WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding area cordova

  1. Apache Cordova 3 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Wargo, John M

    2013-01-01

    Written for experienced mobile developers, Apache Cordova 3 Programming is a complete introduction to Apache Cordova 3 and Adobe PhoneGap 3. It describes what makes Cordova important and shows how to install and use the tools, the new Cordova CLI, the native SDKs, and more. If you’re brand new to Cordova, this book will be just what you need to get started. If you’re familiar with an older version of Cordova, this book will show you in detail how to use all of the new stuff that’s in Cordova 3 plus stuff that has been around for a while (like the Cordova core APIs). After walking you through the process of downloading and setting up the framework, mobile expert John M. Wargo shows you how to install and use the command line tools to manage the Cordova application lifecycle and how to set up and use development environments for several of the more popular Cordova supported mobile device platforms. Of special interest to new developers are the chapters on the anatomy of a Cordova application, as well ...

  2. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  3. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...

  4. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  5. Cordova: web-based management of genetic variation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim, Sean S; Anand, Nikhil; DeLuca, Adam P; Taylor, Kyle R; Kolbe, Diana L; Simpson, Allen C; Azaiez, Hela; Sloan, Christina M; Shearer, A Eliot; Hallier, Andrea R; Casavant, Thomas L; Scheetz, Todd E; Smith, Richard J H; Braun, Terry A

    2014-12-01

    Cordova is an out-of-the-box solution for building and maintaining an online database of genetic variations integrated with pathogenicity prediction results from popular algorithms. Our primary motivation for developing this system is to aid researchers and clinician-scientists in determining the clinical significance of genetic variations. To achieve this goal, Cordova provides an interface to review and manually or computationally curate genetic variation data as well as share it for clinical diagnostics and the advancement of research. Cordova is open source under the MIT license and is freely available for download at https://github.com/clcg/cordova. Published by Oxford University Press. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Cordova, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cordova, Alaska Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  7. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  8. Biogeography of azooxanthellate corals in the Caribbean and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J.

    2002-04-01

    Biogeographic patterns for azooxanthellate corals are not as well known as those of zooxanthellate (primarily reef-building) corals. I analyzed occurrences of 129 species of azooxanthellate corals in 19 geopolitical regions in the Caribbean and surrounding areas. I performed an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis using Bray-Curtis' similarity measure on the complete data set and shallow- and deep-water subsets of the data. The results indicate two provinces, each with a widespread (tropical and subtropical distributions) component to its fauna. One province has a tropical and primarily insular component to it, while the other has a subtropical and primarily continental component. By contrast, zooxanthellate corals have a uniform faunal composition throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, zooxanthellate corals have half as many species in the Caribbean as the azooxanthellate corals even though their global diversities are equal. These differences in diversity and geographic distribution patterns should be considered when developing conservation strategies.

  9. Cordova Lake dam hydroelectric generating station case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, D.; Huxley, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources released a Crown owned site to the private water power industry as part of the small hydro site release program initiated by the Ontario Government in the mid 1980's. The Cordova Lake Dam Hydroelectric Generating Station, built on this site, has been in operation since the first week of October, 1992. Since that time, the plant has been operating with less than 1 % down time and has generated over 2,400 MWh of electricity. Algonquin Power Systems is responsible for the management and operations of the plant which includes full time monitoring from the company's Mississauga office and a part time employee at Cordova Lake. Cordova Lake Dam is located on the Crowe River at the outlet of Cordova Lake, approximately 125 kilometers east of Toronto, Ontario. The total cost of the Cordova Lake Dam project was $1.6 million. Algonquin Power contributed 20% equity to the project. Algonquin Power was also responsible for all engineering and geotechnical work and for completing the construction and equipment contracts. 1 tab., 2 figs

  10. Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwali, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

  11. Catawba Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Lake Wylie, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1984-10-01

    An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Catawba Nuclear Station, located near Lake Wylie, South Carolina, during the period 31 May through 7 June 1984. The survey covered a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the Station. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus cosmic exposure rate at the 1-meter level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial plus cosmic gamma exposure rate ranged from 3.7 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), the cosmic level over Lake Wylie, to 17.4 μR/h just east of the Catawba River below the dam site. A search of the gamma data showed no man-made gamma emitters in the survey area. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations on the ground to support the aerial data. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  12. Factual biosphere database for Dounreay and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, M.A.

    1991-12-01

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Dounreay region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Dounreay area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  13. Factual biosphere database for Dounreay and the surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, M A [ANS Consultants Ltd., Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-01

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Dounreay region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Dounreay area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author).

  14. Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, M A [ANS Consultants Ltd., Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-01

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author).

  15. Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, M.A.

    1991-12-01

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  16. Assessment of soil contamination in area surrounding Tuwaitha nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taii, A.A.F.; AI-Jobori, S.H.; Al-Maadhidi, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The wide spread looting of the Tuwaitha Nuclear Facilities as well as damaging of some buildings in 2003, had offered possibilities of contamination of soil environment inside the Site. The objective of the present work was to investigate soil contamination to help in future decontamination programs. A total of 25 soil surface samples (including one reference sample) covered different locations in the Site were collected in March 2011. High purity Ge detector was used for gamma spectrometry of soil samples. Data of total and spectral gamma for U series, Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs are presented. Slight variations were observed in specific activity of the U series 214 Bi or 214 Pb and 226 Ra among measured soil samples where the range was 10.3-12.7 for 214 Bi as compared with 12.2-33.4 Bq/kg for 226 Ra. Values of both 214 Bi and 226 Ra are in the range of reference sample specific activity indicating that no evidence of contamination had occurred in the investigated area. Results of activity concentrations of thorium series 228 Ac or 208 Tl, 212 Pb, and 212 Bi are in the range of reference sample and close to those values given worldwide for natural uranium in soil. The levels of 40 K in soil are within the natural abundance of this isotope in the soil where the range was 207.6-266.1 with 220.3 Bq/kg for the reference sample. On the other hand, 137 Cs specific activities showed great variation among measured samples. The minimum value for 137 Cs was 0.6 and the maximum 7.6 compared with 0.8 Bq/kg for the control soil sample. The non-uniformity of radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs suggest the presence of contamination in some locations although this level is considered as an acceptable level and no hazardous effect will be generated.

  17. Seismic Tomography of the Arabian-Eurasian Collision Zone and Surrounding Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toksoz, M. N; Van der Hilst, Robert D; Sun, Youshun; Gulen, Levent; Kalafat, Dogan; Kuleli, Huseyin S; Li, Chang; Zhang, Haijiang

    2008-01-01

    ... and surrounding areas, including Iran, Arabia, Eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus. The Arabian-Eurasian plate boundary is a complex tectonic zone shaped by continent-continent collision processes...

  18. Study on the Environmental Tritium in Surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah - Bandung Landfill Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satrio; Syafalni; Evarista Ristin

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of environmental tritium distribution in surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah landfill areas has been carried out. The aim of this investigation was to know tritium concentration in surrounding of both landfill areas. Normally, tritium concentration in the nature is around 0-5 TU. The results of this investigation showed that the tritium concentration in both shallow groundwater of both landfill areas were still in the range of its normal limit, whereas tritium concentration in stream along both landfill areas and leached water showed higher value. Tritium concentration in deep groundwater of Bantar Gebang landfill showed about the zero value, it means is the normal condition. (author)

  19. Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heru Sriwahyuni; Sastrowardoyo, Pratomo B.; Teddy Sumantri; Dewi Susilowati; Hendra Adhi Pratama; Syarmufni, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

  20. Enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography: comparison with pathological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; Schepper, A. de; Schelfout, K.; Colpaert, C.; Kersschot, E.; Tjalma, W.A.; Weyler, J.

    2004-01-01

    The enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography is correlated with findings from pathological examination. We studied 194 patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MR mammography. Of all malignant lesions presenting with an enhancing surrounding area on MR mammography, morphologic features including long spicules, a ductal pattern, diffuse enhancement or nodules were evaluated and compared with histopathological examination. A double breast coil was used; we performed a 3D FLASH sequence with contiguous coronal slices of 2 mm, before and after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg GD-DTPA, and subtraction images were obtained. In total, 297 malignant lesions were detected at MR mammography and 101 of them had one or more types of enhancing surrounding area. In 49 of the 53 cancers with long spicules and in 49 of the 55 cancers with surrounding ductal pattern of enhancement, pathological examination showed in situ and/or invasive carcinoma. Multiple nodules adjacent to the carcinoma were seen in 20 patients and corresponded with six cases of invasive and ten cases of ductal in situ carcinoma. A diffuse enhancing area next to a mass was seen in ten patients and consisted of carcinoma in all cases: seven in situ and three invasive carcinomas. Enhancing areas including long spicules, a ductal pattern, noduli, or diffuse enhancement surrounding a carcinoma corresponded with in situ or invasive extension of the carcinoma in 92.5, 89, 80 and 100% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  1. Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands and surrounding areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses different aspects of the geological development during the Permian and Triassic (300 to 200 Ma) of the Netherlands and surrounding areas. The study area encompasses the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), a large intracratonic basin stretched out from the United Kingdom in the west

  2. Models and Approaches for Integrating Protected Areas with Their Surroundings: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwu Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have identified threats that originate in areas surrounding protected areas (PAs. While there have been various efforts to integrate PAs with their surroundings, considerable challenges remain. Here we summarize these efforts to date, discuss their effectiveness, and provide recommendations for future research. Based on a broad literature review of theoretical and applied approaches, we have outlined 68 models for balancing conservation and sustainable development in PAs. We comprehensively analyzed 23 of these models for integrating PAs with their surroundings. They were divided into two categories: area-oriented and process-oriented approaches. This review reveals the absolute necessity of combining these two approaches for future conservation and sustainable development of PAs.

  3. Methodology of testing environmental samples from the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropikova, S.; Pastuchova, D.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are described of environmental sample investigation in the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits, namely monitoring ground water, surface water, sediments, water flows and catchments, vegetation and soil. Methods of sample preparation, and methods of radionuclides determination in mixtures are also discussed, as are spot activity measurement methods. (author)

  4. Tidal propagation in the Gulf of Khambhat, Bombay High, and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    -diurnal and diurnal constituents at forty-two ports in the Gulf and surrounding areas is sued to define characteristics of the tides. A barotropic numerical model based on shallow water wave equations to simulate the sea level and circulation in the region is used...

  5. Fore shock activity and its probabilistic relation to earthquake occurrence in Albania and the surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peci, V. [Seismological Institute, Tirana (Albania); Maeda, K. [Meteorologial Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Seismology and Volcanology Research; Matsmura, K.; Irikura, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Disaster Prevention Research

    1999-10-01

    The paper investigates some characteristics of fore shock activity of moderate and large earthquakes which occurred in the present century in Albania and the surrounding area. Using a prediction algorithm, based on possible fore shocks, the authors obtained a probabilistic relation between possible fore shocks and main shocks. Results recorded between 1901-1994 are analysed and discussed.

  6. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  7. Lead identification in soil surrounding a used lead acid battery smelter area in Banten, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adventini, N; Santoso, M; Lestiani, D D; Syahfitri, W Y N; Rixson, L

    2017-01-01

    A used lead acid battery smelter generates particulates containing lead that can contaminate the surrounding environment area. Lead is a heavy metal which is harmful to health if it enters the human body through soil, air, or water. An identification of lead in soil samples surrounding formal and informal used lead acid battery smelters area in Banten, Indonesia using EDXRF has been carried out. The EDXRF accuracy and precision evaluated from marine sediment IAEA 457 gave a good agreement to the certified value. A number of 16 soil samples from formal and informal areas and 2 soil samples from control area were taken from surface and subsurface soils. The highest lead concentrations from both lead smelter were approximately 9 folds and 11 folds higher than the reference and control samples. The assessment of lead contamination in soils described in C f index was in category: moderately and strongly polluted by lead for formal and informal lead smelter. Daily lead intake of children in this study from all sites had exceeded the recommended dietary allowance. The HI values for adults and children living near both lead smelter areas were greater than the value of safety threshold 1. This study finding confirmed that there is a potential health risk for inhabitants surrounding the used lead acid battery smelter areas in Banten, Indonesia. (paper)

  8. Territorial ordering in Toay area and surroundings, La Pampa province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, O.; Sbrocco; J; Calmels, A.; Sotorres, E.; Miglianelli, C.

    2004-01-01

    This present work aims to provide a territorial ordering in an area limited by the 36 grades 39 minutes and 36 grades 43 minutes Southern Parallels and the 64 grades 20 minutes and 64 grades 27 minutes. Meridians from the same hemisphere; within such area, the population from Toay and surroundings are held/contained. The empiric method employed was taken from Gomez Orea (1993). The area was divided into environmental synthesis units and through the use of different proposed tasks it was possible to reach an objective description of the area with the distribution of its varied units [es

  9. Assessment of land degradation and its spatial and temporal variation in Beijing surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Dong, Suocheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhiqiang, Gao

    2005-08-01

    The indulgence in willful persecution of sandstorm had made great attention of many countries around the world. Chinese government and the Chinese academy of science going with some other countries have devoted a large amount of vigor to study the crucial environment problem. Due to the main source areas of sandstorm all located in the arid and semi-arid regions where there have great area, hard natural condition and bad traffic condition, it's very difficult to accomplish source area and the reason of sandstorm. For this destination, a international cooperation organization has been established to clarify the occur mechanism, transfer process and the following environment impact of sandstorm. The organization includes many researchers come form USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. Beijing surrounding area is one of the main sandstorm sources in recent years. In order to understand fully of the sandstorm form and development, we analyzed the land use degradation of Beijing surrounding area during the last ten years. 71 scenes Landsat TM/ETM, 611 scenes DRG and DEM data had been processed in our study. This paper made a detail describe of using Landsat image data and high resolution DEM data to construe the soil erosion and vegetation degenerate. The result shows that the irrational human activities and land use style are the main factors of land use degradation. In case of Beijing surrounding area, the land degradation directly impacted the frequency and intensity of sand & dust storm in Northern China. The case study region of Beijing surrounding area includes 51 counties that belong to three provinces and autonomous regions.

  10. Comparison of Socioeconomic Factors between Surrounding and Non-Surrounding Areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway before and after Its Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s highest railway, and the longest highland railway, the Qinghai–Tibet Railway (QTR has been paid considerable attention by researchers. However, most attention has been paid to the ecological and environmental issues affecting it, and sustainable ecological, social, and economic development-related studies of the QTR are rare. In this study, by analyzing the passenger traffic, freight traffic, passenger-kilometers, and freight-kilometers of the QTR for the period 1982–2013 and the transport structure of the Tibetan Plateau (TP for 1990–2013, the evolutionary process of the transport system in the TP following the construction of the QTR has been revealed. Subsequently, by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP, population, industrial structure, and urbanization level at the county and 1 km scales between surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the QTR, the differences in socioeconomic performance before and after its construction were detected. The results show that (1 in the TP, the highway-dominated transport system will break up and an integrated and sustainable transport system will form; (2 at the county scale, the annual growth rates of GDP of counties surrounding the QTR were greater than those of non-surrounding counties for the period 2000–2010. At the 1 km scale, following the opening of the completed line, the GDP of surrounding areas had a greater growth rate than before; (3 analysis at the county and 1 km scales indicated that population was not aggregated into the surrounding areas of the QTR in the period 2000–2010; (4 in terms of industrial structure, the proportion of primary industry decreased continuously, while the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries increased overall in the period 1984–2012. The QTR had no obvious impact on changes in the urbanization level of its surrounding areas.

  11. Aerial radiological survey of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and surrounding area, San Clemente, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    An airborne radiological survey of an 11 km 2 area surrounding the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station was made 9 to 17 January 1980. Count rates observed at 60 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the plant

  12. Summertime ozone formation in Xi'an and surrounding areas, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Feng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ozone (O3 formation in China's northwest city of Xi'an and surrounding areas is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting atmospheric chemistry (WRF-Chem model during the period from 22 to 24 August 2013, corresponding to a heavy air pollution episode with high concentrations of O3 and PM2.5. The model generally performs well compared to measurements in simulating the surface temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction, near-surface O3 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, and aerosol constituents. High aerosol concentrations in Xi'an and surrounding areas significantly decrease the photolysis frequencies and can reduce O3 concentrations by more than 50 µg m−3 (around 25 ppb on average. Sensitivity studies show that the O3 production regime in Xi'an and surrounding areas is complicated, varying from NOx to VOC (volatile organic compound-sensitive chemistry. The industrial emissions contribute the most to the O3 concentrations compared to biogenic and other anthropogenic sources, but neither individual anthropogenic emission nor biogenic emission plays a dominant role in the O3 formation. Under high O3 and PM2.5 concentrations, a 50 % reduction in all the anthropogenic emissions only decreases near-surface O3 concentrations by about 14 % during daytime. The complicated O3 production regime and high aerosol levels pose a challenge for O3 control strategies in Xi'an and surrounding areas. Further investigation regarding O3 control strategies will need to be performed, taking into consideration the rapid changes in anthropogenic emissions that are not reflected in the current emission inventories and the uncertainties in the meteorological field simulations.

  13. [Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Kashima, Y; Matsui, M; Okabe, T; Doi, R

    2001-07-01

    Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

  14. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the St. Lucie Power Plant, Fort Pierce, Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1979-06-01

    An airborne radiological survey of an 1100 km 2 area surrounding the St. Lucie Power Plant was conducted 1 to 8 March 1977. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Count rates observed at 150 m altitude are converted to equivalent exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Ground exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis agreed with the airborne data. Geological data are presented in an isopleth map of rock and soil types. Also included is a brief description of the vegetation and terrain surrounding the site

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation.

  17. Aerial radiological survey of the Brookhaven National Laboratory and surrounding area, May 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobaugh, J.L.; Steiner, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 15 to 18 May 1980 over approximately a 21-square-kilometer (8-square-mile) area surrounding the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL is located in the center of Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. All gamma radiation data were collected by flying north-south lines spaced 91 meters (300 feet) apart at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) above ground level. A total of 17 anomalous areas were identified. The dominant isotopes found over these areas were cesium-137, manganese-54, and cobalt-60. All anomalies identified by the aerial measurements were correlated to site activities and storage facilities. 4 references, 18 figures, 1 table

  18. Deformation-strain field in Sichuan and its surrounding areas based on GPS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate in Sichuan and its surrounding areas, and the activity rate and strain rate in two block boundary fault zones were calculated according to the block movement parameters estimated using the station speed obtained from regional GPS station observation data in these areas for 2009–2011 and GPS continuous station data for 2011–2013. The movement field characteristics in these areas were analyzed with the Sichuan Basin as the reference. Results show that the principal strain rate and maximum shear strain rate of the Bayan Har block were the largest, followed by those of the Sichuan–Yunnan block and Sichuan Basin. The deep normal strain rate in the Longmenshan fault zone was compressive and large over the study period. The normal strain rate in the Xianshuihe fault zone was tensile.

  19. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of ±15%

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ±15%

  2. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  3. Vegetation cover and land use of a protected coastal area and its surroundings, southeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Caris,Elisa Araujo Penna; Kurtz,Bruno Coutinho; Cruz,Carla Bernadete Madureira; Scarano,Fabio Rubio

    2013-01-01

    We applied remote sensing techniques on a TM Landsat 5 image (1:50,000) to map land use and vegetation cover of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and surroundings. The thematic map generated from the digital classification of the image allowed us to spatially characterize and quantify the different land uses and soil covers of the area. Thirteen classes were identified. The most representative classes in the park were the Clusia (31.99%) and Ericaceae formations (29.14%). More than 90%...

  4. Water analysis from wells in Ezeiza and surrounding areas. Dissolved uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, D.M.; Arguelles, Maria G.; Barbaro, Nestor O.

    2006-01-01

    In order to give an answer to the different social sectors, we sampled water from previously existing wells that reaches the Puelche aquifer. The uranium concentration was determined in these samples to obtain a preliminary checkup of water quality situation. For the analysis we considered the samples obtained inside the CAE as well as those sampled in the surrounding areas as Monte Grande, Claypole and Burzaco. The results show a correlation between the amount of dissolved salts and the presence of dissolved uranium. (author) [es

  5. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Baxley, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, L.K.

    1978-11-01

    An airborne radiological survey of a 2146 km 2 area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant was made 28-31 March 1977. Detected radioisotopes, and their associated gamma ray exposure rates, were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Count rates observed at 152 m altitude are converted to equivalent exposure rates at 1 m above the ground, and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis showed agreement with the airborne data

  6. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The enforcement order provides for grants concerning the arrangement of various public facilities in the areas surrounding a power generating facility; the public facilities in the arrangement for which the grants are given include communication, recreation activities, environmental sanitation, culture, medicine, etc. The prefectural governor concerned submits his plan for the arrangement to the Government, which then decides on the grants. Then, the grants are given to local governments concerned. The sums of the grants are determined on the basis of the output, construction cost of the nuclear power facility. (Mori, K.)

  7. [Fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Men, Xing-Yuan; Gong, Zheng-Da; Wu, Dian; Zhang, Zheng-Kun; Zhang, Li-Yun

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the distribution pattern, species diversity and community structure of fleas on small mammals in the surrounding area of Erhai Lake, and the relationship between fleas and their hosts. Different geographical areas surrounding the Erhai Lake in Yunnan were selected as investigated spots. Small mammals were captured with baited cages. The cage-traps were examined and re-baited each morning. All fleas on the hosts were collected and identified. The richness (S), evenness (J'), diversity index (H'), dominance index (C'), total ectoparasite infestation rate (Rpt), total ectoparasite infestation index (Ipt), and constituent ratio (Cr) were used to measure the community structure. Altogether, 3,303 small mammals and 3,243 fleas were collected. From the 21 species of small mammal hosts, 13 species of fleas were identified. In southern area of the Lake, the species richness (21 species of small mammals & 12 species of fleas) was highest among the three selected areas. Seventeen species of small mammals and 8 species of fleas were found in eastern area, and only 13 species of small mammals and 7 species of fleas found in the west. This implied the probable influences of ecological environments on the fleas and their corresponding hosts. The community structure of fleas on small mammals was complex. The species diversity, species composition, community structure and distribution pattern of fleas were simultaneously influenced by the hosts' body surface microenvironment and the macroenvironment (habitat). The fleas are commonly distributed in small mammals in the areas and their communities are related to host species and the habitats.

  8. Centre-surround organization of fast sensorimotor integration in human motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubbioso, Raffaele; Raffin, Estelle; Karabanov, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial representat......Using the short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) paradigm, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor hand area (M1HAND) can probe how sensory input from limbs modulates corticomotor output in humans. Here we applied a novel TMS mapping approach to chart the spatial...... in M1HAND. Like homotopic SAI, heterotopic SAF was somatotopically expressed in M1HAND. Together, the results provide first-time evidence that fast sensorimotor integration involves centre-inhibition and surround-facilitation in human M1HAND....

  9. Further studies of the effects of smoke from towns upon vegetation in the surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowther, C; Steuart, D W

    1914-01-01

    The relative degree of air pollution was measured in various parts of Leeds and in the surrounding semi-urban and rural areas to a distance in some directions of seven miles from the center of the city. Subsequently, an attempt was made to directly measure the effects of the pollution upon crops grown in various parts of the area investigated. Reasonably well controlled experiments were carried out to examine the effects on growth rate of grass and buckwheat. Results were suggestive but not conclusive. Attempts were made to determine which grasses do best in smoky regions by examining meadows while in flower. Many anecdotal reports are given of the negative effects of air pollution on specific crops, as well as the decreased vigor and hardiness of plants in general. 4 tables.

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and surrounding area, Waxahachie, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1993-02-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) site from July 22 through August 20,1991. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 305 meters over a 1,036-square-kilometer (400-square-mile) area surrounding Waxahachie, Texas. The 70,000 terrestrial gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a United States Geological Survey (USGS) map of the area. The mean terrestrial exposure rate measured was 5.4 μR/h at 1 meter above ground level. Comparison to ground-based measurements shows good agreement. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were detected

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation facility and surrounding area, Saxton, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period July 5 to 22, 1989, over an 83-square kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC) facility which is owned by General Public Utilities and located near Saxton, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) over most of the survey area. The levels over the SNEC family did not differ from the exposure rates seen over the entire survey area. Cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels typical of worldwide fallout deposition were detected throughout the surveyed area. No other trends of Cs-137 were observed. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at six locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, P.P.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) and cesium-137 ( 137 Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 ( 235 U). Protactinium-234m ( 234m Pa) and 60 Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant and surrounding area, Newport, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant during the period 27 to 30 May 1986. The survey covered a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area around the plant. The deteted radiation was due to the presence of varying concentrations of naturally-occurring radioactive materials. Radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay chains and radioactive potassium were found. For the majority of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rate levels varied between 10 and 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at five locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these ground-based measurements were in good agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial values. No evidence was found of any radioactive contamination which might have occurred as a result of plant operations. This conclusion was supported by the results of the soil samples analyses and the comparison of the current survey data with those obtained in September 1970. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. Aerial radiological survey of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area Brookhaven, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station during 5 to 9 June 1983. The survey, which covered an area of 338 square kilometers (131 square miles), also encompassed the entire Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) facility. The highest radiation exposure rate, over 1 milliroentgen per hour (mR/h), was inferred from data measured directly over the BNL facility. This detected activity was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal BNL operations. With the exception of the BNL facility, the only detected man-made radioactivity was found near a cottage in Moriches, New York and was due to the presence of cobalt-60. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied generally from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired from five locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were consistent with those inferred from the aerial results. 11 references, 12 figures, 3 tables

  16. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T

    2015-01-01

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study

  17. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C, Aprilia Puspita [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesian, Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  18. WAP Based An Alternative Solution for Traffic Transportation Problem in Sidoarjo Surrounding Area Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arna Fariza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In line with the increasing interest on Lapindo mud disaster which causes several roadway covered by mud, there is a need to give an alternative solution for traffic transportation problem in surrounding area. The possible criteria for the solution of this road way are length, surface, traffic, and width of the road. Types of vehicle across the road also give a contribution to the criteria. By using Geography Information System (GIS, it is easy to all drivers to take decision which way has to be chosen based on the real condition. GIS is used to visualize the alternative road, which is possible to take. Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP is a decision method which is based on many criteria and alternatives. The input of AHP can be a preference or real value. Applied AHP to decide value of each alternative is based on application of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP assessment.

  19. An in situ survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    An in situ survey of the area surrounding the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant was conducted between May 17 and 24, 1990. The survey consisted of in situ measurements and of ground sampling. A High Purity Germanium detector was used for the in situ measurements. The ground samples were taken to the, laboratory at EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc., in Santa Barbara, California, for a radionuclide assay on a laboratory system. Results of the in situ measurements found evidence of naturally occurring radioisotopes, cesium-137 from international fallout, and some evidence of anomalous uranium-238. The soil sampling results show only the presence of naturally occurring radioisotopes, cesium-137, and also anomalous uranium-238

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampoll-Ramirez, G.

    1994-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from August 10-16, 1993, over a 78-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was performed at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with a line spacing of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area and an aerial photograph of the plant. The terrestrial gamma exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour at 1 meter above the ground. Protactinium-234m was observed at six sites within the boundaries of the plant. At a seventh site, only uranium-235 was observed. No other man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was present in a detectable quantity, either on or off the plant property. Soil sample and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ± 7.5%

  1. A regional study of the radiation environment of Greenham Common, Newbury District and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This study was commissioned by Newbury District Council and Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council in response to public concern following disclosures about events at Greenham Common in the 1950s, and the suspicion that there may have been an accident involving a nuclear weapon leading to off-site contamination at the airbase. The Greenham Common airbase is at an advanced stage of decommissioning with parts of the site already re-developed for industrial and leisure purposes and material being removed for use in construction of the Newbury by-pass. The success of such developments is critically dependent on public confidence in the quality of the environment, both near the site, and more generally throughout the area. For this reason the study was commissioned with the aims of: I. defining the radiation environment of the whole district and parts of its surrounding areas. II. examining whether there is any evidence of radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the Greenham Common airbase. III. assessing the evidence that there may have been a release of nuclear material from the site. The work involved a collaboration between scientists from the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, who conducted gamma ray surveys to define the general radiation environment of the area, and Scientists from the University of Southampton who collected an extensive range of samples for high sensitivity radiochemical analyses. This report presents their findings and main conclusions, together with a discussion of the background to the study and its implications. (Author)

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Salmon Site and surrounding area, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, W.J.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former Atomic Energy Commission Test Site at the Salmon Site and surrounding area between April 20 and May 1, 1992. The Salmon Site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma-ray environment of the Salmon Site and adjacent lands. A contour map showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a rectified aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates within the area are between 5 and 8 μR/h. The reported exposure rates include a cosmic-ray contribution estimated to be 3.7 μR/h. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and in situ measurements, taken with a pressurized ion chamber and a high-purity germanium detector, were obtained at 4 locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of and are in agreement with the aerial data

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phoenix, K.A.

    1997-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedhauser, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 μR/h plus an approximate 6 μR/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey's gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within ± 5%

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted from September 12--29, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the site's terrestrial radiological environment for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) along a series of parallel lines 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 440 square kilometers (170 square miles) as defined by the Tennessee Valley Authority Map S-16A of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation and adjacent area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) in the form of a radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The man-made radionuclides, cobalt-60, cesium-137, and protactinium-234m (a radioisotope indicative of depleted uranium), were detected at several facilities on the site. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several locations within the survey boundary. In addition to the large scale aerial survey, two special flyovers were requested by the Department of Energy. The first request was to conduct a survey of a 1-mile x 2-mile area in south Knoxville, Tennessee. The area had been used previously to store contaminated scrap metals from operations at the Oak Ridge site. The second request was to fly several passes over a 5-mile length of railroad tracks leading from the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, north through the city of Oak Ridge. The railroad tracks had been previously used in the transport of cesium-137

  6. Aerial radiological survey of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Middletown, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, D.P.

    1983-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station during October 26 to 30, 1982. The survey covered an 82-square-kilometer area centered on the nuclear plant and encompassed the communities of Middletown, York Haven, Goldsboro and Royalton, Pennsylvania. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 200 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), were inferred from data measured directly over the TMI facilities. This detected radiation was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal plant operations. Similar activity is routinely observed in aerial surveys over nuclear power plants which have been or are presently in an operational mode. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied from 6 to 14 μR/h. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area, along the river banks upstream and downstream of the survey area, and at the ground-based locations used for a previous aerial survey which was conducted in 1976. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the corresponding aerial data. With the exception of the activity observed within the TMI facilities, no evidence of any contamination which might have occurred as a result of past reactor operations or the 1979 TMI Unit 2 accident was detected from the aerial survey data. This was further supported by the results of the soil sample analyses and the comparison with the 1976 aerial survey data. 7 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  7. Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnykh, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was

  8. Precipitation Depth-Duration-Frequency Analysis for the Nevada National Security Site and Surrounding Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences; Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States). Division of Hydrologic Sciences

    2016-08-01

    Accurate precipitation frequency data are important for Environmental Management Soils Activities on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). These data are important for environmental assessments performed for regulatory closure of Soils Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Sites, as well as engineering mitigation designs and post-closure monitoring strategies to assess and minimize potential contaminant migration from Soils CAU Sites. Although the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Atlas 14 (Bonnin et al., 2011) provides precipitation frequency data for the NNSS area, the NNSS-specific observed precipitation data were not consistent with the NOAA Atlas 14 predicted data. This is primarily due to the NOAA Atlas 14 products being produced from analyses without including the approximately 30 NNSS precipitation gage records, several of which approach or exceed 50 year of record. Therefore, a study of precipitation frequency that incorporated the NNSS precipitation gage records into the NOAA Atlas 14 dataset, was performed specifically for the NNSS to derive more accurate site-specific precipitation data products. Precipitation frequency information, such as the depth-duration-frequency (DDF) relationships, are required to generate synthetic standard design storm hydrographs and assess actual precipitation events. In this study, the actual long-term NNSS precipitation gage records, some of which are the longest gage records in southern and central Nevada, were analyzed to allow for more accurate precipitation DDF estimates to be developed for the NNSS. Gridded maps of precipitation frequency for the NNSS and surrounding areas were then produced.

  9. Chldren's rights and corporal punishment in Assendabo town and the surrounding area, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, Fisseha; Nida, Hailu; Belachew, Tefera; Haileamlak, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Corporal punishment of children has been used as a disciplinary measure to modify undesirable behavior of children worldwide. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the knowledge, attitudes and the extent that corporal punishment is practiced in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the residents of Assendabo town and its surroundings area form January 8-12, 2003. A total of 368 residents with at least one child living with them were selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The study revealed 310 (87.6%) of the parents employed child corporal punishment as a method of disciplining out of which nearly half of them claimed their action was for the ultimate benefit of their children. Only 12 (3.5%) of the parents reported infliction of trauma while punishing their children. There was no significant parental difference both in attitude and practice of child corporal punishment. Family income is found to affect both attitude and practice of corporal punishment. From this study it is concluded that the knowledge about the existence of a legal framework which protects a child from any form of abuse is low. The attitude towards avoidance of child corporal punishment is unfavorable and there is a high prevalence of child corporal punishment practiced.

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Vernon, Vermont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, R.; Bluitt, C.M.

    1993-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station in Vernon, Vermont, during the period August 7 through August 17, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 65-square-mile (168-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Vermont Yankee Power Station and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 10 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based open-quotes benchmarkclose quotes exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  11. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

  12. Thorium prospect of placer deposits in Koba area and its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Fd Dian Indrastomo; Widodo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study of the thorium in placer of Koba, Central Bangka District. Bangka Belitung Province and its surrounding is to find out thorium prospect in alluvial deposits. The study method are geological and radiometrical mapping, grain counting and thorium grade analysis of pan concentrated. Result of the research reveals that lithology of the investigation area compose of meta sandstone unit with radiometric value of 35 c/s - 200 c/s, granite intrusion with radiometric value of 140-550 c/s and alluvial with radiometric value of 40-300 c/s SPP2NF. Content of monazite in the pan concentrated is approximately 7.54 %, content of thorium in pan concentrated of 1410 ppm, covered alluvial deposits of about 400 kilometers square with average thickness 3.77 meters. According to the study thorium prospect in Koba area is feasible to be Based on the type of deposit (placer) which are relatively easy to be mined at low cost, high content of monazite and thorium so that the prospect thorium Koba feasible to develop. (author)

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Rowe, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.; Bluitt, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, during the period August 17--24, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 300 feet (91 meters) over an 87-square-mile (225-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Yankee Rowe Power Station and the surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 10 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based ''benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m ( 234m Pa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of 234m Pa, a uranium-238 ( 238 U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 ( 234 U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data

  15. Social and Economic Burden Associated With Typhoid Fever in Kathmandu and Surrounding Areas: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M; Pach, Alfred; Garrett, Denise; Bajracharya, Deepak; Karki, Kshitu; Khan, Imran

    2017-07-29

    Typhoid fever is a significant contributor to infectious disease mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in South Asia. With increasing antimicrobial resistance, commonly used treatments are less effective and risks increase for complications and hospitalizations. During an episode of typhoid fever, households experience multiple social and economic costs that are often undocumented. In the current study, qualitative interview data from Kathmandu and surrounding areas provide important insights into the challenges that affect those who contract typhoid fever and their caregivers, families, and communities, as well as insight into prevention and treatment options for health providers and outreach workers. When considering typhoid fever cases confirmed by blood culture, our data reveal delays in healthcare access, financial and time costs burden on households, and the need to increase health literacy. These data also illustrate the impact of limited laboratory diagnostic equipment and tools on healthcare providers' abilities to distinguish typhoid fever from other febrile conditions and treatment challenges associated with antimicrobial resistance. In light of these findings, there is an urgent need to identify and implement effective preventive measures including vaccination policies and programs focused on at-risk populations and endemic regions such as Nepal. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  16. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  17. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

  18. Particulate organic compounds in the atmosphere surrounding an industrialised area of Prato (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra; Mandorlo, Stefano; Dickhut, Rebecca M.; Lepri, Luciano

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected during the period from May 2000 through January 2001 at 13 different sites in and around the Baciacavallo sewage treatment plant in Prato (Italy). The urban area surrounding the plant contains significant textile industrial activity and a main arterial road. Aerosol-associated n-alkane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenolethoxylate (NPnEO) ( n=1-3) concentrations were measured in order to evaluate contributions from the sewage treatment plant, naturally produced aerosols, transportation and industrial activities to the air quality in the vicinity of the sewage treatment plant. Aerosol-associated n-alkane concentrations ranged from 36.7 to 205 ng/m 3 and their possible origin was determined by the presence of typical petroleum characteristics such as the unresolved complex mixture and an odd/even carbon ratio (Carbon Preference Index). PAH concentrations ranged from 0.855 to 24.2 ng/m 3, in accordance with those generally found for urban aerosols in Europe. NP and NPnEO ( n=1-3), as well as fine aerosol particulate matter (PM 10) were significantly correlated with relative wind direction with increased levels observed in the ambient atmosphere when the relative wind direction was from the Baciacavallo sewage treatment plant. This study confirms the use of NP and NPnEO ( n=1-3) as markers of sewage treatment emissions and the importance of the contribution of aerosols produced by sewage treatment plant aeration tanks to the local atmospheric composition.

  19. Determination of the pollution with lead in the batteries factory in Al-Saffera (Aleppo) and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Al-Shamali, K.

    2007-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the lead concentrations in the ecosystem surrounding the batteries factory in Al-Saffera. The results showed that the lead levels were very high in both factory area and the surrounding agricultural area. Lead levels in air varied between 12 and 34 μg/m3 in the area outside the factory. The same trends were in both soil and plant samples, and normal washing does not decrease the lead level in plant samples to acceptable levels. Mean lead levels in blood was also high and ranged between 55 and 28 μg /dl for factory workers and village inhabitants respectively. In conclusion the authorities administration must take all necessary procedures to reduce the lead levels in the factory area and in the surrounding area.(Author)

  20. Determination of the pollution with lead in the batteries factory in Al-Saffera (Aleppo) and surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Oudat, M; Al-Kharfan, K; Al-Shamali, K [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic), Dept. of Protection and Safety

    2007-10-15

    The study aimed to determine the lead concentrations in the ecosystem surrounding the batteries factory in Al-Saffera. The results showed that the lead levels were very high in both factory area and the surrounding agricultural area. Lead levels in air varied between 12 and 34 {mu}g/m3 in the area outside the factory. The same trends were in both soil and plant samples, and normal washing does not decrease the lead level in plant samples to acceptable levels. Mean lead levels in blood was also high and ranged between 55 and 28 {mu}g /dl for factory workers and village inhabitants respectively. In conclusion the authorities administration must take all necessary procedures to reduce the lead levels in the factory area and in the surrounding area.(Author)

  1. Local earthquake tomography of the Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gökalp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selected travel time data from the aftershock series of the Erzincan earthquake (March, 1992, Ms=6.8 were inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D Vp and Vs structure. The general features of the 3D velocity structure of the upper crust of Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area, one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Turkey were investigated. The data used for this purpose were 2215 P-wave and 547 S-wave arrival times from 350 local earthquakes recorded by temporary 15 short-period seismograph stations. Thurber’s simultaneous inversion method (1983 was applied to the arrival time data to obtain a 3D velocity structure, and hypocentral locations. Both 3D heterogeneous P and S wave velocity variations down to 12 km depth were obtained. The acquired tomographic images show that the 3D velocity structure beneath the region is heterogeneous in that low velocity appears throughout the basin and at the southeastern flank, and high velocities occur at south and east of the basin. The low velocities can be related to small and large scale fractures, thus causing rocks to weaken over a long period of the active tectonic faulting process. The ophiolitic rock units mostly occurring around the basin area are the possible reason for the high velocities. The validity of 3D inversion results was tested by performing detailed resolution analysis. The test results confirm the velocity anomalies obtained from inversion. Despite the small number of inverted S-wave arrivals, the obtained 3D S velocity model has similar anomalies with lower resolution than the 3D P-wave velocity model. Better hypocenter locations were calculated using the 3D heterogeneous model obtained from tomographic inversion.

  2. Magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas, San Luis Obispo County, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.; Denton, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    A magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas was created as part of a cooperative research and development agreement with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and is intended to promote further understanding of the areal geology and structure by serving as a basis for geophysical interpretations and by supporting geological mapping, mineral and water resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on magnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals can be related to either lithologic or structural boundaries. Magnetic susceptibility measurements from the area indicate that bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense magnetic anomalies, but such generalizations must be applied with caution because some sedimentary units also can produce measurable magnetic anomalies. Remanent magnetization does not appear to be a significant source for magnetic anomalies because it is an order of magnitude less than the induced magnetization. The map is a mosaic of three separate surveys collected by (1) fixed-wing aircraft at a nominal height of 305 m, (2) by boat with the sensor at sea level, and (3) by helicopter. The helicopter survey was flown by New-Sense Geophysics in October 2009 along flight lines spaced 150-m apart and at a nominal terrain clearance of 50 to 100 m. Tie lines were flown 1,500-m apart. Data were adjusted for lag error and diurnal field variations. Further processing included microleveling using the tie lines and subtraction of the reference field defined by International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2005 extrapolated to August 1, 2008.

  3. Protected areas and their surrounding territory: socioecological systems in the context of ecological solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, Raphaël; Thompson, John D; Folke, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The concept of ecological solidarity (ES) is a major feature of the 2006 law reforming national park policy in France. In the context of biodiversity conservation, the objectives of this study are to outline the historical development of ES, provide a working definition, and present a method for its implementation that combines environmental pragmatism and adaptive management. First, we highlight how ES provides a focus on the interdependencies among humans and nonhuman components of the socioecological system. In doing so, we identify ES within a framework that distinguishes ecological, socioecological, and sociopolitical interdependencies. In making such interdependencies apparent to humans who are not aware of their existence, the concept of ES promotes collective action as an alternative or complementary approach to state- or market-based approaches. By focusing on the awareness, feelings, and acknowledgement of interdependencies between actors and between humans and nonhumans, we present and discuss a learning-based approach (participatory modeling) that allows stakeholders to work together to construct cultural landscapes for present and future generations. Using two case studies, we show how an ES analysis goes beyond the ecosystem management approach to take into account how human interactions with the environment embody cultural, social, and economic values and endorse an ethically integrated science of care and responsibility. ES recognizes the diversity of these values as a practical foundation for socially engaged and accountable actions. Finally, we discuss how ES enhances academic support for a socioecological systems approach to biodiversity conservation and promotes collaboration with decision-makers and stakeholders involved in the adaptive management of protected areas and their surrounding landscapes.

  4. Foreshock activity and its probabilistic relation to earthquake occurrence in Albania and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Irikura

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate some characteristics of foreshock activity of moderate and large earthquakes which occurred in the present century in Albania and the surrounding area. Using a prediction algorithm, based on possible foreshocks, we obtained a probabilistic relation between possible foreshocks and mainshocks. From documentary and instrumental data for the period 1901-1994 for the area between 39.0°- 43.0°N and 18.5°-21.5°E we evaluated the probability of the occurrence of mainshocks immediately after their possible foreshocks. The result shows that the probability that mainshocks with magnitude M ³ 6.0 are preceded by a foreshock with magnitude M ³ 4.4, distance £ about 50 km and time £ 10 days is 38% (6/16. The probability that one earthquake with M ³ 4.4 will be followed by a larger earthquake with M ³ 6.0 within about 50 km and 10 days is 1.3% (6/468, but the probability increases to 33% (1/3 if 7 earthquakes with M ³ 4.4 occur within about 50 km and 10 days. From instrumental data for the period 1971-1994, the probability that mainshocks with M ³ 5.0 are preceded by a foreshock with magnitude M ³ 4.0 is 33% (5/15. The probability that one earthquake with M ³ 4.0 will be followed by a larger earthquake with M ³ 5.0 within about 50 km and 10 days is 1.9% (5/262, but the probability increase to 5.6% (1/18 if 3 earthquakes with M ³ 4.0 occur within about 50 km and 10 days. We also found a regional variation of foreshock activity with activity decreasing from the Vlora-Elbasani-Dibra transversal seismic belt to the Ionian-Adriatic seismic zone to the interior part of Albania seismic zone.

