WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrogate-corrected nonlinear interdependence

  1. Spatially Nonlinear Interdependence of Alpha-Oscillatory Neural Networks under Chan Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of our investigation of the effects of Chan meditation on brain electrophysiological behaviors from the viewpoint of spatially nonlinear interdependence among regional neural networks. Particular emphasis is laid on the alpha-dominated EEG (electroencephalograph. Continuous-time wavelet transform was adopted to detect the epochs containing substantial alpha activities. Nonlinear interdependence quantified by similarity index S(X∣Y, the influence of source signal Y on sink signal X, was applied to the nonlinear dynamical model in phase space reconstructed from multichannel EEG. Experimental group involved ten experienced Chan-Meditation practitioners, while control group included ten healthy subjects within the same age range, yet, without any meditation experience. Nonlinear interdependence among various cortical regions was explored for five local neural-network regions, frontal, posterior, right-temporal, left-temporal, and central regions. In the experimental group, the inter-regional interaction was evaluated for the brain dynamics under three different stages, at rest (stage R, pre-meditation background recording, in Chan meditation (stage M, and the unique Chakra-focusing practice (stage C. Experimental group exhibits stronger interactions among various local neural networks at stages M and C compared with those at stage R. The intergroup comparison demonstrates that Chan-meditation brain possesses better cortical inter-regional interactions than the resting brain of control group.

  2. Leveraging Structural Characteristics of Interdependent Networks to Model Non-linear Cascading Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-29

    DoD 5000.02, and regulation tends to favor the notion of MDAPS as being independent, which would cause exogenous factors caused by interdependence to...testing phase The text extraction process results in the creation of the ISSUES and ACTIONS .csv file that contains the ISSUES and ACTIONS recorded...words. For example, as in Figure 5, ‘Topic 0’ with words ‘tax, money , income, paid, pay, trust’ can be associated to the label ‘Tax’. We plan to

  3. Redundant Design in Interdependent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure networks are often coupled together and thus could be modeled as interdependent networks. Overload and interdependent effect make interdependent networks more fragile when suffering from attacks. Existing research has primarily concentrated on the cascading failure process of interdependent networks without load, or the robustness of isolated network with load. Only limited research has been done on the cascading failure process caused by overload in interdependent networks. Redundant design is a primary approach to enhance the reliability and robustness of the system. In this paper, we propose two redundant methods, node back-up and dependency redundancy, and the experiment results indicate that two measures are effective and costless. Two detailed models about redundant design are introduced based on the non-linear load-capacity model. Based on the attributes and historical failure distribution of nodes, we introduce three static selecting strategies-Random-based, Degree-based, Initial load-based and a dynamic strategy-HFD (historical failure distribution) to identify which nodes could have a back-up with priority. In addition, we consider the cost and efficiency of different redundant proportions to determine the best proportion with maximal enhancement and minimal cost. Experiments on interdependent networks demonstrate that the combination of HFD and dependency redundancy is an effective and preferred measure to implement redundant design on interdependent networks. The results suggest that the redundant design proposed in this paper can permit construction of highly robust interactive networked systems. PMID:27764174

  4. Robustness of Interdependent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, Shlomo

    2011-03-01

    In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures. In fact, a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system of many interdependent networks. We will present a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures and provide a basic analytic approach that may be useful in future studies. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that upon removal will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two interdependent networks in a first order transition. Surprisingly, analyzing complex systems as a set of interdependent networks may alter a basic assumption that network theory has relied on: while for a single network a broader degree distribution of the network nodes results in the network being more robust to random failures, for interdependent networks, the broader the distribution is, the more vulnerable the networks become to random failure. We also show that reducing the coupling between the networks leads to a change from a first order percolation phase transition to a second order percolation transition at a critical point. These findings pose a significant challenge to the future design of robust networks that need to consider the unique properties of interdependent networks.

  5. POWER, INTERDEPENDENCE AND INEQUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    FELIPE BERNARDO ESTRE

    2011-01-01

    A dissertação pretende repensar a desigualdade nas Relações Internacionais a partir da obra Power and Interdependence, publicada em 1977 por Robert Keohane e Joseph Nye. Argumenta-se que, ao contrário do que os autores afirmam, os novos processos políticos que caracterizam a política internacional desde o início do século XX não necessariamente resultaram na diminuição da hierarquia no sistema internacional. Pelo contrário, as organizações internacionais permitem a articulaç...

  6. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Di Muro, M A; Stanley, H E; Havlin, S; Braunstein, L A

    2015-01-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy of nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery $\\gamma$, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction $1-p$ of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane $\\gamma-p$ of the phase diagram three ...

  7. Education for an Interdependent Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbelt, Samuel

    1979-01-01

    Calls for social studies teachers to emphasize future studies and the implications of growing global interdependence. Students should learn about alternative futures, the possible decline of nationalism, overpopulation and food resources, the ecological system and natural resources, and ways of achieving interdependence. (AV)

  8. Education for an Interdependent Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodbelt, Samuel

    1979-01-01

    Calls for social studies teachers to emphasize future studies and the implications of growing global interdependence. Students should learn about alternative futures, the possible decline of nationalism, overpopulation and food resources, the ecological system and natural resources, and ways of achieving interdependence. (AV)

  9. Breakdown of interdependent directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Stanley, H Eugene; Gao, Jianxi

    2016-02-02

    Increasing evidence shows that real-world systems interact with one another via dependency connectivities. Failing connectivities are the mechanism behind the breakdown of interacting complex systems, e.g., blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. Previous research analyzing the robustness of interdependent networks has been limited to undirected networks. However, most real-world networks are directed, their in-degrees and out-degrees may be correlated, and they are often coupled to one another as interdependent directed networks. To understand the breakdown and robustness of interdependent directed networks, we develop a theoretical framework based on generating functions and percolation theory. We find that for interdependent Erdős-Rényi networks the directionality within each network increases their vulnerability and exhibits hybrid phase transitions. We also find that the percolation behavior of interdependent directed scale-free networks with and without degree correlations is so complex that two criteria are needed to quantify and compare their robustness: the percolation threshold and the integrated size of the giant component during an entire attack process. Interestingly, we find that the in-degree and out-degree correlations in each network layer increase the robustness of interdependent degree heterogeneous networks that most real networks are, but decrease the robustness of interdependent networks with homogeneous degree distribution and with strong coupling strengths. Moreover, by applying our theoretical analysis to real interdependent international trade networks, we find that the robustness of these real-world systems increases with the in-degree and out-degree correlations, confirming our theoretical analysis.

  10. Detecting dynamical interdependence and generalized synchrony through mutual prediction in a neural ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Steven J.; So, Paul; Chang, Taeun; Burke, Robert E.; Sauer, Tim

    1996-12-01

    A method to characterize dynamical interdependence among nonlinear systems is derived based on mutual nonlinear prediction. Systems with nonlinear correlation will show mutual nonlinear prediction when standard analysis with linear cross correlation might fail. Mutual nonlinear prediction also provides information on the directionality of the coupling between systems. Furthermore, the existence of bidirectional mutual nonlinear prediction in unidirectionally coupled systems implies generalized synchrony. Numerical examples studied include three classes of unidirectionally coupled systems: systems with identical parameters, nonidentical parameters, and stochastic driving of a nonlinear system. This technique is then applied to the activity of motoneurons within a spinal cord motoneuron pool. The interrelationships examined include single neuron unit firing, the total number of neurons discharging at one time as measured by the integrated monosynaptic reflex, and intracellular measurements of integrated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP's). Dynamical interdependence, perhaps generalized synchrony, was identified in this neuronal network between simultaneous single unit firings, between units and the population, and between units and intracellular EPSP's.

  11. An optimization framework for interdependent planning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, T. A.; Gaines, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for optimizing over interdependent planning goals. We have implemented a methodology for representing and utilizing information about interdependent goals and their related utilities using the ASPEN planning and scheduling system.

  12. Aging in complex interdependency networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Dervis C.; Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-02-01

    Although species longevity is subject to a diverse range of evolutionary forces, the mortality curves of a wide variety of organisms are rather similar. Here we argue that qualitative and quantitative features of aging can be reproduced by a simple model based on the interdependence of fault-prone agents on one other. In addition to fitting our theory to the empiric mortality curves of six very different organisms, we establish the dependence of lifetime and aging rate on initial conditions, damage and repair rate, and system size. We compare the size distributions of disease and death and see that they have qualitatively different properties. We show that aging patterns are independent of the details of interdependence network structure, which suggests that aging is a many-body effect, and that the qualitative and quantitative features of aging are not sensitively dependent on the details of dependency structure or its formation.

  13. Interdependencies in the spontaneous EEG while listening to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, J; Petsche, H; Pereda, E

    2001-11-01

    We studied the patterns of interdependency between different brain regions during the performance of higher cognitive functions. Our goal was to check the existence in these patterns of both task-related differences (e.g. listening to music vs. rest) and training-related differences (musicians vs. non-musicians). For this purpose, a non-linear measure, called similarity index (S.I.), was used to detect asymmetric interdependencies between different brain regions by means of EEG signals. Relatively active and passive regions of the brain were found where the degree of activity was represented by excited degrees of freedom. The S.I. obtained during listening to different kinds of music was compared statistically with the S.I. with eyes closed, and significant changes (Pmusical training possessed significantly higher degrees of interdependencies than such without musical training while listening to music but not to text. We conclude that the new measure can be successfully applied for studying the dynamical co-operation between cortical areas during higher cognitive functioning.

  14. Interdependence and the social structure of rivalry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Outcome interdependence predisposes firms to simultaneously cooperate and compete. Hence, it may shape the social structure of rivalry. Outcome interdependence may stem from similarities in (a) types of suppliers/buyers, (b) resources, (c) geographic catchment areas, and (d) strategic beliefs of man

  15. A review of interdependence of sustainable building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Chuanjing [Department of Real Estate and Construction, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ning, Yan, E-mail: cqningyan@gmail.com [Department of Construction and Real Estate, Southeast University, 210096 (China); Pan, Wei [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2016-01-15

    ABSTRACT: Despite the worldwide promotion of the sustainable building (SB) approach, its associated interdependence has seldom been explored. This knowledge gap is significant given the paradigm shift of regarding SBs as complex socio-technical systems embedded with multifaceted interdependence. The aim of this paper is to examine the interdependence of SB through a literature review. The literature review was guided by a framework comprising three dimensions of SB systems, i.e., building performance, methodology and stakeholders, on their theoretical grounds ranged from reductionism to holism. In order to articulate the integration of the three dimensions, this paper examined zero carbon building as a specific case of SB. The findings contribute an innovative approach to examining the interdependence of SB, and should guide the development of strategies for managing the trade-offs in delivering SBs. - Highlights: • Performance scope of sustainable building triggers interdependence. • Material flow from cradle to cradle causes interdependence. • Interdependence occurs between the building and their context. • Interdependence exists in stakeholders' participation.

  16. INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN RELATIONSHIP QUALITY DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pepur

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-dependent economy, unfavourable structure of accommodation and hotel capacity, seasonality of business and liquidity problems indicate importance of the relationships between hotels and banks in Croatia. Since the capital investments in new and modern capacities are necessity, the quality of their relationship would determine the future of Croatian economy as a whole in the long run. Regarding the capital investments, it is crucially important that cooperation between the employees in both business entities is based on the satisfaction, trust and commitment. In this way, every potential uncertainty as a consequence of the entity’s actions could be minimized. In this paper, 356 tourist objects are hierarchically clustered according to the relationship quality dimensions for the purpose of testing the characteristics according to which the clusters significantly differentiate. Consequently, the interdependence between the observed relationship quality dimensions is examined.

  17. Cascades in interdependent flow networks

    CERN Document Server

    Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; D'Agostino, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the abrupt breakdown behavior of coupled distribution grids under load growth. This scenario mimics the ever-increasing customer demand and the foreseen introduction of energy hubs interconnecting the different energy vectors. We extend an analytical model of cascading behavior due to line overloads to the case of interdependent networks and find evidence of first order transitions due to the long-range nature of the flows. Our results indicate that the foreseen increase in the couplings between the grids has two competing effects: on the one hand, it increases the safety region where grids can operate without withstanding systemic failures; on the other hand, it increases the possibility of a joint systems' failure.

  18. Interdependent network reciprocity in evolutionary games

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaz

    2013-01-01

    Besides the structure of interactions within networks, also the interactions between networks are of the outmost importance. We therefore study the outcome of the public goods game on two interdependent networks that are connected by means of a utility function, which determines how payoffs on both networks jointly influence the success of players in each individual network. We show that an unbiased coupling allows the spontaneous emergence of interdependent network reciprocity, which is capable to maintain healthy levels of public cooperation even in extremely adverse conditions. The mechanism, however, requires simultaneous formation of correlated cooperator clusters on both networks. If this does not emerge or if the coordination process is disturbed, network reciprocity fails, resulting in the total collapse of cooperation. Network interdependence can thus be exploited effectively to promote cooperation past the limits imposed by isolated networks, but only if the coordination between the interdependent n...

  19. Assortativity Decreases the Robustness of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Di; Scala, Antonio; Stanley, H Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The protection of critical infrastructures is one of the highest priorities in our technological society. It was recently recognized that interdependencies among different networks can play a crucial role in triggering cascading failures and hence system-wide disasters. A recent model shows how pairs of interdependent networks can exhibit an abrupt percolation transition as failures accumulate. We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the two interdependent networks significantly changes the critical density of failures that triggers the total disruption of the two-network system. We find, in particular, that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. The results of this study on the influence of assortativity may provide insights into ways of improving the robustness of network architecture, and thus enhance the level of protecti...

  20. Software for Optimizing Plans Involving Interdependent Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlin, Tara; Gaines, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    A computer program enables construction and optimization of plans for activities that are directed toward achievement of goals that are interdependent. Goal interdependence is defined as the achievement of one or more goals affecting the desirability or priority of achieving one or more other goals. This program is overlaid on the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) software system, aspects of which have been described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. Unlike other known or related planning programs, this program considers interdependences among goals that can change between problems and provides a language for easily specifying such dependences. Specifications of the interdependences can be formulated dynamically and provided to the associated planning software as part of the goal input. Then an optimization algorithm provided by this program enables the planning software to reason about the interdependences and incorporate them into an overall objective function that it uses to rate the quality of a plan under construction and to direct its optimization search. In tests on a series of problems of planning geological experiments by a team of instrumented robotic vehicles (rovers) on new terrain, this program was found to enhance plan quality.

  1. Analysis of Critical Infrastructure Dependencies and Interdependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, Frederic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Verner, Duane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buehring, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dickinson, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guziel, Karen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Haffenden, Rebecca [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peerenboom, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The report begins by defining dependencies and interdependencies and exploring basic concepts of dependencies in order to facilitate a common understanding and consistent analytical approaches. Key concepts covered include; Characteristics of dependencies: upstream dependencies, internal dependencies, and downstream dependencies; Classes of dependencies: physical, cyber, geographic, and logical; and Dimensions of dependencies: operating environment, coupling and response behavior, type of failure, infrastructure characteristics, and state of operations From there, the report proposes a multi-phase roadmap to support dependency and interdependency assessment activities nationwide, identifying a range of data inputs, analysis activities, and potential products for each phase, as well as key steps needed to progress from one phase to the next. The report concludes by outlining a comprehensive, iterative, and scalable framework for analyzing dependencies and interdependencies that stakeholders can integrate into existing risk and resilience assessment efforts.

  2. Learning with partially labeled and interdependent data

    CERN Document Server

    Amini, Massih-Reza

    2015-01-01

    This book develops two key machine learning principles: the semi-supervised paradigm and learning with interdependent data. It reveals new applications, primarily web related, that transgress the classical machine learning framework through learning with interdependent data. The book traces how the semi-supervised paradigm and the learning to rank paradigm emerged from new web applications, leading to a massive production of heterogeneous textual data. It explains how semi-supervised learning techniques are widely used, but only allow a limited analysis of the information content and thus d

  3. New venture creation as emerging interdependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Oorschot, Robin; Gottlieb, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    What is ‘it’ which actually takes place in the process of the creation of a new venture? Traditional research would focus on the creation of ‘the product’ or the venture. In this paper, we focus on the creation of ‘new meaning’ and emerging interdependencies between people in the process of new...... venture creation. Taking on an auto- ethnographic approach we co-construct, describe and analyse two narratives which on different levels, explore the notion of interdependency emerging in the process of creating a new venture. In our narrative approach we channel our new venture creation research...

  4. Social contagions on interdependent lattice networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Panpan; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Pengcheng; Wang, Wei; Stanley, H Eugene

    2017-03-16

    Although an increasing amount of research is being done on the dynamical processes on interdependent spatial networks, knowledge of how interdependent spatial networks influence the dynamics of social contagion in them is sparse. Here we present a novel non-Markovian social contagion model on interdependent spatial networks composed of two identical two-dimensional lattices. We compare the dynamics of social contagion on networks with different fractions of dependency links and find that the density of final recovered nodes increases as the number of dependency links is increased. We use a finite-size analysis method to identify the type of phase transition in the giant connected components (GCC) of the final adopted nodes and find that as we increase the fraction of dependency links, the phase transition switches from second-order to first-order. In strong interdependent spatial networks with abundant dependency links, increasing the fraction of initial adopted nodes can induce the switch from a first-order to second-order phase transition associated with social contagion dynamics. In networks with a small number of dependency links, the phase transition remains second-order. In addition, both the second-order and first-order phase transition points can be decreased by increasing the fraction of dependency links or the number of initially-adopted nodes.

  5. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  6. Investment Planning of Interdependent Waterway Improvement Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    effects that cut across many, if not all subsets of the project set. Several authors including [Schoeman 68, Aaker 78, Baker 75, Gear 80, Fox 84...solution or at least a good suboptimal solution. 118 RZFIRUNCEB Aaker , D. A. and Tyebjee, T. T., "A Model for the Selection of Interdependent R and D

  7. Handling Interdependencies in Climate Change Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Dawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Typically, a climate change risk assessment focuses on individual sectors or hazards. However, interdependencies between climate risks manifest themselves via functional, physical, geographical, economic, policy and social mechanisms. These can occur over a range of spatial or temporal scales and with different strengths of coupling. Three case studies are used to demonstrate how interdependencies can significantly alter the nature and magnitude of risk, and, consequently, investment priorities for adaptation. The three examples explore interdependencies that arise from (1 climate loading dependence; (2 mediation of two climate impacts by physical processes operating over large spatial extents; and, (3 multiple risks that are influenced by shared climatic and socio-economic drivers. Drawing upon learning from these case studies, and other work, a framework for the analysis and consideration of interdependencies in climate change risk assessment has been developed. This is an iterative learning loop that involves defining the system, scoping interaction mechanisms, applying appropriate modelling tools, identifying vulnerabilities and opportunities, and assessing the performance of adaptation interventions.

  8. Social contagions on interdependent lattice networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Panpan; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Pengcheng; Wang, Wei; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2017-03-01

    Although an increasing amount of research is being done on the dynamical processes on interdependent spatial networks, knowledge of how interdependent spatial networks influence the dynamics of social contagion in them is sparse. Here we present a novel non-Markovian social contagion model on interdependent spatial networks composed of two identical two-dimensional lattices. We compare the dynamics of social contagion on networks with different fractions of dependency links and find that the density of final recovered nodes increases as the number of dependency links is increased. We use a finite-size analysis method to identify the type of phase transition in the giant connected components (GCC) of the final adopted nodes and find that as we increase the fraction of dependency links, the phase transition switches from second-order to first-order. In strong interdependent spatial networks with abundant dependency links, increasing the fraction of initial adopted nodes can induce the switch from a first-order to second-order phase transition associated with social contagion dynamics. In networks with a small number of dependency links, the phase transition remains second-order. In addition, both the second-order and first-order phase transition points can be decreased by increasing the fraction of dependency links or the number of initially-adopted nodes.

  9. China’s Rare Earth Policies: Economic Statecraft or Interdependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    sector? According to Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye, interdependence is most simply defined as “mutual dependence.”43 More specifically, Keohane and...between China and the United 43 Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye, Power and Interdependence (Harper Collins...1989), 8. 44 Ibid., 8. 34 States. As Keohane and Nye point out in their book Power and Interdependence, interdependence only exists if there

  10. Research Design – Composition, Configuration and Interdependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will present an integrative view on research design. I will introduce what I take to be the skeleton components of any research design within the social sciences, i.e. the elements of research question, philosophy of science, methodology, method and data. With this as my point...... of departure I will go on to focus on a presentation, a discussion and an evaluation of a new appreciation of the interdependencies of the elements in the research design. An appreciation that favors a relational rather than an atomistic outlook and which gives rise to an ecological conceptualization...... of research design. A research design, in other words, which promotes plasticity and fluidity over adherence to static protocol. And which, at the same time, does not relinquish control over project-relevant, multifaceted decision-making processes – and their respective interdependencies – but which...

  11. Research Design – Composition, Configuration and Interdependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this essay I will present an integrative view on research design. I will introduce what I take to be the skeleton components of any research design within the social sciences, i.e. the elements of research question, philosophy of science, methodology, method and data. With this as my point...... of departure I will go on to focus on a presentation, a discussion and an evaluation of a new appreciation of the interdependencies of the elements in the research design. An appreciation that favors a relational rather than an atomistic outlook and which gives rise to an ecological conceptualization...... of research design. A research design, in other words, which promotes plasticity and fluidity over adherence to static protocol. And which, at the same time, does not relinquish control over project-relevant, multifaceted decision-making processes – and their respective interdependencies – but which...

  12. Interdependent relations between comic and animated cartoons

    OpenAIRE

    Eloyan, Armen

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Interdependent relations between comic and animated Cartoons. This book was produced in the context of Art Dubai's Marker, a curated not-for-profit gallery programme that concentrates each year on a particular theme or geography. (www.artdubai.ae/marker). The 2014 edition of Marker is curated by Slavs and Tatars and takes Central Asia and the Caucasus as its focus.".

  13. Approximate Revenue Maximization in Interdependent Value Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Shuchi; Fu, Hu; Karlin, Anna

    2014-01-01

    We study revenue maximization in settings where agents' values are interdependent: each agent receives a signal drawn from a correlated distribution and agents' values are functions of all of the signals. We introduce a variant of the generalized VCG auction with reserve prices and random admission, and show that this auction gives a constant approximation to the optimal expected revenue in matroid environments. Our results do not require any assumptions on the signal distributions, however, ...

