched. The association of gastrointestinal cancer with tobacco smoking, alcohol intake, and BMI were analyzed by single factor Chi-square test and Cox multivariate regression. Results Single factor Chi-square test showed BMI or tobacco smoking was not associated and the genesis of gastrointestinal cancer(P=0.46, P=0.88), while alcohol intake was associated with the genesis of gastrointestinal cancer(P=0.03). Cox multivariate regression showed former drinkers, as compared nondrinkers, had an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer(adjusted OR 1.89, 95% CI = 1.08-3.33, P= 0.03). Conclusions Alcohol intake is an independent risk factor for gastrointestinal cancer in Guangzhou and the surrounding areas. Health education should be strengthened.

  3. Rehabilitation Ideas of Historic Urban Quarters in Macau Ruins of St.Paul's Surrounding Area%澳门大三巴周边历史街区重整设想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡卓

    2012-01-01

    论文从澳门大三巴周边历史街区重整着手,提出现状存在问题,改造意向与模式及重整规划设想,使其成为具有古老精神风貌的新城.%Based on a case study of the rehabilitation of historic urban quarters in the Ruins of St. Paul's surrounding area. The authors raise problems of the current situation. In order to provide constructive ideas for planning and design, a list of principles and a imaginal layout for the urban revitalization are showed. All these efforts are trying to write a new story in the history.

  4. Notes on dematiaceous hyphomycetes from soil in Mount Taibai and its surrounding area Ⅱ%太白山及其周围地区土壤中的暗色丝孢菌Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于金凤; 宋伟; 吴悦明; 张天宇

    2008-01-01

    In this sequel of report on soil dernatiaceous hyphomycetes from Mount Taibai and its surrounding area,18 species in 10 additional genera are included.The fungi were identified from 96 isolates.Among them Scolecobasidium pallescens is a new species,while Myrothecium inundatum,Oidiodendron flavum,Oidiodendron truncatum,Scopulariopsis chartarum are new records to China.Scolecobasidium pallescens is characterized by its relatively light coloured(pale brown)conidia and conidiophores,differing from its similar species,S.microspora.Latin diagnosis is given for the new species.Brief descriptions and illustrations of the new records are provided based on Chinese isolates.The other 13 species being previously known from China in several genera are also listed.All specimens(dried cultures and slides)and living cultures studied have been deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University:Plant Pathology(HSAUP).

  5. Temporal-spatial Variations of Dynamic Source Parameters in the Capital Circle Region and Its Surrounding Areas before the 2006 Ms 5.1 Wen'an Earthquake in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xuezhong; Li Yan'e; Guo Xiangyun

    2012-01-01

    Source spectra, corner frequency and zero frequency amplitudes in near-source conditions were measured using waveform data from 989 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than ML2. 0 observed by the Beijing Digital Telemetry Seismic Network in the Capital Circle Region of China and its surrounding areas from January 2002 to June 2006 by the Brune model. Relevant formulas that were used for the calculation of dynamic source parameters include rupture radius, seismic moment, seismic energy, stress drop, and apparent stress. Scaling relations and characteristics of temporal-spatial variations of these dynamic parameters before the Ms5.1 Wen'an earthquake in Hebei Province that occurred on July 20, 2006 were analyzed. Results show that apparent stress, stress drop, and the ratio of seismic energy to the rupture radius had relatively high values in some areas before the Wen'an earthquake. These high-value concentration areas were mainly distributed in the North China Plain seismic zone. As is seen from the time curves, parameters, such as apparent stress, stress drop, and ratio of seismic energy to rupture radius underwent significant ascending processes before the Wen'an earthquake, but the variation in the corner frequency showed a descending trend. This result might be related to the enhancement of stress in the North China Plain seismic zone before the earthquake.

  6. PERUBAHAN FISIK KERUANGAN DAN SOSIAL EKONOMI MASYARAKAT DI KAWASAN SEKITAR TEMPAT PEMBUANGAN AKHIR SAMPAH BANTARGEBANG KOTA BEKASI (Physical Environmental and Social Economic Changing in Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping Site Area Surrounding Bekasi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kesuma

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan menjelaskan perubahan fisik keruangan dan sosial ekonomi masyarakat di kawasan sekitar TPA Sampah Bantargebang. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah gabungan metode kualitatif dengan metode kuantitatif dengan pendekatan rasionalitas, yaitu data dan informasi dilapangan dikomparasikan dengan teori dan konsep yang berhubungan dengan masalah yang diteliti. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa: (1 terdapat perubahan fisik keruangan di walayah penelitian yang ditandai dengan bertambahnya area terbangun, yaitu tumbuhnya tempat-tempat permukiman pemulung warung-warung, rumah-rumah penduduk, bertambah panjang dan lebarnya jalan, serta menurunnya kualitas air tanah, udara dan kesuburan lahan; (2 terdapat perubahan pada kondis; sosial masyarakat yang ditandai dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk, kegiatan ekonomi atau lapangan kerja, rendahnya angka partisipasi kasar pada setiap tingkat pendidikan, menurunnya derajat kesehatan masyarakat, serta terganggunya kenyamanan lingkungan yang akhirnya mengurangi kesejahteraan masyarakat; (3 terdapat perubahan pada ekonomi penduduk ke arah yang lebih baik, yang ditandai dengan meningkatnya jumlah pendapatan dan terbukanya peluang mengembangkan usaha sampingan. Berdasarkan hal tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa bagi lingkungan sekitar dan masyarakat di wilayah penelitian sebara umum keberadaan TPA Sampah Bantargebang lebih memberikan pengaruh negatif daripada positif.   ABSTRACT This research aims to identify and to explain physical spatial and social economic community changing in the Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping site area  and it surroundings. The research used deductive rational approach, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, i.e. comparison between data and information collected in the field, and the concept and theory related to the subject. The research identified physical, social, and economic changes. The

  7. Regional ecological compensation based on ecosystem service value in the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin%基于生态系统服务价值的环京津地区生态补偿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭年冬; 李恒哲; 李超; 陈召亚; 许皞

    2015-01-01

    Hebei Province, 73 counties (cities), into 7 sub-ecological regions. Then the paper calculated the per-unit area ecosystem service value and the sequence of priority of ecological compensation (ECPS) of 73 counties (cities) in the region surrounding Beijing and Tianjin. The ECPS can be used to quantify the priority of ecological compensation, and is the basis of regional compensation. The areas with priority for regional ecological compensation in the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin were analyzed at three spatial scales — the whole region, the sub-ecological region and the county/city scale. The results showed that the ECPS of the area surrounding Beijing and Tianjin was high in totality, and that of the regions around the western mountains and hills was significantly higher than that of the areas in the central and southeast plains. The per-unit area ecosystem service values of different ecological sub-regions were not significantly different. On the contrary, it varied considerably for different counties/cities — 2 440 Yuan·hm-2 for Laishui County (the lowest) in the west mountain area and 10 060 Yuan·hm-2 for Luannan (the highest) County in the east plain. The results also showed that at sub-ecological scale, the grassland and agro-ecological area in Bashang Plateau, the upper reaches of Yongding River and the deciduous broad-leaved forest areas of Jibei and Yanshan mountains needed high priority in terms of ecological compensation. At the county/city scale, Fengning, Weichang and other seven counties/cities in the northern region of the study area had higher priority level in terms of ecological compensation. Then Sanhe, Dachang and other 47 counties/cities in eastern and southern regions of the study area was the first to pay for the ecological compensation. Compared with previous economic compensation intensity models, a relatively simple and reliable evaluation method for priority areas and regional ecological compensation were established in this

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescent aromatic compounds in fish bile and organochlorine pesticides from areas surrounding the spill of the Kab121 well, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V; Chan-Cocom, E; Zapata-Perez, O

    2014-01-01

    In October 2007, a light crude oil spill took place in the off shore Kab121 oil well, 32 km north of the mouth of the Grijalva River, Tabasco, Mexico. In order to estimate the possible effects of oil spill on the biota in the area surrounding the spilled well, the level of different fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in fish, as well as the concentration of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs. The organisms examined were cat fish (Ariopsis felis), in addition fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, the contaminants above mentioned and their relationship with cyotochrome P-450 and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, Glutathion-S-Transferase and catalase activities in liver were determined. The concentration of most pollutants were low, except PAHs. Spatial distribution of these compounds, as well as most biomarkers, reflected the highest exposure of fish to pollutants in the area adjacent to well, as well as in the proximity of rivers. The profile of exposure to this environment was chronic in nature and not temporary.

  9. 兰州周边地区土壤典型有机氯农药残留及生态风险%Typical organochlorine pesticides residues in topsoils and ecological risk of Lanzhou surrounding areas, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛潇萱; 丁中原; 马子龙; 马建民; 黄韬; 高宏; 郭强; 田慧

    2013-01-01

    应用Agilent 7890-5975C GC-MSD对兰州及其周边地区16个表层土壤样品中HCHs和DDTs残留水平进行分析,并对兰州周边地区土壤中OCPs的可能来源和生态风险进行了初步研究.结果表明,研究区土壤中HCHs残留范围为8.22×10-2-4.49 ng·g-1,平均值为6.85×10-1 ng· g-1;DDTs残留范围为1.41×10-1-120 ng·g-1,平均值为16.9 ng·g-1;DDTs残留较HCHs占优势,约占二者总残留量的96%.α-HCH/γ-HCH比值介于0.18-14,平均值为2.8,推测研究区土壤中HCHs残留源于工业HCHs和林丹的混合源,并且可能存在有周边地区HCHs的大气长距离输送.DDE/DDD比值介于0.35-4.8,平均值为2.1,说明研究区土壤中DDT以有氧方式降解为主;(DDE+ DDD)/DDT比值介于0.067-0.69,平均值为0.30,o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT比值介于0.091-2.8,平均值为0.60,表明研究区土壤DDTs污染可能主要源于工业源DDTs.与国内其它地区土壤相比,研究区土壤中HCHs和DDTs残留量相对较低;依照国家《土壤环境质量标准》(GB-15618-1995),研究区土壤中HCHs和DDTs残留处于较低水平;研究区土壤中HCHs残留处于较低的生态风险,DDTs残留对于土壤生物和鸟类具有一定的生态风险,而对于哺乳类动物生态风险较低.%16 topsoil samples were collected in Lanzhou and the surrounding areas. The HCH and DDT residues in these samples were determined using Agilent 7890-5975 C GC-MSD. The possible sources and ecological risk of HCHs and DDTs were appointed and assessed preliminarily. The results showed that the OCP residue levels were in the range of 8. 22 × 10-2-4. 49 ng·g-1 for HCHs and 1. 41 × 10-1-120 ng·g-1 for DDTs in the topsoil,respectively. And the average concentrations were 6. 85 × 10-1 ng·g-1 for HCHs and 16.9 ng·g-1 for DDTs. These study results also showed that DDTs was dominant in topsoil of surrounding areas, accounting for 96% of the total residues of HCHs and DDTs. Furthermore, ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH ranged from 0

  10. Geochemistry of natural radionuclide in soils surrounding a mining and plant uranium concentration;Geoquimica de radionuclindeos naturais em solos de areas circunvizinhas a uma unidade de mineracao e atividade de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Gildevan Viana, E-mail: gildevan.cardoso@vta.incra.gov.b [Instituto Nacional de Colonizacao e Reforma Agraria (INCRA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson, E-mail: nelmoura@ufrrj.b, E-mail: nelmazur@ufrrj.b [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara, E-mail: angelica@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    The environmental impacts resulting from uranium exploration and processing are to a great extent identical to those caused by extractive mining activities in general. This study aimed to determine the geochemical partitioning of the natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in areas surrounding the Uranium Mining and Concentration Plant (URA) of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries S.A., in the uranium deposit region of Lagoa Real, in Caetite, southwestern Bahia state. Representative soil samples of the main regional soil classes were collected from the layer 0-20 cm, in five areas around the URA. The level of total activity and geochemical fractionation (F1 slightly acidic, F2 reducible, F3 oxidisable, F4 alkaline, and F5 residual) were determined for the five areas. The average total radioactivity levels were, in Bq kg{sup -1} soil: 50 for {sup 238}U, 51 for {sup 226}Ra, and 159 for {sup 210}Pb. During the potentially bioavailable phase (F1) 11 % were extracted for {sup 238}U, 13 % for {sup 226}Ra and 3 % for {sup 210}Pb. The bioavailability of {sup 238}U was higher in more acidic soils and the affinity for iron oxides was greater, unlike in the case of {sup 226}Ra, with the greatest bioavailability. {sup 210}Pb was predominantly associated with F5. The high percentage of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb in the geochemical fraction F5 indicates that the concentrations observed in the five soils are predominantly associated to the parent material of these soils, rather than to an artificial contamination caused by the URA activity. (author)

  11. Geochemistry and spatial distribution of late-Paleozoic mafic volcanic rocks in the surrounding areas of the Gonghe Basin: Implications for Majixueshan triple-junction and east Paleotethyan archipelagic ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The late-Paleozoic mafic volcanic rocks occurring in the surrounding areas of the Gonghe basin are distributed in the A'nyêmaqên ophiolite zone, Zongwulong tectonic zone and Kuhai-Saishitang volcanic zone. The mafic volcanics in the A'nyêmaqên zone formed an ancient ridge-centered hotspot around the Majixueshan OIB, the Kuhai-Saishitang mafic rocks consist of E-MORB and continental rift basalts and the Zongwulong volcanic rocks are enriched N-MORB. The regionally low Nb/U and Ce/Pb ratios reflect the influence of the OIB material on the mafic magma source. From geochemistry, spatial distribution and tectonic relationship of the mafic rocks, an ancient triple-junction centered at the Majixueshan can be inferred. The existence of the Kuhai-Saishitang aulacogen may have provided a tectonic channel for the Majixueshan OIB materials metasomatizing the magma source for the Zongwulong rocks. The formation of the triple-junction and the rifting of the Zongwulong zone have separated the orogens and massifs in the region.

  12. Notes on soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes from Mount Taibai and its surrounding area, China Ⅰ%太行山及其周围地区土壤中的暗色丝孢菌Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋伟; 于金凤; 张天宇

    2008-01-01

    A total of 103 isolates of soil dematiaceous hyphomycetes belonging to 27 species in 15 genera were obtained from soil samples of Mount Taibai and its surrounding area, Shaanxi Province, China. Among them Eladia pachyphialis and Gliomastix pallescens are new species, while Acremoniula sarcinellae, Allescheriella crocea, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium pannorum are new records to China. The main distinction between E. pachyphialis and its similar species E. saccula is that the phialide of the former is wider and the conidia are smaller than those of the latter. Gliomastix pallescens is characterized by having light colored, long and unbranched conidiophores by which it can be separated from its similar species, G. cerealis. Latin descriptions are given for the new species. Brief descriptions and illustrations of the new records are also provided based on Chinese isolates. The other 21 species being previously known from China in several genera are also listed. All specimens (dried cultures and slides) and living cultures studied have been deposited in the Herbarium of Shandong Agricultural University: Plant Pathology (HSAUP).

  13. Blood lead levels, δ-ALAD inhibition, and hemoglobin content in blood of giant toad (Rhinella marina) to assess lead exposure in three areas surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César Arturo; González-Mille, Donaji Josefina; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Torres-Dosal, Arturo; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván

    2013-02-01

    The Coatzacoalcos Region in Veracruz, Mexico houses one of the most important industrial complexes in Mexico and Latin America. Lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant which represents a great risk to human health and ecosystems. Amphibian populations have been recognized as biomonitors of changes in environmental conditions. The purpose of this research is to measure exposure to lead and evaluate hematological and biochemical effects in specimens of giant toads (Rhinella marina) taken from three areas surrounding an industrial complex in the Coatzacoalcos River downstream. Lead levels in toads' blood are between 10.8 and 70.6 μg/dL and are significantly higher in industrial sites. We have found a significant decrease in the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) activity in blood from 35.3 to 78 % for the urban-industrial and industrial sites, respectively. In addition, we have identified a strong inverse relationship between the δ-ALAD activity and the blood lead levels (r = -0.84, p < 0.001). Hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin levels, as well as the condition factor, are found to be lower at industrial sites compared with the reference sites. Our results suggest that the R. marina can be considered a good biomonitor of the δ-ALAD activity inhibition and hematological alterations at low lead concentrations.

  14. Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, D.; Kachingwe, M.; Nyblade, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Gaherty, J. B.; Ebinger, C. J.; Accardo, N. J.; O'Donnell, J. P.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mulibo, G. D.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Mphepo, F.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.; Tepp, G.

    2015-12-01

    Crustal Structure in Northern Malawi and Southern Tanzania surrounding Lake Malawi and the Rungwe Volcanic Province David Borrego, Marsella Kachingwe, Andrew Nyblade, Donna Shillington, James Gaherty, Cynthia Ebinger, Natalie Accardo, J.P. O'Donnell, Gabriel Mbogoni, Gabriel Mulibo, Richard Ferdinand, Patrick Chindandali, Felix Mphepo, Gabrielle Tepp, Godson Kamihanda We investigate crustal structure around the northern end of Lake Malawi and in the Rungwe Volcanic Province using teleseismic receiver functions from the SEGMeNT broadband seismic network. The SEGMeNT network includes 55 broadband stations deployed in northern Malawi and southern Tanzania, with station spacing of 20-50 km. Fourteen stations were deployed in August 2013, and an additional of 41 stations were added to the study region beginning June/July 2014. Fifteen stations are located in Malawi and 40 stations in Tanzania. Data from teleseismic earthquakes with magnitude 5.5 or greater in the 30 to 90 degrees distance range have been used to calculate P-wave receiver functions. Estimates of Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratios have been obtained by using the H-k stacking method and by jointly inverting the receiver functions with Rayleigh wave phase velocities. Preliminary results show an average Moho depth of 40 km and an average Vp/Vs ratio of 1.72. Little evidence is found for magmatic underplating beneath the Rungwe Volcanic Province.