  5. The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    of higher health risk for the population living under the plume. Additionally, time series analysis helps us to disregard any seasonal effect of certain pathologies and to derive a 12-year risk trend. For 2004-2010, our results are compared to SO2 gas emission rates and plume location data measured by using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopic (DOAS) sensors located around Nyiragongo volcano. Finally, the areas identified as more hazardous are highlighted through a geographical approach (using GIS tools), to generate maps and other relevant information that can be of direct use for risk assessment authorities. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the impact of SO2 emissions doesn't seem to be severe, being its most important effect an increase of ARI in the area surrounding the volcanoes (up to 50km). Our on-going study will help us to better determine the magnitude and geographical extent of the impact of volcanic plumes on the health of the population, as well as locate the areas that are most affected. This will contribute to provide the appropriate sanitation recommendations (water treatment, early warning system, etc.) and lead to a more effective volcanic impact reduction on human health.

  6. The investigation on hereditary disease and congenital malformation in the surrounding area of the nuclear test site in Xinjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenliang; Zhang Jujing

    1989-01-01

    The investigation on hereditary disease and congenital malformation, on the children below eleven years old and living in the surrounding area of the nuclear test site and control area is reported. The total prevalence rate of the ninteen kinds of hereditary disease and congenital malformation in both areas are 7.12%0 and 7.28%0, respectively. The prevalence rate of congenital foolishness in investigation area is 0.64%0; while in control area, it is 0.54%0. There is no significant difference between the two areas. However, it is found that the prevalence rate of harelip in investigation area is higher than in control area, whereas the prevalence rate of congenital heart disease in control area is higher than in investigation area. As for the rests there is no significant difference. There is no significant difference between the two areas. It is concluded that nuclear tests in China did not cause hereditary disease and congenital malformation for the children who live in surrounding area, of the nuclear test site

  7. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima; Experiencias durante el proceso de descontaminacion de areas aledanas a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, G., E-mail: gustavo.molina@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.A.

    1991-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.Baon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

  10. The great tsunami of 26 December 2004: A description based on tide gauge data from Indian subcontinent and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajan, B.; Suresh, I; Sundar, D.; Sharma, R; Lal, A.K.; Neetu, S.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R; Shankar, D.

    -1 Earth Planets Space, 58, 211?215, 2006 The Great Tsunami of 26 December 2004: A description based on tide-gauge data from the Indian subcontinent and surrounding areas B. Nagarajan1, I. Suresh2, D. Sundar2, R. Sharma1,A.K.Lal1, S. Neetu2, S. S. C. Shenoi..., I. Suresh, D. Sundar, R. Sharma, A. K. Lal, S. Neetu, S. S. C. Shenoi, S. R. Shetye, and D. Shankar (e-mail: shankar@nio.org) ...

  11. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (pprotected areas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies.

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and surrounding area, Batavia, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1990-11-01

    An aerial radiological gamma survey was conducted over the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1 through 6 June 1989. Flight lines at 150-foot altitude and 250-foot line spacings assured nearly 100% coverage. The terrestrial exposure at about 6 μR/h was nearly the same as that measured by the previous survey of this area (May 1977). Ten anomalous areas, mostly Na-22 and Mn-54, were detected within buildings and laboratories in the area. Although these locations have changed somewhat from the 1977 survey, the aerial data shows good agreement with the ground-based ion chamber and soil sample data. 7 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  13. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  14. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappini, M.; Meloni, A.; Boschi, E.; Faggioni, O.; Beverini, N.; Carmisciano, C.; Marson, I.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the regional at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Calling's Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR) between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aero magnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible

  15. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carmisciano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Site and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina, October--November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1993-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of October 14 to November 23, 1991, over an area surrounding the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The area is situated 15 kilometers south of Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the SRS and surrounding areas. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region are generally uniform and typical of natural background. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over several areas within the survey region. The manmade radionuclides detected in these areas, cesium-137, cobalt-60, and protactinium-234m, were produced by the reactor operations and material processing conducted at the SRS. The radiation levels produced by these nuclides are consistent with those levels measured during previous SRS aerial surveys. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries

  17. Identifying settlements on the SIR-B images of Rimbobujang and the surrounding areas, Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto .

    2013-07-01

    SIR-B image proves to be a reasonably good tool to identify rural settlement in an open area, especially for that with high density of houses. Its use to identify towns and cities is more recommended.

  18. 3D Structure of Iran and Surrounding Areas From The Simultaneous Inversion of Complementary Geophysical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, C. J.; Maceira, M.; Cleveland, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional seismic-structure model of the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone obtained via simultaneous, joint inversion of surface-wave dispersion measurements, teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, and gravity observations. We use a simple, approximate relationship between density and seismic velocities so that the three data sets may be combined in a single inversion. The sensitivity of the different data sets are well known: surface waves provide information on the smooth variations in elastic properties, receiver functions provide information on abrupt velocity contrasts, and gravity measurements provide information on broad-wavenumber shallow density variations and long-wavenumber components of deeper density structures. The combination of the data provides improved resolution of shallow-structure variations, which in turn help produce the smooth features at depth with less contamination from the strong heterogeneity often observed in the upper crust. We also explore geologically based smoothness constraints to help resolve sharp features in the underlying shallow 3D structure. Our focus is on the region surrounding Iran from east Turkey and Iraq in the west, to Pakistan and Afghanistan in the east. We use Bouguer gravity anomalies derived from the global gravity model extracted from the GRACE satellite mission. Surface-wave dispersion velocities in the period range between 7 and 150 s are taken from previously published tomographic maps for the region. Preliminary results show expected strong variations in the Caspian region as well as the deep sediment regions of the Persian Gulf. Regions constrained with receiver-function information generally show sharper crust-mantle boundary structure than that obtained by inversion of the surface waves alone (with thin layers and smoothing constraints). Final results of the simultaneous inversion will help us to better understand one of the most prominent examples of continental collision. Such models

  19. Seismic crustal structure of the North China Craton and surrounding area: Synthesis and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, B.; Thybo, H.; Artemieva, I. M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a new digital model (NCcrust) of the seismic crustal structure of the Neoarchean North China Craton (NCC) and its surrounding Paleozoic-Mesozoic orogenic belts (30°-45°N, 100°-130°E). All available seismic profiles, complemented by receiver function interpretations of crustal thickness, are used to constrain a new comprehensive crustal model NCcrust. The model, presented on a 0.25° × 0.25°grid, includes the Moho depth and the internal structure (thickness and velocity) of the crust specified for four layers (the sedimentary cover, upper, middle, and lower crust) and the Pn velocity in the uppermost mantle. The crust is thin (30-32 km) in the east, while the Moho depth in the western part of the NCC is 38-44 km. The Moho depth of the Sulu-Dabie-Qinling-Qilian orogenic belt ranges from 31 km to 51 km, with a general westward increase in crustal thickness. The sedimentary cover is 2-5 km thick in most of the region, and typical thicknesses of the upper crust, middle crust, and lower crust are 16-24 km, 6-24 km, and 0-6 km, respectively. We document a general trend of westward increase in the thickness of all crustal layers of the crystalline basement and as a consequence, the depth of the Moho. There is no systematic regional pattern in the average crustal Vp velocity and the Pn velocity. We examine correlation between the Moho depth and topography for seven tectonic provinces in the North China Craton and speculate on mechanisms of isostatic compensation.

  20. Aerial radiological survey of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Dothan, Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, T.C.; Shipman, G.R.

    1982-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 8 to 19 December 1979 over a 2000 square kilometer area centered on the two unit Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant near Dothan, Alabama. Radiological data were collected by flying north-south lines spaced 900 meters apart at an altitude of 150 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring radionuclides. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of a radiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 4 and 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging between 4 and 10 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 μR/h but do not include any contribution from airborne radionuclides, i.e., radon. Exposure rates obtained from ground measurements taken within the survey area were in close agreement with the aerial data. The data were also in close agreement with those obtained from a similar survey conducted during March 1977. Comparison of the results from both surveys indicated that no detectable change in the radiological characteristics of the survey area has occurred due to the operation of unit number 1 during the intervening period. The same equipment and procedures were utilized for both surveys

  1. Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area. Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report was issued. That report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some ''rule-of-thumb'' calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak values are most important, isopleth number-sign 1, created from the original unsmoothed data, is the presentation of choice. Isopleth number-sign 2, from smoothed data, is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. Isopleth number-sign 3, also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two

  3. A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    An airborne radiological survey was conducted in July 1976. It was centered on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Two areas were surveyed: one 35 km 2 and the other 16 km 2 . Using Nal(Tl) scintillation detectors, measurements were made of the terrestrial gamma radiation over the areas with a series of north-south flight lines. The processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was due to nuclear matterials currently or previously handled, processed, or stored. Off-site activities were found to be due wholly to the naturally occurring 40 K, the 238 U chain, and thorium chain gamma emitters

  5. Analysis of environmental-social changes in the surrounding area of KWB Turow in the historical context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesłik, Tobiasz; Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Opencast mining of large-area lignite deposits impacts the environment, and the health and life of people living in the vicinity of the conducted mining activity. Therefore, the attempt was made to develop a methodology for identification of environmental and social changes in the Bogatynia municipality (south-western Poland), resulting from functioning of Turow lignite mine within its area. During the study of changes occurring over the years, the development of mining pit was noticed, as well as the transformations of this area and impact of the mining plant on the selected elements of environment and surrounding areas. Analogue and digital data were used for the preparation of cartographic compilations, the usefulness of which was analyzed in accordance with the guidelines contained in the standard [1]. The conducted cartographic studies allowed to learn the history of the mine together with identification of changes taking place in the municipality Bogatynia. The obtained results show the form and condition of the objects in the analyzed year, allowing for the interpretation of changes that occurred in the surrounding areas of the Turow mine. Due to the conducted activity of the mine and Turow power plant, both negative and positive aspects were noted in connection with the carrying out of mining activity in the Bogatynia municipality.

  6. Aerial radiological survey of the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Jenkinsville, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    An aerial radiologic survey was performed from 9 to 16 March 1981 over a 280 square kilometer area centered on the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Power Station near Jenkinsville, South Carolina. All gamma-photon data were collected by flying North-South lines spaced 230 meters apart at an altitude of 122 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma-photons detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates over the land areas were between 6 and 30 microroengtens per hour (μR/h) with most of the area ranging from 6 to 15 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 μR/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken at the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  7. Groundwater Study of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Some Surrounding Area, 1974 - 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Table 3. From the sampling, Lake F was found to contain a l~er concentration of OCPD than that found in the groundwaters. In addition, very high copper...be the influent area to Lake F. (3) Reclamation of the groundwater for DIMP Is reco..ended. (4) Reclmatlon of OCPD frca, tli, groundwater appears

  8. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station was conducted during September 18 to 21, 1998, and encompassed a 53.1-square-kilometer area. The survey was conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The purpose of the survey was to measure and map the general exposure-rate levels that existed within the survey area and to define the areas of man-made radionuclide activity. The inferred exposure rates were generally uniform and typical of the natural background radiation, which varied from less than 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour. Enhanced exposure rates, not attributable to natural background, and activity from man-made radionuclides were detected over the power station. The detected man-made radionuclide activity was due to the presence of cobalt-60, which is a nuclear activation product, and cesium-137, which is a long-lived fission product. The detected man-made radionuclides were generally consistent with those expected from routine plant operations. Areas outside of the power station boundaries were found to be free of any detectable man-made radionuclides. A series of ground-based, pressurized ionization chamber exposure-rate measurements were acquired at four locations within the survey boundaries. The results of these measurements were compared and found to be within 5 to 30 percent of the corresponding 1998 inferred aerial exposure-rate data

  9. Regional water balance for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.L.

    1985-12-01

    The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi 2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 10 4 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 10 6 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 10 5 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi 2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Seabrook Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Seabrook, New Hampshire, July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Seabrook Nuclear Station, Seabrook, New Hampshire, during the period 6 July through 14 July 1988. The purpose of the 247-square-kilometer (96-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the station and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged form 9 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). In areas where water shielded the earth, lower exposure rates were measured. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the station were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Aerial radiological survey of the Industrial Reactor Laboratory and surrounding area Plainsboro, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    An airborne radiological survey of a 6 km 2 area centered over the Industrial Reactor Laboratory was made 25-27 July 1979. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except at two locations described in this report. Count rates observed at 46 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map

  12. Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, Erkki

    1980-03-01

    Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

  13. Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas, Claudio Jose; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Rodrigues, Paulo C. Horta; Augustin, Cristina Helena R. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095μSv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

  14. The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rapolla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ground surface, along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Both aeromagnetic maps show the noisy effect of linear anomalies evidently due to the presence of railway lines. To filter out these local anomalies a method based on discrete wavelet transform was used, allowing an accurate local filtering and leaving the rest of the field practically unchanged. The filtered data set was integrated with the existing Agip aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields, leading to a new aeromagnetic map of the whole Phlegrean volcanic area. The compilation of the pole reduced map and of the maps of the Analytic Signal and of the Horizontal Derivative of the integrated data set represents a first step for the interpretation of the maps in terms of geological structures of the whole Phlegrean volcanic district.

  15. Methodology of seismotectonic zoning in an intraplate low seismicity domain. Examples of France surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, H.; Grellet, B.; Combes, P.; Haessler, H.

    1991-01-01

    Until now, the dominant factor in seismic hazard assessments has been historical seismicity. This approach is justified if the data derived from historical seismicity in a region are representative of its seismic activity and if we consider that in areas where damaging earthquakes have happened, they may happen again. This can be seen when seismotectonic relationships are well established in areas such as well localised plate boundaries (subduction zones, transform faults) and/or with a high rate of deformation. In these cases, the areas where future earthquakes might occur are usually well determined and the recurrences short enough on the time scale of historical observations. However, in areas where recent tectonic deformations are diffused and moderate, the historical period of seismicity data (a few centuries) is not long enough to observe a sample of historical seismicity representative of the present-day tectonic activity of the area. The studies on the most recent damaging earthquakes (El Asnam 1980, Spitak 1988, Cherchell Tipasa 1989) show that it would have been extremely difficult to predict the magnitude and the localisation of these events considering historical seismicity alone. It is the same in Provence (south of France) where the risk of occurrence of a damaging earthquake would have been underestimated before the June 1909 event. In all these cases, seismotectonic studies 'a posteriori' show that the geometry and kinematic of the faults responsible for these earthquakes can be identified and that all of them have presented seismic activity in the last thousand years. So it is necessary to emphasis a global approach of the problem through specific studies such as neotectonics, teledetection, geodesy, present-day stress field, strain field, paleoseismology etc. These studies will enlarge the period of observation compared with the data derived only from historical and present-day seismicity. In France seismicity is moderate and recent tectonic

  16. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue Miao; Zhao Jingyu; Zhang Na; Wang Rong; Cao Jun; Tao Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  17. Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Carman C.M.; Li Xiangdong; Zhang Gan; Wai, Onyx W.H.; Li, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

  18. Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, G.A.; Sufi, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

  19. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Ykateryna D.; Ilchenko, Svetlana I.; Kharytonov, Mykola M.; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children), micronucleus analysis (56 children), and hair Mn content (166 children). Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%). The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05), increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001) and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001). Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure. PMID:24149028

  20. Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan; Teddy Sumantry; Heru Sriwahyuni; Hendra A Pratama; Nurul Efri E; Achmad Sjarmufni; Pratomo Budiman; Dadang Suganda; Soegeng Waluyo; Ari Pudyo; Dewi Susilowati; Marwoto

    2008-01-01

    The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

  1. The dispersion of fibrous amphiboles by glacial processes in the area surrounding Libby, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Adams, David T.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining operations began at a world-class vermiculite deposit at Vermiculite Mountain near Libby, Montana, circa 1920 and ended in 1990. Fibrous and asbestiform amphiboles intergrown with vermiculite ore are suspected to be a causative factor in an abnormally high number of cases of respiratory diseases in former mine and mill workers, and in residents of Libby. The question addressed in this report is whether some of the amphibole from Vermiculite Mountain could have been dispersed by Pleistocene glacial processes rather than by human activity after vermiculite mining began. The history of Pinedale glaciation in the Libby area provides a framework for estimating the presence and distribution of asbestiform amphiboles derived from Vermiculite Mountain and found in naturally occurring sediments of Glacial Lake Kootenai that underlie the Libby Valley area. There were two situations where sediments derived from Vermiculite Mountain were deposited into Glacial Lake Kootenai: (1) as lake-bottom sediments derived from meltwater flowing down Rainy Creek when the valley south of Vermiculite Mountain was free of ice but active ice still covered Vermiculite Mountain; and (2) as lake-bottom sediments eroded from the Rainy Creek outwash and re-deposited during a re-advance of the Purcell Trench Glacier lobe near Moyie Springs, Idaho.

  2. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10μR/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies and surrounding area, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, Ohio, during the period of June 9--24, 1989. The purpose of the 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. In addition, ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level was.constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged from 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (μR/h)

  5. Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (Łęczna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (Łuszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas. The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in Łuszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in Łuszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek. Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in Łuszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and

  6. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps

  7. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  8. Remote sensing analysis of vegetation at the San Carlos Apache Reservation, Arizona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Middleton, Barry R.; Wilson, Natalie R.

    2018-01-01

    Mapping of vegetation types is of great importance to the San Carlos Apache Tribe and their management of forestry and fire fuels. Various remote sensing techniques were applied to classify multitemporal Landsat 8 satellite data, vegetation index, and digital elevation model data. A multitiered unsupervised classification generated over 900 classes that were then recoded to one of the 16 generalized vegetation/land cover classes using the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) map as a guide. A supervised classification was also run using field data collected in the SWReGAP project and our field campaign. Field data were gathered and accuracy assessments were generated to compare outputs. Our hypothesis was that a resulting map would update and potentially improve upon the vegetation/land cover class distributions of the older SWReGAP map over the 24,000  km2 study area. The estimated overall accuracies ranged between 43% and 75%, depending on which method and field dataset were used. The findings demonstrate the complexity of vegetation mapping, the importance of recent, high-quality-field data, and the potential for misleading results when insufficient field data are collected.

  9. Early childhood teachers’ perceptions of intercultural education in state schools of Thessaloniki and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zotou Eleni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is going to argue that while early childhood teachers seem to have positive perceptions about intercultural education, the in-question students seem to be compelled to adopt different cultural habits. Data were gathered through a questionnaire distributed in 9 areas of Thessaloniki, completed by 161 teachers. The results showed that most teachers feel that they have enough knowledge about the curriculum regarding intercultural education, perform activities regarding interculturalism and diversity; they believe that students from different cultures feel welcomed and equally treated and participate in all class activities. Teachers suggest that students from different cultures build good relationships with all their peers and there is positive communication between students from different cultures as well as between their parents and teachers. However, the suggestion of most of the sample that students are compelled to adopt Greek cultural habits constrains this positive picture. It is possible that teachers feel that they are achieving positive results regarding intercultural education. It may be possible to recommend that the approaches that teachers report as part of their current practice should continue or that teachers’ own recommendations should be explored further to determine what sort of approach to intercultural education is being adopted.

  10. Variability of zooplankton communities at Condor seamount and surrounding areas, Azores (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Vanda; Santos, Mariana; Menezes, Gui M.; Loureiro, Clara M.; Lambardi, Paolo; Martins, Ana

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are common topographic features around the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). Recently there has been increasing research effort devoted to the ecology of these ecosystems. In the Azores, the mesozooplankon is poorly studied, particularly in relation to these seafloor elevations. In this study, zooplankton communities in the Condor seamount area (Azores) were investigated during March, July and September 2010. Samples were taken during both day and night with a Bongo net of 200 µm mesh that towed obliquely within the first 100 m of the water column. Total abundance, biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations did not vary with sampling site or within the diel cycle but significant seasonal variation was observed. Moreover, zooplankton community composition showed the same strong seasonal pattern regardless of spatial or daily variability. Despite seasonal differences, the zooplankton community structure remained similar for the duration of this study. Seasonal variability better explained our results than mesoscale spatial variability. Spatial homogeneity is probably related with island proximity and local dynamics over Condor seamount. Zooplankton literature for the region is sparse, therefore a short review of the most important zooplankton studies from the Azores is also presented.

  11. Fossil Cercopithecidae from the Hadar Formation and surrounding areas of the Afar Depression, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Stephen R; Delson, Eric

    2002-11-01

    Hadar is well known as one of the most productive early hominin sites in the world. Between 1972 and 1994 a large sample of fossil cercopithecid specimens was collected from Hadar and the nearby sites of Geraru, Ahmado, and Leadu. At least five, and possibly six, species are present in the sample, including two chronological subspecies of Theropithecus oswaldi. T. o. cf. darti is known from the Middle Pliocene deposits in the Hadar area, along with Parapapio cf. jonesi, cf. Rhinocolobus turkanaensis, and a new species of Cercopithecoides, C. meaveae. There are also isolated molars from the Middle Pliocene of a large colobine which most likely represent cf. R. turkanaensis, but may also represent another large colobine known from the nearby site of Maka in the Middle Awash. T. o. oswaldi is represented from younger deposits of Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene age, along with the large colobine Cercopithecoides kimeui. Throughout the sequence Theropithecus oswaldi is by far the most abundant cercopithecid, with the other taxa being comparatively rare. The Parapapio material from Hadar is important as the only securely identifiable material of the genus in the East African Pliocene. Furthermore, the Hadar material includes the only associated postcranial remains for the genus. If the tentative identification of Rhinocolobus is correct, then the Hadar sample is the only known occurrence outside of the Turkana Basin. Cercopithecoides meaveae is a new species, currently only known from the Hadar region, most importantly by the associated partial skeleton from Leadu. It appears to show adaptations for terrestrial locomotion. Finally, Cercopithecoides kimeui, a very large colobine previously known from Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Rawi is recorded from the uppermost part of the Formation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Measurements and statistical analyses of indoor radon concentrations in Tokyo and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Shiroharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Inokoshi, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Since the UNSCEAR report published in 1982, radiation exposure to the respiratory tract due to radon and its progeny has been regarded as the single largest contributor to the natural radiation exposure of the general public. In Japan, the measurement of radon gas concentrations in many types of buildings have been surveyed by national and private institutes. We also carried out the measurement of radon gas concentrations in different types of residential buildings in Tokyo and its adjoining prefectures from October 1988 to September 1991, to evaluate the potential radiation risk of the people living there. One or two simplified passive radon monitors were set up in each of the 34 residential buildings located in the above-mentioned area for an exposure period of 3 months each. Comparing the average concentrations in the buildings of different materials and structures, those in the concrete steel buildings were always higher than those in the wooden and the prefabricated mortared buildings. The radon concentrations were proved to become higher in autumn and winter, and lower in spring and summer. Radon concentrations in an underground room of a concrete steel building showed the highest value throughout our investigation, and statistically significant seasonal variation was detected by the X-11 method developed by the U.S. Bureau of Census. The values measured in a room at the first floor of the same concrete steel building also showed seasonal variation, but the phase of variation was different. Another multivariate analysis suggested that the building material and structure are the most important factors concerning the levels of radon concentration among other factors such as the age of the building and the use of ventilators. (author)

  13. A Catalogue of Source Parameters of Moderate and Strong Earthquakes for Turkey and its Surrounding Area (1938-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, D.; Toksoz, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Turkey and Surrounding area, especially North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ), Western Turkey, cost of the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea regions are seismically very active and undergoing rapid deformation. Earthquakes with M >6.0 do occur every couple of years regularly in this region, Moderate-magnitude seismicity (4.04.0 which were calculated of the fault-source parameters for Turkey and its surrounding area between 1938-2015. The fault source parameters of total over the 1200 earthquakes were calculated. The fault-source parameters of about 56.0 % of the all events were calculated with this study and 44.0 % of the rest were obtained from the other sources. The parameters of the old and incomplete events also were calculated in order to prepare the homogeneous and extended fault- source parameters set in the study. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was supported by the Department of Science Fellowship and Grant programs of TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey).

  14. Study of Plant Species Richness in Habitats with Different Grazing Intensities at Golestan National Park and Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bagheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of plant diversity and to evaluate the effect of grazing pressure on species richness and structure of plant communities, this experiment was conducted at Golestan National Park and its surrounding areas in the north east of Iran. Sampling was conducted in intact and abandoned habitats and habitats under seasonal and heavy grazing, using Modified Whitaker Plot in 1, 10,100 and 1000 m2 spatial scales. Results showed that the composition of plant species from different habitats was different. In addition the increasing intensity of grazing increased the importance of therophytes and decreased the role of hemicryptophytes and phanerophytes and also decreasd the amount of species richness. Mean species richness of studied habitat showed a significant difference in all four sampling spatial scales. The results showed that plant species richness decreased in the areas affected by heavy grazing and conservation against grazing plays an important role in maintaining species richness.

  15. Quarternary Sediment Characteristics of Floodplain area: Study Case at Kampar River, Rumbio Area and Surroundings, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuskar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in some floodplains of meandering river environment along the Kampar River, Rumbio. Typical morphology of meandering river that found in this area can be classified as stream channel, floodplain, abandoned channel, and sand bars deposit. Meandering river system carries sediment supply by suspended and bed - load (mixed load in conjunction with low energy into a particular characteristic on sediment deposition. This study aims to determine the characteristics of the sediments, changes in vertical and lateral spread of sediment deposition on the floodplain environment. This study conducted by field survey using a hand auger of 1.5m - 4m depth and trenching which is a layer that has been exposed of 1-2 meters depth. Further analysis had been carried out using granulometri method and core data analysis to determine the characteristics and depositional facies. Sediment deposit that formed along the Kampar River is the result of the main channel migration of Kampar River. The characteristic of quaternary sediment facies is coarse to gravelly sand on the bottom followed by fine to very fine sand with pattern fining upwards and silt to clay and abundant terrestrial organic matter at the uppermost layer. Depositional facies are determined based on the characteristics of sediment facies which can be grouped into a stream channel, oblique accretion deposits, sand bars and overbank deposits.

  16. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Model Volcanic Hazard Risk Levels in Areas Surrounding the Copahue Volcano in the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, A. M.; Weigel, A. M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Copahue is a stratovolcano located along the rim of the Caviahue Caldera near the Chile-Argentina border in the Andes Mountain Range. There are several small towns located in proximity of the volcano with the two largest being Banos Copahue and Caviahue. During its eruptive history, it has produced numerous lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and lahars. This isolated region has steep topography and little vegetation, rendering it poorly monitored. The need to model volcanic hazard risk has been reinforced by recent volcanic activity that intermittently released several ash plumes from December 2012 through May 2013. Exposure to volcanic ash is currently the main threat for the surrounding populations as the volcano becomes more active. The goal of this project was to study Copahue and determine areas that have the highest potential of being affected in the event of an eruption. Remote sensing techniques were used to examine and identify volcanic activity and areas vulnerable to experiencing volcanic hazards including volcanic ash, SO2 gas, lava flow, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ISS ISERV Pathfinder, and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products were used to analyze volcanic hazards. These datasets were used to create a historic lava flow map of the Copahue volcano by identifying historic lava flows, tephra, and lahars both visually and spectrally. Additionally, a volcanic risk and hazard map for the surrounding area was created by modeling the possible extent of ash fallout, lahars, lava flow, and pyroclastic density currents (PDC) for future eruptions. These model results were then used to identify areas that should be prioritized for disaster relief and evacuation orders.

  17. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed.

  18. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, A.M.; EL Baroudy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  19. Aerial radiological survey of the Feed Materials Production Center and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, located near Fernald, Ohio, during the period April 24 to 27, 1985. The survey covered a 70-square-kilometer (27-square-mile) area centered on the plant. The highest exposure rates, in excess of 0.35 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the plant. This radiation was due to the presence of nuclides which were consistent with normal plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates, varying from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), were due to naturally-occurring potassium, uranium, thorium, and daughter products. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. Soil sample results showed several areas just outside the site boundary with slightly elevated amounts of U-238. The levels, however, were well below the detection limit of the aerial system. The only off-site area that showed apparent above background activity in the aerial data was directly west of the storage silos. The symmetric shape of the contours, however, suggests that these elevated levels are due to ''shine'' from material stored on-site in the silos and not to actual off-site contamination. Detailed comparison of the 1985 aerial survey data with a previous survey conducted in 1976 showed no significant change in any area outside the plant boundary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  20. An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.A.

    1987-02-01

    Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Aerial radiological survey of the Brookhaven National Laboratory and surrounding area, Upton, New York. Date of survey: June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobaugh, J.L.

    1985-02-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 11 to 13 June 1983, over approximately a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area surrounding the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL is located in the center of Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. All gamma radiation data were collected by flying east-west lines spaced 76 meters (250 feet) apart at an altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground. The average background exposure rate in the survey area ranged from 5 to 10 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 μR/h. Ground-based measurements made during the same time period were compared to the aerial survey results. Pressurized ion chamber readings and soil samples were taken from two locations within the aerial survey boundaries. Exposure rate values obtained from these measurement techniques were in agreement with those obtained from the aerial data. A total of 23 areas of man-made radioactivity were identified. The dominant isotopes found over these areas were cesium-137, sodium-22, manganese-54, and cobalt-60. A similar survey was conducted in May 1980. The 1983 survey results were similar to the 1980 results. Three areas of low level man-made activity were not reproduced by the 1983 data. Ten new areas were detected. The major difference occurred because of the increased sensitivity and spatial reduction brought on by lowering the altitude and decreasing the line spacing. 8 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the RMI facility and surrounding area, Ashtabula, Ohio: Date of survey, September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 75-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area surrounding the RMI facility in Ashtabula, Ohio, during the period between September 4 and 13, 1985. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 46 meters (150 ft). A second, more detailed survey was also performed over the RMI facility. This survey was conducted at an altitude of 30 meters (100 ft) and covered an area of about 2.6 square kilometers (1 sq mi) centered over the facility. Over most of the survey area, exposure rates varied from about 8 to 11 microentgens per hour (μR/h). Several areas of increased radioactivity were observed in addition to increased radioactivity over the RMI facility (exposure rates of up to 44 μR/h were detected). The increased radioactivity over the RMI facility was due to uranium; however, no evidence of uranium was found off site. A second site exhibiting increased radioactivity was located near a railroad siding. The anomalous radiation there was due primarily to elevated concentrations of radium. Ground samples from this location were found to contain 130,000 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) of radium-226. Two other regions of anomalous radiation were found on the shore of Lake Erie, near Pinney Dock. One of these sites contained elevated concentrations of potassium-40 (K-40). The spectrum from the second site indicated the source to be thorium. A fifth site was a facility located a few hundred meters east of the RMI plant. The spectrum from this site also indicated an increased amount of thorium. Finally, a sixth source was located in the eastern portion of the survey area. The spectrum from this site was found to be high in cesium-137 (Cs-137). 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Spreading of Groundwater Contamined by Leached in the Surrounding Area of Piyungan Landfill Bantul District, Yogyakarta Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sartohadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are: (1 to study the characteristics of aquifer, distribution and chemical types of groundwater in the research area; (2 to measure the consentration of major elements (HC03-, Cl-, S042-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and minor elements (S2-, NH4+ as indicators of leached contamination in the groundwater; and (3 to establish the spreading of contamined groundwater by leached. The grid sampling method was applied in this research. The grid dimension is 1 cm x 1 cm measured in the 1:25000 scale of Indonesian Topographic Map. The groundwater samples were taken randomly within the grid. Not the whole study area covered by the map was grided but only the surrounding area of Piyungan Landfill and the area lower than Piyungan landfill were grided. The groundwater samples were taken during the rainy season because during the rainy season there were more leached produced from Piyungan Landfill. The groundwater samples were examined their physical and chemical qualities using the legal standard quality in Yogyakarta Province. Spatial analysis using maps and graphics were applied to examine the spreading of contimined groundwater by leached. The spreading of unconfined groundwater in the study area was not equal distributed but it seems to be controlled by the landforms. There were an increasing elements content of Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3-, as well as dissolved oxygen, NO3- and S2- in the groundwater contamined by leached. The zonation of the spreading of groundwater contamined by leached was categorized into three class, i.e., central (location of landfill, well number 1 0, transisional (well number: 11, 12, 13, 15, and primary (well number: 8, 14, 16, 17, 25, 26 zones. The zonation of groundwater matched with the analysis of groundwater quality by the distance from the Piyungan Landfill.

  4. The lithospheric structure beneath Ireland and surrounding areas from integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of magnetic and other geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykiev, E.; Guerri, M.; Fullea, J.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of unprecedented resolution aeromagnetic data in Ireland (Tellus project, http://www.tellus.ie/) in conjunction with new satellite magnetic data (e.g., ESÁs Swarm mission) has opened the possibility of detailed modelling of the Irish subsurface magnetic structure. A detailed knowledge of the magnetic characteristics (susceptibility, magnetite content) of the crust is relevant for a number of purposes, including geological mapping and mineral and geothermal energy prospection. In this work we model the magnetic structure of Ireland and surrounding areas using primarily aeromagnetic and satellite observations but also other geophysical data sets. To this aim we use a geophysical-petrological modelling tool (LitMod) in which key properties of rocks (i.e., density, electrical conductivity and seismic velocities) that can be inferred from geophysical data (gravity, seismic, EM) are self consistently determined based on the thermochemical conditions (using the software Perple_X). In contrast to the mantle, where thermodynamic equilibrium is prevalent, in the crust metastable conditions are dominant, i.e. rock properties may not be representative of the current, in situ, temperature and pressure conditions. Instead, the rock properties inferred from geophysical data may be reflecting the mineralogy stable at rock formation conditions. In addition, temperature plays a major role in the distribution of the long wavelength crustal magnetic anomalies. Magnetite retains its magnetic properties below its Curie temperature (585 ºC) and the depth of Curie's isotherm provides an estimate of the thickness of the magnetic crust. Hence, a precise knowledge of the crustal geotherm is required to consistently model crustal magnetic anomalies. In this work LitMod has been modified to account for metastable crustal lithology, to predict susceptibility in the areas below Curie's temperature, and to compute magnetic anomalies based on a magnetic tesseroid approach. The

  5. Fog in a marginal agricultural area surrounded by montane Andean cloud forest during El Niño climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, G.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal variations of water inputs, rainfall and fog (cloud water), and its contribution to the water balance in a marginal agricultural area of potato surrounded by tropical montane cloud forest in Colombia. Fog in the air boundary layer was estimated using a cylindrical fog collector. Liquid water content of fog events were evaluated before and during natural climate event of El Niño. Our study shows the temporal variation of these two water inputs in both daily and monthly cycles on Boyacá at 2900 m a.s.l. Rainfall was the most frequently observed atmospheric phenomenon, being present on average 62% of the days per year, whereas fog was 45% of the time. Reflected on the lower frequency, annual amount of fog was 11% of precipitation. However during the anomalous dry climate of El Niño, total amount of rainfall was negligible and the few fog events were the only water source for plant growth. Estimated water crop requirements were higher than the water inputs. The survival of the crops was explained by meteorological conditions during dew and fog events. High relative humidity might have eased the plant’s water stress by decreasing transpiration and temperature in leaves and soil, affecting the water balance and the heat exchange between the atmosphere-land interfaces in the marginal agricultural areas during exceptional dry climate.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background

  7. Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 11–12 km. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in Northwest India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar. Comparisons with the OMI and MODIS measurements show the unique capability of the CALIPSO lidar to provide unambiguous, altitude-resolved dust measurements.

  8. Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ricardo Alexandre de; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which does not depend on individual characteristics, traditionally reported as being associated with smoking.

  9. Lithosphere density structure beneath the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas derived from GOCE gradients data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional density model of the crust and uppermost mantle is determined by the inversion of a set of GOCE gravity and gradients residual anomalies beneath the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas. In our work, we choose five independent gravity gradients (Txx, Tzz, Txy, Txz, Tyz to perform density inversion. Objective function is given based on Tikhonov regularization theory. Seismic S-wave velocities play the role of initial constraint for the inversion based on a relationship between density and S-wave velocity. Damped Least Square method is used during the inversion. The final density results offer some insights into understanding the underlying geodynamic processes: (1 Low densities in the margin of the Tibet, along with low wave velocity and resistivity results, yield conversions from soft and weak Tibet to the hard and rigid cratons. (2The lowest densities are found in the boundary of the plateau, instead of the whole Tibet indicates that the effects of extrusion stress environment in the margin affect the changes of the substance there. The substances and environments conditioning for the earthquake preparations and strong deformation in this transitional zone. (3 Evident low-D anomaly in the upper and middle crust in the Lasha terrane and Songpan-Ganzi terrane illustrated the eastward sub-ducted of southeastern Tibet, which could be accounts for the frequent volcano and earthquakes there.

  10. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianbo; Ip, Carman C.M.; Zhang Gan; Jiang Guibin; Li Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the 210 Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

  11. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Cordova NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Zinkl, R.J.; Shettel, D.L. Jr.; Langfeldt, S.L.; Youngquist, C.A.

    1981-08-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Cordova NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form through the Grand Junction Office Information System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume. These data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A and B describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data were subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sorting programs of Zinkl and others into groups of stream sediment and stream water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1000000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. In addition, maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses have been included. Further information about the HSSR program in general, or about the LANL portion of the program in particular, can be obtained in quarterly or semiannual program progress reports on open-file at DOE's Technical Library in Grand Junction. Information about the field and analytical procedures used by LANL during sample collection and analysis may be found in any HSSR data release prepared by the LANL and will not be included in this report

  12. The Analysis Of The Heavy Metals Pollution In The River Water For Fishing Accusative The Surrounding UJUNG LEMAH ABANG Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariani, Sri; Susiati, Heni; Sjarmufni, A.

    2001-01-01

    Metals are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils or rocks, from volcanic eruptions and from a variety of human activities involving the mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal contaminants. The metal natural contents will changeable depends on the pollutant which is proportionally occurred in the environment. The extremely heavy metals absorption by organisms Directly or indirectly through the food chain will give the significant impact to the human lives. For this purpose an investigation was carried out to take samples of heavy metals from the river (Doplang, Balong, and Pacitran) surrounding the Ujung Lemah abang area, and to see how far was the impact of pollutants to the community who live nearby from the food-chain point of view. Results showed that the heavy metals content of Cd, Fe, Cu and Hg in the water and sediment are higher than the permissible concentration for fish nursery. It is found that the concentration of Cd between 0.91 - 1.85 μg/ml, Cu: 0.03 μg/ml, and Fe: 0.16 - 2.51 μg/ml, whereas concentration of Hg in sediment between 0.036 - 0.118 mg/g. Up to now there are no report yet to the death fish caused by the more content of heavy metals in their body or the sickness related to it in the community around the location, but nevertheless this condition need to be took attention

  13. Family influences on breakfast frequency and quality among primary school pupils in Warsaw and its surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Monika; Hamułka, Jadwiga; Gajda, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Regular consumption of a well balanced breakfast is a pre-requisite for normal growth and child development, along with the acquisition of proper eating habits. The family environment is crucial place where children learn such patterns of behaviour that form the basis for their development. To determine how family factors affect the regular eating of breakfast and types of foodstuffs consumed in primary school pupils, including food purchases made from vending machines and school tuck shops. Subjects were 836 pupils (435 girls and 401 boys, aged 6 - 13) from Warsaw and the surrounding areas. Appropriate socio-demographic data and relevant eating habits were obtained from direct interviewing of the subjects by means of a custom designed questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed by the Kohonen type cluster analysis model and Chi-square test (Chi(2)); (p≤0.05). Three clusters of pupils were identified by their differing socio-demographics and eating habits (eg. rates of breakfast consumption, buying from vending machines or school tuck shops). The first and third clusters were mainly pupils from two-parent families with parents proportionally spending similar times at work, where respective breakfast (87% and 91%) and second breakfast (77% and 72%) consumption rates were also similar together with food shopping rates during school time (respectively 69% and 63%). Pupils with single-parents, multi-generation families or if both parents were profession- ally active, predominated in the second cluster. These ate breakfast (73%) and second breakfast (67%) more rarely, but more frequently shopped for food at school (84%). A small number of pupils had a packed second breakfast from home, rarely ate sandwiches, fruit and/or vegetables and dairy products but ate more sweets, sweet rolls and savoury snacks. However, a large number of subjects bought sandwiches, fresh fruit and/or vegetables and fast-food at school. Family factors were found to affect eating habits

  14. Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jansen, P.G.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Ambient systems are networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments and supporting people in their activities. These systems will create a Smart Surrounding for people to facilitate and enrich daily life and increase productivity at work. Such systems will be quite different from

  15. Aerial radiological survey of the Waterford Generating Station and surrounding area, Taft, Louisiana. Date of survey: March-April 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, R.J.; Feimster, E.L.

    1984-02-01

    An aerial survey of the Waterford Generating Station near Taft, Louisiana was conducted during the period March 24 through April 7, 1982. The area encompassed a 256-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the reactor facilities. Inferred exposure rates were due primarily to naturally occurring gamma-emitting radionuclides and cosmic ray activity (estimated at 3.7 μR/h). The exposure rates varied from 7 to 60 μR/h. Throughout most of the residential/industrial areas, the inferred exposure rate range was 7 to 12 μR/h. Marsh and water-covered areas were less than 7 μR/h. Two areas were encountered which had activity elevated above the typical background: (1) an industrial waste pond located 2 kilometers southeast of the site, and (2) a small area located 5 kilometers southeast of the site on the south bank of the Mississippi River. (A river barge was docked at this location during the survey.) Maximum inferred exposure rates over these areas were 60 and 16 μR/h, respectively. Spectral analysis revealed gamma-emitting radionuclides of the uranium decay chain as the primary contributors to this elevated activity. Ground-based measurements made in several areas were consistent with the aerial data. This was the first aerial radiological survey conducted over this area. 3 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  16. An aerial radiological survey of the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 19, 1996 - October 24, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1997-12-01

    Radioactivity surrounding the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 μR/h in adjacent areas and along roadways, and (c) below 6 μR/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (102-202 μR/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Point Beach site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  17. Environmental assessment of the area surrounding Dam Rio Verde - Parana/Brazil. An overview of environmental geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Carrijo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Sessegolo, Gisele; Passos, Everton

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a brief essay on the situation in which the environment of the dam of the Rio Verde Basin-Parana, from the vision of environmental geomorphology. The area is located between the cities of Campo Magro and Campo Largo, Paraná plateau in the first part of theAlto Iguaçu basin. This study aims to raise the concepts relating to environmental geomorphology, to identify the anthropogenic impacts caused in the reservoir areas, identify the environmental compartments found around the dam and characterize the geologic and physiographic region. It was found that the area has intense anthropogenic influence, as urban growth is present in areas and wavy and rough terrain, subject to mass movements and floods. Besides these aspects, the use of land for agriculture contributes to fragility of the area.