  14. Cascading failure analysis and restoration strategy in an interdependent network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng; Lv, Chuan; Zhao, Tingdi; Wang, Baoqing; Wang, Jianghui; Zhu, Juxing

    2016-05-01

    In modern society, many infrastructures are interdependent owing to functional and logical relations among components in different systems. These networked infrastructures can be modeled as interdependent networks. In the real world, different networks carry different traffic loads whose values are dynamic and stem from the load redistribution in the same network and disturbance from the interdependent network. Interdependency makes interdependent networks so fragile that even a slight initial disturbance may lead to a cascading failure of the entire systems. In this paper, interdependencies among networks are modeled and a failure cascade process is studied considering their effects on failure propagation. Meanwhile, an in-process restoration strategy after the initial failure is investigated. The restoration effects depend strongly on the trigger timing, restoration probability and priority of the restoration actions along with the additional disturbances. Our findings highlight the necessity to decrease the large-scale cascading failure by structuring and managing an interdependent network reasonably.

  15. Interdependent complex systems and critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Raissa

    2013-03-01

    Collections of networks are at the core of modern society, spanning technological, biological and social systems. Understanding the network structure of individual systems has lead to tremendous advances in the past decade. Yet, in reality, none of these individual networks lives in isolation and the consequences of interdependence can be surprising. Here we present results from random graph models of interacting networks. First, from a structural perspective, we show that interactions between different types of networks can enhance or delay the onset of large scale connectivity. Second, we consider a dynamical process on coupled networks. We use the classic Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model as an abstraction for cascades of load shedding and show that their can exist optimal levels of interconnectivity between networks that provide stabilizing effects with respect to cascades. We will also discuss recent advances in understanding interdependent social and technological networks which rely on coupling game theory to statistical physics and spatial models of random graphs that attempt to capture interdependencies in critical infrastructure systems.

  16. Measuring ensemble interdependence in a string quartet through analysis of multidimensional performance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos ePapiotis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a musical ensemble such as a string quartet, the musicians interact and influence each other’s actions in several aspects of the performance simultaneously in order to achieve a common aesthetic goal. In this article, we present and evaluate a computational approach for measuring the degree to which these interactions exist in a given performance. We recorded a number of string quartet exercises under two experimental conditions (solo and ensemble, acquiring both audio and bowing motion data. Numerical features in the form of time series were extracted from the data as performance descriptors representative of four distinct dimensions of the performance: Intonation, Dynamics, Timbre and Tempo. Four different interdependence estimation methods (two linear and two nonlinear were applied to the extracted features in order to assess the overall level of interdependence between the four musicians. The obtained results suggest that it is possible to correctly discriminate between the two experimental conditions by quantifying interdependence between the musicians in each of the studied performance dimensions; the nonlinear methods appear to perform best for most of the numerical features tested. Moreover, by using the solo recordings as a reference to which the ensemble recordings are contrasted, it is feasible to compare the amount of interdependence that is established between the musicians in a given performance dimension across all exercises, and relate the results to the underlying goal of the exercise. We discuss our findings in the context of ensemble performance research, the current limitations of our approach, and the ways in which it can be expanded and consolidated.

  17. Catastrophic Cascade of Failures in Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Havlin, S; Buldyrev, S V; Dias, C S; Parshani, R; Paul, G; Stanley, H E

    2010-01-01

    Modern network-like systems are usually coupled in such a way that failures in one network can affect the entire system. In infrastructures, biology, sociology, and economy, systems are interconnected and events taking place in one system can propagate to any other coupled system. Recent studies on such coupled systems show that the coupling increases their vulnerability to random failure. Properties for interdependent networks differ significantly from those of single-network systems. In this article, these results are reviewed and the main properties discussed.

  18. Towards a Realistic Model for Failure Propagation in Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sturaro, Agostino; Conti, Mauro; Das, Sajal K

    2015-01-01

    Modern networks are becoming increasingly interdependent. As a prominent example, the smart grid is an electrical grid controlled through a communications network, which in turn is powered by the electrical grid. Such interdependencies create new vulnerabilities and make these networks more susceptible to failures. In particular, failures can easily spread across these networks due to their interdependencies, possibly causing cascade effects with a devastating impact on their functionalities. In this paper we focus on the interdependence between the power grid and the communications network, and propose a novel realistic model, HINT (Heterogeneous Interdependent NeTworks), to study the evolution of cascading failures. Our model takes into account the heterogeneity of such networks as well as their complex interdependencies. We compare HINT with previously proposed models both on synthetic and real network topologies. Experimental results show that existing models oversimplify the failure evolution and network...

  19. The Physics of Interdependence, Social Uncertainty Relations, and Incompleteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.F. Lawless

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of a mathematical model of social uncertainty relations to replace traditional models of the interaction, as well as a model of complexity from econophysics. Our goal with this mathematics is to control hybrid teams, firms and systems (i.e., where “hybrids” are arbitrary combinations of humans, robots and machines. But uncertainty is created by states of interdependence between social objects: at one extreme, interdependence reduces to independence between agents, producing rational but asocial effects; at the other extreme, interdependence de-individuates a group’s members until individual identity dissolves into a group (e.g., strong cults, mobs, gangs, and well-run teams and firms. In other studies, we have reviewed the structure of teams; in this report, we focus on how interdependence impedes efforts at direct control by making meaning incomplete. We begin with bistability to simplify interdependence, and generalize to full interdependence.

  20. Interdependence between Inventory Management and Employees’ Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Tomašić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study determines the correlation between the application of advanced models and methods of inventory optimisation in the supply chain in relation to the satisfaction of employees who are responsible for managing the inventory optimisation processes. The previous studies confirm that the optimisation of inventory management in the supply chain insures competitive advantages on the market. There is space for further research of impact of the achieved inventory optimisation in the supply chain on the change of the employees’ satisfaction. The paper establishes the interrelation of the interdependence of the achieved inventory optimisations on the satisfaction of the employees and the related synergy effects of acquiring added value of the companies on the market oriented to the satisfaction of the buyers and service users. The research has defined new knowledge in interdependence of inventory management optimisation on the change of indicators of employees’ satisfaction. Based on the performed research an assumption has been created for the design of an application package (so-called XaaS-based services for the management of interaction processes of inventory optimization in the supply chain, satisfaction of service users and employees.

  1. Market and Learning Orientations: Interdependence, Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Botti Abbade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between the dimensions of Market Orientation (MO, Learning Orientation (LO and Organizational Performance (OP of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs in the region of Santa Maria / RS. It was conducted a survey with the voluntary participation of 83 micro, small and medium businesses of Santa Maria and its region adopting structured data collection instrument with MARKOR scale and learning orientation scale. It was developed a structural model of reference that was also estimated by PLS (Partial Least Squares and the adoption of bootstrapping technique. The results suggest that there is a high interdependence between the dimensions of the three dimensions of MO. Thus, evidences suggest that there is a strong interdependence between the three dimensions of LO. However, the relationship between the dimensions of LO and MO are less significant. Also, results suggest the absence of significant relationship between responsiveness and OP. On the other hand, the dissemination of intelligence impacts positively and significantly on the OP.

  2. Understanding Interdependency Through Complex Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rosas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between three or more random variables are often nontrivial, poorly understood and, yet, are paramount for future advances in fields such as network information theory, neuroscience and genetics. In this work, we analyze these interactions as different modes of information sharing. Towards this end, and in contrast to most of the literature that focuses on analyzing the mutual information, we introduce an axiomatic framework for decomposing the joint entropy that characterizes the various ways in which random variables can share information. Our framework distinguishes between interdependencies where the information is shared redundantly and synergistic interdependencies where the sharing structure exists in the whole, but not between the parts. The key contribution of our approach is to focus on symmetric properties of this sharing, which do not depend on a specific point of view for differentiating roles between its components. We show that our axioms determine unique formulas for all of the terms of the proposed decomposition for systems of three variables in several cases of interest. Moreover, we show how these results can be applied to several network information theory problems, providing a more intuitive understanding of their fundamental limits.

  3. Interdependent Lattice Networks in High Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Lowinger, Steven; Buldyrev, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    We study the mutual percolation of two interdependent lattice networks ranging from two to seven dimensions, denoted as $D$. We impose that the length of interdependent links connecting nodes in the two lattices be less than or equal to a certain value, $r$. For each value of $D$ and $r$, we find the mutual percolation threshold, $p_c[D,r]$ below which the system completely collapses through a cascade of failures following an initial destruction of a fraction $ (1-p)$ of the nodes in one of the lattices. We find that for each dimension, $D1$ such that for $r\\geq r_I$ the cascading failures occur as a discontinuous first order transition, while for $rr_I$, and for $r>r_{max}$ the vulnerability starts to decrease as $r\\to\\infty$. However the decrease becomes less significant as $D$ increases and $p_c[D,r_{max}]-p_c[D,\\infty]$ decreases exponentially with $D$. We also investigate the dependence of $p_c[D,r]$ on the system size as well as how the nature of the transition changes as the number of lattice sites, $N...

  4. Production interdependencies and poverty reduction across ethnic groups in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, M. Yusof; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Production sectors are interdependent and the benefits of output growth for poverty reduction therefore spread over the economy. The role of such interdependencies is explicitly studied in this paper. A social accounting matrix for Malaysia that distinguishes between the major ethnic groups in Malay

  5. Impact of Degree Heterogeneity on Attack Vulnerability of Interdependent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiwen; Wu, Yafang; Ma, Yilin; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhongke; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-09-01

    The study of interdependent networks has become a new research focus in recent years. We focus on one fundamental property of interdependent networks: vulnerability. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of topological properties upon interdependent networks under random attacks, the effect of degree heterogeneity on structural vulnerability of interdependent networks under intentional attacks, however, is still unexplored. In order to deeply understand the role of degree distribution and in particular degree heterogeneity, we construct an interdependent system model which consists of two networks whose extent of degree heterogeneity can be controlled simultaneously by a tuning parameter. Meanwhile, a new quantity, which can better measure the performance of interdependent networks after attack, is proposed. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that degree heterogeneity can significantly increase the vulnerability of both single and interdependent networks. Moreover, it is found that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Enhancing coupling strength between networks can greatly increase the fragility of both networks against targeted attacks, which is most evident under the case of max-max assortative coupling. Current results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity of complex real-world systems.

  6. Indonesian Mothers and Their Young Children: Towards an Interdependent Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevalkink, Jolien

    Considering the mother-child relationship as the first in which culturally-related interdependence or independence is learned, this study examined whether the interdependency hypothesis holds for the mother-child relationship in Indonesia. The study focused on the quality of the mother-child relationship, children's daily social interactions, and…

  7. Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Luo-Luo

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount impor...

  8. Global interdependence and restructuring of industrial production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Radmila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to emphasize particular aspects in connection with deindustrialization and globalization processes during transformation of the economic structure in postindustrial age. Conceptions and main features of globalization are presented, i.e. growing interdependence on the global level, then primary characteristics of industrial globalization as one of the forms of globalization process, and in general some brief considerations about the influence of the economic globalization on deindustrialization. In modern economic environment, transformation of production includes, besides other structural changes, modification of the geography of manufacturing and new industrial space - development of the newly industrializing countries, and new spatial forms of production allocation and possibilities for linking of various activities and services (technopolis, industrial, technology and science park, etc..

  9. Generation capacity adequacy in interdependent electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepeda, Mauricio, E-mail: ivan-mauricio.cepeda-forero@edf.fr [EDF R and D Division, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); CNRS-CIRED,45 bis avenue de La Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent sur Marne cedex (France); Finon, Dominique [CNRS-CIRED,45 bis avenue de La Belle Gabrielle, 94736 Nogent sur Marne cedex (France)

    2011-06-15

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in regional electricity markets with transmission constraints. Differences between regulatory policies and market designs in terms of generation adequacy policies may distort the normal functioning of the neighboring markets, as well as the reliability of supply. We test the effect of heterogeneous regulatory design between two interdependent markets: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. We rely on a long-term market simulation model in system dynamics that characterizes expansion decision in a competitive regime. The results show that differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. We examine both the short and long terms effect, and how free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other. The main finding is that the lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. - Research Highlights: > We model the long-term dynamic of two interdependent markets. > We examine both the short and long terms effect of heterogeneous regulatory design: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. > Differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. > Lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. > Free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other.

  10. Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures A Guideline for Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Utne, Ingrid; Vatn, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Today’s society is completely dependent on critical networks such as  water supply, sewage, electricity, ICT and transportation. Risk and vulnerability analyses are needed to grasp the impact of threats and hazards. However, these become quite complex as there are strong interdependencies both within and between infrastructure systems. Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures: A  guideline for analysis provides methods for analyzing risks and interdependencies of critical infrastructures.  A number of analysis approaches are described and are adapted to each of these infrastructures. Various approaches are also revised, and all are supported by several examples and illustrations. Particular emphasis is given to the analysis of various interdependencies that often exist between the infrastructures.  Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures: A  guideline for analysis provides a good tool to identify the hazards that are threatening your infrastructures, and will enhance the un...

  11. The LOCI-method: Collaboration Building in Complex Endeavors Based on Analysis of Interdependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Interdependence Theory According to Kurt Lewin (1948), the essence of a group is the interdependence among its members. Interdependence...multidimensional framework for conceptualizing human services integration initiatives. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 69, 5-19. Lewin , K. (1948

  12. Measuring Interdependency among Industrial Chains with Financial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingchun; Fang, Ye; Luo, Jing

    Industrial chains exhibit strong interdependency within a large-scale resource-based enterprise group. When analyzing the independency effect in industrial chains, the interdependency of financial index is often ignored. In this paper, we will mainly focus on measuring the long-term interdependency effect by historical simulation and cointegration tests with financial data. A large-scale coal-mining group is studied empirically as a case to explain the framework of independency analysis among the industrial chains. The results show that high degree of independency appears in production costs and marketing costs, and low degree appears in revenues and profits.

  13. Attachment, mastery, and interdependence: a model of parenting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Martha E

    2002-01-01

    A democratic nation needs an interdependent citizenry who are not only competent but who also can live together cooperatively with an eye toward what will benefit the whole as well as the self. In this article, the concept of interdependence is adopted as the central goal of parenting. The Parenting Processes Model is then presented, specifying how caregivers help children develop this interdependence. This work draws upon and integrates the work of a number of theoreticians, researchers, and clinicians, with the central focus on the work of John Bowlby, Alfred Adler, and Lev Vygotsky.

  14. Designing and implementing an interdependent resilience culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry Patrick

    Once an emergency occurs, companies find themselves competing for diminishing resources. Companies mired in confusion and debate often fail to obtain the resources necessary for a speedy recovery and fail to meet the expectations of their various interested parties. Unfortunately, it is during these emergencies that the firm is judged. Unfavourable evaluations of a company by customers, the government and/or the general public result in lost future revenue through contracts that are either not renewed or cancelled, as well as disqualification from tenders and lost bids. This paper discusses how an oil field services company implemented an interdependent resilience culture. Development of this culture included paring down complex concepts and theories into simple rules that are continually introduced and reinforced to the company's leadership. After years of effort, employees from the well head to the corporate boardroom are aligned and aware of everyone's roles when an incident occurs. In short, because each person can count on the others, the company quickly adapts and overcomes significant issues, adding to its competitiveness. As a reader, you will understand that the results of implementing this new culture come down to a single metric: speed. Responses become faster, decisions faster, communication and the transfer of knowledge faster. Emergencies are dynamic and ever-changing. Information quickly becomes stale and outdated. Installing this culture creates a more nimble company which reacts in a manner that allows for extra time, so all the unplanned delays, pitfalls and breakdowns can occur with little to no meaningful impact.

  15. Modelling interdependencies between the electricity and information infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Laprie, Jean-Claude; Kaaniche, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide qualitative models characterizing interdependencies related failures of two critical infrastructures: the electricity infrastructure and the associated information infrastructure. The interdependen-cies of these two infrastructures are increasing due to a growing connection of the power grid networks to the global information infrastructure, as a conse-quence of market deregulation and opening. These interdependencies increase the risk of failures. We focus on cascading, escalating and common-cause fail-ures, which correspond to the main causes of failures due to interdependencies. We address failures in the electricity infrastructure, in combination with acci-dental failures in the information infrastructure, then we show briefly how ma-licious attacks in the information infrastructure can be addressed.

  16. Percolation of Interdependent Networks with Inter-similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yanqing; Zhang, Rui; Han, Zhangang; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Real data show that interdependent networks usually involve inter-similarity. Intersimilarity means that a pair of interdependent nodes have neighbors in both networks that are also interdependent (Parshani et al \\cite{PAR10B}). For example, the coupled world wide port network and the global airport network are intersimilar since many pairs of linked nodes (neighboring cities), by direct flights and direct shipping lines exist in both networks. Nodes in both networks in the same city are regarded as interdependent. If two neighboring nodes in one network depend on neighboring nodes in the another we call these links common links. The fraction of common links in the system is a measure of intersimilarity. Previous simulation results suggest that intersimilarity has considerable effect on reducing the cascading failures, however, a theoretical understanding on this effect on the cascading process is currently missing. Here, we map the cascading process with inter-similarity to a percolation of networks composed...

  17. CIMS: A FRAMEWORK FOR INFRASTRUCTURE INTERDEPENDENCY MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; May R. Permann; Milos Manic

    2006-12-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, utilities, telecommunication, and even financial networks. While modeling and simulation tools have provided insight into the behavior of individual infrastructure networks, a far less understood area is that of the interrelationships among multiple infrastructure networks including the potential cascading effects that may result due to these interdependencies. This paper first describes infrastructure interdependencies as well as presenting a formalization of interdependency types. Next the paper describes a modeling and simulation framework called CIMS© and the work that is being conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model and simulate infrastructure interdependencies and the complex behaviors that can result.

  18. Resenha: Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia Moreno Galhera Espósito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do livro: Moravcsik, Andrew; Milner, Helen V. (org.. Power, Interdependence and Nonstate Actors in World Politics. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-691-14027-8

  19. Generalized Mutual Synchronization between Two Controlled Interdependent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on the generalized mutual synchronization between two controlled interdependent networks. First, we propose the general model of controlled interdependent networks A and B with time-varying internetwork delays coupling. Then, by constructing Lyapunov functions and utilizing adaptive control technique, some sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the mutual synchronization errors between the state variables of networks A and B can asymptotically converge to zero. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and to explore potential application in future smart grid. The simulation results also show how interdependent topologies and internetwork coupling delays influence the mutual synchronizability, which help to design interdependent networks with optimal mutual synchronizability.

  20. Resilience of Networks Formed of Interdependent Modular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shekhtman, Louis; Havlin, Shlomo

    2015-01-01

    Many infrastructure networks have a modular structure and are also interdependent. While significant research has explored the resilience of interdependent networks, there has been no analysis of the effects of modularity. Here we develop a theoretical framework for attacks on interdependent modular networks and support our results by simulations. We focus on the case where each network has the same number of communities and the dependency links are restricted to be between pairs of communities of different networks. This is very realistic for infrastructure across cities. Each city has its own infrastructures and different infrastructures are dependent within the city. However, each infrastructure is connected within and between cities. For example, a power grid will connect many cities as will a communication network, yet a power station and communication tower that are interdependent will likely be in the same city. It has been shown that single networks are very susceptible to the failure of the interconn...

  1. Eradicating Catastrophic Collapse in Interdependent Networks via Reinforced Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Xin; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    In interdependent networks, it is usually assumed, based on percolation theory, that nodes become nonfunctional if they lose connection to the network giant component. However, in reality, some nodes, equipped with alternative resources, together with their connected neighbors can still be functioning once disconnected from the giant component. Here we propose and study a generalized percolation model that introduces a fraction of reinforced nodes in the interdependent networks that can function and support their neighborhood. We analyze, both analytically and via simulations, the order parameter$-$the functioning component$-$comprising both the giant component and smaller components that include at least one reinforced node. Remarkably, we find that for interdependent networks, we need to reinforce only a small fraction of nodes to prevent abrupt catastrophic collapses. Moreover, we find that the universal upper bound of this fraction is 0.1756 for two interdependent Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi (ER) networks, regula...

  2. Research on the Robustness of Interdependent Networks under Localized Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junde Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructures (CI are the cornerstone of modern society, and they are connected with each other through material, energy, or information. The robustness of interdependent CI systems under attack has been a hot topic in recent years, but previous studies mainly focused on malicious attacks or random failure. To analyze the impact of some natural disasters whose destructive force is mainly related to distance with respect to interdependent CI systems, we present a new localized attack mode considering destructive force decays with distance, and carry out simulations on several interdependent networks constructed by artificial and real world networks. Furthermore, this article analyzes the influence of coupling strength and coupling pattern on the robustness of interdependent system. The results show that dependency links between networks decrease the robustness of interdependence networks, but the robustness under failure probability degradation is not vulnerable like that under malicious attack or random failure. In addition, the coupling preference has little effect on the robustness of interdependent networks under the new localized attack strategy; when the average degree of subnetworks is large, the same conclusion can be obtained for the coupling strength.

  3. Robustness of non-interdependent and interdependent networks against dependent and adaptive attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyra, Adam; Li, Jingtao; Shang, Yilun; Jiang, Shuo; Zhao, Yanjun; Xu, Shouhuai

    2017-09-01

    Robustness of complex networks has been extensively studied via the notion of site percolation, which typically models independent and non-adaptive attacks (or disruptions). However, real-life attacks are often dependent and/or adaptive. This motivates us to characterize the robustness of complex networks, including non-interdependent and interdependent ones, against dependent and adaptive attacks. For this purpose, dependent attacks are accommodated by L-hop percolation where the nodes within some L-hop (L ≥ 0) distance of a chosen node are all deleted during one attack (with L = 0 degenerating to site percolation). Whereas, adaptive attacks are launched by attackers who can make node-selection decisions based on the network state in the beginning of each attack. The resulting characterization enriches the body of knowledge with new insights, such as: (i) the Achilles' Heel phenomenon is only valid for independent attacks, but not for dependent attacks; (ii) powerful attack strategies (e.g., targeted attacks and dependent attacks, dependent attacks and adaptive attacks) are not compatible and cannot help the attacker when used collectively. Our results shed some light on the design of robust complex networks.