  15. 乌梁素海及其周边地区水源补给关系同位素研究%Isotope study of recharge relationships of water sources in Wuliangsuhai Lake and its surrounding areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      野外采集乌梁素海及其周边区域的水样和土壤样品,测定样品的δD、δ18 O和ρ(TDS),并以采自南京燕子矶的黄土为样本进行室内降水入渗试验,测试每个土壤样品的含水率和ρ(TDS)。根据试验结果,对乌梁素海以北的色尔腾山地区的降水入渗情况进行分析,对乌梁素海湖水补给来源进行同位素分析,对乌梁素海湖泊周围地下水进行TDS分析。结果表明,乌梁素海以北的色尔腾山地区的大气降水在入渗的过程中大量蒸发,无法有效入渗补给地下水,降水并不是当地地下水的主要补给源,而比当地降水中的氘氧同位素值更负的稳定外部补给源是当地地下水的主要补给源;泉水、井水的δD和δ18 O值比当地降水明显贫化,也表明大气降水并非是地下水的补给源;地下水是乌梁素海的主要补给源,河套灌区排水渠中的水的主要来源是深循环地下水,狼山—日喀则隐伏断裂带中可能存在渗漏通道,西藏内流区的渗漏水通过该通道补给到了内蒙古高原。%Water and soil samples were collected in the field at Wuliangsuhai Lake and its surrounding areas .TheδD,δ18 O, andρ(TDS) of these samples were measured, and an indoor rainfall infiltration test was conducted with loess collected from Yanziji in Nanjing City .The moisture content and ρ(TDS) of each soil profile were tested. Based on the experimental results , the infiltration of precipitation in the Seerteng Hill areas on the north side of Wuliangsuhai Lake was analyzed , and an isotope analysis of the sources of Wuliangsuhai Lake water and theρ(TDS) analysis of surrounding groundwater of Wuliangsuhai Lake were conducted .The results show that the meteoric water of the Seerteng Hill areas evaporates greatly and cannot effectively recharge groundwater ;precipitation is not the main recharge source of the local groundwater; the main source of the local

  16. CPUE DAN TINGKAT PEMANFAATAN PERIKANAN CAKALANG (KATSUWONUS PELAMIS DI SEKITAR TELUK PALABUHANRATU, KABUPATEN SUKABUMI, JAWA BARAT (CPUE AND UTILIZATION RATE OF SKIPJACK (KATSUWONUS PELAMIS AT SURROUNDED PALABUHANRATU BAY AREA, SUKABUMI REGENCY, WEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Budiasih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ikan Cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis merupakan salah satu hasil tangkapan yang banyak menyumbang produksi perikanan laut di Kabupaten Sukabumi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menghitung nilai CPUE (Catch per Unit Effort ikan cakalang di Perairan Palabuhanratu Kabupaten Sukabumi dan menganalisis tingkat pemanfaatan ikan cakalang di sekitar Perairan Teluk Palabuhanratu Kabupaten Sukabumi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari-Februari 2014 di Pelabuhan Perikanan Nusantara Palabuhanratu, Jawa Barat. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah standarisasi alat tangkap, analisis hasil tangkapan per upaya penangkapan (CPUE dan analisis Tingkat Pemanfaatan ikan cakalang. Alat tangkap yang digunakan untuk menangkap ikan cakalang adalah payang, pancing tonda dan longline. Alat tangkap yang dijadikan standar adalah pancing tonda. Hasil analisis CPUE diperoleh nilai CPUEstd rata-rata tahun 2008-2013 sebesar 247,226 kg/trip. Nilai CPUE Ikan Cakalang yang didaratkan di Palabuhanratu cenderung menurun, yang artinya mengindikasikan terjadinya fully exploited pada perairan tersebut. Rata-rata tingkat pemanfaatan sumberdaya ikan cakalang (Katsuwonus pelamis di perairan Palabuhanratu sebesar 105,82%. ABSTRACT Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis is one of leading commodity that contributed to the production of marine fisheries in Sukabumi. The purposes of this research were to calculate CPUE (catch per unit effort of skipjack at surrounded area of Palabuhanratu bay Sukabumi and analyze skipjack utilization rate in Palabuhanratu bay of Sukabumi. This research conducted in January-February 2014 at Palabuhanratu fishing port, West Java. Methods used in this research were descriptive. Method of analysis of data used standardization of fishing gears, calculated catch per efforts (CPUE and utilization rate of skipjack. The fishing gear that used to capture skipjack were payang, troll line and

  17. CERN Technical Training: Open Courses (June - July 2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The following course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2007: Java – Level 1 (English): 27.6.-29.6.2007 (3 days, 2 places available) AutoCAD 2006 - niveau 1 (French): 27.6. - 28.6.2007 & 3.7. - 4.7.2007 (4 days in 2 modules, full) LabVIEW – Working efficiently with LabVIEW 8 (English): 29.6.2007 (1 day, 6 places available) Java – Level 2 (English): 2.7.-5.7.2007 (4 days, 3 places available) MATLAB – Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (English): 2.7.-3.7.2007 (2 days, full) MATLAB – Simulink for System and Algorithm Modeling (English) 4.7.-5.7.2007 (2 days, 2 places available) Automate de Sécurité (French): -> POSTPONED > from 9 to 11 October 2007 ! 10.7.-12.7.2007 (3 days, full) Oracle – HTML DB 2.0: Develop Web Applications (English): 11.7.-13.7.2007 (3 days, 7 places available) Technique du vide (French): 11.7.-12.7.2007 (2 days, full) ANSYS – Classical (French) 16.7.-20.7.2007 (5 days, 4 pl...

  18. CERN Technical Training: Open Courses (June - July 2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The following course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2007: Java – Level 2 (English): 2.7.-5.7.2007 (4 days, 3 places available) MATLAB – Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (English): 2.7.-3.7.2007 (2 days, full) MATLAB – Simulink for System and Algorithm Modeling (English) 4.7.-5.7.2007 (2 days, 2 places available) Automate de Sécurité (French): -> POSTPONED > from 9.10 – 11.10.2007 ! 10.7.-12.7.2007 (3 days, full) Oracle – HTML DB 2.0: Develop Web Applications (English): 11.7.-13.7.2007 (3 days, 6 places available) Technique du vide (French): 11.7.-12.7.2007 (2 days, full) ANSYS – Classical (French) 16.7.-20.7.2007 (5 days, 3 places available) Oracle – Programming with PL/SQL (English): 17.7.-19.7.2007 (3 days, full) Introduction to Databases and Database Design (English) 24.7.-25.7.2007 (2 days, 5 places available) Technique du vide (French): 24.7.-25.7.2007 (2 days, 3 places available) If ...

  19. CERN Technical Training: Open Courses (June - July 2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The following course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2007: Project Planning with MS-Project (English): 19.6., 26.6.(am), 3.7.(am) (2 days, 3 modules, 4 places available) Python – Hands-on-Introduction (English): 19.6.-21.6.2007 (3 days, full) AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 (French) 21.6.-22.6.2007 (2 days, full) Simplorer (English): 21.6.-22.6.2007 (2 days, 2 places available) Impacts de la suppression du plomb (RoHS) en electronique (French): 21.6.2007 (1/2 day, places available) Java – Level 1 (English): 27.6.-29.6.2007 (3 days, 4 places available) AutoCAD 2006 - niveau 1 (French): 27.6.- 28.6.2007 & 3.7. - 4.7.2007 (4 days in 2 modules, full) LabVIEW – Working efficiently with LabVIEW 8 (English): 29.6.2007 (1 day, 5 places available) Java – Level 2 (English): 2.7.-5.7.2007 (4 days, 2 places available) MATLAB – Fundamentals and Programming Techniques (English): 2.7.-3.7.2007 (2 days, full) MATLAB...

  20. Narrative report: June - July 1938: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from June through July of 1938. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  1. National Elk Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  2. National Elk Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  3. CERN Technical Training: Open Courses (June - July 2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The following course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2007: LabVIEW Basics 1 (English): 11.6.-13.6.2007 (3 days, 1 place available) JCOP – Finite State Machines in the JCOP Framework (English): 12.6.-14.6.2007 (3 days, 2 places available) LabVIEW Basics 2 (English): 14.6.-15.6.2007 (2 days, 2 places available) Project Planning with MS-Project (English): 19.6., 26.6.(am), 3.7.(am) (2 days, 3 modules, 4 places available) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming (English) 19.6.-21.6.2007 (3 days, 9 places available) Python – Hands-on-Introduction (English): 19.6.-21.6.2007 (3 days, full) AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 (French) 21.6.-22.6.2007 (2 days, full) Simplorer (English): 21.6.-22.6.2007 (2 days, 3 places available) Java – Level 1 (English): 27.6.-29.6.2007 (3 days, 5 places available) AutoCAD 2006 - niveau 1 (French): 27.6.- 28.6.2007 & 3.7. - 4.7.2007 (4 days in 2 modules, full) LabVIEW – ...

  4. CERN Technical Training: Open Courses (June-July 2007)

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The following course sessions are currently scheduled in the framework of the CERN Technical Training Programme 2007: FrontPage 2003, niveau 1 (French): 7.6.-8.6.2007 (2 days, 5 places available) LabVIEW Basics 1 (English): 11.6.-13.6.2007 (3 days, 1 place available) JCOP - Finite State Machines in the JCOP Framework (English): 12.6.-14.6.2007 (3 days, 2 places available) LabVIEW Basics 2 (English): 14.6.-15.6.2007 (2 days, 2 places available) Project Planning with MS-Project (English): 19.6., 26.6.(am), 3.7.(am) (2 days, 3 modules, 5 places available) C++ Programming Part 1 - Introduction to Object-Oriented Design and Programming (English) 19.6.-21.6.2007 (3 days, places available) Python - Hands-on-Introduction (English): 19.6.-21.6.2007 (3 days, full) AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 (French) 21.6.-22.6.2007 (2 days, full) Simplorer (English): 21.6.-22.6.2007 (2 days, 3 places available) Java - Level 1 (English): 25.6.-27.6.2007 (3 days, 5 places available) AutoCAD 2006 - niveau 1 (French): 27.6.- 28.6...

  5. National Elk Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  6. National Elk Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  7. National Elk Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  8. National Elk Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  9. National Elk Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  10. Quarterly report, Crescent Lake Refuge : May - June - July, 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through July of 1938. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. National Elk Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  12. National Elk Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  13. 红透山铜矿外围隐伏矿体三维定量预测%3D quantitative prediction of concealed ore-body in surrounding areas of Hongtoushan copper deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝一; 吴湘滨; 王丽芳; 刘文玉; 杜方

    2012-01-01

    The systematic techniques and methods of concealed ore-body 3D quantitative prediction in the surrounding areas of Hongtoushan copper deposit of Liaoning province were introduced. Firstly, the 3D geological entity model of Hongtoushan copper deposit, including the terrain surface, ore-body, strata, and fault surface, was built in the 3D visualization circumstance. Secondly, through the integration of fields of mineralization information, strata's morphology, fault influence and geophysical attributes in the framework of 3D geological space, the comprehensive analysis of multiple disciplinary of geosciences was achieved. Thirdly, based on 3D geological correlation field analysis, a set of geological ore-controlling quantitative factors and the 3D quantitative prediction model were proposed. Finally, the 3D location and distribution of concealed ore-body in the surrounding areas of Hongtoushan copper deposit were predicted to delineate the target regions. The technology of 3D geological modeling, visualization, correlation field supports the 3D quantitative prediction of concealed ore-body.%介绍红透山铜矿外围隐伏矿体三维定量预测的技术组合和方法体系.首先,借助三维可视化仿真环境,实现红透山铜矿的地表面、矿体、断层、地层实体模型的三维可视化.其次,将成矿信息场、地层形态场、断裂影响场、地球物理场等多元地学空间数据在统一的三维空间数据场构架下有效集成,实现了三维空间信息的综合研究和地学多专业的有机结合.其次,基于三维地质空间相关场分析,为三维定量预测提取定量指标集和建立预测模型.最后,使用三维定量预测模型对红透山矿外围的矿化位置与分布规律进行预测和评价,圈定找矿靶区.三维地质建模与可视化及三维地质空间相关场等技术的使用,为进行红透山矿外围隐伏矿体在三维空间中的分布及形态的定量预测提供支撑.

  14. Borna disease virus in blood of cattle infect detection in Gui Zhou and surrounding areas%贵州省及部分周边地区牛博尔纳病病毒感染的情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海军; 王长明; 谢婷婷; 王顺旺; 徐平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨贵州省及周边地区牛群博尔纳病病毒(BDV)感染状况.方法 采用荧光定量巢式逆转录聚合酶链反应(FQ-nRT-PCR)检测了120例牛的外周血单个核细胞中的BDV p24基因片段.结果 牛外周血单个核细胞(PBMCs)中BDV p24基因片段阳性率均为4.17%.牛BDV p24基因片段的测序结果与GeneBank提供的标准病毒株比较,同源性96.51%~97.67%;有2个位点出现一致性沉寂突变(nt1675 C-T,nt1678 T-C突变率为2%);与马的Strain V病毒株比较,有3个位点出现一致性沉寂突变(nt1650 T-C,nt1671 C-T,nt1674 C-T突变率为3%);与H1766病毒株比较,有2个位点出现一致性沉寂突变(nt1675 C-T,nt1678 T-C突变率为2%);与He80/FR病毒株比较,在3个位点出现一致性沉寂突变(nt 1660 T-C,nt 1669 A-G,nt 1672 C-T突变率为3%);但它们所编码的氨基酸没有改变.结论 贵州及湖南省部分地区牛群中存在BDV自然感染,可能是BDV流行区域之一;人感染BDV可能具有潜在的动物源性.%Objective To investigate the infection condition in cattle infected with Borna disease virus(BDV)in Guizhou province and some surrounding areas. Methods The p24 gene fragment of BDV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs)from 120 cattle was detected by fluorescence quantitative nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(FQ-nRT-PCR). Results The p24 gene fragment of BDV-RNA in PBMCs from cattle was 5 positive(4. 17%). The homology of p24 gene fragment of BDV detected to GenBank was 96. 51% - 97. 67%. 2 situs consistency silent mutation when compared with Bo/04W and huP2br isolated in heifer brain tissue by Watanabe Y(ntl675 C-T,ntl678 T-C mutation rate of 2%). 3 situs consistency silent mutation when compared with Strain V in horse (ntl650 T-C,ntl671 C-T,ntl674 C-T mutation rate of 3%). 2 situs consistency silent mutation when compared with H1766 in horse (ntl675 C-T,ntl678 T-C mutation rate of 2%). 3 situs consistency silent mutation when compared

  15. iTRAQ analysis of hepatic proteins in free-living Mus spretus mice to assess the contamination status of areas surrounding Doñana National Park (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Nieves; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Michán, Carmen; Pueyo, Carmen; López-Barea, Juan, E-mail: bb1lobaj@uco.es

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to develop and integrate new -omics tools that would be applicable to different ecosystem types for a technological updating of environmental evaluations. We used a 2nd-generation (iTRAQ-8plex) proteomic approach to identify/quantify proteins differentially expressed in the liver of free-living Mus spretus mice from Doñana National Park or its proximities. Mass spectrometry was performed in an LTQ Orbitrap system for iTRAQ reporter ion quantitation and protein identification using a Mus musculus database as reference. A prior IEF step improved the separation of the complex peptide mixture. Over 2000 identified proteins were altered, of which 118 changed by ≥ 2.5-fold in mice from at least two problem sites. Part of the results obtained with the iTRAQ analysis was confirmed by Western blot. Over 75% of the 118 proteins were upregulated in animals captured at polluted sites and only 16 proteins were downregulated. Upregulated proteins were involved in stress response; cell proliferation and apoptosis; signal transduction; metastasis or tumour suppression; xenobiotic export or vesicular trafficking; and metabolism. The downregulated proteins, all potentially harmful, were classified as oncoproteins and proteins favouring genome instability. The iTRAQ results presented here demonstrated that the survival of hepatic cells is compromised in animals living at polluted sites, which showed deep alterations in metabolism and the signalling pathways. The identified proteins may be useful as biomarkers of environmental pollution and provide insight about the metabolic pathways and/or physiological processes affected by pollutants in DNP and its surrounding areas. - Highlights: • iTRAQ quantitation was used for the first time to monitor a wildlife reserve • Over 2,000 proteins with altered expression were identified in problem Doñana sites • Of them, 118 changed over 2.5-fold in, at least, two problem sites • Upregulation of protective proteins

  16. Prevalence of helmet use by users of bicycles, push scooters, inline skates and skateboards in Toronto and the surrounding area in the absence of comprehensive legislation: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jessica L; Macpherson, Alison K; Middaugh-Bonney, Tara; Tator, Charles H

    2012-04-01

    Legislation in the province of Ontario, Canada, mandates users under the age of 18 to wear a helmet when they ride a bicycle, and legislation has been shown to significantly increase rates of bicycle helmet use. Legislation does not exist in Ontario for older bicyclists or for users of other non-motorised modes of transportation, and there are no current data available regarding rates of helmet use in these categories. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of helmet use among users of bicycles, skateboards, push scooters and inline skates in Toronto, Ontario, and the surrounding area. Further analysis was performed to examine factors associated with helmet use. We performed a cross-sectional, observational study. Three trained, stationary observers captured 6038 users of bicycles (5783), skateboards (77), inline skates (165) and push scooters (13) in the summer of 2009. Observations were separated into three time periods capturing commuters, midday users and recreational users. A general linear model was used to assess the factors associated with helmet use among bicyclists. Helmets were worn by 48.9% of all users observed and 50.0% of all bicyclists. Among bicyclists, females were more likely to wear helmets than males (prevalence ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.36), while children were significantly more likely to wear helmets than adults (prevalence ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.15). Significant behavioural variation was observed among users during the three observation periods (pstrategies to increase helmet use, such as the introduction of legislation encompassing all ages and all equipment, is required.

  17. Speciation analysis and pollution risk assessment of heavy metals in the soils surrounding mine area%矿区周边土壤中重金属形态分析及污染风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙海洋; 王维生; 韦月越; 应成璋; 黄雪芬; 蒙敏

    2016-01-01

    为了解某矿区周边土壤的重金属污染状况及污染程度,以广西河池市某矿区周边6处矿山和农田土壤为研究对象,采用湿法消解和BCR连续提取法研究了土壤中重金属( Cd、Zn、Pb和Cu)的总量及形态分布,并用次生相与原生相比值法( RSP)评价了土壤中重金属潜在的生态风险。结果表明,样品中重金属呈现一定的富集效应,总量超过当地土壤背景值和土壤环境质量标准值,从总量超标倍数看,其污染程度为Cd>Zn>Pb抑Cu。 BCR结果显示,离矿山较近的5个采样点的可提取态重金属均占总量的50%以上,有较强的生物有效性和毒性,最远的采样点的重金属主要存在于残渣态中(>60%),可提取态低于40%。 RSP结果显示,离矿山较近的两个采样点的重金属污染风险最高( RSP在1.62~3.20),矿山周边3个采样点有轻度或中度的的污染风险(RSP在1.11~2.16),离矿山最远的采样点几乎没有污染风险(RSP在0.42~0.67)。说明该矿区周边土壤重金属活性较大,离矿区越近,污染风险越高。%In order to understand the pollution condition and level of heavy metals in a mining area and surrounding soils, the contents and speciation distribution of heavy metals ( Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu) in six mine/farmland soils surrounding mine area in Hechi city of Guangxi province were stud-ied by the wet digestion method and BCR sequential extraction procedure . The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the soils was evaluated by the ratio of secondary phase and primary phase ( RSP) . The results showed that the enrichment of heavy metals in the soils was observed, and the contents of heavy metals were higher than the background values of the local soils, and the values of soil environmental quality standard ( SEQS) . According to the total contents of heavy metals in the soil, the sequence of heavy metal pollution level was obtained as Cd>Zn>Pb-Cu. The results of

  18. 海河流域太阳辐射变化及其原因分析%The Change of Solar Radiation and Its Causes in Haihe River Basin and Surrounding Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌明; 刘小莽; 郑红星; 曾燕

    2009-01-01

    太阳辐射是控制气候形成的基本能量,分析太阳辐射的变化有助于深入理解气候变化的原因.本文利用海河流域及其周边46个气象站气象资料以及TOMS(the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer)卫星反演逐日气溶胶指数资料,分析了海河流域太阳辐射的时空变化规律,并对太阳辐射变化的原因进行了初步分析.研究结果表明,1957-2008年海河流域太阳总辐射呈明显下降趋势,其中太阳直接辐射下降趋势明显,散射辐射呈增加趋势;从空间分布上看,流域南部和冀东沿海的人口高密度区相比流域北部的燕山和太行山人口低密度区太阳总辐射减小趋势更为明显.对太阳辐射下降原因的研究表明,人类活动造成气溶胶的显著增加可能是引起太阳辐射下降的重要原因.%Solar radiation is a key factor in most climate processes. In surface hydrology, it controls the energy balance of the catchment, thus deeply influences the water balance. In this paper, the temporal and spatial variations of solar radiation and the cause of the variation have been analyzed based on meteorological data obtained from 46 national meteorological stations and aerosol index data from TOMS in the Haihe River Basin and surrounding areas. The results show that solar radiation and direct radiation significantly decreased, while the scatter radiation increased during the period 1957-2008. In terms of solar radiation, the densely populated areas have a greater decreasing trend than the scarcely populated ones. The spatial distribution of the increase in aerosol index is consistent with that of the decrease in aerosol index. The increase in aerosol resulting from human activities is the important reason for the decrease in solar radiation.