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Site TNX facility and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 3.8-square-kilometer (1.5-square-mile) area, centered on the Savannah River Site (SRS) TNX facility. The survey was flown on July 25, 1986, prior to the Steel Creek Corridor survey. Radiological measurements were used to determine the extent of man-made radionuclides in the TNX area. This survey area had been covered during previous site surveys of the Savannah River Floodplain. Higher than typical levels of thorium-232 daughters were detected in the survey area just west of the TNX facility. The natural terrestrial radiation levels were consistent with those measured during prior surveys of this and other SRS areas. 5 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Dust Full Study In The Surrounding Area Of A Cement Factory And Determination Of The Major Elements Of The Dust Fall Using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslmani, Y.; Al-Oudat, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dust fall of the Tartous cement factory and the surrounding area at the Syrian coast were measured. The results show that the dust fall concentrations were higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) Standard in the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 5 to 6 km in the diameter. The value of the dust fall at the Reference sites was abut 4.5 t/km 2 /month and in the surrounding area of the factory values reached between 18 and 120 t/km 2 /month. This means the values exceed the standard around 3 and 13 times. The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of cement dust showed a percentage of 27.5% ± 1.6 of calcium. By the presence of humidity calcium silicate occurs, which immediately dries and becomes a hard salt crust. Therefore in the regions near by the factory cement dust formed this kind of salt coat on the surface of the leaves. (Authors)

  20. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs.

  1. Compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data, Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas of southwestern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a compilation of available radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data for volcanic rocks and episodes of hydrothermal activity in Yucca Mountain and the surrounding region of southwestern Nevada. Only the age determinations considered to be geologically reasonable (consistent with stratigraphic relations) are listed below. A number of the potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages of volcanic rocks given by Kistler, Marvin et al., Noble et al., Weiss et al., and Noble et al. are not included as these ages have been shown to be incorrect or disturbed by hydrothermal alteration based on subsequent stratigraphic and/or petrographic data and the recognition of errors in K-Ar age determinations related to incomplete extraction of argon. In cases where absolute ages are tightly constrained by high precision 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ages and unequivocal stratigraphic relations, we have omitted the less precise K-Ar age data. Similarly, the more precise single-crystal laser-fusion 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age determinations of certain units are reported and less precise ages by multi-grain bulk-fusion 40 Ar/ 39 Ar methods are not included. This compilation does not include age data for basaltic rocks of Pliocene and Quaternary age in the Yucca Mountain region

  2. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area, Central Nevada. Date of survey: December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some rule-of-thumb calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak vales are most important, a figure created from the original unsmoothed data is the presentation of choice. A figure from smoothed data is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. A figure , also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two. This last figure is presented for historical completeness only

  4. Regional magnetic and gravity features of the Gibson Dome area and surrounding region, Paradox Basin, Utah : a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, T.G.; Kucks, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of regional gravity and magnetic anomaly maps have been carried out to assist in the evaluation of the Gibson Dome area as a possible repository site for high-level radioactive waste. Derivative, wavelength-filtered, and trend maps were compiled to aid in properly locating major geophysical trends corresponding to faults, folds, and lithologic boundaries. The anomaly maps indicate that Paradox Basin is characterized by a heterogeneous Precambrian basement, essentially a metamorphic complex of gneisses and schist intruded by granitic rocks and mafic to ultramafic bodies. Interpreted Precambrian structures trend predominantly northwest and northeast although east-west trending features are evident. Prominent gravity lows define the salt anticlines. Structural and lithologic trends in the Gibson Dome area are closely examined. Of greatest interest is a series of circular magnetic highs trending west-northwest into the Gibson Dome area. Further study of the exact definition and geologic significance of this series of anomalies is warranted.

  5. Aerial radiological survey of the La Salle County Station and surrounding area, Seneca, Illinois. Date of survey: July 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobaugh, J.L.

    1982-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 14 to 31 July 1981 over a 270-square-kilometer area centered on the La Salle County Station near Seneca, Illinois. The survey was conducted by EG and G for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All gamma ray data were collected by flying lines spaced 152 meters (500 ft) apart at an altitude of 91 meters (300 ft) above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates for the survey area were between 5 and 14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging from 8 to 14 μR/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  6. Isotopic identification of the source of methane in subsurface sediments of an area surrounded by waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackley, K.C.; Liu, C.L.; Trainor, D.

    1999-01-01

    The major source of methane (CH 4 ) in subsurface sediments on the property of a former hazardous waste treatment facility was determined using isotopic analyses measured on CH 4 and associated groundwater. The site, located on an earthen pier built into a shallow wetland lake, has had a history of waste disposal practices and is surrounded by landfills and other waste management facilities. Concentrations of CH 4 up to 70% were found in the headspace gases of several piezometers screened at 3 different depths (ranging from 8 to 17 m) in lacustrine and glacial till deposits. Possible sources of the CH 4 included a nearby landfill, organic wastes from previous impoundments and microbial gas derived from natural organic matter in the sediments.Isotopic analyses included δ 13 C, δD, 14 C, and 3 H on select CH 4 samples and δD and δ 18 O on groundwater samples. Methane from the deepest glacial till and intermediate lacustrine deposits had δ 13 C values from -79 to -82per thousand, typical of natural 'drift gas' generated by microbial CO 2 -reduction. The CH 4 from the shallow lacustrine deposits had δ 13 C values from -63 to -76per thousand, interpreted as a mixture between CH 4 generated by microbial fermentation and the CO 2 -reduction processes within the subsurface sediments. The δD values of all the CH 4 samples were quite negative ranging from -272 to -299per thousand. Groundwater sampled from the deeper zones also showed quite negative δD values that explained the light δD observed for the CH 4 . Radiocarbon analyses of the CH 4 showed decreasing 14 C activity with depth, from a high of 58 pMC in the shallow sediments to 2 pMC in the deeper glacial till. The isotopic data indicated the majority of CH 4 detected in the till deposits of this site was microbial CH 4 generated from naturally buried organic matter within the subsurface sediments. However, the isotopic data of CH 4 from the shallow piezometers was more variable and the possibility of some

  7. Isotopic identification of the source of methane in subsurface sediments of an area surrounded by waste disposal facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Keith C.; Liu, Chao-Li; Trainor, D.

    1999-01-01

    The major source of methane (CH4) in subsurface sediments on the property of a former hazardous waste treatment facility was determined using isotopic analyses measured on CH4 and associated groundwater. The site, located on an earthen pier built into a shallow wetland lake, has had a history of waste disposal practices and is surrounded by landfills and other waste management facilities. Concentrations of CH4 up to 70% were found in the headspace gases of several piezometers screened at 3 different depths (ranging from 8 to 17 m) in lacustrine and glacial till deposits. Possible sources of the CH4 included a nearby landfill, organic wastes from previous impoundments and microbial gas derived from natural organic matter in the sediments. Isotopic analyses included ??13C, ??D, 14C, and 3H on select CH4 samples and ??D and ??18O on groundwater samples. Methane from the deepest glacial till and intermediate lacustrine deposits had ??13C values from -79 to -82???, typical of natural 'drift gas' generated by microbial CO2-reduction. The CH4 from the shallow lacustrine deposits had ??13C values from -63 to -76???, interpreted as a mixture between CH4 generated by microbial fermentation and the CO2-reduction processes within the subsurface sediments. The ??D values of all the CH4 samples were quite negative ranging from -272 to -299???. Groundwater sampled from the deeper zones also showed quite negative ??D values that explained the light ??D observed for the CH4. Radiocarbon analyses of the CH4 showed decreasing 14C activity with depth, from a high of 58 pMC in the shallow sediments to 2 pMC in the deeper glacial till. The isotopic data indicated the majority of CH4 detected in the fill deposits of this site was microbial CH4 generated from naturally buried organic matter within the subsurface sediments. However, the isotopic data of CH4 from the shallow piezometers was more variable and the possibility of some mixing with oxidized landfill CH4 could not be completely

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the Perry Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, North Perry, Ohio: Date of survey: April 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, North Perry, Ohio. The purpose of the 234-square-kilometer (91-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates increased from 0 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) over Lake Erie to 9 μR/h as the distance from Lake Erie increased. Only one anomalous area appears on the map, which is due to an excess of Bi-214 in a landfill area. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Aerial radiological survey of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Diablo Canyon, California. Date of survey: September-October 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the area surrounding the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant in Diablo Canyon, California. The survey was conducted between 20 September and 3 October 1984. A series of flight lines parallel to the coastline were flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) and were spaced 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey covered an area of 250 square kilometers (100 square miles). The resulting background exposure rates over the survey area ranged from 5 to 21 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmics ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. Soil samples were also collected at several locations within the survey areas and analyzed in the laboratory for isotopic composition. The results of the survey showed only the presence of naturally occurring background radiation. No man-made radioactivity was detected. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Aerial radiological survey of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and surrounding area, Princeton, New Jersey. Date of survey: August 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, P.A.

    1981-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during August 1980 to radiometrically survey a 10.4 km 2 area centered on the future site of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) located near Princeton, New Jersey. All detected radionuclides were consistent with normal background emitters and no man-made gamma emitters were detected. Average aerial exposure rates normalized to one meter above the ground are presented in the form of an isopleth map

  11. A comparison of four aerial radiological surveys of Par Pond and the surrounding area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1993-09-01

    A series of gamma radiation surveys was conducted over Par Pond at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in August 1993, October 1991, and August 1992 as part of an effort to monitor the radiological changes around Par Pond as its water level was lowered. The results of an April 1989 survey, which was about one-half the area of those surveys listed above, were used as baseline data for the comparison. Gamma energy spectrum analysis revealed that the only man-made gamma ray emitter detected during the four surveys in the Par Pond area was cesium-137. The comparisons revealed that: (1) significant change in the radiological environment occurred along the Par Pond shoreline as the water levels were lowered, (2) the activity in Lower Three Runs Creek varied slightly as the level/flow rate changed during the pumping process, (3) minor changes occurred in areas adjacent to the Par Pond, and (4) little or no change occurred between surveys in the spatial distribution or kind of sources detected. All changes were directly related to the moisture variations (Par Pond water lowering, rainfall, waterway flow rates) between the survey periods. The distribution, kind, and activity of sources detected beyond the pond bed were consistent between surveys. 60 figs., 14 tabs

  12. Aerial radiological survey of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Port Gibson, Mississippi. Date of survey: March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballatore, L.A.; Hilton, L.K.

    1982-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 11 to 20 March 1982 over a 260-square-kilometer area centered on the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station at Port Gibson, Mississippi (the station was not yet in operation at the time of the survey). All gamma ray data were collected by flying east-west lines spaced 152 meters apart at an altitude 91 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 5 and 13 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging from 9 to 10 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples and ionization chamber measurements taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  13. Aerial radiological survey of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station and surrounding area, Wintersburg, Arizona. Date of survey: November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    An aerial survey of terrestrial gamma radiation was performed during the period 4 November through 15 November 1982 over a 16-kilometer by 16-kilometer (10-mile by 10-mile) area approximately centered on the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station near Wintersburg, Arizona. Gamma radiation spectral data were collected while flying a helicopter over a regular pattern of parallel lines spaced 150 meters (500 feet) apart at an altitude of 90 meters (300 feet). All radiation measurements taken at the nominal flight altitude were corrected for altitude variations, cosmic radiation, and helicopter background to generate exposure rates from terrestrial sources extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level. The data are presented as isoradiation contour maps. The average terrestrial radiation levels fall between 8 and 14 microrentgens per hour (μR/h). All gamma radiation detected within the survey area was associated with naturally occurring radionuclides. Direct ground-based measurements at 1 meter height were also taken at four scattered sites within the survey area. These values agree with the contour intervals determined from the aerial measurements and differ from the mean value of adjacent contours by no more than 10%. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  14. Aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Plant and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina. Date of survey: June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.; Smith, D.B.

    1982-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) was conducted during June 1979 by EG and G Energy Measurements Group for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The survey consisted of an airborne measurement of both natural and man-made gamma radiation from the terrain surface in and around the plant site. These measurements allowed a determination of the surface terrestrial spatial distribution of isotopic concentrations and equivalent gamma ray exposure rates from 60 Co and 137 Cs contaminants. The results are reported as exposure rate isopleths for the two isotopes and are superimposed on 1:48,000 scale maps of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radioelements. This was the second survey of the entire Savannah River Plant site. The first survey was conducted in June 1974. A comparison of the surveys indicates a decrease in the exposure rates due to man-made isotopes. All areas of man-made activity were in the same location as indicated by the results of the first survey. It appears that no detectable new man-made activity has been released in the survey area since the 1974 survey

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base and surrounding area, Tucson, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey, which was conducted from March 1 to 13, 1995, covered a 51-square-mile (132-square-kilometer) area centered on the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (DMAFB) in Tucson, Arizona. The results of the survey are reported as contours of bismuth-214 ( 214 Bi) soil concentrations, which are characteristic of natural uranium and its progeny, and as contours of the total terrestrial exposure rates extrapolated to one meter above ground level. All data were scaled and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the DMAFB area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 9 to 20 microroentgens per hour at one meter above the ground. Elevated levels of terrestrial radiation due to increased concentrations of 214 Bi (natural uranium) were observed over the Southern Pacific railroad yard and along portions of the railroad track bed areas residing both within and outside the base boundaries. No man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was observed by the aerial survey. High-purity germanium spectrometer and pressurized ionization chamber measurements at eight locations within the base boundaries were used to verify the integrity of the aerial results. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to be in agreement. However, the ground-based measurements were able to detect minute quantities of cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) at six of the eight locations examined. The presence of 137 Cs is a remnant of fallout from foreign and domestic atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred in the 1950s and early 1960s. Cesium-137 concentrations varied from 0.1 to 0.3 picocuries per gram, which is below the minimum detectable activity of the aerial system

  16. Lake Urmia Shrinkage and its Effect on the Settlement of the Surrounding Areas Investigated Using Radar and Optical Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motagh, M.; Shamshiri, R.; Hosseini, F.; Sharifi, M. A.; Baes, M.

    2014-12-01

    With a total area of more than 50000 km^2 Lake Urmia basin in northwest of Iran was once one of the biggest salt lakes in the world. The lake has been shrinking in the recent years, losing in turn dramatically its area. A lot of factors have been attributed to this shrinking including construction of dams on the rivers feeding the lake and overexploitation of groundwater for agricultural and industrial purposes. In this study we first utilized time-series analysis of Landsat images to precisely quantify surface changes in the region between 1984 and 2013. We then analyzed a number of SAR images from 2002 to 2014 including 30 ASAR images from Envisat, 10 PALSAR images from ALOS, and more than 35 TerraSAR-X (TSX) in both Stripmap and Spot modes to assess surface ground deformation. Ground deformation was evaluated for both agricultural regions around the lake and Lake Urmia Causeway (LUC), connecting two provinces of East and West Azerbaijan on both sides of the lake. The InSAR results of the LUC embankments is further investigated using Finite Element approach to better understand the relation between soil parameters, lake level changes and settlement of the LUC. The classification results using optical imagery analysis show that human and anthropogenic activities have resulted in shrinking of Lake Urmia by more than 60% over the past 30 years. The agricultural areas around the lake are dominated by ground subsidence reaching to 10 cm/yr in places. The LUC embankments also show large deformation with peak settlement of more than 5 cm/yr over the last decade. FEM simulation shows that consolidation due to dissipation of excess pore pressure in embankments can satisfactorily explain its surface deformation.

  17. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the UNC Recovery Systems Facility, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluitt, C.M.

    1981-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Recovery Systems Facility located near Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. At the time of the survey (August 1979) materials were being processed at the facility. Gamma ray data were collected over a 3.28 km 2 area centered on the facility by flying north-south lines spaced 60 m apart. Processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the UNC Facility. Average exposure rates 1 m above the ground, as calculated from the aerial data, are presented in the form of an isopleth map. No ground sample data were taken at the time of the aerial survey

  18. Sampling and analysis of soil from the old F-Area effluent ditch and its surrounding wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.L.

    1994-06-01

    Four surface soil samples were collected from the wetlands at the old F-Area effluent ditch. All samples were collected near shallow well point locations except FHB012, which was collected from the effluent ditch stream sediment. Samples were analyzed for metals, Target Compound List volatile organic compounds, and gross radiological indicators. Barium, beryllium, and zinc were detected in all four samples and antimony was detected in three of four samples. These metals occur naturally in the wetland soils at the SRS. Comparisons of metals concentrations were male to concentration ranges taken from background wetland soil samples. These comparison, showed that barium and beryllium concentrations were within expected ranges while zinc and antimony concentrations were elevated above expected concentration ranges. Volatile organic compounds were detected in all four samples. Detected compounds included acetone, 2-butanone, chloromethane, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and toluene. The only radionuclide detected in a significant quantities was tritium which was detected in all four samples

  19. Site Specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis for Surrounding Communities of The Geysers Geothermal Development Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M.; Hutchings, L. J.; Savy, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a probabilistic seismic hazard and risk analysis from induced and tectonic earthquakes for a 50 km radius area centered on The Geysers, California and for the next ten years. We calculate hazard with both a conventional and physics-based approach. We estimate site specific hazard. We convert hazard to risk of nuisance and damage to structures per year and map the risk. For the conventional PSHA we assume the past ten years is indicative of hazard for the next ten years from Mnoise. Then, we interpolate within each geologic unit in finely gridded points. All grid points within a unit are weighted by distance from each data collection point. The entire process is repeated for all of the other types of geologic units until the entire area is gridded and assigned a hazard value for every grid points. We found that nuisance and damage risks calculated by both conventional and physics-based approaches provided almost identical results. This is very surprising since they were calculated by completely independent means. The conventional approach used the actual catalog of the past ten years of earthquakes to estimate the hazard for the next ten year. While the physics-based approach used geotechnical modeling to calculate the catalog for the next ten years. Similarly, for the conventional PSHA, we utilized attenuation relations from past earthquakes recorded at the Geysers to translate the ground motion from the source to the site. While for the physics-based approach we calculated ground motion from simulation of actual earthquake rupture. Finally, the source of the earthquakes was the actual source for the conventional PSHA. While, we assumed random fractures for the physics-based approach. From all this, we consider the calculation of the conventional approach, based on actual data, to validate the physics-based approach used.

  20. Study of air pollution with cement dust and its effect on plants cover in the surrounding area of Tartous cement factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslmani, Y.; Al-Oudat, M.; Al-Kharfan, K.

    2000-06-01

    Cement dust fall, concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate less than 10 micron (PM10), were measured in different sites in the surrounding area of Tartus cement factory. The effects of cement dust emission on the growth of olive trees have been investigated. The results show that the dust fall, TSP and PM10 concentration were higher than The World Health Organization (WHO) standard at the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 3 to 4 km in the diameter.The study shows that, the cement dust fall decreases the growth of olive trees by 34.5, 33 and 21% regarding the I, II, III sites respectively in comparison with the reference site. The branch length, branch weight, amount of chlorophyll and leaves quantity were decreased significantly. The mean weight of dust fall were 34.5, 26.4 and 10.9 g/m 2 on the leaves area at the site I, II, III respectively while the reference site has a value of 1.9 g/m 2 .(Author)

  1. Study of air pollution with cement dust and its effect on plants cover in the surrounding area of Tartous cement factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslmani, Y; Al-Oudat, M; Al-Kharfan, K [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Protection and Safety

    2000-06-01

    Cement dust fall, concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate less than 10 micron (PM10), were measured in different sites in the surrounding area of Tartus cement factory. The effects of cement dust emission on the growth of olive trees have been investigated. The results show that the dust fall, TSP and PM10 concentration were higher than The World Health Organization (WHO) standard at the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 3 to 4 km in the diameter.The study shows that, the cement dust fall decreases the growth of olive trees by 34.5, 33 and 21% regarding the I, II, III sites respectively in comparison with the reference site. The branch length, branch weight, amount of chlorophyll and leaves quantity were decreased significantly. The mean weight of dust fall were 34.5, 26.4 and 10.9 g/m{sup 2} on the leaves area at the site I, II, III respectively while the reference site has a value of 1.9 g/m{sup 2}.(Author)

  2. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  3. Microbial quality of soft drinks served by the dispensing machines in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in Griffin, Georgia, and surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial quality of the soft drinks served by fast food restaurants and gas station convenience stores in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas. The soft drinks were collected from the dispensing machines in 8 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2005 (n = 25) and in 10 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2006 (n = 43) and 2007 (n = 43). One hundred milliliters of each soft drink was filtered through a hydrophobic grid membrane filter. The remaining portion of the soft drink was kept at room temperature for 4 h before sampling in order to mimic the possible holding time between purchase and consumption. The membrane filters were sampled for total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. The microbial counts in the 2006 samples were numerically higher than the counts in the 2007 samples except for the average lactic acid bacteria counts, and were either significantly or numerically higher than the counts in the 2005 samples. Soft drinks sampled after the 4-h holding period had relatively higher counts than those sampled initially, with a few exceptions. Some soft drinks had over 4 log CFU/100 ml of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold cells. The study revealed the microbial quality of soft drinks served by dispensing machines in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas, emphasizing the importance of effective sanitizing practice in retail settings.

  4. Determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations in surface and underground waters in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Obiri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide in water samples in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana have been measured in this study. Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide were found to be above the maximum permissible discharge limit of effluent from mining companies into natural waters set by Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana (GEPA. A comparison of the results obtained in this study with permissible levels set by US Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization reveals that surface waters in the study areas are highly polluted with cyanide and it's not safe for human consumptions. This means that, the resident in and around Bogoso are at risk.

  5. The potential vulnerability of the Namib and Nama Aquifers due to low recharge levels in the area surrounding the Naukluft Mountains, SW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambinda, Winnie N.; Mapani, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    The Naukluft Mountains in the Namib Desert are a high rainfall-high discharge area. It sees increased stream-, spring-flow as well as waterfalls during the rainy season. The mountains are a major resource for additional recharge to the Namib and Nama aquifers that are adjacent to the mountains. This paper aimed to highlight the potential vulnerability of the aquifers that surround the Naukluft Mountain area; if the strategic importance of the Naukluft Karst Aquifer (NKA) for bulk water supply becomes necessary. Chloride Mass Balance Method (CMBM) was applied to estimate rainfall available for recharge as well as actual recharge thereof. This was applied using chloride concentration in precipitation, borehole and spring samples collected from the study area. Groundwater flow patterns were mapped from hydraulic head values. A 2D digital elevation model was developed using Arc-GIS. Results highlighted the influence of the NKA on regional groundwater flow. This paper found that groundwater flow was controlled by structural dip and elevation. Groundwater was observed to flow predominantly from the NKA to the south west towards the Namib Aquifer in two distinct flow patterns that separate at the center of the NKA. A distinct groundwater divide was defined between the two flow patterns. A minor flow pattern from the northern parts of the NKA to the north east towards the Nama Aquifer was validated. Due to the substantial water losses, the NKA is not a typical karst aquifer. While the project area receives an average rainfall of 170.36 mm/a, it was estimated that 1-14.24% (maximum 24.43 mm/a) rainfall was available for recharge to the NKA. Actual recharge to the NKA was estimated to be less than 1-18.21% (maximum 4.45 mm/a) reflecting the vast losses incurred by the NKA via discharge. This paper concluded that groundwater resources of the NKA were potentially finite. The possibility of developing the aquifer for bulk water supply would therefore drastically lower recharge

  6. Geological Mapping and Identification of Active Fault in Site Candidate of Nuclear Power Plant Installation at Ketapang Area and Its Surroundings, Madura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Lilik-Subiantoro; Kurnia-Setiawan-W; Agus-Sutriyono; P Widito

    2004-01-01

    The result of economical study about demand of electric and water supply in Madura Island in 2015 will increase double for domestic or support industry in Madura Island which have to be solved sooner. One way which is considered to solve the problem is Desalination with nuclear electrical plant. In order to support the installation of nuclear Desalination plant, it is needed site free or far from active fault. Active fault is mainly factor to reject the area on site selection process. Aim of the research is to get geological information and identify of active fault in the site candidate of nuclear Desalination plant at Ketapang area and its surrounding by interpretation of air photos and Landsat imagery, geological and structure geological mapping as well as trenching. The lithology of Ketapang and Sokobana site candidate consists of reef and chalky limestone with form of morphology is undulating hills. Structurally, research areas forms a mono cline with east-westerly trending axis, plunging 10 o to E, the direction of strike is W-E, dip 10 o -30 o to the north. This research concludes that an active fault was not found in the area. (author)

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the Trojan Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Prescott, Oregon: Date of survey: July--August 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstrom, T.S.

    1988-02-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 24 July through 2 August 1986 over a 124-square-kilometer (48-square-mile) area surrounding the Trojan Nuclear Plant located on the Columbia River at Prescott, Oregon. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with line spacings of 76 meters (250 feet). Count rates were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate was prepared and overlaid on a USGS topographic map of the area. The exposure rates varied from 8 to 10 microroentgens per hour (μRh) in the southern and northernmost regions of the survey area with somewhat lesser rates of 6.5 to 8.0 μRh in the immediate vicinity of LongviewKelso, Washington. The highest area of increased activity was directly attributed to the main units of the plant and indicated the presence of 60 Co and 58 Co. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations to support the aerial data. An additional 11 soil samples were collected along the shoreline of the Columbia River. 6 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Mineralization and geophysical exploration by IP/RS and ground magnetic survey in MA-I and surrounding area, Maherabad porphyry Cu-Au prospect area, east of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Maherabad prospect area, which is studied in detail, is the first porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the east of Iran. Based on relation of mineralization with subvolcanic intrusive bodies mostly monzonitic with porphyry texture, extent and types of alteration including potassic, sericitic- potassic, quartz- sericite- carbonate- pyrite, quartz- carbonate- pyrite, silicification- propylitic, propylitic, stockwork mineralization, assemblages hypogene mineralization including pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite and magnetite and high anomalies of Cu and Au, Mineralization is porphyry Cu-Au-type. MA-I area, which is covered by regolith from its surrounding is the most important section of mineralization in the region because of intensive of quartz-sericite-carbonate-pyrite alteration and very high dense quartz-sulfide veinlets. IP/RS and ground magnetic surveys were conducted in the MA-I prospect area and its surrounding plain. Drilling on the IP suede section anomaly resulted to the recognition of sulfide mineralization in on extensive area under the regolith. Surface and underground detailed studies of geology, alteration, mineralization and geochemistry confirm the extension of covered mineralization to the south and west of the area. Based on the ground magnetic anomaly, the center of mineralization system, potassic zone, to the southwest of the area was recognized. Quartz0sericite-carbonate-pyrite alteration zone, which is located around the potassic zone, has very low magnetic response. IP/RS and ground magnetic surveys in a broader area than before are strongly recommended.

  9. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas, Maite de; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-01-01

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  10. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  11. POTENSI PENGEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI ROOF GARDEN DI KAWASAN MAMPANG PRAPATAN DAN SEKITARNYA, JAKARTA SELATAN (Development Potential of Roof Garden Technology in Mampang Prapatan Area and Surroundings, South Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Sarifa Kartika Kinasih

    2013-11-01

    , which has complex environmental issues. This study aims to get the facts how large the potency on ecological, economic, aesthetic, and social benefits that can be achieved by the Mampang Prapatan area with the widespread application of the roof garden; investigate the perceptions of stakeholders in Mampang Prapatan area and its surrounding about roof garden; as well as to ascertain the facts about the opportunities and challenges in its implementation. The research method was carried out by using the benefits projection analysis of Quick Bird 2010 imagery in Mampang Prapatan area, then conducting inductive descriptive analysis of existing condition and stakeholders perception toward the implementation of a roof garden, and literature study. The results of this study indicate that the benefits obtained according to benefits projection analysis of this research area delineated block with 416,380 m2 of land area can give benefits i.e: ecologically (be able to made reduction of energy consumption that is 50.75 times than the usual used by; made reduction of approximately 8,956 kg to 89,563 kg of impurities air; being habitat of 597,088 plants; and absorb rainwater as many as 5,105,102 liters per year; economically (can produce 1,378 kg of mochi rice; aesthetically can reduce the noise about 10 dB and 40 dB and also will be able to provide 203 aesthetically pleasing areas; socially it will be add 203 community areas on the delineated block Mampang Prapatan road. The zone which the most potential to give benefits is zone B trade and service (could change existing green open space from 10.84% into 28.15% and there are 8 structure in zone B that have used roof garden technology. Stakeholders perception analized by 5 concepts has been proved very positive and supporting. Chances for applying roof garden technology in Mampang Prapatan and its surrounding area is much larger than the existing challenges, and solutions to these challenges has been given by informants.

  12. Areas to explore surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Areas para exploracion en los alrededores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Exploration plays an important role in tapping underground natural resources-whether water, oil, natural gas or minerals. Exploratory data allow us to learn reservoir conditions, increasing probable reserves and reservoir life span. Around the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, and in the Mexicali Valley in general, exploration had almost stopped but recently was resumed by the Studies Division of Comision Federal de ELectricidad (CFE)'s Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos. The division sent technical personnel to structurally map the northern and eastern portions of Laguna Salada. The paper offers a general outline of the main zones undergoing exploratory studies-studies perhaps culminating in siting exploratory wells to locate more geothermal resources (and ultimately producing them using binary power plants). CFE also wants to site injection wells west of the current production zone, and this is covered, as well. All activities are meant to increase the productive lifespan of the geothermal reservoir. [Spanish] Cuando se trata de la explotacion de recursos naturales del subsuelo, sea agua, gas, petroleo o minerales, la exploracion juega un papel muy importante, ya que permite conocer las condiciones del yacimiento que pudieran llevar a incrementar las reservas de los recursos explotados y extender su vida util. En las zonas aledanas al campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y en general en el Valle de Mexicali, la exploracion estaba practicamente detenida habiendose reactivado a raiz de que la Subgerencia de Estudios de la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) envio personal para realizar mapeos estructurales en las porciones norte y oriente de la Laguna Salada. Este trabajo presenta un panorama general de las areas prioritarias para realizar estudios exploratorios y poder programar, con mas bases, pozos exploratorios enfocados a localizar mas recursos geotermicos, inclusive para generar energia por medio

  13. High contamination in the areas surrounding abandoned mines and mining activities: An impact assessment of the Dilala, Luilu and Mpingiri Rivers, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atibu, Emmanuel K; Lacroix, Pierre; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Ray, Nicolas; Giuliani, Gregory; Mulaji, Crispin K; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Mpiana, Pius T; Slaveykova, Vera I; Poté, John

    2018-01-01

    Abandoned mines and mining activities constitute important sources of toxic metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) affecting surrounding environmental compartments and biota. This study investigates the contamination degree and distribution of toxic metals and REEs in contrasting sediment, soil and plant samples surrounding rivers in the African copperbelt area characterized by the presence of numerous abandoned mines, artisanal and industrial mining activities. ICP-MS results highlighted the highest concentration of Cu, Co and Pb in sediments reaching values of 146,801, 18,434 and 899 mg kg -1 , respectively. In soil, the values of 175,859, 21,134 and 1164 mg kg -1 were found for Cu, Co and Pb, respectively. These values are much higher than the sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and international soil clean-up standards. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index results indicated important contribution of mining activities to the study sites pollution in addition to natural background. Highest metal accumulation in leaves of Phalaris arundinacea L., was observed, reaching values of 34,061, 5050 and 230 mg kg -1 for Cu, Co, and Pb, respectively. The ∑REE concentration reached values of 2306, 733, 2796 mg kg -1 in sediment, soil and plant samples, respectively. The above results were combined with geographical information including satellite imagery, hydrography and mining concessions. Maps were produced to present the results in a comprehensive and compelling visual format. The results will be disseminated through an innovative mapping online platform to simplify access to data and to facilitate dialogue between stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing vegetation response to climatic variations and human activities: spatiotemporal NDVI variations in the Hexi Corridor and surrounding areas from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Yang, Liqin; Guan, Wenqian; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Zeyu; Xu, Chuanqi

    2018-03-01

    Vegetation cover is a commonly used indicator for evaluating terrestrial environmental conditions, and for revealing environmental evolution and transitions. Spatiotemporal variations in the vegetation cover of the Hexi Corridor and surrounding areas from 2000 to 2010 were investigated using MODIS NDVI data, and the causes of vegetation cover changes were analyzed, considering both climatic variability and human activities. The vegetation cover of the study area increased during 2000-2010. The greenness of the vegetation showed a significant increase from the northwest to the southeast, which was similar to the spatial distribution of the annual precipitation. Variations in vegetation have a close relationship with those in precipitation within the Qilian Mountains region, but the NDVI is negatively correlated with precipitation in oasis areas. Increasing temperatures led to drought, inhibiting vegetation growth in summer; however, increasing temperatures may have also advanced and prolonged the growing periods in spring and autumn. The NDVI showed a slight degradation in March and July, primarily in the Qilian Mountains, and especially the Wushao Mountains. In March, due to low temperatures, the metabolism rate of vegetation was too slow to enable strong plant growth in high elevations of the Qilian Mountains. In July, increasing temperatures enhanced the intensity of transpiration and decreasing precipitation reduced the moisture available to plants, producing a slight degradation of vegetation in the Qilian Mountains. In May and August, the NDVI showed a significant improvement, primarily in the artificial oases and the Qilian Mountains. Abundant precipitation provided the necessary water for plant growth, and suitable temperatures increased the efficiency of photosynthesis, resulting in a significant improvement of vegetation in the Qilian Mountains. The improvement of production technologies, especially in irrigation, has been beneficial to the growth of

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, H.A.; McCall, K.A.

    1994-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels

  16. The potential of remote sensing for monitoring land cover changes and effects on physical geography in the area of Kayisdagi Mountain and its surroundings (Istanbul).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-05-01

    The effect of land cover change, from natural to anthropogenic, on physical geography conditions has been studied in Kayisdagi Mountain. Land degradation is the most important environmental issue involved in this study. Most forms of land degradation are natural processes accelerated by human activity. Land degradation is a human induced or natural process that negatively affects the ability of land to function effectively within an ecosystem. Environmental degradation from human pressure and land use has become a major problem in the study area because of high population growth, urbanization rate, and the associated rapid depletion of natural resources. When studying the cost of land degradation, it is not possible to ignore the role of urbanization. In particular, a major cause of deforestation is conversion to urban land. The paper reviews the principles of current remote sensing techniques considered particularly suitable for monitoring Kayisdagi Mountain and its surrounding land cover changes and their effects on physical geography conditions. In addition, this paper addresses the problem of how spatially explicit information about degradation processes in the study area rangelands can be derived from different time series of satellite data. The monitoring approach comprises the time period between 1990 and 2005. Satellite remote sensing techniques have proven to be cost effective in widespread land cover changes. Physical geography and particularly natural geomorphologic processes like erosion, mass movement, physical weathering, and chemical weathering features etc. have faced significant unnatural variation.

  17. Interference from the Deep Space Network's 70-m High Power Transmitter in Goldstone, CA to 3G Mobile Users Operating in the Surrounding Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has allocated 2110-2200 MHz for the third generation (3G) mobile services. Part of the spectrum (2110-2120 MHz) is allocated for space research service and has been used by the DSN for years for sending command uplinks to deep space missions. Due to the extremely high power transmitted, potential interference to 3G users in areas surrounding DSN Goldstone exists. To address this issue, a preliminary analytical study has been performed and computer models have been developed. The goal is to provide theoretical foundation and tools to estimate the strength of interference as a function of distance from the transmitter for various interference mechanisms, (or propagation modes), and then determine the size of the area in which 3G users are susceptible to interference from the 400-kW transmitter in Goldstone. The focus is non-line-of-sight interference, taking into account of terrain shielding, anomalous propagation mechanisms, and technical and operational characteristics of the DSN and the 3G services.

  18. Explaining the spatiotemporal variation of fine particle number concentrations over Beijing and surrounding areas in an air quality model with aerosol microphysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xueshun; Wang, Zifa; Li, Jie; Chen, Huansheng; Hu, Min; Yang, Wenyi; Wang, Zhe; Ge, Baozhu; Wang, Dawei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a three-dimensional air quality model with detailed aerosol microphysics (NAQPMS + APM) was applied to simulate the fine particle number size distribution and to explain the spatiotemporal variation of fine particle number concentrations in different size ranges over Beijing and surrounding areas in the haze season (Jan 15 to Feb 13 in 2006). Comparison between observations and the simulation indicates that the model is able to reproduce the main features of the particle number size distribution. The high number concentration of total particles, up to 26600 cm −3 in observations and 39800 cm −3 in the simulation, indicates the severity of pollution in Beijing. We find that primary particles with secondary species coating and secondary particles together control the particle number size distribution. Secondary particles dominate particle number concentration in the nucleation mode. Primary and secondary particles together determine the temporal evolution and spatial pattern of particle number concentration in the Aitken mode. Primary particles dominate particle number concentration in the accumulation mode. Over Beijing and surrounding areas, secondary particles contribute at least 80% of particle number concentration in the nucleation mode but only 10–20% in the accumulation mode. Nucleation mode particles and accumulation mode particles are anti-phased with each other. Nucleation or primary emissions alone could not explain the formation of the particle number size distribution in Beijing. Nucleation has larger effects on ultrafine particles while primary particles emissions are efficient in producing large particles in the accumulation mode. Reduction in primary particle emissions does not always lead to a decrease in the number concentration of ultrafine particles. Measures to reduce fine particle pollution in terms of particle number concentration may be different from those addressing particle mass concentration. - Highlights:

  19. Investigation of correlation of the variations in land subsidence (detected by continuous GPS measurements) and methodological data in the surrounding areas of Lake Urmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtased-Azar, K.; Mirzaei, A.; Nankali, H. R.; Tavakoli, F.

    2012-11-01

    Lake Urmia, a salt lake in the north-west of Iran, plays a valuable role in the environment, wildlife and economy of Iran and the region, but now faces great challenges for survival. The Lake is in immediate and great danger and is rapidly going to become barren desert. As a result, the increasing demands upon groundwater resources due to expanding metropolitan and agricultural areas are a serious challenge in the surrounding regions of Lake Urmia. The continuous GPS measurements around the lake illustrate significant subsidence rate between 2005 and 2009. The objective of this study was to detect and specify the non-linear correlation of land subsidence and temperature activities in the region from 2005 to 2009. For this purpose, the cross wavelet transform (XWT) was carried out between the two types of time series, namely vertical components of GPS measurements and daily temperature time series. The significant common patterns are illustrated in the high period bands from 180-218 days band (~6-7 months) from September 2007 to February 2009. Consequently, the satellite altimetry data confirmed that the maximum rate of linear trend of water variation in the lake from 2005 to 2009, is associated with time interval from September 2007 to February 2009. This event was detected by XWT as a critical interval to be holding the strong correlation between the land subsidence phenomena and surface temperature. Eventually the analysis can be used for modeling and prediction purposes and probably stave off the damage from subsidence phenomena.

  20. Creating a seamless 1 km resolution daily land surface temperature dataset for urban and surrounding areas in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Yuyu; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Zhu, Zhengyuan

    2018-03-01

    High spatiotemporal land surface temperature (LST) datasets are increasingly needed in a variety of fields such as ecology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and energy systems. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST is one of such high spatiotemporal datasets that are widely used. But, it has large amount of missing values primarily because of clouds. Gapfilling the missing values is an important approach to create high spatiotemporal LST datasets. However current gapfilling methods have limitations in terms of accuracy and time required to assemble the data over large areas (e.g., national and continental levels). In this study, we developed a 3-step hybrid method by integrating a combination of daily merging, spatiotemporal gapfilling, and temporal interpolation methods, to create a high spatiotemporal LST dataset using the four daily LST observations from the two MODIS instruments on Terra and Aqua satellites. We applied this method in urban and surrounding areas for the conterminous U.S. in 2010. The evaluation of the gapfilled LST product indicates that its root mean squared error (RMSE) to be 3.3K for mid-daytime (1:30 pm) and 2.7K for mid-13 nighttime (1:30 am) observations. The method can be easily extended to other years and regions and is also applicable to other satellite products. This seamless daily (mid-daytime and mid-nighttime) LST product with 1 km spatial resolution is of great value for studying effects of urbanization (e.g., urban heat island) and the related impacts on people, ecosystems, energy systems and other infrastructure for cities.

  1. Surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a transformer and capacitor recycling company, family members, employees of surrounding companies, and area residents--executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika; Lang, Jessica; Esser, Andre; Sturm, Walter; Fimm, Bruno; Willmes, Klaus; Neulen, Joseph; Baron, Jens Malte; Merk, Hans; Schettgen, Thomas; Konrad, Kerstin; Deisz, Sabine; Rink, Lothar; Hagmann, Michael; Fillies, Birgit; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In a German company polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-containing transformers and capacitors were recycled on a large scale. Human biomonitoring revealed a high PCB body burden in workers of the recycling company, in surrounding locations of this plant, in companies in the neighborhood of this plant, and in family members of these employees. In order to clarify whether possible adverse health effects occurred or may occur in the future, a prospective surveillance program was initiated. After an extensive literature search, an interdisciplinary group of experts developed a surveillance program based on current knowledge with respect to possible adverse health effects that might occur in the recycling process of transformers and capacitors. Exposure to various hazardous substances (PCB, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans [PCDD/F], metals, solvents) was considered. Criteria derived from human biomonitoring results of PCB were used for admission to the program. Participants in the surveillance program are first informed about risks and aims of the program. Subsequently, physicians started a detailed documentation of participants' general and occupational history, with their complaints, diseases, and nutritional habits, as well as information regarding their living areas, by means of a standardized questionnaire. In addition, separate examinations were performed to detect possible neurological, immunological, (neuro)psychological, hormonal, and skin effects. Moreover, DNA exposure as assessed by the comet assay and antioxidative status were determined. The program will be offered at yearly intervals for 3 years, and then at 5 and 10 years after program onset. Until now the program has proved to be feasible, and acceptance among workers and their families has been high. Based on the results, criteria will be developed to define adverse health effects that might be attributable to a hazardous substance exposure.

  2. Investigation of correlation of the variations in land subsidence (detected by continuous GPS measurements and methodological data in the surrounding areas of Lake Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moghtased-Azar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lake Urmia, a salt lake in the north-west of Iran, plays a valuable role in the environment, wildlife and economy of Iran and the region, but now faces great challenges for survival. The Lake is in immediate and great danger and is rapidly going to become barren desert. As a result, the increasing demands upon groundwater resources due to expanding metropolitan and agricultural areas are a serious challenge in the surrounding regions of Lake Urmia. The continuous GPS measurements around the lake illustrate significant subsidence rate between 2005 and 2009. The objective of this study was to detect and specify the non-linear correlation of land subsidence and temperature activities in the region from 2005 to 2009. For this purpose, the cross wavelet transform (XWT was carried out between the two types of time series, namely vertical components of GPS measurements and daily temperature time series. The significant common patterns are illustrated in the high period bands from 180–218 days band (~6–7 months from September 2007 to February 2009. Consequently, the satellite altimetry data confirmed that the maximum rate of linear trend of water variation in the lake from 2005 to 2009, is associated with time interval from September 2007 to February 2009. This event was detected by XWT as a critical interval to be holding the strong correlation between the land subsidence phenomena and surface temperature. Eventually the analysis can be used for modeling and prediction purposes and probably stave off the damage from subsidence phenomena.