  4. Teamwork: relevance and interdependence of interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, M; Besoaín-Saldaña, A; Aguirre, M; Leiva, J

    2017-04-27

    Determine the perception of university students regarding interprofessional and interdependent work between team members in their inclusion in primary care. Analytical cross-sectional study. The sampling had a probabilistic, stratified random type with 95% confidence and 5% margin of error. Seven-hundred and four students of Public Universities in Santiago (Chile) answered self-administered questionnaire. Ninety-seven point eight of students say that interprofessional work is important; 27.1% of them declare that their university did not seem to show that their study plans were important. The professionals listed as most important in teams are physicians and nurses. Spaces for development and institutional support are key elements to promote interprofessional work. If this competence can involve each academic unit in their different formative spaces there will be a significant contribution to said promotion. Teamwork is a pending task. Determinar la percepción de estudiantes universitarios respecto al trabajo interprofesional e interdependencia entre los miembros del equipo en su inserción en la atención primaria. Estudio de tipo analítico y transversal. El muestreo fue de tipo aleatorio, probabilístico estratificado con un 95% de confianza y un 5% de margen de error. Se utilizó un cuestionario auto-administrado en 704 estudiantes de Universidades del Estado en Santiago de Chile. Un 97,8% de los estudiantes opinan que el trabajo interprofesional es importante; un 27,1% de ellos declara que su universidad no le ha entregado importancia en sus planes de estudios. Los profesionales mencionados como más importantes en el equipo son los médicos y enfermeras. Espacios de desarrollo y respaldo institucional son elementos claves para promover el trabajo interprofesional. Que esta competencia logre involucrar a cada unidad académica en sus diferentes espacios formativos será un aporte significativo en aquello. Trabajo en equipo es una tarea pendiente.

  5. The Physics of Teams: Interdependence, Measurable Entropy, and Computational Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Lawless

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the social sciences, including psychology, economics, and subjective social network theory, are modeled on the individual, leaving the field not only a-theoretical, but also inapplicable to a physics of hybrid teams, where hybrid refers to arbitrarily combining humans, machines, and robots into a team to perform a dedicated mission (e.g., military, business, entertainment or to solve a targeted problem (e.g., with scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs. As a common social science practice, the ingredient at the heart of the social interaction, interdependence, is statistically removed prior to the replication of social experiments; but, as an analogy, statistically removing social interdependence to better study the individual is like statistically removing quantum effects as a complication to the study of the atom. Further, in applications of Shannon's information theory to teams, the effects of interdependence are minimized, but even there, interdependence is how classical information is transmitted. Consequently, numerous mistakes are made when applying non-interdependent models to policies, the law and regulations, impeding social welfare by failing to exploit the power of social interdependence. For example, adding redundancy to human teams is thought by subjective social network theorists to improve the efficiency of a network, easily contradicted by our finding that redundancy is strongly associated with corruption in non-free markets. Thus, built atop the individual, most of the social sciences, economics, and social network theory have little if anything to contribute to the engineering of hybrid teams. In defense of the social sciences, the mathematical physics of interdependence is elusive, non-intuitive and non-rational. However, by replacing determinism with bistable states, interdependence at the social level mirrors entanglement at the quantum level, suggesting the applicability of quantum tools for social science. We report

  6. Modeling the interdependent network based on two-mode networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feng; Gao, Xiangyun; Guan, Jianhe; Huang, Shupei; Liu, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Among heterogeneous networks, there exist obviously and closely interdependent linkages. Unlike existing research primarily focus on the theoretical research of physical interdependent network model. We propose a two-layer interdependent network model based on two-mode networks to explore the interdependent features in the reality. Specifically, we construct a two-layer interdependent loan network and develop several dependent features indices. The model is verified to enable us to capture the loan dependent features of listed companies based on loan behaviors and shared shareholders. Taking Chinese debit and credit market as case study, the main conclusions are: (1) only few listed companies shoulder the main capital transmission (20% listed companies occupy almost 70% dependent degree). (2) The control of these key listed companies will be more effective of avoiding the spreading of financial risks. (3) Identifying the companies with high betweenness centrality and controlling them could be helpful to monitor the financial risk spreading. (4) The capital transmission channel among Chinese financial listed companies and Chinese non-financial listed companies are relatively strong. However, under greater pressure of demand of capital transmission (70% edges failed), the transmission channel, which constructed by debit and credit behavior, will eventually collapse.

  7. The extreme vulnerability of interdependent spatially embedded networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Amir; Berezin, Yehiel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies show that in interdependent networks a very small failure in one network may lead to catastrophic consequences. Above a critical fraction of interdependent nodes, even a single node failure can invoke cascading failures that may abruptly fragment the system, whereas below this critical dependency a failure of a few nodes leads only to a small amount of damage to the system. So far, research has focused on interdependent random networks without space limitations. However, many real systems, such as power grids and the Internet, are not random but are spatially embedded. Here we analytically and numerically study the stability of interdependent spatially embedded networks modelled as lattice networks. Surprisingly, we find that in lattice systems, in contrast to non-embedded systems, there is no critical dependency and any small fraction of interdependent nodes leads to an abrupt collapse. We show that this extreme vulnerability of very weakly coupled lattices is a consequence of the critical exponent describing the percolation transition of a single lattice.

  8. Multiproject interdependencies in health systems management: a longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Gamm, Larry; Kim, Jungyeon; Menser, Terri

    2014-01-01

    A health care organization often engages in the simultaneous implementation of multiple organization change initiatives. However, the degree to which these initiatives are implemented and can be enhanced based on their interdependencies is an open question. How organizations and the change initiatives they pursue might benefit from more careful examination of potential interdependencies among projects was explored in this article. The aim of this study was to introduce a multiproject management conceptualization that stresses project interdependencies and suggests synergies can be found to enhance overall project and organizational performance. It examines this conceptualization in the context of a health system pursuing several major initiatives to capture insights into the nature of such interdependencies. Longitudinal qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with hospital leaders attempting to manage multiple initiatives being implemented by the system's leadership team was used in this study. The implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR) is empirically identified as the most central among multiple projects based on other projects dependencies on the EMR. Furthermore, concerns for data are identified most frequently as success factors across all projects. This reinforces the depiction of the EMR as a central organizational focus. A unique perspective on multiproject management in hospitals and on EMR projects is presented. In addition, the interdependency conceptualization and its application and results provide insights into multiproject management that can help ensure that benefits of individual projects are more fully optimized or exploited in leveraging the effectiveness of other project initiatives.

  9. Sleep electroencephalography and heart rate variability interdependence amongst healthy subjects and insomnia/schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Schilling, Claudia; Schredl, Michael; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of interdependencies within autonomic nervous system has gained increasing importance to characterise healthy and psychiatric disordered subjects. The present work introduces a biosignal processing approach, suggesting a computational resource to estimate coherent or synchronised interactions as an eventual supportive aid in the diagnosis of primary insomnia and schizophrenia pathologies. By deploying linear, nonlinear and statistical methods upon 25 electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic overnight sleep recordings, the assessment of cross-correlation, wavelet coherence and [Formula: see text]:[Formula: see text] phase synchronisation is focused on tracking discerning features amongst the clinical cohorts. Our results indicate that certain neuronal oscillations interact with cardiac power bands in distinctive ways responding to standardised sleep stages and patient groups, which promotes the hypothesis of subtle functional dynamics between neuronal assembles and (para)sympathetic activity subject to pathophysiological conditions.

  10. Exploring the interdependencies between parameters in a material model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Fermen-Coker, Muge

    2014-01-01

    A method is investigated to reduce the number of numerical parameters in a material model for a solid. The basis of the method is to detect interdependencies between parameters within a class of materials of interest. The method is demonstrated for a set of material property data for iron and steel using the Johnson-Cook plasticity model.

  11. The Study of Geography in an Interdependent World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saueressig-Schreuder, Yda

    The importance of restructuring the discipline of geography and enhancing its role in the precollege curriculum as part of a global approach to education is emphasized in this paper. International education is seen as an essential part of high school and college education in an increasingly interdependent world. The oil crisis, the world economic…

  12. Teaching Group Interdependence: A Campus Murder Mystery Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minei, Elizabeth M.; Shearer Dunn, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to Communication; small group; interpersonal. Objectives: This single activity demonstrates: (1) how interdependence can lead to better group outcomes than individual outcomes can; (2) how diversity of knowledge from multiple contributors helps group functioning; and (3) how students can be introduced to members of the…

  13. Redundant Interdependencies Boost the Robustness of Multiplex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2017-01-01

    In the analysis of the robustness of multiplex networks, it is commonly assumed that a node is functioning only if its interdependent nodes are simultaneously functioning. According to this model, a multiplex network becomes more and more fragile as the number of layers increases. In this respect, the addition of a new layer of interdependent nodes to a preexisting multiplex network will never improve its robustness. Whereas such a model seems appropriate to understand the effect of interdependencies in the simplest scenario of a network composed of only two layers, it may seem unsuitable to characterize the robustness of real systems formed by multiple network layers. In fact, it seems unrealistic that a real system evolved, through the development of multiple layers of interactions, towards a fragile structure. In this paper, we introduce a model of percolation where the condition that makes a node functional is that the node is functioning in at least two of the layers of the network. The model reduces to the commonly adopted percolation model for multiplex networks when the number of layers equals two. a larger number of layers, however, the model describes a scenario where the addition of new layers boosts the robustness of the system by creating redundant interdependencies among layers. We prove this fact thanks to the development of a message-passing theory that is able to characterize the model in both synthetic and real-world multiplex graphs.

  14. Shared impression formation in the cognitively interdependent dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscher, Janet B; Santuzzi, Alecia M; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost

    2003-09-01

    We examined the role of cognitive interdependence in determining how close friends form shared impressions of another person. Cognitive interdependence should provide a processing advantage, such that close friends are more efficient in forming shared impressions and are more successful at doing so. Under normal circumstances, the conversations of close friends should be marked by little necessity to make explicit requests for information, mutual recognition of who currently is controlling the flow of conversation, and willingness to express differences in opinion. Given these advantages, close friends also should be able to form complex shared impressions that go beyond mere one-sided stereotypic judgments and that instead resolve apparent discrepancies in the target's personality. However, if the cognitive interdependence system is disrupted by mutual distraction, these advantages should attenuate or even reverse. Dyads of varying degrees of closeness were mutually distracted or not while discussing their impressions of another female college student. Results supported predictions and are discussed with reference to how cognitive interdependence may help close dyads function within their mutual social networks.

  15. Joint Force Interdependence for a Fiscally Constrained Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Army 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Richard Meinhart ...Joint Force Interdependence For A Fiscally Constrained Future by Colonel Daniel P. Ray United States Army ...United States Army War College Class of 2013 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited

  16. Stochastic Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukavarapu, Nivedita; Durbha, Surya

    2016-06-01

    The Healthcare Critical Infrastructure (HCI) protects all sectors of the society from hazards such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. HCI plays a significant role in response and recovery across all other sectors in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. However, for its continuity of operations and service delivery HCI is dependent on other interdependent Critical Infrastructures (CI) such as Communications, Electric Supply, Emergency Services, Transportation Systems, and Water Supply System. During a mass casualty due to disasters such as floods, a major challenge that arises for the HCI is to respond to the crisis in a timely manner in an uncertain and variable environment. To address this issue the HCI should be disaster prepared, by fully understanding the complexities and interdependencies that exist in a hospital, emergency department or emergency response event. Modelling and simulation of a disaster scenario with these complexities would help in training and providing an opportunity for all the stakeholders to work together in a coordinated response to a disaster. The paper would present interdependencies related to HCI based on Stochastic Coloured Petri Nets (SCPN) modelling and simulation approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behaviour of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.

  17. Managing project interdependencies in IT/IS project portfolios: a review of managerial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Bathallath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequately managing project interdependencies among diverse and simultaneous projects is deemed critical for successful implementation of project portfolios. The challenge is significant because it may entail managing a complex network of project interdependencies that keeps changing over time. The present study investigates the managerial challenges that may undermine effective management of project interdependencies in IT/IS project portfolios. The investigation is based on evidence from reviewing relevant literature and documented studies associated with managing project interdependencies. The main contribution of this study is to discuss three managerial challenges of project interdependencies in project portfolios. We discuss the challenges from three perspectives: types of interdependencies; patterns of interaction in interdependencies; and cost/benefit impact of project interdependencies.

  18. Seeking social connectedness: interdependent self-construal and impression formation using photographic cues of social connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyavskaya, Marina; Reoch, Jennifer; Koestner, Richard F; Losier, Gaëtan F

    2010-01-01

    Impression formation research has traditionally focused on either the characteristics of the target or of the participant, failing to examine their interplay. In the present study, we explored the role of interdependent self-construal on ratings of others who are portrayed as alone or connected. We hypothesized that participants with an interdependent view of the self would prefer others who are portrayed as socially connected, while the opposite would be true for participants low on interdependence. Results showed that college students high on interdependence rated a university professor photographed with another person relatively more positively than a professor photographed alone. This pattern was reversed for participants low on interdependence.

  19. Interdependence of an enterprise's marketing and financial strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivkov Danijela M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the mutual relation and inter-dependence of the marketing and financial strategies of an enterprise. The special focus is on the significance of the marketing strategy for the business success of an enterprise. The paper begins with description of marketing application in the business practice of an enterprise. The point is also on certain segments of the marketing strategy. The central part of the paper is dedicated to the review of possible effects on the customer satisfaction with the financial strategy of the enterprise. Marketing provides the resources for achievement of the financial objectives. Marketing efficiency is measured, among other ways, by the market share and sales volume, but also by the degree of loyalty and customer satisfaction. Marketing efficiency indicators reflect the efficiency of financial operations. It is quite certain that marketing and financial strategy are strongly interdependent.

  20. Game Over Interdependent Networks: Rationality Makes the System Inherent Deficient

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yuhang; He, Shibo; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian

    2016-01-01

    Many real-world systems are composed of interdependent networks that rely on one another. Such networks are typically designed and operated by different entities, who aim at maximizing their own interest. In this paper, we study the game over interdependent networks, investigating how the rational behaviors of entities impact the whole system. We first introduce a mathematical model to quantify the interacting payoffs among varying entities. Then we study the Nash equilibrium and compare it with the optimal social welfare. We reveal that the cooperation between different entities can be reached to maximize the social welfare only when the average degree of each network is constant. Otherwise, there may be a huge gap between the Nash equilibrium and optimal social welfare. Therefore, the rationality of different entities that operates these networks makes the system inherently deficient and even extremely vulnerable in some cases. Furthermore, we uncover some factors (such as weakening coupled strength of inte...

  1. Emerging interdependence between stock values during financial crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Jacopo; Tsui, Enoch Yan Lok; Saad, David

    2017-01-01

    To identify emerging interdependencies between traded stocks we investigate the behavior of the stocks of FTSE 100 companies in the period 2000-2015, by looking at daily stock values. Exploiting the power of information theoretical measures to extract direct influences between multiple time series, we compute the information flow across stock values to identify several different regimes. While small information flows is detected in most of the period, a dramatically different situation occurs in the proximity of global financial crises, where stock values exhibit strong and substantial interdependence for a prolonged period. This behavior is consistent with what one would generally expect from a complex system near criticality in physical systems, showing the long lasting effects of crashes on stock markets.

  2. The Interdependence between Rainfall and Temperature: Copula Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Brady, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are important climatic inputs for agricultural production, especially in the context of climate change. However, accurate analysis and simulation of the joint distribution of rainfall and temperature are difficult due to possible interdependence between them. As one...... possible approach to this problem, five families of copula models are employed to model the interdependence between rainfall and temperature. Scania is a leading agricultural province in Sweden and is affected by a maritime climate. Historical climatic data for Scania is used to demonstrate the modeling...... is found to be most suitable to model the bivariate distribution of rainfall and temperature based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Using the student copula, we simulate temperature and rainfall simultaneously. The resulting models can be integrated...

  3. The Importance of the Interdependence in the Relationship With Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Semprebon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes a breakthrough in brand relationship literature by proposing a scale for measuring interdependence with brands. As a secondary contribution, it evaluates the influence of this construct on loyalty. Two specific contexts were analyzed during empirical phase: sports shoes and jeans. In view of the first purpose, we tried to develop the scale following the precepts of Churchill (1979, Rossiter (2002 and Heere and James (2007, organized into eight stages of implementation: 1 Theoretical definition of the analyzed construct; 2 Generation of items (qualitative proceeding; 3 Collection of quantitative data (196 cases; 4 Scale purification; 5 New collection of quantitative data (508 cases; 6 New scale purification; 7 Verification of reliability and validity (AFC; and 8 Proposition of the final items. Moreover, a structural model was tested in order to investigate the relationship between interdependence with brand and loyalty. This relationship was seen as positive and significant, especially when comparing gender and product category.

  4. An integrated model of human-wildlife interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Kun H.; Walsh, Richard G.; Johnson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to integrate wildlife-related ecologic and economic variables into an econometric model. The model reveals empirical evidence of the presumed interdependence of human-wildlife and the holistic nature of humanity's relationship to the ecosystem. Human use of biologic resources varies not only with income, education, and population, but also with sustainability of humankind's action relative to the quality and quantity of the supporting ecological base.

  5. Investigating Contagion and Market Interdependence during the Global Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Iorgulescu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the roles played by market interdependence and contagion in the propagation of the 2007-2009 global financial crisis. For this purpose, five aggregate indices were employed, representing all the major financial markets from each geographical region. The data series are daily and they cover the period between 2002 and 2014. The presence of contagion and market interdependence was assessed by means of the values and value changes of the correlation coefficients between the ante crisis (2002-2007, the crisis (2007-2009 and the post crisis (2009-2014 intervals, as well as with the aid of a spillover index. The results indicate a high degree of interdependence between the global financial markets even before the occurrence of the crisis. On the other hand, there is evidence that the crisis spread through contagion mainly from the developed financial markets of Europe and North America to the emerging centers in Africa and Latin America while the markets from the Asia/Pacific region displayed lower correlations which may have given opportunities for the mitigation of losses. Moreover, since the majority of the correlation coefficients have not decreased significantly after the 2007-2009 period, it seems that the crisis intensified the degree of global financial integration.

  6. Cascading failures of interdependent modular small-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guowei; Wang, Xianpei; Tian, Meng; Dai, Dangdang; Long, Jiachuan; Zhang, Qilin

    2016-07-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that many real-world networks fall into the broad class of small-world networks and have a modular structure. The modularity has been revealed to have an important effect on cascading failure in isolated networks. However, the corresponding results for interdependent modular small-world networks remain missing. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cascading failures and the intra-modular rewiring probabilities and inter-modular connections under different coupling preferences, i.e. random coupling with modules (RCWM), assortative coupling in modules (ACIM) and assortative coupling with modules (ACWM). The size of the largest connected component is used to evaluate the robustness from global and local perspectives. Numerical results indicate that increasing intra-modular rewiring probabilities and inter-modular connections can improve the robustness of interdependent modular small-world networks under intra-attacks and inter-attacks. Meanwhile, experiments on three coupling strategies demonstrate that ACIM has a better effect on preventing the cascading failures compared with RCWM and ACWM. These results can be helpful to allocate and optimize the topological structure of interdependent modular small-world networks to improve the robustness of such networks.

  7. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbing Tang

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors, the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level.

  8. The Fragility of Interdependency: Coupled Networks Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-03-01

    Recent disasters ranging from abrupt financial ``flash crashes'' and large-scale power outages to sudden death among the elderly dramatically exemplify the fact that the most dangerous vulnerability is hiding in the many interdependencies among different networks. In the past year, we have quantified failures in model of interconnected networks, and demonstrated the need to consider mutually dependent network properties in designing resilient systems. Specifically, we have uncovered new laws governing the nature of switching phenomena in coupled networks, and found that phenomena that are continuous ``second order'' phase transitions in isolated networks become discontinuous abrupt ``first order'' transitions in interdependent networks [S. V. Buldyrev, R. Parshani, G. Paul, H. E. Stanley, and S. Havlin, ``Catastrophic Cascade of Failures in Interdependent Networks,'' Nature 464, 1025 (2010); J. Gao, S. V. Buldyrev, H. E. Stanley, and S. Havlin, ``Novel Behavior of Networks Formed from Interdependent Networks,'' Nature Physics 8, 40 (2012). We conclude by discussing the network basis for understanding sudden death in the elderly, and the possibility that financial ``flash crashes'' are not unlike the catastrophic first-order failure incidents occurring in coupled networks. Specifically, we study the coupled networks that are responsible for financial fluctuations. It appears that ``trend switching phenomena'' that we uncover are remarkably independent of the scale over which they are analyzed. For example, we find that the same laws governing the formation and bursting of the largest financial bubbles also govern the tiniest finance bubbles, over a factor of 1,000,000,000 in time scale [T. Preis, J. Schneider, and H. E. Stanley, ``Switching Processes in Financial Markets,'' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 7674 (2011); T. Preis and H. E. Stanley, ``Bubble Trouble: Can a Law Describe Bubbles and Crashes in Financial Markets?'' Physics World 24, No. 5, 29 (May 2011

  9. Modeling interdependencies between business and communication processes in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigl, Birgit; Wendt, Thomas; Winter, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    The optimization and redesign of business processes in hospitals is an important challenge for the hospital information management who has to design and implement a suitable HIS architecture. Nevertheless, there are no tools available specializing in modeling information-driven business processes and the consequences on the communication between information processing, tools. Therefore, we will present an approach which facilitates the representation and analysis of business processes and resulting communication processes between application components and their interdependencies. This approach aims not only to visualize those processes, but to also to evaluate if there are weaknesses concerning the information processing infrastructure which hinder the smooth implementation of the business processes.