  19. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  20. Preliminary Study of Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Hebei and Surrounding Areas from Ambient Seismic Noise%基于背景噪声初步研究河北及邻区的剪切波速度结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 宫猛; 胡斌; 曾祥方; 罗艳

    2012-01-01

    We present the surface wave dispersion results of the application of the ambient noise method to broad-band data recorded at 83 stations from digital seismic networks of the Hebei and surrounding areas. Firstly we used the multiple-filter analysis method to extract surface wave group velocity dispersion curves from inter-station paths at periods from 5 to 50 s. Then using linear inversion method to obtain shear wave velocity distribution. The results of group and shear wave velocity distribution maps generally demonstrate good correlations with surface geological and tectonic features. The results of the group velocity tomography show that at short periods (8 — 20 s) , basin areas are clearly resolved with low group velocity due to its thick sedimentary layer, and the uplift areas show relative higher group velocity distribution. With the increase of period O20 s) the group velocity distribution changed, and velocity gap between the basin and uplift areas had reduced after the 30 s period, due to the thickness of the Earth's crust, and beneath the middle-lower the shear wave velocity increase with depth. Our results alsoshow that in this study the dominated noise sources come from the north-west.%本文根据2010年1~12月河北及邻区的83个宽频地震仪12个月连续噪声记录,分析了河北及邻区瑞利面波的群速度频散曲线并反演了主要分区内的典型路径剪切波速度结构.首先采用多重滤波方法提取了台站对5~50 s的面波群速度频散曲线,然后用Herrmann线性反演方法反演了剪切波速度结构.结果表明,群速度频散曲线及剪切波速度分布特征与地表地质和构造特征表现出较好的相关性,清晰地揭示了地壳内部的横向速度变化.在短周期(8~20s),拥有较厚的沉积层的平原地区表现为明显的低速特征,而隆起地区则表现为较高的群速度分布特征:随着周期的增加(>20 s)速度的特征有所改变,30 s之后由于受地壳

  1. 中国云南洱海周边小兽体表革螨多样性%Diversity of gamasid mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2008-01-01

    云南大理洱海周边是我国流行性出血热的流行地区之一.本文目的是运用Shannon-Wiener、系统聚类分析方法(SPSS 13.0软件)和Levins'niche等对该区3 303只小兽体表寄生革螨的物种多样性、群落结构、相似性、分布和生态位进行研究.选择的洱海周边三个不同方位恰好处于东部无量山、南部哀老山和西部苍山,由于洱海的天然隔离使这三个方位形成了同地域异生境的地理景观.在调查点共捕获小兽宿主3 303只属4目(啮齿目、食虫目、攀鼩目和食肉目)7科15属21种,收集到的小兽体表寄生虫革螨23 196只被鉴定为6科16属43种.研究结果表明革螨群落结构复杂,物种多样性高.在不同方位革螨和它们相对应宿主的分布是不均匀的,但是洱海周边不同方位同样优势小兽上寄生的优势革螨种是一致的.结果暗示:生境影响着革螨和它们相对应小兽的物种构成和分布,如果小兽宿主的分类地位和生境相似,那么相对应的小兽宿主上的革螨群落就相似;不同方位小兽体表寄生虫革螨的丰富度和物种多样性主要由宿主本身和宿主所栖息的生境决定;这可能是小兽和革螨之间协同进化在生态学上的一个佐证.但通过使用革螨的生态位宽度分析,革螨的宿主特异性很低,这又可能暗示着小兽和革螨之间有协同进化,但协同进化程度不高.%The aim was to study the species diversity,community structure,similarity,distribution and niche of gamasid mites on the body surface of 3 303 small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Dali,Yunnan by using Shannon-Wiener,hierarchical cluster analysis (SPSS 13.0) and Levins' niche.The investigated site was an important focus of epidemic hemorrhagic fever, where stands alongside three cordilleras surrounding Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain,Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas formed

  2. 某矿区周边农村砷污染对村民健康的影响分析%Effect of Mining Area Surrounding Arsenic Contamination on Rural Residents' Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘展华; 唐振柱; 黄柯; 黄江平; 黎勇; 黄兆勇; 黎智

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解某矿区周边2 km砷污染对村民的健康影响程度,探讨预防控制措施.方法 应用现场流行病学、卫生学、职业医学与实验室检测相结合的方法,对A、B 2个村开展现场调查.结果 2个村70.2%(450/641)的村民出现了尿砷超标,64.58%(93/144)出现头痛等神经症状,有消化道症状的占41.67%,发病村民大都饮用A村地下河自抽自来水,该水含砷2.58 mg/L,村民水柜水砷为4.90 mg/L.矿区停工2个月后,地下河水砷降低到0.001 mg/L(正常限值)以下.驱砷2个疗程后,村民尿砷恢复至正常水平.结论 调查村出现了地下水砷污染.建议加强矿区环保监管,加强饮水水质监测,保障村民健康安全.%[Objective]To investigate the effect of arsenic contamination on rural residents' health who lived in the area of 2 km surrounding the mining area, and explore the control measures. [Methods]The integration of field epidemiology, occupational medicine and laboratory tests was adopted to conduct field investigation on Village A and B.[Results]70.2%(450/641) residents of the 2 villages had over-standard urine arsenic; 64.58%(93/144) had neurological symptoms such as headache; 41.67% had gastrointestinal symptoms. Most of the patients had drunk the water pumped from underground river in Village A. It contained arsenic of 2.58mg/L, the arsenic level of water in tanks of residents home was 4.90 mg/L which decreased down to 0.001 mg/L(normal limit) after mining lay-off for 2 month. Treating arsenic poisoning for 2 courses, the levels of urine arsenic returned to normal.[Conclusion]The groundwater of the investigated villages has been contaminated by arsenic. It is suggested to strengthen the supervision of the environmental protection of mining area and the monitoring of drinking water quality, so as to ensure the health and safety of the residents.

  3. Development Conception of Historical and Cultural Areas in City as Theme Parks:A Case Study of Kunming Green Lake Park and the Surrounding Areas%城市历史文化片区主题公园化发展构想--以昆明市翠湖公园及周边片区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪辉; 张勇; 张夏耘

    2015-01-01

    The Green Lake is the heat of Kunming and has a long history and culture. By analyzing the present situations and existing problems of Chestwood Park and the surrounding areas. this paper a planning objective to build "an urban garden living room of southeast Asia" and a development strategy to plan the Green Lake and the surrounding area as a "Big Chestwood Park". And then the "Big Chestwood Park" is divided into three landscape function districts: outer-ring theme park industry zone, the landscape belt around Green Lake Ring Road and the existing Chestwood Park landscape district.%翠湖位于昆明市主城核心地带,具有悠久的历史文化。通过分析昆明市翠湖公园及周边片区的现状与存在问题,提出了打造“云南省城市花园客厅”的规划目标以及把整个翠湖及周边片区作为一个“大翠湖公园”进行规划的发展策略,进而把“大翠湖公园”划分为外围主题产业园区、中部翠湖环路景观带、现有翠湖公园景观区三个景观功能分区。

  4. Diversity of chigger mites on small mammals in the surrounding areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan,China%中国云南洱海周边小兽体表恙螨多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2008-01-01

    本文运用shnnon-wiener,系统聚类分析方法(SPSS 13.O软件)和Levins niche等对云南大理洱海周边3 303头小兽体表寄生恙螨的物种多样性、群落结构、相似性、分布和生态位进行研究.调查点位于我国11大鼠疫自然疫源地之一,此地也是我国恙虫病和流行性出血热的流行地区.选择的洱海周边3个不同方位恰好处于东部无量山、南部哀老山和西部苍山,由于洱海的天然隔离使这3个方位形成了同地域(经度、纬度、海拔和动物地理区划相同)异生境的地理景观.从洱海的3个方位共计诱捕小兽3 303头,分类鉴定为4目,7科,15属,21种.从小兽体表共计检获56 895头恙螨.分类鉴定为3亚科,13属,109种.恙螨的丰富度、分布和物种多样性随着宿主和生境的不同而存在着显著的差异.恙螨只有幼虫寄生,强烈受到环境(温度、降雨量和生境)的影响.恙螨的宿主特异性很低,恙螨的群落相似性大小与宿主小兽之间的近缘性高低呈现较低的关联度.结果提示,大部分的宿主小兽和恙螨之间协同进化程度不高;恙螨的这些特征从流行病学的角度来看,恙螨作为医学媒介生物在宿主之间传播疾病的潜能较大.%The aim of the present study was to study the species diversity,community structure,simolanty,distribution and niche of chigger mites on the body surface of 3 303 sinail mammals in the surrounding areas ol Erhai Lake in Dali,Yunnan by using Shannon-Wiener,hierarchical cluster analysis (SPSS 13.0) and Levins'niche.The investigated site was located in the wild rodent-type plague focus,one of 11 known plague foci in China and also an important focus of both tsutsugamushi disease and epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF),where stand alongside three cordilleras surrounding the Erhai Lake, namely Eastern Wuliang Mountain, Southern Ailao Mountain and Western Cangshan Mountain.The three confined oriented areas with different landscapes are within

  5. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  6. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  7. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  8. 云南洱海周边地带社鼠体表寄生虫的群落组成%Ectoparasite Communities of Niviventer confucianus ( Rodentia:Muridae) in the Surrounding Areas of Erhai Lake in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董文鸽; 郭宪国; 门兴元; 钱体军; 吴滇

    2009-01-01

    Objective Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Eawards 1871) is the oriental species, not only have been believed to be an important pest for agriculture and forest hut also have been suspected the reservoir of plague, scrub typhus and epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in the wild rodent-type plague focus of northwestern Yunnan province. This study is aimed to understand the diversity of ectoparasites in a population of Niviventer confucianus in the Surrounding areas of Erhai Lake. Ectoparasite communities of 89 Niviventer confucianus were studied. Methods Different oriented areas surrounding the Erhai Lake in Yunnan were selected as investigation spots. Small mammals were randomly captured with baited mouse cages and ectoparasites were collected form the animals. Ectoparasites were identified to species under a microscope. The constituent ratio(C), prevalence (P) and average ectopaxasite abundance (A) were used to determine the prevalence and density of ectoparasites. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to test differences in the abundance and richness of ectoparasites between female and male hosts. Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between ectoparasites and the body parameters of hosts. Results There is very high diversity of ectoparasites of Niviventer confucianus and some species of ectoparasites have been reported associated with human disease. A high proportion (79%) of 70 Niviventer confucianus was found to be infested with ectoparasites. A total of 51 species of ectoparasites, including 31 species of chigger mite, 13 species of mesostigmatid (gamasid) mite, 4 species of flea and 3 species of sucking louse were collected. Walchia ewingi fuller is the most abundant chigger mite species, accounting for 66.23% of all chigger mites. Laelaps turkestanicus lange is the most abundance gamasid mite species, accounting for 38.48% of all gamasid mites. Paradoxopsyllus custodies Jordan was the most abundance of the fleas observed

  9. 福岛核事故放射性物质释放对周边地区的概率影响分析%Probability Impact Analysis of Potential Radioactive Release from Fukushima Accident to Surrounding Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊芳; 姚仁太; 徐向军

    2013-01-01

    This paper simulated the potential impact of radioactive material from the Fukushima accident to the surrounding areas with China as an area of special concern. Using the five-year meteorological data in Spring during 2004—2008 as input, the forward 3D trajectories started 8 times a day at 50 m high above four simulated releasing points, which were ± 0. 2° latitude and longitude centering around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was calculated with an interval of 3 h and a trajectory length of 5 d. By means of cluster analysis to results of trajectory calculation, the atmospheric transport pathways of all the 14 720 trajectories derived were obtained that enabled the following statistical analysis to the frequency of radioactive material in reaching interest region as well the probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration. The results showed a relatively low frequency in Spring with its peak appeared in May. For instance the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Harbin in May is 0. 9% , Shanghai 0.6% , Taiwan 0. 2% , and Beijing 0. 1% with an average migration time of 3. 2 d, 4. 2 d, 4. 5 d and 4. 6 d respectively. The lowest frequency showed in March, the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Taiwan in March is merely 0. 1% , for Harbin is 0. 1% and 0 for the rest of areas concerned in our country. The probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are consistent with the impact analysis results of trajectories. Meanwhile, the impact of probability field to other regions can be observed from the results.%模拟了福岛核事故放射性物质释放对周边地区,尤其是对我国关心区域的影响,利用2004年至2008年3-5月五年间的气象数据,以日本福岛第一核电站为中心,考虑经纬度各±0.2°的区域设置4个释放点,计算福岛核电站每天8次的正向3D轨迹,轨迹的起始高度为50 m,轨迹时间间隔为3h

  10. 1267例南京及周边地区口腔恶性肿瘤统计分析%The statistical analysis of 1 267 cases of oral malignant tumors in Nanjing and the surrounding areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红; 寿卫东; 周扬; 吴秀兰; 卫平民; 董晨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence and distributing feature of oral malignant tumor in Nanjing and its surrounding are-as, so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of oral malignant tumor.Methods 1 267 cases of oral malignant tumor treated from 2010 to 2013 in Nanjing Stomatological Hospital were collected and analyzed.Results The average age of 1267 cases was 60.94 years old, and the incidence rate of male was higher than that of female, which was 1.3∶1.0.Males also had a longer smoking and drinking history than females.The high risk age was 60-69 and over 70 years old.Males at 60-69 years old and females over 70 years old suffered from the highest incidence rate.There was a significant difference between different ages (P<0.001).The most common oral malignant tumor was oral cancer, in which the most common was squamous cell carcinoma with the rate of 64.56%(818 cases).The most common site was tongue (27.55%), followed by buccal, gingiva, soft and hard palate, jaw, salivary glands.The percentage of oral ulcer, oral mucosal lesions and dental disease was 73.56%(932 cases).Conclusions The prevalence of male pa-tients with oral malignant tumor was higher than female in Nanjing Stomatological Hospital.The high risk age was over 60 years old, and the most common oral cancer was squamous cell carcinoma, which suggests that oral health care of old people should be strength-ened.%目的:分析了解南京及周边地区口腔恶性肿瘤的发病情况和构成特点,为口腔恶性肿瘤的防治提供参考数据。方法对南京市口腔医院2010—2013年4年间住院治疗的口腔恶性肿瘤患者1267例,作一回顾性统计分析。结果1267例口腔恶性肿瘤患者平均年龄60.94岁,男性发病率高于女性,男女性别比为1.3∶1.0,具有吸烟与饮酒史者亦为男性高于女性,60~69岁及70岁以上为高发年龄组,男性于60~69岁患病比例最高,女性于70岁以上患病比例最高,

  11. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  12. 改性污泥对矿区铜、镉污染土壤的修复%Remediation of copper and cadmium contamination in farmland surrounding mining area with modified sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁园; 吴余金; 郝双龙; 史蓉蓉

    2014-01-01

    evaluated for remediation of copper and cadmium contaminated soils affected by a copper mine. The test paddy soils were sampled from the farmland surrounding mining area in Jiangxi province. TCLP (Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) leaching contents of Cu and Cd in soil were 40.34 mg·kg-1 and 660.1μg·kg-1 respectively, of which the Cu concentration was higher than the international standard value of 15 mg·kg-1. The sludge was applied to soil at four rates (1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of soil weight) and compared with no sludge treatment. After 30 days of soil incubation in lab, bioavailability and fraction change of Cu and Cd as well as protease and urease activities of the test soil were analyzed to evaluate the remediation effect and its mechanism. The results showed that modified sludge could deactivate soil Cu significantly, and the more the sludge was applied, the greater deactivation effect could be observed. When the sludge was applied at the rate of 5%of the soil weight, TCLP leaching content of soil Cu decreased to 12.03 mg·kg-1, which was lower than the standard limitation. Modified sludge could also deactivate soil Cd, but the deactivation effect was less marked than soil Cu. When the sludge was applied at the rate of 1%, leaching content of soil Cd increased conversely compared with control. However, when the rate was 5%, leaching content of soil Cd decreased to 539.6μg·kg-1. Results of sequential extraction procedure showed that the main fractions of Cu were carbonate-bound, organic-bound and residual Cu. When the sludge application rate was 5%, the percentage of exchangeable Cu decreased from 8.10% to 4.10 %, while the percentage of organic-bound Cu increased from 26.45% to 32.34%. Meanwhile, the percentage of exchangeable Cd reduced from 36.80% to 30.69%. So the transformation of Cu and Cd fractions caused by the modified sludge was mainly between exchangeable concentration and organic-bound concentration, which led to the decline of Cu and Cd

  13. 重大节事背景下城市景观建设研究——以东方体育中心ES4地块周边环境景观整治为例%Urban Landscape Construction of Mega-Event——A Case Study of Landscape Renovation about Surrounding Areas of Shanghai Oriental Sports Center (ES4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐方斐

    2012-01-01

      上海东方体育中心场馆建设及2011年国际泳联世界锦标赛的举办催化和促进了场馆周边地块的建设和发展。本文以东方体育中心ES4地块周边环境景观整治为例,对地块内建筑、市政、绿化景观等方面的整治设计进行阐述,探讨重大节事背景下的城市景观建设。%  The construction of Shanghai Oriental Sports Center and 14th World Aquatics Championships wil promote the construction and development of the surrounding areas. Based on the landscape renovation for surrounding areas of Shanghai Oriental Sports Center (ES4), this paper introduces the overal design of surrounding areas, urban construction and Greening landscape. The landscape construction for Mega-Event.is covered as wel .