  3. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  4. From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Fjellheim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer

  5. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards: a prewildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.; Miller, Lara W.; Scott, Joe H.; Thompson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can drastically increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although there is no way to know the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire, or the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration before it happens, probabilities of fire and debris-flow occurrence for different locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling efforts. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious, potential, debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in the unburned Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The locations of the greatest debris-flow hazards correlate with the areas of steepest slopes and simulated crown-fire behavior. The four subbasins with the highest computed debris-flow probabilities (greater than 98 percent) were all in the Manzano Mountains, two flowing east and two flowing west. Volumes in sixteen subbasins were greater than 50,000 square meters and most of these were in the central Manzanos and the western facing slopes of the Sandias. Five subbasins on the west-facing slopes of the Sandia Mountains, four of which have downstream reaches that lead into the outskirts of the City of Albuquerque, are among subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings. The bulk of the remaining subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings are located along the highest and steepest slopes of the Manzano Mountains. One

  6. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF that has been used in the companion study to improve ozone forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2 forecasts over this region during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed through application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in the real-data assimilation (RDA experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecasts over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs by 15–36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56–239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts (with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs was noticed at night and in the morning versus significant deterioration during daytime (with 190 % increase of the RMSEs, suggesting that the negative data assimilation impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal-data assimilation (IDA experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. In the same way, NOx emission estimation was improved at night and in the morning even under large biases in the prior emission, while it deteriorated during daytime (except for the case of minor errors in the prior emission. The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable data assimilation, i.e., positive data assimilation impacts on NO2 forecasts over some urban sites, negative data assimilation impacts over the other urban sites, and weak data assimilation impacts over suburban sites, highlighted the limitations of the EnKF under strong nonlinear relationships between chemical variables. Under strong nonlinearity between daytime ozone concentrations and

  7. Assessment of the long-term impacts of PM10 and PM2.5 particles from construction works on surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Marsh, Daniel; Fuller, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Construction activities are common across cities; however, the studies assessing their contribution to airborne PM10 (≤10 μm) and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) particles on the surrounding air quality are limited. Herein, we assessed the impact of PM10 and PM2.5 arising from construction works in and around London. Measurements were carried out at 17 different monitoring stations around three construction sites between January 2002 and December 2013. Tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM 1400) and OSIRIS (2315) particle monitors were used to measure the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions in the 0.1-10 μm size range along with the ambient meteorological data. The data was analysed using bivariate concentration polar plots and k-means clustering techniques. Daily mean concentrations of PM10 were found to exceed the European Union target limit value of 50 μg m(-3) at 11 monitoring stations but remained within the allowable 35 exceedences per year, except at two monitoring stations. In general, construction works were found to influence the downwind concentrations of PM10 relatively more than PM2.5. Splitting of the data between working (0800-1800 h; local time) and non-working (1800-0800 h) periods showed about 2.2-fold higher concentrations of PM10 during working hours when compared with non-working hours. However, these observations did not allow to conclude that this increase was from the construction site emissions. Together, the polar concentration plots and the k-means cluster analysis applied to a pair of monitoring stations across the construction sites (i.e. one in upwind and the other in downwind) confirmed the contribution of construction sources on the measured concentrations. Furthermore, pairing the monitoring stations downwind of the construction sites showed a logarithmic decrease (with R(2) about 0.9) in the PM10 and PM2.5 concentration with distance. Our findings clearly indicate an impact of construction activities on the nearby downwind areas and a need

  8. Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survivorship and habitat studies in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area and surrounding lands, Wyoming and Montana, 2000–2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Singer, Francis J.; Grams, Kayla A.; Roelle, James E.

    2004-01-01

    In the 1850s, bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were numerous and distributed throughout the Bighorn and Pryor Mountains of Montana and Wyoming. After European settlement, bighorn sheep populations declined, and local extinctions occurred in much of their historic range in the western United States. The current bighorn sheep population of Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA) is the product of several reintroductions into BICA and surrounding lands. Following a release in 1973 and growth rates near maximum potential of 19.8% per year, the population grew to an estimated peak population of about 211 animals in 1993 and 1994 (Kissell and others, 1996). Recent counts indicate the bighorn sheep population has declined. Kissell and others (1996) reported that the population began to decline rapidly in 1995 and 1996. He noted low ewe:lamb ratios during the decline phase. Bighorn sheep numbers declined to the lowest minimum viable population size of 100 animals recommended by several bighorn sheep experts (Bailey, 1990; Berger, 1990; Smith and others, 1991). National Park Service (NPS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) managers were concerned about the decline and requested a study of its causes. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey- Biological Resources Division (USGS-BRD) received funding to start a 3-year study of survivorship, condition, and population growth rate of the BICA bighorn sheep population.Several possibilities exist for the bighorn sheep decline. The herd may have experienced a rapid population expansion, followed by a decline to stability at a lower long-term carrying capacity. This pattern of apparently overshooting carrying capacity following an initial release has been reported for a number of ungulates (Caughley, 1976). Disease may have caused the decline; predation and/or competition with wild horses (Equus caballus) may also have been factors. A spatial model of wild horse carrying capacity (Coughenour, 1999) was developed to assist managers

  9. The SSK recommendation 'planning areas for the surroundings of nuclear power plants'; Die SSK-Empfehlung 'Planungsgebiete fuer den Notfallschutz in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welte, Ulrike; Michel, Rolf; Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich

    2014-07-01

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident the BMU asked the SSK to check the guidelines for radiation emergency preparedness. Based on the information gained by the Japanese experience the SSK recommended to plan nuclear emergencies irrespective of the calculated probability of occurrence, but according to the effects of an INES 7 event. The SSK has recommended new planning areas for the surroundings of nuclear power plants based on a method developed by the SSK. This approach requires enlarged planning areas.

  10. Aerial radiological survey of the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and surrounding area Amarillo, Texas. Date of survey: October 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.

    1981-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the United States Department of Energy's Pantex Plant and Pantex Lake areas in October, 1979. The Pantex Plant survey covered an area of approximately 64 km 2 . The Pantex Lake survey area was approximately 2 km 2 . Both areas were surveyed at an altitude of 46 m (150 feet) with lines spaced at 91 m (300 foot) intervals. Several passes were also made over the shipping areas at the Amarillo International Airport. An array of sodium iodide detectors were mounted in a helicopter to collect gamma ray spectral data. As expected, the spectral data indicated the presence of several areas containing man-made sources

  11. Environmental investigations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, McCracken County, Kentucky. Volume 1 - Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report details the results of four studies into environmental and cultural resources on and near the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) located in Western Kentucky in McCracken County, approximately 10 miles west of Paducah, KY. The area investigated includes the PGDP facility proper, additional area owned by DOE under use permit to the Western Kentucky Wildlife Management Area (WKWMA), area owned by the Commonwealth of Kentucky that is administered by the WKWMA, area owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Metropolis Lake State Nature preserve and some privately held land. DOE requested the assistance and support of the US Army Engineer District, Nashville (CEORN) in conducting various environmental investigations of the area. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) provided technical support to the CEORN for environmental investigations of (1) wetland resources, (2) threatened or endangered species and habitats, and (3) cultural resources. A floodplain investigation was conducted by CEORN

  12. Regional magnetic and gravity surveys: an aid for uranium exploration - case study from Renigunta and surrounding areas, Chitoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimha Rao, B.; Rama Krishna, P.; Markandeyulu, A.; Dwivedy, K.K.

    1998-01-01

    Regional magnetic and gravity data of Papanaidupet area, Chitoor district, are discussed in the light of bore hole information for selection of target areas for uranium exploration. The low-pass filtered magnetic data shows a 'smooth' picture suppressing the high frequency components in the original data. The amplitude maxima of analytic signal outline the magnetic source at depth. The Bouguer gravity residual anomaly corresponding to a double sill-like model beneath is used to explain the borehole intercepts, after petro-physical studies of the borehole samples. (author)

  13. An aerial radiological survey of Project Gasbuggy and surrounding area, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Date of survey: October 27, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Gasbuggy site, 55 miles (89 kilometers) east of Farmington, New Mexico, on October 27, 1994. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 300 feet (91 meters) over a 16-square-mile (41-square-kilometer) area at a 150-foot (46-meter) altitude centered on the Gasbuggy site. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 14 to 20 microR/h at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found

  14. Assessment of metals pollution on agricultural soil surrounding a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolan; Li, Zhongyi; Yang, Weiwei; Pan, Liping; Gu, Minghua; Lee, DoKyoung

    2013-06-01

    Soil samples were collected on farmland in a lead-zinc mining area in the Karst region of Guangxi, China. The contamination of the soil by eight metals (Cd, Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, Ni) was determined. Among all these metals, Cd is the most serious pollutant in this area. Zn, Hg as well asPb can also be measured at high levels, which may affect the crop production. All other metals contributed marginally to the overall soil contamination. Besides the evaluation of single metals, the Nemerow synthetic index indicated that the soil is not suitable for agricultural use.

  15. Noninvasive genetic population survey of snow leopards (Panthera uncia in Kangchenjunga conservation area, Shey Phoksundo National Park and surrounding buffer zones of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmacharya Dibesh B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endangered snow leopard is found throughout major mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the remote Himalayas. However, because of their elusive behavior, sparse distribution, and poor access to their habitat, there is a lack of reliable information on their population status and demography, particularly in Nepal. Therefore, we utilized noninvasive genetic techniques to conduct a preliminary snow leopard survey in two protected areas of Nepal. Results A total of 71 putative snow leopard scats were collected and analyzed from two different areas; Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP in the west and Kangchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA in the east. Nineteen (27% scats were genetically identified as snow leopards, and 10 (53% of these were successfully genotyped at 6 microsatellite loci. Two samples showed identical genotype profiles indicating a total of 9 individual snow leopards. Four individual snow leopards were identified in SPNP (1 male and 3 females and five (2 males and 3 females in KCA. Conclusions We were able to confirm the occurrence of snow leopards in both study areas and determine the minimum number present. This information can be used to design more in-depth population surveys that will enable estimation of snow leopard population abundance at these sites.

  16. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio. Dates of surveys, August 1976/May-June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1979-06-01

    Two aerial radiological surveys to measure terrestrial gamma radiation were made over an area centered on the United States Department of Energy's Feed Materials Production Center in the city of Fernald, Ohio. The Center is operated by the National Lead Company of Ohio. Gamma ray data were collected from east-west flight lines at 90 m intervals over an area 25 km 2 centered on the plant site. The small Ohio towns of Shandon, Ross, and New Baltimore were surveyed from north-south flight lines at 300 m intervals. Processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was due primarily to radionuclides currently being handled or processed at the Center. Off-site data showed the radioactivity to be due to naturally occurring radionuclides northeast and south of the site. If the northwest corner of the survey area an unusually high count rate region of airborne radon daughter activity was encountered. This was equivalent to approximately four times the normal background. However, the follow-up survey of 1977 showed this area to be within the background count rate level

  17. Aerial radiological survey of the H.B. Robinson steam electric plant and surrounding area, Hartsville, South Carolina. Date of survey: June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The survey covered a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area centered on the Plant. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 220 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the Plant. This detected radiation was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60, and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal Plant operations. A single offsite anomaly was detected within the survey area this anomaly, which was approximately 1.3 kilometers (0.8 miles) northwest of the Plant, was the site of the Plant's coal-fired generating station's ash settling pond. This pond, which contained the coal's ash and slag residue, revealed varying concentrations of naturally-occurring radioactive materials. All the radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay chains and radioactive potassium were found. For the majority of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rate levels varied from 4 to 12μR/h. Higher exposure rate levels (12 to 25 μR/h) due to increased concentrations of thorium were prevalent over the southern and northwestern portions of the survey area. The reported exposure rate values included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area and at two of the three ground-based locations used in 1973 for a previous aerial survey. The exposure rate values obtained from those measurements made within the current aerial survey boundaries were in agreement with the corresponding inferred aerial data results. No evidence of any radioactive contamination was inferred from the 1985 aerial survey data

  18. Assessment of the impact of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the economic development potential of Las Vegas, Clark County, and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth Strategies Organization has completed an assessment of the Las Vegas MSA's competitiveness in the attraction of new business facilities to the area. That report found that under current business climate conditions and in the present economic development market place, the region is a competitive site for about one hundred of the six hundred types of primary businesses studied. It is almost competitive as a location for another 80 to 90 types of businesses and is a marginal choice for another 200 business groups. In other words, Clark County, as is, fully satisfies the basic requirements of almost a sixth of the businesses in this study. With minor improvements in areas such as the skill mix of its work force and the quality of its educational facilities and with an effective campaign to improve the area's image, the Las Vegas area could become a competitive location for about two-thirds of all business groups -- a very large shift in marketability. The proposed nuclear waste repository that he Federal government has proposed for siting at Yucca Mountain more than a hundred miles from Las Vegas would become operational after the turn of the century, more than fifteen years from now. Its influence on business investment decisions would be felt in the mid- to late-1990s if the final decision were made and announced. To measure that impact it would be desirable to establish a baseline that reflects Clark County's competitiveness as a business facility location in the middle of the next decade. In constructing that baseline, several variables could be considered -- changes in business climate conditions in the area other than the nuclear waste repository; and changes in the location decision process itself resulting from changes in technology and in market pressures

  19. Aerial radiological survey of the Washington. Date of survey: July 1982 Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) Nuclear Project and surrounding area, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 14 to 20 July 1982 over a 270-square-kilometer area centered on the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) Nuclear Project located near Richland, Washington. All gamma ray data were collected by flying parallel lines spaed 152 meters (500 feet) apart at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to total external exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates ranged from 5 to 15 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) with the average background ranging from 9 to 12μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 μR/h. The exposure rates obtained from ground-based measurements taken in background locations within the survey area displayed positive agreement the aerial data

  20. Total gaseous mercury and volatile organic compounds measurements at five municipal solid waste disposal sites surrounding the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, D. A.; Velasco, A.; Rosas, A.; Volke-Sepúlveda, T.

    The daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is the highest nationwide (˜26000 ton day -1); this amount is discarded in sanitary landfills and controlled dumps. Information about the type and concentration of potential pollutants contained in landfill gas (LFG) from these MSW disposal sites is limited. This study intends to generate information about the composition of LFG from five MSW disposal sites with different operational characteristics and stages, in order to identify their contribution as potential pollutant sources of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Important methane (CH 4) contents (>55%) in LFG were registered at three of the five sites, while two sites were found in semi-aerobic conditions (CH 4clay cover. High values of the TGM air/LFG ratio were also related to external TGM sources of influence, as a landfill in operation stage located at a highly industrialized area.

  1. Aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Besse Nuclear power Station and surrounding area, Oak Harbor, Ohio. Date of survey: 26-29 May 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    An airborne radiological survey of a 130 km 2 area centered on the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station was made 26-29 May 1980. Count rates observed at 90 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the station

  2. Aerial radiological survey of the William B. McGuire Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Cowans Ford Dam, North Carolina, April 13-24, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobaugh, J.L.

    1981-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 13 to 24 April 1981 over a 235 square kilometer area centered on the William B. McGuire Nuclear Station at Cowans Ford Dam, North Carolina. All gamma-photon data were collected by flying North-South lines spaced 228 meters apart at an altitude of 122 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma-photons detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 5 and 22 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging from 5 to 9 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 μR/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  3. Aerial radiological survey of the William H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Moscow, Ohio. Date of survey: July 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1982-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 29 June through 12 July 1981 over a 250-square-kilometer area centered on the William H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station near Moscow, Ohio. All gamma ray data were collected along flight lines oriented east to west. The lines were 200 meters apart and flown at an altitude of 122 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an exposure rate contour map. The resulting exposure rates were between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging from 6 to 9 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4 μR/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  4. Invasion and morphological variation of the non-indigenous barnacle Chthamalus challengeri (Hoek, 1883) in Yangshan Port and its surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xue, Junzeng; Lin, Junda; Wu, Huixian

    2015-06-01

    Invasive species generally possess unique characteristics that allow them to survive the invasion process in order to establish and spread in new habitats. Successful invaders must resist both physical and physiological stresses associated with the changing environment. A common littoral barnacle, Chthamalus challengeri Hoek, 1883 (Crustacea, Cirripedia), which is native to Japan, South Korea and northern China, has become established in the high-littoral zone adjacent to Yangshan Port, Shanghai, China. A comparison of the morphology of Chthamlus species from Zhoushan archipelago with previous description indicates the occurrence of C. challengeri. The new immigrant becomes a dominant species in certain high-intertidal habitats of the adjacent area to of Yangshan Port. C. challengeri was found in part of sampling sites in Zhoushan in 2010; however, it dispersed to all the eleven sampling sites in 2012. Densities of C.challengeri had increased over 10 times in the last 2 years, with the highest mean value reaching 39533 ± 6243 ind. m-2 in the new habitat. The specific ratios of both operculum area ( Sa) to base area ( SA) and average height of parietal plates ( H) to length of base ( L) revealed that C. challengeri displays morphological changes to resist stronger currents in the new habitats for invasion.

  5. Salmonella in pork retail outlets and dissemination of its pulsotypes through pig production chain in Chiang Mai and surrounding areas, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchanee, Prapas; Tansiricharoenkul, Kankanok; Buawiratlert, Tunyamai; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Angchokchatchawal, Kittipat; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Yano, Terdsak; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Rojanasatien, Suvichai; Tadee, Pakpoom

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. is acknowledged as a significant zoonotic foodborne pathogen throughout the world. Contaminated pork consumption is considered as a main cause of human salmonellosis. In the later stage of the pig production chain, poor hygiene and unsuitable storage conditions in retail outlets are considered to be key factors linked to the risk of Salmonella infection. The purpose of current study, which was conducted throughout April 2014 to September 2014, was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella spp. in pork sold at the retail stage in wet markets and supermarkets in the Chiang Mai urban area of Thailand. Additionally, clonal relations between Salmonella strains described in this study and those identified in earlier study from the same geographical area were considered. It is provided as a means of contributing to current knowledge regarding Salmonella epidemiology with an ultimate aim of improved food security and consumer protection in this region. From a total of 82 pork samples analyzed in this study, 41% were positive for Salmonella, with prevalence of 73.2% from wet markets (n=30/41) and 9.8% from supermarkets (n=4/41). Twelve Salmonella serovars were identified, S. Rissen being the most commonly encountered. Antibiotic resistance of the isolates was highest for ampicillin and tetracycline (53%), followed by streptomycin (44%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and subsequent geographical distribution analysis indicated that the clonal Salmonella strains originated from multiple sources had been spread over a wide area. The existence of a common pig supply chain "farm-slaughterhouse-retail" transmission route is inferred. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella along the entire production chain is needed to reduce contamination loads and to ensure the safety of pork products for end consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr., Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer

    2009-01-31

    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock’s ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock’s primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of

  7. Background gamma radiation monitoring of three clusters of villages surrounding Mohuldih, Banduhurang and Bagjata villages, the proposed uranium mining areas in Singhbhum, Jharkhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougaonkar, M.P.; Puranik, V.D.; Singh, Prashant

    2008-01-01

    Generation of power is a fundamental catalyst to the social and economic development of a country. India needs more power in order to have a strong industrial base and for infrastructure development. With this in view, there has been an emphasis on nuclear power as an alternative source in the field of electricity generation as the nuclear power can be an effective tool in reducing stress on the environment. The Singhbhum district in the state of Jharkhand in India has been known to have deposits of uranium and uranium mines like Jaduguda, Narwapahar, Bhatin etc have been operating in the region. With the increased requirement of electricity and hence suitable fuel, few more sites are proposed to mine uranium in the region. The sites proposed are near the villages of Mohuldih, Banduhurang and Bagjata and are proposed to be open cast mines. These areas of Singhbhum are not economically advanced areas. By and large, the population is poor and there are existing problems like malnutrition and poor health. The activities of mining and the associated developments in the region are expected to improve the economic condition of the residents either through direct employment in the mining facilities, or by indirect gains due to infrastructural developments in the region. In order to assess the impact of the mining operations on the environment and the population as well, it is necessary that the pre-operational survey be carried out in the regions in question. As is the practice, a complete pre-operational survey of the physical, chemical and environmental parameters has been carried out in the region. Background gamma radiation survey was also carried out, using the thermo luminescent dosimetry technique, to obtain the preoperational levels prevalent in the regions. This paper gives the results of the baseline background gamma radiation survey in the region. It was observed that the general gamma background levels of the areas, as measured using TLDs, was 1.36 ± 0.41 m

  8. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr, Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock's ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock's primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of stratigraphic

  9. Aerial radiological survey of the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station and surrounding area, Glen Rose, Texas. Date of Survey: March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 1 to 9 March 1982 over a 260-square-kilometer area centered on the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station located in Somervell County, Texas. The survey was conducted by the Energy Measurements Group of EG and G for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All gamma ray data were collected by flying parallel lines spaced 152 meters (500 feet) apart at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to total exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates ranged from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with the average background ranging from 6 to 8 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.8 μR/h. The exposure rates obtained from ground-based measurements taken in typical background locations within the survey area displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  10. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the UNC Recovery Systems Facility, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. Date of survey: August 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the UNC Recovery Systems facility located near Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. At the time of the survey (August 1979) materials were being processed at the facility. Gamma ray data were collected over a 3.63 km 2 area centered on the facility by flying north-south lines spaced 60 m apart. Processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters, except at certain locations described in this report. Average exposure rates 1 m above the ground, as calculated from the aerial data, are presented in the form of an isopleth map. No ground sample data were taken at the time of the aerial survey

  11. Geological mapping and analysis in determining resource recitivity limestone rocks in the village of Mersip and surrounding areas, district Limun, Sorolangun Regency, Jambi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Obie Mario; Ibrahim, Eddy; Susilo, Budhi Kuswan

    2017-11-01

    The research objective is to describe potential, to analyze the quality and quantity of limestone, and to know the limit distribution of rocks based on the value of resistivity, the pattern of distribution of rocks by drilling, the influence mineral growing on rock against resistivity values, the model deposition of limestone based on the value resistivity of rock and drilling, and the comparison between the interpretation resistivity values based on petrographic studies by drilling. Geologic Formations study area consists of assays consisting of altered sandstone, phyllite, slate, siltstone, grewake, and inset limestone. Local quartz sandstone, schist, genealogy, which is Member of Mersip Stylists Formation, consists of limestone that formed in shallow seas. Stylists Formation consists of slate, shale, siltstone and sandstone. This research methodology is quantitative using experimental observation by survey. This type of research methodology by its nature is descriptive analysis.

  12. Analysis of entrance skin radiation dose in mammography equipment in Rio Grande do Sul state (Ijui municipality and surroundings) and Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Geovane Silva; Padilha Filho, Lucas Gomes; Sousa, Carlos Henrique Simoes de; Feldmann, Gerson; Albrecht, Marcos R.A.; Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de

    2016-01-01

    Mammography is the technique widely used to the early detection of breast cancer, despite of not being a consensus the ideal age to initiate the radiologic examinations, it is recommended that women with the age of forty realize the examinations periodically. With the objective to analyze the entrance skin dose (ESD) in different mammography equipment, Were analyzed in the Estate of Rio Grande do Sul (Ijui City and neighborhoods) and in Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area) 24 mammography equipment. Among them included in the study, just one presented ESD higher than the established limit of ANVISA. It was observed in the mammography equipment of Ijui and neighborhoods high levels of mAs to achieve the values of ESD next to the limit. (author)

  13. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A. (GEOSIGMA AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  14. Rock-block configuration in Uppland and the Aalands-hav basin, the regional surroundings of the SKB site in Forsmark, Sea and land areas, eastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckholmen, Monica; Tiren, Sven A.

    2010-12-01

    The Forsmark SKB site lies at the west-northwest trending shoreline in northern Uppland, sheltered from the sea by one of the larger islands in the Uppland archipelago, Graesoe. To assess the structures around Forsmark also in the sea area, the bottom structures of the Aalands-hav basin were investigated by means of depth readings from sea charts. Two rock-block maps with rock blocks at different scales were constructed and analysed for their top surface elevation. The topography in Uppland is more broken in the sea area east and northeast of Forsmark than it is on land. The major structure in the Aalands-hav basin is a westnorth- westerly line that passes southwest of Aaland, with a very steep gradient from the Aaland archipelago down to an exceptionally low sea-floor valley. On its southern side it rises in steps to a low flat basin divided into a deeper western half and a somewhat shallower eastern half. The deep west-north-westerly zone can be traced on-land past Oeregrund and Forsmark. West of Oeregrund however, the main trough swings into a north-northwesterly direction, just west of Graesoe. The southern border south of Oeregrund and Forsmark, shows a major drop in elevation northern side down. Forsmark thus lies on a ribbon with lower ground on both its southern and northern boundaries. This west-north-westerly belt is cut in two by a major north-south lineament that cuts through the archipelago between Aaland and Graesoe with a very deep canyon. This structure was seismically active in June 2006. The southern part of this line constitutes the western border of the low basin and has a steep gradient on its western side up to the Uppland mainland. The deep basin is filled with Jotnian metasediments. South of this basin, the Uppland mainland continues under water towards the east. South of Aaland an east-north-easterly ridge separates the low basin to the north from an east-west trending trough which is the eastern continuation of a major onland structure

  15. Geology of the Early Arikareean sharps formation on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation and surrounding areas of South Dakota and Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Thomas H; Dibenedetto, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    Based on geologic mapping, measured sections, and lithologic correlations, the local features of the upper and lower type areas of the Early Arikareean (30.8-20.6 million years ago) Sharps Formation are revised and correlated. The Sharps Formation above the basal Rockyford Member is divided into two members of distinct lithotypes. The upper 233 feet of massive siltstones and sandy siltstones is named the Gooseneck Road Member. The middle member, 161 feet of eolian volcaniclastic siltstones with fluvially reworked volcaniclastic lenses and sandy siltstone sheets, is named the Wolff Camp Member. An ashey zone at the base of the Sharps Formation is described and defined as the Rockyford Ash Zone (RAZ) in the same stratigraphic position as the Nonpareil Ash Zone (NPAZ) in Nebraska. Widespread marker beds of fresh water limestones at 130 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation and a widespread reddish-brown clayey siltstone at 165 feet above the base of the Sharps Formation are described. The Brown Siltstone Beds of Nebraska are shown to be a southern correlative of the Wolff Camp Member and the Rockyford Member of the Sharps Formation. Early attempts to correlate strata in the Great Plains were slow in developing. Recognition of the implications of the paleomagnetic and lithologic correlations of this paper will provide an added datum assisting researchers in future biostratigraphic studies. Based on similar lithologies, the Sharps Formation, currently assigned to the Arikaree Group, should be reassigned to the White River Group.

  16. Facies Analysis of Tertiary Basin-Filling Rocks of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water System and Surrounding Areas, Nevada and California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Taylor, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Existing hydrologic models of the Death Valley region typically have defined the Cenozoic basins as those areas that are covered by recent surficial deposits, and have treated the basin-fill deposits that are concealed under alluvium as a single unit with uniform hydrologic properties throughout the region, and with depth. Although this latter generalization was known to be flawed, it evidently was made because available geologic syntheses did not provide the basis for a more detailed characterization. As an initial attempt to address this problem, this report presents a compilation and synthesis of existing and new surface and subsurface data on the lithologic variations between and within the Cenozoic basin fills of this region. The most permeable lithologies in the Cenozoic basin fills are freshwater limestones, unaltered densely welded tuffs, and little-consolidated coarse alluvium. The least permeable lithologies are playa claystones, altered nonwelded tuffs, and tuffaceous and cl ay-matrix sediments of several types. In all but the youngest of the basin fills, permeability probably decreases strongly with depth owing to a typically increasing abundance of volcanic ash or clay in the matrices of the clastic sediments with increasing age (and therefore with increasing depth in general), and to increasing consolidation and alteration (both hydrothermal and diagenetic) with increasing depth and age. This report concludes with a categorization of the Cenozoic basins of the Death Valley region according to the predominant lithologies in the different basin fills and presents qualitative constraints on the hydrologic properties of these major lithologic categories

  17. The Origin of the Name of the City of Derbent and the Toponymy of the Surrounding Area in the Context of Ethnolinguistic Situation in the Early Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garun-Rashid Abdul-Kadyrovich Guseynov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Founded in 438 and included on the World Heritage List in 2003, the ancient city of Derbent emerged in the area which, by the time of its foundation, was known under various names which belong, as it is shown in the paper, to different Bulgar (Turkic languages: province of Chor, Ζουάρ-ος fortress, Chora / Djora way, Τζοΰρ, city of Chora, Chola / Choga / Chol, gate of Chola / Choga, province of Sul. These dialectal place names meaning ʻsteep bank, precipiceʼ meet the localization of the city in a narrow passageway between the Greater Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. The author argues that all etymologies of the considered oikonyms and horonyms based on linguistic data other than Bulgar should be recognized as inadequate. Their Bulgar origin is supported by the toponymic landscape and the names of the peoples who lived within its borders in the early Middle Ages. The existence of toponymic parallels outside the region in question is explained by the migration, in the first centuries AD, of the Bulgars from the North-Eastern Caucasus and Dagestan to Eastern and Southern Europe — the Volga region, the Balkans and Crimea.

  18. Chromium in surface water and groundwater in the surrounding area of a tannery: relationships with water quality baseline, Elena, Cordoba. Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteoda, E.; Blarasin, M.; Damilano, G.; Cabrera, A.; Giuliano Albo, J.

    2009-01-01

    The basin of the El Barreal stream is a dominantly rural area in which groundwater is used for all activities whereas the stream is used as sink of residues and effluents. The existence of a tannery, which discharge the effluents into a wetland (which is drained by the stream), reveals the need to study the presence of Chromium in surface and groundwater and to compare values derived from pollution with those corresponding to the natural water baseline values. Fifty three samples of surface and groundwater were abstracted and chemical analyses were made, including total Chromium in water and plants. The chemical analysis results were studied by means of conventional and statistical techniques. The local and regional geological characteristics allow us to interpret that Chromium in water is derived from source minerals, being possible to stand out that high values probably are related to nearby serpentinite bodies.The values of total chrome in surface and groundwater are included in the natural quality baseline range calculated for this basin (0,25-5ug/L), exempting those samples with higher values linked to sites with farming activities and to the wetland environment where the Chromium effluent is discharged. In the last place, Chromium was retained in soil and plants whereas the aquifer was affected by a contaminant plume of total dissolved solids because of advective-dispersive transport. In the 2009 monitoring survey, a small increase of Chromium in groundwater was detected in relation to that of 2005, being assumed that partial desorption of Chromium is taking place from the solid phase. (Author) 19 refs.

  19. Impact of terrorism on the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the residents of Khyber Bazaar and its immediate surrounding areas in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Asad; Hassan, Asad; Ali, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the severity of PTSD symptoms in survivors, rescuers and witnesses of terrorist attacks on Khyber bazaar, Qissa Khawani bazaar, and All Saints Church in Peshawar city area. Cross-sectional survey is carried out on a sample of one hundred survivors, rescuers and witness of terrorist attacks using structured interviews to assess the severity of posttraumatic stress, five months after the attacks. The study period extended from January 24, 2014 to March 24, 2014 which constitutes a total of period of 8 weeks. PTSD symptoms are measured using Posttraumatic Symptom Scale Interview (PSSI) and conferred to a diagnosis of PTSD at 5 months. Additionally, the severity of PTSD symptoms were determined using PSSI scores, severity ranged from 0-51. Of the one hundred survey respondents, 88% were males and 12% were females. Forty percent (40%) had attained 10 years of education, matriculation, but irrespective of the gender or educational status, all had some degree of PTSD. Sixty-six (66%) percent respondents are diagnosed as having moderate PTSD while 11% of the sample suffered from severe PTSD level. Age, gender, occupation and education level did not have any correlation with PTSD development. The contemporary findings indicate that any person who has witnessed or survived catastrophes of terrorist activities like bomb blast or being exposed to suicide attacks is at risk for developing PTSD, and there is necessity to deliver specialized post-disaster mental health facilities to the people having substantial levels of PTSD after calamities of such great intensity.

  20. Geology of the Río de la Plata and the surrounding areas of Argentina and Uruguay related to the evolution of the Atlantic margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossello, Eduardo A.; Veroslavsky, Gerardo; de Santa Ana, Héctor; Rodríguez, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    the order of 12%-15% of effective porosity and with expected traps of the stratigraphic and combined (closing against faulting) type, and overlapped by fine sediments with excellent quality as seals. The economic significance of these sedimentary volumes lies in their yet unexplored potential as natural fluid reservoirs (hydrocarbons and groundwater), of great importance due to their strategic position near the large urban areas of Buenos Aires and Montevideo.

  1. PERUBAHAN FISIK KERUANGAN DAN SOSIAL EKONOMI MASYARAKAT DI KAWASAN SEKITAR TEMPAT PEMBUANGAN AKHIR SAMPAH BANTARGEBANG KOTA BEKASI (Physical Environmental and Social Economic Changing in Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping Site Area Surrounding Bekasi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kesuma

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan menjelaskan perubahan fisik keruangan dan sosial ekonomi masyarakat di kawasan sekitar TPA Sampah Bantargebang. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah gabungan metode kualitatif dengan metode kuantitatif dengan pendekatan rasionalitas, yaitu data dan informasi dilapangan dikomparasikan dengan teori dan konsep yang berhubungan dengan masalah yang diteliti. Hasil penelitian dan pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa: (1 terdapat perubahan fisik keruangan di walayah penelitian yang ditandai dengan bertambahnya area terbangun, yaitu tumbuhnya tempat-tempat permukiman pemulung warung-warung, rumah-rumah penduduk, bertambah panjang dan lebarnya jalan, serta menurunnya kualitas air tanah, udara dan kesuburan lahan; (2 terdapat perubahan pada kondis; sosial masyarakat yang ditandai dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk, kegiatan ekonomi atau lapangan kerja, rendahnya angka partisipasi kasar pada setiap tingkat pendidikan, menurunnya derajat kesehatan masyarakat, serta terganggunya kenyamanan lingkungan yang akhirnya mengurangi kesejahteraan masyarakat; (3 terdapat perubahan pada ekonomi penduduk ke arah yang lebih baik, yang ditandai dengan meningkatnya jumlah pendapatan dan terbukanya peluang mengembangkan usaha sampingan. Berdasarkan hal tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa bagi lingkungan sekitar dan masyarakat di wilayah penelitian sebara umum keberadaan TPA Sampah Bantargebang lebih memberikan pengaruh negatif daripada positif.   ABSTRACT This research aims to identify and to explain physical spatial and social economic community changing in the Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping site area  and it surroundings. The research used deductive rational approach, with a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, i.e. comparison between data and information collected in the field, and the concept and theory related to the subject. The research identified physical, social, and economic changes. The

  2. Mineralization and geophysical exploration by IP/RS and ground magnetic survey in MA-I and surrounding area, Maherabad porphyry Cu-Au prospect area, east of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Malekzadeh Shafaroudi; Mohammad Reza Hidarian Shahri; Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2009-01-01

    Maherabad prospect area, which is studied in detail, is the first porphyry Cu-Au mineralization in the east of Iran. Based on relation of mineralization with subvolcanic intrusive bodies mostly monzonitic with porphyry texture, extent and types of alteration including potassic, sericitic- potassic, quartz- sericite- carbonate- pyrite, quartz- carbonate- pyrite, silicification- propylitic, propylitic, stockwork mineralization, assemblages hypogene mineralization including pyrite, chalcopyrite,...

  3. Investigation of land subsidence due to climate changes in surrounding areas of Urmia Lake (located in northwest of Iran) using wavelet coherence analysis of geodetic measurements and methodological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtased-Azar, K.; Mirzaei, A.; Nankali, H. R.; Tavakoli, F.

    2012-04-01

    Urmia Lake (salt lake in northwest of Iran) plays a valuable role in environment, wildlife and economy of Iran and the region, and now faces great challenges for survival. The Lake is in immediate and great danger and rapidly going to become salty desert. During the recent years and new heat wave, Iran, like many other countries are experiencing, is faced with relativity reduced rain fall. From a few years ago environment activists warned about potential dangers. Geodetic measurements, e.g., repeated leveling measurements of first order leveling network of Iran and continuous GPS measurements of Iranian Permanent GPS network of Iran (IPGN) showed that there is subsidence in surrounding areas of the lake. This paper investigates the relation between subsidence and climate changing in the area, using the wavelet coherence of the data of permanent GPS stations and daily methodological data. The results show that there is strong coherence between the subsidence phenomena induced by GPS data and climate warming from January 2009 up to end of August 2009. However, relative lake height variations computed from altimetry observations (TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P), Jason-1 and Jason-2/OSTM) confirms maximum evaporation rates of the lake in this period.

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbons, fluorescent aromatic compounds in fish bile and organochlorine pesticides from areas surrounding the spill of the Kab121 well, in the Southern Gulf of Mexico: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold-Bouchot, G; Ceja-Moreno, V; Chan-Cocom, E; Zapata-Perez, O

    2014-01-01

    In October 2007, a light crude oil spill took place in the off shore Kab121 oil well, 32 km north of the mouth of the Grijalva River, Tabasco, Mexico. In order to estimate the possible effects of oil spill on the biota in the area surrounding the spilled well, the level of different fractions of petroleum hydrocarbons were measured in fish, as well as the concentration of some chlorinated hydrocarbons and PCBs. The organisms examined were cat fish (Ariopsis felis), in addition fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile, the contaminants above mentioned and their relationship with cyotochrome P-450 and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, Glutathion-S-Transferase and catalase activities in liver were determined. The concentration of most pollutants were low, except PAHs. Spatial distribution of these compounds, as well as most biomarkers, reflected the highest exposure of fish to pollutants in the area adjacent to well, as well as in the proximity of rivers. The profile of exposure to this environment was chronic in nature and not temporary.

  5. The transcriptome and miRNome profiling of glioblastoma tissues and peritumoral regions highlights molecular pathways shared by tumors and surrounding areas and reveals differences between short-term and long-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Barbara; Felsani, Armando; Grassi, Luigi; Moles, Anna; D'Andrea, Daniel; Toschi, Nicola; Sicari, Daria; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo; Guerrisi, Maria Giovanna; Luca, Emilia; Farace, Maria Giulia; Maira, Giulio; Ciafré, Silvia Anna; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-09-08

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor, driving patients to death within 15 months after diagnosis (short term survivors, ST), with the exception of a small fraction of patients (long term survivors, LT) surviving longer than 36 months. Here we present deep sequencing data showing that peritumoral (P) areas differ from healthy white matter, but share with their respective frankly tumoral (C) samples, a number of mRNAs and microRNAs representative of extracellular matrix remodeling, TGFβ and signaling, of the involvement of cell types different from tumor cells but contributing to tumor growth, such as microglia or reactive astrocytes. Moreover, we provide evidence about RNAs differentially expressed in ST vs LT samples, suggesting the contribution of TGF-β signaling in this distinction too. We also show that the edited form of miR-376c-3p is reduced in C vs P samples and in ST tumors compared to LT ones. As a whole, our study provides new insights into the still puzzling distinction between ST and LT tumors, and sheds new light onto that "grey" zone represented by the area surrounding the tumor, which we show to be characterized by the expression of several molecules shared with the proper tumor mass.

  6. Hydrology and numerical simulation of groundwater movement and heat transport in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Miller, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Gardner, Philip M.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2014-01-01

    Snake Valley and surrounding areas, along the Utah-Nevada state border, are part of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system. The groundwater system in the study area consists of water in unconsolidated deposits in basins and water in consolidated rock underlying the basins and in the adjacent mountain blocks. Most recharge occurs from precipitation on the mountain blocks and most discharge occurs from the lower altitude basin-fill deposits mainly as evapotranspiration, springflow, and well withdrawals.The Snake Valley area regional groundwater system was simulated using a three-dimensional model incorporating both groundwater flow and heat transport. The model was constructed with MODFLOW-2000, a version of the U.S. Geological Survey’s groundwater flow model, and MT3DMS, a transport model that simulates advection, dispersion, and chemical reactions of solutes or heat in groundwater systems. Observations of groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, springflow, mountain stream base flow, and well withdrawals; groundwater-level altitudes; and groundwater temperatures were used to calibrate the model. Parameter values estimated by regression analyses were reasonable and within the range of expected values.This study represents one of the first regional modeling efforts to include calibration to groundwater temperature data. The inclusion of temperature observations reduced parameter uncertainty, in some cases quite significantly, over using just water-level altitude and discharge observations. Of the 39 parameters used to simulate horizontal hydraulic conductivity, uncertainty on 11 of these parameters was reduced to one order of magnitude or less. Other significant reductions in parameter uncertainty occurred in parameters representing the vertical anisotropy ratio, drain and river conductance, recharge rates, and well withdrawal rates.The model provides a good representation of the groundwater system. Simulated water-level altitudes range over

  7. iTRAQ analysis of hepatic proteins in free-living Mus spretus mice to assess the contamination status of areas surrounding Doñana National Park (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Nieves; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Michán, Carmen; Pueyo, Carmen; López-Barea, Juan, E-mail: bb1lobaj@uco.es

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to develop and integrate new -omics tools that would be applicable to different ecosystem types for a technological updating of environmental evaluations. We used a 2nd-generation (iTRAQ-8plex) proteomic approach to identify/quantify proteins differentially expressed in the liver of free-living Mus spretus mice from Doñana National Park or its proximities. Mass spectrometry was performed in an LTQ Orbitrap system for iTRAQ reporter ion quantitation and protein identification using a Mus musculus database as reference. A prior IEF step improved the separation of the complex peptide mixture. Over 2000 identified proteins were altered, of which 118 changed by ≥ 2.5-fold in mice from at least two problem sites. Part of the results obtained with the iTRAQ analysis was confirmed by Western blot. Over 75% of the 118 proteins were upregulated in animals captured at polluted sites and only 16 proteins were downregulated. Upregulated proteins were involved in stress response; cell proliferation and apoptosis; signal transduction; metastasis or tumour suppression; xenobiotic export or vesicular trafficking; and metabolism. The downregulated proteins, all potentially harmful, were classified as oncoproteins and proteins favouring genome instability. The iTRAQ results presented here demonstrated that the survival of hepatic cells is compromised in animals living at polluted sites, which showed deep alterations in metabolism and the signalling pathways. The identified proteins may be useful as biomarkers of environmental pollution and provide insight about the metabolic pathways and/or physiological processes affected by pollutants in DNP and its surrounding areas. - Highlights: • iTRAQ quantitation was used for the first time to monitor a wildlife reserve • Over 2,000 proteins with altered expression were identified in problem Doñana sites • Of them, 118 changed over 2.5-fold in, at least, two problem sites • Upregulation of protective proteins

  8. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  9. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  10. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability ...

  11. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Nava, Alessandra; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. An analysis of the influence of the local effects of climatic and hydrological factors affecting new malaria cases in riverine areas along the Rio Negro and surrounding Puraquequara Lake, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Paulo Eduardo Guzzo; Candido, Luiz Antonio; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; da Silva Junior, Urbano Lopes; Correa, Honorly Katia Mestre

    2018-04-26

    A study was conducted at three sampling regions along the Rio Negro and surrounding Puraquequara Lake, Amazonas, Brazil. The aim was to determine the influence of the local effects of climatic and hydrological variables on new malaria cases. Data was gathered on the river level, precipitation, air temperature, and the number of new cases of autochthonous malaria between January 2003 and December 2013. Monthly averages, time series decompositions, cross-correlations, and multiple regressions revealed different relationships at each location. The sampling region in the upper Rio Negro indicated no statistically significant results. However, monthly averages suggest that precipitation and air temperature correlate positively with the occurrence of new cases of malaria. In the mid Rio Negro and Puraquequara Lake, the river level positively correlated, and temperature negatively correlated with new transmissions, while precipitation correlated negatively in the mid Rio Negro and positively on the lake. Overall, the river level is a key variable affecting the formation of breeding sites, while precipitation may either develop or damage them. A negative temperature correlation is associated with the occurrence of new annual post-peak cases of malaria, when the monthly average exceeds 28.5 °C. This suggests that several factors contribute to the occurrence of new malaria cases as higher temperatures are reached at the same time as precipitation and the river levels are lowest. Differences between signals and correlation lags indicate that local characteristics have an impact on how different variables influence the disease vector's life cycle, pathogens, and consequently, new cases of malaria.