  10. The academic rewards of socially-oriented happiness: Interdependent happiness promotes academic engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datu, Jesus Alfonso D; King, Ronnel B; Valdez, Jana Patricia M

    2017-04-01

    Interdependent happiness has been found to be positively associated with optimal psychological outcomes in collectivist cultures. However, the association between interdependent happiness and key academic outcomes has remained unexplored. The current study examined the association of interdependent happiness with key academic outcomes such as autonomous motivation, engagement, and achievement using both cross-sectional (Study 1) and longitudinal (Study 2) approaches. Study 1 revealed that interdependent happiness positively predicted academic engagement (partly) via autonomous motivation. Study 2 showed that prior interdependent happiness positively predicted subsequent academic engagement even after controlling for autoregressor effects. In addition, reciprocal associations among the key variables were found. Taken together, results of the two studies suggest that interdependent happiness plays an adaptive role in the academic context especially in a collectivist cultural setting. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of self-organized interdependence between populations on the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, based on interdependent networks, the effect of self-organized interdependence on the evolution of cooperation is studied. Different from the previous works, the interdependent strength, which can effectively improve the fitness of players, is taken as a kind of limited resources and co-evolves with players' strategy. We show that the self-organization of interdependent strength would spontaneously lead to power law distribution at the stationary state, where the level of cooperation in system can be significantly promoted. Furthermore, when intermediate quantity of interdependence resources existing in system, the power law distribution is most evident with the power β ≈ 1.72, meanwhile the level of cooperation also reaches the maximum value. We discuss the related microscopic system properties which are responsible for the observed results and also demonstrate that the power law distribution of interdependence resources is an elementary property which is robust against the governing repeated games and the initial resources allocation patterns.

  12. Managing project interdependencies in IT/IS project portfolios: a review of managerial issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Bathallath; Åsa Smedberg; Harald Kjellin

    2016-01-01

    Adequately managing project interdependencies among diverse and simultaneous projects is deemed critical for successful implementation of project portfolios. The challenge is significant because it may entail managing a complex network of project interdependencies that keeps changing over time. The present study investigates the managerial challenges that may undermine effective management of project interdependencies in IT/IS project portfolios. The investigation is based on evidence from re...

  13. Leveraging Structural Characteristics of Interdependent Networks to Model Non-Linear Cascading Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    jung.sourceforge.net/), and so forth. State of the program in our decision-theoretic DEC- MDP model captures the critical information at a specific point in time...the performance factor for 5/10 years time span for all MDAPs, based on a composite metric (it may include the breach factors, %PAUC, funding delta...features to describe the state space of the program within the DEC- MDP model. The following is the list of features of interest:  Feature 1

  14. The Interdependence of Leader-Member Exchange Relation and the Leadership Style: Research in Serbian Organisations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vesna Stojanović Aleksić; Milena Stanisavljević; Aleksandra Bošković

    2016-01-01

    The interdependence of leader behaviour, leadership styles and interpersonal relations with followers suggests a need to investigate various aspects of leadership from the perspective of a follower...

  15. Effects of Perceived Social Loafing, Social Interdependence, and Group Affective Tone on Students’ Group Learning Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Luo, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how students perceived social loafing and social interdependence influence group learning performance through group affective tone in undergraduate hospitality and tourism curricula...

  16. Redundant interdependencies boost the robustness of multilayer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    In the standard model of percolation on multilayer networks, a node is functioning only if its copies in all layers are simultaneously functioning. According to this model, a multilayer network becomes more and more fragile as the number of layers increases. In this respect, the addition of a new layer of interdependent nodes to a preexisting multilayer network will never improve its robustness. Whereas such a model seems appropriate to understand the effect of interdependencies in the simplest scenario of a network composed of only two layers, it may seem not reasonable for real systems where multiple network layers interact one with the other. It seems in fact unrealistic that a real system, such a living organism, evolved, through the development of multiple layers of interactions, towards a fragile structure. In this paper, we introduce a model of percolation where the condition that makes a node functional is that the node is functioning in at least two of the layers of the network. The model reduces to ...

  17. The Interdependence between Rainfall and Temperature: Copula Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Gang Cong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall and temperature are important climatic inputs for agricultural production, especially in the context of climate change. However, accurate analysis and simulation of the joint distribution of rainfall and temperature are difficult due to possible interdependence between them. As one possible approach to this problem, five families of copula models are employed to model the interdependence between rainfall and temperature. Scania is a leading agricultural province in Sweden and is affected by a maritime climate. Historical climatic data for Scania is used to demonstrate the modeling process. Heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation of sample data are also considered to eliminate the possibility of observation error. The results indicate that for Scania there are negative correlations between rainfall and temperature for the months from April to July and September. The student copula is found to be most suitable to model the bivariate distribution of rainfall and temperature based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC and Bayesian information criterion (BIC. Using the student copula, we simulate temperature and rainfall simultaneously. The resulting models can be integrated with research on agricultural production and planning to study the effects of changing climate on crop yields.

  18. Interdependency of tropical marine ecosystems in response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Megan I.; Leon, Javier X.; Callaghan, David P.; Roelfsema, Chris M.; Hamylton, Sarah; Brown, Christopher J.; Baldock, Tom; Golshani, Aliasghar; Phinn, Stuart R.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystems are linked within landscapes by the physical and biological processes they mediate. In such connected landscapes, the response of one ecosystem to climate change could have profound consequences for neighbouring systems. Here, we report the first quantitative predictions of interdependencies between ecosystems in response to climate change. In shallow tropical marine ecosystems, coral reefs shelter lagoons from incoming waves, allowing seagrass meadows to thrive. Deepening water over coral reefs from sea-level rise results in larger, more energetic waves traversing the reef into the lagoon, potentially generating hostile conditions for seagrass. However, growth of coral reef such that the relative water depth is maintained could mitigate negative effects of sea-level rise on seagrass. Parameterizing physical and biological models for Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, we find negative effects of sea-level rise on seagrass before the middle of this century given reasonable rates of reef growth. Rates of vertical carbonate accretion typical of modern reef flats (up to 3 mm yr-1) will probably be insufficient to maintain suitable conditions for reef lagoon seagrass under moderate to high greenhouse gas emissions scenarios by 2100. Accounting for interdependencies in ecosystem responses to climate change is challenging, but failure to do so results in inaccurate predictions of habitat extent in the future.

  19. Thresholds and Complex Dynamics of Interdependent Cascading Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, B. A.; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, I.; Lynch, V. E.; Gradney, Paul

    Critical infrastructures have a number of the characteristic properties of complex systems. Among these are infrequent large failures through cascading events. These events, though infrequent, often obey a power law distribution in their probability versus size which suggests that conventional risk analysis does not apply to these systems. Real infrastructure systems typically have an additional layer of complexity, namely the heterogeneous coupling to other infrastructure systems that can allow a failure in one system to propagate to the other system. Here, we model the infrastructure systems through a network with complex system dynamics. We use both mean field theory to get analytic results and a numerical complex systems model, Demon, for computational results. An isolated system has bifurcated fixed points and a cascading threshold which is the same as the bifurcation point. When systems are coupled, this is no longer true and the cascading threshold is different from the bifurcation point of the fixed point solutions. This change in the cascading threshold caused by the interdependence of the system can have an impact on the "safe operation" of interdependent infrastructure systems by changing the critical point and even the power law exponent.

  20. Network of Interdependent Networks: Overview of Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Gao, Jianxi; Huang, Xuqing; Shao, Shuai; Vodenska, Irena; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Paul, Gerald; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    Complex networks appear in almost every aspect of science and technology. Previous work in network theory has focused primarily on analyzing single networks that do not interact with other networks, despite the fact that many real-world networks interact with and depend on each other. Very recently an analytical framework for studying the percolation properties of interacting networks has been introduced. Here we review the analytical framework and the results for percolation laws for a network of networks (NON) formed by n interdependent random networks. The percolation properties of a network of networks differ greatly from those of single isolated networks. In particular, although networks with broad degree distributions, e.g., scale-free networks, are robust when analyzed as single networks, they become vulnerable in a NON. Moreover, because the constituent networks of a NON are connected by node dependencies, a NON is subject to cascading failure. When there is strong interdependent coupling between networks, the percolation transition is discontinuous (is a first-order transition), unlike the well-known continuous second-order transition in single isolated networks. We also review some possible real-world applications of NON theory.

  1. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  2. Nonlinear supratransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geniet, F; Leon, J [Physique Mathematique et Theorique, CNRS-UMR 5825, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2003-05-07

    A nonlinear system possessing a natural forbidden band gap can transmit energy of a signal with a frequency in the gap, as recently shown for a nonlinear chain of coupled pendulums (Geniet and Leon 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 134102). This process of nonlinear supratransmission, occurring at a threshold that is exactly predictable in many cases, is shown to have a simple experimental realization with a mechanical chain of pendulums coupled by a coil spring. It is then analysed in more detail. First we go to different (nonintegrable) systems which do sustain nonlinear supratransmission. Then a Josephson transmission line (a one-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions coupled through superconducting wires) is shown to also sustain nonlinear supratransmission, though being related to a different class of boundary conditions, and despite the presence of damping, finiteness, and discreteness. Finally, the mechanism at the origin of nonlinear supratransmission is found to be a nonlinear instability, and this is briefly discussed here.

  3. Interdependent networks - Topological percolation research and application in finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Di

    This dissertation covers the two major parts of my Ph.D. research: i) developing a theoretical framework of complex networks and applying simulation and numerical methods to study the robustness of the network system, and ii) applying statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze complex systems and applying the theoretical framework to study real-world systems. In part I, we focus on developing theories of interdependent networks as well as building computer simulation models, which includes three parts: 1) We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the networks significantly changes the critical density of failures, which can trigger the total disruption of the two-network system. Specifically, we find that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. 2) We study the percolation behavior of two interdependent scale-free (SF) networks under random failure of 1-p fraction of nodes. We find that as the coupling strength q between the two networks reduces from 1 (fully coupled) to 0 (no coupling), there exist two critical coupling strengths q1 and q2 , which separate the behaviors of the giant component as a function of p into three different regions, and for q2 economic systems. We analyze stock market indices and foreign exchange daily returns for 60 countries over the period of 1999-2012. We build a multi-layer network model based on different correlation measures, and introduce a dynamic network model to simulate and analyze the initializing and spreading of financial crisis. Using different computational approaches and econometric tests, we find atypical behavior of the cross correlations and community formations in the financial networks that we study during the financial crisis of 2008. For example, the overall correlation of stock market increases during crisis

  4. Interdependence in ASEAN: An Assessment of the ASEAN Preferential Trading Agreements (PTA)

    OpenAIRE

    Caoyonan, Elisa T.

    1987-01-01

    This article examines whether the ASEAN Preferential Trading Arrangements have increased the level of interdependence among ASEAN countries in the area of trade. Specifically, whether such interdependence has brought about institutional and economic changes such as tariff reduction and nontariff barriers among ASEAN countries.

  5. Team members' affective responses to patterns of intragroup interdependence and job complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, G.S.; Emans, B.J.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2000-01-01

    In this questionnaire study, the relations between the affective reactions of 114 technical consultants and both intragroup interdependence and job complexity were examined Individual-level task interdependence and job complexity were found to be positively related to individual job satisfaction, te

  6. Parental Beliefs about Emotions Are Associated with Early Adolescents' Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Pa; Dunsmore, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed linkages between parents' beliefs and their children's self-construals with 60 7th and 8th graders. Early adolescents completed an open-ended, Self-Guide Questionnaire and an independent and interdependent reaction-time measure. The self-guide responses were coded for independent and interdependent traits. Parents reported beliefs…

  7. Dimensions of Library Anxiety and Social Interdependence: Implications for Library Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study of graduate students that examined the relationship between library anxiety and social interdependence. Discusses use of the Library Anxiety Scale and Social Interdependence Scale; and considers the effects of barriers with staff, comfort with the library, knowledge of the library, individual attitudes, affective barriers, and…

  8. How task and person conflict shape the role of positive interdependence in management teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O.; Van de Vliert, E.; Veenstra, C

    1999-01-01

    A literature-based model defining how task and person conflict modify the relationship between positive goal interdependence and decision-making effectiveness in management teams is presented. The model assumes that positive interdependence fosters effective decision making behaviors only if person

  9. How task and person conflict shape the role of positive interdependence in management teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, O.; Van de Vliert, E.; Veenstra, C

    1999-01-01

    A literature-based model defining how task and person conflict modify the relationship between positive goal interdependence and decision-making effectiveness in management teams is presented. The model assumes that positive interdependence fosters effective decision making behaviors only if person

  10. The Interdependence Continuum: A Perspective on the Nature of Spanish-English Bilingual Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, C. Patrick; August, Diane; Snow, Catherine; Barr, Christopher D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to elaborate on the statistical nature of the linguistic interdependence hypothesis (Cummins, 1979). It is argued that reading skills across the languages of bilingual learners are differentially robust to interdependence, falling along a continuum mediated by the commonalities between Spanish and English.…

  11. Coparenting Early School-Age Children: An Examination of Mother-Father Interdependence within Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alan; Russell, Graeme

    1994-01-01

    Examined mother-father interdependence of white, middle-class, intact families. Extent and nature of interdependence were studied for correlation, similarity, and complementarity for variables in four domains of parenting (child-rearing values, parent-child involvement, child relationship, and child interaction). Found substantial mother-father…

  12. Biased imitation in coupled evolutionary games in interdependent networks

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, M D; Mendes, J F F

    2014-01-01

    We explore the evolutionary dynamics of two games - the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game - played within distinct networks (layers) of interdependent networks. In these networks imitation and interaction between individuals of opposite layers is established through interlinks. We explore an update rule in which revision of strategies is a biased imitation process: individuals imitate neighbors from the same layer with probability p, and neighbors from the second layer with complementary probability 1 - p. We demonstrate that a small decrease of p from p = 1 (which corresponds to forbidding strategy transfer between layers) is sufficient to promote cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma subpopulation. This, on the other hand, is detrimental for cooperation in the Snowdrift Game subpopulation. We provide results of extensive computer simulations for the case in which layers are modelled as regular random networks, and support this study with analytical results for coupled well-mixed populations.

  13. The organization and control of an evolving interdependent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Dervis C; Isakov, Alexander; Mahadevan, L

    2015-07-01

    Starting with Darwin, biologists have asked how populations evolve from a low fitness state that is evolutionarily stable to a high fitness state that is not. Specifically of interest is the emergence of cooperation and multicellularity where the fitness of individuals often appears in conflict with that of the population. Theories of social evolution and evolutionary game theory have produced a number of fruitful results employing two-state two-body frameworks. In this study, we depart from this tradition and instead consider a multi-player, multi-state evolutionary game, in which the fitness of an agent is determined by its relationship to an arbitrary number of other agents. We show that populations organize themselves in one of four distinct phases of interdependence depending on one parameter, selection strength. Some of these phases involve the formation of specialized large-scale structures. We then describe how the evolution of independence can be manipulated through various external perturbations.

  14. Biased imitation in coupled evolutionary games in interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M. D.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2014-03-01

    We explore the evolutionary dynamics of two games--the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game--played within distinct networks (layers) of interdependent networks. In these networks imitation and interaction between individuals of opposite layers is established through interlinks. We explore an update rule in which revision of strategies is a biased imitation process: individuals imitate neighbors from the same layer with probability p, and neighbors from the second layer with complementary probability 1 - p. We demonstrate that a small decrease of p from p = 1 (which corresponds to forbidding strategy transfer between layers) is sufficient to promote cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma subpopulation. This, on the other hand, is detrimental for cooperation in the Snowdrift Game subpopulation. We provide results of extensive computer simulations for the case in which layers are modelled as regular random networks, and support this study with analytical results for coupled well-mixed populations.

  15. Time series analysis of the interdependence among air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.-J. (National Taiwan University, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    A statistical time series analysis was applied to study the interdependence between the primary and secondary pollutants in the Taipei area. Estimations using the vector autoregression model (VAR) indicate that 2 and 4 h time lags are sufficient to represent the observed values at two stations studied. The impulse response functions and variance decompositions of NO, NO[sub 2] and O[sub 3] were derived using the vector moving average representations to examine the significance of one species on others. Influences of photochemistry and transport processes on these air pollutants at different locations were evaluated from the results. This technique may provide a simple tool for preliminary assessment of pollution problems. 14 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS INTERDEPENDENCES - EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Serdarević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical evidence on applied analysis interdependences with created accounting policies and estimates within Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH private commercial entities, in specific, targeting practice oriented relevance of financial indicators, non-financial indicators, enterprise resource planning and management account-ting insight frequencies. Recently, standard setters (International Accounting Standards Board and International Federation of Accountants have published outcomes of an internationally organized research on financial reports usefulness, recommending enforced usage of enterprise relevant information, non-financial indicators and risks implications in assets and liabilities positions. These imply litigation and possible income smoothening. In regard to financial reporting reliability, many authors suggest accounting conservatism as a measure to compose risk assessment and earnings response ratio. Author argues that recently suggested financial management measures involving cash and assets management, liquidity ratios and turns do not directly imply accounting information quality, prior computed within applied accounting conservatism.

  17. The Interdependence of Deformational and Thermal Processes in Mountain Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta; Royden; Hodges

    1996-08-02

    Crustal temperatures within collisional orogens are anomalously high compared with temperatures at comparable depths in stable continents, which is evidence of thermal processes that are fundamental to orogenesis. These temperatures can be explained by the redistribution of crust enriched in heat-producing elements through the accretion of crust from the down-going plate to the upper plate and surface erosion. With the use of geologically reasonable rates, the model results predict high temperatures (over 600°C) and inverted upper-plate geotherms (about 100°C over 20 kilometers) at shallow depths (20 to 40 kilometers) by 25 to 35 million years after collision. This study emphasizes the interdependence of deformational, surficial, and thermal processes.

  18. Narrative Ethics and Vulnerability: Kristeva and Ricoeur on Interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Purcell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The character and extent of disabilities, especially cognitive disability, have posed significance problems for existing moral theories. Certain philosophers have even questioned the moral personhood of people with disabilities and have argued that people with profound cognitive impairments should not be granted the same moral status as those who are cognitively able-bodied. This paper proposes an alternative understanding of moral personhood as relational rather than individuated. This relational moral personhood finds its foundation in the clinical practice and psychoanalysis of Julia Kristeva and the hermeneutic narrative identity of Paul Ricoeur. One consequence of this relational personhood is a new understanding of moral status through narrative co-authorship rather than intellectual or social capacity. Another consequence is a refiguration of narrative identity as narrative interdependence.  

  19. [Job performance in work organizations: the effects of management by group goals and job interdependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Hisataka

    2015-04-01

    cThis study examined the interactive effect of management by group goals and job interdependence on employee's activities in terms of task and contextual performance. A survey was conducted among 140 Japanese employees. Results indicated that management by group goals was related only to contextual performance. Job interdependence, however, had a direct effect on both task and contextual performance. Moreover, moderated regression analyses revealed that for work groups requiring higher interdependence among employees, management by group goals had a positive relation to contextual performance but not to task performance. When interdependence was not necessarily required, however, management by group goals had no relation to contextual performance and even negatively impacted task performance, respectively. These results show that management by group goals affects task and contextual performance, and that this effect is moderated by job interdependence. This provides a theoretical extension as well as a practical application to the setting and management of group goals.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of cooperation on interdependent networks with Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift Game

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Baokui; Wang, Long

    2014-01-01

    The world in which we are living is a huge network of networks and should be described by interdependent networks. The interdependence between networks significantly affects the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation on them. Meanwhile, due to the diversity and complexity of social and biological systems, players on different networks may not interact with each other by the same way, which should be described by multiple models in evolutionary game theory, such as the Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift Game. We therefore study the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation on two interdependent networks playing different games respectively. We clearly evidence that, with the increment of network interdependence, the evolution of cooperation is dramatically promoted on the network playing Prisoner's Dilemma. The cooperation level of the network playing Snowdrift Game reduces correspondingly, although it is almost invisible. In particular, there exists an optimal intermediate region of network interdependence maximizing ...

  1. Assessing Sino-Indian Economic Relations in an Interdependence Framework: 1992-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOE; THOMAS; KARACKATTU

    2015-01-01

    This study situates Sino-Indian economic interaction under the interdependence framework.By mapping conflict behavior in this dyad against the trends in the economic interdependence,we find a discernible shift away from escalation(high-level conflict)towards bargaining(diplomatic contestation).This paper argues that interdependence has only recently emerged in the India-China dyad and that lingering strategic distrust,national security consideration,and protectionist tendency have prevented the deepening of economic interdependence.The findings challenge the direction of interdependence in this dyad normally gleaned from nominal trade data.This paper also highlights key issue-areas that inhibit strategic coupling in the bilateral economic interaction.

  2. Will electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks undergo first-order transition under random attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingpei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dichen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Zhenshan; Zhu, Xuedong; Wang, Xunting

    2016-10-01

    Whether the realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks will undergo first-order transition under random failures still remains a question. To reflect the reality of Chinese electrical cyber-physical system, the "partial one-to-one correspondence" interdependent networks model is proposed and the connectivity vulnerabilities of three realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks are analyzed. The simulation results show that due to the service demands of power system the topologies of power grid and its cyber network are highly inter-similar which can effectively avoid the first-order transition. By comparing the vulnerability curves between electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks and its single-layer network, we find that complex network theory is still useful in the vulnerability analysis of electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks.

  3. The robustness of interdependent networks under the interplay between cascading failures and virus propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Dawei; Xiao, Gaoxi; Gao, Bo; Wang, Lianhai

    2016-01-01

    Cascading failures and epidemic dynamics, as two successful application realms of network science, are usually investigated separately. How do they affect each other is still one open, interesting problem. In this letter, we couple both processes and put them into the framework of interdependent networks, where each network only supports one dynamical process. Of particular interest, they spontaneously form a feedback loop: virus propagation triggers cascading failures of systems while cascading failures suppress virus propagation. Especially, there exists crucial threshold of virus transmissibility, above which the interdependent networks collapse completely. In addition, the interdependent networks will be more vulnerable if the network supporting virus propagation has denser connections; otherwise the interdependent systems are robust against the change of connections in other layer(s). This discovery differs from previous framework of cascading failure in interdependent networks, where better robustness u...