  14. Factores de riesgo del peso al nacer desfavorable en áreas periféricas de Guadalajara, México Risk factors for unfavorable birth weight in areas surrounding Guadalajara, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo J. González-Pérez

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio busca identificar la incidencia del peso al nacer desfavorable (PND - This study seeks to identify the incidence of unfavorable birth weight (UBW -< 3000 grams, the factors associated with this condition, and the probability that a child has an UBW in the presence or absence of identified risk factors, in Tlaquepaque and Tonalá, outlying areas of Greater Metropolitan Guadalajara, Mexico. A sample of live-born infants in 1991, children of mothers covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security were selected from the study area; through multistage probabilistic sampling, random selection was mude of Family Medical Units within the study areas, and of physicians' offices within those selected units; finally, all the liveborn infants in 1991 from these selected physicians' offices were studied: a total of 141 newborns were studied Mothers of the newborns chosen were interviewed; a questionnaire with different biomedical, socioeconomic, and demographic items was applied by social workers specially trained for the purpose. Logistic regression models were used lo estimate odds ratios (OR, with 95% confidence intervals (CI. The probability that a child would have UBW in the presence or absence of identified risk factors were also calculated. The results show that 22% of the infants studied were born weighing less than 3000 grams; four risk factors were statistically associated with UBW: mother's age of 35 or older (OR=18.47, CL 1.86-83.54; mother worked outside the home (OR= 3.14, C1:1.15-8.59; mother's pre-pregnancy low weight (OR= 5.04, CL1.04-24.47; and late detection of pregnancy (OR=2.64, CI: 1.02-6.84. In the presence of all the risk factors identified, there is a very high probability (0.97 that a child be born with birthweight less than 3000 g, and in the absence of these factors the probability is reduced substantially (0.04. The findings indicate the magnitude of the problem studied, but also the possibility of health

  15. Research on the Attenuation Characteristics of Coda Waves in Dachaidan and the Surrounding Areas of Qinghai Province%青海大柴旦及周边地区尾波衰减特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李启雷; 李玉丽; 周庆玲; 杨广华; 杨理臣

    2012-01-01

    By means of the single scatter mode(Sato),the variation characteristics of coda Qc value of Dachaidan earthquake swarm sequence,recorded by Dachaidan Seismic Station,were analyzed in the S-wave lapse time ranging from 60 to 90 seconds;and the coda wave Q values were calculated in the frequency from 3 Hz to 18 Hz.We obtained the relationship between coda wave value and frequency,which is Qc(f)=72±21.6·f0.93±0.08.The calculation results reflect that the coda Qc value of Dachaidan earthquake aftershock sequence was in a low level.This means Dachaidan seismic zone belongs to the tectonic active area,in consistent with the geological structure features of Dachaidan area.%采用Sato单次散射模型,利用大柴旦台数字地震资料,研究了大柴旦震群序列尾波Qc值在流逝时间窗长60~90 s时间内的变化特征,计算频率从3 Hz至18 Hz,得到Qc值随频率的变化关系:Qc(f)=(72±19.9)f0.93±0.08。计算结果反映出大柴旦地震余震序列的尾波Qc值较低,说明大柴旦震源区属于构造运动较为活跃的地区,这与大柴旦地质结构特征相符。

  16. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  17. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  18. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of stratabound Pb-Zn deposits in the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas%青藏高原及邻区层控型铅锌矿时空分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗亮; 张智勇; 张克信; 骆满生; 安显银

    2013-01-01

    The Paleozoic-Mesozoic multi-arc basin system and the tectonic framework of Cenozoic rapid uplift in the Tibetan plateau have resulted in specific temporal and spatial distribution of the Pb-Zn deposits and zoning of mineralization and led to the phenomenon that different tectonic units have different specific ore species. The stratabound Pb-Zn deposits in the study area are characterized by multi-epoch mineralization, with the Cambrian and the Devonian strata being the main ore-hosting horizons. Moreover, lots of lithofacies containing Pb-Zn deposits were formed during that period, and the carbonate platform facies was the advantageous ore-controlling facies, with dolomites as the main ore-bearing rocks. Large to superlarge Cenozoic lead-zinc ore bodies were also discovered in the study area, which were assigned to low-temperature thermal brine migration-filling type ore deposits. The authors hold that the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau in the Cenozoic might be an important factor responsible for the enrichment of this type of lead-zinc deposits. It is believed that so long as detailed studies are conducted, these Cenozoic ore deposits in the study area will show tremendous ore-prospecting potential.%青藏高原古生代—中生代复杂的多岛弧盆系演化和新生代高原急剧隆升的构造格局造就了层控型铅锌矿特定的时空分布和成矿作用的分带性.在不同类型的构造单元内具有特征的成矿专属性和矿床类型.青藏高原及周缘层控型铅锌矿有多时代成矿的特点,寒武系和泥盆系是主要赋矿层位.古生代—中生代铅锌矿合矿层岩相古地理具有多样性,以台地相作为控矿优势相,尤其以白云岩作为容矿岩石的矿床居多.另外新生代地层作为主要容矿层之一,发育有大型甚至特大型的层控铅锌矿体,为低温热卤水运移充填矿床.推测青藏高原在新生代快速隆升是该类矿床富集成矿的重要控矿因素.随着研究的深

  20. 生态文明视阈中的丹江口库区生态旅游开发%On the Development of Eco-tourism Surrounding the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area in the Perspective of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄二平

    2012-01-01

    生态旅游是当今世界旅游业的一种新潮流,是人类“返璞归真”、“回归自然”的本性需要。它以可持续发展为理念,以统筹人与自然和谐为准则,以保护生态环境为前提,倡导人与自然高度和谐的生态文明。生态文明是生态旅游的灵魂,生态旅游是生态文明的栽体。丹江口库区应依托自身良好的自然生态环境和独特的人文生态系统,以生态文明理论为指导,广泛普及生态环保教育,大力发展生态旅游,进而实现库区经济、社会、生态的可持续发展。%Ecological tourism is a new trend in today's world tourism industry, which caters to such human needs as “returning to innocence and simplicity” and “returning to nature”. Taking sustainable development as it princi- pal concept, harmonious relationship between man and nature as its guideline, and conservation of environment as its premise, eco-tourism advocates a kind of ecological civilization in which man and nature enjoy a high degree of harmonious coexistence. Ecological civilization is the soul of ecological tourism, while ecological tourism is the car- rier of ecological civilization. Therefore, relying on its distinct natural ecological environment and unique humanis- tic ecosystem, and under the guidance of ecological civilization theories, it is advisable that the Danjiangkou reser- voir area should extensively promote popular environmental education and vigorously develop ecological tourism so as to achieve the sustainable development of the reservoir area economically, socially and ecologically.

  1. La supresión del ferrocarril, la Carretera de la Fruta, y su impacto en la movilidad del sector aledaño. / The removal of rail, road fruits, and its impact on the mobility of the surrounding area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahady V., Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Además de la línea férrea que recorre Chile, existieron en alguna época, las líneas férreas transversales que conectaron las zonas rurales más distantes, especialmente en las derivaciones hacia la costa. Una de ellas fue conocida como el ramal Pelequén - Las Cabras (localidades extremas del ramal. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX dicho ramal constituía casi el único medio de transporte de una población –relativamente alejada- para trasladarse a la capital o a cualquier ciudad del norte o del sur, y también de la carga de productos agrícolas desde el campo hasta la ciudad. Al desaparecer el ferrocarril el cambio de la movilidad fue evidente./There is a rail road that goes from north to south in Chile. But there also were railroads that went from the east to the west thus connecting even the most rural and remote areas, specially those near the coastline. One of these east to west rail roads was the branch line Pelequén – Las Cabras (the end and beginning of the branch line. During the second half of the 19th century this branch line was the only way this remote community had to travel and transport agricultural products to the capital and anywhere in the country. When the railroad ceased to function the change in mobility was most evident.

  2. Study of geohazards in the artisanal exploitation sites and their impacts on their surrounding areas. Cases of Mufwa and Kalimbi mines in the South Kivu province (D.R. Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshokano, Jean-Robert

    2014-05-01

    different geohazards in urban and rural areas. These works will be recorded in monthly reports. Informations will be disseminated through a specific program of activities (audiovisual broadcasts, monthly reports posted to internet, conferences, workshops, etc.).

  3. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real‐world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  4. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  5. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico and surrounding areas; Caracteristicas quimicas e isotopicas del agua de lluvia en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico y zonas aledanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Cruz Grajales, Irma [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A study of chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field was undertaken for the second consecutive year. Samples were collected in seven stations-two inside the field and five on the periphery. In 1996, a total of 99 samples were collected and 104 were collected in 1997. Of these, 19-18.26% of the total-had a negative alkalinity. The Atempan (No.5) and Campamento (No.1) stations showed the highest number of anomalous samples (31.25 and 27.8%, respectively). Anomalous samples in Perote station were not observed a result that we attribute to the predominant wind direction. The results for the Campamento station are attributed to the thermal inversion phenomena occurring when the samples with negative alkalinity were obtained. Concentrations of cations in some samples were relatively high, with the maximum concentration of calcium in the Los Humeros station (79.7 ppm) . Other significantly high values were found in the Texcal station (34.8 ppm) and Perote (33.8 ppm) due to the presence of dust particles scattered in the air and because of the lack of pavement where the sampling stations are located. Another factor affecting these figures could be the presence of block and lime factories in the neighborhood. Although measured concentrations may seem high, reports exist with similar concentrations in nongeothermal areas. Oxygen-18 and deuterium contents were determined for each stations, mixing anomalous samples. The results show that the most enriched samples correspond to the San Juan Xiutetelco, Puebla (No. 6) station and the minimum to the Perote Veracruz (No. 7) station. The concentration of SO{sub 4} has marine and industrial origins, with a contribution of the first source ranging between 10 and 25 percent. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla se realizo, por segundo ano consecutivo, la caracterizacion quimica e isotopica de agua de lluvia en muestras colectadas en siete estaciones, dos localizadas dentro

  6. Comunidade de aves de sub-bosque em uma área de entorno do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Understory bird community in a surrounded area of Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana R. Maia-Gouvêa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em mata secundária no Município de Itatiaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro (22º30'S e 44º30'W próximo ao Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, com o objeitvo de descrever a comunidade de aves ali presente. Foram amostrados três tipos vegetacionais distintos: reflorestamento, bosque e pomar, tendo sido realizadas 19 excursões entre 1984 e 1999. As aves foram amostradas através de capturas com redes de neblina e anilhamento, tendo sido utilizadas de 15 a 31 redes de 12 x 2 m e malha 36 mm. Foram também obtidas medidas morfométricas (comprimento total, asa, bico, cauda e tarso e dados biológicos (sexo, idade reprodução e muda. Depois de 5.621,79 horas-rede, foi registrado um total de 553 capturas, com 71 recapturas (12,84%; 417 indivíduos foram anilhados, e 65 beija-flores deixaram de ser marcados por falta de anilhas específicas. A comunidade estudada esteve representada por 77 espécies e 18 famílias, apresentando índice de diversidade H' = -1,594 e a curva do coletor com tendência à estabilização. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Emberizidae (n = 21; 27,27% e Tyrannidae (n = 15; 19,48%. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Turdus leucomelas (n = 40; 9,59% e Turdus rufiventris (n = 36; 8,63%. Seis das espécies amostradas (7,8% são endêmicas do bioma Mata Atlântica. Na estação chuvosa foram amostradas 68 espécies, e na estação seca, 42; e as capturas estiveram relacionadas com as chuvas (rs = -0,6778; p = 0,05. O período reprodutivo ocorreu de outubro a março estando correlacionado com o início da estação chuvosa (rs = -0,702; p = 0,052.This study was conduced in a second growth woodland close to Itatiaia National Park (22º30'S e 44º30'W, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and aimed to describe the understory bird community living in this area. We sampled three different vegetation types, reforestation, wood and orchard, through 19 field trips between 1984 and 1999. Birds

  7. Station Calibration and Regionalization in China and Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    McQuarrie and Tsai, 1998). It also has several cousins such as the corrected-AIC (AICc), Bayesian Information Criteria, Mallows Cp- criteria, and the Swartz...the squared residuals of the inversion, n is the total number of data, and k is the effective number of parameters of the inversion ( McQuarrie and Tsai...UNCLASSIFIED) McQuarrie , A., and C-L Tsai, Regression and Time Series Model Selection, World Scientific, 1998. (UNCLASSIFIED) Michel, G., M. Becker

  8. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  9. 大型体育场馆周边地区产业开发研究--基于西安市的个案研究%Study on Development of Industry Surrounding Area of Large Gyms and Stadiums--Based on the Case Study of Xi’an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成彦开; 张金桥

    2013-01-01

    运用文献综述、实地调查、逻辑分析等方法,以西安市的三大体育场馆--陕西省体育场、西安城市运动公园、陕西省体育训练中心为例,对大型体育场馆周边地区产业开发情况进行研究。研究发现:大型体育场馆周边产业开发存在着一些相同之处,但在开发的种类、规模、侧重点上也表现出明显区别。大型体育场馆周边地区产业开发出现差异与场馆的地理位置、周边活动人群、功能定位等有着密切关系。在以上分析的基础上,结合各大场馆自身的特点,提出了相应的对策建议。%The use of literature data, Field investigations, Logical analysis and other methods, Analysis of study on development of industry surrounding area of large gyms and stadiums, In the paper, take Shaanxi Province Stadium, Xi’An City Sport Park, The sports training center in Shanxi province as examples. The results show, the development of industry surrounding area of large gyms and stadiums has some similarities, But in the development of the type, scale, Emphasis showed obvious difference. The differences has close relation with geographic location of the venue, Peripheral activity groups, and function orientation and so on. Based on the above analysis, According to each big venue's own characteristics put forward the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

  10. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  11. 黑龙江及周边地区中强地震前加卸载响应比特征分析%Load/unload response ratio (LURR) characteristics analysis before the moderately strong earthquakes in Heilongjiang and its surrounding area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任建辉; 李继业; 高峰; 胡滨生; 杜天娇; 孟令蕾

    2015-01-01

    Load / unload response ratio theory is a new earthquake prediction method that has been accepted by more and more seismologists worldwide, but the theory has its own characteristics in different regions because of different geological settings. We choose the seismic energyE in study area as a response and 14ML≥5.0 earthquakes in Heilongjiang and its surrounding area since 2005 as examples, and test the ability of response ratio theory, then we extract abnormal characteristics, and preliminary summarize prediction index, fi nally, we fi nd this method has the certain prediction effi ciency.%选取所研究区域地震能量的贝尼奥夫应变(相当于室内岩石实验中的声发射)作为响应,以黑龙江及其周边地区2005年以来14次ML 5.0以上地震作为震例,检验卸载响应比理论的预测效果,提取异常特征,初步总结该方法的时、空、强预测指标,发现具有一定的预报效能。

  12. Migraine increases centre-surround suppression for drifting visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Battista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of migraine is incompletely understood, but evidence points to hyper-responsivity of cortical neurons being a key feature. The basis of hyper-responsiveness is not clear, with an excitability imbalance potentially arising from either reduced inhibition or increased excitation. In this study, we measure centre-surround contrast suppression in people with migraine as a perceptual analogue of the interplay between inhibition and excitation in cortical areas responsible for vision. We predicted that reduced inhibitory function in migraine would reduce perceptual surround suppression. Recent models of neuronal surround suppression incorporate excitatory feedback that drives surround inhibition. Consequently, an increase in excitation predicts an increase in perceptual surround suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-six people with migraine and twenty approximately age- and gender-matched non-headache controls participated. The perceived contrast of a central sinusoidal grating patch (4 c/deg stationary grating, or 2 c/deg drifting at 2 deg/sec, 40% contrast was measured in the presence and absence of a 95% contrast annular grating (same orientation, spatial frequency, and drift rate. For the static grating, similar surround suppression strength was present in control and migraine groups with the presence of the surround resulting in the central patch appearing to be 72% and 65% of its true contrast for control and migraine groups respectively (t(44 = 0.81, p = 0.42. For the drifting stimulus, the migraine group showed significantly increased surround suppression (t(44 = 2.86, p<0.01, with perceived contrast being on average 53% of actual contrast for the migraine group and 68% for non-headache controls. CONCLUSIONS: In between migraines, when asymptomatic, visual surround suppression for drifting stimuli is greater in individuals with migraine than in controls. The data provides evidence for a

  13. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  14. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  15. Ground-water appraisal of the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snavely, Deborah S.

    1980-01-01

    The most productive aquifers in the Fishkill-Beacon area, Dutchess County, N.Y., are the sand and gravel beds in the northeast corner of the area and along the valleys of Fishkill and Clove Creeks. The average yield of these aquifers to wells is 190 gal/min (gallons per minute). The most productive bedrock aquifer is limestone, which yields an average of about 150 gal/min. Shale and granite each yield an average of less than 35 gal/min. About 4 billion gallons of available ground water is estimated to be in storage in the sand and gravel aquifers in the area. The area withdraws an average of 3.3 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) of water in June, July, and August and 2 Mgal/d during the remainder of the year. (USGS)

  16. 内蒙古西部额济纳旗及邻区二叠纪暗色泥岩微量元素和稀土元素地球化学特征%Rare Earth and Trace Elements Geochemical Characteristics of the Dark Permian Mudstones in Ejinaqi and Its Surrounding Areas,Western Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋健; 赵省民; 陈登超; 邓坚; 苗忠英; 明承栋; 陆程

    2012-01-01

    对泥岩微量元素系统分析表明,额济纳旗及邻区二叠纪整体为半咸水环境;纵向上,二叠纪水体盐度逐渐降低,海水逐渐淡化的过程与裂谷盆地演化消亡的过程同步;横向上,东部(雅于以东)古盐度明显高于西部(北山地区),这与区内水体东深西浅的沉积古地理格局有关,与古生物分布特征反映的古盐度一致.综合泥岩V/V+Ni、Ceanom分析,认为区内二叠纪整体为缺氧、还原环境,该环境有利于有机质保存.综合泥岩稀土元素配分模式及野外地质调查资料分析表明,区内泥岩的原始物质应来自上地壳,其母岩可能为花岗岩和粘土岩的混合成因.%The analysis of trace elements of the dark Permian mudstones shows that Ejinaqi and its surrounding areas were semi-salt water sedimentary environment during the Permian. Vertically, the water salinity was gradually reduced, and this process was synchronous with the extinctive process of the rift basin. Horizontally, salinity in the east (to east of the Yagan area) was obviously higher than that in the west (Beishan area), which was probably related to paleo-geographical sedimentary pattern (deep water in the east and shallow in the west) , and was consistent with the distribution characteristics of paleontology. Combined with the analysis of V/V+Ni and Ceanom of mudstones, it is suggested that Permian period was characteristic of reductive environment and was helpful to the preservation of organic matters. Combination of distributive pattern of the rare earth elements from dark mudstones with field geological survey indicates that its province was from the upper crust and its parent rocks were the mixing of claystones and granite rocks in the studied area.