  14. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Regional potentiometric-surface map of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Plume, Russell W.; Buto, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in and around Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah. The map area covers approximately 9,000 square miles in Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. Recent (2007-2010) drilling by the Utah Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey has provided new data for areas where water-level measurements were previously unavailable. New water-level data were used to refine mapping of the pathways of intrabasin and interbasin groundwater flow. At 20 of these locations, nested observation wells provide vertical hydraulic gradient data and information related to the degree of connection between basin-fill aquifers and consolidated-rock aquifers. Multiple-year water-level hydrographs are also presented for 32 wells to illustrate the aquifer system's response to interannual climate variations and well withdrawals.

  17. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  18. La supresión del ferrocarril, la Carretera de la Fruta, y su impacto en la movilidad del sector aledaño. / The removal of rail, road fruits, and its impact on the mobility of the surrounding area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahady V., Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Además de la línea férrea que recorre Chile, existieron en alguna época, las líneas férreas transversales que conectaron las zonas rurales más distantes, especialmente en las derivaciones hacia la costa. Una de ellas fue conocida como el ramal Pelequén - Las Cabras (localidades extremas del ramal. Durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX dicho ramal constituía casi el único medio de transporte de una población –relativamente alejada- para trasladarse a la capital o a cualquier ciudad del norte o del sur, y también de la carga de productos agrícolas desde el campo hasta la ciudad. Al desaparecer el ferrocarril el cambio de la movilidad fue evidente./There is a rail road that goes from north to south in Chile. But there also were railroads that went from the east to the west thus connecting even the most rural and remote areas, specially those near the coastline. One of these east to west rail roads was the branch line Pelequén – Las Cabras (the end and beginning of the branch line. During the second half of the 19th century this branch line was the only way this remote community had to travel and transport agricultural products to the capital and anywhere in the country. When the railroad ceased to function the change in mobility was most evident.

  19. Study of geohazards in the artisanal exploitation sites and their impacts on their surrounding areas. Cases of Mufwa and Kalimbi mines in the South Kivu province (D.R. Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshokano, Jean-Robert

    2014-05-01

    different geohazards in urban and rural areas. These works will be recorded in monthly reports. Informations will be disseminated through a specific program of activities (audiovisual broadcasts, monthly reports posted to internet, conferences, workshops, etc.).

  20. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  1. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field, Puebla, Mexico and surrounding areas; Caracteristicas quimicas e isotopicas del agua de lluvia en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, Mexico y zonas aledanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar Aguado, Rigoberto; Cruz Grajales, Irma [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Los Humeros, Puebla (Mexico)

    2000-12-01

    A study of chemical and isotopic characteristics of rainwater at Los Humeros geothermal field was undertaken for the second consecutive year. Samples were collected in seven stations-two inside the field and five on the periphery. In 1996, a total of 99 samples were collected and 104 were collected in 1997. Of these, 19-18.26% of the total-had a negative alkalinity. The Atempan (No.5) and Campamento (No.1) stations showed the highest number of anomalous samples (31.25 and 27.8%, respectively). Anomalous samples in Perote station were not observed a result that we attribute to the predominant wind direction. The results for the Campamento station are attributed to the thermal inversion phenomena occurring when the samples with negative alkalinity were obtained. Concentrations of cations in some samples were relatively high, with the maximum concentration of calcium in the Los Humeros station (79.7 ppm) . Other significantly high values were found in the Texcal station (34.8 ppm) and Perote (33.8 ppm) due to the presence of dust particles scattered in the air and because of the lack of pavement where the sampling stations are located. Another factor affecting these figures could be the presence of block and lime factories in the neighborhood. Although measured concentrations may seem high, reports exist with similar concentrations in nongeothermal areas. Oxygen-18 and deuterium contents were determined for each stations, mixing anomalous samples. The results show that the most enriched samples correspond to the San Juan Xiutetelco, Puebla (No. 6) station and the minimum to the Perote Veracruz (No. 7) station. The concentration of SO{sub 4} has marine and industrial origins, with a contribution of the first source ranging between 10 and 25 percent. [Spanish] En el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla se realizo, por segundo ano consecutivo, la caracterizacion quimica e isotopica de agua de lluvia en muestras colectadas en siete estaciones, dos localizadas dentro

  2. Comunidade de aves de sub-bosque em uma área de entorno do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Understory bird community in a surrounded area of Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana R. Maia-Gouvêa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em mata secundária no Município de Itatiaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro (22º30'S e 44º30'W próximo ao Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, com o objeitvo de descrever a comunidade de aves ali presente. Foram amostrados três tipos vegetacionais distintos: reflorestamento, bosque e pomar, tendo sido realizadas 19 excursões entre 1984 e 1999. As aves foram amostradas através de capturas com redes de neblina e anilhamento, tendo sido utilizadas de 15 a 31 redes de 12 x 2 m e malha 36 mm. Foram também obtidas medidas morfométricas (comprimento total, asa, bico, cauda e tarso e dados biológicos (sexo, idade reprodução e muda. Depois de 5.621,79 horas-rede, foi registrado um total de 553 capturas, com 71 recapturas (12,84%; 417 indivíduos foram anilhados, e 65 beija-flores deixaram de ser marcados por falta de anilhas específicas. A comunidade estudada esteve representada por 77 espécies e 18 famílias, apresentando índice de diversidade H' = -1,594 e a curva do coletor com tendência à estabilização. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Emberizidae (n = 21; 27,27% e Tyrannidae (n = 15; 19,48%. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Turdus leucomelas (n = 40; 9,59% e Turdus rufiventris (n = 36; 8,63%. Seis das espécies amostradas (7,8% são endêmicas do bioma Mata Atlântica. Na estação chuvosa foram amostradas 68 espécies, e na estação seca, 42; e as capturas estiveram relacionadas com as chuvas (rs = -0,6778; p = 0,05. O período reprodutivo ocorreu de outubro a março estando correlacionado com o início da estação chuvosa (rs = -0,702; p = 0,052.This study was conduced in a second growth woodland close to Itatiaia National Park (22º30'S e 44º30'W, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and aimed to describe the understory bird community living in this area. We sampled three different vegetation types, reforestation, wood and orchard, through 19 field trips between 1984 and 1999. Birds

  3. Marsupials (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru)

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, M. Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Se presenta el resultado de un estudio realizado en la localidad de Iquitos y sus alrededores, un área ubicada en la Amazonía del noreste de Perú. Se ofrece una lista de especies de marsupiales registrados mediante colectas realizadas personalmente, información obtenida de la literatura, y registros confiables. Para cada especie se mencionan las localidades de colecta y presentan comentarios sobre su sistemática e historia natural. Se citan 19 especies para Iquitos, 14 fueron colectadas en...

  4. Causes of fever in adults in thall and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.A.S.; Javed, A.; Ali, S.

    2015-01-01

    The most common symptom for which the patients are admitted in our hospitals is fever. This study was carried out to know the causes of fever based on clinical and laboratory findings. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 865 consecutive male patients with fever of 100 degree F and above were included in the study conducted from January 2010 to April 2012. Results: All the patients were male having age between 17 years and 45 years. Out of the 865 patients, 507 (58.61%) came out to be malarial parasite slide positive, 186 (21.50%) patients were malarial parasite slide negative but were having clinical picture of malaria and responded to anti-malarial treatment, 73 (8.44%) patients were of respiratory tract infections, 21 (2.43%) patients were having gastro enteritis, 20 (2.31%) were diagnosed as cases of typhoid fever, 17 (1.97%) were having urinary tract infections, 24 (2.77%) patients were referred to medical specialist and the rest 17 (1.97%) were grouped as others. Conclusion: The most common cause of fever in our study was malaria. Respiratory tract infections are the second most common cause. (author)

  5. Radiological impact on the surrounding area of Cernavoda NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busnita, M.; Penescu, M.; Neacsu, L.; Ion, M.; Moldoveanu, E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the protective measures provided to Cernavoda NPP for population and environment in case of normal operation and accidental situations. The paper describes the nuclear safety concept with the two aspects, the technical safety and the radiation protection, respectively, which represent the theoretical basis of the NPP design, construction and operation. The assessment of the potential radiological effects of Cernavoda NPP operation on the population and other environmental factors have been done by using the following input data: the natural and social characteristics of the site and the technical characteristics of the plant. The effects of Cernavoda NPP operation are also exposed in health risks which are compared with the daily risks of the population exposed of the natural phenomena or to the activities like transportation, domestics or industrial. (author). 1 tab., 6 refs

  6. Lead contamination in soil and vegetation of areas surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... mine, Tarz lead mine, Shahid Bahonar Copper Industries Company (CSP), Industrial zone No.1 and ... world-wide, mining remains one of the main sources of heavy metal pollution. ..... 24-26 November Bangkok, Thailand.

  7. Lead contamination in soil and vegetation of areas surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show significant negative correlation between waste pH and Pb in industrial waste, plant and soil. Also the results show that Acantholimon sp. and Astragalus glancanthus were dominant plant in two mines upon floristic quantities assay. Lead concentration was 15.8 mg/kg DW and 1.61 mg/kg DW in Ghanat ...

  8. The Trees that surround us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M. E. G.; Rodrigues, M. A. S.

    2012-04-01

    In our school the activities linked with sciences are developed in a partnership with other school subjects. Interdisciplinary projects are always valued from beginning to end of a project. It is common for teachers of different areas to work together in a Science project. Research of English written articles is very important not only for the development of our students' scientific literacy but also as a way of widening knowledge and a view on different perspectives of life instead of being limited to research of any articles in Portuguese language. In this study we are going to collect data about the predominant tree species in the region, especially the invasive trees from the acacia species, the native tree species and the commercial species. We are going to study the reasons for the appearance of each species and draw a chart of soil occupation in the council. This chart will also allow the study of the distribution and use of land for each tree species. This research work is the first stage for a contribution to warn the town council of the dangers of the invasive species to the future economy of the council.

  9. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections

  10. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  11. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender. ... is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. ... are necessary in the society it should not be mistaken for gender inequality.

  12. cordova_3s_mhw.new.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  13. Cordova, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and surroundings (presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzesova, A.; Galusova, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation is a summary of the results of floristic research aimed at determining diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and its surroundings. Plant taxa we determined using the designation keys. We have compiled a list of plant species occurring in the monitored area, we evaluated the selected botanical-phytogeographical characteristics of flora, we've put together a list of local protected, endangered and rare species and a list of local invasive and expansive species according to sources. (Authors)

  15. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions......: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  16. Estudo dos vestígios de peixes dos sítios arqueológicos da área de influência da Usina Hidrelétrica Machadinho, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil A study of fish traces taken from the archaeological sites of the areas surrounding the Machadinho Hydroelectric power station, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ricken

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the material obtained in the rescue of archaeological sites in the area surrounding the Hydroelectric Plant of Machadinho, Rio Grande do Sul, revealed that a considerable amount of bones and fish scales incorporated in the alimentary remains. Using an osteological collection as reference, we identified remains of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1816 (Characidae, Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849 (Characidae, Pogonopoma obscurum Quevedo & Reis, 2002 (Loricariidae, Hemiancistrus fuliginosus Cardoso & Malabarba, 1999, Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 (Prochilodontidae, Schizodon sp. (Anostomidae, Leporinus sp. (Anostomidae, Hoplias sp. (Erythrinidae, Hypostomus sp. (Loricariidae and Crenicichla sp. (Cichlidae. Based on specimens from fish collections, regressions were obtained comparing the size of the pre-maxillary bone in Crenicichla spp. and the length of the pectoral fin spine of Hemiancistrus fuliginosus, Pogonopoma obscurum and Hypostomus spp, with the standard length and weight of corresponding specimens. The estimated size and weight of the specimens obtained from fish remains in the archaeological sites varied between 79.7-153.9 mm and 13.5-33.9 g for Hemiancistrus fuliginosus, 158.2-151.0 mm and 179.5-194.3 g for Pogonopoma obscurum, 117.1-166.2 mm and 86.6-93.1 g for Crenicichla spp., and 62.2-397.2 mm and 34-20.3 g for Hypostomus spp. Therefore using these estimates of standard lengths and weights it was possible to formulate a hypotheses on the fishing technology used by the inhabitants of these sites.

  17. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  18. Childhood Suicide and Myths Surrounding It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Dorothea B.

    1994-01-01

    Dispels five misconceptions surrounding the suicide of children: that children under the age of six do not commit suicide; that suicide in latency years is extremely rare; that psychodynamically and developmentally true depression is not possible in childhood; that child cannot understand finality of death; and that children are cognitively and…

  19. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    β-SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman ... Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its .... intensity implies very low graphite content in thin film. In.

  1. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  2. KANDUNGAN VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 DAN E BEBERAPA JENIS DAGING, TELUR, IKAN DAN UDANG LAUT DI BOGOR DAN SEKITARNYA (VITAMIN B6, B9, B12 AND E CONTENT OF SEVERAL TYPES OF MEATS, EGGS, FISHES AND MARINE SHRIMPS IN BOGOR AND SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Yuniati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Composition Table (DKBM in Indonesia has not mentioned all types of nutrients available in the food, particularly vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E. Therefore this study aimed to analyze the content of vitamin B6, B9 (folic acid, B12, and vitamin E in several types of meat, eggs, fish and marine shrimps consumed in Bogor and surrounding areas. Vitamin B6, B9, B12, and vitamin E from three kinds of meat (chicken, beef, lamb, two types of eggs (chicken, duck, and four species of fish (snapper, bloating, carp and tuna and crayfish are analyzed using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The samples used are raw and taken from three locations in Bogor and surrounding areas. Fishes, meats and eggs contain high levels of folic acid, however the amount of folic acid content in meat varies depending on which part of meat the samples are taken, types of organ, and the fat content of the meat. The folic acid content in chicken wings is different with those in thigh. In fatty mutton the folic acid is higher than in those lean meat, and in yolk is higher than those in egg white. Vitamin E content of snapper is the highest amongs other types of fishes (6.54 µg/100 g.Chicken eggs contain a higher amount of vitamin E than duck eggs, while the yolk contains ahigher amount of vitamin E than those egg white. Keywords: animal foods, vitamin B6, vitamin B9 (folic Acid, vitamin B12, vitamin E   ABSTRAK Daftar Komposisi Bahan Makanan (DKBM yang ada di Indonesia belum memuat semua jenis zat gizi dalam makanan, khususnya vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12 dan vitamin E. Menganalisis kandungan vitamin B6, B9 (asam folat, B12, dan vitamin E dalam beberapa jenis daging, telur, ikan dan udang laut yang dikonsumsi masyarakat di Bogor dan sekitarnya. Kandungan vitamin B6, B9, B12 dan vitamin E dari tiga jenis daging (ayam, sapi, kambing, dua jenis telur (ayam, itik, serta empat jenis ikan (kakap, kembung, mas, tongkol dan udang laut

  3. Analysis of entrance skin radiation dose in mammography equipment in Rio Grande do Sul state (Ijui municipality and surroundings) and Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area); Analise de dose de entrada na pele em mamografos, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Municipio de Ijui e cercanias) e Rio de Janeiro (area metropolitana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Geovane Silva; Padilha Filho, Lucas Gomes, E-mail: geovane.araujo@ftesm.edu.br, E-mail: lucaspadilhaemec@gmail.com [Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sousa, Carlos Henrique Simoes de, E-mail: chenriques2@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldmann, Gerson; Albrecht, Marcos R.A., E-mail: gersonpraxis@gmail.com, E-mail: marcosboom@yahoo.com.br [PRAXIS Protecao Radiologica, Ijui, RS (Brazil); Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de, E-mail: sergioalsouza@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Mammography is the technique widely used to the early detection of breast cancer, despite of not being a consensus the ideal age to initiate the radiologic examinations, it is recommended that women with the age of forty realize the examinations periodically. With the objective to analyze the entrance skin dose (ESD) in different mammography equipment, Were analyzed in the Estate of Rio Grande do Sul (Ijui City and neighborhoods) and in Rio de Janeiro (metropolitan area) 24 mammography equipment. Among them included in the study, just one presented ESD higher than the established limit of ANVISA. It was observed in the mammography equipment of Ijui and neighborhoods high levels of mAs to achieve the values of ESD next to the limit. (author)

  4. BACTERIAS NATIVAS SOLUBILIZADORES DE FOSFATOS PARA INCREMENTAR LOS CULTIVOS EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE CÓRDOBA-COLOMBIA BACTÉRIA NATIVO SOLUBILIZER DE FOSFATOS AO AUMENTO DAS COLHEITAS NO DEPARTAMENTO DE CORDOVA-COLÔMBIA NATIVE PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA TO INCREASE THE CROPS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CORDOVA-COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA LARA

    2011-12-01

    : Burkoldelia cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea sp, Aeromonas, Enterobacter Nakasaki. Cepacia Burkoldelia foi o microrganismo mais capacidade de solubilização de fosfato e foi usado para realizar um pequeno teste em sementes de rabanete (Rhapanus sativus. Verificou-se que uma concentração de 108 UFC/mL, os resultados foram favoráveis para o crescimento eo peso fresco da planta.The aim of this study was to characterize and evaluate native phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from soil samples in the rural area of Cordoba. Primary isolation was performed in the middle SMRS1 in which we observed the appearance of halos of solubilization, at the same time there was a macroscopic and microscopic characterization of the colonies. Was observed, as gram-negative bacilli predominant population at a rate of 93%. We performed qualitative analysis of the strains isolated NBRIP supplemented, at this stage were selected for strains that showed greater than 3 mm IS strains selected for their ability to solubilize phosphate were reviewed using the API 20 E and API 20 NE. The isolated bacteria were: Burkoldelia cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea sp, Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterobacter Nakasaki. Burkoldelia cepacia was the microorganism most phosphate solubilizing capacity and was used to conduct a small trial in radish (Rhapanus sativus seeds. It was found that a concentration of 108 CFUI mL the results were favorable for growth and fresh weight of the plant

  5. Natural occurring radioactivity in Palmyra and its surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shwekani, R.; Raja, G.; Hushari, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Issa, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this work, the natural radiation background has been carried out for Palmyra city and its surroundings area. The study has covered gamma radiation measurements, indoor radon gas concentration and radionuclides levels in environmental samples (soil, water, plat). The results showed that indoor radon gas concentrations and radiation exposure rates are within the background levels. Also, the results showed that there is no artificial radiation in the area and there is no correlation between the natural radiation levels and the reported cancer cases. Therefore, the reported cancer cases in this area may be due to non-radiation cases, which must be investigated, or they are within the natural levels in Syria unless accurate statistics proves the opposite. (author)

  6. Diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzesova, A.; Galusova, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work is a summary of the results of floristic research aimed at determining diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and its surroundings. Plant taxa we determined using the designation keys. We have compiled a list of plant species occurring in the monitored area, we evaluated the selected botanical-phytogeographical characteristics of flora, we've put together a list of local protected, endangered and rare species and a list of local invasive and expansive species according to sources. (Authors)

  7. Infecciones parasitarias del coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae en un Parque Nacional y una zona agrícola en Costa Rica Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Niehaus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conforme las poblaciones humanas se expanden hacia los hábitats silvestres con sus mascotas y ganado, el potencial de transmisión de enfermedades hacia los animales silvestres -y viceversa- aumenta, y hace necesario identificar interacciones zoonóticas potenciales. Los cánidos domésticos y silvestres pueden funcionar como reservorios o diseminadores de enfermedades infecciosas (se incluyen parásitos, por lo que el coyote (Canis latrans puede también servir como indicador de la salud ecológica. Asimismo, se estudiaron los parásitos de 209 muestras de heces de coyotes en una zona mixta de área silvestre protegida y campo agrícola del Parque Nacional Volcán Irazú (PNVI en Costa Rica. La recolección fue realizada mensualmente durante un año en tres sub-áreas denominadas: Irazú (la más cercana al volcán, papales (por el cultivo de papas, y Prusia (un sector del PNVI. Entonces, se empleó examen directo y concentración mecánica, se obtuvo 36.84% de muestras positivas por al menos un helminto. La presencia de parásitos fue muy similar para ambos sectores boscosos del PNVI (33.3% en Prusia y 37.4% en Irazú, pero contrastó con el 63.63% observado en los papales. También, se identificaron uncinarias (probablemente Ancylostoma caninum, estrongilidios (posiblemente Strongyloides sp., Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. y Taenia pisiformis, así como Hymenolepis diminuta, probablemente un parásito espurio proveniente de roedores ingeridos por los coyotes. Se comenta la importancia de estos primeros hallazgos y se concluye que las estaciones seca y lluviosa influyen en la presencia de los parásitos.Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area. As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  9. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  10. Identificação de indivíduos vulneráveis no entorno de um hospital universitário: conectando vulnerabilidade, solidariedade e saúde Identification of vulnerable individuals in the area surrounding a university hospital: connecting vulnerability, solidarity and healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cristina Sthal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available No entorno de um hospital universitário do interior do estado de São Paulo há pessoas dormindo, se alimentando ou descansando nos gramados e arredores, permanecendo nestes locais durante horas. Este estudo objetivou identificar e caracterizar indivíduos vulneráveis em área externa deste hospital, oferecendo ajuda. A coleta dos dados foi realizada no período de novembro de 2007 a outubro de 2008, semanalmente, em dias e horários sorteados. Identificaram-se pessoas que permaneciam nesses locais, sendo entrevistados 52 sujeitos. Esses indivíduos são, predominantemente, do sexo feminino (67,3%, brancos (51,9%, casados (59,6%, com escolaridade de até quatro anos de estudo (44,2% e sem profissão definida (84,6%. A maioria aguardava o horário do ônibus da prefeitura de seu município de origem; o tempo médio de espera foi de aproximadamente 90 minutos e grande parte dos sujeitos apresentou necessidades durante os períodos de espera. Foi oferecida ajuda a 15 pessoas que referiram necessidades no momento da entrevista. Concluiu-se que esses indivíduos se encontram em situação de vulnerabilidade individual, social e programática, destacando-se a vulnerabilidade sócio-econômica, apresentam capacidade de autodeterminação reduzida, submetendo-se a condições desfavoráveis por dependerem dos serviços públicos.In the area around a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo state people are found sleeping, eating or resting on the lawns and surrounding areas, and they linger in such sites for hours. This study sought to identify and characterize vulnerable individuals in the area around the hospital by offering help. Data were collected from November 2007 to October 2008, on a weekly basis and on randomly selected days and times. The people found in these places were identified, and 52 subjects were interviewed. The individuals were, predominantly, females (67.3%, white (51.9%, married (59.6%, had attended school for up to

  11. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  14. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  15. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  17. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Towards Semantic Understanding of Surrounding Vehicular Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of multiple low-cost visual sensors to obtain a surround view of the ego-vehicle for semantic understanding. A multi-perspective view will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies (NDS), by automating the task of data reduction of the observed sequences...... into events. A user-centric vision-based framework is presented using a vehicle detector and tracker in each separate perspective. Multi-perspective trajectories are estimated and analyzed to extract 14 different events, including potential dangerous behaviors such as overtakes and cut-ins. The system...... is tested on ten sequences of real-world data collected on U. S. highways. The results show the potential use of multiple low-cost visual sensors for semantic understanding around the ego-vehicle....

  20. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa); Centre for Theoretical Physics, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2018-02-15

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r{sub h} < r{sub c} allowing the black hole to become thermodynamically stable. (orig.)

  1. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r_h

  2. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  3. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  5. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). The view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses. Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This panorama combines right-eye and left-eye views presented as cylindrical-perspective projections with geometric seam correction.

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  7. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Aoudia, A.; Pontevivo, A.; Chimera, G.; Raykova, R.

    2003-02-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea, likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria. (author)

  8. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  9. INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING THE HELIOPAUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution, in the limit of very low plasma β-ratio, for the distortion of the interstellar magnetic field surrounding the heliopause. The solution is obtained using a line dipole method that is the integration of point dipole along a semi-infinite line; it represents the magnetic field caused by the presence of the heliopause. The solution allows the variation of the undisturbed magnetic field at any inclination angle. The heliosphere is considered as having blunt-nosed geometry on the upwind side and it asymptotically approaches a cylindrical geometry having an open exit for the continuous outflow of the solar wind on the downwind side. The heliopause is treated as a magnetohydrodynamic tangential discontinuity; the interstellar magnetic field lines at the boundary are tangential to the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field is substantially distorted due to the presence of the heliopause. The solution shows the draping of the field lines around the heliopause. The magnetic field strength varies substantially near the surface of the heliopause. The effect on the magnetic field due to the presence of the heliopause penetrates very deep into the interstellar space; the depth of penetration is of the same order of magnitude as the scale length of the heliosphere.

  10. Cortical Surround Interactions and Perceptual Salience via Natural Scene Statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Coen-Cagli

    Full Text Available Spatial context in images induces perceptual phenomena associated with salience and modulates the responses of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1. However, the computational and ecological principles underlying contextual effects are incompletely understood. We introduce a model of natural images that includes grouping and segmentation of neighboring features based on their joint statistics, and we interpret the firing rates of V1 neurons as performing optimal recognition in this model. We show that this leads to a substantial generalization of divisive normalization, a computation that is ubiquitous in many neural areas and systems. A main novelty in our model is that the influence of the context on a target stimulus is determined by their degree of statistical dependence. We optimized the parameters of the model on natural image patches, and then simulated neural and perceptual responses on stimuli used in classical experiments. The model reproduces some rich and complex response patterns observed in V1, such as the contrast dependence, orientation tuning and spatial asymmetry of surround suppression, while also allowing for surround facilitation under conditions of weak stimulation. It also mimics the perceptual salience produced by simple displays, and leads to readily testable predictions. Our results provide a principled account of orientation-based contextual modulation in early vision and its sensitivity to the homogeneity and spatial arrangement of inputs, and lends statistical support to the theory that V1 computes visual salience.

  11. L'évolution paléoenvironnementale des faunes de poissons du Crétacé supérieur du bassin du Tafilalt et des régions avoisinantes (Sud-Est du Maroc) : implications paléobiogéographiquesPalaeoenvironmental evolution of the fish assemblages from the Late Cretaceous of the Tafilalt basin and surrounding areas, southeastern Morocco: palaeogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Boudad, Larbi; Duffaud, Sylvain; Kabiri, Lahcen; Le Lœuff, Jean; Rouget, Isabelle; Tong, Haiyan

    2001-11-01

    A critical revision of published data along with new field data allow to draw up the succession of the fish faunas from the Lower Cenomanian to the Lower Turonian in the Tafilalt basin and surrounding areas (southeast Morocco). The analysis of these faunas shows changes from freshwater to marine palaeoenvironments. The palaeogeographic distribution of some taxa is discussed. It shows that the crossing of strictly freshwater organisms between Africa and South America was likely impossible at the time of the formation of the deposits resting around the Tafilalt basin and named 'Kem Kem beds'. The Cenomano-Turonian transgression reached the Erfoud-Errachidia carbonate platform from the Central Tethys, and then connected the central Atlantic.

  12. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  13. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  14. An experimental investigation of transient heat transfer in surrounding rock mass of high geothermal roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-designed experimental installation for transient heat transfer in the modelling surrounding rock mass of high geothermal roadways was elaborated in this paper. By utilizing the new installation, the temperature variation rules in surrounding rock mass of the high geothermal roadway during mechanical ventilation were studied. The results show that the roadway wall temperature decreases dramatically at the early stage of ventilation, and the temperature at every position of the surrounding rock mass is decreasing constantly with time passing by. From roadway wall to deep area, the temperature gradually increases until reaching original rock temperature. The relationship between dimensionless temperature and dimensionless radius demonstrates approximately exponential function. Meanwhile, the temperature disturbance range in the simulated surrounding rock mass extends gradually from the roadway wall to deep area in the surrounding rock mass. Besides, as the air velocity increases, heat loss in the surrounding rock mass rises and the ratio of temperature reduction becomes larger, the speed of disturbance range expansion also gets faster.

  15. What can offer us reclaimed landscape surrounding future lake Medard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrajnohova-Gillarova, H.; Kazmierski, T.; Martis, M. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Pecharova, E. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); South-Bohemian Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Soon after closing down a mine, the landscape that had been systematically disturbed by mining, should start to serve people from neighbouring towns and villages. This study characterized the Medard site located in the western part of the Czech Republic. The future Lake Medard includes the area of the former Medard-Libik Mine. Medard was an opencast brown coal mine, where mining finished in 2000 and reclamation plans involve its flooding until the year 2013. Forestry reclamation was also in progress. This paper presented a survey that was designed to help determine what the reclaimed landscape surrounding the future Lake Medard could offer. The paper provided background information on Medard Lake and outlined the methodology and results of the study. The methodology involved use of recent orthophotomaps, a study of the future lake Medard and data from the field survey. The study examined the long-term impacts on the social and environmental situation in the area. It was concluded that, once the reclamations are finished, there should be natural trails with information and educational infrastructure so that visitors to the area can learn about the places of interest. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Study on the Optimal Equivalent Radius in Calculating the Heat Dissipation of Surrounding Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Song

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The heat dissipation of surrounding rock of a non-circular roadway is computed using an equivalent circular roadway approach under three circumstances when the area, perimeter, or hydraulic diameter of the circular roadway is equal to the non-circular roadway to obtain the optimal equivalent radius. The differential equations of heat conduction for unstable surrounding rock are established in cylindrical and rectangular coordinate systems using dimensionless analysis method. The calculation formulas of heat dissipation capacity and heat transfer resistance are derived from differential equations. Based on the method of equivalent radius, the similarities and differences between non-circular and circular roadways in calculating the heat dissipation of surrounding rock are discussed. Using the finite volume method, the calculation models for non-circular and circular roadways in the heat dissipation of surrounding rock are also established, among the non-circular roadways including three circumstances, namely, trapezoid, rectangle, and arch. The relation errors of heat dissipation of the surrounding rock of the three equivalent circular roadway methods are investigated for the three non-circular roadways. Results show that the calculation approach with equal perimeters is the best for the heat dissipation of surrounding rock of non-circular roadways.

  17. Analyzing the Implications of Climate Data on the Rainfall Frequency Spectrum: Case Study of Knoxville, Tennessee and Surrounding Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Linda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parish, Esther S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Modeled daily precipitation values are used to determine changes in percentile rainfall event depths, for planning and mitigation of stormwater runoff, over past (1980-2005) and future (2025-2050) periods for Knoxville, Tennessee and the surrounding area.

  18. Analysis of the geomorphology surrounding the Chang'e-3 landing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chun-Lai; Mu Ling-Li; Zou Xiao-Duan; Liu Jian-Jun; Ren Xin; Zeng Xing-Guo; Yang Yi-Man; Zhang Zhou-Bin; Liu Yu-Xuan; Zuo Wei; Li Han

    2014-01-01

    Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum (19.51°W, 44.12°N), which was China's first soft landing on the Moon and it started collecting data on the lunar surface environment. To better understand the environment of this region, this paper utilizes the available high-resolution topography data, image data and geological data to carry out a detailed analysis and research on the area surrounding the landing site (Sinus Iridum and 45 km×70 km of the landing area) as well as on the topography, landform, geology and lunar dust of the area surrounding the landing site. A general topographic analysis of the surrounding area is based on a digital elevation model and digital elevation model data acquired by Chang'e-2 that have high resolution; the geology analysis is based on lunar geological data published by USGS; the study on topographic factors and distribution of craters and rocks in the surrounding area covering 4 km×4 km or even smaller is based on images from the CE-3 landing camera and images from the topographic camera; an analysis is done of the effect of the CE-3 engine plume on the lunar surface by comparing images before and after the landing using data from the landing camera. A comprehensive analysis of the results shows that the landing site and its surrounding area are identified as typical lunar mare with flat topography. They are suitable for maneuvers by the rover, and are rich in geological phenomena and scientific targets, making it an ideal site for exploration

  19. Analysis of the geomorphology surrounding the Chang'e-3 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Lai; Mu, Ling-Li; Zou, Xiao-Duan; Liu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Xin; Zeng, Xing-Guo; Yang, Yi-Man; Zhang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Yu-Xuan; Zuo, Wei; Li, Han

    2014-12-01

    Chang'e-3 (CE-3) landed on the Mare Imbrium basin in the east part of Sinus Iridum (19.51°W, 44.12°N), which was China's first soft landing on the Moon and it started collecting data on the lunar surface environment. To better understand the environment of this region, this paper utilizes the available high-resolution topography data, image data and geological data to carry out a detailed analysis and research on the area surrounding the landing site (Sinus Iridum and 45 km×70 km of the landing area) as well as on the topography, landform, geology and lunar dust of the area surrounding the landing site. A general topographic analysis of the surrounding area is based on a digital elevation model and digital elevation model data acquired by Chang'e-2 that have high resolution; the geology analysis is based on lunar geological data published by USGS; the study on topographic factors and distribution of craters and rocks in the surrounding area covering 4 km×4 km or even smaller is based on images from the CE-3 landing camera and images from the topographic camera; an analysis is done of the effect of the CE-3 engine plume on the lunar surface by comparing images before and after the landing using data from the landing camera. A comprehensive analysis of the results shows that the landing site and its surrounding area are identified as typical lunar mare with flat topography. They are suitable for maneuvers by the rover, and are rich in geological phenomena and scientific targets, making it an ideal site for exploration.

  20. Investigation of the readout electronics of DELPHI surround muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khovanskij, N.; Krumshtejn, Z.; Ol'shevskij, A.; Sadovskij, A.; Sedykh, Yu.; Molnar, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomsa, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of the readout electronics of the DELPHI surround muon chambers with various AMPLEX chips (AMPLEX 16 and AMPLEX-SICAL) are presented. This electronics is studied in a cosmic rays test of the real surround muon chamber model. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  2. Demands for improvement in working surroundings for older workers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizawa, Yasuhiro; Sakuda, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Tomoki

    2003-01-01

    Workers in three nuclear power plants belonging to Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. were asked to complete a questionnaire. According to the accident reports, workers aged 50 or older had more accidents than those in 30s or 40s. Moreover, it is predicted that the average age of workers in Japan will increase during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, investigations into working surroundings in which older workers can better perform their work would be useful. To this end, a questionnaire addressing issues related to working surroundings was conducted among workers in nuclear power plants and the demands for improvement of working surroundings for older workers are summarized. The demands of 'better lighting', 'making things less heavy', and installation of an elevator' were correlated with age, indicating that younger people have a tendency not to notice these issues. Thus, if the authority deciding on improvements in working surroundings is not an older worker, it is especially important that lighting, the weights of objects to be moved, and methods of moving between floors is taken into account. Findings specific to nuclear power plants were also reported. For example, employees who worked in the non-radiation controlled area demanded the installation of air conditioning and those who worked in the radiation controlled area demanded the establishment of a rest area. Further, we have developed a guidebook entitled 'a guidebook supporting workers' cooperation among all generations' to promote cooperation between older and younger workers. (author)

  3. Surrounding land cover types as predictors of palustrine wetland vegetation quality in conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Gara, Brian; Schumacher, William

    2018-01-01

    The loss of wetland habitats and their often-unique biological communities is a major environmental concern. We examined vegetation data obtained from 380 wetlands sampled in a statistical survey of wetlands in the USA. Our goal was to identify which surrounding land cover types best predict two indices of vegetation quality in wetlands at the regional scale. We considered palustrine wetlands in four regions (Coastal Plains, North Central East, Interior Plains, and West) in which the dominant vegetation was emergent, forested, or scrub-shrub. For each wetland, we calculated weighted proportions of eight land cover types surrounding the area in which vegetation was assessed, in four zones radiating from the edge of the assessment area to 2 km. Using Akaike's Information Criterion, we determined the best 1-, 2- and 3-predictor models of the two indices, using the weighted proportions of the land cover types as potential predictors. Mean values of the two indices were generally higher in the North Central East and Coastal Plains than the other regions for forested and emergent wetlands. In nearly all cases, the best predictors of the indices were not the dominant surrounding land cover types. Overall, proportions of forest (positive effect) and agriculture (negative effect) surrounding the assessment area were the best predictors of the two indices. One or both of these variables were included as predictors in 65 of the 72 models supported by the data. Wetlands surrounding the assessment area had a positive effect on the indices, and ranked third (33%) among the predictors included in supported models. Development had a negative effect on the indices and was included in only 28% of supported models. These results can be used to develop regional management plans for wetlands, such as creating forest buffers around wetlands, or to conserve zones between wetlands to increase habitat connectivity.

  4. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  5. Consistent and robust determination of border ownership based on asymmetric surrounding contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Ko; Nishimura, Haruka; Shimizu, Ryohei; Kondo, Keiichi

    2012-09-01

    Determination of the figure region in an image is a fundamental step toward surface construction, shape coding, and object representation. Localized, asymmetric surround modulation, reported neurophysiologically in early-to-intermediate-level visual areas, has been proposed as a mechanism for figure-ground segregation. We investigated, computationally, whether such surround modulation is capable of yielding consistent and robust determination of figure side for various stimuli. Our surround modulation model showed a surprisingly high consistency among pseudorandom block stimuli, with greater consistency for stimuli that yielded higher accuracy of, and shorter reaction times in, human perception. Our analyses revealed that the localized, asymmetric organization of surrounds is crucial in the detection of the contrast imbalance that leads to the determination of the direction of figure with respect to the border. The model also exhibited robustness for gray-scaled natural images, with a mean correct rate of 67%, which was similar to that of figure-side determination in human perception through a small window and of machine-vision algorithms based on local processing. These results suggest a crucial role of surround modulation in the local processing of figure-ground segregation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  7. Contamination of nebulisers and surrounding air at the bedside of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An air sampler was used to collect air samples from the surrounding bedside environment. .... individualised resealable plastic bags and stored upside down in a cooler .... conventional and mesh technology nebulisers used at home by adults.

  8. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  9. Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhamer, O

    2010-06-01

    Offshore wave energy conversion is expected to develop, thus contributing to an increase in submerged constructions on the seabed. An essential concern related to the deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) is their possible impact on the surrounding soft-bottom habitats. In this study, the macrofaunal assemblages in the seabed around the wave energy converters in the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast and a neighbouring reference site were examined yearly during a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Macrobenthic communities living in the WECs' surrounding seabed were mainly composed by organisms typical for the area and depth off the Swedish west coast. At both sites the number of individuals, number of species and biodiversity were low, and were mostly small, juvenile organisms. The species assemblages during the first years of sampling were significantly different between the Lysekil research site and the nearby reference site with higher species abundance in the research site. The high contribution to dissimilarities was mostly due to polychaetes. Sparse macrofaunal densities can be explained by strong hydrodynamic forces and/or earlier trawling. WECs may alter the surrounding seabed with an accumulation of organic matter inside the research area. This indicates that the deployment of WECs in the Lysekil research site tends to have rather minor direct ecological impacts on the surrounding benthic community relative to the natural high variances.

  10. Monitoring program of surrounding of the NPP SE-EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobis, L.; Kostial, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper dealt with monitoring program of radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, which has the aim: (1) to ensure the control of influence of work of the NPP Bohunice on the environment in their surrounding; (2) to ensure the back-ground for regular brief of control and supervisory organs about condition of the environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice; (3) to maintain the expected technical level of control of the NPP Bohunice and to exploit optimally the technical means; (4) to solicit permanently the data about the radioactivity of environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice for forming of files of the data; (5) to exploit purposefully the technical equipment, technical workers and to maintain their in permanent emergency and technical eligibility for the case of the breakdown; (6) to obtain permanently the files of the values for qualification of the reference levels. This program of monitoring includes the radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, in the time of normal work of power-station's blocks, inclusively of all types of trouble-shooting and repairer works in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, up to distance 20 km from power-station. The monitoring includes: outlets from the NPP Bohunice, monitoring of radiation characteristics in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, (aerosols, fall-outs, soil), the links of food chains: (grass and fodder, milk, agriculture products), hydrosphere in surrounding (surface waters, drink water, bores of radiation control in complex of the NPP Bohunice, components of the hydrosphere), measurement of radiation from external sources (measurement of the dose rates, measurement of the doses [sk

  11. Chromatic induction from surrounding stimuli under perceptual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Koji; Kuriki, Ichiro; Tokunaga, Rumi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of colors can be affected by their spatiotemporal context. The shift in color appearance according to the surrounding colors is called color induction or chromatic induction; in particular, the shift in opponent color of the surround is called chromatic contrast. To investigate whether chromatic induction occurs even when the chromatic surround is imperceptible, we measured chromatic induction during interocular suppression. A multicolor or uniform color field was presented as the surround stimulus, and a colored continuous flash suppression (CFS) stimulus was presented to the dominant eye of each subject. The subjects were asked to report the appearance of the test field only when the stationary surround stimulus is invisible by interocular suppression with CFS. The resulting shifts in color appearance due to chromatic induction were significant even under the conditions of interocular suppression for all surround stimuli. The magnitude of chromatic induction differed with the surround conditions, and this difference was preserved regardless of the viewing conditions. The chromatic induction effect was reduced by CFS, in proportion to the magnitude of chromatic induction under natural (i.e., no-CFS) viewing conditions. According to an analysis with linear model fitting, we revealed the presence of at least two kinds of subprocesses for chromatic induction that reside at higher and lower levels than the site of interocular suppression. One mechanism yields different degrees of chromatic induction based on the complexity of the surround, which is unaffected by interocular suppression, while the other mechanism changes its output with interocular suppression acting as a gain control. Our results imply that the total chromatic induction effect is achieved via a linear summation of outputs from mechanisms that reside at different levels of visual processing.