  4. Practical Nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Dynamics-Enabled Frequency Sources (DEFYS) program is focused on the convergence of nonlinear dynamics and...Early work in this program has shown that nonlinear dynamics can provide performance advantages. However, the pathway from initial results to...dependent nonlinear stiffness observed in these devices. This work is ongoing, and will continue through the final period of this program . Reference 9

  5. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  6. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  7. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    "Nonlinear analysis" presents recent developments in calculus in Banach space, convex sets, convex functions, best approximation, fixed point theorems, nonlinear operators, variational inequality, complementary problem and semi-inner-product spaces. Nonlinear Analysis has become important and useful in the present days because many real world problems are nonlinear, nonconvex and nonsmooth in nature. Although basic concepts have been presented here but many results presented have not appeared in any book till now. The book could be used as a text for graduate students and also it will be useful for researchers working in this field.

  8. Collective goals and shared tasks: interdependence structure and perceptions of individual sport team environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M B; Eys, M A

    2015-02-01

    Across two studies, we tested the proposition that interdependence structures (i.e., task interaction among teammates during competition, competition against teammates, presence of a collective outcome) influence interdependence perceptions among teammates as well as perceptions of group cohesion, competitiveness, and satisfaction. Study 1 was a paper-and-pencil survey completed by 210 individual sport athletes from 12 university- and college-level teams. Multiple mediation analyses demonstrated that participants who had to work alongside teammates during competition reported increased interdependence perceptions that were, in turn, associated with increased cohesion and satisfaction as well as decreased competitiveness. There were no differences according to whether participants competed in the same event as all of their teammates or not. Study 2 involved a weekly e-mail survey with 17 university-level individual sport athletes who reported interdependence perceptions on a continual basis over the course of their competitive season. Interdependence perceptions were higher during weeks that were close in time to competitions with a collective group outcome. These studies reveal how interdependence structures shape the group environment and support applied efforts that consider ways to structure teammate interdependencies in ways to optimize group functioning and promote member satisfaction.

  9. European energy security analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply.

  10. European energy security. Analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-07-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply. (orig.)

  11. Interdependent binary choices under social influence: phase diagram for homogeneous unbiased populations

    CERN Document Server

    del Río, Ana Fernández; de la Rubia, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Coupled Ising models are studied in a discrete choice theory framework, where they can be understood to represent interdependent choice making processes for homogeneous populations under social influence. Two different coupling schemes are considered. The nonlocal or group interdependence model is used to study two interrelated groups making the same binary choice. The local or individual interdependence model represents a single group where agents make two binary choices which depend on each other. For both models, phase diagrams, and their implications in socioeconomic contexts, are described and compared in the absence of private deterministic utilities (zero opinion fields).

  12. From EEG signals to brain connectivity: a model-based evaluation of interdependence measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Fabrice; Ansari-Asl, Karim; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Senhadji, Lotfi

    2009-09-30

    In the past, considerable effort has been devoted to the development of signal processing techniques aimed at characterizing brain connectivity from signals recorded from spatially-distributed regions during normal or pathological conditions. In this paper, three families of methods (linear and nonlinear regression, phase synchronization, and generalized synchronization) are reviewed. Their performances were evaluated according to a model-based methodology in which a priori knowledge about the underlying relationship between systems that generate output signals is available. This approach allowed us to relate the interdependence measures computed by connectivity methods to the actual values of the coupling parameter explicitly represented in various models of signal generation. Results showed that: (i) some of the methods were insensitive to the coupling parameter; (ii) results were dependent on signal properties (broad band versus narrow band); (iii) there was no "ideal" method, i.e., none of the methods performed better than the other ones in all studied situations. Nevertheless, regression methods showed sensitivity to the coupling parameter in all tested models with average or good performances. Therefore, it is advised to first apply these "robust" methods in order to characterize brain connectivity before using more sophisticated methods that require specific assumptions about the underlying model of relationship. In all cases, it is recommended to compare the results obtained from different connectivity methods to get more reliable interpretation of measured quantities with respect to underlying coupling. In addition, time-frequency methods are also recommended when coupling in specific frequency sub-bands ("frequency-locking") is likely to occur as in epilepsy.

  13. Metabolic Control Analysis: Separable Matrices and Interdependence of Control Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner; Giersch

    1998-08-21

    A central quantity for the analysis of the interdependence of control coefficients is the Jacobian H of the pathway. For a simple metabolic chain, H is known to be tridiagonal. Its inverse H-1, which is required to calculate control coefficients, is semi-separable. A semi-separable nxn matrix (aij) has the characteristic property that it is decomposable into two triangles for each of which there are vectors r=(r1, . . . ,rn) and t=(t1, . . . ,tn) with aij=ritj. The exact definitions of semi-separability and the related separability of matrices are given in Appendix B. Owing to the semi-separability of H-1, the determinants of all 2x2 sub-matrices of elements located within one of the triangles are zero. Therefore, these triangles are regions of vanishing two-minors. The flux control coefficient matrix CJ is hown to be separable and the concentration control coefficient matrix Cs to be semi separable. Cs has, in addition, the peculiarity that the row vector is the same for both its upper and lower triangle. A feedback loop gives rise to a new sub-region of vanishing two-minors, thereby disturbing the semi-separability of the upper triangle of Cs. A recipe is given to graphically construct the regions of vanishing two-minors of concentration control coefficients. The notion of (semi-)separability allows assessment of all dependences of control coefficients for metabolic pathways.Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  14. Interdependence of life insurance service quality and premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Benazić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insurance companies in Croatia feel the need to find new sources of competitive advantage on the Croatian life insurance market amid increasing competition and a poorly profiled offer of life insurance services. Lately, both marketing literature and practice seem to point to the shaping of a relationship between service quality and price as a possible solution to improving the position of insurance companies on the Croatian market. In providing life insurance services, the insurance companies should focus on the quality elements that offer certain benefits a client is willing to pay for. Changes in individual quality features have been evaluated differently by clients. Such differences in their evaluation of changes in the individual elements of service quality also reflect the willingness of clients to pay a suitable increase on their insurance premium. Improvements in the service quality features that are subjectively evaluated as important should lead to the client’s acceptance of a higher life insurance premium. The paper considers the interdependence between the quality of life insurance services and the premium from the aspect of the client’s willingness to pay a higher life insurance premium for a higher service quality.

  15. A Framework for Analysis of Energy-Water Interdependency Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jeffers; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kristyn Scott

    2011-07-01

    The overall objective of this work is to improve the holistic value of energy development strategies by integrating management criteria for water availability, water quality, and ecosystem health into the energy system planning process. The Snake River Basin (SRB) in southern Idaho is used as a case study to show options for improving full economic utilization of aquatic resources given multiple scenarios such as changing climate, additional regulations, and increasing population. Through the incorporation of multiple management criteria, potential crosscutting solutions to energy and water issues in the SRB can be developed. The final result of this work will be a multi-criteria decision support tool - usable by policy makers and researchers alike - that will give insight into the behavior of the management criteria over time and will allow the user to experiment with a range of potential solutions. Because several basins in the arid west are dealing with similar water, energy, and ecosystem issues, the tool and conclusions will be transferrable to a wide range of locations and applications. This is a very large project to be completed in phases. This paper deals with interactions between the hydrologic system and water use at a basin level. Future work will include the interdependency between energy use and water use in these systems.

  16. Bribery games on inter-dependent regular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Prateek; Nandi, Anjan K.; Sengupta, Supratim

    2017-02-01

    We examine a scenario of social conflict that is manifest during an interaction between government servants providing a service and citizens who are legally entitled to the service, using evolutionary game-theory in structured populations characterized by an inter-dependent network. Bribe-demands by government servants during such transactions, called harassment bribes, constitute a widespread form of corruption in many countries. We investigate the effect of varying bribe demand made by corrupt officials and the cost of complaining incurred by harassed citizens, on the proliferation of corrupt strategies in the population. We also examine how the connectivity of the various constituent networks affects the spread of corrupt officials in the population. We find that incidents of bribery can be considerably reduced in a network-structured populations compared to mixed populations. Interestingly, we also find that an optimal range for the connectivity of nodes in the citizen’s network (signifying the degree of influence a citizen has in affecting the strategy of other citizens in the network) as well as the interaction network aids in the fixation of honest officers. Our results reveal the important role of network structure and connectivity in asymmetric games.

  17. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-03-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  18. Inter-ethics: towards an interactive and interdependent bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Tineke A; Baur, Vivianne E; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2010-06-01

    Since its origin bioethics has been a specialized, academic discipline, focussing on moral issues, using a vast set of globalized principles and rational techniques to evaluate and guide healthcare practices. With the emergence of a plural society, the loss of faith in experts and authorities and the decline of overarching grand narratives and shared moralities, a new approach to bioethics is needed. This approach implies a shift from an external critique of practices towards embedded ethics and interactive practice improvement, and from a legal defence of rights towards fostering interdependent practices of responsibility. This article describes these transitions within bioethics in relation to the broader societal and cultural dynamics within Western societies, and traces the implications for the methodologies and changing roles of the bioethicist. The bioethicist we foresee is not just a clever expert but also a relationally sensitive person who engages stakeholders in reciprocal dialogues about their practice of responsibility and helps to integrate various sorts of knowledge (embodied, experiential, visual, and cognitive-scientific). In order to illustrate this new approach, we present a case study. It concerns a project focusing on an innovation in elderly care, based on the participation of various stakeholders, especially older people themselves.

  19. Extreme events in multilayer, interdependent complex networks and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Eisenberg, Daniel; Seager, Thomas P.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme events in interdependent networks. We introduce an inter-layer traffic resource competing mechanism to account for the limited capacity associated with distinct network layers. A striking finding is that, when the number of network layers and/or the overlap among the layers are increased, extreme events can emerge in a cascading manner on a global scale. Asymptotically, there are two stable absorption states: a state free of extreme events and a state of full of extreme events, and the transition between them is abrupt. Our results indicate that internal interactions in the multiplex system can yield qualitatively distinct phenomena associated with extreme events that do not occur for independent network layers. An implication is that, e.g., public resource competitions among different service providers can lead to a higher resource requirement than naively expected. We derive an analytical theory to understand the emergence of global-scale extreme events based on the concept of effective betweenness. We also articulate a cost-effective control scheme through increasing the capacity of very few hubs to suppress the cascading process of extreme events so as to protect the entire multi-layer infrastructure against global-scale breakdown.

  20. A Framework for Analysis of Energy-Water Interdependency Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert F. Jeffers; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2011-08-01

    The overall objective of this work is to improve the holistic value of energy development strategies by integrating management criteria for water availability, water quality, and ecosystem health into the energy system planning process. The Snake River Basin (SRB) in southern Idaho is used as a case study to show options for improving full economic utilization of aquatic resources given multiple scenarios such as changing climate, additional regulations, and increasing population. Through the incorporation of multiple management criteria, potential crosscutting solutions to energy and water issues in the SRB can be developed. The final result of this work will be a multi-criteria decision support tool - usable by policy makers and researchers alike - that will give insight into the behavior of the management criteria over time and will allow the user to experiment with a range of potential solutions. Because several basins in the arid west are dealing with similar water, energy, and ecosystem issues, the tool and conclusions will be transferable to a wide range of locations and applications. This is a very large, multi-year project to be completed in phases. This paper deals with interactions between the hydrologic system and water use at a basin level. Future work will include the interdependency between energy use and water use in these systems.

  1. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained. PMID:28317835

  2. Interdependence of yield and yield components of confectionary sunflower hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hladni Nada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most important criteria for introducing new confectionary hybrids into production are high seed and protein yield. That is why it is important to find the traits that are measurable, and that at the same time show a strong correlation with seed and protein yield, so that they can be used as a criteria for confectionary hybrid breeding. Results achieved during 2008 at the locations Rimski Šančevi (Region of Vojvodina and Kula (Central Serbia show that the new confectionary hybrids are expressing higher seed yields in comparison to standards (Vranac and Cepko though with a lower seed oil content. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed yield and seed protein content, kernel content and mass of 1000 seeds. A very strong positive correlation was determined between seed protein content, seed yield and mass of 1000 seeds, with protein yield. This indicates that seed yield, seed protein content and mass of 1000 seeds have a high influence on protein yield. The degree of interdependence between different traits is a sign of direction which is supposed to facilitate better planning of sunflower breeding program.

  3. Reading people's minds from emotion expressions in interdependent decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Celso M; Carnevale, Peter J; Read, Stephen J; Gratch, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    How do people make inferences about other people's minds from their emotion displays? The ability to infer others' beliefs, desires, and intentions from their facial expressions should be especially important in interdependent decision making when people make decisions from beliefs about the others' intention to cooperate. Five experiments tested the general proposition that people follow principles of appraisal when making inferences from emotion displays, in context. Experiment 1 revealed that the same emotion display produced opposite effects depending on context: When the other was competitive, a smile on the other's face evoked a more negative response than when the other was cooperative. Experiment 2 revealed that the essential information from emotion displays was derived from appraisals (e.g., Is the current state of affairs conducive to my goals? Who is to blame for it?); facial displays of emotion had the same impact on people's decision making as textual expressions of the corresponding appraisals. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 used multiple mediation analyses and a causal-chain design: Results supported the proposition that beliefs about others' appraisals mediate the effects of emotion displays on expectations about others' intentions. We suggest a model based on appraisal theories of emotion that posits an inferential mechanism whereby people retrieve, from emotion expressions, information about others' appraisals, which then lead to inferences about others' mental states. This work has implications for the design of algorithms that drive agent behavior in human-agent strategic interaction, an emerging domain at the interface of computer science and social psychology.

  4. Robustness of a Tree-like Network of Interdependent Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Jianxi; Havlin, S; Stanley, H E

    2011-01-01

    In reality, many real-world networks interact with and depend on other networks. We develop an analytical framework for studying interacting networks and present an exact percolation law for a network of $n$ interdependent networks (NON). We present a general framework to study the dynamics of the cascading failures process at each step caused by an initial failure occurring in the NON system. We study and compare both $n$ coupled Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi (ER) graphs and $n$ coupled random regular (RR) graphs. We found recently [Gao et. al. arXive:1010.5829] that for an NON composed of $n$ ER networks each of average degree $k$, the giant component, $P_{\\infty}$, is given by $P_{\\infty}=p[1-\\exp(-kP_{\\infty})]^n$ where $1-p$ is the initial fraction of removed nodes. Our general result coincides for $n=1$ with the known Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi second-order phase transition at a threshold, $p=p_c$, for a single network. For $n=2$ the general result for $P_{\\infty}$ corresponds to the $n=2$ result [Buldyrev et. al., Natu...

  5. Revolutionary thoughts on taxonomy: declarations of independence and interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D. Wheeler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Credible biological research depends on accurate species identifications, reliable scientific names, and an evolutionary context provided by a phylogeny or phylogenetic classification. The emphasis on such taxonomic services has detracted from the fundamental taxonomic research necessary to create and sustain such knowledge systems. A taxonomic declaration of independence is presented, emphasizing the unique mission, goals, and needs of taxonomists and taxonomic (collection-based institutions and the non-experimental yet scientifically rigorous epistemology of taxonomy. At the same time taxonomic interdependence is declared. Questions pursued by taxonomists are planetary in scale and can only be answered given international collaboration and coordination in the growth and development of natural history collections and taxonomic hypotheses. Reciprocity of open access is urged between all nations and the taxonomic community creating information. Countries home to species diversity should allow access to taxon experts so that the world's species are discovered and described. In exchange all specimens collected should be in publicly accessible museums and all resultant taxonomic data, information, and knowledge should be openly available to all who can use them.

  6. Nonlinear Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hong-Ming; Pen, Ue-Li; Chen, Xuelei; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2016-01-01

    We present a direct approach to non-parametrically reconstruct the linear density field from an observed non-linear map. We solve for the unique displacement potential consistent with the non-linear density and positive definite coordinate transformation using a multigrid algorithm. We show that we recover the linear initial conditions up to $k\\sim 1\\ h/\\mathrm{Mpc}$ with minimal computational cost. This reconstruction approach generalizes the linear displacement theory to fully non-linear fields, potentially substantially expanding the BAO and RSD information content of dense large scale structure surveys, including for example SDSS main sample and 21cm intensity mapping.

  7. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  8. Cascading failures in interdependent networks due to insufficient received support capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengshuai; Zhu, Peidong; Shao, Chengcheng; Xun, Peng

    2017-03-01

    We propose a capability based dependency model of interdependent network that takes two node dependency properties into account. One is support capability and the other is required capability. The redundancy degree of an interdependent network is also defined, whose value is the ratio of its total support capability and total required capability. Through the numerical simulations, we found that: (1) Interdependent networks without redundant support-dependence links are extremely vulnerable, even the failure of one node could cause the collapse of whole network; (2) Increasing support-dependence links and redistributing the nodes' dependency properties can enhance the robustness of network without changing its redundancy degree; (3) Improving the redundancy degree could enhance network robustness without adding support-dependence links. These conclusions enlighten the design of interdependent networks: when network's redundancy degree is fixed, we can take strategy from results (2), and when network structure is settled, we can apply strategy from results (3).

  9. Self-organization towards optimally interdependent networks by means of coevolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhen; Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    Coevolution between strategy and network structure is established as a means to arrive at optimal conditions for resolving social dilemmas. Yet recent research highlights that the interdependence between networks may be just as important as the structure of an individual network. We therefore introduce coevolution of strategy and network interdependence to study whether it can give rise to elevated levels of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We show that the interdependence between networks self-organizes so as to yield optimal conditions for the evolution of cooperation. Even under extremely adverse conditions cooperators can prevail where on isolated networks they would perish. This is due to the spontaneous emergence of a two-class society, with only the upper class being allowed to control and take advantage of the interdependence. Spatial patterns reveal that cooperators, once arriving to the upper class, are much more competent than defectors in sustaining compact clusters of followers. Indeed...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF TASK INTERDEPENDENCE, TEAM COOPERATION, AND TEAM CONFLICT ON JOB PERFORMANCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chun-Chang Lee; Yu-Hsin Lin; Hsin-Chung Huang; Wei-Wen Huang; Hsu-Hung Teng

    2015-01-01

      Using a linear structural model, we investigated the impact of task interdependence, task and relationship conflict in a team, and team cooperation on job performance of real estate brokers in Kaohsiung, Taiwan...

  11. Informational dissimilarity and organizational citizenship behavior : The role of intrateam interdependence and team identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, GS; Van de Vliert, E; Oosterhof, A

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire study of 129 members of 20 multidisciplinary project teams examined the relationship between informational dissimilarity and both team identification and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) for individuals working under different interdependence configurations. Results revealed

  12. A preferential attachment strategy for connectivity link addition strategy in improving the robustness of interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Cao, Jianye; Li, Rui; Zhao, Tianfang

    2017-10-01

    Given the same two networks and only one-to-one interlinks are allowed, apparently interdependent networks coupled by these two networks has the optimal robustness when we connect every pair of the same nodes in these two networks. According to the structure of this interdependent network with the optimal robustness, we propose a preferential attachment strategy. And by applying this preferential attachment strategy to three existing connectivity link addition strategies RA (random addition strategy), LD (low degree addition strategy) and LIDD (low inter degree-degree difference addition strategy), we find that each improved strategy is obviously better than before in improving the robustness of interdependent networks. Our findings can provide guidance on connectivity link addition strategy to improve robustness of interdependent networks against cascading failures.

  13. Exploring the applicability of interdependence theory to CNA-resident relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvene, Louis J; Coleman, Carissa K

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the quality of certified nurse assistant (CNA)-resident relationships. Of interest was the extent to which interdependence theory could be used to code CNAs' responses to questions about their relationships with residents and factors that promoted or limited these relationships. Interdependence theory defines closeness in terms of outcome interdependence and provides an account of how trust and commitment can develop. Seventeen socially skilled CNAs from nine long-term care facilities participated in structured personal interviews. All of the CNAs said they had developed close relationships with some residents. CNAs' answers to interview questions indicated they were thinking "relationally" about their interactions with residents. Many CNAs made reference to commitment and pro-relationship behaviors that promoted relationships, and their responses supported the applicability of interdependence theory. Implications for training are that CNAs should be encouraged to think relationally, as well as dispositionally, and that boundary issues need to be explored. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates t

  15. Interdependence, Interoperability, and Integration: Joint Force Analysis at the Operational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Services, 1. 23 Robert 0. Keohane and JosephS. Nye , Power and Interdependence, third edition, New York: Longman Press, 2001, 4. 24 Chuck Harrison. "How...Assistance in Military Operations: The Least-Worst Option to Fill the U.S. Capacity Gap, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: August 2010 Keohane ...Robert 0. and Nye , JosephS., Power and Interdependence, third edition, New York, New York: Longman Press, 2001 Krause, Michael D. and Phillips, R. Cody

  16. Chaotic evolution of prisoner's dilemma game with volunteering on interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Zhang, Xiaolin; Zheng, YuanJie

    2017-06-01

    In this article, the evolution of prisoner's dilemma game with volunteering on interdependent networks is investigated. Different from the traditional two-strategy game, voluntary participation as an additional strategy is involved in repeated game, that can introduce more complex evolutionary dynamics. And, interdependent networks provide a more generalized network architecture to study the intricate variability of dynamics. We have showed that voluntary participation could effectively promote the density of co-operation, that is also greatly affected by interdependent strength between two coupled networks. We further discussed the influence of interdependent strength on the densities of different strategies and found that an intermediate interdependence would play a bigger role on the evolution of dynamics. Subsequently, the critical values of the defection temptation for phase transitions under different conditions have been studied. Moreover, the global oscillations induced by the circle of dominance of three strategies on interdependent networks have been quantitatively investigated. Counter-intuitively, the oscillations of strategy densities are not periodic or stochastic, but have rich dynamical behaviors. By means of various analysis tools, we have demonstrated the global oscillations of strategy densities possessed chaotic characteristics.

  17. The robustness of interdependent networks under the interplay between cascading failures and virus propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Zhen; Xiao, Gaoxi; Gao, Bo; Wang, Lianhai

    2016-09-01

    Cascading failures and epidemic dynamics, as two successful application realms of network science, are usually investigated separately. How do they affect each other is still an open, interesting problem. In this letter, we couple both processes and put them into the framework of interdependent networks, where each network only supports one dynamical process. Of particular interest, they spontaneously form a feedback loop: virus propagation triggers cascading failures of systems while cascading failures suppress virus propagation (i.e., the interplay between cascading failures and virus propagation, also named CF-VP model). Under this novel model, the interdependent networks will collapse completely if virus transmissibility exceeds a crucial threshold. In addition, only when the network sustaining the epidemic dynamics has a larger average degree, will the interdependent networks become more vulnerable, which is opposite to the observation of traditional cascading models in interdependent networks. To protect interdependent networks we also propose control measures based on the identification capability: a stronger identification capability leads to more robust interdependent networks.