  17. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings - 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, Gerard; Burgwal, van de Marcel; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it provid

  18. 中国华东及其周边地区NDVI对气温和降水的月际响应特征%Inter-monthly Response Characteristics of NDVI to the Variation of Temperature and Precipitation in East China and Its Surrounding Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔林丽; 史军

    2011-01-01

    利用SPOT VGT-NDVI数据和气象站点的气温和降水资料,分析了1998—2010年期间我国华东及其周边地区NDVI对气温和降水变化的时空响应特征。结果表明,在整个研究区,NDVI对当月气温和前1月降水变化响应最为强烈。空间上,NDVI对气温变化的响应在整个研究区差异不明显,而对降水变化的响应在北部地区较在中部和南部强。NDVI在多数地区都同步响应于当月气温变化,在北部和南部一些地区对气温变化滞后响应1个月左右。NDVI对降水变化在北部地区滞后响应1个月左右,而在南部地区滞后响应2~3个月。研究区NDVI对气温和降水响应的时间特征、空间分布及总体滞后期与已有的研究结果基本一致,但在南部地区NDVI对降水变化的响应滞后期较已有的研究结果长。不同的数据源、研究范围、气候和植被类型及土壤特性的差异等都有可能造成研究结果的差异。%The interaction between vegetation and atmosphere is important in global climate change and natural resource management and has become a research focus of geosciences in recent years.Spatial and temporal response characteristics of NDVI to the variations of temperature and precipitation in East China and its surrounding areas were analyzed based on the SPOT VGT-DN data from Flemish Institute for Technological Research(VITO),Belgium,and monthly temperature and precipitation data from 135 meteorological stations during 1998-2010.The results indicate that in the whole study area,NDVI has the maximum response to the temperature of the same month,and has the maximum response to the precipitation of previous one month.Spatially,the response of NDVI to temperature has no significant difference among the whole study area,and the response of NDVI to precipitation in the northern part is stronger than that in the middle and southern part of the study area.In the middle part of the study area,NDVI synchronously

  19. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb, two types of eggs (chicken, duck, and four species of fish (snapper, bloating, carp and tuna and crayfish are analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The samples used are raw and taken from three locations in Bogor and surrounding areas. Fishes, meats and eggs contain high levels of folic acid, however the amount of folic acid content in meat varies depending on which part of meat the samples are taken, types of organ, and the fat content of the meat. The folic acid content in chicken wings is different with those in thigh. In fatty mutton the folic acid is higher than in those lean meat, and in yolk is higher than those in egg white. Vitamin E content of snapper is the highest amongs other types of fishes (6.54 µg/100 g.Chicken eggs contain a higher amount of vitamin E than duck eggs, while the yolk contains ahigher amount of vitamin E than those egg white. Keywords: animal foods, vitamin B6, vitamin B9 (folic Acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E   ABSTRAK Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan (DKBM yang ada di Indonesia belum memuat semua jenis zat gizi dalam makanan, khususnya vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12 dan vitamin E. Menganalisis kandungan vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12, dan vitamin E dalam beberapa jenis daging, telur, ikan dan udang laut yang dikonsumsi masyarakat di Bogor dan sekitarnya. Kandungan vitamin B6, B9, B12 dan vitamin E dari tiga jenis daging (ayam, sapi, kambing, dua jenis telur (ayam, itik, serta empat jenis ikan (kakap, kembung, mas, tongkol dan udang laut

  20. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  1. A pesquisa-ação em educação ambiental: uma experiência no entorno de uma unidade de conservação urbana Action-research in environmental education: an experience in the surroundings of an urban protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Maria Cerati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI, localizado no município de São Paulo, sofre inúmeros impactos ambientais que comprometem a conservação deste importante remanescente de Mata Atlântica. O presente trabalho apresenta a construção de um projeto de Educação Ambiental utilizando a metodologia da pesquisa-ação que teve como objetivo sensibilizar a comunidade do entorno sobre a importância da conservação dessa área. Desenvolvido em uma escola pública, contou com a participação de 29 professores e novecentos alunos. Os resultados mostram que, por meio da socialização do conhecimento científico, foram inseridas, no cotidiano escolar, discussões sobre a importância da manutenção do PEFI, o que contribuiu não só para o desenvolvimento socioambiental da comunidade, como também para a melhoria da qualidade do ensino.The Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI, which is a park located in the city of São Paulo, has suffered countless environmental impacts that have compromised the conservation of this important remaining Mata Atlântica (Atlantic Rain Forest. This paper is about the creation of an environmental education project that uses action-research methodology, which focuses on raising public awareness of the surroundings and the importance of protecting such an area. Developed in a public school, 29 teachers and 900 students participated in the project. The results show that through the socialization of scientific knowledge and discussions about the importance of PEFI maintenance/ protection, which were introduced into day-to-day school life, the program has contributed not only to the community's social-environmental development, but also to the improvement in teaching quality.

  2. Study on the Distribution Regularity of the Temperature of Sur-rounding Rock and Inner Gas at Tunnel in Paramo Area%高寒地区隧道围岩及洞内气体温度分布规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹一川; 夏才初; 张国柱

    2012-01-01

    文章依托内蒙古自治区绥满国道主干线博牙高速林场隧道工程,通过设置温度监测断面,对隧道洞内气温及不同部位、不同深度的围岩温度进行了监测分析。结果表明:(1)隧道洞内气温随时间呈三角函数变化;(2)离隧道洞口越远,洞内气温年平均值越高,年温度振幅越小;(3)隧道拱脚处的温度低于边墙、拱腰和拱顶的温度,在隧道未贯通时,拱脚与拱顶最大温差可达3℃。%Based on the Boya highway tunnel project in Suiman National road in Inner Mongolia,the article performs monitoring and analysis on temperature of the tunnel and surrounding rock under different areas and different depths by setting the temperature monitoring sec-tion.The result shows that:1.the temperature inside the tunnel changes with time by a trigo-nometric function;2.the farther away from the tunnel entrance,the higher of the average temperature inside the tunnel,and the smaller the temperature amplitude;3.The temperature at root pile is lower than that at side wall,haunch and vault.The largest temperature differ-ence between root pile and vault can reach 3℃ before tunnel opening.

  3. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  4. Site Cleanup of Radioactive Isotope Container Rinsing Pool and Surrounding Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope container rinsing pool and surrounding environmental site was a place of fabrication of container, and package, transportation and storage of radioactive isotopes. A heavy contamination existed in this area for burying of some radioactive wastes.

  5. Survey and Multi-Scale Characteristics of Wind Damage Caused by Convective Storms in the Surrounding Area of the Capsizing Accident of Cruise Ship “Dongfangzhixing”%“东方之星”客轮翻沉事件周边区域风灾现场调查与多尺度特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永光; 田付友; 孟智勇; 薛明; 姚聃; 白兰强; 周晓霞; 毛旭; 王明筠

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinarily serious capsizing accident of the cruise ship,named Dongfangzhixing (Eastern Star),occurred at around 21:30 BT 1 June 2015,in the Jianli (Hubei Province)section of the Yangtze River. Based on the results of the wind damage survey with satellite and radar data analyses,this paper presents that the high wind damage was caused by downbursts and one likely tornado over the area surrounding the event occurring site at around 21:00-21:40 BT 1 June,with the most intense Beaufort scale more than level 12,and the characteristics of discontinuous and multiscale spatial distribution and very small spatio-temporal scale of the most severe wind damage.The wind damage over the northern land part of the surrounding area (Shunxingcun,Laotai Deep Water Wharf,Sitaicun,Xingouzi)affected by one mesocyclone is more signifi-cant than the southern land part behind the gust front and microbursts.It is determined that one likely tor-nado occurred at Laotai Deep Water Wharf,and the wind damage at other sites was caused by microbursts based on the radar data and damage survey.The flows in the convective storm causing wind damage have obvious multiscale characteristics,and a number of microburst swathes simultaneously occurred at the woods of Sitaicun located in the northern part of the surrounding area,with alternate spatial distribution of divergence and convergence,displaying a feature of the complicated atmospheric motion in the convective storm.Although mesovortices occur within a microburst,the horizontal scale of convergence within the microburst found in this wind damage survey was only tens of meters and far less than the several-kilome-ter horizontal scale of bookend vortices or mesovortices within a bow echo.%提2015年6月1日21:30左右长江湖北监利段发生“东方之星”客轮翻沉特大事故。本文根据事发周边陆地区域现场天气调查结果,结合卫星和雷达观测资料分析认为,6月1日21:00—21:40左右事发江

  6. Analysis of entrance skin radiation dose in mammography equipment in Rio Grande do Sul state (Ijui municipality and surroundings) and Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area); Analise de dose de entrada na pele em mamografos, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Municipio de Ijui e cercanias) e Rio de Janeiro (area metropolitana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Geovane Silva; Padilha Filho, Lucas Gomes, E-mail: geovane.araujo@ftesm.edu.br, E-mail: lucaspadilhaemec@gmail.com [Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sousa, Carlos Henrique Simoes de, E-mail: chenriques2@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldmann, Gerson; Albrecht, Marcos R.A., E-mail: gersonpraxis@gmail.com, E-mail: marcosboom@yahoo.com.br [PRAXIS Protecao Radiologica, Ijui, RS (Brazil); Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de, E-mail: sergioalsouza@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Mammography is the technique widely used to the early detection of breast cancer, despite of not being a consensus the ideal age to initiate the radiologic examinations, it is recommended that women with the age of forty realize the examinations periodically. With the objective to analyze the entrance skin dose (ESD) in different mammography equipment, Were analyzed in the Estate of Rio Grande do Sul (Ijui City and neighborhoods) and in Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area) 24 mammography equipment. Among them included in the study, just one presented ESD higher than the established limit of ANVISA. It was observed in the mammography equipment of Ijui and neighborhoods high levels of mAs to achieve the values of ESD next to the limit. (author)

  7. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  8. Problems Surrounding Probation In The South African Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baloyi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate problems surrounding probation periods in the South African Public Service. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the views of both probationers and supervisors managing the probation process. Data was gathered by means of focus groups and individual interviews. Nine key areas were identified as being problematic, viz. clarity regarding the purpose of probation, lack of proper guidelines, the duration of probation, rotation during probation, lack of training, poor management of probation, performance management, anxiety and stress, power and authority. Recommendations are made concerning possible interventions.

  9. Identification of -SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond medium using weak Raman surface phonons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla; Harish Ojha; Vadali Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth

    2013-11-01

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its volume content when relatable, will affect the resultant Raman response of -SiC phase as seen in the present case of diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin films.

  10. 天津及周边地区苯丙氨酸羟化酶基因突变谱和新突变分析%Mutation spectrum of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene in patients with phenylketonuria in Tianjin and surrounding areas of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋力; 党利亨; 孟英韬; 付伯津

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析天津地区人苯丙氨酸羟化酶(phenylalanine hydroxylase gene,PAH)基因突变谱,明确本地区该基因突变类型和特点,为遗传咨询和产前基因诊断提供科学依据.方法 用聚合酶链反应-单链构象多态、变性高效液相色谱法和DNA测序法对天津及河北等地99例已确诊各种类型苯丙酮尿症患儿基因组DNA进行PAH全基因13个外显子分析.结果 全基因共检出41种突变,含错义突变22种、无义突变7种、剪接位点突变9种和缺失突变3种.其中新突变6种(IVS3nt+1g→a、A165D、Q301X、G344D、P362L和R413G).198个PAH等位基因突变总检出率为93.94%.结论 天津及周边地区PAH基因突变谱广、遗传异质性高,一些常见突变的发生频率与以往报道的地域分布略不同.%Objective To investigate the characteristics of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH)gene mutations in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) in Tianjin and surrounding area, in order to provide basic information for genetic counseling and prenatal gene diagnosis. Methods All of the 13 exons and flanking introns of the PAH gene from 99 patients with PKU were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and DNA sequencing. Results Mutations were found in all exons or flanking introns of the PAH gene except for exons 9 and 13. A total of 41 different mutations were identified which corresponded to 93. 94% (186/198) of the PAH alleles, including 22 missense mutations (53. 6%), 7nonsense mutations (17.1%), 9 splicing junction mutations(22.0%), and 3 deletion mutations (7.3%).Six novel mutations (IVS3nt+1g→a, A165D, Q301X, G344D, P362L and R413G) were identified and another 6 mutations (S16fsdelCT, R71H, IVS5nt+1g→a, G239S, R243X and R261X) were reported in Chinese population for the first time according to the databases from http://www. pahdb. mcgill. ca. The most

  11. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  12. DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report for May, June, July, August, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report for May, June, July, August, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  14. A narrative report: May, June, July and August, 1953: Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  15. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tamarac NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  16. DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report for May, June, July, August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1948 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...

  18. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July and August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  19. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July and August 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  20. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July and August 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  1. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July and August 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  2. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July and August 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  3. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July, and August 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1942. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  4. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July, August 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  5. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July and August 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  6. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July, August 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  7. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July and August 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  8. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July, August, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  9. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July and August 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  10. Narrative report : Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July and August 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  11. Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July, August 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bombay Hook NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  12. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : May, June, July, August 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from May through August of 1957. The report begins with a summary of the...

  13. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Gardner Unit: May, June, July, August - 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Great River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  14. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Gardner Unit: May, June, July, August, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Great River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  15. Narrative report: Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Narrative report: Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the...

  17. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July and August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  18. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the...

  19. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July and August, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July and August, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  1. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. A narrative report: May, June, July and August, 1957: Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  5. Narrative report: Tamarac Migratory Waterfowl Refuge: Period May, June, July 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tamarac NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through July of 1938. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions during...

  6. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report - May, June, July, and August 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1942. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  7. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Rice Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  8. Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Narrative Report : May, June, July, August, 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August of 1947. The report begins by...

  9. Narrative report: Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Missisquoi NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  10. Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Narrative Report : May, June, July, August, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August of 1949. The report begins by...

  11. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Gardner Unit: May, June, July, August - 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Great River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July and August, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1946 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the...

  14. Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1962: Lake Andes National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lake Andes NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  15. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July and August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  16. Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Narrative Report : May, June, July, August, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August of 1958. The report begins by...

  17. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the...

  18. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May - June - July - August 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arrowwood NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  19. Talcot Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Talcot Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  20. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge: May June July August 1955: [Narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May - August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the...

  1. Narrative report: Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge: May - June - July - August, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - June - July and August - 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  3. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  4. Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Narrative Report : May, June, July, August, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August of 1948. The report begins by...

  5. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Trempealeau NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  6. Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May June July and August 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chincoteague NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  7. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - June - July and August - 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  8. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Louisa-Keithsburg Unit: May, June, July, August - 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Port Louisa National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Trempealeau NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  10. Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Narrative Report : May, June, July, August, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August of 1944. The report begins by...

  11. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period May, June, July, and August, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July and August 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Long Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  13. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August [1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  14. Necedah National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July and August, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Necedah NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  15. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Narrative Report : May, June, July, August, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Upper Mississippi River Wildlife and Fish Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May to August of 1957. The report begins by...

  17. Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: [May, June, July, August 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Valentine NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  18. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the...

  19. Narrative report: Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Valentine NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  20. Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1959: Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Moosehorn NWR (including the Edmunds Unit) outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by...

  1. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Calhoun-Batchtown Unit: May, June, July, August - 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Two Rivers National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July and August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  3. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July and August, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Blackwater NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  4. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period May, June, July, and August, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1949, Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuges - District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. Calhoun and Batchtown Refuges Narrative Report : May, June, July, August, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Calhoun National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Narrative report: Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Missisquoi NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  8. Narrative report: Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Missisquoi NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  9. Narrative report: Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Missisquoi NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  10. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August [1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  11. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July and August 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Long Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  12. Necedah National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Necedah NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions, water...

  13. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tamarac NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  14. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August [1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  15. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Rice Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  16. Narrative report: Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Valentine NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  17. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May - June - July - August 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arrowwood NWR (including Chase Lake NWR and District VI Easement Refuge) outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963....

  18. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  19. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  1. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Quarterly narrative report: May, June, July, and August 1951: Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  3. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period May, June, July, and August, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tamarac NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  7. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the...

  8. Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report for period: May, June, July, and August, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  10. Narrative report May, June, July, August, 1952 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July and August 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Back Bay NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1942. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  12. DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report for May, June, July, August, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Missisquoi NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  14. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Trempealeau NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  15. [Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge Quarterly narrative report: May, June, July, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through July of 1940. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge (May, June, July, August, 1950)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1950. The report begins by summarizing...

  17. Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge Quarterly narrative report: May, June, July, 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through July of 1941. The report begins by summarizing the...

  18. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1942

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1942. The report begins by summarizing the...

  19. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Trempealeau NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  20. Long Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July and August 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Long Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  1. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report - May, June, July, and August 1945

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May - June - July - August 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arrowwood NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  3. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Narrative report Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Narrative report Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge, Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Narrative report Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge: May, June, July, August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  8. Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge, Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge, Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  10. Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge, Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge, Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Pathfinder National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1953. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing...

  14. THE FLOODS FROM JUNE-JULY 2010 ON THE RIVERS FROM THE SUCEAVA HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA MIHAELA PORCUŢAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Le bassin hydrographique asymétrique de Suceava, avec une surface de 2612 km2, est situé dans le nord de la Roumanie, mais il se propage également sur le territoire ukrainien, jusqu'à 47 o 58' N. Ce bassin hydrographique comprend deux grandes unités de secours avec des caractéristiques géographiques distinctes (montagneuse et plateau, séparés par une zone de transition représenté par un secteur de piemont et une succession de dépressions. L'analyse des crues a été faite en utilisant les données de 8 stations hydrologiques qui surveillent les inondations du cours principal (3 et des affluents les plus importants de la rivière (5. Après avoir analysé les facteurs naturels et humains qui ont produit le inondations de Juin - July 2010, on a déterminé l'espace des ondes de crue, l'heure et paramètres hydriques des cours d'eau surveillés, et à la fin il a évalué l'environnement, les risques sociaux et économiques déterminées par ces inondations.

  15. Narrative report North Platte Refuge: May, June, July, and August, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for North Platte National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Observational evidence of upwelling off the southwest coast of India during June-July 2006

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lekshmi, S.; Smitha, B.R.; Revichandran, C.

    Considerable latitudinal variability exists in the forcing mechanisms and intensity of coastal upwelling along the southwest coast of India. Present work is based on the insitu observations conducted onboard FORV Sagar Sampada for 12 days along two...

  17. Necedah National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Necedah NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions, water...

  18. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : May - June - July - August, 1944

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arrowwood NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  19. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tamarac NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  20. Necedah National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Necedah NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  1. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Rice Lake NWR and Mille Lacs NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...

  2. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, & August - 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Horicon National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Louisa-Keithsburg Unit: May, June, July, August - 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Port Louisa National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Narrative report Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Gardner Unit: May, June, July, August - 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Great River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges: Narrative report for the period May, June, July, August 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Gulf Island National Wildlife Refuges (Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge, Horn Island National Wildlife Refuge, and Breton National...