  12. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  13. Levantamento florístico das macroalgas da baía de Sepetiba e adjacências, RJ: ponto de partida para o Programa GloBallast no Brasil Floristic survey of the macroalgae from Sepetiba bay and surrounding area, Rio de Janeiro State: starting point for the GloBallast Programme in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Menezes de Széchy

    2005-09-01

    amostragem, em estudos futuros. Recomenda-se a padronização metodológica para o levantamento florístico de áreas portuárias como a baía de Sepetiba, e de outras áreas do litoral brasileiro sujeitas à interferência do homem, tomando por base o procedimento CRIMP.The Port of Sepetiba, State of Rio de Janeiro, was chosen as the Brazilian pilot area for the project "Global Ballast Water Management Programme" (GloBallast Programme. For comparative purposes, six countries were guided by the GloBallast Programme to follow the same methodology, emphasizing identification of organisms to the specific level during the preliminary biota survey. This study aimed to apply the methodology established by the Australian Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests (CRIMP procedures for the floristic survey of macroalgae of natural hard substrate of the area of Port of Sepetiba. Macroalgal samplings were carried out in November 2001 at nine sites situated in Sepetiba Bay and adjacent area, from the sublittoral fringe to ca. - 4 m deep. At each site, six 0.1 m² quadrates were scraped. Specimens were sent to the Herbarium of the "Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro" (RB. Ninety six species were identified (20 Chlorophyta, 16 Phaeophyta, and 60 Rhodophyta; 12 species have not been cited to the study area by the preceding studies. Cladophora pellucidoidea C. Hoek, Coelothrix irregularis (Harv. Boergesen, and Acrochaetium savianum (Menegh. Nägeli are recorded for the first time to the state of Rio de Janeiro. There are no evidences to conclude that the new records correspond to recently introduced species through the port activities. The methodological procedures proved to be efficient because they produced a species list to be comparable to those of taxonomic surveys with higher sampling effort. They also enlarged the existing information about the phycological flora of Sepetiba Bay. Nevertheless, for future studies, we point out the importance of a re

  14. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  15. Severe blood-brain barrier disruption and surrounding tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Friedman, Beth; Cheng, Qun; Tsai, Phil; Schim, Erica; Kleinfeld, David; Lyden, Patrick D

    2009-12-01

    Blood-brain barrier opening during ischemia follows a biphasic time course, may be partially reversible, and allows plasma constituents to enter brain and possibly damage cells. In contrast, severe vascular disruption after ischemia is unlikely to be reversible and allows even further extravasation of potentially harmful plasma constituents. We sought to use simple fluorescent tracers to allow wide-scale visualization of severely damaged vessels and determine whether such vascular disruption colocalized with regions of severe parenchymal injury. Severe vascular disruption and ischemic injury was produced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1, 2, 4, or 8 hours, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (2 MDa) was injected intravenously before occlusion. After perfusion-fixation, brain sections were processed for ultrastructure or fluorescence imaging. We identified early evidence of tissue damage with Fluoro-Jade staining of dying cells. With increasing ischemia duration, greater quantities of high molecular weight dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate invaded and marked ischemic regions in a characteristic pattern, appearing first in the medial striatum, spreading to the lateral striatum, and finally involving cortex; maximal injury was seen in the mid-parietal areas, consistent with the known ischemic zone in this model. The regional distribution of the severe vascular disruption correlated with the distribution of 24-hour 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride pallor (r=0.75; P<0.05) and the cell death marker Fluoro-Jade (r=0.86; P<0.05). Ultrastructural examination showed significantly increased areas of swollen astrocytic foot process and swollen mitochondria in regions of high compared to low leakage, and compared to contralateral homologous regions (ANOVA P<0.01). Dextran extravasation into the basement membrane and surrounding tissue increased significantly from 2 to 8 hours of

  16. Chromium in surface water and groundwater in the surrounding area of a tannery: relationships with water quality baseline, Elena, Cordoba. Argentina; Cromo en aguas subterraneas y superficiales en el entorno de una curtiembre, relacion con valores de fondo natural. Elena, Cordoba. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteoda, E.; Blarasin, M.; Damilano, G.; Cabrera, A.; Giuliano Albo, J.

    2009-07-01

    The basin of the El Barreal stream is a dominantly rural area in which groundwater is used for all activities whereas the stream is used as sink of residues and effluents. The existence of a tannery, which discharge the effluents into a wetland (which is drained by the stream), reveals the need to study the presence of Chromium in surface and groundwater and to compare values derived from pollution with those corresponding to the natural water baseline values. Fifty three samples of surface and groundwater were abstracted and chemical analyses were made, including total Chromium in water and plants. The chemical analysis results were studied by means of conventional and statistical techniques. The local and regional geological characteristics allow us to interpret that Chromium in water is derived from source minerals, being possible to stand out that high values probably are related to nearby serpentinite bodies.The values of total chrome in surface and groundwater are included in the natural quality baseline range calculated for this basin (0,25-5ug/L), exempting those samples with higher values linked to sites with farming activities and to the wetland environment where the Chromium effluent is discharged. In the last place, Chromium was retained in soil and plants whereas the aquifer was affected by a contaminant plume of total dissolved solids because of advective-dispersive transport. In the 2009 monitoring survey, a small increase of Chromium in groundwater was detected in relation to that of 2005, being assumed that partial desorption of Chromium is taking place from the solid phase. (Author) 19 refs.

  17. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum in the Surrounding Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Attar, L.; Al-Oudat, M.; Budier, Y.; Khalili, H.; Hamwi, A.; Kanakri, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the radiological impact of Syrian PG piles in the compartments of the surrounding ecosystem. Therefore, estimating the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (i.e. 2 26 Ra, 2 38 U, 2 32 Th, 2 10 Po and 2 10 Pb) in the raw materials, product and by-product of the Syrian phosphate fertilizer industry was essential. The obtained data revealed that 2 26 Ra retained in PG with a mean activity of 318 Bq kg-1. Uranium content in PG was low since it remained in the produced phosphoric acid. However, over 80% of 2 32 Th, 2 10 Po and 2 10 Pb partitioned in PG. The presence of PG piles did not increase the concentration of 2 22 Rn nor gamma rays exposure dose in the studied area. The annual effective dose was only 0.082 mSv y-1. The geometric mean of total suspended solids was ca. 85 g m-3. The concentration of the radionuclides in filtration and runoff waters were below the detection limits; and were much lower than the permissible limits set for drinking water by the WHO in ground and Qattina Lake waters. Eastern sites soil samples of PG piles were of the highest activity concentrations, due to the characterised western and north-western wind in the area, but remained within the natural levels reported in Syrian soil. The impact of PG piles on plants varied upon the plant species. Significantly, higher concentrations of the radionuclides were recorded for grass in comparison to broad-leaved plants. Among the species that naturally grown on PG piles, Inula, Ecballium and Polygonium may be radionuclides accumulators. Nevertheless, a determined effort is needed on national level to achieve a common and coherent approach to regulate PG piles or to consider it a resource material rather than waste or residue. The presence of PG piles did not increase the concentration of 2 22 Rn nor gamma rays exposure dose in the studied area. The annual effective dose was only 0.082 mSv y -1 . The geometric mean of total suspended solids was ca

  18. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    -depth understanding of the mechanism regulating blood flow and perfusion is necessary if we are to come up with new ideas for intervention and treatment. Method: From fresh born placentas stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end...... and was left untouched in the other end. Then using wire myography they were investigated in terms of contractility and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results: Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue...... compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries with surrounding tissue, when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi...

  19. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...... and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results. Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries...... with surrounding tissue when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion. The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi arteries' sensitivity and force development in a suppressive way. This implicates a new aspect of blood flow regulation...

  20. Surrounding rock stress analysis of underground high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Wang Guangdi

    2006-01-01

    During decay of nuclear waste, enormous energy was released, which results in temperature change of surrounding rock of depository. Thermal stress was produced because thermal expansion of rock was controlled. Internal structure of surrounding rock was damaged and strength of rock was weakened. So, variation of stress was a dynamic process with the variation of temperature. BeiShan region of Gansu province was determined to be the depository field in the future, it is essential to make research on granite in this region. In the process of experiment, basic physical parameters of granite were analyzed preliminary with MTS. Long range temperature and stress filed was simulated considering the damage effect of surrounding rock, and rules of temperature and stress was achieved. (authors)

  1. Natural Ecosystem Surrounding a Conventional Banana Crop Improves Plant Health and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Castelan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems near agricultural landscapes may provide rich environments for growing crops. However, the effect of a natural ecosystem on crop health and fruit quality is poorly understood. In the present study, it was investigated whether the presence of a natural ecosystem surrounding a crop area influences banana plant health and fruit postharvest behavior. Plants from two conventional banana crop areas with identical planting time and cultural practices were used; the only difference between banana crop areas is that one area was surrounded by a natural forest (Atlantic forest fragment (Near-NF, while the other area was inserted at the center of a conventional banana crop (Distant-NF. Results showed that bananas harvested from Near-NF showed higher greenlife and a more homogeneous profile during ripening compared to fruits harvested from Distant-NF. Differences in quality parameters including greenlife, carbohydrate profile, and pulp firmness between fruits harvested from Near-NF and Distant-NF are explained, at least partly, by differences in the balance of plant growth regulators (indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in bananas during ripening. Furthermore, plants from Near-NF showed a lower severity index of black leaf streak disease (BLSD and higher levels of phenolic compounds in leaves compared to plants from Distant-NF. Together, the results provide additional evidence on how the maintenance of natural ecosystems near conventional crop areas could be a promising tool to improve plant health and fruit quality.

  2. Complex monitoring of the surroundings of the Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylova, E.

    1993-01-01

    Based on a Resolution of the Government of the Czech Republic, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic shall develop a project of complex environmental pollution and contamination monitoring in the surroundings of the Dukovany nuclear power plant and shall discuss this project with municipalities there till the end of 1993. The objective of the project is to assess in a complex manner the situation in the Dukovany area with respect to all risks and their simultaneous effects, so as to ensure that the population in the area concerned is not burdened to an intolerable extent. (Z.S.)

  3. Ornitocenosis of the Sursky pond and its close the surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacko, J.; Ambrus, B.; Fupso, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the qualitative-quantitative research of fishpond bird community of the Sursky and its surroundings as well as on analysis of seasonal population dynamics of the avifauna as well as on placing the determined species into environmental groups and guilds. Another object is the comparison of our results with recent work focused on research of bird communities on this site.

  4. Review of Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and his Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschwin de Wolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthony de Jasay is among the most important social thinkers of our time. His oeuvre offers a sustained critique of government and its defenders. In the book Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and His Surroundings, colleagues and friends pay tribute to the man in the form of an inspiring collection of essays.

  5. Neutron spectrum in small iron pile surrounded by lead reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro; Hayashi, S.A.; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Matsumura, Tetsuo; Nishihara, Hiroshi.

    1978-01-01

    In order to save the quantity of sample material, a possibility to assess group constants of a reactor material through measurement and analysis of neutron spectrum in a small sample pile surrounded by a reflector of heavy moderator, was investigated. As the sample and the reflector, we chose iron and lead, respectively. Although the time dispersion in moderation of neutrons was considerably prolonged by the lead reflector, this hardly interferes with the assessment of group constants. Theoretical calculation revealed that both the neutron flux spectrum and the sensitivity coefficient of group constants in an iron sphere, 35 cm in diameter surrounded by the lead reflector, 25 cm thick, were close to those of the bare iron sphere, 108 cm in diameter. The neutron spectra in a small iron pile surrounded by a lead reflector were experimentally obtained by the time-of-flight method with an electron linear accelerator and the result was compared with the predicted values. It could be confirmed that a small sample pile surrounded by a reflector, such as lead, was as useful as a much larger bulk pile for the assessment of group constants of a reactor material. (auth.)

  6. The bird species of pandam wildlife park and the surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of time of day as well as vegetation variables on bird species diversity in the park and surrounding farmlands was also conducted. 10 transects in each study site were surveyed twice between during the dry season and vegetation variables (trees, fingers, finger-rings two- hand, grazing, farming, canopy cover, ...

  7. Traditional Indian customs surrounding birth A review | Chalmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1960, only a few studies have been made of traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. Very few of these have described customs followed by Indians in South Africa. A review of these publications is presented here. Customs described include religious, social and psychological aspects of behaviour in ...

  8. cordova_1_3s_mhw.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  9. cordova_ak_8_15s.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  10. Weak surround suppression of the attentional focus characterizes visual selection in the ventral stream in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronconi

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological findings in the typical population demonstrate that spatial scrutiny for visual selection determines a center-surround profile of the attentional focus, which is the result of recurrent processing in the visual system. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD manifest several anomalies in their visual selection, with strengths in detail-oriented tasks, but also difficulties in distractor inhibition tasks. Here, we asked whether contradictory aspects of perception in ASD might be due to a different center-surround profile of their attentional focus. In two experiments, we tested two independent samples of children with ASD, comparing them with typically developing (TD peers. In Experiment 1, we used a psychophysical task that mapped the entire spatial profile of the attentional focus. In Experiment 2, we used dense-array electroencephalography (EEG to explore its neurophysiological underpinnings. Experiment 1 results showed that the suppression, surrounding the attentional focus, was markedly reduced in children with ASD. Experiment 2 showed that the center-surround profile in TD children resulted in a modulation of the posterior N2 ERP component, with cortical sources in the lateral-occipital and medial/inferior temporal areas. In contrast, children with ASD did not show modulation of the N2 and related activations in the ventral visual stream. Furthermore, behavioural and neurophysiological measures of weaker suppression predicted more severe autistic symptomatology. The present findings, showing an altered center-surround profile during attentional selection, give an important insight to understand superior visual processing in autism as well as the experiencing of sensory overload. Keywords: EEG, Source analysis, Ventral visual stream, Perception, Rehabilitation

  11. Logistics system as an effort of integration in the Mandalika Special Economic Zone and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suheri, T.; Melinda, W. G.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia as one of the maritime countries with its territory in the form of an archipelago. A SEZ with an integrated logistics system is very influential on the value of tourism, especially marine tourism. The creation of logistics activities in the Mandalika SEZ as a tourism area formed from the export and import of products as a form of tourism promotion will attract many domestic and foreign tourists. The importance of a logistics system for both people and goods can support the investment system in the area of Mandalika SEZ. The logistics system can provide agglomeration of facilities and infrastructure to support tourist activities in terms of cargo distribution both locally and globally. Mandalika SEZ requires an integrated logistics system to improve national competitiveness in the form of physical system support such as commodity availability and city/regional infrastructure as well as non-physical infrastructure such as service providers and regulation in order to be sustainable. The logistics system also plays a strategic role in synchronizing and harmonizing progress between economies and between regions in order to avoid an imbalance with the surrounding area. This study aims to find out the performance of the existing logistics systems in the Mandalika area and its surrounding areas in order to formulate policies to integrate the logistics systems within and outside the region. This research used content analysis methodology.

  12. Ten-year diameter and basal area growth of trees surrounding small group selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie; Celeste S. Abbott

    1996-01-01

    The effects of small openings in forest stands has interested silviculturists and ecologists for years. Interest generally has centered on the vegetation in the openings, not on that immediately outside of them. Quantitative information on the growth of trees adjacent to group-selection openings, although often mentioned in forestry textbooks as contributing to cost...

  13. Variations in time and space of trace metal aerosol concentrations in urban areas and their surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Reche, C.; Cusack, M.; Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Pey, J.; Richard, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Furger, M.; Gibbons, W.

    2011-09-01

    Using an unprecedentedly large geochemical database, we compare temporal and spatial variations in inhalable trace metal background concentrations in a major city (Barcelona, Spain) and at a nearby mountainous site (Montseny) affected by the urban plume. Both sites are contaminated by technogenic metals, with V, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Sn, Bi, Sb and Cd all showing upper continental crust (UCC) normalised values >1 in broadly increasing order. The highest metal concentrations usually occur during winter at Barcelona and summer in Montseny. This seasonal difference was especially marked at the remote mountain site in several elements such as Ti and Rare Earth Elements, which recorded campaign maxima, exceeding PM10 concentrations seen in Barcelona. The most common metals were Zn, Ti, Cu, Mn, Pb and V. Both V and Ni show highest concentrations in summer, and preferentially fractionate into the finest PM sizes (PM1/PM10 > 0.5) especially in Barcelona, this being attributed to regionally dispersed contamination from fuel oil combustion point sources. Within the city, hourly metal concentrations are controlled either by traffic (rush hour double peak for Cu, Sb, Sn, Ba) or industrial plumes (morning peak of Ni, Mn, Cr generated outside the city overnight), whereas at Montseny metal concentrations rise during the morning to a single, prolonged afternoon peak as contaminated air transported by the sea breeze moves into the mountains. Our exceptional database, which includes hourly measurements of chemical concentrations, demonstrates in more detail than previous studies the spatial and temporal variability of urban pollution by trace metals in a given city. Technogenic metalliferous aerosols are commonly fine in size and therefore potentially bioavailable, emphasising the case for basing urban background PM characterisation not only on physical parameters such as mass but also on sample chemistry and with special emphasis on trace metal content.

  14. 3D Modeling of Iran and Surrounding Areas From Simultaneous Inversion of Multiple Geophysical Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    shorter periods). Figure 4 shows example fits to the dispersion values and the Bouguer gravity variations. As seen in earlier studies (Maceira and Ammon...50 100 150 150 100 50 Figure 4. Sample dispersion (top) and Bouguer gravity (bottom) for the preliminary inversion. As for other

  15. Plutonium and uranium in human bones from areas surrounding the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sakaguchi, Aya; Shinohara, Kunihiko; Kurihara, Osamu; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Gusev, Boris I

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the present levels of 239,240Pu and U in residents living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, more than 70 bone samples were obtained at autopsy. The subjects ranged in age from 30 to 86 years (mean 59.3+/-12.9). Most of the samples consisted of victims who died of various diseases. Plutonium and U were radiochemically separated and determined by alpha-ray spectrometry. The mean concentrations of 239,240Pu and 238U observed were 0.050+/-0.041 mBq/g-ash (vertebrae 71, long-bones 18) and 0.28+/-0.13 mBq/g-ash (22.8+/-10.6 microg U/kg-ash) (vertebrae 58, long bones 16), respectively. The present 239,240Pu levels were within the range found for human bone samples from other countries due solely to global fallout in the early 1980s. The average U concentration was close to the estimate (mean 22.5 microg U/kg-ash) for the UK, and about 10 times higher than those estimated for residents in New York City and Japan. By assuming that the average concentration of 239,240Pu in bone samples is the value at 45 years after instantaneous inhalation in 1955, the initial total intake and the effective dose for 45 years were estimated as 10 Bq and 0.2 mSv, respectively. The annual intake of total U (234,235,238U) and its effective dose for 60 years were estimated as 30 Bq for adult and 0.1 mSv, respectively, for chronic ingestion.

  16. The geology of Bois de la Glaive and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbert, J.

    1987-01-01

    The anhydrite beneath the Bois de la Glaive - a mountin range consisting of gypsum-covered anhydrite in the community of Ollon, Canton Vaud - is one of three rock formations presently being investigated under federal licence. The aim is to assess suitability as host rock for the Swiss repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. To this end, geological investigations have also been carried out at Bois de la Glaive since 1983, the results thereof being presented here. The extent of the potential host rock, its homogeneity, the hydrogeology and regional tectonics are, naturally, of particular interest. The investigations have produced no results which would indicate that Bois de la Glaive should be abandoned as a potential site. (author) 3 figs

  17. Bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Basin and surrounding areas of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, G.B.; Rigby, J.G.

    1979-07-01

    In the fall of 1977, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WDGER), entered into a contract with the US Department of Energy, administered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) in Richland, Washington, as a principal contributor to a geologic study of feasibility of storing radioactive waste within Columbia River basalt. WDGER's responsibility was the production of this bibliography and a reconnaissance geologic map of the sediments overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in the State of Washington. This bibliography is a compilation of all known published, unpublished, and open-file references dealing with geology and geophysics of the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. The citations were obtained primarily from the WDGER and Washington State libraries; the Geo-Ref bibliographic system was also utilized. Because the WDGER portion of the study included preparation of a reconnaissance geologic map of surficial deposits in the Columbia Basin, available references dealing with this subject have been annotated. Many abstracts in the annotated section are quotations and have been copied directly from their respective publications

  18. Plutonium and Uranium in Human Bones from Areas surrounding the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    OpenAIRE

    Masayoshi, YAMAMOTO; Masaharu, HOSHI; Aya, SAKAGUCHI; Kunihiko, SHINOHARA; Osamu, KURIHARA; Kazbek N., APSALIKOV; Boris I., GUSEV; Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, K-INET, Kanazawa University; Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University; Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, K-INET, Kanazawa University; Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute; Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute; Kazakh Science Research Institute for Radiation, Medicine and Ecology; Kazakh Science Research Institute for Radiation, Medicine and Ecology

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the present levels of^Pu and U in residents living near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, more than 70 bone samples were obtained at autopsy. The subjects ranged in age from 30 to 86 years (mean 59.3±12.9). Most of the samples consisted of victims who died of various diseases. Plutonium and U were radiochemically separated and determined by α-ray spectrometry. The mean concentrations of ^Pu and ^U observed were 0.050±0.041 mBq/g-ash (vertebrae 71, long-bones 18) and 0.28±0.13 m...

  19. The revitalization of Bucharest’s center surrounding areas by reconverting the industrial heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Bîță

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about the importance of the industrial revolution and the remains left behind from its beginnings, which reminds us of an extremely important period very different from our own. The architecture of the industrial sites from the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century shows us both a unique architectural style, created by the economic needs of that time, but also a way of life and socio-economic development for cities. To not lose important remains such as this, in this study, we proposed the transformation of the important industrial complexes and buildings in Bucharest decided by their history and former functions, adding innovative elements to grow their attractiveness. These buildings currently in a state of degradation, once transformed into different cultural attractions, will have the purpose of increasing the quality of the spaces around the city’s center, will help with the gentrifying process of the city’s abandoned zones, with growing the attractiveness and the revenues of the city and at the same time they will keep alive the history of the city through elements of identity which lead to its development.

  20. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) in Istanbul: Origin, source areas and potential impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Im, U.; Bougiatioti, A.; Yenigun, O.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Water-soluble ions (Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, CO4-, Na +, NH4+, K +, Mg 2+,Ca 2+), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) and trace metals (Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were measured in aerosol PM 10 samples above the megacity of Istanbul between November 2007 and June 2009. Source apportionment analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) indicates that approximately 80% of the PM 10 is anthropogenic in origin (secondary, refuse incineration, fuel oil and solid fuel combustion and traffic). Crustal and sea salt account for 10.2 and 7.5% of the observed mass, respectively. In general, anthropogenic (except secondary) aerosol shows higher concentrations and contributions in winter. Mean concentration and contribution of crustal source is found to be more important during the transitional period due to mineral dust transport from North Africa. During the sampling period, 42 events exceeding the limit value of 50 μg m -3 are identified. A significant percentage (91%; n = 38) of these exceedances is attributed to anthropogenic sources. Potential Source Contribution Function analysis highlights that Istanbul is affected from distant sources from Balkans and Western Europe during winter and from Eastern Europe during summer. On the other hand, Istanbul sources influence western Black Sea and Eastern Europe during winter and Aegean and Levantine Sea during summer.

  1. Extending results from agricultural fields with intensively monitored data to surrounding areas for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 45% reduction in riverine total nitrogen flux from the 1980-1996 time period is needed to meet water quality goals in the Mississippi Basin and Gulf of Mexico. This paper addresses the goal of reducing nitrogen in the Mississippi River through three objectives. First, the paper outlines an approac...

  2. BRAND LOYALTY OF FEMALE CONSUMERS - STUDY CARRIED IN SFÂNTU GHEORGHE AND THE SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the role of women in society has significantly changed, they work as men so they have their own income that they can spend as they wish and as necessary. We need to pay particular importance to consumer behaviour of female and as such it should be treated as a particular segment. This paper aims to study the simultaneous effects - based on data from quantitative marketing research – that the independent variables generate on the dependent variable. The variables introduced in the analysis of variance are: How often do you drink coffee /tea every day?, Age, Income, Last graduated school. We applied the hi square test we in order to analyze the links between two variables measured with nominal scale. The variables analyzed are: Do you always buy the some brand and The highest level of education achieved.

  3. Barotropic tidal model for the Bombay High, Gulf of Khambhat and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    A barotropic model is developed for the shelf region off the central west coast of India, which includes the regions of Bombay High and Gulf of Khambhat, in order to simulate tides and tidal currents in the region. The model is forced by a composite...

  4. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H.; Twardella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Heitmann, D.; Schierl, R.; Liebl, B.; Rüden, H.

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between particle mass (PM) concentration in outside air and the occurrence of health related problems and/or diseases. However, much less is known about indoor PM concentrations and associated health risks. In particular, data are needed on air quality in schools, since children are assumed to be more vulnerable to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. On this background, we evaluated indoor air quality in 64 schools in the city of Munich and a neighbouring district outside the city boundary. In winter 2004-2005 in 92 classrooms, and in summer 2005 in 75 classrooms, data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and various dust particle fractions (PM 10, PM 2.5) were collected; for the latter both gravimetrical and continuous measurements by laser aerosol spectrometer (LAS) were implemented. In the summer period, the particle number concentration (PNC), was determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Additionally, data on room and building characteristics were collected by use of a standardized form. Only data collected during teaching hours were considered in analysis. For continuously measured parameters the daily median was used to describe the exposure level in a classroom. The median indoor CO 2 concentration in a classroom was 1603 ppm in winter and 405 ppm in summer. With LAS in winter, median PM concentrations of 19.8 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 91.5 μg m -3 (PM 10) were observed, in summer PM concentrations were significantly reduced (median PM 2.5=12.7 μg m -3, median PM 10=64.9 μg m -3). PM 2.5 concentrations determined by the gravimetric method were in general higher (median in winter: 36.7 μg m -3, median in summer: 20.2 μg m -3) but correlated strongly with the LAS-measured results. In explorative analysis, we identified a significant increase of LAS-measured PM 2.5 by 1.7 μg m -3 per increase in humidity by 10%, by 0.5 μg m -3 per increase in CO 2 indoor concentration by 100 ppm, and a decrease by 2.8 μg m -3 in 5-7th grade classes and by 7.3 μg m -3 in class 8-11 compared to 1-4th class. During the winter period, the associations were stronger regarding class level, reverse regarding humidity (a decrease by 6.4 μg m -3 per increase in 10% humidity) and absent regarding CO 2 indoor concentration. The median PNC measured in 36 classrooms ranged between 2622 and 12,145 particles cm -3 (median: 5660 particles cm -3). The results clearly show that exposure to particulate matter in school is high. The increased PM concentrations in winter and their correlation with high CO 2 concentrations indicate that inadequate ventilation plays a major role in the establishment of poor indoor air quality. Additionally, the increased PM concentration in low level classes and in rooms with high number of pupils suggest that the physical activity of pupils, which is assumed to be more pronounced in younger children, contributes to a constant process of resuspension of sedimented particles. Further investigations are necessary to increase knowledge on predictors of PM concentration, to assess the toxic potential of indoor particles and to develop and test strategies how to ensure improved indoor air quality in schools.

  5. Bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Basin and surrounding areas of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, G.B.; Rigby, J.G.

    1979-07-01

    In the fall of 1977, the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WDGER), entered into a contract with the US Department of Energy, administered by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) in Richland, Washington, as a principal contributor to a geologic study of feasibility of storing radioactive waste within Columbia River basalt. WDGER's responsibility was the production of this bibliography and a reconnaissance geologic map of the sediments overlying the Columbia River Basalt Group in the State of Washington. This bibliography is a compilation of all known published, unpublished, and open-file references dealing with geology and geophysics of the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. The citations were obtained primarily from the WDGER and Washington State libraries; the Geo-Ref bibliographic system was also utilized. Because the WDGER portion of the study included preparation of a reconnaissance geologic map of surficial deposits in the Columbia Basin, available references dealing with this subject have been annotated. Many abstracts in the annotated section are quotations and have been copied directly from their respective publications.

  6. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure.

  7. Dissipation of Impact Stress Waves within the Artificial Blasting Damage Zone in the Surrounding Rocks of Deep Roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Ning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial explosions are commonly used to prevent rockburst in deep roadways. However, the dissipation of the impact stress wave within the artificial blasting damage zone (ABDZ of the rocks surrounding a deep roadway has not yet been clarified. The surrounding rocks were divided into the elastic zone, blasting damage zone, plastic zone, and anchorage zone in this research. Meanwhile, the ABDZ was divided into the pulverizing area, fractured area, and cracked area from the inside out. Besides, the model of the normal incidence of the impact stress waves in the ABDZ was established; the attenuation coefficient of the amplitude of the impact stress waves was obtained after it passed through the intact rock mass, and ABDZ, to the anchorage zone. In addition, a numerical simulation was used to study the dynamic response of the vertical stress and impact-induced vibration energy in the surrounding rocks. By doing so, the dissipation of the impact stress waves within the ABDZ of the surrounding rocks was revealed. As demonstrated in the field application, the establishment of the ABDZ in the surrounding rocks reduced the effect of the impact-induced vibration energy on the anchorage support system of the roadway.

  8. Stability Evaluation on Surrounding Rocks of Underground Powerhouse Based on Microseismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the stability of underground powerhouse at Houziyan hydropower station during excavation, a microseismic monitoring system is adopted. Based on the space-time distribution characteristics of microseismic events during excavation of the main powerhouse, the correlation between microseismic events and blasting construction is established; and the microseismic clustering areas of the underground powerhouse are identified and delineated. The FLAC3D code is used to simulate the deformation of main powerhouse. The simulated deformation characteristics are consistent with that recorded by microseismic monitoring. Finally, the correlation between the macroscopic deformation of surrounding rock mass and microseismic activities is also revealed. The results show that multiple faults between 1# and 3# bus tunnels are activated during excavation of floors V and VI of the main powerhouse. The comprehensive method combining microseismic monitoring with numerical simulation as well as routine monitoring can provide an effective way to evaluate the surrounding rock mass stability of underground caverns.

  9. Linking student performance in Massachusetts elementary schools with the "greenness" of school surroundings using remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Da; McNeely, Eileen; Cedeño-Laurent, J G; Pan, Wen-Chi; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Dominici, Francesca; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Su, Huey-Jen; Spengler, John D

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported the physical and mental health benefits from exposure to "green" neighborhoods, such as proximity to neighborhoods with trees and vegetation. However, no studies have explicitly assessed the association between exposure to "green" surroundings and cognitive function in terms of student academic performance. This study investigated the association between the "greenness" of the area surrounding a Massachusetts public elementary school and the academic achievement of the school's student body based on standardized tests with an ecological setting. Researchers used the composite school-based performance scores generated by the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) to measure the percentage of 3rd-grade students (the first year of standardized testing for 8-9 years-old children in public school), who scored "Above Proficient" (AP) in English and Mathematics tests (Note: Individual student scores are not publically available). The MCAS results are comparable year to year thanks to an equating process. Researchers included test results from 2006 through 2012 in 905 public schools and adjusted for differences between schools in the final analysis according to race, gender, English as a second language (proxy for ethnicity and language facility), parent income, student-teacher ratio, and school attendance. Surrounding greenness of each school was measured using satellite images converted into the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in March, July and October of each year according to a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1,000-meter, and 2000-meter circular buffer around each school. Spatial Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMMs) estimated the impacts of surrounding greenness on school-based performance. Overall the study results supported a relationship between the "greenness" of the school area and the school-wide academic performance. Interestingly, the results showed a consistently positive significant association between the

  10. Ultrastructural relationship of the phagophore with surrounding organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazik, Joanna; Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Phagophore nucleates from a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) termed the omegasome and also makes contact with other organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi complex, plasma membrane and recycling endosomes during its formation. We have used serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SB-EM) and electron tomography (ET) to image phagophore biogenesis in 3 dimensions and to determine the relationship between the phagophore and surrounding organelles at high resolution. ET was performed to confirm whether membrane contact sites (MCSs) are evident between the phagophore and those surrounding organelles. In addition to the known contacts with the ER, we identified MCSs between the phagophore and membranes from putative ER exit sites, late endosomes or lysosomes, the Golgi complex and mitochondria. We also show that one phagophore can have simultaneous MCSs with more than one organelle. Future membrane flux experiments are needed to determine whether membrane contacts also signify lipid translocation.

  11. Trajectories and Maneuvers of Surrounding Vehicles with Panoramic Camera Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    Vision-based research for intelligent vehicles have traditionally focused on specific regions around a vehicle, such as a front looking camera for, e.g., lane estimation. Traffic scenes are complex and vital information could be lost in unobserved regions. This paper proposes a framework that uses...... four visual sensors for a full surround view of a vehicle in order to achieve an understanding of surrounding vehicle behaviors. The framework will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies by automating the task of data reduction of the observed trajectories. To this end, trajectories...... are estimated using a vehicle detector together with a multiperspective optimized tracker in each view. The trajectories are transformed to a common ground plane, where they are associated between perspectives and analyzed to reveal tendencies around the ego-vehicle. The system is tested on sequences from 2.5 h...

  12. Mechanical Characteristics Analysis of Surrounding Rock on Anchor Bar Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuan-cheng; Zhou, Pan; Huang, Rong-bin

    2018-03-01

    Through the homogenization method, the composite of rock and anchor bar is considered as the equivalent material of continuous, homogeneous, isotropic and strength parameter enhancement, which is defined as reinforcement body. On the basis of elasticity, the composite and the reinforcement are analyzed, Based on strengthening theory of surrounding rock and displacement equivalent conditions, the expression of reinforcement body strength parameters and mechanical parameters is deduced. The example calculation shows that the theoretical results are close to the results of the Jia-mei Gao[9], however, closer to the results of FLAC3D numerical simulation, it is proved that the model and surrounding rock reinforcement body theory are reasonable. the model is easy to analyze and calculate, provides a new way for determining reasonable bolt support parameters, can also provides reference for the stability analysis of underground cavern bolting support.

  13. Methods of Assessing Noise Nuisance of Real Estate Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopińska Kinga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing what factors create the market value of real estate is key information when preparing property valuations as well as other opinions and professional evaluations on the basis of which court verdicts or administrative decisions are made. One of the factors influencing the value of some real estate is the level of noise present in the surroundings, which can lead to the occurrence of noise nuisance negatively affecting social relations.

  14. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  15. Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  16. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR 11429

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements (''acoustic-power halos'') at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency ''acoustic-emission halo'', or ''seismic glory'' surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the ''acoustic halos'' and the ''seismic glories'' are prominent at high frequencies 5–8 mHz. We investigate morphological properties of acoustic-power and acoustic emission halos around an active region to see if they are spatially correlated. Details about the local magnetic field from vectormagnetograms of AR 11429 are included. We identify a 15'' region of seismic deficit power (dark moat) shielding the white-light boundary of the active region. The size of the seismic moat is related to region of intermediate magnetic field strength. The acoustic moat is circled by the halo of enhanced seismic amplitude as well as enhanced seismic emission. Overall, the results suggest that features are related. However, if we narrow the frequency band to 5.5 – 6.5 mHz, we find that the seismic source density dominates over the local acoustic power, suggesting the existence of sources that emit more energy downward into the solar interior than upward toward the solar surface.

  17. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  18. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  19. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. The Probability of Uranium Deposit Occurrences at Hatapang and Its Surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Ngadenin

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out based on a geological condition of Hatapang and is surroundings areas that are favourable for uranium accumulation, which are indicated by the existence of granite high uranium content, having mobilizations process and uranium trapping rocks. Referring to the plate tectonic and geochemical situation of Hatapang, those condition will give a significant indications for the possible occurrence of deposit of uranium in the area. The goal of this study is to know the probability occurrences of uranium deposit based on the regional tectonic, geology, mineralogy, geochemical, and radioactivity characters. It is concluded that Hatapang granite is potential for U source granite, and U deposit of black shale type is probably accurate in this area. (author)

  1. Perceptual Color Space Representations in the Oculomotor System Are Modulated by Surround Suppression and Biased Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin H. Kehoe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE (x,y color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals. We observed that saccade planning was modulated by the CIE (x,y distances between stimuli thus demonstrating that color is encoded in perceptual color space by the oculomotor system. Furthermore, these representations were modulated by (1 cueing attention to a particular color thereby eliciting surround suppression in oculomotor color space and (2 inherent selection and encoding biases based on color category independent of cueing and perceptual discriminability. Since surround suppression emerges from recurrent feedback attenuation of sensory projections, observing oculomotor surround suppression suggested that oculomotor encoding of behavioral relevance results from integrating sensory and cognitive signals that are pre-attenuated based on task demands and that the oculomotor system therefore does not functionally contribute to this process. Second, although perceptual discriminability did partially account for oculomotor processing differences between color categories, we also observed preferential processing of the red color category across various behavioral metrics. This is consistent with numerous previous studies and could not be simply explained by perceptual discriminability. Since we utilized a memory-guided saccade task, this

  2. Perceptual Color Space Representations in the Oculomotor System Are Modulated by Surround Suppression and Biased Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Devin H; Rahimi, Maryam; Fallah, Mazyar

    2018-01-01

    The oculomotor system utilizes color extensively for planning saccades. Therefore, we examined how the oculomotor system actually encodes color and several factors that modulate these representations: attention-based surround suppression and inherent biases in selecting and encoding color categories. We measured saccade trajectories while human participants performed a memory-guided saccade task with color targets and distractors and examined whether oculomotor target selection processing was functionally related to the CIE ( x , y ) color space distances between color stimuli and whether there were hierarchical differences between color categories in the strength and speed of encoding potential saccade goals. We observed that saccade planning was modulated by the CIE ( x , y ) distances between stimuli thus demonstrating that color is encoded in perceptual color space by the oculomotor system. Furthermore, these representations were modulated by (1) cueing attention to a particular color thereby eliciting surround suppression in oculomotor color space and (2) inherent selection and encoding biases based on color category independent of cueing and perceptual discriminability. Since surround suppression emerges from recurrent feedback attenuation of sensory projections, observing oculomotor surround suppression suggested that oculomotor encoding of behavioral relevance results from integrating sensory and cognitive signals that are pre-attenuated based on task demands and that the oculomotor system therefore does not functionally contribute to this process. Second, although perceptual discriminability did partially account for oculomotor processing differences between color categories, we also observed preferential processing of the red color category across various behavioral metrics. This is consistent with numerous previous studies and could not be simply explained by perceptual discriminability. Since we utilized a memory-guided saccade task, this indicates that

  3. Age-specific survival of reintroduced swift fox in Badlands National Park and surrounding lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Indrani; Klaver, Robert W.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Schroeder, Greg M.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a reintroduction program was initiated at Badlands National Park (BNP), South Dakota, USA, with swift foxes (Vulpes velox) translocated from Colorado and Wyoming, USA, as part of a restoration effort to recover declining swift fox populations throughout its historical range. Estimates of age-specific survival are necessary to evaluate the potential for population growth of reintroduced populations. We used 7 years (2003–2009) of capture–recapture data of 243 pups, 29 yearlings, and 69 adult swift foxes at BNP and the surrounding area to construct Cormack–Jolly–Seber model estimates of apparent survival within a capture–mark–recapture framework using Program MARK. The best model for estimating recapture probabilities included no differences among age classes, greater recapture probabilities during early years of the monitoring effort than later years, and variation among spring, winter, and summer. Our top ranked survival model indicated pup survival differed from that of yearlings and adults and varied by month and year. The apparent annual survival probability of pups (0.47, SE = 0.10) in our study area was greater than the apparent annual survival probability of yearlings and adults (0.27, SE = 0.08). Our results indicate low survival probabilities for a reintroduced population of swift foxes in the BNP and surrounding areas. Management of reintroduced populations and future reintroductions of swift foxes should consider the effects of relative low annual survival on population demography.

  4. Heritability of the morphology of optic nerve head and surrounding structures: The Healthy Twin Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Chul Han

    Full Text Available Optic nerve head (ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone peripapillary atrophy (PPA are important structures in glaucomatous pathogenesis. Thus, for understanding genetic components in glaucoma pathogenesis, it is necessary to evaluate the heritability of ONH and surrounding structures. The present study investigated the genetic influences on ONH and surrounding structures such as β-zone PPA and retinal vessels.A total of 1,205 adult twins and their family members (362 monozygotic (MZ twin subjects (181 pairs, 64 dizygotic (DZ twin subjects (32 pairs, and 779 singletons from 261 families, were part of the Korean Healthy Twin Study. ONH parameters including the vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA and the angular location of retinal vein were measured. The genetic influences on the structures were evaluated using variance-component methods.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC values of axial length were highest among the parameters. The ICCs of the area and location of PPA were similar to those of vertical cup-to-disc ratio. However, retinal vessel angular locations showed low ICC values even in MZ twins. After age and sex adjustment, for axial length, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, the presence, area and location of PPA, the estimated narrow-sense heritability was 0.85, 0.48, 0.76, 0.50 and 0.65 in the right eye and 0.84, 0.47, 0.72, 0.46 and 0.72 in the left eye, respectively. The estimated narrow-sense heritability of angular location of the superior and inferior vein was 0.17 and 0.12 in the right eye and 0.13 and 0.05 in the left eye, respectively.ONH and surrounding structures such as vertical cup-to-disc ratio and the presence, the area and the location of β-zone PPA seemed to be determined by the substantial genetic influence, whereas the venous angular location did not.

  5. Communication and surrounding of Asco and Vandellos II nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Asco and Vandellos-II power plants have always been integrated into the regions where they are located, and they take an active part in the development of surrounding towns through quality employment provided by our facilities, social and cultural support and aid to development promoted by regional councils. Communication to media is a corporate priority defined in our strategic plant, to ensure openness, rigour and punctuality. We also attend to the visitors who want to learn more about our facilities in the visitor center, and we have agreements with agrarian institutions in the area so that students can de practical training in the farms we own for agricultural production. (Author)

  6. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  7. Blooming Trees: Substructures and Surrounding Groups of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Heng; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Serra, Ana Laura; Baldi, Marco

    2018-06-01

    We develop the Blooming Tree Algorithm, a new technique that uses spectroscopic redshift data alone to identify the substructures and the surrounding groups of galaxy clusters, along with their member galaxies. Based on the estimated binding energy of galaxy pairs, the algorithm builds a binary tree that hierarchically arranges all of the galaxies in the field of view. The algorithm searches for buds, corresponding to gravitational potential minima on the binary tree branches; for each bud, the algorithm combines the number of galaxies, their velocity dispersion, and their average pairwise distance into a parameter that discriminates between the buds that do not correspond to any substructure or group, and thus eventually die, and the buds that correspond to substructures and groups, and thus bloom into the identified structures. We test our new algorithm with a sample of 300 mock redshift surveys of clusters in different dynamical states; the clusters are extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation of a ΛCDM model. We limit our analysis to substructures and surrounding groups identified in the simulation with mass larger than 1013 h ‑1 M ⊙. With mock redshift surveys with 200 galaxies within 6 h ‑1 Mpc from the cluster center, the technique recovers 80% of the real substructures and 60% of the surrounding groups; in 57% of the identified structures, at least 60% of the member galaxies of the substructures and groups belong to the same real structure. These results improve by roughly a factor of two the performance of the best substructure identification algorithm currently available, the σ plateau algorithm, and suggest that our Blooming Tree Algorithm can be an invaluable tool for detecting substructures of galaxy clusters and investigating their complex dynamics.

  8. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S

    2008-12-15

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with {mu}{sub {iota}} {>=} 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  9. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    OpenAIRE

    JiaJin Wen; Jun Yuan; ShanHe Wu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 ) { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2)} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p ) 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ) ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr)^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varG...

  10. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  11. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  12. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  13. One Japanese case on taxation surrounding foreign trust

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    Taxation surrounding trust at cross-border situation is paid attention to byworldwide basis. Japan is not exception. According to recent Japanesejurisprudence, where a trust had been established in accordance with State law ofNew Jersey, the U.S., it was disputed whether or not the act settling that trust fellwithin “shintaku koui (an act of trust)” and one of the related members, who had beena minor child at that time, fell within “jyueki sha (beneficiary)” under JapaneseInheritance Tax Act....

  14. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Kilianski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises.

  15. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G

    2015-10-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises.