  18. Complex dynamics and morphogenesis an introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Misbah, Chaouqi

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to the physics of nonlinear phenomena through two complementary approaches: bifurcation theory and catastrophe theory. Readers will be gradually introduced to the language and formalisms of nonlinear sciences, which constitute the framework to describe complex systems. The difficulty with complex systems is that their evolution cannot be fully predicted because of the interdependence and interactions between their different components. Starting with simple examples and working toward an increasing level of universalization, the work explores diverse scenarios of bifurcations and elementary catastrophes which characterize the qualitative behavior of nonlinear systems. The study of temporal evolution is undertaken using the equations that characterize stationary or oscillatory solutions, while spatial analysis introduces the fascinating problem of morphogenesis. Accessible to undergraduate university students in any discipline concerned with nonlinear phenomena (physics, mathema...

  19. Nonlinear channelizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  20. O Impacto da Interdependência no Trabalho Sobre a Efetividade de Equipes [The Impact of Interdependence at Work on the Effectivity of Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Puente-Palacios

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O Impacto da Interdependência no Trabalho Sobre a Efetividade de Equipes ---- As equipes de trabalho estão cada vez mais presentes nas organizações, tendo em vista as vantagens que podem oferecer à efetividade organizacional. Uma das suas características centrais é a dependência existente entre seus membros. Esta pode referir-se tanto às tarefas executadas, como às recompensas recebidas. Os resultados de pesquisas demonstram que ambas as formas de dependência impactam na efetividade das equipes de maneiras diferenciadas. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar, empiricamente, o efeito da interdependência de tarefas e de resultados sobre a satisfação e o comprometimento de membros de equipes. Para tanto, foram analisadas as respostas de 333 funcionários de uma mesma organização. Os resultados revelaram que o modelo preditivo permitiu explicar 15% da satisfação e 14% do comprometimento. Adicionalmente, constataram-se efeitos diferentes de cada preditor analisado. As implicações práticas referem-se à necessidade dos gestores cuidarem dos impactos diferenciados de cada tipo de dependência na satisfação e no comprometimento. ---- The Impact of Interdependence at Work on the Effectivity of Teamwork ---- Abstract ---- Work teams are increasingly common in a large number of organizations given the advantages they can offer to organizational efficacy. One of the central characteristics of work teams is dependence among their members. There are two types of interdependence: the first is related to tasks that the team members execute, the second is related to rewards they receive. Results of empirical studies show that the two types of interdependence influence the teams’ effectiveness in different ways. The objective of the present study is to analyze the effects of both types of interdependence on the satisfaction and commitment of team members. To achieve this data of 333 employees of an organization were analyzed. The

  1. Nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchetti, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1989-01-01

    Research in nonlinear dynamics is rapidly expanding and its range of applications is extending beyond the traditional areas of science where it was first developed. Indeed while linear analysis and modelling, which has been very successful in mathematical physics and engineering, has become a mature science, many elementary phenomena of intrinsic nonlinear nature were recently experimentally detected and investigated, suggesting new theoretical work. Complex systems, as turbulent fluids, were known to be governed by intrinsically nonlinear laws since a long time ago, but received purely phenomenological descriptions. The pioneering works of Boltzmann and Poincare, probably because of their intrinsic difficulty, did not have a revolutionary impact at their time; it is only very recently that their message is reaching a significant number of mathematicians and physicists. Certainly the development of computers and computer graphics played an important role in developing geometric intuition of complex phenomena through simple numerical experiments, while a new mathematical framework to understand them was being developed.

  2. Interdependence: a new model for the global approach to disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Grills

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disability affects over 1 billion people and the WHO estimates that over 80% of individuals with disability live in low and middle income countries, where access to health and social services to respond to disability are limited 1. Compounding this poverty is that medical and technological approaches to disability, however needed, are usually very expensive. Yet, much can be done at low cost to increase the wellbeing of people with disability, and the church and Christians need to take a lead. The WHO’s definition of disability highlights the challenge to us in global health. It has been defined by the WHO as “the interaction between a person’s impairments and the attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others” 2. This understanding of disability requires us to go beyond mere healing and towards inclusion in our response to chronic diseases and disability. This is known as the social model and requires societal attitudinal change and modification of disabling environments in order to facilitate those with disability to be included in our community and churches. These are good responses but the church needs to consider alternative models to those that are currently promoted which strive for independence as the ultimate endpoint. In this paper I introduce some disability-related articles in this issue and outline an approach that goes beyond the Social Model towards an Interdependence Model which I think is a more Biblical model of disability and one which we Christians and churches in global health should consider. This model would go beyond changing society to accommodate for people with disabilities towards acknowledging they play an important part in our community and indeed in our church. We need those people with disability to contribute, love and bless those with and without disabilities. And of course those with disability need the love, care and

  3. THE INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN MANAGEMENT, COMMUNICATION, ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipas Maria Daniela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The approach of this paper is based on the concepts of management, communication and organizational behavior that by implementing the appropriate strategies, by taking and prevention of organizational risk that creates a favorable organizational climate that can improve, in time, the image of the organization, leading ultimately to making a synergic organization and to increase the organizational performance. An effective communication, followed by an efficient management provides safety in any domain of activity. Organizational communication cannot be seen outside of the management, and represents a fundamental component of it. The lack of communication or poor management of this process leads to alterations in key components of organizational management on one hand, and on the other, the lack of skills and organizational culture regarding these components invalidates the communication process. Today, communication has become increasingly important and more nuanced. At work, employees are faced with an overload of information, but with insufficient or even no communication. Information and communication are two different concepts, but that are interrelated, so information puts people in connection with certain information while communicating puts people in relation with others. Any communication process takes place in a context, which means that it takes place in a specific social, cultural, psychological, physical or temporal space, which is in close interdependence. Any behavioral attitude that we have in this space communicates something about us and determines, consciously or unconsciously, a reaction of positive or negative response from others and may be a factor in sustaining the process of social evolution. In an organizational context, attitudes, behavior can be found as organizational behavior, covering, in turn, a wide range of activities: knowledge and employee satisfaction, understanding group dynamics, accepting and respecting

  4. Interdependence and Predictability of Human Mobility and Social Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    De Domenico, Manlio; Musolesi, Mirco

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that human movement is predictable to a certain extent at different geographic scales. Existing prediction techniques exploit only the past history of the person taken into consideration as input of the predictors. In this paper, we show that by means of multivariate nonlinear time series prediction techniques it is possible to increase the accuracy of movement forecasting by considering movements of friends or people with correlated mobility patterns (i.e., characterised by high mutual information) as input of the predictor. Finally, we evaluate the proposed techniques on the Nokia Mobile Data Challenge and Cabspotting datasets.

  5. Nonlinear Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Warren D.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course in nonlinear mathematics courses offered at the University of Pennsylvania which provides an opportunity for students to examine the complex solution spaces that chemical engineers encounter. Topics include modeling many chemical processes, especially those involving reaction and diffusion, auto catalytic reactions, phase…

  6. Cooperation in memory-based prisoner's dilemma game on interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Hong; Shao, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Memory or so-called experience normally plays the important role to guide the human behaviors in real world, that is essential for rational decisions made by individuals. Hence, when the evolutionary behaviors of players with bounded rationality are investigated, it is reasonable to make an assumption that players in system are with limited memory. Besides, in order to unravel the intricate variability of complex systems in real world and make a highly integrative understanding of their dynamics, in recent years, interdependent networks as a comprehensive network structure have obtained more attention in this community. In this article, the evolution of cooperation in memory-based prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on interdependent networks composed by two coupled square lattices is studied. Herein, all or part of players are endowed with finite memory ability, and we focus on the mutual influence of memory effect and interdependent network reciprocity on cooperation of spatial PDG. We show that the density of cooperation can be significantly promoted within an optimal region of memory length and interdependent strength. Furthermore, distinguished by whether having memory ability/external links or not, each kind of players on networks would have distinct evolutionary behaviors. Our work could be helpful to understand the emergence and maintenance of cooperation under the evolution of memory-based players on interdependent networks.

  7. Randomly biased investments and the evolution of public goods on interdependent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2017-08-01

    Deciding how to allocate resources between interdependent systems is significant to optimize efficiency. We study the effects of heterogeneous contribution, induced by such interdependency, on the evolution of cooperation, through implementing the public goods games on two-layer networks. The corresponding players on different layers try to share a fixed amount of resources as the initial investment properly. The symmetry breaking of investments between players located on different layers is able to either prevent investments from, or extract them out of the deadlock. Results show that a moderate investment heterogeneity is best favorable for the evolution of cooperation, and random allocation of investment bias suppresses the cooperators at a wide range of the investment bias and the enhancement effect. Further studies on time evolution with different initial strategy configurations show that the non-interdependent cooperators along the interface of interdependent cooperators also are an indispensable factor in facilitating cooperative behavior. Our main results are qualitatively unchanged even diversifying investment bias that is subject to uniform distribution. Our study may shed light on the understanding of the origin of cooperative behavior on interdependent networks.

  8. Interdependent self-construal and neural representations of self and mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rebecca D; Shelton, Amy L; Hollon, Nick G; Matsumoto, David; Frankel, Carl B; Gross, James J; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    Representations of self are thought to be dynamically influenced by one's surroundings, including the culture one lives in. However, neuroimaging studies of self-representations have either ignored cultural influences or operationalized culture as country of origin. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of individual differences in interdependent self-construal. Participants rated whether trait adjectives applied to themselves or their mothers, or judged their valence or font. Findings indicated that individual differences in interdependent self-construal correlated positively with increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulated cortex when making judgments about one-self vs making judgments about one's mother. This suggests that those with greater interdependent self-construals may rely more upon episodic memory, reflected appraisals, or theory of mind to incorporate social information to make judgments about themselves.

  9. Heterogeneous Coupling between Interdependent Lattices Promotes the Cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meng, Xiao-Kun; Wang, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    In the research realm of game theory, interdependent networks have extended the content of spatial reciprocity, which needs the suitable coupling between networks. However, thus far, the vast majority of existing works just assume that the coupling strength between networks is symmetric. This hypothesis, to some extent, seems inconsistent with the ubiquitous observation of heterogeneity. Here, we study how the heterogeneous coupling strength, which characterizes the interdependency of utility between corresponding players of both networks, affects the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with two types of coupling schemes (symmetric and asymmetric ones). Compared with the traditional case, we show that heterogeneous coupling greatly promotes the collective cooperation. The symmetric scheme seems much better than the asymmetric case. Moreover, the role of varying amplitude of coupling strength is also studied on these two interdependent ways. Current findings are helpful for us to understand the evolution of cooperation within many real-world systems, in particular for the interconnected and interrelated systems.

  10. The dynamic interdependence of international financial markets: An empirical study on twenty-seven stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwei; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel Dajun

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the dynamic interdependence of international financial markets. Based on the data regarding daily returns of each market during the period 2006-2015 from Yahoo finance, we mainly focus on examining 27 markets from three continents, including Asia, America and Europe. By checking the dynamic interdependence between those markets, we find that markets from different continents have strong correlation at specific time shift. We also obtain that markets from different continents not only have a strong linkage with others at same day, but at a delay of one day, especially between Asia, Europe and Asia, America. In addition, we further analyze the time-varying influence strength between each two continents and observe that this value has abnormal changes during the financial crisis. These findings can provide us significant insights to understand the underlying dynamic interdependency of international financial markets and further help us make corresponding reasonable decisions.

  11. The pleasures and pains of distinct self-construals: the role of interdependence in regulatory focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A Y; Aaker, J L; Gardner, W L

    2000-06-01

    Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between self-regulatory processes that focus on promotion and prevention strategies for goal pursuit. Five studies provide support for the hypothesis that these strategies differ for individuals with distinct self-construals. Specifically, individuals with a dominant independent self-construal were predicted to place more emphasis on promotion-focused information, and those with a dominant interdependent self-construal on prevention-focused information. Support for this hypothesis was obtained for participants who scored high versus low on the Self-Construal Scale, participants who were presented with an independent versus interdependent situation, and participants from a Western versus Eastern culture. The influence of interdependence on regulatory focus was observed in both importance ratings of information and affective responses consistent with promotion or prevention focus.

  12. Triple point induced by targeted autonomization on interdependent scale free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Valdez, L D; Braunstein, L A

    2013-01-01

    Many man-made networks support each other to provide efficient services and resources to the customers, despite that this support produces a strong interdependency between the individual networks. Thus an initial failure of a fraction $1-p$ of nodes in one network, exposes the system to cascade of failures and, as a consequence, to a full collapse of the overall system. Therefore it is important to develop efficient strategies to avoid the collapse by increasing the robustness of the individual networks against failures. Here, we provide an exact theoretical approach to study the evolution of the cascade of failures on interdependent networks when a fraction $\\alpha$ of the nodes with higher connectivity in each individual network are autonomous. With this pattern of interdependency we found, for pair of heterogeneous networks, two critical percolation thresholds that depend on $\\alpha$, separating three regimes with very different network's final sizes that converge into a triple point in the plane $p-\\alpha...

  13. Cooperative outcome interdependence, task reflexivity, and team effectiveness: a motivated information processing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2007-05-01

    A motivated information processing perspective (C. K. W. De Dreu & P. J. D. Carnevale, 2003; see also V. B. Hinsz, R. S. Tindale, & D. A. Vollrath, 1997) was used to predict that perceived cooperative outcome interdependence interacts with team-level reflexivity to predict information sharing, learning, and team effectiveness. A cross-sectional field study involving management and cross-functional teams (N = 46) performing nonroutine, complex tasks corroborated predictions: The more team members perceived cooperative outcome interdependence, the better they shared information, the more they learned and the more effective they were, especially when task reflexivity was high. When task reflexivity was low, no significant relationship was found between cooperative outcome interdependence and team processes and performance. The author concludes that the motivated information processing perspective is valid outside the confines of the laboratory and can be extended toward teamwork in organizations. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Nonlinear PDEs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    From the Back Cover: The emphasis throughout the present volume is on the practical application of theoretical mathematical models helping to unravel the underlying mechanisms involved in processes from mathematical physics and biosciences. It has been conceived as a unique collection of abstract methods dealing especially with nonlinear partial differential equations (either stationary or evolutionary) that are applied to understand concrete processes involving some important applications re...

  15. Interdependence versus Truth and Justice: Lessons from Reconciliation Processes in Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Kusumaningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth commissions and trials have been applauded as the way to move on from a violent past. Yet, some post-conflict societies managed to move toward reconciliation without the presence, or the effective presence of such formal institutions. This article discusses a number of lessons learned from Maluku, where reconciliation took the interdependence path. Taking on an interpretive, emic approach, it elaborates on the sites and mechanisms of interpendence. It argues that interdependence can be as viable as truth and justice procedures in bringing about reconciliation.

  16. A Robust Method for Detecting Interdependences Application to Intracranially Recorded EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Arnhold, J; Lehnertz, K; Elger, C E

    1999-01-01

    We present a measure for characterizing statistical relationships between two time sequences. In contrast to commonly used measures like cross-correlations, coherence and mutual information, the proposed measure is non-symmetric and provides information about the direction of interdependence. It is closely related to recent attempts to detect generalized synchronization. However, we do not assume a strict functional relationship between the two time sequences and try to define the measure so as to be robust against noise, and to detect also weak interdependences. We apply our measure to intracranially recorded electroencephalograms of patients suffering from severe epilepsies.

  17. Patterns of interdependence in work teams : A two-level investigation of the relations with job and team satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, G.S.; Emans, B.J.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2001-01-01

    A questionnaire study in 17 school and 24 engineering teams examined affective reactions to task and goal interdependence at the group and individual level of analysis. Group-level task interdependence was positively related to group members' job and team satisfaction. Within-group differences in th

  18. Chain-wide consequences of transaction risks and their contractual solutions : managing interdependencies in differentiated agri-food supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formu

  19. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  20. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  1. Managing Conflict in School Teams: The Impact of Task and Goal Interdependence on Conflict Management and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Anit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although conflict has traditionally been considered destructive, recent studies have indicated that conflict management can contribute to effective teamwork. The present study explores conflict management as a team phenomenon in schools. The author examined how the contextual variables (task interdependence, goal interdependence) are…

  2. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Nicholas; Baucom, Katherine; Bourne, Stacia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor–partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal...

  3. Cultural self-construals of Mexican, Spanish, and Danish college students: Beyond independent and interdependent self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santamaría, Andrés; de la Mata, Manuel L.; Hansen, Tia G. B.;

    2010-01-01

    De sidste par tiår har tværkulturel forskning vist vigtige forskelle i selvbegribelse. En dybere forståelse forudsætter imidlertid inddragelse af flere kulturer. Modsat Markus og Kitayamas distinktion mellem independent og interdependent selv, har forfattere som Kagitcibasi m.fl. argumenteret for...

  4. An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model of Acquired Brain Injury Patient Impairments and Caregiver Psychosocial Functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Paul B; Norup, Anne; Caracuel, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction. M...

  5. Copying competitors? Interdependency modulates stimulus-based retrieval of observed responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Carina; Herrmann, Johanna; Rothermund, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    We investigated whether stimuli are integrated with responses that are merely observed, but not executed by oneself, and examined the moderating role of mutual dependency between coactors on the binding and retrieval of stimuli and observed responses. A prime-probe paradigm was shared between 2 coactors who took the roles of actor and observer in turns. We also varied the interdependency between the pairs of participants (cooperation vs. competition vs. independence). Results of Experiment 1 indicated that prime observers showed stimulus-based retrieval of observed responses when it was their turn to act in the 2 interdependent conditions, whereas prime observers in the independent condition did not. Results of Experiment 2 excluded the possibility that the stronger retrieval effects in the interdependent conditions are due to social facilitation of retrieval processes in general, as interdependency did not modulate stimulus-based retrieval of self-generated responses. We conclude that binding and retrieval of stimuli and observed responses is a conditionally automatic process that is contingent on mutual dependency between actor and observer.

  6. The Mission of the University--Addressing Issues of Universality, Diversity and Interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiaggio, John

    Rapid changes in science, technology, economics, and politics present great opportunities and even larger responsibilities to leaders in higher education. The concepts of universality, diversity, and interdependence are components of the mission of American universities. Many American universities are universal in two senses, in that they offer an…

  7. Making the Most of Others: Autonomous Interdependence in Adult Beginner Distance Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnborough, Concha

    2012-01-01

    Autonomy in language learning does not simply equate with independence, as language learning is a social activity that requires interaction with others. This also applies just as much to distance language learners, who need to reconcile independent language learning and interdependence with others. This article draws on findings from 43 mid-course…

  8. Effects of skill dissimilarity and task interdependence on helping in work teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, G.S.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and task interdependence on individual team members' helping behavior in a panel study of senior business students enrolled in a management game. The students were randomly assigned to 20 teams and functioned as a firm's top management

  9. The Roots of Social Dominance: Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of dominant students in Grades 3-5 in a midwestern school system in the United States. Previous research has indicated 2 ways a student may gain dominance--through bullying and prosocial behaviors. A cluster analysis for dominant children was conducted using social interdependence attitude scores, children's…

  10. Gender Identification, Interdependence, and Pseudonyms in CMC: Language Patterns in an Electronic Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, J. Michael; Lee, Young-Eum; Huang, Li-Ning; Oshagan, Hayg

    1999-01-01

    Examines how pseudonymous identification in a computer-mediated communication (CMC) context might: (1) reflect a motivation for gender-based status parity and (2) mitigate supposed gender-based communication differences associated with social interdependence. Subjects were 114 undergraduate students who participated in computer-based…

  11. Effectiveness of a Universal, Interdependent Group Contingency Program on Children's Academic Achievement: A Countywide Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Robert; Osborne, Karen J.; Dean, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious…

  12. Contextualizing Community Violence and Its Effects: An Ecological Model of Parent-Child Interdependent Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Ell, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an integrated conceptual framework that contextualizes exposure to community violence and the interpersonal and interdependent processes of parent and child response to community violence. This model posits that parental distress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, is a significant mediator of…

  13. Linking Supply Chain Network Complexity to Interdependence and Risk-Assessment: Scale Development and Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadip Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concepts like supply chain network complexity, interdependence and risk assessment have been prominently discussed directly and indirectly in management literature over past decades and plenty of frameworks and conceptual prescriptive research works have been published contributing towards building the body of knowledge. However previous studies often lacked quantification of the findings. Consequently, the need for suitable scales becomes prominent for measuring those constructs to empirically support the conceptualized relationships. This paper expands the understanding of supply chain network complexity (SCNC and also highlights its implications on interdependence (ID between the actors and risk assessment (RAS in transaction relationships. In doing so, SCNC and RAS are operationalized to understand how SCNC affects interdependence and risk assessment between the actors in the supply chain network. The contribution of this study lies in developing and validating multi-item scales for these constructs and empirically establishing the hypothesized relationships in the Indian context based on firm data collected using survey–based questionnaire. The methodology followed included structural equation modeling. The study findings indicate that SCNC had significant relationship with interdependence, which in turn significantly affected risk assessment. This study carries both academic and managerial implications and provides an empirically supported framework linking network complexity with the two key variables (ID and RAS, playing crucial roles in managerial decision making. This study contributes to the body of knowledge and aims at guiding managers in better understanding transaction relationships.

  14. Interdependent Risk and Cyber Security: An Analysis of Security Investment and Cyber Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Woohyun

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of firms rely on highly interconnected information networks. In such environments, defense against cyber attacks is complicated by residual risks caused by the interdependence of information security decisions of firms. IT security is affected not only by a firm's own management strategies but also by those of others. This…

  15. The Communications Satellite - Vehicle for a New Kind of Reciprocal Interdependence in International Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Charles A.