  6. Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge: Quarterly narrative report: May - June - July 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through July of 1939. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  7. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  8. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1943

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1943. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  9. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  10. Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  11. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Rice Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  12. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: May, June, July, and August, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  14. Sedimentología y paleoambientes del Subgrupo Río Colorado (Cretácico Superior, Grupo Neuquén, en las bardas de la ciudad de Neuquén y alrededores Sedimentology and sedimentary paleoenvironments of Río Colorado Subgroup (Upper Cretaceous, Neuquén Group, in Neuquén city and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En la ciudad de Neuquén y alrededores afloran depósitos del Cretácico superior asignados al Subgrupo Río Colorado. La presente contribución da a conocer los resultados del análisis sedimentológico y paleoambiental de las Formaciones Bajo de la Carpa (Santoniano y Anacleto (Campaniano inferior. Los estudios llevados a cabo permitieron definir cuatro litofacies conglomerádicas, nueve de areniscas y dos pelíticas, que fueron agrupadas en nueve asociaciones de litofacies, dos de ellas de origen eólico y siete fluviales. La Formación Bajo de la Carpa está representada en la base por un sistema fluvial efímero, y en el techo por depósitos de interacción fluvio- eólica. Los depósitos fluviales corresponden a flujos canalizados durante episodios de máxima descarga. Luego se identifica un campo de dunas transversales, afectado en el subambiente de interduna por corrientes fluviales efímeras, y dunas parabólicas producto de la removilización del sistema eólico infrayacente, asociadas con depósitos de flujos efímeros en manto. La extensión y geometría de los campos de dunas respondieron a variaciones climáticas de corto término, interferencia del sistema fluvial, oscilaciones del nivel freático, bajo suministro y/o disponibilidad de sedimentos y factores tectónicos. La Formación Anacleto presenta en su base sistemas fluviales de baja sinuosidad, alta energía y rápida agradación, controlados por un bajo espacio de acomodación y condiciones climáticas con marcada estacionalidad. Hacia el tope se identifica un sistema fluvial anastomosado que refleja variaciones climáticas y aumento de la tasa de subsidencia acompañada de un lento ascenso del nivel de base relacionado con la ingresión atlántica maastrichtiana.Upper Cretaceous deposits included in Río Colorado Subgroup crop out in Neuquén city and surrounding areas. This work shows the results of the sedimentogical and paleoenvironmental analysis of Bajo de la Carpa

  15. Surround modulation characteristics of local field potential and spiking activity in primary visual cortex of cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available In primary visual cortex, spiking activity that evoked by stimulus confined in receptive field can be modulated by surround stimulus. This center-surround interaction is hypothesized to be the basis of visual feature integration and segregation. Spiking output has been extensively reported to be surround suppressive. However, less is known about the modulation properties of the local field potential (LFP, which generally reflects synaptic inputs. We simultaneously recorded spiking activity and LFP in the area 17 of anesthetized cats to examine and compare their modulation characteristics. When the stimulus went beyond the classical receptive field, LFP exhibited decreased power along the gamma band (30-100 Hz in most of our recording sites. Further investigation revealed that suppression of the LFP gamma mean power (gLFP depended on the angle between the center and surround orientations. The strongest suppression was induced when center and surround orientations were parallel. Moreover, the surround influence of the gLFP exhibited an asymmetric spatial organization. These results demonstrate that the gLFP has similar but not identical surround modulation properties, as compared to the spiking activity. The spatiotemporal integration of LFP implies that the oscillation and synchronization of local synaptic inputs may have important functions in surround modulation.

  16. Characterizing the Microenvironment Surrounding Phosphorylated Protein Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Cai Fan; Xue-Gong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in various cellular processes. Due to its high complexity, the mechanism needs to be further studied. In the last few years, many methods have been contributed to this field, but almost all of them investigated the mechanism based on protein sequences around protein sites. In this study, we implement an exploration by characterizing the microenvironment surrounding phosphorylated protein sites with a modified shell model, and obtain some significant properties by the rank-sum test, such as the lack of some classes of residues, atoms, and secondary structures. Furthermore, we find that the depletion of some properties affects protein phosphorylation remarkably. Our results suggest that it is a meaningful direction to explore the mechanism of protein phosphorylation from microenvironment and we expect further findings along with the increasing size of phosphorylation and protein structure data.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  19. 2008年江苏省淮安市沿淮河和洪泽湖周边地区饮水型砷中毒流行病学调查%Epidemiology investigation on arsenism from drinking water along Huai'he River and the surrounding area of Hong'ze lake in Huai'an city of Jinngsu province in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾从英; 唐勇; 杨文洲; 赵怀荣; 胡伟; 王仪; 潘恩春; 袁守国; 孙道宽; 陈思红

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the distribution of water with high level arsenic and prevalence of arsenism along Huai'he River and the surrounding area of Hong'ze lake in Huai'an of Jiangsu. Methods Wate rsamples were collected and tested in 2008 from 18 villages of 6 towns according to history data in 3 counties like Xuyi,Jinhu and Hongze. Samples having arsenic level higher than 0.05 mg/L were investigated by epidemiological method and the patients were diagnosed by Standard of Diagnosis for Endemic Arsenism. Results All 5199 water samples were determined,and 260 water samples were exceeding the national drinking water quality level (0.05 mg/L) in 3 counties,the rates of exceeding diagnosis were 5.6%(247/4454),0.7%(4/597),6.0%(9/148) respectively. Total detected rate of endemic arsenic disease was 5.94%(128/2155). The detected rates of age group of 0 ~ ,20 ~,30 ~ ,40 ~ ,50 ~ ,60 ~ ,70 ~ ,80 ~ were 2.86%(1/35),2.11%(2/95),1.26%(3/239),3.10%(16/516),5.53% (32/579),10.07%(41/407),11.84%(27/228),10.71%(6/56) respectively. The detected rate of male (9.10%,78/857) was higher than that of female(3.85%,50/1298,χ~2 = 25.46,P 进行地砷病诊断.结果 共检测5199份水样,盱眙、金湖、洪泽3个县共有260份水样的水砷超过国家标准(0.05 mg/L),水砷超标率分别为5.6%(247/4454)、0.7%(4/597)、6.0%(9/148).地砷病患者总检出率为5.94%(128/2155),16~、20~、30~、40~、50~、60~、70~、80~岁的地砷病检出率分别为2.86%(1/35)、2.11%(2/95)、1.26%(3/239)、3.10%(16/516)、5.53%(32/579)、10.07%(41/407)、11.84%(27/228)、10.71%(6/56).男性的检出率[9.10%(78/857)]高于女性[3.85%(50/1298),χ~2=25.46,P<0.01].结论 淮安市沿淮河和洪泽湖周边地区的盱眙、金湖和洪泽县存在地砷病病区,建议加强地砷病的防治工作.

  20. The Geomorphology of the surroundings of the Ría de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, A.J.

    1966-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a geomorphological introduction to a series of papers on the sedimentology and weathering phenomena of the Ría de Arosa area. The area contains a large mass of coarse-grained porphyritic granite surrounded by other crystalline rocks. The granite is deeply weathered

  1. The Geomorphology of the surroundings of the Ría de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, A.J.

    1966-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a geomorphological introduction to a series of papers on the sedimentology and weathering phenomena of the Ría de Arosa area. The area contains a large mass of coarse-grained porphyritic granite surrounded by other crystalline rocks. The granite is deeply weathered

  2. Neural mechanisms of surround attenuation and distractor competition in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Carsten N; Tsotsos, John K; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2011-04-06

    Visual attention biases relevant processing in the visual system by amplifying relevant or attenuating irrelevant sensory input. A potential signature of the latter operation, referred to as surround attenuation, has recently been identified in the electromagnetic brain response of human observers performing visual search. It was found that a zone of attenuated cortical excitability surrounds the target when the search required increased spatial resolution for item discrimination. Here we address the obvious hypothesis that surround attenuation serves distractor suppression in the vicinity of the target where interference from irrelevant search items is maximal. To test this hypothesis, surround attenuation was assessed under conditions when the target was presented in isolation versus when it was surrounded by distractors. Surprisingly, substantial and indistinguishable surround attenuation was seen under both conditions, indicating that it reflects an attentional operation independent of the presence of distractors. Adding distractors in the target's surround, however, increased the amplitude of the N2pc--an evoked response known to index distractor competition in visual search. Moreover, adding distractors led to a topographical change of source activity underlying the N2pc toward earlier extrastriate areas. In contrast, the topography of reduced source activity due to surround attenuation remained unaltered with and without distractors in the target's surround. We conclude that surround attenuation is not a direct consequence of the attenuation of distractors in visual search and that it dissociates from attentional operations reflected by the N2pc. A theoretical framework is proposed that links both operations in a common model of top-down attentional selection in visual cortex.

  3. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  4. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiulianoF.Panza; AntonellaPontevivo; GiordanoChimera; RenetaRaykova; AbdelkrimAoudia

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by sur-face wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion.Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithos-phere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, iden-tified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the prmctpat recent votca-noes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria, a lithospheric dou-bling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenos-phere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea,likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria.

  5. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  6. Numerical Analysis of Advanced Displacement in Construction Progress of Tunnel Excavation with Weak Surrounding Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of advanced displacement in construction progress of tunnel excavation with weak surrounding rock is carried out by numerical method and comparison of model test result. In allusion to the problems of regional landslides and extruded large-deformation seriously impacting the stability of rock mass in construction process of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock, the elastic-plastic numerical simulation relying on Liangshui tunnel of Lan-Yu railroad is conducted on mechanical behaviors and deformation steric effect of tunnel construction and the calculation results are compared with the modeling data. The research results show that: the steric effect of excavation face is the dominant factor in the incidence of working face and the stress of surrounding rocks gradually releases from excavation face; the range of 0.5~1 times the cave diameter around rock mass in front of working face is the disturbance range and the key area of stabilization and reinforcement for wake surrounding rock. According to the analysis and construction practice, the supporting structure of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock should be established as soon as possible to control the displacement change of surrounding rock in the range of load-bearing ring, reduce disturbance and improve the self-bearing capability of surrounding rock. Because of the distinct excavation steric effect of weak surrounding rock, the secondary lining structure must be established in time to bear the later pressure and restrict the large displacement of surrounding rock. The research results can provide reliable basis for engineering stability control of analogous tunnels.

  7. Beliefs and practices surrounding postpartum period among Myanmar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2013-11-01

    to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of 'dirty lochia' was identified. traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women's close social network. the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing the Implications of Climate Data on the Rainfall Frequency Spectrum: Case Study of Knoxville, Tennessee and Surrounding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Linda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Esther S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Modeled daily precipitation values are used to determine changes in percentile rainfall event depths, for planning and mitigation of stormwater runoff, over past (1980-2005) and future (2025-2050) periods for Knoxville, Tennessee and the surrounding area.

  9. Seismic Zone of Craiova and its Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Laura-Simona

    2013-04-01

    The mapping of the Romanian area, based of the seismic range, put Craiova and the metropolitan zone, in seismic class C of level 8. This increased level is due to crustal fissure, oriented N-S on the Craiova meridian, which resonates with seismic waves from Vrancea epicenter. Craiova and the metropolitan zone is placed on the separated lithologic substrates, so, the effects of seism are not uniform between urban and peri-urban areas. The highest piedmont area and the terraces (V, IV, III), with a predominant substrate of conglomerate and sandstone, decrease effect of the earthquake. The first and the second terraces and the meadow, with a predominant content of marls and clays, are very elastic and increase the effect of earthquake. The most exposed are the villages placed on the right side of the Jiu River, where these landforms are very common and in case of earthquake, can be reactivated. In Romania there are just shallow depth and intermediate depth earthquakes. The frequency of earthquakes with a greater than 7.2 magnitude on the Richter scale is three times in a century. The most magnitude for a Romanian earthquake took place on 10 of November 1940 and it has a magnitude of 7.6 on the Richter scale. The 1977 Vrancea Earthquake occurred on March 4, 21:20 local time. It had a magnitude of 7.2 with an epicenter in Vrancea. The fracture occurred at a depth of 94 kilometers but it was a multishock earthquake with several outbreaks in the south-west part of Vrancea County. In 55 seconds the earthquake killed about 1,500 people in Romania (1,400 in Bucharest), wounded more than 11,300 and about 33,000 buildings and structures collapsed. The shock wave was felt in almost all countries in the Balkan Peninsula, as well as Ukraine and Moldova, but with a lower intensity. When the moving is vertically, in a time of 7-8 seconds, the next move is horizontally. The horizontally waves, shear waves, carry 75% of total energy. The poorly constructed buildings will fall even

  10. Surrounding the Void: Samuel Beckett and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Francisco Fernández Sánchez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study of the relationship between Samuel Beckett and Spain poses some striking questions which are relevant in understanding the cultural inclinations of one of the most important dramatists of the 20th century. Beckett consciously abstained from having direct contact with Spanish culture and never visited Spain, despite showing an interest in the politics of the country at different periods of his life. As a result of this state of affairs a no-go area emerges which calls for a reconceptualization of Beckett’s ideas on travel, politics and even his own country. This article tries to approach the matter of Beckett and Spain from different angles, in an attempt to achieve a full panoramic view. The opinions of one of Beckett’s Spanish friends, Manolo Fandos, are recorded here for the first time.

  11. The symbolism and myth surrounding nurses' uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M

    This article addresses nurses' uniform from the perspective of the symbolic, myth, legend and competing discourse. The analysis touches upon why nurses working with people who have learning disabilities discarded the nurses' uniform and why other nurses may consider doing so, particularly if suitable alternatives exist. The analysis draws from various areas of nursing practice, including the nursing of disabled people, elderly people and people with learning disabilities. Nurses' uniform is revealed as a totem of considerable potency such that to wear a uniform in just any setting or context has to be cautioned. The practicalities of protective clothing are addressed. A differentiation is drawn between uniform and protective clothing such that much of the undesirable symbolism associated with uniform may be discarded with a consequent enhancement of the image of the nurse.

  12. Fovea-periphery axis symmetry of surround modulation in the human visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Nurminen

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus activates different sized cortical area depending on eccentricity of the stimulus. Here, our aim is to understand whether the visual field size of a stimulus or cortical size of the corresponding representation determines how strongly it interacts with other stimuli. We measured surround modulation of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal and perceived contrast with surrounds that extended either towards the periphery or the fovea from a center stimulus, centered at 6° eccentricity. This design compares the effects of two surrounds which are identical in visual field size, but differ in the sizes of their cortical representations. The surrounds produced equally strong suppression, which suggests that visual field size of the surround determines suppression strength. A modeled population of neuronal responses, in which all the parameters were experimentally fixed, captured the pattern of results both in psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although the fovea-periphery anisotropy affects nearly all aspects of spatial vision, our results suggest that in surround modulation the visual system compensates for it.

  13. Temporal properties of centre-surround interactions in human motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perge, J.A.; Kanai, R.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A recent electrophysiological study revealed that the response to the antagonistic surround of macaque area MT receptive fields is delayed (15 - 20 ms) relative to the centre (Perge et al, 2002 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 43 E-Abstract 3931). We investigated whether this phenomenon,

  14. Climate change impacts on terrestrial ecosystems in metropolitan Chicago and its surrounding, multi-state region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica J. Hellmann; Knute J. Nadelhoffer; Louis R. Iverson; Lewis H. Ziska; Stephen N. Matthews; Philip Myers; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the potential impacts of warming temperatures and changing precipitation on plants, wildlife, invasive species, pests, and agricultural ecosystems across the multi-state region centered on Chicago, Illinois. We examine a geographic area that captures much of Lake Michigan, including a complex mosaic of urbanization and agriculture surrounding...

  15. BIRDS OF PIURA, PERU AND ITS SURROUNDINGS: EIGHT YEARS LOOKING AT THE SKY

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Villavicencio, César

    2013-01-01

    Fast growth of the cities and its effect on wildlife makes it necessary to study the diversity in urban areas, and include the results in the planning of urban growth. In the case of birds inhabiting urban areas, published studies are scarce, especially in the case of cities outside the department of Lima. With the objective of determining the bird species inhabiting the city of Piura, Peru (UTM 541372 E / 9425534 N) and its surroundings, between March 1988 and December 2006 weeke...

  16. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF COAL MINING ROADWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹喜正; 侯朝炯; 李华祥

    1996-01-01

    This introduces the calculation of opaper the deformationg .the Surroundings of coaowaysand the divisi of surroundings into 5 levels by means or !fuzzy integral assess mairrx, wnlcnserves-asthe scientific basis for selecting supporting pattern of roadways and determining the, pa-rameters of support.

  17. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  18. 黄土高原及周边地区土壤有机质对现代土壤磁化率的影响%Impact of soil organic matter on modern soil magnetic susceptibility in Loess Plateau and its surrounding areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张博; 刘卫国

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Magnetic susceptibility of soils can provide paleoclimatic information. In Chinese Loess Plateau, susceptibility enhancement is usually considered as a proxy of monsoon intensity. Several hypotheses were used to explain variations of this proxy. Here, we present a study on how soil magnetic susceptibility is related with soil organic matters. We analyzed magnetic susceptibility, organic carbon content, organic carbon isotopic composition, and C/N ratio of modern soils from Chinese Loess Plateau, in order to obtain the relationship between soil magnetic susceptibility and other parameters, as well as how soil organic matters affect soil magnetic susceptibility. Materials and methods Fifty modern soil samples were collected from the Loess Platform, forest areas at the Huangling and Huanglong Mount, and loess-desert area near the Tengger Desert. These soil samples represent modern soil types in the Loess Plateau. Samples were collected 2—3 cm below the surface. The sampling sites are at least 40 km away from any industrialized centers that could generate artificial, air-borne magnetic material. In this way, we minimized the effect of human and livestock activity. We tested magnetic susceptibility (χlf), organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13C), and organic carbon and nitrogen contents of these samples. Results The magnetic susceptibility varied from 26.6×10−8 m3∙kg−1 to 61.4×10−8 m3∙kg−1 for soils from the loess platform, and from 68.6×10−8 m3∙kg−1 to 107.5×10−8 m3∙kg−1 for soils from forest areas. The value of soil from forest areas is apparently higher than that from the loess platform. The magnetic susceptibility of soil samples from loess-desert area varied from 8.5×10−8 m3∙kg−1 to 44.4×10−8 m3∙kg−1.δ13C values of soil samples from the loess platform varied from−22‰to−24.4‰.δ13C values of soil samples from loess-desert area varied from−20.66‰to−24.69‰, whose range is

  19. Response suppression in v1 agrees with psychophysics of surround masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger-Landolt, Barbara; Heeger, David J

    2003-07-30

    When a target stimulus is embedded in a high contrast surround, the target appears reduced in contrast and is harder to detect, and neural responses in visual cortex are suppressed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and psychophysics to quantitatively compare these physiological and perceptual effects. Observers performed a contrast discrimination task on a contrast-reversing sinusoidal target grating. The target was either presented in isolation or embedded in a high-contrast surround. While observers performed the task, we also measured fMRI responses as a function of target contrast, both with and without a surround. We found that the surround substantially increased the psychophysical thresholds while reducing fMRI responses. The two data sets were compared, on the basis of the assumption that a fixed response difference is required for correct discrimination, and we found that the psychophysics accounted for 96.5% of the variance in the measured V1 responses. The suppression in visual areas V2 and V3 was stronger, too strong to agree with psychophysics. The good quantitative agreement between psychophysical thresholds and V1 responses suggests V1 as a plausible candidate for mediating surround masking.