  16. REMOTE SENSING EFFICIENCY FOR URBAN ANALYSIS OF MECCA AND SURROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  17. Remote Sensing Efficiency for Urban Analysis of Mecca and Surrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Ayman; Alhaddad, Bahaa; Roca, Josep

    2016-06-01

    Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC) since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD) analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC) changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  18. MRI of normal pituitary glands and their surrounding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    Normal MRI appearances of the pituitary glands and their surrounding structures were evaluated in 332 patients without sellar and parasellar diseases. The height of the pituitary gland was maximum at 10-19 years of age reflecting hormonal activity. The width of the pituitary gland decreased, while that of the cavernous sinus increased with aging. This is probably due to atherosclerotic change of the internal carotid artery. Females younger than 30 years of age tended to show a convex upper surface of the pituitary gland and the displacement of the pituitary stalk was common after 50 years of age. Almost all of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland showed isointensity relative to the pons or cerebral cortex and the majority (85.1%) of the posterior lobe showed hyperintensity. However, the anterior lobe in 2 newborns showed hyperintensity similar to the normal posterior lobe in adults. The posterior lobe was located off the midline in 19.1% of the subjects. One case of pars intermedia cyst was discovered among 14 subjects who were administered Gd-DTPA. The dural membrane between the pituitary gland and cavernous sinus was recognizable only in 8.6% on the right side and 7.5% on the left side. Primary empty sella was identified in 4.5%. Knowledge of the above normal ranges and variations of the pituitary gland and its surrounding structures is important in diagnosing sellar and parasellar lesions. (author) 52 refs

  19. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  20. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Qin Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10 3 cm –3 and kinematic temperature ∼20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  1. Cytoplasmic movement profiles of mouse surrounding nucleolus and not-surrounding nucleolus antral oocytes during meiotic resumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Thu Hien; Belli, Martina; Fassina, Lorenzo; Vigone, Giulia; Merico, Valeria; Garagna, Silvia; Zuccotti, Maurizio

    2017-05-01

    Full-grown mouse antral oocytes are classified as surrounding nucleolus (SN) or not-surrounding nucleolus (NSN), depending on the respective presence or absence of a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin surrounding the nucleolus. In culture, both types of oocytes resume meiosis and reach the metaphase II (MII) stage, but following insemination, NSN oocytes arrest at the two-cell stage whereas SN oocytes may develop to term. By coupling time-lapse bright-field microscopy with image analysis based on particle image velocimetry, we provide the first systematic measure of the changes to the cytoplasmic movement velocity (CMV) occurring during the germinal vesicle-to-MII (GV-to-MII) transition of these two types of oocytes. Compared to SN oocytes, NSN oocytes display a delayed GV-to-MII transition, which can be mostly explained by retarded germinal vesicle break down and first polar body extrusion. SN and NSN oocytes also exhibit significantly different CMV profiles at four main time-lapse intervals, although this difference was not predictive of SN or NSN oocyte origin because of the high variability in CMV. When CMV profile was analyzed through a trained artificial neural network, however, each single SN or NSN oocyte was blindly identified with a probability of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively. Thus, the CMV profile recorded during meiotic resumption may be exploited as a cytological signature for the non-invasive assessment of the oocyte developmental potential, and could be informative for the analysis of the GV-to-MII transition of oocytes of other species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of the urban space surrounding selected railway stations in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Weronika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, many railway stations, in spite of being architecturally valuable, are subject to de-capitalization and degradation, which increasingly leads to demolition including elements or even entire railway stations of historical importance. Therefore, there arises a need to transform these facilities – as well as their nearby surroundings – into service areas not only for railway passengers but also for the consumer or tourist. This article presents an overview of the types of development of functional and spatial areas around a railway station, as well as the building itself, on selected examples in cities of Poland. In past historical periods, the surroundings of railway stations often became the new core of the studied centres, creating new urban structures. Train station forecourts, as well as access roads leading to railway stations, became specific links of railway infrastructure, the main points of which were railway stations, with the original urban layout. Unfortunately, the decline in the importance of rail transport has contributed to the recession and degradation of these spaces, and often to changes in their functions. This article refers to the concept of redevelopment of the railway station area, which emphasizes the creation of hubs integrating various modes of transport on the one hand, and transforming the area around the stations into an area of development of new business activities, on the other. Some of the discussed train stations have undergone a thorough renovation (e.g. Kraków Główny, Katowice and Poznań Główny, frequently in an attempt to allude to global trends in the commercialization of space and transport integration within station squares. However, this poses a problem and a challenge for decision-makers attempting to redevelop such facilities and the spaces associated with them.

  3. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features.Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands.Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads.Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat.Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area.Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  4. Crustal structure beneath Beijing and its surrounding regions derived from gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenliang; Zhang, Jingfa; Lu, Xiaocui; Lu, Jing

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we use gravity data to study fine crustal structure and seismogenic environment beneath Beijing and its surrounding regions. Multi-scale wavelet analysis method is applied to separating gravity fields. Logarithmic power spectrum method is also used to calculate depth of gravity field source. The results show that the crustal structure is very complicated beneath Beijing and its surrounding areas. The crustal density exhibits laterally inhomogeneous. There are three large scale tectonic zones in North China, i.e., WNW-striking Zhangjiakou-Bohai tectonic zone (ZBTZ), NE-striking Taihang piedmont tectonic zone (TPTZ) and Cangxian tectonic zone (CTZ). ZBTZ and TPTZ intersect with each other beneath Beijing area and both of them cut through the lithosphere. The upper and middle crusts consist of many small-scale faults, uplifts and depressions. In the lower crust, these small-scale tectonic units disappear gradually, and they are replaced by large-scale tectonic units. In surrounding regions of Beijing, ZBTZ intersects with several other NE-striking tectonic units, such as Cangxian uplift, Jizhong depression and Shanxi Graben System (SGS). In west of Taihangshan uplift, gravity anomalies in upper and middle crusts are correlated with geological and topographic features on the surface. Compared with the crust, the structure is comparatively simple in uppermost mantle. Earthquakes mainly occurred in upper and middle crusts, especially in transitional regions between high gravity anomaly and low gravity anomaly. Occurrence of large earthquakes may be related to the upwelling of upper mantle and asthenosphere heat flow materials, such as Sanhe earthquake ( M S8.0) and Tangshan earthquake ( M S7.8).

  5. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1) Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Kaczmarek, Konrad; Mainka, Anna

    2015-10-16

    This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se) content in highly mobile (F1), mobile (F2), less mobile (F3) and not mobile (F4) fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF) and a principal component analysis (PCA). There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  6. Calcination of Rod-like Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals with an Anti-sintering Agent Surrounding the Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, M.; Furuzono, T.

    2007-01-01

    Sintering-free nanocrystals of calcined hydroxyapatite (HAp) having a rod-like morphology were fabricated by calcination at 800 deg. C for 1 h with an anti-sintering agent surrounding original HAp particles and the agent was subsequently removed after calcination. The original HAp particles having a rod-like morphology with a size ranging from 30 to 80 nm (short axis) and 300 to 500 nm (long axis) were prepared by wet chemical process, and poly(acrylic acid, calcium salt) (PAA-Ca) was used as the anti-sintering agent. In the case of calcination without additives, the mean size of HAp crystals dispersed in an ethanol medium increased by about 4 times and the specific surface area of the crystals exhibited a 25% decrease compared to those of the original HAp particles because of calcination-induced sintering among the crystals. On the other hand, the HAp crystals calcined with the anti-sintering agent, PAA-Ca, could be dispersed in an ethanol medium at the same size as the original particles, and they preserved the specific surface area after calcination. These results indicate that PAA-Ca and/or its thermally decomposed product, CaO, surrounded the HAp particles and protected them against calcination-induced sintering during calcination. The HAp crystals calcined with PAA-Ca showed high crystallinity, and no other calcium phosphate phases could be detected after washing with water

  7. Cross-boundary management between national parks and surrounding lands: A review and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonewald-Cox, Christine; Buechner, Marybeth; Sauvajot, Raymond; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    1992-03-01

    Protecting biodiversity on public lands is difficult, requiring the management of a complex array of factors. This is especially true when the ecosystems in question are affected by, or extend onto, lands outside the boundaries of the protected area. In this article we review recent developments in the cross-boundary management of protected natural resources, such as parks, wildlife reserves, and designated wilderness areas. Five ecological and 11 anthropic techniques have been suggested for use in cross-boundary management. The categories are not mutually exclusive, but each is a distinct and representative approach, suggested by various authors from academic, managerial, and legal professions. The ecological strategies stress the collection of basic data and documentation of trends. The anthropic techniques stress the usefulness of cooperative guidelines and the need to develop a local constituency which supports park goals. However, the situation is complex and the needed strategies are often difficult to implement. Diverse park resources are influenced by events in surrounding lands. The complexity and variability of sources, the ecological systems under protection, and the uncertainty of the effects combine to produce situations for which there are no simple answers. The solution to coexistence of the park and surrounding land depends upon creative techniques and recommendations, many still forthcoming. Ecological, sociological, legal, and economic disciplines as well as the managing agency should all contribute to these recommendations. Platforms for change include legislation, institutional policies, communication, education, management techniques, and ethics.

  8. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1 Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Zajusz-Zubek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se content in highly mobile (F1, mobile (F2, less mobile (F3 and not mobile (F4 fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF and a principal component analysis (PCA. There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  9. Groundwater quality surrounding Lake Texoma during short-term drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampbell, Donald H.; An, Youn-Joo; Jewell, Ken P.; Masoner, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    Stressors such as nitrates and total salts in ground water could potentially become a health or environmental problem during drought conditions. - Water quality data from 55 monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. During the drought month of October, water table levels were three feet (0.9 m) lower compared with several months earlier under predrought climate conditions. Detection frequencies of nitrate (> 0.1 mg/l), orthophosphates (> 0.1 mg/l), chlorides (> MCL), and sulfates (> MCL) all increased during drought. Orthophosphate level was higher during drought. Largest increases in concentration were nitrate under both agriculture lands and in septic tank areas. An increase in ammonium-nitrogen was only detected in the septic tank area. The study showed that stressors such as nitrate and total salts could potentially become a health or environmental problem during drought

  10. MAPPING THE SURROUNDINGS AS A REQUIREMENT FOR AUTONOMOUS DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steininger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the hype around driverless cars and the challenges of the sensor integration and data processing, this paper presents a model for using a XBox One Microsoft Kinect stereo camera as sensor for mapping the surroundings. Today, the recognition of the environment of the car is mostly done by a mix of sensors like LiDAR, RADAR and cameras. In the case of the outdoor delivery challenge Robotour 2016 with model cars in scale 1:5, it is our goal to solve the task with one camera only. To this end, a three-stage approach was developed. The test results show that our approach can detect and locate objects at a range of up to eight meters in order to incorporate them as barriers in the navigation process.

  11. Physical geography of the Nete basin and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerten, K.

    2011-01-01

    The report briefly describes the main features of the physical geography of the Nete basin (Campine region, Belgium) and its immediate surroundings. First, an integrated overview of the topography, morphology and hydrography is given. This overview serves as the basis for the assessment of the morphological stability of the region and also explains the relationship between the topography and the hydrology. Furthermore, special attention is paid to soil science including a quantitative survey of some soil characteristics data. Another part of this report deals with erosion processes caused by water and wind action, and the (potential) impact on the morphology. Finally, the palaeogeographical evolution during the Quaternary is discussed. This evolution shows that the environment is stable over 10 000 years or more in the current and similar climatic conditions. Altering climatic conditions, notably glacial-interglacial periods, have impacted erosion with periods of strong erosion.

  12. Precision Security: Integrating Video Surveillance with Surrounding Environment Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance plays a vital role in maintaining the social security although, until now, large uncertainty still exists in danger understanding and recognition, which can be partly attributed to intractable environment changes in the backgrounds. This article presents a brain-inspired computing of attention value of surrounding environment changes (EC with a processes-based cognition model by introducing a ratio value λ of EC-implications within considered periods. Theoretical models for computation of warning level of EC-implications to the universal video recognition efficiency (quantified as time cost of implication-ratio variations from λk to λk+1, k=1,2,… are further established. Imbedding proposed models into the online algorithms is suggested as a future research priority towards precision security for critical applications and, furthermore, schemes for a practical implementation of such integration are also preliminarily discussed.

  13. A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Maynard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.

  14. Teacher Leadership: Everyday Practices Surrounding Work- Related Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiweshe Nigel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes. Insights are drawn from our long-standing engagement in the field where we observed how teaching staff, students, and management interacted. These observations were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 20 teaching staff. Our findings reveal competing demands and practices across the individual intrapersonal environment and the work related environment. There were three key themes that emerged in answer to the core research question: 1 the role of relational practices in managing teacher burnout, 2 the role of surveillance practices in education and 3 the role of assimilating practices in education. Drawing insights from these practices, we develop a conceptual framework that will help us to see relations at work anew, and develop a deeper understanding of ‘sickies’, motivation, learning outcomes and teacher leadership opportunities in education

  15. The surrounding tissue modifies the placental stem villous vascular responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn; Forman, Axel; Aalkjær, Christian

    2014-01-01

    is available. In-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in control of placental vascular tone are needed to develop new tissue targets for therapeutic intervention. Method: From fresh born placentas segments of stem villous arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided....... The surrounding trophoblast was removed from one end and left intact in the other, and the segment was divided to give two ring preparations, with or without trophoblast. The preparations were mounted in wire myographs and responses to vasoactive agents were compared. Results: pD2values for PGF2α, Tx-analog U...... or endotheline-1. These differences partly disappeared in the presence of L-NAME. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly reduces sensitivity and force development of stem villous arteries, partly due to release of NO This represents a new mechanism for control of human stem villous artery tone....

  16. Environmental monitoring of carbaryl applied in urban areas to control the glassy-winged sharpshooter in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Johanna; Goh, Kean S; Li, Linying; Feng, Hsiao; Hernandez, Jorge; White, Jane

    2003-03-01

    Carbaryl insecticide was applied by ground spray to plants in urban areas to control a serious insect pest the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), newly introduced in California. To assure there are no adverse impacts to human health and the environment from the carbaryl applications, carbaryl was monitored in tank mixtures, air, surface water, foliage and backyard fruits and vegetables. Results from the five urban areas - Porterville, Fresno, Rancho Cordova, Brentwood and Chico - showed there were no significant human exposures or impacts on the environment. Spray tank concentrations ranged from 0.1-0.32%. Carbaryl concentrations in air ranged from none detected to 1.12 microg m(-3), well below the interim health screening level in air of 51.7 microg m(-3). There were three detections of carbaryl in surface water near application sites: 0.125 ppb (parts per billion) from a water treatment basin; 6.94 ppb from a gold fish pond; and 1737 ppb in a rain runoff sample collected from a drain adjacent to a sprayed site. The foliar dislodgeable residues ranged from 1.54-7.12 microg cm(-2), comparable to levels reported for safe reentry of 2.4 to 5.6 microg cm(-2) for citrus. Carbaryl concentrations in fruits and vegetables ranged from no detectable amounts to 7.56 ppm, which were below the U.S. EPA tolerance, allowable residue of 10 ppm.

  17. Influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kashiwaya, Koki; Nishida, Yuki; , Toshinori, Ii

    2017-06-01

    Understanding subcritical crack growth in rock is essential for determining appropriate measures to ensure the long-term integrity of rock masses surrounding structures and for construction from rock material. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated experimentally, focusing on the influence of the surrounding environment on the relationship between the crack velocity and stress intensity factor. The crack velocity increased with increasing temperature and/or relative humidity. In all cases, the crack velocity increased with increasing stress intensity factor. However, for Carrara marble (CM) in air, we observed a region in which the crack velocity still increased with temperature, but the increase in the crack velocity with increasing stress intensity factor was not significant. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth observed in glass in air. Region II in glass is controlled by mass transport to the crack tip. In the case of rock, the transport of water to the crack tip is important. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contain water. Because the porosity of CM is very low, the amount of water contained in the marble is also very small. Therefore, our results imply that we observed Region II in CM. Because the crack velocity increased in both water and air with increasing temperature and humidity, we concluded that dry conditions at low temperature are desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass. Additionally, mass transport to the crack tip is an important process for subcritical crack growth in rock with low porosity.

  18. Quasars Probing Quasars: the Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding z ~ 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie; Quasars Probing Quasars survey

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the circumgalactic medium--the gaseous halo surrounding a galaxy, is an integral part to understanding galaxy evolution. The z ~ 2-3 universe is interesting as this is when the star formation rate and AGN activity peak. My thesis concludes the decade-long Quasars Probing Quasars survey designed for studying massive galaxy formation and quasar feedback. I use background quasar sightlines that pass close to foreground quasars to study the circumgalactic medium of quasar-host galaxies in absorption. My sample of 149 quasar pairs involve spectra taken with 17 different optical and near IR instruments. I present results on the statistical and physical properties of the circumgalactic medium. The circumgalactic medium is enriched even beyond the virial radius. The alpha/Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting enrichment from core-collapse supernovae. The cool gas mass within the virial radius is enough to fuel star formation for another Gyr, and may account for 1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state increases with projected distance from the quasar, which implies the quasar does not dominate the ionizing radiation flux. However, detection of fluorescent Lyman-alpha emission and NV absorption imply these transverse absorbers are partially illuminated by the quasar. In one peculiar case, the absorbing clump has density >100 cm^-3 and sub-parsec size. The average absorption in the circumgalactic medium exhibits large velocity widths, and is asymmetric about the systemic redshift of the galaxies. The widths are consistent with gravitational motions and Hubble flow, and outflows are not required to explain them. The asymmetry can be explained if the ionizing radiation from the quasar is anisotropic or intermittent and the gas is not in inflow. My results pose challenges for cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to produce a substantial cool gas reservoir surrounding quasars, that is also enriched and shows extreme kinematics.

  19. How A Black Hole Lights Up Its Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    How do the supermassive black holes that live at the centers of galaxies influence their environments? New observations of a distant active galaxy offer clues about this interaction.Signs of CoevolutionPlot demonstrating the m-sigma relation, the empirical correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion of a galactic bulge and the mass of the supermassive black hole at its center. [Msigma]We know that the centers of active galaxies host supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of suns. One mystery surrounding these beasts is that they are observed to evolve simultaneously with their host galaxies for instance, an empirical relationship is seen between the growth of a black hole and the growth of its host galaxys bulge. This suggests that there must be a feedback mechanism through which the evolution of a black hole is linked to that of its host galaxy.One proposed source of this coupling is the powerful jets emitted from the poles of these supermassive black holes. These jets are thought to be produced as some of the material accreting onto the black hole is flung out, confined by surrounding gas and magnetic fields. Because the jets of hot gas and radiation extend outward through the host galaxy, they provide a means for the black hole to influence the gas and dust of its surroundings.In our current model of a radio-loud active galactic nuclei,a region of hot, ionized gas the narrow-line region lies beyond the sphere of influence of the supermassive black hole. [C.M. Urry and P. Padovani]Clues in the Narrow-Line RegionThe region of gas thought to sit just outside of the black holes sphere of influence (at a distance of perhaps a thousand to a few thousand light-years) is known as the narrow line region so named because we observe narrow emission lines from this gas. Given its hot, ionized state, this gas must somehow be being pummeled with energy. In the canonical picture, radiation from the black hole heats the gas directly in a process

  20. VESUVIUS PENTALOGUE: Interdisciplinary Science for Disaster Resilience and Sustainability of Populations Surrounding Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobran, F.

    2015-12-01

    VESUVIUS PENTALOGUE is an elaboration of VESUVIUS 2000 scientific initiative aimed at volcanic risk reduction in the Vesuvius area. Its 5 building blocks are: (1) The current strategy of volcanic risk management (massive deportation of population) is both problematic and unacceptable. (2) A continuing close habitation of the population with the volcano should be the crucial cultural point to be pursued. This can be accomplished through a redefinition of the danger zone around Summa-Vesuvius as follows: (a) An exclusion nucleus should be established that prohibits all future human settlements and discourage the existing ones; (b) A resilience belt, housing most of the current population, should be established; (c) A sustainable area should be established beyond the resilience belt, allowing for both sustainable practices and temporary resettlements of the "resilience belt" citizens. (3) The built environment construction codes for the population of the danger zone should be established by utilizing Plinian eruption scenarios, scenario-based seismic hazard assessment and zonation, (c) dynamic structural analyses, (d) global volcanic simulations modeling of thermo-fluid dynamic eruption processes. (4) The volcanic risk information and education should involve an effective volcanic risk information campaign and active public preparedness strategy. This should be implemented for the exclusion nucleus, resilience belt, and sustainable area regions surrounding Summa-Vesuvius. A Volcanic Risk Education Safety Program should be implemented in all schools located within each of the above areas surrounding the volcano. (5)The political Authorities and the scientific community should produce a "memorandum of understanding" that univocally establishes an effective collaboration, and periodic progress reports that keep the populations informed on the improvements leading to the realization of the above objectives. For further details see www.gvess.org.

  1. Methane fluxes from tropical coastal lagoons surrounded by mangroves, Yucatán, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, P.-C.; Young, M. B.; Dale, A. W.; Miller, L. G.; Herrera-Silveira, J. A.; Paytan, A.

    2017-05-01

    Methane concentrations in the water column and emissions to the atmosphere were determined for three tropical coastal lagoons surrounded by mangrove forests on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Surface water dissolved methane was sampled at different seasons over a period of 2 years in areas representing a wide range of salinities and anthropogenic impacts. The highest surface water methane concentrations (up to 8378 nM) were measured in a polluted canal associated with Terminos Lagoon. In Chelem Lagoon, methane concentrations were typically lower, except in the polluted harbor area (1796 nM). In the relatively pristine Celestún Lagoon, surface water methane concentrations ranged from 41 to 2551 nM. Methane concentrations were negatively correlated with salinity in Celestún, while in Chelem and Terminos high methane concentrations were associated with areas of known pollution inputs, irrespective of salinity. The diffusive methane flux from surface lagoon water to the atmosphere ranged from 0.0023 to 15 mmol CH4 m-2 d-1. Flux chamber measurements revealed that direct methane release as ebullition was up to 3 orders of magnitude greater than measured diffusive flux. Coastal mangrove lagoons may therefore be an important natural source of methane to the atmosphere despite their relatively high salinity. Pollution inputs are likely to substantially enhance this flux. Additional statistically rigorous data collected globally are needed to better consider methane fluxes from mangrove-surrounded coastal areas in response to sea level changes and anthropogenic pollution in order to refine projections of future atmospheric methane budgets.

  2. INVASIVE WEEDS IN BOGOR BOTANIC GARDENS, INDONESIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG. Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae, Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae, Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae, Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae, Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen (Fabaceae. These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L. Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.

  3. Recent underwater explorations at Dwarka and surroundings of Okha Mandal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Onshore explorations were carried out in Dwarka, Bet Dwarka, Aramda, Kachhigadhi, Okhamadi and Amrapura area. At Dwarka about 1.6 km2 area was explored between water depths of 1.5 to 20 m off Samudranarayan temple. Diving was carried out at about 40...

  4. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and decorin expression in old fracture fragments and surrounding tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X G; Wang, D K; Gao, F; Liu, R H; Bi, Z G

    2015-09-21

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) can promote fracture healing. Although the complex role BMP-2 in bone formation is increasingly understood, the role of endogenous BMP-2 in nonunion remains unclear. Decorin (DCN) can promote the formation of bone matrix and calcium deposition to control bone morphogenesis. In this study, tissue composition and expression of BMP-2 and DCN were detected in different parts of old fracture zones to explore inherent anti-fibrotic ability and osteogenesis. Twenty-three patients were selected, including eight cases of delayed union and 15 cases of nonunion. Average duration of delayed union or nonunion was 15 months. Fracture fragments and surrounding tissues, including bone grafts, marrow cavity contents, and sticking scars, were categorically sampled during surgery. Through observation and histological testing, component comparisons were made between fracture fragments and surrounding tissue. The expression levels of DCN and BMP-2 in different tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of DCN and BMP- 2 in different parts of the nonunion area showed that, compared with bone graft and marrow cavity contents, sticking scars had the highest expression of BMP-2. Compared with the marrow cavity contents and sticking scars, bone grafts had the highest expression of DCN. The low antifibrotic and osteogenic activity of the nonunion area was associated with non-co-expression of BMP-2 and DCN. Therefore, the co-injection of osteogenic factor BMP and DCN into the nonunion area can improve the induction of bone formation and enhance the conversion of the old scar, thereby achieving better nonunion treatment.

  6. A nebula of gases from Io surrounding Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hamilton, Douglas C; Dandouras, Jannis; Armstrong, Thomas P; Bolton, Scott J; Cheng, Andrew F; Gloeckler, George; Hsieh, K C; Keath, Edwin P; Krupp, Norbert; Lagg, Andreas; Lanzerotti, Louis J; Livi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H; McEntire, Richard W; Roelof, Edmond C; Wilken, Berend; Williams, Donald J

    2002-02-28

    Several planetary missions have reported the presence of substantial numbers of energetic ions and electrons surrounding Jupiter; relativistic electrons are observable up to several astronomical units (au) from the planet. A population of energetic (>30[?]keV) neutral particles also has been reported, but the instrumentation was not able to determine the mass or charge state of the particles, which were subsequently labelled energetic neutral atoms. Although images showing the presence of the trace element sodium were obtained, the source and identity of the neutral atoms---and their overall significance relative to the loss of charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere---were unknown. Here we report the discovery by the Cassini spacecraft of a fast (>103[?]km[?]s-1) and hot magnetospheric neutral wind extending more than 0.5[?]au from Jupiter, and the presence of energetic neutral atoms (both hot and cold) that have been accelerated by the electric field in the solar wind. We suggest that these atoms originate in volcanic gases from Io, undergo significant evolution through various electromagnetic interactions, escape Jupiter's magnetosphere and then populate the environment around the planet. Thus a 'nebula' is created that extends outwards over hundreds of jovian radii.

  7. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Braunmiller, J.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S

    2007-12-15

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006. During this period, 572 earthquakes and 91 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, two occurred in conjunction with the construction of the new Gotthard railway tunnel and 165 were induced artificially by the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel. With 20 events with {mu}{sub {iota}} {>=} 2.5, five of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2006 was far below the average over the previous 31 years. Nevertheless, six events were felt by the public, most prominently the strongest of the induced Basel events ({mu}{sub {iota}} 3.4), which caused some non-structural building damage. Noteworthy are also the two earthquakes near Cortaillod ({mu}{sub {iota}} 3.2), on the shore of Lake Neuchatel, and in Val Mora ({mu}{sub {iota}} 3.5), between the Engadin and Val Muestair, as well as the 42 aftershocks of the {mu}{sub {iota}} 4.9 Vallorcine earthquake, between Martigny and Chamonix, of September 2005. (author)

  8. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  9. Motor training reduces surround inhibition in the motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkad, Haya; Di Stasio, Flavio; Tibold, Robert; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Rothwell, John C; Edwards, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Surround inhibition (SI) is thought to facilitate focal contraction of a hand muscle by keeping nearby muscles silent. Unexpectedly, SI is reduced in skilled pianists. We tested whether repeated practice of focal contraction in non-pianists could reduce SI. Motor-evoked potentials were elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the relaxed abductor digiti minimi randomly at the onset and 5s after offset of a 2s focal contraction (10% maximum) of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Over 5 blocks of 40 trials participants obtained points for increasing contraction speed and stability in FDI. In a final block, the interval between contractions was varied randomly to increase attention to the task. Over the first 5 blocks, SI declined as performance (points scored) improved. In the final "attention" block SI increased towards baseline without affecting performance. Although SI may be useful during the early stages of learning, skilled focal finger movement does not require SI to prevent activity in non-involved muscles. This could be due to better targeting of the excitatory command to move. Results from the final block suggest that increased attention can re-engage SI when task parameters change. SI is not necessary for successful focal contraction, but may contribute during learning and during attention to task. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  12. Sound Environments Surrounding Preterm Infants Within an Occupied Closed Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Aya; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants often exhibit functional disorders due to the stressful environment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The sound pressure level (SPL) in the NICU is often much higher than the levels recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Our study aims to describe the SPL and sound frequency levels surrounding preterm infants within closed incubators that utilize high frequency oscillation (HFO) or nasal directional positive airway pressure (nasal-DPAP) respiratory settings. This is a descriptive research study of eight preterm infants (corrected agenoise levels were observed and the results were compared to the recommendations made by neonatal experts. Increased noise levels, which have reported to affect neonates' ability to self-regulate, could increase the risk of developing attention deficit disorder, and may result in tachycardia, bradycardia, increased intracranial pressure, and hypoxia. The care provider should closely assess for adverse effects of higher sound levels generated by different modes of respiratory support and take measures to ensure that preterm infants are protected from exposure to noise exceeding the optimal safe levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jü rgen P.; Acevedo-Feliz, Daniel; Mangan, John; Prudhomme, Andrew; Nguyen, Phi Khanh; Weber, Philip P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Ultrastructural study of tissues surrounding replanted teeth and dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioya, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Takashi; Miake, Yasuo; Inoue, Sadayuki; Yanagisawa, Takaaki

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the dentogingival border at replanted teeth and implants. Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided into groups for replantation and implantation experiments. In the former, the upper right first molars were extracted and then immediately replanted. In the latter, pure titanium implants were used. All tissues were fixed, demineralized and embedded in epoxy resin for ultrastructural observations. One week after replantation, the junctional epithelium was lost, and the oral sulcular epithelium covered the enamel surface. The amount of the epithelium increased in 2 weeks, and resembled the junctional epithelium, and the internal basal lamina and hemidesmosomes were formed in 4 weeks. One week after implantation, peri-implant epithelium was formed, and in 2 and 4 weeks, this epithelium with aggregated connective tissue cells were observed. In 8 weeks, the peri-implant epithelium receded, and aligned special cells with surrounding elongated fibroblasts and bundles of collagen fibers appeared to seal the implant interface. In replantation of the tooth, the internal basal lamina remained at the surface of the enamel of the replanted tooth, which is likely to be related to regeneration of the junctional epithelium and the attachment apparatus at the epithelium-tooth interface. Following implantation, a layer of cells with characteristics of connective tissue cells, but no junctional epithelium and attachment apparatus, was formed to seal the site of the implant.

  15. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Braunmiller, J.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2007-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006. During this period, 572 earthquakes and 91 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, two occurred in conjunction with the construction of the new Gotthard railway tunnel and 165 were induced artificially by the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, five of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2006 was far below the average over the previous 31 years. Nevertheless, six events were felt by the public, most prominently the strongest of the induced Basel events (Μ ι 3.4), which caused some non-structural building damage. Noteworthy are also the two earthquakes near Cortaillod (Μ ι 3.2), on the shore of Lake Neuchatel, and in Val Mora (Μ ι 3.5), between the Engadin and Val Muestair, as well as the 42 aftershocks of the Μ ι 4.9 Vallorcine earthquake, between Martigny and Chamonix, of September 2005. (author)

  16. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  17. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces psychophysically measured surround suppression in the human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Spiegel

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe, non-invasive technique for transiently modulating the balance of excitation and inhibition within the human brain. It has been reported that anodal tDCS can reduce both GABA mediated inhibition and GABA concentration within the human motor cortex. As GABA mediated inhibition is thought to be a key modulator of plasticity within the adult brain, these findings have broad implications for the future use of tDCS. It is important, therefore, to establish whether tDCS can exert similar effects within non-motor brain areas. The aim of this study was to assess whether anodal tDCS could reduce inhibitory interactions within the human visual cortex. Psychophysical measures of surround suppression were used as an index of inhibition within V1. Overlay suppression, which is thought to originate within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, was also measured as a control. Anodal stimulation of the occipital poles significantly reduced psychophysical surround suppression, but had no effect on overlay suppression. This effect was specific to anodal stimulation as cathodal stimulation had no effect on either measure. These psychophysical results provide the first evidence for tDCS-induced reductions of intracortical inhibition within the human visual cortex.

  18. Social Network Analysis Applied to a Historical Ethnographic Study Surrounding Home Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andina-Diaz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Safety during birth has improved since hospital delivery became standard practice, but the process has also become increasingly medicalised. Hence, recent years have witnessed a growing interest in home births due to the advantages it offers to mothers and their newborn infants. The aims of the present study were to confirm the transition from a home birth model of care to a scenario in which deliveries began to occur almost exclusively in a hospital setting; to define the social networks surrounding home births; and to determine whether geography exerted any influence on the social networks surrounding home births. Adopting a qualitative approach, we recruited 19 women who had given birth at home in the mid 20th century in a rural area in Spain. We employed a social network analysis method. Our results revealed three essential aspects that remain relevant today: the importance of health professionals in home delivery care, the importance of the mother’s primary network, and the influence of the geographical location of the actors involved in childbirth. All of these factors must be taken into consideration when developing strategies for maternal health.

  19. Social Network Analysis Applied to a Historical Ethnographic Study Surrounding Home Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andina-Diaz, Elena; Ovalle-Perandones, Mª Antonia; Ramos-Vidal, Ignacio; Camacho-Morell, Francisca; Siles-Gonzalez, Jose; Marques-Sanchez, Pilar

    2018-04-24

    Safety during birth has improved since hospital delivery became standard practice, but the process has also become increasingly medicalised. Hence, recent years have witnessed a growing interest in home births due to the advantages it offers to mothers and their newborn infants. The aims of the present study were to confirm the transition from a home birth model of care to a scenario in which deliveries began to occur almost exclusively in a hospital setting; to define the social networks surrounding home births; and to determine whether geography exerted any influence on the social networks surrounding home births. Adopting a qualitative approach, we recruited 19 women who had given birth at home in the mid 20th century in a rural area in Spain. We employed a social network analysis method. Our results revealed three essential aspects that remain relevant today: the importance of health professionals in home delivery care, the importance of the mother’s primary network, and the influence of the geographical location of the actors involved in childbirth. All of these factors must be taken into consideration when developing strategies for maternal health.

  20. Mechanical characteristics of fully mechanized top-coal caving face and surrounding rock stress shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guang-xiang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2005-06-15

    The distribution of surrounding rock stress in fully mechanized top-coal caving (FMTC) face was fully researched by large-scale and non-linear three-dimensional numerical simulation and equivalent laboratory. The results show that, there is the structure that is made of macroscopical stress shell composed of high stress binds in overlying strata of FMTC face. Stress shell, which bears and pass load of overlying strata, is primary supporting body. The stress in skewback of stress shell forms abutment pressure of surrounding rock in vicinity of working face. Bond-beam structure lies in reducing zone under stress shell. It only bear partial burden of strata under stress shell. The uppermost mechanical characteristic of FMTC face is lying in the low stress area under stress shell. It is the essential cause of strata behaviors of FMTC face relaxation. On the basis of analyzing stress shell, the mechanical essence that top coal performs a function of bedding is demonstrated. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Migration of metallic ions from screwposts into dentin and surrounding tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidson, K.; Wroblewski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that corrosion and other electrochemical processes occur when different alloys or metals are found together in the same mouth. In the present report, when teeth were restored using non-noble metallic posts, the metals diffused out to surrounding hard and soft connective tissues. The material consisted of extracted teeth with screwposts and surrounding discolored connective tissues. The screwposts had been cemented to the teeth 3-10 years earlier. The distribution of metal ion was determined by means of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Copper and zinc were found in both hard and soft tissues. Relatively high concentrations of copper ions were identified in areas of the teeth with blue-green discolorations. Zinc ions were detected in the dentin; they most probably originated from the screwposts and the cement, but zinc is also found in normal human dentin. Copper, zinc, silver and iron were found in the dark discolorations of the gingiva adjacent to the extracted teeth. (author)

  2. An environmental pollution study of Indian metropolitan cities and industrial surroundings by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Chutke, N.L.; Ambulkar, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The process of urbanization and industrialization during last two decades has resulted in increased level of air pollution causing hazards to human health. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using short and long term irradiation has been employed for the determination of more than 30 elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from six metropolitan cities and three industrial surroundings. A comparison of mean elemental contents in dust particulates from commercial, industrial and residential zones of Delhi, Calcutta, Madras, Cochin, Bombay and Nagpur cities has shown wide variation in toxic pollutant (As, Br, Cr, Cu, Hg and Sb) concentrations. Coastal areas have shown higher concentrations of Na, K, Cl and Br. Highly industrialized Bombay showed highest levels of Br, Cl, Cr, Fe, Mg, P, Rb and Sc. Mean elemental contents in fugitive and ambient dust of a cement factory and thermal power station (both in central India) are widely different. SPM levels in fugitive dust of the two industrial surroundings are higher by an order of magnitude compared to ambient air. Analysis of ambient air dust from a paper mill showed highest concentrations of Hg, Sb and Zn. Elemental data have been compared with those of Urban Particulate Matter (SRM 1648), Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633a) and Vehicle Exhaust Particulate (NIES No. 8) which were analysed for quality control. An attempt has been made to attribute the elemental contents to possible sources of origin. (author) 26 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  3. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197, equine (63, pigs (25, sheep (11, and dogs (28 were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197 among cattle and 10.7% (3/28 among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular

  4. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  5. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Tamone, Amelie [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Varela, Jesus, E-mail: elena.ricciardelli@epfl.ch [Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Plaza San Juan 1, E-44001 Teruel (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R {sub void}, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3 σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  6. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJin Wen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varGamma |}{4\\pi}\\sin\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggl[ \\csc \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\cot^{2} \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\ln \\biggl(\\tan \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\sec\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr \\biggr], \\\\& \\quad \\forall p\\leqslant -2. \\end{aligned}$$ As an application of the inequality in space science, we obtain the best lower bounds of the mean λ-gravity norm ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ $\\overline{\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\Vert }$ as follows: ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ ≜ 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ 1 ∥ A − P ∥ λ ⩾ ( 2 π | Γ | λ , ∀ λ ⩾ 2 . $$\\overline{\\bigl\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\bigr\\Vert } \\triangleq\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\frac{1}{\\|A-P\\|^{\\lambda }}\\geqslant \\biggl(\\frac{2\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr^{\\lambda},\\quad \\forall \\lambda\\geqslant2. $$

  7. Issues surrounding orphan disease and orphan drug policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Alain; Mergaert, Lut; Fostier, Christel; Cleemput, Irina; Simoens, Steven

    2010-01-01

    An orphan disease is a disease with a very low prevalence. Although there are 5000-7000 orphan diseases, only 50 orphan drugs (i.e. drugs developed to treat orphan diseases) were marketed in the EU by the end of 2008. In 2000, the EU implemented policies specifically designed to stimulate the development of orphan drugs. While decisions on orphan designation and the marketing authorization of orphan drugs are made at the EU level, decisions on drug reimbursement are made at the member state level. The specific features of orphan diseases and orphan drugs make them a high-priority issue for policy makers. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss several issues surrounding orphan disease and drug policies in Europe. The present system of orphan designation allows for drugs for non-orphan diseases to be designated as orphan drugs. The economic factors underlying orphan designation can be questioned in some cases, as a low prevalence of a certain indication does not equal a low return on investment for the drug across its indications. High-quality evidence about the clinical added value of orphan drugs is rarely available at the time of marketing authorization, due to the low number of patients. A balance must be struck between ethical and economic concerns. To this effect, there is a need to initiate a societal dialogue on this issue, to clarify what society wants and accepts in terms of ethical and economic consequences. The growing budgetary impact of orphan drugs puts pressure on drug expenditure. Indications can be extended for an orphan drug and the total prevalence across indications is not considered. Finally, cooperation needs to be fostered in the EU, particularly through a standardized approach to the creation and use of registries. These issues require further attention from researchers, policy makers, health professionals, patients, pharmaceutical companies and other stakeholders with a view to optimizing orphan disease and drug policies in

  8. Study of Interaction between Supersonic Flow and Rods Surrounded by Porous Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minoru YAGA; Kenji YAMAMOTO; Piotr DOERFFER; Kenyu OYAKAWA

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,some preliminary calculations and the experiments were performed to figure out the flow field,in which some rods were normally inserted into the main flow surrounded by a porous cavity.As a result,it is found that the starting shock wave severely interacts with the rods,the bow shock wave,its reflections,and the porous wall,which are numerically well predicted at some conditions.Moreover,inserting the rods makes the pressure on the upper wall in the porous region increase when the main flow in the porous region is completely supersonic.The calculations also suggest that three rods cause the widest suction area.

  9. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M.; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D.; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea’s capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea. PMID:26812047

  10. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Adriana; Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea's capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea.

  11. The characteristics of cerebral meningiomas and surrounding tissues on dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinkins, J.R.; Sener, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic CT was utilized to evaluate 11 patients with histologically benign meningiomas. While it was found that all demonstrated macroscopic neovascularity, subtle differences in the dynamic perfusion curves were identified both between different meningiomas and from region to region within the same tumor. Other than basic anatomic differences, these changes may reflect intratumoral ischemia and hypothetically herald cystic/necrotic alteration within the neoplasm. The dynamic calculations over the surrounding brain showed areas of gross hyper- and hypoperfused cerebral cortex, and hypoperfused white matter in regions of peritumoral edema. These latter findings are of uncertain clinical importance. The dynamic examination also confirmed cases of dural venous sinus invasion and calvarial permeation by tumor. In addition, the dynamic series showed macroscopic neovascularity in one case with a completely negative selective cerebral arteriogram. It is felt that certain cases which have previously been evaluated by static CT may benefit from further study utilizing the dynamic method. (orig.)

  12. Distribution, morphological variability, ecology and the present state of Nitella from Lake Ohrid and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajanovska Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research into 52 profiles of the littoral zone of the Macedonian part of Lake Ohrid and numerous samples taken from its surroundings has resulted in a detailed picture of the composition of the Charophyta vegetation in the lake. The results of the research also include data regarding the species composition and present state of Nitella. The dominant species of Nitella is Nitella opaca, which is characterized by a specific distribution, morphological variability and ecology. The present state of Nitella is not steady, especially in the watershed of the lake, since in this area there are some permanent changes in the hydrology of the terrain. Therefore, there is a need to establish long-term and complex monitoring which will result in the prompt detection of risk factors and influences, thereby enabling a rapid reaction to a possible newly emerged negative state.

  13. Muscle biopsies off-set normal cellular signaling in surrounding musculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Hauerslev, Simon; Dahlqvist, Julia R

    2013-01-01

    muscle tissue for at least 3 weeks after the biopsy was performed and magnetic resonance imaging suggests that an effect of a biopsy may persist for at least 5 months. Cellular signaling after a biopsy resembles what is seen in severe limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I with respect to protein......Studies of muscle physiology and muscular disorders often require muscle biopsies to answer questions about muscle biology. In this context, we have often wondered if muscle biopsies, especially if performed repeatedly, would affect interpretation of muscle morphology and cellular signaling. We...... hypothesized that muscle morphology and cellular signaling involved in myogenesis/regeneration and protein turnover can be changed by a previous muscle biopsy in close proximity to the area under investigation. Here we report a case where a past biopsy or biopsies affect cellular signaling of the surrounding...

  14. Solar energy powering up aerial misting systems for cooling surroundings in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atieh, Ahmad; Al Shariff, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Demonstrate solar energy misting system for the first time to our knowledge. ► Return on investment for such a system is recovered within two and half years. ► Solar panel tilt position is 25° due south in Medina Munawarah. ► The misting system is capable of lowering ambient temperature over 10 °C. - Abstract: We demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge a misting system that is powered by solar energy. The system was used to cool down an open area in Medina, Saudi Arabia. The ambient and surrounding temperatures were measured and compared for different timing signals that were applied to the misting system. The used solar panel performance is evaluated for different loads, and tilting settings. The return on investment for the misting system is found to be about two years and half.