    1971-01-01

    Adult education by means of communication satellites is stressed as a key to reciprocal interdependence. The author states that technological advances such as communications satellites can be used effectively to diffuse knowledge and offer options for choice in evolving societies. (RR)

  16. Interdependence of Depressive Symptoms, School Involvement, and Academic Performance between Adolescent Friends: A Dyadic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin; Buhrmester, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Background: Friendships play an important role in the development of school involvement and academic performance during adolescence. This study examined the interdependence of depressive symptoms, school involvement, and academic performance between adolescent same-sex friends. Aims: Using cross-sectional data, we examined whether the link between…

  17. Measuring Longevity Achievements under Welfare Interdependencies: A Case for Joint Life Expectancy Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthiere, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Whereas period life expectancy constitutes an intuitive indicator of the survival conditions prevailing at a particular period, this paper argues that, given the existence of welfare interdependencies, that widespread indicator is nonetheless an incomplete measure of the longevity achievements relevant for human well-being. The central importance…

  18. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  19. When does incivility lead to counterproductive work behavior? Roles of job involvement, task interdependence, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbourne, Jennifer L; Sariol, Ana M

    2017-04-01

    This research investigated the conditions under which exposure to incivility at work was associated with engaging in counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Drawing from stressor-strain and coping frameworks, we predicted that experienced incivility would be associated with engaging in production deviance and withdrawal behavior, and that these relationships would be strongest for employees who had high levels of job involvement and worked under task interdependent conditions. Gender differences in these effects were also investigated. A sample of 250 United States full-time employees from various occupations completed 2 waves (timed 6 weeks apart) of an online survey. Results indicate that employees with high job involvement were more likely to engage in production deviance and withdrawal behavior following exposure to incivility than were employees with low job involvement. The moderating effect of task interdependence varied by gender, such that the relationship between incivility and CWB was strengthened under high task interdependence for female employees, but weakened under high task interdependence for male employees. These findings highlight that certain work conditions can increase employees' susceptibility to the impacts of incivility, leading to harmful outcomes for organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Modeling Interdependent Socio-technical Networks via ABM Smart Grid Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, D.T.H.; Langley, D.J.; Becker, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to improve scientific modeling of interdependent socio-technical networks. In these networks the interplay between technical or infrastructural elements on the one hand and social and behavioral aspects on the other hand, is of importance. Examples include electricity

  1. The LOCI-method : Collaboration building in complex endeavors based on analysis of interdependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Essens, P.J.M.D.

    2011-01-01

    In complex endeavors, characterized by multiple interdependent participants with different functions and objectives, it is difficult for an entity to determine how to cooperate with other entities. Simply striving to cooperate at the highest level possible comes at high costs. But how should an enti

  2. Modeling interdependent socio-technical networks: The smart grid—an agent-based modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, D.; Langley, D.J.; Becker, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve scientific modeling of interdependent socio-technical networks. In these networks the interplay between technical or infrastructural elements on the one hand and social and behavioral aspects on the other hand, plays an important role. Examples include electricity

  3. Interdependent Risk and Cyber Security: An Analysis of Security Investment and Cyber Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Woohyun

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of firms rely on highly interconnected information networks. In such environments, defense against cyber attacks is complicated by residual risks caused by the interdependence of information security decisions of firms. IT security is affected not only by a firm's own management strategies but also by those of others. This…

  4. Rehabilitation of a Female Dancer with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: Applying Concepts of Regional Interdependence in Practice

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Due to complex movements and high physical demands, dance is often associated with a multitude of impairments including pain of the low back, pelvis, leg, knee, and foot. This case report provides an exercise progression, emphasizing enhancement of strength and neuromuscular performance using the concept of regional interdependence in a 17 year old female dancer with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  5. Higher Education Leadership and Management: From Conflict to Interdependence through Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James; Machado, Maria De Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    Institutional leadership and management are two entirely different, yet intimately intertwined, aspects of the overall effective functioning of a higher education institution (HEI). This paper is intended to (1) define and differentiate between the two concepts, (2) critically discuss their importance and vital interdependence, (3) discuss…

  6. The Roots of Social Dominance: Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of dominant students in Grades 3-5 in a midwestern school system in the United States. Previous research has indicated 2 ways a student may gain dominance--through bullying and prosocial behaviors. A cluster analysis for dominant children was conducted using social interdependence attitude scores, children's…

  7. Global Citizenship and Global Universities. The Age of Global Interdependence and Cosmopolitanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of global universities and globalisations in an age of global interdependence and cosmopolitanism. Competing agendas that result from actions and reactions to multiple globalisations are considered in relation to global citizenship education. These agendas are crucial in understanding dilemmas of the local and the…

  8. The Limits of Interdependence: Cooperation and Conflict in Sino-Japanese Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Eldridge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of Deng Xiaoping’s Open Door policy in 1979, the value and complexity of Sino-Japanese economic ties have grown exponentially. However, even as economic ties have developed, security relations have deteriorated as perceptions of a ‘China threat’ and a ‘re-militarised Japan’ have emerged in Tokyo and Beijing. The simultaneous existence of these trends challenges international relations theory. Economic interdependence theories expect that the development of economic relations reduces the role of security in bilateral relations. Conversely, neorealist theories posit that, given the preeminence of national security, a perception of threat will cool economic relations. Sino-Japanese economic relations have demonstrable bilateral benefits. Additionally, economic relations have created interest groups invested in maintaining good relations. These groups have successfully managed economic friction points and integrated bilateral trade. However, economic interdependence seems not to translate to the security calculus confirming neorealism’s contention that national security is preeminent. In particular, Japan’s development of Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD illustrates the insignificance of economic ties in security planning. That said, it is equally true that perceptions of threat appear to have little influence on bilateral economic interdependence. Therefore, Sino-Japanese relations are best described by applying interdependence and neorealist theories in a complementary approach.

  9. Review of the interdependent networks%相依网络研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    老松杨; 王竣德; 白亮

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,the network dependency and interdependent networks have become a research hotspot in the field of complex network,but literature about the overview of related research progress is still very rare.Based on the systematic research of domestic and overseas literatures,the percolation theory of the interdependent networks was briefly introduced,and the cascading failure process of the interdependent networks was described.Then the related progress was summarized from three aspects that can affect the robustness of interdependent networks:characteristics of sub network,type of dependency edge,the combination of sub networks.Finally,the future development direction of interdependent networks was prospected in both theoretical and practical aspects.%网络相依性和相依网络研究已经成为近年来复杂网络领域的热点,但是目前对相关研究进展进行综合归纳的文献却不多见。在对国内外相关文献进行系统分析的基础上,简要介绍相依网络研究涉及的渗流理论;描述该类型网络的级联失效过程;从相依网络的子网络特性、相依边的方向和类型、子网络组合方式等三个角度对相依网络鲁棒性的研究成果进行总结;并从理论和应用两方面对未来相依网络研究的发展方向进行展望。

  10. Modelling the effect of perceived interdependence among mental healthcare professionals on their work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals). We wanted to examine the effect of perceived interdependence among MHCPs on their work role performance in the context of mental healthcare. For this purpose, we developed and tested a model coherent with the Input-Mediator-Outcome-Input (IMOI) framework of team effectiveness. Data from questionnaires administered to 315 MHCPs from four local health service networks in Quebec, Canada were analysed through structural equation modelling and mediation analysis. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data and explained 51% of the variance of work role performance. Perceived collaboration, confidence in the advantages of interprofessional collaboration, involvement in the decision process, knowledge sharing, and satisfaction with the nature of the work partially mediated the effect of perceived interdependence among team members on work role performance. Therefore, perceived interdependence among team members had a positive impact on the work role performance of MHCPs mostly through its effect on favourable team functioning features. This implies, in practice, that increased interdependence of MHCPs would be more likely to truly enhance work role performance if team-based interventions to promote collaborative work and interprofessional teaching and training programs to support work within interprofessional teams were jointly implemented. Participation in the decision process and knowledge sharing should

  11. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  12. Nonlinear Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 A Unified Nonlinear Feedback Functional Method for Study Both Control and Synchronization of Spatiotemporal Chaos Fang Jinqing Ali M. K. (Department of Physics, The University of Lethbridge,Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4,Canada) Two fundamental questions dominate future chaos control theories.The first is the problem of controlling hyperchaos in higher dimensional systems.The second question has yet to be addressed:the problem of controlling spatiotemporal chaos in a spatiotemporal system.In recent years, control and synchronization of spatiotemporal chaos and hyperchaos have became a much more important and challenging subject. The reason for this is the control and synchronism of such behaviours have extensive and great potential of interdisciplinary applications, such as security communication, information processing, medicine and so on. However, this subject is not much known and remains an outstanding open.

  13. Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nonlinear Materials Characterization Facility conducts photophysical research and development of nonlinear materials operating in the visible spectrum to protect...

  14. Individual differences in cognitive processing of interdependency information. The influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information in interdependency situations and the reflection on the temporal aspects of decision-making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, Francine Marie Jean

    1993-01-01

    The present thesis describes research on the influence of social values on the cognitive processing of information underlying decisions in interdependency situations. The research is based on the assumption that the cognitive processes are reflected in decision times. ... Zie: Summary

  15. A modeling framework for investment planning in interdependent infrastructures in multi-hazard environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Dean A.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Prince, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Currently, much of protection planning is conducted separately for each infrastructure and hazard. Limited funding requires a balance of expenditures between terrorism and natural hazards based on potential impacts. This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project that created a modeling framework for investment planning in interdependent infrastructures focused on multiple hazards, including terrorism. To develop this framework, three modeling elements were integrated: natural hazards, terrorism, and interdependent infrastructures. For natural hazards, a methodology was created for specifying events consistent with regional hazards. For terrorism, we modeled the terrorists actions based on assumptions regarding their knowledge, goals, and target identification strategy. For infrastructures, we focused on predicting post-event performance due to specific terrorist attacks and natural hazard events, tempered by appropriate infrastructure investments. We demonstrate the utility of this framework with various examples, including protection of electric power, roadway, and hospital networks.

  16. Exploring Socio-Technical Features of Green Interior Design of Residential Buildings: Indicators, Interdependence and Embeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop indicators for assessing green interior design of new residential buildings in China, grounded in the socio-technical systems approach. The research was carried out through a critical literature review and two focus group studies. The results show that the boundaries of green interior design were identified with respect to three dimensions, namely performance, methodology and stakeholders. The socio-technical systems approach argues for the recognition of the interdependence between the systems elements and the feature of embeddedness. The interdependence of the systems elements exists within each of these three dimensions and across them. It is also found that the socio-technical systems of green interior design are embedded in the social, regulatory and geographic context. Taking interior design of residential buildings as the empirical setting, this study contributes to the literature of green building assessment by presenting a socio-technical systems approach.

  17. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker-Dippmann, Angela S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  18. Interdependence of corporate strategy and the profile of top management in large Croatian enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Floigl

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary companies find themselves in a volatile environment. Therefore, apart from internal strengths and weaknesses, top managers are required to address the elements of the external environment in defining the corporate strategy. Beside commonly required knowledge, skills and experience, continuous personal improvement aimed at achievement of strategic objectives of the company, adaptation to changes, mastering of innovation and humanisation of personal relations is required from the top managers, in order to make them able to adequately react to changes in business environment. Consequently, a specific type of top managers is required, in order for companies to develop according to the defined strategic framework. First, an initial overview of the interdependence of the corporate strategy and top managers' profiles (defined through their demographic characteristics and professional record is being presented. Then, the interdependence of corporate strategy and top management profile in large Croatian companies will be statistically tested by using the primary data, collected by means of a questionnaire.

  19. Culture and Healthy Eating: The Role of Independence and Interdependence in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Cynthia S; Miyamoto, Yuri; Markus, Hazel Rose; Rigotti, Attilio; Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Park, Jiyoung; Kitayama, Shinobu; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Coe, Christopher L; Love, Gayle D; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-10-01

    Healthy eating is important for physical health. Using large probability samples of middle-aged adults in the United States and Japan, we show that fitting with the culturally normative way of being predicts healthy eating. In the United States, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes independence, being independent predicts eating a healthy diet (an index of fish, protein, fruit, vegetables, reverse-coded sugared beverages, and reverse-coded high fat meat consumption; Study 1) and not using nonmeat food as a way to cope with stress (Study 2a). In Japan, a culture that prioritizes and emphasizes interdependence, being interdependent predicts eating a healthy diet (Studies 1 and 2b). Furthermore, reflecting the types of agency that are prevalent in each context, these relationships are mediated by autonomy in the United States and positive relations with others in Japan. These findings highlight the importance of understanding cultural differences in shaping healthy behavior and have implications for designing health-promoting interventions.

  20. Spatially localized attacks on interdependent networks: the existence of a finite critical attack size

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, Yehiel; Danziger, Michael M; Li, Daqing; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Many real world complex systems such as infrastructure, communication and transportation networks are embedded in space, where entities of one system may depend on entities of other systems. These systems are subject to geographically localized failures due to malicious attacks or natural disasters. Here we study the resilience of a system composed of two interdependent spatially embedded networks to localized geographical attacks. We find that if an attack is larger than a finite (zero fraction of the system) critical size, it will spread through the entire system and lead to its complete collapse. If the attack is below the critical size, it will remain localized. In contrast, under random attack a finite fraction of the system needs to be removed to initiate system collapse. We present both numerical simulations and a theoretical approach to analyze and predict the effect of local attacks and the critical attack size. Our results demonstrate the high risk of local attacks on interdependent spatially embedd...

  1. Regional interdependency of precipitation indices across Denmark in two ensembles of high-resolution RCMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Madsen, Henrik; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2013-01-01

    on the method and precipitation index considered. The results also show that the main cause of interdependency in the ensemble is the use of the same RCMdriven by different GCMs. This study shows that the precipitation outputs from the RCMs in the ENSEMBLES project cannot be considered independent....... Daily precipitation indices from an ensemble of RCMs driven by the 40-yrECMWFRe-Analysis (ERA-40) and an ensemble of the same RCMs driven by different general circulation models (GCMs) are analyzed. Two different methods are used to estimate the amount of independent information in the ensembles....... If the interdependency between RCMs is not taken into account, the uncertainty in theRCMsimulations of current regional climatemay be underestimated. This will in turn lead to an underestimation of the uncertainty in future precipitation projections. © 2013 American Meteorological Society....

  2. A Simplified Self-Consistent Probabilities Framework to Characterize Percolation Phenomena on Interdependent Networks : An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Ling; Hu, Yanqing

    2015-01-01

    Interdependent networks are ubiquitous in our society, ranging from infrastructure to economics, and the study of their cascading behaviors using percolation theory has attracted much attention in the recent years. To analyze the percolation phenomena of these systems, different mathematical frameworks have been proposed including generating functions, eigenvalues among some others. These different frameworks approach the phase transition behaviors from different angles, and have been very successful in shaping the different quantities of interest including critical threshold, size of the giant component, order of phase transition and the dynamics of cascading. These methods also vary in their mathematical complexity in dealing with interdependent networks that have additional complexity in terms of the correlation among different layers of networks or links. In this work, we review a particular approach of simple self-consistent probability equations, and illustrate that it can greatly simplify the mathemati...

  3. Stackelberg Interdependent Security Game in Distributed and Hierarchical Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the integration of physical plant and network, cyber-physical systems (CPSs are increasingly vulnerable due to their distributed and hierarchical framework. Stackelberg interdependent security game (SISG is proposed for characterizing the interdependent security in CPSs, that is, the interactions between individual CPSs, which are selfish but nonmalicious with the payoff function being formulated from a cross-layer perspective. The pure-strategy equilibria for two-player symmetric SISG are firstly analyzed with the strategy gap between individual and social optimum being characterized, which is known as negative externalities. Then, the results are further extended to the asymmetric and m-player SISG. At last, a numerical case of practical experiment platform is analyzed for determining the comprehensively optimal security configuration for administrator.

  4. [Gender relations and interdependence: reflections on changes in the hospital configuration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Oliveira, Simone Santos

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes changes that have occurred in hospitals over the years, with a focus on the dynamics of gender relations as experienced by healthcare workers. We use the notions of configuration and interdependence, taken from Norbert Elias' theory of the civilizing process, along with discussions of gender relations at work; drawing from Michel Foucault, we also reference the disciplinary practices employed down through hospital history. This linkage of discussions on gender issues and on interdependent relations opens up to a reflection on conflicts of interests, power struggles, and the balance of tensions, which in turn makes it possible to problematize gender inequalities with the ultimate aim of achieving an interdisciplinary effort that will promote health care of an integral nature.

  5. A general model of resource production and exchange in systems of interdependent specialists.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Breen, Peter; Kuypers, Marshall; Norton, Matthew David; Quach, Tu-Thach; Antognoli, Matthew; Mitchell, Michael David

    2011-11-01

    Infrastructures are networks of dynamically interacting systems designed for the flow of information, energy, and materials. Under certain circumstances, disturbances from a targeted attack or natural disasters can cause cascading failures within and between infrastructures that result in significant service losses and long recovery times. Reliable interdependency models that can capture such multi-network cascading do not exist. The research reported here has extended Sandia's infrastructure modeling capabilities by: (1) addressing interdependencies among networks, (2) incorporating adaptive behavioral models into the network models, and (3) providing mechanisms for evaluating vulnerability to targeted attack and unforeseen disruptions. We have applied these capabilities to evaluate the robustness of various systems, and to identify factors that control the scale and duration of disruption. This capability lays the foundation for developing advanced system security solutions that encompass both external shocks and internal dynamics.

  6. Peering Strategic Game Models for Interdependent ISPs in Content Centric Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery.

  7. Peering Strategic Game Models for Interdependent ISPs in Content Centric Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jianfeng; Xu, Changqiao; Su, Wei; Zhang, Hongke

    2013-01-01

    Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs) to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA) and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery. PMID:24381517

  8. Nonlinear singular vectors and nonlinear singular values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel concept of nonlinear singular vector and nonlinear singular value is introduced, which is a natural generalization of the classical linear singular vector and linear singular value to the nonlinear category. The optimization problem related to the determination of nonlinear singular vectors and singular values is formulated. The general idea of this approach is demonstrated by a simple two-dimensional quasigeostrophic model in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. The advantage and its applications of the new method to the predictability, ensemble forecast and finite-time nonlinear instability are discussed. This paper makes a necessary preparation for further theoretical and numerical investigations.

  9. Interdependent self-construal and neural representations of self and mother

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Rebecca D.; Shelton, Amy L; Hollon, Nick G.; Matsumoto, David; Frankel, Carl B.; Gross, James J.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2009-01-01

    Representations of self are thought to be dynamically influenced by one’s surroundings, including the culture one lives in. However, neuroimaging studies of self-representations have either ignored cultural influences or operationalized culture as country of origin. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of individual differences in interdependent self-construal. Participants rated whether trait adjectives applied to themselves or their m...

  10. The interdependence between biodiversity and socioeconomic variables on a local level: evidence for german counties

    OpenAIRE

    Münch, Angela; Völkl, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores possible interdependence of biodiversity and several socioeconomic and political factors at the county level. It is aimed at the empirical identification of direct and indirect effects between biodiversity (loss) and their theoretical major impact factors. To date, research shows that in addition to geography, agriculture is one major determinant of biodiversity status. However, the impact of regional socioeconomic structures on biodiversity should not be underestimated. S...

  11. Interdependence of regional and urban planning in the regional development of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Braco Mušič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the signi. cance of Slovene's concept of polycentric spatial development, and on the problems (more or less planned development of transport infrastructure, after the critical introduction of interdependence of regional and urban planning in general theory and Slovene's practice of regional and urban development. Within this context the emphasis is on existing and future system of motorways and greater role of public transport.

  12. Restoration and Humanitarian Aid Delivery on Interdependent Transportation and Communication Networks After an Extreme Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    processing times, demand in transporation networks may be stochas- tic. Ukkusuri & Patil [33] employ stochastic math programming to solve a flexible...Interdependent Networks. Rinaldi et al. [30] describe how human infrastructures are often characterized by physical, cyber , logical, or geographic...Wiley handbook of science and technology for Homeland Security , 2, 1419– 1428. 22. Lien, Robert W, Iravani, Seyed MR, & Smilowitz, Karen R. 2014

  13. The mic-mac connection inside stars: the interdependence of atomic diffusion and hydrodynamic instabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Vauclair, S.

    2016-01-01

    The interdependence of microscopic (atomic) and macroscopic (hydrodynamic) processes inside stars and their consequences for stellar structure and evolution were recognized by Jean-Paul Zahn several decades ago. He was a pioneer in that respect, discussing the importance of the macroscopic motions related to stellar rotation, in competition with the chemical stratification induced by gravitational settling and radiative accelerations. This has been much developed in recent years, in connectio...

  14. Critical Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling: A Survey of U.S. and International Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-01

    The Nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes, and organizations across which these goods and services move are called "critical infrastructures".1 This statement is as true in the U.S. as in any country in the world. Recent world events such as the 9-11 terrorist attacks, London bombings, and gulf coast hurricanes have highlighted the importance of stable electric, gas and oil, water, transportation, banking and finance, and control and communication infrastructure systems. Be it through direct connectivity, policies and procedures, or geospatial proximity, most critical infrastructure systems interact. These interactions often create complex relationships, dependencies, and interdependencies that cross infrastructure boundaries. The modeling and analysis of interdependencies between critical infrastructure elements is a relatively new and very important field of study. The U.S. Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) has sponsored this survey to identify and describe this current area of research including the current activities in this field being conducted both in the U.S. and internationally. The main objective of this study is to develop a single source reference of critical infrastructure interdependency modeling tools (CIIMT) that could be applied to allow users to objectively assess the capabilities of CIIMT. This information will provide guidance for directing research and development to address the gaps in development. The results will inform researchers of the TSWG Infrastructure Protection Subgroup of research and development efforts and allow a more focused approach to addressing the needs of CIIMT end-user needs. This report first presents the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis, describes the survey methodology, and presents the leading research efforts in both a cumulative table and through individual datasheets. Data was

  15. Are the Asian Equity Markets more Interdependent after the Financial Crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Akben; Gökhan Özertan; Aslýhan D. Spaulding

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis on the linkages between the Singapore and five Asian-Pacific stock markets. We show that the interdependence between these markets has intensified after the crisis. Before the crisis, only the Malaysian stock market is found to be cointegrated with Singapore. However, after the onset of the crisis, the stock markets of Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia and the US are found to be cointegrated with the Singapore stock market.