  20. Stress and deformation analysis on deep surrounding rock at different time stages and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming; Mao Xianbiao; Yu Yuanlin; Li Kai; Ma Chao; Peng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the deep circular tunnel,the surrounding rock was divided into three regions:the cracked region,the plastic region and the viscoelastic region.The process of rock stress deformation and change was divided into three stages after the roadway excavation.By using the elastic-plastic mechanics theory,the analytical solutions of the surrounding stress and displacement at different stages and the radii of cracked and plastic regions were formulated.We additionally explained the surrounding rock stress and displacement which appeared in practical project.Simultaneously,based on the problem which emerged from a mine in Xuzhou during the excavating process of rock roadway's transport,we got the theoretical solutions for the stress and displacement in the process of rock roadway's excavation and considered that the broken area of rock roadway was largely loosing circle.The results indicate that according to the rheological characteristics of surrounding rock,in the primeval excavation of rock roadway,we should increase the length of anchor bolt and cooperate it with anchor nets cable-U steel supporting frame.In addition,when the deformation rate of the surrounding rock is descending after the 15 days' excavation,we should use the "three anchor" supporting method (anchor bolt spray,anchor note and anchor rope) and set aside about 20 cm as the reserved deformation layer.

  1. Analysis of field surface and underground coordination detection to mined-out-area surrounding steep-heavy thickness coal seam%急倾斜特厚煤层采空区现场地面与地下协同探测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁波; 张农; 蓝海东; 张特华

    2013-01-01

    工程探测与分析采空区分布对安全开采具有现实必要性.以乌东煤矿43#煤层东翼采空区分布预测为目标,通过现场工程地质与开采条件调查、电磁波能量传播机制分析、现场地面地下协同地质雷达(Ground Penetrating Radar,GPR)快速与多次扫描与复测等,对比分析了走向剖面既定扫描区域(1 050 m×80 m)沿不同走向长度、水平标高和垂向深度网点地质雷达扫描波形与时间剖面特征,定量预测了+640~ +720水平80.0 m范围煤岩破碎特征和走向50 ~ 800 m垂深70.0 m采空区分布位置,指导了现场采空区预处置设计、灾害防治与安全生产.%It is essential for promotion safe mining and efficiency to both analyze and engineering detect the distribution of mined-out-area. There existing abundance abandoned mined-out-area adjacent to the mining disturbed zone(MDZ) are prone to the stability problems and dynamical hazard ensue, inevitably , it constraints safe mining at Urumchi steep coal seam region. Taking aim of prediction to mined-out-area distributing conditions upwards the eastern of No. 43 coal seam of Wudong Mine, applied the field engineering geology and mining conditions inquisition, electromagnetic waves transfering mechanism a-nalysis relating rockmass structure,field tridimensional ground renetrating radar(GPR) (surface and underground) ,rapid,multiple scanning and repetition measurement,etc. ,a comparison of characteristics on both the GPR scanning wave profile and time section had been performed at defined scanning region of which lateral setion ranging covered 1050m 80m, by a network of various strike length and horizontal bedding planes and vertical depth. The broken characteristics and predictive location of mined-out-area distributions,with strike from 50 m to 800 m,vertical 70. 0 m depth, had been quantitatively confirmed wherein a 80 m depth ranging from 640 to 720 level. All of results guided the field design for pre

  2. Black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we obtain uncharged∖charged Kiselev-like black holes as a new class of black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in the context of Rastall theory. Then, we study the specific cases of the uncharged∖charged black holes surrounded by regular matter like dust and radiation, or exotic matter like quintessence, cosmological constant and phantom fields. By comparing the Kiselev-like black hole solutions in Rastall theory with the Kiselev black hole solutions in GR, we find an effective perfect fluid behavior for the black hole's surrounding field. It is shown that the corresponding effective perfect fluid has interesting characteristic features depending on the different ranges of the parameters in Rastall theory. For instance, Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by regular matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by exotic matter in GR, or Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by exotic matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by regular matter in GR.

  3. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  4. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. ... conception, pregnancy, birth and the early months ofparenthood. .... house attended by a traditional birth attendant of a ..... Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional.

  5. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  6. Distributions of surface sediments surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula and its environmental significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunjuan; CHEN Zhihua; LI Chunshun; DU Dewen; YAN Shijuan; ZHU Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed grain size composition to provide information on the types and distributions as well as depositional varieties of marine surface sediments from the area surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula. The samples retrieved from the study area contain gravel, sand, silt and clay. As suggested by bathymetry and morphology, the study area is characterized by neritic, hemipelagic and pelagic deposits. The glacial-marine sediments can be divided into two types, residual paratill and compound paratill, which are primarily transported by glaciers and as ice-rafted debris. Ocean current effects on deposition are more obvious, and the deposit types are distributed consistently with terrain variations.

  7. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy

    2005-09-01

    amostragem, em estudos futuros. Recomenda-se a padronização metodológica para o levantamento florístico de áreas portuárias como a baía de Sepetiba, e de outras áreas do litoral brasileiro sujeitas à interferência do homem, tomando por base o procedimento CRIMP.The Port of Sepetiba, State of Rio de Janeiro, was chosen as the Brazilian pilot area for the project "Global Ballast Water Management Programme" (GloBallast Programme. For comparative purposes, six countries were guided by the GloBallast Programme to follow the same methodology, emphasizing identification of organisms to the specific level during the preliminary biota survey. This study aimed to apply the methodology established by the Australian Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests (CRIMP procedures for the floristic survey of macroalgae of natural hard substrate of the area of Port of Sepetiba. Macroalgal samplings were carried out in November 2001 at nine sites situated in Sepetiba Bay and adjacent area, from the sublittoral fringe to ca. - 4 m deep. At each site, six 0.1 m² quadrates were scraped. Specimens were sent to the Herbarium of the "Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro" (RB. Ninety six species were identified (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, and 60 Rhodophyta; 12 species have not been cited to the study area by the preceding studies. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen, and Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli are recorded for the first time to the state of Rio de Janeiro. There are no evidences to conclude that the new records correspond to recently introduced species through the port activities. The methodological procedures proved to be efficient because they produced a species list to be comparable to those of taxonomic surveys with higher sampling effort. They also enlarged the existing information about the phycological flora of Sepetiba Bay. Nevertheless, for future studies, we point out the importance of a re

  8. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Huanxin Zou; Shilin Zhou; Cheng Wang; Naser El-Sheimy

    2013-01-01

    Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searc...

  9. DEFORMATION OF MOISTURE FLUX CIRCULATION SURROUNDING THE LANDFALL TYPHOON "BILIS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Ling-kun; YANG Wen-xia; HONG Yan-chao

    2009-01-01

    The deformation parameter (DP), which is defined as the product of shear deformation and stretching deformation of moisture flux circulation, is introduced. The tendency equation of DP is derived in pressure coordinates. Furthermore, DP is used to diagnose the deformation character of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis. The analysis showed that before Bilis landed, DP presented eight abnormal areas, which distributed alternately and closely encircled the low-pressure center. This indicated that the moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis rotated counterclockwise and stretched longitudinally and latitudinally to deform. After Bilis landed, DP weakened gradually and its regular pattern of horizontal distribution loosened. The shear and stretching deformations of moisture flux circulation surrounding Bilis weakened after the typhoon landed. The deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis mainly appeared in the middle-lower troposphere. There existed 1/2 phase difference between the shear and stretching deformations in the vertical-latitudinal cross section and a π/4 phase difference between them on the horizontal plane. As Bilis landed and further moved inland of China, the intensities of DP, shear and stretching deformations decreased, meanwhile their vertical and horizontal structures became irregular. The chief dynamic factors responsible for the deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis were the three terms associated with the three-dimensional advection transportation of DP, square difference between shear and stretching deformations coupling with Coriolis parameter, and horizontal gradient of geopotential height before Bilis landed. The last two dynamic factors impacted jointly on the deformation of moisture flux circulation after Bilis landed.

  10. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  11. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  12. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  13. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  14. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  15. Chromium in surface water and groundwater in the surrounding area of a tannery: relationships with water quality baseline, Elena, Cordoba. Argentina; Cromo en aguas subterraneas y superficiales en el entorno de una curtiembre, relacion con valores de fondo natural. Elena, Cordoba. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteoda, E.; Blarasin, M.; Damilano, G.; Cabrera, A.; Giuliano Albo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The basin of the El Barreal stream is a dominantly rural area in which groundwater is used for all activities whereas the stream is used as sink of residues and effluents. The existence of a tannery, which discharge the effluents into a wetland (which is drained by the stream), reveals the need to study the presence of Chromium in surface and groundwater and to compare values derived from pollution with those corresponding to the natural water baseline values. Fifty three samples of surface and groundwater were abstracted and chemical analyses were made, including total Chromium in water and plants. The chemical analysis results were studied by means of conventional and statistical techniques. The local and regional geological characteristics allow us to interpret that Chromium in water is derived from source minerals, being possible to stand out that high values probably are related to nearby serpentinite bodies.The values of total chrome in surface and groundwater are included in the natural quality baseline range calculated for this basin (0,25-5ug/L), exempting those samples with higher values linked to sites with farming activities and to the wetland environment where the Chromium effluent is discharged. In the last place, Chromium was retained in soil and plants whereas the aquifer was affected by a contaminant plume of total dissolved solids because of advective-dispersive transport. In the 2009 monitoring survey, a small increase of Chromium in groundwater was detected in relation to that of 2005, being assumed that partial desorption of Chromium is taking place from the solid phase. (Author) 19 refs.

  16. Depositional Characteristics and Their Geological Implications of the Permo-Carboniferous Carbonate Rocks from Yingen-Ejinaqi and Their Surrounding Areas, Inner Mongolia, China%银根-额济纳旗及邻区石炭-二叠纪碳酸盐岩的沉积特征及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵省民; 陈登超; 邓坚; 李锦平

    2011-01-01

    火山岩或火山碎屑岩、辫状三角洲或扇三角洲砂砾岩,以及碳酸盐岩建造中的火山岩、火山碎屑岩和砂砾岩夹层,成为本区域石炭一二叠纪的潜在油气储层.%A study of depositional characteristics on carbonate rocks of Permo-Carboniferous was carried out by analyzing of petrology and their formation characteristics of carbonate rocks. A lot of fieldworks of the Permo-Carboniferous system in the study area indicate that, the carbonate rocks of Permo-Carboniferouus are dominated by calcirudite, crinoidal limestone and micrite with massive structure and graded bedding, volcanic or pyroclastic rocks acting as pedestals and interteds of the carbonate formations prevail in the area, which show the neritic paleoenvironmental settings of frequent tension-faulting, strong volcanisn, steep topography and deeper water during the period of Permo-Carboniferous. The Permo-Carboniferous carbonate rock formations respeetively on the pedestals of volcanic or pyroclastic rocks, granulites from braided river or fan deltas, mudstones originated from littoral zone and shelf comprise volcano-elevated carbonate rock formation (VEF). delta-elevated carbonate rock formation (DEF), coast-subsiding carbonate rock formation (CSF) and shelf-sboaling carbonate rock formation (SSF). The formations, all of which were formed by working together of region tectonics andchange in sea level, show the distinct mechanism of construction. Among of them, the voleano-elevated formation, with volcanic or py-roclastic interbeds and prevailling in the area, originated from the relative sea level fall driven by volcano eruption r~ulting from tectonicextension, in the setting of long-term ri~ in sea level The delta-elevated formation inferior to the volcano-elevated in development,with granulite interbeds, arose from the relative swa level fall driven by braided river or fan deltas progradation r~ulting from tectonicuplifting, in the context of long-term ri~ in sea

  17. Zoneamento do distrito de rancharia, município de Lima Duarte, MG, entorno do parque estadual da Serra do Ibitipoca, com fins de manejo do ecoturismo Zoning of the surrounding area of Ibitipoca mountains range state park aiming at ecoturism management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werter Valentim de Moraes

    2008-08-01

    four appropriately characterized zones based on previously established criteria. THE ECOPLANET INSTITUTE methodology was proven suitable for planning of the area, with a high potential for the development of ecotourism activities considering the preservation conditions of the natural and cultural patrimonies.

  18. Plastic zone distribution laws and its types of surrounding rock in large-span roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chong; Xu Jinhai; Pan Jianzhong; Ma Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the distribution laws and types of plastic zone of surrounding rock in large-span roadway,we analyzed the distribution laws with different spans and lateral pressures using FLAC3D numerical calculation software.Based on the roadway support difficulty and distribution laws of the plastic zone of surrounding rock,we defined the large-span roadway and classified the types of large-span rectangular roadways.As a result,the distribution laws of the plastic zone on surrounding rock in a rectangular roadway with different spans and lateral pressures were obtained.The results show that the area of the plastic zone on surrounding rock increased with the increase of the spans and lateral pressures,and the plastic zone was symmetrical to the center line of roadway.At λ =0.5,1.0,1.5,and 2.0,the plastic zone presented "addleshape" distribution,"ellipse" distribution."thin and high" distribution and "inverse trapezium" distribution,respectively.In addition,we classified the roadways into four types according to the different lateral pressures and spans,including small-span,moderate-span,large-span and extreme-large-span roadways.

  19. Center-surround antagonism in spatial vision: retinal or cortical locus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westheimer, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Mach and Hering had early advanced a model of spatial visual processing featuring an antagonistic interaction between adjoining areas in the visual field. Spatial opponency was one of the first findings when single-unit studies of the retina were begun. Not long afterwards psychophysical experiments revealed a center-surround organization closely matching that found in the mammalian retina. It hinged on the demonstration of reduction of sensitivity in a small patch of the visual field when its surround was changed from dark to bright. Because such patterns inevitably produce borders, well-known phenomena of border interaction could be seen as providing alternative explanations, whose substrate would most likely be in the visual cortex. These competing viewpoints are discussed especially as they pertain to the recent demonstration of spatial differences in the center/surround organization between the normal and affected eyes of amblyopes. To the extent that most findings favor a retinal site for the psychophysically measured antagonism, and that evidence is accumulating for a direct effect on the mammalian retina of stimulus manipulation during visual development, the difference in spatial parameters of center/surround antagonism in amblyopia suggests that the dysfunction in amblyopia begins already in the retina.

  20. Distribuição temporal e diversidade de modos reprodutivos de anfíbios anuros no Parque Nacional das Emas e entorno, Estado de Goiás, Brasil Temporal distribution and diversity of reproductive modes in anuran amphibians in the Emas National Park and surrounding area, State of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Kopp

    2010-09-01

    reas abertas e/ou antrópicas.The communities of anuran amphibians, especially in tropical regions, are directly influenced by environmental conditions, whfich play an important role in structuring and regulating communities. This study aimed to determine the diversity of reproductive modes, season of vocalization and to test correlation among climatic variables and richness, abundance of adult frogs and tadpoles, and activity of vocalization of males in 12 water bodies located in and around the Emas National Park, southwestern state of Goiás, Brazil. Sixteen samples were carried out between December 2005 and March 2008. A total of 25 species from five families were recorded: Bufonidae (one species, Hylidae (nine species, Leptodactylidae (eight species, Leiuperidae (six species and Microhylidae (one species. Four patterns of reproductive activity were recognized among the species: continuous, intermediate, long and explosive. The richness of adult frogs, the abundance and activity of the calling males were positively related to air temperature, humidity and precipitation. The richness of tadpoles was positively related to precipitation and water temperature, but there was no relationship between the abundance of tadpoles with no descriptors of climate. Six reproductive modes were recorded, 56% of species had widespread aquatic reproductive modes (mode 1 and 4 and 44% deposit eggs in nests of foam (modes 11, 13, 30 and 32. The species recorded in this study showed a predominance of reproductive modes and general reproductive pattern typically associated with the warm and rainy period, as expected for tropical and seasonal regions. However, the temporal segregation between groups of species within the rainy season seems to facilitate the coexistence of generalist species typical of open and/or anthropogenic areas.

  1. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  2. Failure mechanism of Mesozoic soft rock roadway in Shajihai coal mine and its surrounding rock control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yue; Zhu Yongjian; Wang Weijun; Yu Weijian

    2014-01-01

    In view of the buckling failure caused by large deformation of Mesozoic soft rock roadway in Shajihai mining area, such as serious roof fall, rib spalling, floor heave, etc., based on the detail site investigation, theoretical analysis, mineral composition test, microstructure test, water-physical property test and field experiments were carried out. And we revealed the compound failure mechanism of Mesozoic soft rock roadway in Shajihai mining area, namely the molecule expansion-shear slip of weak structural plane-construction disturbance. On this basis, the coupling support technology whose core is constant resistance with large deformation bolt was proposed. The feature of this supporting technology is that a new type of structural composite material was used, which makes the supporting system not only has the ideal deformation characteristics, but also has high supporting resistance. Thus the fully release of plastic energy within surrounding rock and reasonable control of the thickness of the plastic ring were realized. Then the differential deformation between the surrounding rock and support was eliminated by the secondary coupling support of bolt–mesh–cable, and the bolt with high strength was applied in the base angle to control floor. Eventually the collaborative bearing system of surrounding rock–support was formed. Through field tests the validity and rationality of support was also verified.

  3. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  4. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  5. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  6. Fiscal Year 2011 Comprehensive Oversight Plan for Southwest Asia and Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    PROJECT AGENCY START FINAL Audit of USAID/Iraq’s Microfinance Activities Under Its Provincial Economic Growth Program Objective: Are USAID/Iraq’s... microfinance activities achieving their main goal of increasing access to inclusive and sustainable services in Iraq? USAID OIG Apr-10 Oct-10 Other

  7. Variations in time and space of trace metal aerosol concentrations in urban areas and their surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moreno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using an unprecedentedly large geochemical database, we compare temporal and spatial variations in inhalable trace metal background concentrations in a major city (Barcelona, Spain and at a nearby mountainous site (Montseny affected by the urban plume. Both sites are contaminated by technogenic metals, with V, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sn, Bi, Sb and Cd all showing upper continental crust (UCC normalised values >1 in broadly increasing order. The highest metal concentrations usually occur during winter at Barcelona and summer in Montseny. This seasonal difference was especially marked at the remote mountain site in several elements such as Ti and Rare Earth Elements, which recorded campaign maxima, exceeding PM10 concentrations seen in Barcelona. The most common metals were Zn, Ti, Cu, Mn, Pb and V. Both V and Ni show highest concentrations in summer, and preferentially fractionate into the finest PM sizes (PM1/PM10 > 0.5 especially in Barcelona, this being attributed to regionally dispersed contamination from fuel oil combustion point sources. Within the city, hourly metal concentrations are controlled either by traffic (rush hour double peak for Cu, Sb, Sn, Ba or industrial plumes (morning peak of Ni, Mn, Cr generated outside the city overnight, whereas at Montseny metal concentrations rise during the morning to a single, prolonged afternoon peak as contaminated air transported by the sea breeze moves into the mountains. Our exceptional database, which includes hourly measurements of chemical concentrations, demonstrates in more detail than previous studies the spatial and temporal variability of urban pollution by trace metals in a given city. Technogenic metalliferous aerosols are commonly fine in size and therefore potentially bioavailable, emphasising the case for basing urban background PM characterisation not only on physical parameters such as mass but also on sample chemistry and with special emphasis on trace metal content.