  15. Thyroid cancer characteristics in the population surrounding Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Mangano, Joseph; Goldenberg, David

    2012-06-01

    To determine differences in disease characteristics between the thyroid cancer populations in the area around the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant and the rest of the state of Pennsylvania. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry from 1985 to 2008 were reviewed and information regarding age at diagnosis, sex, race, residential status, county of residence, thyroid pathology, thyroid surgery, and staging was recorded. Dauphin, Lancaster, and York counties were defined as the TMI area. Records of 26,357 thyroid cancer patients were reviewed, with 2,611 patients within the TMI area. A higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer (P < .001) and lower proportion of follicular thyroid cancer (P < .001) were noted in the TMI area population. Thyroid cancer cases from the TMI area were found to be more likely to be diagnosed before the age of 65 years (P < .001), be Pennsylvania born (P < .001), be well differentiated (P < .001), be <10 mm in size (P < .001), and be localized without spread (P < .001). Although the TMI area shows a higher incidence of thyroid cancer as compared to the rest of the state, this was not statistically significant. The TMI population showed a higher proportion of papillary thyroid cancer and less aggressive pathology and earlier diagnosis compared to the rest of Pennsylvania. No statistically significant difference in thyroid cancer incidence was noted. Overall, the study does not show a clear link with more advanced thyroid cancer and proximity to the TMI nuclear reactors. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. Issues Surrounding Accounting Lab and Online Accounting Resource Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudovska, Emilija; Gonzalez, Lacey; Tumblin, Wendy; Budden, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Students find themselves troubled with understanding concepts and processes involved in different subject areas. Many times they seek assistance but find themselves at a loss. Being aware of support resources and having assistance at one's disposal can eliminate the stress of searching for help. Nevertheless, as in the movies, the question begs to…

  17. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  18. Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Cylinders Surrounded by Various Reflector Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard Jones; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Monteirth

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1958 to determine critical masses of cylinders of Oralloy (Oy) reflected by a number of materials. The experiments were all performed on the Comet Universal Critical Assembly Machine, and consisted of discs of highly enriched uranium (93.3 wt.% 235U) reflected by half-inch and one-inch-thick cylindrical shells of various reflector materials. The experiments were performed by members of Group N-2, particularly K. W. Gallup, G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and R. H. White. This experiment was intended to ascertain critical masses for criticality safety purposes, as well as to compare neutron transport cross sections to those obtained from danger coefficient measurements with the Topsy Oralloy-Tuballoy reflected and Godiva unreflected critical assemblies. The reflector materials examined in this series of experiments are as follows: magnesium, titanium, aluminum, graphite, mild steel, nickel, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, natural uranium, tungsten, beryllium, aluminum oxide, molybdenum carbide, and polythene (polyethylene). Also included are two special configurations of composite beryllium and iron reflectors. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with six different parameters was evaluated; namely, extrapolation to the uranium critical mass, uranium density, 235U enrichment, reflector density, reflector thickness, and reflector impurities. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of the platen and diaphragm), two simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. First of all, since impurities in core and reflector materials are only estimated, they are not included in the benchmark models. Secondly, the room, support structure, and other possible surrounding equipment were not included in the model. Bias values that result from these two simplifications were determined and associated

  19. Response of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) to surrounding land cover in Wisconsin pickling cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, D M; Huseth, A S; Groves, R L

    2012-06-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is among the plants highly dependent on insect-mediated pollination, but little is known about its unmanaged pollinators. Both domestic and wild bee populations in central Wisconsin pickling cucumber fields were assessed using a combination of pan trapping and floral observations before and during bloom. Together with land cover analyses extending 2,000 m from field centers, the relationship of land cover components and bee abundance and diversity were examined. Over a 2-yr sample interval distributed among 18 experimental sites, 3,185 wild bees were collected representing >60 species. A positive association was found between both noncrop and herbaceous areas with bee abundance and diversity only during bloom. Response of bee abundance and diversity to land cover was strongest at larger buffers presumably because of the heterogeneous nature of the landscape and connectivity between crop and noncrop areas. These results are consistent with previous research that has found a weak response of wild bees to surrounding vegetation in moderately fragmented areas. A diverse community of wild bees is present within the fields of a commercial cucumber system, and there is evidence of floral visitation by unmanaged bees. This evidence emphasizes the importance of wild pollinators in fragmented landscapes and the need for additional research to investigate the effectiveness of individual species in pollen deposition.

  20. Groundwater and surface water interaction in a basin surrounded by steep mountains, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Kaeriyama, Toshiaki; Nakano, Takanori

    2015-04-01

    Mountainous headwaters and lower stream alluvial plains are important as water recharge and discharge areas from the view point of groundwater flow system. Especially, groundwater and surface water interaction is one of the most important processes to understand the total groundwater flow system from the mountain to the alluvial plain. We performed tracer approach and hydrometric investigations in a basin with an area 948 square km surrounded by steep mountains with an altitude from 250m to 2060m, collected 258 groundwater samples and 112 surface water samples along four streams flowing in the basin. Also, Stable isotopes ratios of oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) and strontium (Sr) were determined on all water samples. The 18O and D show distinctive values for each sub-basin affected by different average recharge altitudes among four sub-basins. Also, Sr isotope ratio shows the same trend as 18O and D affected by different geological covers in the recharge areas among four sub-basins. The 18O, D and Sr isotope values of groundwater along some rivers in the middle stream region of the basin show close values as the rivers, and suggesting that direct recharge from the river to the shallow groundwater is predominant in that region. Also, a decreasing trend of discharge rate of the stream along the flow supports this idea of the groundwater and surface water interaction in the basin.

  1. SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN CLUJ-NAPOCA SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. CZELLECZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saline waters are usually researched in those places where it is used for balneotherapy or other industrial purposes. The aim of this study is to describe the saline water sources from less known areas, as they are an important natural mineral water resource. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed from Cojocna-Pata-Sopor region, thirteen of them can be considered saline waters. The visited locations are 21, 15 and 3 km far from Cluj-Napoca. Highly concentrated springs are to be found in the old mine area from Pata village and in the slough from Cojocna. Beside the well known saline lakes from Cojocna, five other saline lakes were identified; most of them are having artificial origin.

  2. How to Design a Park and Its Surrounding Urban Morphology to Optimize the Spreading of Cool Air?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Bernard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Green areas induce smaller increases in the air temperature than built-up areas. They can offer a solution to mitigating the urban heat island impacts during heat waves, since the cool air generated by a park is diffused into its immediate surroundings through forced or natural convection. The purpose of this study is to characterize the effect of several variables (park size, morphology of surrounding urban area, and wind speed on the spreading of cool air. A parametric study is performed to run computational fluid dynamics simulations. The air temperature entering the computational domain was set at 35 °C, and the 2-m high surface included within the 34 °C isotherm was defined as an indicator of cool air spreading. The effects of park shape and orientation were negligible in comparison with size effects. The number of buildings was better correlated with the cooled surface area than the typical urban parameters identified in the literature (i.e., building density, aspect ratio, or mean building height. Since the number of buildings is obviously related to the number of streets, this result suggests that the greater the number of streets around a park, the wider the area that cool air spreads.

  3. Correlation of non-mass-like abnormal MR signal intensity with pathological findings surrounding pediatric osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrouha, Karim Z.; Haidar, Rachid; Saghieh, Said; Musallam, Khaled M.; Samra, Alexis Bou; Tawil, Ayman; Chakhachiro, Zaher; Abdallah, Abeer; Khoury, Nabil J.; Saab, Raya; Muwakkit, Samar; Abboud, Miguel R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the role of MRI in interpreting abnormal signals within bones and soft tissues adjacent to tumor bulk of osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma in a pediatric population by correlating MR findings with histopathology. Thirty patients met the inclusion criteria, which included (1) osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma, (2) MR studies no more than 2 months prior to surgery, (3) presence of abnormal MR signal surrounding the tumor bulk, (4) pathological material from resected tumor. The patients received standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Using grid maps on gross pathology specimens, the abnormal MR areas around the tumor were matched with the corresponding grid sections. Histopathology slides of these sections were then analyzed to determine the nature of the regions of interest. The MR/pathological correlation was evaluated using Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test. Twenty-seven patients had osteosarcoma and three patients had Ewing's sarcoma. Of the studied areas, 17.4% were positive for tumor (viable or necrotic). There was no statistically significant correlation between areas positive for tumor and age, gender, signal extent and intensity on MRI, or tissue type. There was, however, a statistically significant correlation between presence of tumor and the appearance of abnormal soft tissue signals. A feathery appearance correlated with tumor-negative areas whereas a bulky appearance correlated with tumor-positive regions. MR imaging is helpful in identifying the nature of abnormal signal areas surrounding bone sarcomas that are more likely to be tumor-free, particularly when the signal in the soft tissues surrounding the tumor is feathery and edema-like in appearance. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of dioxin-like PCBs in passive air and vegetation samples surrounding a metal reclamation incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucaciu, C.M.; Fayez, L.; Reiner, E.J.; Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Crozier, P.W.; Emerson, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wania, F. [Toronto Univ., Scarborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physical and Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    In 1998 the WHO identified 12 PCBs to be dioxin-like (DLPCB). This list includes 4 coplanar: 77, 81, 126, 169 and 8 mono-ortho: 105, 114, 118, 123, 156, 157, 167 and 189 congeners. Determination of DLPCBs allows results to be converted into TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD) values and enables data comparison at very low (sub ppt (pg/g)) levels. Vegetation and air samples were collected from an area surrounding a metal recovery incinerator in order to assess spatial and temporal trends for DLPCBs stemming from the long term operation of the incinerator. Foliage samples were harvested in September (1999 - 2 sets, 2000 to 2003) from maple and ash trees surrounding the incinerator at varying distances. Mature tree leaves are exposed to atmospheric deposition of PCBs for about 4 months (June to September) and the levels determined in foliage are representative of DLPCBs in the atmosphere surrounding each tree. Additionally, a passive air sampling technique based on the sorption of gaseous pollutants on XAD-2 (a styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer) resin was used for measuring long-term average gas-phase concentrations in the area surrounding the incinerator. Ten passive samplers were placed adjacent to trees previously sampled for DLPCBs at locations presented in Figure 1. The deployment period, lasting approximately 4 month (June to September 2003), corresponds to the time that mature leaves were present on the adjacent trees. Four other air samplers were placed close to a main highway in Toronto in order to compare the concentration of DLPCB in the urban area with the concentration in the rural area surrounding the incineration facility. Passive air samplers allow the characterization of the gaseous distribution of DLPCBs in the atmosphere. The advantages of using this technique are that it is independent of the atmospheric conditions (winds, precipitation, UV exposure) and can be used for sampling year round. Atmospheric deposition is expected to control

  5. Neutron shielding and activation of the MASTU device and surrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, David, E-mail: david.taylor@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lilley, Steven; Turner, Andrew [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Davis, Andrew [Now at College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: We model neutron shielding for the planned MASTU device; nadequacies in the existing shielding design are remedied; Levels of public exposure are considered; We model activated gamma emission for the device under a worst case scenario. Abstract: A significant functional upgrade is planned for the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) device, located at Culham in the UK, including the implementation of a notably greater neutral beam injection power. This upgrade will cause the emission of a substantially increased intensity of neutron radiation for a substantially increased amount of time upon operation of the device. Existing shielding and activation precautions are shown to prove insufficient in some regards, and recommendations for improvements are made, including the following areas: shielding doors to MAST shielded facility enclosure (known as “the blockhouse”); north access tunnel; blockhouse roof; west cabling duct. In addition, some specific neutronic dose rate questions are addressed and answered; those discussed here relate to shielding penetrations and dose rate reflected from the air above the device (“skyshine”). It is shown that the alterations to shielding and area access reduce the dose rate in unrestricted areas from greater than 100 μSv/h to less than 2 μSv/h averaged over the working day. The tools used for this analysis are the MCNP (Monte Carlo N-particle) code, used to calculate the three-dimensional spatial distribution of neutron and photon dose rates in and around the device and its shields, and the nuclear inventory code FISPACT, run under the umbrella code MCR2S, used to calculate the time-dependent shutdown dose rate in the region of the device at several decay times.

  6. Association between the food retail environment surrounding schools and overweight in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliske, Laura M; Pickett, William; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2009-09-01

    There is growing interest in how the physical environment influences obesity. Few studies have considered how the food retail environment surrounding schools influences overweight in students. To determine whether there is a relationship between food retailers surrounding schools and overweight among Canadian youth. Cross-sectional study. SETTING/METHODS/SUBJECTS: The number of food retailers was obtained within a 1 km and 5 km radius around 178 schools in Canada. Retailers included full-service restaurants, fast-food restaurants, sub/sandwich retailers, doughnut/coffee shops, convenience stores and grocery stores. An index of total food retailer exposure was also created. Multilevel analyses were used to control for individual- and area-level covariates. None of the individual food retailers was associated with an increased likelihood of overweight. The total food retailer index was most strongly related to overweight, but in the opposite direction to that hypothesized. At 1 km, students attending schools with at least one food retailer had a lower relative odds of overweight (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.61, 0.81). At 5 km, students attending schools with the highest exposure to the total food retailer index had a lower relative odds of overweight (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.47, 0.68) compared with students attending schools with no exposure. Exposure to various types of food retailers in school neighbourhoods was not associated with an increased likelihood of overweight in Canadian school-aged youth. The opportunity to make healthy choices from a variety of options and the unique Canadian context may explain the findings.

  7. The Analysis of Surrounding Structure Effect on the Core Degradation Progress with COMPASS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Son, Dong Gun; Kim, Jong Tae; Park, Rae Jun; Kim, Dong Ha [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In line with the importance of severe accident analysis after Fukushima accident, the development of integrated severe accident code has been launched by the collaboration of three institutes in Korea. KAERI is responsible to develop modules related to the in-vessel phenomena, while other institutes are to the containment and severe accident mitigation facility, respectively. In the first phase, the individual severe accident module has been developed and the construction of integrated analysis code is planned to perform in the second phase. The basic strategy is to extend the design basis analysis codes of SPACE and CAP, which are being validated in Korea for the severe accident analysis. In the first phase, KAERI has targeted to develop the framework of severe accident code, COMPASS (COre Meltdown Progression Accident Simulation Software), covering the severe accident progression in a vessel from a core heat-up to a vessel failure as a stand-alone fashion. In order to analyze the effect of surrounding structure, the melt progression has been compared between the central zone and the most outer zone under the condition of constant radial power peaking factor. Figure 2 and 3 shows the fuel element temperature and the clad mass at the central zone, respectively. Due to the axial power peaking factor, the axial node No.3 has the highest temperature, while the top and bottom nodes have the lowest temperature. When the clad temperature reaches to the Zr melting temperature (2129.15K), the Zr starts to melt. The axial node No.2 reaches to the fuel melting temperature about 5000 sec and the molten fuel relocates to the node No.1, which results to the blockage of flow area in node No.1. The blocked flow area becomes to open about 6100 sec due to the molten ZrO{sub 2} mass relocation to core support plate. Figure 4 and 5 shows the fuel element temperature and the clad mass at the most outer zone, respectively. It is shown that the fuel temperature increase more slowly

  8. Analysing land cover and land use change in the Matobo National Park and surroundings in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharsich, Valeska; Mtata, Kupakwashe; Hauhs, Michael; Lange, Holger; Bogner, Christina

    2016-04-01

    observable in the surroundings of the National Park, especially the common lands have lost their clear boundaries with time. In the National Park, the area of forest increases from 1989 to 2014 from 58% to 61% whereas the area of shrub land decreases by the same amount. The amount of each of the other two classes remains constant. These changes indicate an actual effect of the protection status of the National Park. In our study remote sensing data are the main source to evaluate the effects and the benefits of a protected area without on-side studies. This could be important for regions, where field studies are not possible because of insecure political conditions and only remote sensing data are available.

  9. Environmental radiation measurements at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and surrounding villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebell, P.; Hutter, A.R.

    1996-07-01

    Two scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory served as scientific experts to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Mission to Kazakhstan: Strengthening Radiation and Nuclear Safety Infrastructures in Countries of the former USSR, Special Task - Preassessment of the radiological situation in the Semipalatinsk and western areas of Kazakhstan. The former Soviet Union's largest nuclear test site was located near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, and following Kazakhstan's independence, the IAEA committed to studying the environmental contamination and the resulting radiation exposure risk to the population due to 346 underground, 87 atmospheric and 26 surface nuclear detonations performed at the site between 1949 and 1989. As part of an 11-member team, environmental radiation measurements were performed during 2 weeks in July 1994. Approximately 30 sites were visited both within the boundaries of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site as well as in and around surrounding villages. Specifically, the objectives of the EML team were to apply independent methods and equipment to assess potential current radiation exposures to the population. Towards this end, the EML scientists collected in-situ gamma-ray spectra, performed external gamma dose rate measurements using pressurized ionization chambers, and collected soil samples in order to estimate the inventory and to determine the depth distribution of radionuclides of interest. With the exception of an area near an open-quotes atomic lakeclose quotes and a 1 km 2 area encompassing ground zero, all the areas visited by the team had external dose rates that were within typical environmental levels. The measurements taken within a 15 km radius of ground zero had elevated levels of 137 Cs as well as the activation products 152 Eu and 60 Co, The dose rate within a 1 km radius of ground zero ranged from 500 to 30000 nGy h -1

  10. Ethical considerations surrounding nuclear waste repository siting and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The potential long-term health and safety effects of the nuclear materials stored in repositories, the extremely long periods of time over which such materials may be dangerous, and the equity implications of the siting of a repository in any given area are unlike the issues involved in other large-scale projects. They involve major philosophical issues basic to human perspectives on social relationships and on insuring the future of mankind. Safety and permanence are the two basic criteria for determining whether a waste proposal is satisfactory. This chapter takes the approach of public (or micro) ethics, whose task is to 1) articulate and clarify public values relevant to a problem, 2) identify and evaluate public options, and 3) rank alternatives in some order of ethical preferability. It addresses the four major repository-related issues: uncertainty and risks, geographic equity, intergenerational ethics, and implementation ethics

  11. Morphology and distribution of seamounts surrounding Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Y.; Naar, D.F.; Barton, C.C.; Liu, Z.-J.; Hey, R.N.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the morphology and distribution of a seamount population on a section of seafloor influenced by both superfast seafloor spreading and hotspot volcanism. The population under investigation is part of a broad chain of seamounts extending eastward from the East Pacific Rise, near Easter Island. In order to define the morphological variability of the seamounts, basal shape, cross-sectional area, volume, flatness, and flank slope are plotted against height for 383 seamounts with heights greater than 200 m, based on bathymetry data collected by GLORI-B and SeaBeam 2000, during three cruises onboard the R/V Melville in the spring of 1993. Nearly complete swath mapping coverage of the seamounts is available for the analysis of size and shape distribution. We quantitatively describe the seamount population of this active region, in which seamounts cover ???27% of the seafloor, and account for ???4.2% of the total crustal volume. Over 50% of the total volume (61,000 km3) of seamounts used in this study is made up by the 14 largest seamounts, and the remaining volume is made up by the 369 smaller seamounts (>200 m in height). Our analysis indicates there are at least two seamount populations in the Easter Island-Salas y Gomez Island (25??-29??S, 113??-104??W) study area. One population of seamounts is composed of short seamounts (1200 m), shield-like, pointy cones (flatness ???1200 m) originate exclusively from a hotspot source, but only a portion of the smaller volcanoes (

  12. Evaluation of the impact of the surrounding urban morphology on building energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Nyuk Hien; Chen, Yixing; Hajadi, Norwin; Sathyanarayanan, Haripriya; Manickavasagam, Yamini Vidya [Department of Building, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Jusuf, Steve Kardinal [Center for Sustainable Asian Cities, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Syafii, Nedyomukti Imam [Institute of High Performance Computing (Singapore)

    2011-01-15

    Empirical models of minimum (T{sub min}), average (T{sub avg}) and maximum (T{sub max}) air temperature for Singapore estate have been developed and validated based on a long-tem field measurement. There are three major urban elements, which influence the urban temperature at the local scale. Essentially, they are buildings, greenery and pavement. Other related parameters identified for the study, such as green plot ratio (GnPR), sky view factor (SVF), surrounding building density, the wall surface area, pavement area, albedo are also evaluated to give a better understanding on the likely impact of the modified urban morphology on energy consumption. The objective of this research is to assess and to compare how the air temperature variation of urban condition can affect the building energy consumption in tropical climate of Singapore. In order to achieve this goal, a series of numerical calculation and building simulation are utilized. A total of 32 cases, considering different urban morphologies, are identified and evaluated to give better a understanding on the implication of urban forms, with the reference to the effect of varying density, height and greenery density. The results show that GnPR, which related to the present of greenery, have the most significant impact on the energy consumption by reducing the temperature by up to 2 C. The results also strongly indicate an energy saving of 4.5% if the urban elements are addressed effectively. (author)

  13. Distribution of thorium in soils surrounding the rare-earth tailings reservoir in Baotou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rou-yu Li; Sheng Chen; De-zhi Sun; Feng-chang Wu; Hai-qing Liao

    2014-01-01

    Thorium distribution was investigated in the soils surrounding the rare-earth (RE) tailings reservoir near the Baotou grassland of Inner Mongolia, northern China. Totally 77 soil samples were collected from 8 different directions in the periphery of the RE tailings reservoir, and then were determined for 232 Th. The 232 Th activity degree ranges from 9.1 to 307.1 Bq kg -1 with an average value of 42.4 Bq kg -1 . In some samples, the degree is higher than that of global average, showing that these soils were polluted by thorium. There is a high linear correlation coefficient between the thorium diffusion coefficient parameter and the wind intensity parameter which indicates that the distribution of 232 Th is mainly correlated with wind speed and direction. The geo-accumulation index method was used to evaluate the level of thorium pollution, and the Kriging method was applied to estimate the land area at each level. By calculation, result shows that the area at each pollution level is 2.10 km 2 with medium-strong pollution, 38.29 km 2 with medium pollution, and 47.19 km 2 with slight pollution. The remaining 738.63 km 2 of land investigated is clear from thorium pollution. (author)

  14. Cesium-137 spatial activity in surface soils near and surrounding the Guri Reservoir (Venezuela)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Cordoves, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    The 137 Cs activities (Bq x kg -1 ) were determined in more than ninety soil samples between 2 and 5 cm depths surrounding and near the Guri Reservoir (state of Bolivar, Venezuela). The measurements were performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, employing Soil-6 as a comparator. In general, the values of the 137 Cs activities were about double on the west side of the reservoir than on the east side, the environmental parameters were similar on both sides, but the soils were very different, they were untisols on the western side and entisols on the eastern one. The soils were highly mineralized and on the western side they were above rich iron deposits. Many of the sampling sites on the eastern side were annually covered with water, when the reservoir was at high levels. The anomalously high 137 Cs values, southeast of the reservoir were found in a small area that had very different environmental characteristics and can be explained by the direct deposition of the fallout by the clouds on the vegetation and surface, since this area is in a dense cloud forest. (author)

  15. A computer hydrogeologic model of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillson, R.; Hand, J.; Adams, P.; Lawrence, S.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional, hydrogeologic model of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was developed as an element for regional groundwater flow and radionuclide transport models. The hydrogeologic model shows the distribution, thickness, and structural relationships of major aquifers and confining units, as conceived by a team of experts organized by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office. The model was created using Intergraph Corporation's Geographical Information System based Environmental Resource Management Application software. The study area encompasses more than 28,000 square kilometers in southern Nevada and Inyo County, California. Fifty-three geologic cross sections were constructed throughout the study area to provide a framework for the model. The lithology was simplified to 16 hydrostratigraphic units, and the geologic structures with minimal effect on groundwater flow were removed. Digitized cross sections, surface geology, and surface elevation data were the primary sources for the hydrogeologic model and database. Elevation data for the hydrostratigraphic units were posted, contoured, and gridded. Intergraph Corporation's three-dimensional visualization software, VOXEL trademark, was used to view the results interactively. The hydrogeologic database will be used in future flow modeling activities

  16. Bathymetry of the waters surrounding the Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Twichell, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Sound with depth soundings shown on a 5-meter-per-pixel grid. Depths are coded by color where the deepest areas are in blue and the shallowest areas are in orange. The aerial photography for the Elizabeth Islands and Massachusetts mainland were obtained from the Massachusetts Office of Geographic Information. Data collected during this statewide cooperative project have been released in a series of USGS open-file reports. These publications and information regarding geologic mapping in Massachusetts can be obtained from the Coastal and Marine Geology Program’s Web site (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/).

  17. Advances in pharmacovigilance initiatives surrounding antimicrobial resistance-Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady; Nayak, Veena; A, Avinash; Kunder, Sushil Kiran

    2016-08-01

    In recent years the development of antimicrobial resistance has been accelerating, the discovery of new antimicrobial agents has slowed substantially in past decades. This review mainly focuses on the problem of antimicrobial resistance(AMR); the various contributor mechanisms, consequences and future of AMR. The review also highlights the irrational use of antimicrobials, improving their usage and problems associated with pharmacovigilance of antimicrobial resistance. Pharmacovigilance in the form of surveillance of antibiotic use is being done in 90% of the countries worldwide through the WHONET program developed by WHO. However, the data comes from a limited area of the globe. Data from every part of the world is required, so that there is geographical representation of every region. A major hurdle in quantifying the extent of antimicrobial resistance is the fact that there are several known microbes, that may turn out to be resistant to one or more of the several known antimicrobial agents. The global action plan initiated by WHO, if implemented successfully will definitely reduce AMR and will help in evaluating treatment interventions.

  18. [Parental alienation and the controversy surrounding psychiatric diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migchels, C; De Wachter, D

    The phenomenon of parental alienation can arise when a child allies with one parent and refuses to have contact with the other parent. The concept has attracted a great deal of attention over the last few years. There has been controversy about whether parental alienation should be recognised as a psychiatric syndrome of the alienated child caught up in a conflict between supporters and opponents. AIM: To try to determine whether parental alienation belongs to psychiatric diagnostics. METHOD: We made a careful study of various databases in order to find literature relating to parental alienation. RESULTS: Parental alienation is situated on the border between psychiatry, sociology and justice. One of the main tasks of psychiatry in this border area is to safeguard the domain of diagnostics. CONCLUSION: Because so much attention is being given to the question of whether parental alienation syndrome should be recognised as a diagnosis, there is often a tendency to ignore the possible impact of parental alienation and to pay very little attention to ways of coping with the problem.

  19. Issues Surrounding the Evaluation of Teacher Internship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D.

    2006-12-01

    Georgia Intern-Fellowships for Teachers (GIFT) is a collaborative effort designed to enhance mathematics and science experiences of Georgia teachers and their students through summer research internships for teachers. By offering business, industry, public science institute and research summer fellowships to teachers, GIFT provides educators with first-hand exposure to the skills and knowledge necessary for the preparation of our future workforce. Since 1991, GIFT has placed middle and high school math, science and technology teachers in over 1100 positions throughout the state. In these fellowships, teachers are involved in cutting edge scientific and engineering research, data analysis, curriculum development and real-world inquiry and problem solving, and create Action Plans to assist them in translating the experience into changed classroom practice. Since 2004, an increasing number of high school students have worked with their teachers in research laboratories. The GIFT program has an advisory board composed of university researchers, business and education leaders. The board members work in various subcommittees assisting the program with areas such as sponsor recruitment, evaluation and long term planning. The evaluation subcommittee has been actively involved in providing direction regarding the evaluation of the GIFT program's impact on teachers and their students. The program recently conducted a survey of its former participants. This presentation will discuss the results of the survey and the challenges associated with program evaluation of teacher internship programs.

  20. Radionuclides incorporated by inhabitants of surrounding Brazilian uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Viviane S.; Brasil, Icaro M.; Attie, Marcia R.P.; Souza, Susana O. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Campos, Simara S. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Itapetinga, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Estudos Basico e Instrumental; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Brazil has the 6th largest global geological reserve of uranium, with the main reserve in Santa Quiteria - CE still not under exploration. Currently, uranium mining and processing in Brazil only occur near to the city of Caetite - BA. Several Non-Governmental Organizations claim that uranium mining in this region is polluting and may jeopardize the human health and safety and the environment. However, those in charge of the complex extraction and production of 'yellow cake' for generating fuel to the nuclear power plants reject these allegations. U-238 may be deposited in the skeleton by replacing the calcium, thus it is possible to estimate its incorporation by determining its concentration in the teeth. This study aimed to identify potential problems caused by mining to the population of Caetite, analyzing U-238 contained in samples of teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons from Caetite residents. The concentration of thorium and potassium incorporated were also determined by ICP-MS, as well the cumulative dose of radiation received by this population was estimated. For comparison sake, the same analysis was performed in samples from Santa Quiteria and Aracaju - SE (used as a control area). The doses estimated were compared to doses obtained with EPR spectra of the same samples. The accumulated amount of radioisotopes in the teeth of the population of Caetite is probably due to natural origin, thus it is not possible to state that the mining process in Caetite increases pollution or radiation exposure in a meaningful way. (author)

  1. Study on water migration of tunnel surrounding rock in nuclear waste repository based on coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhongming; Zhang Xinmin

    2008-01-01

    Excavation of tunnel changes not only the stresses and deformation of tunnel surrounding rock, but also disturbs the underground water environment in tunnel surrounding rock Water migration happens due to variation of pore water pressure and redistribution. Based on the mechanics of porous media, saturated and unsaturated hydro-mechanical coupling analysis method is employed to study the variation of the stresses, deformation and pore pressure of the surrounding rock. Case study indicates that the excavation of tunnel will induce redistribution of stress and pore water pressure. Redistribution of pore water pressure will seriously affect on evaluation of surrounding rock stability and diffusion of nucleon in the pore water. (authors)

  2. Radiological investigations in the surroundings of Bilibino, Chukotka, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossew, P.; Ichikawa, Marina; Mraz, G.; Wallner, G.; Wenisch, Antonia

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radiological investigations in different parts of Chukotka comprising especially the Bilibino area. About 70 samples including sediments, soils, lichens, mosses, and reindeer meat and bones were measured. 137 Cs ground contamination measured on several locations in Chukotka, NE Siberia, ranges between 586 and 1243 Bq/m 2 (reference date 1 Sept 1994), with a mean of 850 Bq/m 2 and a coefficient of variation (1 sigma) of 27%. No 134 Cs was detected; from its lower level of detection, a possible contribution of Chernobyl releases to total 137 Cs fallout of less than 48 Bq/m 2 could be derived. 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu contaminations were found to be 510±42% and 19±47% Bq/m 2 , respectively. Natural radionuclides were determined to be 564±15% Bq/kg dry soil for 40 K, 29±32% for 226 Ra and 33±25% for 228 Ra, which is within normal levels. The highest plant contaminations were found in moss and lichen, with 137 Cs up to 75 and 46 Bq/kg d.m. respectively, in remote areas, and 91 and 103 Bq/kg, respectively, in the vicinity of the Bilibino nuclear power plant (NPP). Near the NPP, significant traces of 60 Co, 54 Mn and 51 Cr were also found in certain soil, plant and sediment samples, as well as enhanced levels of 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu. In sediments from the floodplain where the waste water of the NPP is discharged, 60 Co and 239,240 Pu contaminations up to 120 and 34 Bq/kg dm., respectively, and gamma dose rates up to 10 μSv/h were found, compared to a 0.1-0.2 μSv/h background level typical for the region. Two samples of reindeer meat (September 1994 harvest) showed 137 Cs contaminations of 9.0 and 28.4 Bq/kg fresh weight. Taking into account that meat obtained from reindeer slaughtered in winter contains more 137 Cs, the mean activity concentration in meat calculated for 1 year of production is 74 Bq/kg f.w. Apart from the vicinity of the NPP, the anthropogenic radioactive contamination of the region seems to be somewhat lower

  3. Radiological investigations in the surroundings of Bilibino, Chukotka, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P. E-mail: p.bossew@magnet.at; Ichikawa, Marina; Mraz, G. E-mail: gmraz@ecology.at; Wallner, G. E-mail: gabriele.wallner@univie.ac.at; Wenisch, Antonia

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents the results of radiological investigations in different parts of Chukotka comprising especially the Bilibino area. About 70 samples including sediments, soils, lichens, mosses, and reindeer meat and bones were measured. {sup 137}Cs ground contamination measured on several locations in Chukotka, NE Siberia, ranges between 586 and 1243 Bq/m{sup 2} (reference date 1 Sept 1994), with a mean of 850 Bq/m{sup 2} and a coefficient of variation (1 sigma) of 27%. No {sup 134}Cs was detected; from its lower level of detection, a possible contribution of Chernobyl releases to total {sup 137}Cs fallout of less than 48 Bq/m{sup 2} could be derived. {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239,240}Pu contaminations were found to be 510{+-}42% and 19{+-}47% Bq/m{sup 2}, respectively. Natural radionuclides were determined to be 564{+-}15% Bq/kg dry soil for {sup 40}K, 29{+-}32% for {sup 226}Ra and 33{+-}25% for {sup 228}Ra, which is within normal levels. The highest plant contaminations were found in moss and lichen, with {sup 137}Cs up to 75 and 46 Bq/kg d.m. respectively, in remote areas, and 91 and 103 Bq/kg, respectively, in the vicinity of the Bilibino nuclear power plant (NPP). Near the NPP, significant traces of {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 51}Cr were also found in certain soil, plant and sediment samples, as well as enhanced levels of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239,240}Pu. In sediments from the floodplain where the waste water of the NPP is discharged, {sup 60}Co and {sup 239,240}Pu contaminations up to 120 and 34 Bq/kg dm., respectively, and gamma dose rates up to 10 {mu}Sv/h were found, compared to a 0.1-0.2 {mu}Sv/h background level typical for the region. Two samples of reindeer meat (September 1994 harvest) showed {sup 137}Cs contaminations of 9.0 and 28.4 Bq/kg fresh weight. Taking into account that meat obtained from reindeer slaughtered in winter contains more {sup 137}Cs, the mean activity concentration in meat calculated for 1 year of production is 74 Bq

  4. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  5. Deformation at longyao ground fissure and its surroundings, north China plain, revealed by ALOS PALSAR PS-InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengsheng; Lu, Zhong; Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Chaoying; Peng, Jianbing; Ji, Lingyun

    2018-05-01

    The Longyao ground fissure (LGF) is the longest and most active among more than 1000 ground fissures on the North China Plain. There have been many studies on the formation mechanism of the LGF, due to its scientific importance and its potential for damage to the environment. These studies have been based on both regional tectonic analysis and numerical simulations. In order to provide a better understanding of the formation mechanism, the deformation of the crack and its surrounding environment should be taken into consideration. In this paper, PS-InSAR technology was employed to assess the ground deformation of LGF and its surrounding area, using L-band ALOS-1 PALSAR images from 2007 to 2011. The characteristics of ground deformation, relationships between fissure activity and surrounding faults and groundwater exploitation were analyzed. This study shows that the north side of Longyao fault (LF) is uplifting while the south side is subsiding. This provides the tectonic conditions responsible for the activity of the ground fissure. Local groundwater exploitation also plays an important role in the development of ground fissures. InSAR observations were modeled to infer the loading depth (-2.8 km) and the slip rate (31.1 mm/yr) of LF.

  6. The use of vibration monitoring to record the blasting works impact on buildings surrounding open-pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sołtys Anna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection law and geological and mining law require the mineral mining plant to protect its surroundings from the effects of mining operations. This also applies to the negative impact of vibrations induced by blasting works on people and construction facilities. Effective protection is only possible if the level of this impact is known, therefore it is necessary to record it. The thesis formulated in this way has been and continues to be the guiding principle of the research works carried out in the AGH Laboratory of Blasting Work and Environmental Protection. As a result of these works are procedures for conducting preventive activities by open-pit mines in order to minimize the impact of blasting on facilities in the surrounding area. An important element of this activity is the monitoring of vibrations in constructions, which is a source of knowledge for excavation supervisors and engineers performing blasting works, thus contributing to raising the awareness of the responsible operation of the mining plant. Developed in the Laboratory of the Mine's Vibration Monitoring Station (KSMD, after several modernizations, it became a fully automated system for monitoring and recording the impact of blasting works on the surrounding environment. Currently, there are 30 measuring devices in 10 open-pit mines, and additional 8 devices are used to provide periodic measurement and recording services for the mines concerned.

  7. The use of vibration monitoring to record the blasting works impact on buildings surrounding open-pit mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtys, Anna; Pyra, Józef; Winzer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Environmental protection law and geological and mining law require the mineral mining plant to protect its surroundings from the effects of mining operations. This also applies to the negative impact of vibrations induced by blasting works on people and construction facilities. Effective protection is only possible if the level of this impact is known, therefore it is necessary to record it. The thesis formulated in this way has been and continues to be the guiding principle of the research works carried out in the AGH Laboratory of Blasting Work and Environmental Protection. As a result of these works are procedures for conducting preventive activities by open-pit mines in order to minimize the impact of blasting on facilities in the surrounding area. An important element of this activity is the monitoring of vibrations in constructions, which is a source of knowledge for excavation supervisors and engineers performing blasting works, thus contributing to raising the awareness of the responsible operation of the mining plant. Developed in the Laboratory of the Mine's Vibration Monitoring Station (KSMD), after several modernizations, it became a fully automated system for monitoring and recording the impact of blasting works on the surrounding environment. Currently, there are 30 measuring devices in 10 open-pit mines, and additional 8 devices are used to provide periodic measurement and recording services for the mines concerned.

  8. Investigation of the Effect of Water Removal from Wells Surrounding Parishan Lake on Groundwater and Surface Water Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, M.; Raini Sarjaz, M.; Fazloli, R.; Gholami Sefidkouhi, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades the human impacts on global warming and, its consequences, climate change, stirred up earth ecosystems balance and has created many problems all over the world. Unauthorized underground water removal, especially in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran, along with recent decade drought occurrences significantly lowered underground and surface water levels. To investigate the impacts of water removal from surrounding wells in Parishan Lake water level, during 1996 to 2009 interval, 8 buffer layers surrounding the lake were mapped in ArcGIS 9.3 environment. Each buffer layer wells and their total annual discharges were determined. Using SPSS 16 software, the regression equations between wells water levels and water discharges were computed. By employing Thiessen function and creating Thiessen network (TIN) around observation wells, decline of groundwater levels was evaluated. Finally regression equations between wells discharges and groundwater level declines were created. The findings showed that there are highly significant correlations (p ≤ 0.01), in all buffer layers, between water levels and wells discharges. Investigation of the observation wells surrounding lake showed that severe groundwater level declines has been started since the beginning of the first decade of the 21st century. Using satellite images in ArcGIS 9.3 environment it was confirmed that lake’s area has been reduced significantly. In conclusion, it is obvious that human interferences on lake’s natural ecosystem by digging unauthorized wells and removing underground water more than annual recharges significantly impacted surface and groundwater levels.

  9. COMP23 - Study of the connection between the hole in the canister wall and the surrounding bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, M.; Widen, H.

    1998-08-01

    The input data in the near field compartment model concerning the connection between the hole in the canister wall and the surrounding bentonite has been studied. The calculations show that Z-AREA and A-ZERO must be given equal values in order to achieve consistent dimensions of the hole and the equivalent plug. The usage of an equivalent plug in the connection between the small hole and a large bentonite compartment is valid only if the hole is small compared to the area of the surrounding bentonite. It was shown that a hole with an area larger than about 0.001 m 2 overestimates the resistance between the hole and bentonite. An alternative is to make the model without the plug. However, in many cases with large hole the plug resistance is small compared to the total resistance and there is no need to take away the plug. In the case of an initially large hole it is better to exclude the plug from the model

  10. Evaluation of radiological impact of habitual atmospheric releases in the surroundings of the Juragua nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, J.M.; Rosales, I.

    1993-01-01

    The considerations and fundamental data used to evaluate the individual doses to the population living within an area of 40 km in the surroundings of Juragua nuclear power plant are presented. Recognized dispersion models (Pasquill modified) and models of dose calculations due to continuous habitual air releases composed of gases and aerosols (47 radionuclides) are used for the calculations.The following ways are taken into account for evaluation: a)irradiation of the cloud, b)irradiation of contaminated ground, c)inhalation, d) ingestion of agro-products. The iso line maps of concentrations and fundamental doses for the site are shown

  11. Inner cauchy horizon of axisymmetric and stationary black holes with surrounding matter in einstein-maxwell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorg, Marcus; Hennig, Jörg

    2009-06-05

    We study the interior electrovacuum region of axisymmetric and stationary black holes with surrounding matter and find that there exists always a regular inner Cauchy horizon inside the black hole, provided the angular momentum J and charge Q of the black hole do not vanish simultaneously. In particular, we derive an explicit relation for the metric on the Cauchy horizon in terms of that on the event horizon. Moreover, our analysis reveals the remarkable universal relation (8piJ);{2}+(4piQ;{2});{2}=A;{+}A;{-}, where A+ and A- denote the areas of event and Cauchy horizon, respectively.

  12. An oxygen-rich dust disk surrounding an evolved star in the Red Rectangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, LBFM; Waelkens, C; van Winckel, H; Molster, FJ; Tielens, AGGM; van Loon, JT; Morris, PW; Cami, J; Bouwman, J; de Koter, A; de Jong, T; de Graauw, T

    1998-01-01

    The Red Rectangle(1) is the prototype of a class of carbon-rich reflection nebulae surrounding low-mass stars in the final stages of evolution. The central star of this nebula has ejected most of its layers (during the red-giant phase), which now form the surrounding cloud, and is rapidly evolving

  13. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  14. Modifications of center-surround, spot detection and dot-pattern selective operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Visser, Wicher T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes modifications of the models of center-surround and dot-pattern selective cells proposed previously. These modifications concern mainly the normalization of the difference of Gaussians (DoG) function used to model center-surround receptive fields, the normalization of

  15. The nature of surround-induced depolarizing responses in goldfish cones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, D. A.; Spekreijse, H.; Kamermans, M.

    2000-01-01

    Cones in the vertebrate retina project to horizontal and bipolar cells and the horizontal cells feedback negatively to cones. This organization forms the basis for the center/surround organization of the bipolar cells, a fundamental step in the visual signal processing. Although the surround

  16. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Watson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.

  17. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration.

  18. Evaluation of Optic Canal and Surrounding Structures Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography: Considerations for Maxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanoglu, Alper; Orhan, Kaan; Kursun, Sebnem; Inceoglu, Beste; Oztas, Bengi

    2016-07-01

    The optic canal connects the anterior cranial fossa and the orbit and maintains the optic nerve and the ophthalmic artery. Within the extent of the surgical approach of the region, risk of iatrogenic injury of the neural and vascular structures increases. The aim of this retrospective morphometric study is to investigate the radiological anatomy of orbita, optic canal, and its surrounding using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans in a group of Turkish population.Cone beam computed tomography images of a total of 182 patients were evaluated by 2 observers. Anatomical parameters regarding optic canal and orbita were measured for all patients from axial, sagittal, and three-dimensional reconstructed images. To assess intraobserver reliability, the Wilcoxon matched-pairs test was used. Pearson χ test and Student t test were performed for statistical analysis of differences, sex, localization, and measurements (P  0.05). The orbita width and height were larger for the males than females (P  0.05). Examination CBCT scans revealed that the shape of the optic canal was 70% funnel and 28% Hourglass shape, 2% amorph type round.These results provide detailed knowledge of the anatomical characteristics in the orbital area which may be of assistance for surgeons preoperatively. Cone beam computed tomography scans can be an alternative modality for multislice computed tomography with submillimeter resolution and lower dose in preoperative imaging of the orbit.

  19. Attention operates uniformly throughout the classical receptive field and the surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Maunsell, John HR

    2016-01-01

    Shifting attention among visual stimuli at different locations modulates neuronal responses in heterogeneous ways, depending on where those stimuli lie within the receptive fields of neurons. Yet how attention interacts with the receptive-field structure of cortical neurons remains unclear. We measured neuronal responses in area V4 while monkeys shifted their attention among stimuli placed in different locations within and around neuronal receptive fields. We found that attention interacts uniformly with the spatially-varying excitation and suppression associated with the receptive field. This interaction explained the large variability in attention modulation across neurons, and a non-additive relationship among stimulus selectivity, stimulus-induced suppression and attention modulation tha