  8. Comprehensive Oversight Plan for Southwest Asia and Surrounding Areas. FY 2010 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    projects funded, and assess capabilities and progress of MoH to implement accountability procedures. SIGAR PLANNED AFGHANISTAN U.S. and other donor...organizations have effectively met the protection, food , and other assistance needs of Afghanistan’s Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) populations, 2...determine whether 1) U.S. government and international organizations have effectively met the protection, food , and other assistance needs of Afghanistan’s

  9. 3D Modeling of Iran and Surrounding Areas from Simultaneous Inversion of Multiple Geophysical Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    Nevertheless, it is well known that traditional state-of-the-art inversion techniques suffer from poor resolution and nonuniqueness , especially when a...and to provide adequate starting models for 3D waveform inversion approaches. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank the scientists, engineers , and technicians

  10. Surface Representing the Floor of Lake Mead and the surrounding area: UTM Projection 10m cellsize

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  11. Barotropic tidal model for the Bombay High, Gulf of Khambhat and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    A barotropic model is developed for the shelf region off the central west coast of India, which includes the regions of Bombay High and Gulf of Khambhat, in order to simulate tides and tidal currents in the region. The model is forced by a composite...

  12. Surface Representing the Floor of Lake Mead and the surrounding area: UTM Projection 10m cellsize

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Lake Mead is a large interstate reservoir located in the Mojave Desert of southeastern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. It was impounded in 1935 by the construction...

  13. Extending results from agricultural fields with intensively monitored data to surrounding areas for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 45% reduction in riverine total nitrogen flux from the 1980-1996 time period is needed to meet water quality goals in the Mississippi Basin and Gulf of Mexico. This paper addresses the goal of reducing nitrogen in the Mississippi River through three objectives. First, the paper outlines an approac...

  14. Mercury pollution in vegetables, grains and soils from areas surrounding coal-fired power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wu, Han; Ding, Jing; Fu, Weimin; Gan, Lijun; Li, Yi

    2017-05-01

    Mercury contamination in food can pose serious health risks to consumers and coal-fired power plants have been identified as the major source of mercury emissions. To assess the current state of mercury pollution in food crops grown near coal-fired power plants, we measured the total mercury concentration in vegetables and grain crops collected from farms located near two coal-fired power plants. We found that 79% of vegetable samples and 67% of grain samples exceeded the PTWI's food safety standards. The mercury concentrations of soil samples were negatively correlated with distances from the studied coal-fired power plants, and the mercury contents in lettuce, amaranth, water spinach, cowpea and rice samples were correlated with the mercury contents in soil samples, respectively. Also, the mercury concentrations in vegetable leaves were much higher than those in roots and the mercury content of vegetable leaves decreased significantly after water rinses. Our calculation suggests that probable weekly intake of mercury for local residents, assuming all of their vegetables and grains are from their own farmland, may exceed the toxicologically tolerable values allowed, and therefore long-term consumptions of these contaminated vegetables and grains may pose serious health risks.

  15. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H.; Twardella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Heitmann, D.; Schierl, R.; Liebl, B.; Rüden, H.

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between particle mass (PM) concentration in outside air and the occurrence of health related problems and/or diseases. However, much less is known about indoor PM concentrations and associated health risks. In particular, data are needed on air quality in schools, since children are assumed to be more vulnerable to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. On this background, we evaluated indoor air quality in 64 schools in the city of Munich and a neighbouring district outside the city boundary. In winter 2004-2005 in 92 classrooms, and in summer 2005 in 75 classrooms, data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and various dust particle fractions (PM 10, PM 2.5) were collected; for the latter both gravimetrical and continuous measurements by laser aerosol spectrometer (LAS) were implemented. In the summer period, the particle number concentration (PNC), was determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Additionally, data on room and building characteristics were collected by use of a standardized form. Only data collected during teaching hours were considered in analysis. For continuously measured parameters the daily median was used to describe the exposure level in a classroom. The median indoor CO 2 concentration in a classroom was 1603 ppm in winter and 405 ppm in summer. With LAS in winter, median PM concentrations of 19.8 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 91.5 μg m -3 (PM 10) were observed, in summer PM concentrations were significantly reduced (median PM 2.5=12.7 μg m -3, median PM 10=64.9 μg m -3). PM 2.5 concentrations determined by the gravimetric method were in general higher (median in winter: 36.7 μg m -3, median in summer: 20.2 μg m -3) but correlated strongly with the LAS-measured results. In explorative analysis, we identified a significant increase of LAS-measured PM 2.5 by 1.7 μg m -3 per increase in humidity by 10%, by 0.5 μg m -3 per increase in CO 2 indoor concentration by 100 ppm, and a decrease by 2.8 μg m -3 in 5-7th grade classes and by 7.3 μg m -3 in class 8-11 compared to 1-4th class. During the winter period, the associations were stronger regarding class level, reverse regarding humidity (a decrease by 6.4 μg m -3 per increase in 10% humidity) and absent regarding CO 2 indoor concentration. The median PNC measured in 36 classrooms ranged between 2622 and 12,145 particles cm -3 (median: 5660 particles cm -3). The results clearly show that exposure to particulate matter in school is high. The increased PM concentrations in winter and their correlation with high CO 2 concentrations indicate that inadequate ventilation plays a major role in the establishment of poor indoor air quality. Additionally, the increased PM concentration in low level classes and in rooms with high number of pupils suggest that the physical activity of pupils, which is assumed to be more pronounced in younger children, contributes to a constant process of resuspension of sedimented particles. Further investigations are necessary to increase knowledge on predictors of PM concentration, to assess the toxic potential of indoor particles and to develop and test strategies how to ensure improved indoor air quality in schools.

  16. Bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Basin and surrounding areas of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, G.B.; Rigby, J.G.

    1979-07-01

    In the fall of 1977, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WDGER), entered into a contract with the US Department of Energy, administered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) in Richland, Washington, as a principal contributor to a geologic study of feasibility of storing radioactive waste within Columbia River basalt. WDGER's responsibility was the production of this bibliography and a reconnaissance geologic map of the sediments overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in the State of Washington. This bibliography is a compilation of all known published, unpublished, and open-file references dealing with geology and geophysics of the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. The citations were obtained primarily from the WDGER and Washington State libraries; the Geo-Ref bibliographic system was also utilized. Because the WDGER portion of the study included preparation of a reconnaissance geologic map of surficial deposits in the Columbia Basin, available references dealing with this subject have been annotated. Many abstracts in the annotated section are quotations and have been copied directly from their respective publications.

  17. Variations in time and space of trace metal aerosol concentrations in urban areas and their surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moreno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Using an unprecedentedly large geochemical database, we compare temporal and spatial variations in inhalable trace metal background concentrations in a major city (Barcelona, Spain and at a nearby mountainous site (Montseny affected by the urban plume. Both sites are contaminated by technogenic metals, with V, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sn, Bi, Sb and Cd all showing upper continental crust (UCC normalised values >1 in broadly increasing order. The highest metal concentrations usually occur during winter at Barcelona and summer in Montseny. This seasonal difference was especially marked at the remote mountain site in several elements such as Ti and Rare Earth Elements, which recorded campaign maxima, exceeding PM10 concentrations seen in Barcelona. The most common metals were Zn, Ti, Cu, Mn, Pb and V. Both V and Ni show highest concentrations in summer, and preferentially fractionate into the finest PM sizes (PM1/PM10 > 0.5 especially in Barcelona, this being attributed to regionally dispersed contamination from fuel oil combustion point sources. Within the city, hourly metal concentrations are controlled either by traffic (rush hour double peak for Cu, Sb, Sn, Ba or industrial plumes (morning peak of Ni, Mn, Cr generated outside the city overnight, whereas at Montseny metal concentrations rise during the morning to a single, prolonged afternoon peak as contaminated air transported by the sea breeze moves into the mountains. Our exceptional database, which includes hourly measurements of chemical concentrations, demonstrates in more detail than previous studies the spatial and temporal variability of urban pollution by trace metals in a given city. Technogenic metalliferous aerosols are commonly fine in size and therefore potentially bioavailable, emphasising the case for basing urban background PM characterisation not only on physical parameters such as mass but also on sample chemistry and with special emphasis on trace metal content.

  18. Regional seabed geology and engineering considerations for Hibernia and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, G.V.; Moran, K.; Lewis, C.F.M.; Fader, G.B.J.

    1994-01-01

    High resolution single-channel airgun (0.16 l) seismic reflection profiles and information from industry and government boreholes show the near-surface stratigraphy to be dominated by a sequence of shallow, seaward-dipping, parallel reflections which are interpreted to have resulted from progradation and aggradation on the continental shelf. At least locally at the Hibernia site, the upper parallel reflection sequence has complex, internal lenticular reflections and dense interbedded sands, silty-clayey sands and minor gravel and cobbles. Zones of clinoform reflections are interbedded within the sequence. Four (4) potential seabed constraints to offshore development are described: (1) nearfield sediment transport around seabed installations, (2) liquefaction of seabed foundation sediments as a result of seismic loading, (3) seafloor iceberg scouring, and (4) site-specific and regional geological variability of foundation sediments and their physical properties. (author)

  19. Wetlands at Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and Surrounding Areas, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon coverage of wetlands at and surronding Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site, Texas. Roughly 20% of the park can be classified as...

  20. BRAND LOYALTY OF FEMALE CONSUMERS - STUDY CARRIED IN SFÂNTU GHEORGHE AND THE SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the role of women in society has significantly changed, they work as men so they have their own income that they can spend as they wish and as necessary. We need to pay particular importance to consumer behaviour of female and as such it should be treated as a particular segment. This paper aims to study the simultaneous effects - based on data from quantitative marketing research – that the independent variables generate on the dependent variable. The variables introduced in the analysis of variance are: How often do you drink coffee /tea every day?, Age, Income, Last graduated school. We applied the hi square test we in order to analyze the links between two variables measured with nominal scale. The variables analyzed are: Do you always buy the some brand and The highest level of education achieved.

  1. Radiogenic and Stable Isotope and Hydrogeochemical Investigation of Groundwater, Pajarito Plateau and Surrounding Areas, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Longmire, Michael Dale, Dale Counce, Andrew Manning, Toti Larson, Kim Granzow, Robert Gray, and Brent Newman

    2007-07-15

    From October 2004 through February 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the New Mexico Environment Department-Department of Energy Oversight Bureau, and the United States Geological Survey conducted a hydrochemical investigation. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate groundwater flow paths and determine groundwater ages using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 along with aqueous inorganic chemistry. Knowledge of groundwater age and flow paths provides a technical basis for selecting wells and springs for monitoring. Groundwater dating is also relevant to groundwater resource management, including aquifer sustainability, especially during periods of long-term drought. At Los Alamos, New Mexico, groundwater is either modern (post-1943), submodern (pre-1943), or mixed (containing both pre- and post-1943 components). The regional aquifer primarily consists of submodern groundwater. Mixed-age groundwater results from initial infiltration of surface water, followed by mixing with perched alluvial and intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer. No groundwater investigation is complete without using tritium/helium-3 and carbon-14 dating methods to quantify amounts of modern, mixed, and/or submodern components present in samples. Computer models of groundwater flow and transport at Los Alamos should be calibrated to groundwater ages for perched intermediate zones and the regional aquifer determined from this investigation. Results of this study clearly demonstrate the occurrence of multiple flow paths and groundwater ages occurring within the Sierra de los Valles, beneath the Pajarito Plateau, and at the White Rock Canyon springs. Localized groundwater recharge occurs within several canyons dissecting the Pajarito Plateau. Perched intermediate-depth groundwater and the regional aquifer beneath Pueblo Canyon, Los Alamos Canyon, Sandia Canyon, Mortandad Canyon, Pajarito Canyon, and Canon de Valle contain a modern component. This modern component consists of tritium, nitrate, perchlorate, chromate, boron, uranium, and/or high explosive compounds. It is very unlikely that there is only one transport or travel time, ranging from 25 to 62 years, for these conservative chemicals migrating from surface water to the regional water table. Lengths of groundwater flow paths vary within deep saturated zones containing variable concentrations of tritium. The 4-series springs discharging within White Rock Canyon contain a modern component of groundwater, primarily tritium. Average groundwater ages for the regional aquifer beneath the Pajarito Plateau varied from 565 to 10,817 years, based on unadjusted carbon-14 measurements.

  2. Dissipation of Impact Stress Waves within the Artificial Blasting Damage Zone in the Surrounding Rocks of Deep Roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial explosions are commonly used to prevent rockburst in deep roadways. However, the dissipation of the impact stress wave within the artificial blasting damage zone (ABDZ of the rocks surrounding a deep roadway has not yet been clarified. The surrounding rocks were divided into the elastic zone, blasting damage zone, plastic zone, and anchorage zone in this research. Meanwhile, the ABDZ was divided into the pulverizing area, fractured area, and cracked area from the inside out. Besides, the model of the normal incidence of the impact stress waves in the ABDZ was established; the attenuation coefficient of the amplitude of the impact stress waves was obtained after it passed through the intact rock mass, and ABDZ, to the anchorage zone. In addition, a numerical simulation was used to study the dynamic response of the vertical stress and impact-induced vibration energy in the surrounding rocks. By doing so, the dissipation of the impact stress waves within the ABDZ of the surrounding rocks was revealed. As demonstrated in the field application, the establishment of the ABDZ in the surrounding rocks reduced the effect of the impact-induced vibration energy on the anchorage support system of the roadway.

  3. Stability Evaluation on Surrounding Rocks of Underground Powerhouse Based on Microseismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the stability of underground powerhouse at Houziyan hydropower station during excavation, a microseismic monitoring system is adopted. Based on the space-time distribution characteristics of microseismic events during excavation of the main powerhouse, the correlation between microseismic events and blasting construction is established; and the microseismic clustering areas of the underground powerhouse are identified and delineated. The FLAC3D code is used to simulate the deformation of main powerhouse. The simulated deformation characteristics are consistent with that recorded by microseismic monitoring. Finally, the correlation between the macroscopic deformation of surrounding rock mass and microseismic activities is also revealed. The results show that multiple faults between 1# and 3# bus tunnels are activated during excavation of floors V and VI of the main powerhouse. The comprehensive method combining microseismic monitoring with numerical simulation as well as routine monitoring can provide an effective way to evaluate the surrounding rock mass stability of underground caverns.

  4. The effect of wind direction and building surroundings on a marina bay in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Cosmin; Safta, Carmen Anca

    2017-01-01

    The wind effect has usually a major importance in the marina bay. These environmental sites are an interplay between tourist and commercial activities, requiring a high-detailed and definition studies of the dynamic fluid in the harbor. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used elaborately in urban surroundings research. However, most CFD studies were performed for harbors for only a confined number of wind directions and/or without considering the building surroundings effects. This paper presents the results of different simulations based on various wind flows and the CFD simulation of coupled urban wind flow and general wind directions upon a semi-closed area. Thus the importance of wind effects on the evaluation of the marina bay will be pointed out to achieve a safe and secure mooring at the berth and eventually a good potential of renewable energy for an impending green harbor.

  5. Linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the "greenness" of school surroundings using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; McNeely, Eileen; Cedeño-Laurent, J G; Pan, Wen-Chi; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Dominici, Francesca; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Su, Huey-Jen; Spengler, John D

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported the physical and mental health benefits from exposure to "green" neighborhoods, such as proximity to neighborhoods with trees and vegetation. However, no studies have explicitly assessed the association between exposure to "green" surroundings and cognitive function in terms of student academic performance. This study investigated the association between the "greenness" of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school's student body based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Researchers used the composite school-based performance scores generated by the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) to measure the percentage of 3rd-grade students (the first year of standardized testing for 8-9 years-old children in public school), who scored "Above Proficient" (AP) in English and Mathematics tests (Note: Individual student scores are not publically available). The MCAS results are comparable year to year thanks to an equating process. Researchers included test results from 2006 through 2012 in 905 public schools and adjusted for differences between schools in the final analysis according to race, gender, English as a second language (proxy for ethnicity and language facility), parent income, student-teacher ratio, and school attendance. Surrounding greenness of each school was measured using satellite images converted into the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in March, July and October of each year according to a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1,000-meter, and 2000-meter circular buffer around each school. Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) estimated the impacts of surrounding greenness on school-based performance. Overall the study results supported a relationship between the "greenness" of the school area and the school-wide academic performance. Interestingly, the results showed a consistently positive significant association between the

  6. The Vertical Distribution of Zooplankton at Ocean Station "P" in June-July, 1971 (NODC Accession 7500631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The report contains the data gathered at Ocean Station "P" in late June and early July of 1971 on the "SUBARCTIC-A" cruise of R/V YAQUINA. The data include: 1)...

  7. Refuge narrative report for May, June, July & August, 1949. Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge and Zahl, Clearlake, & Shell Lake Easements.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the...

  8. Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1944 for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Lake Zahl, Clearwater, Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1944. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July & August, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Narrative report Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge Dugway, UT for the period May - June - July - August, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1954. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. Narrative report Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge Dugway, UT for the period May - June - July - August, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. A cluster of Legionnaires' disease and associated Pontiac fever morbidity in office workers, Dublin, June-July 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    In June and July 2008, two office workers were admitted to a Dublin hospital with Legionnaires\\' disease. Investigations showed that cooling towers in the basement car park were the most likely source of infection. However, positive results from cooling tower samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) did not correlate with subsequent culture results. Also, many employees reported Pontiac fever-like morbidity following notification of the second case of Legionnaires\\' disease. In total, 54 employees attended their general practitioner or emergency department with symptoms of Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever. However, all laboratory tests for Legionnaires\\' disease or Pontiac fever were negative. In this investigation, email was used extensively for active case finding and provision of time information to employees and medical colleagues. We recommend clarification of the role of PCR in the diagnosis of legionellosis and also advocate for a specific laboratory test for the diagnosis of the milder form of legionellosis as in Pontiac fever.

  14. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July & August 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing...

  15. Narrative report for May, June, July, August, 1945 Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge & Easement Refuge in District IV

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1945. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1951. The report begins by summarizing...

  17. [Narrative report, Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge : May, June, July & August, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1949. The report begins by summarizing...

  18. Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge and North Platte National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report : May, June, July, August, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1946 for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge & Lake Zahl, Clearwater, Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August, 1948 & Lake Zahl, Clearlake, & Shell Lake Easement Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1948. The report begins by summarizing the...