  16. Heterogeneous Coupling between Interdependent Lattices Promotes the Cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yi Xia

    Full Text Available In the research realm of game theory, interdependent networks have extended the content of spatial reciprocity, which needs the suitable coupling between networks. However, thus far, the vast majority of existing works just assume that the coupling strength between networks is symmetric. This hypothesis, to some extent, seems inconsistent with the ubiquitous observation of heterogeneity. Here, we study how the heterogeneous coupling strength, which characterizes the interdependency of utility between corresponding players of both networks, affects the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game with two types of coupling schemes (symmetric and asymmetric ones. Compared with the traditional case, we show that heterogeneous coupling greatly promotes the collective cooperation. The symmetric scheme seems much better than the asymmetric case. Moreover, the role of varying amplitude of coupling strength is also studied on these two interdependent ways. Current findings are helpful for us to understand the evolution of cooperation within many real-world systems, in particular for the interconnected and interrelated systems.

  17. Interdependency enriches the spatial reciprocity in prisoner's dilemma game on weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaokun; Sun, Shiwen; Li, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi; Sun, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    To model the evolution of cooperation under the realistic scenarios, we propose an interdependent network-based game model which simultaneously considers the difference of individual roles in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. In our model, the system is composed of two lattices on which an agent designated as a cooperator or defector will be allocated, meanwhile each agent will be endowed as a specific weight taking from three typical distributions on one lattice (i.e., weighted lattice), and set to be 1.0 on the other one (i.e., un-weighted or standard lattice). In addition, the interdependency will be built through the utility coupling between point-to-point partners. Extensive simulations indicate that the cooperation will be continuously elevated for the weighted lattice as the utility coupling strength (α) increases; while the cooperation will take on a nontrivial evolution on the standard lattice as α varies, and will be still greatly promoted when compared to the case of α = 0. At the same time, the full T - K phase diagrams are also explored to illustrate the evolutionary behaviors, and it is powerfully shown that the interdependency drives the defectors to survive within the narrower range, but individual weighting of utility will further broaden the coexistence space of cooperators and defectors, which renders the nontrivial evolution of cooperation in our model. Altogether, the current consequences about the evolution of cooperation will be helpful for us to provide the insights into the prevalent cooperation phenomenon within many real-world systems.

  18. Spatial prisoner's dilemma games with increasing neighborhood size and individual diversity on two interdependent lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao-Kun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xia, Cheng-Yi, E-mail: xialooking@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Gao, Zhong-Ke [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Li; Sun, Shi-Wen [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2015-04-03

    Highlights: • A novel PDG model with individual diversity and utility interdependency is proposed. • Diversity can be represented by players with different strategy spreading abilities. • Interdependency is implemented by the payoff correlation between two lattices. • Cooperation can be remarkably promoted by combining these two kinds of mechanisms. - Abstract: We present an improved spatial prisoner's dilemma game model which simultaneously considers the individual diversity and increasing neighborhood size on two interdependent lattices. By dividing the players into influential and non-influential ones, we can discuss the impact of individual diversity on the cooperative behaviors. Meanwhile, we implement the utility interdependency by integrating the payoff correlations between two lattices. Extensive simulations indicate that the optimal density of influential players exists for the cooperation to be promoted, and can be further facilitated through the utility coupling. Current results are beneficial to understanding the origin of cooperation among selfish agents among realistic scenarios.

  19. Chain-wide consequences of transaction risks and their contractual solutions : managing interdependencies in differentiated agri-food supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, M.

    2012-01-01

    Agri-food supply chains are characterized by strong interdependencies between the different stages. These interdependencies may lead to risk-spillovers, as when a downstream company is exposed to risks resulting from activities further upstream in the supply chain. For example, a change in the formula used to calculate the price in a farmer-processor transaction, may reduce incentives for farmers to produce high quality products. This can increase the risks that low quality products are excha...

  20. Europe gas security. From dependence to interdependence; La securite gaziere de l'Europe. De la dependance a l'interdependance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report proposes a diagnostic and draws perspectives for Europe's gas dependence. In a first part, and considering gas as an energy source facing the challenges of the struggle against climate change, it outlines the rather high level of gas resources, their concentration in few countries, and therefore the need to reinforce partnership with these countries. It also outlines the uncertainty about future gas consumption due to new environment policies. The wide spectrum of scenarios entails needs to be reconsidered. The second part deals with the implications of the relationship between Gazprom and the Russian Federation. The third part discusses the European energy policy which tries to combine competition and energy security. Then, four scenarios are proposed and studied for the future of the interdependence between the European Union and the Russian Federation: energy crisis (producer's power), status quo (under-capacity), solidarity between the UE and Russia, and agreement on the climate (globalization of energy exchanges)

  1. NONLINEAR EXPECTATIONS AND NONLINEAR MARKOV CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG SHIGE

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with nonlinear expectations. The author obtains a nonlinear generalization of the well-known Kolmogorov's consistent theorem and then use it to construct filtration-consistent nonlinear expectations via nonlinear Markov chains. Compared to the author's previous results, i.e., the theory of g-expectations introduced via BSDE on a probability space, the present framework is not based on a given probability measure. Many fully nonlinear and singular situations are covered. The induced topology is a natural generalization of Lp-norms and L∞-norm in linear situations.The author also obtains the existence and uniqueness result of BSDE under this new framework and develops a nonlinear type of von Neumann-Morgenstern representation theorem to utilities and present dynamic risk measures.

  2. Interdependent mechanisms for processing gender and emotion:The special status of angry male faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Harris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While some models of how various attributes of a face are processed have posited that face features, invariant physical cues such as gender or ethnicity as well as variant social cues such as emotion, may be processed independently (e.g., Bruce & Young, 1986, other models suggest a more distributed representation and interdependent processing (e.g., Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000. Here we use a contingent adaptation paradigm to investigate if mechanisms for processing the gender and emotion of a face are interdependent and symmetric across the happy-angry emotional continuum and regardless of the gender of the face. We simultaneously adapted participants to angry female faces and happy male faces (Experiment 1 or to happy female faces and angry male faces (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1 we found evidence for contingent adaptation, with simultaneous aftereffects in opposite directions: male faces were biased towards angry while female faces were biased towards happy. Interestingly, in the complementary Experiment 2 we did not find evidence for contingent adaptation, with both male and female faces biased towards angry. Our results highlight that evidence for contingent adaptation and the underlying interdependent face processing mechanisms that would allow for contingent adaptation may only be evident for certain combinations of face features. Such limits may be especially important in the case of social cues given how maladaptive it may be to stop responding to threatening information, with male angry faces considered to be the most threatening. The underlying neuronal mechanisms that could account for such asymmetric effects in contingent adaptation remain to be elucidated.

  3. Monetary policy games and international migration of labor in interdependent economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiomirgianakis, G M

    1998-01-01

    "In this paper we incorporate the possibility of international migration into a monetary policy game played by governments in unionized interdependent economies. We show that contrary to usual presumptions, established by earlier studies that ignore the possibility of international migration, inter-government cooperation in the monetary field may well turn out to be advantageous. This has important implications for the European economies, since it suggests that measures taken towards encouraging international migration within EU [the European Union] will not only harmonize the European labor markets but will also make monetary policy cooperation within Europe, as required by the Maastrict Treaty, more advantageous." excerpt

  4. Reworking the science curriculum: A case study in the interdependence between introductory biology and multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persell, Roger

    1994-12-01

    Multiculturalism has emerged as the major influence in revising science curricula and teaching, yet misunderstanding about the history and theoretical underpinnings of multiculturalism has made the separation of political and education reform contentious and difficult. Within the context of a new college-wide pluralism and diversity requirement, a large introductory biology course at Hunter College of the City University of New York is now the testing ground for an interdependent model of multicultural education. The implications for multiculturalism, science pedagogy, and the pivotal role of introductory courses are discussed.

  5. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E. Trempy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course.

  6. Mine your own business! : Economic interdependence and Sino-Australian relations in the 2000s

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a case study of the Sino-Australian economic interdependence relationship from 2000-2013. The period has been characterized by an explosion of mineral trade, with Australia in the role of exporter, and China in the role of importer. In particular one mineral has stood out as the most important in the trade relationship: iron ore. The drastically altered pattern of trade has tied the two countries closer, making them ever more dependent on each other. With Hirschman’s dependency...

  7. Fostering interdependence to minimise political risks in a European-North African renewable electricity supergrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilliestam, Johan [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Ellenbeck, Saskia [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    The option of decarbonisation of the European power sector with the help of significant imports of renewable electricity from North Africa via a trans-continental electricity Supergrid is increasingly gaining attention. In this paper, we investigate the geopolitical risks to European energy security in such a future, and discuss cornerstones for possible policy strategies to reduce these risks. The strategies are rooted in the interdependence between exporter and importer. We come to the conclusion that fostering and deepening, as opposed to reducing, the dependence of both sides on each other may be a valuable and powerful way to reduce the geopolitical risks of renewable electricity trade between Europe and North Africa. (orig.)

  8. Layer interdependence of transport in an undoped electron-hole bilayer

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The layer interdependence of transport in an undoped electron-hole bilayer (uEHBL) device was studied as a function of carrier density, interlayer electric field, and temperature. The uEHBL device consisted of a density tunable, independently contacted two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) induced via field effect in distinct GaAs quantum wells separated by a 30 nm Al$_{0.9}$Ga$_{0.1}$As barrier. Transport measurements were made simultaneously on each layer u...

  9. INTERDEPENDENCE AND SECURITY OF ELECTRICITY SUPPLY OF A SMALL COUNTRY: THE CASE OF LITHUANIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juozaitis, R.; Bacauskas, A.

    2007-07-01

    In the report there are described the circumstances of operation of Lithuanian power system. A common plan of the Baltic power companies to build a new nuclear power plant is discussed. The report elaborates on the plans of necessary interconnections for integration of the Baltic power systems into the EU electricity market, ensuring security of supply in the Baltic region and availability to install efficient bigger capacity generation units in power stations. The experience of Lithuania demonstrates that interdependence in power sector is an advantage in maintaining security of electricity supply. (auth)

  10. Analysing, Interpreting, and Testing the Invariance of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareau, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although in recent years researchers have begun to utilize dyadic data analyses such as the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM, certain limitations to the applicability of these models still exist. Given the complexity of APIMs, most researchers will often use observed scores to estimate the model's parameters, which can significantly limit and underestimate statistical results. The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of conducting a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA of equivalent constructs between dyad members (i.e. measurement equivalence/invariance; ME/I. Different steps for merging CFA and APIM procedures will be detailed in order to shed light on new and integrative methods.

  11. Effects of Interdependence and Social Interaction-Based Person-Team Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Glew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The match between employees and their vocations, jobs and organizations has been the focus of the majority of past person-environment fit research. The compatibility between individuals and their work team environments is a more recently recognized, but much less studied, type of fit. Person-team fit is conceptualized here along two fundamental dimensions of team environments: interdependence and social interaction. Results from a study involving 209 cross-functional team members indicate that person-team fit has an impact on satisfaction, commitment, trust and performance.

  12. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Bree

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance.

  13. Effects of climate model interdependency on the uncertainty quantification of extreme rainfall projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan;

    Changes in rainfall extremes under climate change conditions are subject to numerous uncertainties. One of the most important uncertainties arises from the inherent uncertainty in climate models. In recent years, many efforts have been made in creating large multi-model ensembles of both Regional...... Climate Models (RCMs) and General Circulation Models (GCMs). These multi-model ensembles provide the information needed to estimate probabilistic climate change projections. Several probabilistic methods have been suggested. One common assumption in most of these methods is that the climate models...... of accounting for the climate model interdependency when estimating the uncertainty of climate change projections....

  14. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  15. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...

  16. Noncommutative Nonlinear Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Nishino, H; Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2002-01-01

    We present noncommutative nonlinear supersymmetric theories. The first example is a non-polynomial Akulov-Volkov-type lagrangian with noncommutative nonlinear global supersymmetry in arbitrary space-time dimensions. The second example is the generalization of this lagrangian to Dirac-Born-Infeld lagrangian with nonlinear supersymmetry realized in dimensions D=2,3,4 and 6 (mod 8).

  17. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind P. Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  18. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind; P.; Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  19. Desigualdades, interdependências e afrodescendentes na América Latina Social inequalities, interdependencies and Afro-descendants in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Costa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Desigualdades sociais foram tradicionalmente investigadas no âmbito do Estado-nação, privilegiando-se as diferenças de classe e a perspectiva sincrônica. Isto é: ainda que a investigação especializada, sobretudo na América Latina, venha se dedicando já há algumas décadas a estudar os nexos entre classe e outras formas de classificação social (raça, gênero etc., só muito recentemente registram-se avanços substantivos na investigação sobre os processos históricos e os nexos globais que configuram as desigualdades observadas num país determinado. O presente artigo, em sua primeira parte, oferece um panorama desses avanços, traçando um marco analítico para o estudo de desigualdades sociais a partir de interdependências históricas, geográficas e relativas às diferentes formas de classificação social. A segunda parte aplica as referências analíticas desenvolvidas ao estudo das desigualdades que afetam a população afrodescendente na América Latina.Social inequalities have conventionally been investigated as synchronous processes occurring within the contours of national borders and connected to the concept of class. As a consequence established scholarship, especially in Latin America, has given little attention to the historical dimensions and global entanglements between class and other social classifications that have shaped existing inequalities. A number of recent contributions have attempted to correct these analytical shortfalls from a variety of perspectives. In order to overcome methodological nationalism, a first group of contributions has focused on the interconnections between national and global structures of inequality, showing how inequalities correspond to entanglements between social processes at different geographical levels: local, national, global. A second group of contributions has investigated the relationship between different axes of stratification, focusing on how social inequalities emerge

  20. PBH tests for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawano, Yu; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Recently, concepts of nonlinear eigenvalues and eigenvectors are introduced. In this paper, we establish connections between the nonlinear eigenvalues and nonlinear accessibility/observability. In particular, we provide a generalization of Popov- Belevitch-Hautus (PBH) test to nonlinear accessibilit

  1. Multiple effect of social influence on cooperation in interdependent network games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Li, Wen-Jing; Wang, Zhen

    2015-10-01

    The social influence exists widely in the human society, where individual decision-making process (from congressional election to electronic commerce) may be affected by the attitude and behavior of others belonging to different social networks. Here, we couple the snowdrift (SD) game and the prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game on two interdependent networks, where strategies in both games are associated by social influence to mimick the majority rule. More accurately, individuals’ strategies updating refers to social learning (based on payoff difference) and above-mentioned social influence (related with environment of interdependent group), which is controlled by social influence strength s. Setting s = 0 decouples the networks and returns the traditional network game; while its increase involves the interactions between networks. By means of numerous Monte Carlo simulations, we find that such a mechanism brings multiple influence to the evolution of cooperation. Small s leads to unequal cooperation level in both games, because social learning is still the main updating rule for most players. Though intermediate and large s guarantees the synchronized evolution of strategy pairs, cooperation finally dies out and reaches a completely dominance in both cases. Interestingly, these observations are attributed to the expansion of cooperation clusters. Our work may provide a new understanding to the emergence of cooperation in intercorrelated social systems.

  2. Optimal Allocation of Interconnecting Links in Cyber-Physical Systems: Interdependence, Cascading Failures and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Yagan, Osman; Zhang, Junshan; Cochran, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    We consider a cyber-physical system consisting of two interacting networks, i.e., a cyber-network overlaying a physical-network. It is envisioned that these systems are more vulnerable to attacks since node failures in one network may result in (due to the interdependence) failures in the other network, causing a cascade of failures that would potentially lead to the collapse of the entire infrastructure. The robustness of interdependent systems against this sort of catastrophic failure hinges heavily on the allocation of the (interconnecting) links that connect nodes in one network to nodes in the other network. In this paper, we characterize the optimum inter-link allocation strategy against random attacks in the case where the topology of each individual network is unknown. In particular, we analyze the "regular" allocation strategy that allots exactly the same number of bi-directional inter-network links to all nodes in the system. We show, both analytically and experimentally, that this strategy yields b...

  3. Complexidade, interdependência e autonomia em sistemas económicos e sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Graça

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos da complexidade podem potenciar o diálogo interdisciplinar entre sociólogos e economistas. Apresentadas algumas propriedades dos sistemas complexos, consideramos o papel crucial do programa de investigação em complexidade enquanto desafio ao paradigma económico dominante. Este desiderato pode beneficiar de um aspecto negligenciado mas relevante, a preocupação com a complexidade social implícita na tradição sociológica, em particular a ênfase durkheimiana na ideia de interdependência, pedra de toque das actuais abordagens da complexidade. Em vez de assumir complexidade/simplicidade e autonomia/simplicidade enquanto relações mutuamente exclusivas, Durkheim considera a interdependência e a autonomia como características positivamente correlacionadas e fundamentalmente complementares das sociedades modernas. É pois conveniente pensar a complexidade enquanto fenómeno socioeconómico global, e não estritamente económico. Este propósito é prejudicado pela existência da divisória académica economia/sociologia.

  4. War or Peace? How the Subjective Perception of Great Power Interdependence Shapes Preemptive Defensive Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Jing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Why do great powers with benign intentions end up fighting each other in wars they do not seek? We utilize an incentivized, two-person “Preemptive Strike Game” (PSG to explore how the subjective perception of great power interdependence shapes defensive aggression against persons from rival great powers. In Study 1, college students from the United States (N = 115, China (N = 106, and Japan (N = 99 made PSG decisions facing each other. This natural experiment revealed that Chinese and Japanese participants (a made more preemptive attacks against each other and Americans than against their compatriots, and that (b greater preexisting perceptions of bilateral competition increased intergroup attack rates. In Study 2, adult Americans (N = 127 watched real CNN expert interviews portraying United States–China economic interdependence as more positive or negative. This randomized experiment revealed that the more positive portrayal reduced preemptive American strikes against Chinese (but not Japanese, while the more negative portrayal amplified American anger about China’s rise, increasing preemptive attacks against Chinese. We also found, however, that preemptive strikes were primarily defensive and not offensive. Interventions to reduce defensive aggression and promote great power peace are discussed.

  5. Absent but Not Gone: Interdependence in Couples' Quality of Life Persists After a Partner's Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Knowles, Lindsey M; Sbarra, David A; O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2016-02-01

    Spouses influence each other's psychological functioning and quality of life. To explore whether this interdependence continues after a person becomes widowed, we tested whether deceased spouses' characteristics were associated with their widowed partners' later quality of life using couples drawn from a multinational sample of aging adults. Independent subsamples (ns = 221 and 325) were assessed before and after a spouse's death. Regressions revealed that deceased partners' quality of life prior to their death positively predicted their spouses' quality of life after the partners' death, even when we controlled for spouses' prior quality of life to account for environmental factors shared within couples. Further, widowed participants' quality of life was lower than nonwidowed couples' 2 years before and after their partners' death, but was equivalent 4 years prior. Finally, the strength of the association between partners' earlier quality of life and participants' later quality of life did not differ between widowed and nonwidowed participants. These findings suggest that interdependence in quality of life continues after one's partner has passed away.

  6. Phenology of two interdependent traits in migratory birds in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadiah Pardede; Johansson, Jacob; Ripa, Jörgen; Jonzén, Niclas

    2015-05-22

    In migratory birds, arrival date and hatching date are two key phenological markers that have responded to global warming. A body of knowledge exists relating these traits to evolutionary pressures. In this study, we formalize this knowledge into general mathematical assumptions, and use them in an ecoevolutionary model. In contrast to previous models, this study novelty accounts for both traits-arrival date and hatching date-and the interdependence between them, revealing when one, the other or both will respond to climate. For all models sharing the assumptions, the following phenological responses will occur. First, if the nestling-prey peak is late enough, hatching is synchronous with, and arrival date evolves independently of, prey phenology. Second, when resource availability constrains the length of the pre-laying period, hatching is adaptively asynchronous with prey phenology. Predictions for both traits compare well with empirical observations. In response to advancing prey phenology, arrival date may advance, remain unchanged, or even become delayed; the latter occurring when egg-laying resources are only available relatively late in the season. The model shows that asynchronous hatching and unresponsive arrival date are not sufficient evidence that phenological adaptation is constrained. The work provides a framework for exploring microevolution of interdependent phenological traits.

  7. Game among interdependent networks: The impact of rationality on system robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuhang; Cao, Gongze; He, Shibo; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian

    2016-12-01

    Many real-world systems are composed of interdependent networks that rely on one another. Such networks are typically designed and operated by different entities, who aim at maximizing their own payoffs. There exists a game among these entities when designing their own networks. In this paper, we study the game investigating how the rational behaviors of entities impact the system robustness. We first introduce a mathematical model to quantify the interacting payoffs among varying entities. Then we study the Nash equilibrium of the game and compare it with the optimal social welfare. We reveal that the cooperation among different entities can be reached to maximize the social welfare in continuous game only when the average degree of each network is constant. Therefore, the huge gap between Nash equilibrium and optimal social welfare generally exists. The rationality of entities makes the system inherently deficient and even renders it extremely vulnerable in some cases. We analyze our model for two concrete systems with continuous strategy space and discrete strategy space, respectively. Furthermore, we uncover some factors (such as weakening coupled strength of interdependent networks, designing a suitable topology dependence of the system) that help reduce the gap and the system vulnerability.

  8. Autophagy, apoptosis, mitoptosis and necrosis: interdependence between those pathways and effects on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabane, Wiem; User, Sırma D; El-Gazzah, Mohamed; Jaksik, Roman; Sajjadi, Elaheh; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna; Los, Marek J

    2013-02-01

    Cell death is a fundamental ingredient of life. Thus, not surprisingly more than one form of cell death exists. Several excellent reviews on various forms of cell death have already been published but manuscripts describing interconnection and interdependence between such processes are uncommon. Here, what follows is a brief introduction on all three classical forms of cell death, followed by a more detailed insight into the role of p53, the master regulator of apoptosis, and other forms of cell death. While discussing p53 and also the role of caspases in cell death forms, we offer insight into the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis, or necrosis, where autophagy may initially serve pro-survival functions. The review moves further to present some details about less researched forms of programmed cell death, namely necroptosis, necrosis and mitoptosis. These "mixed" forms of cell death allow us to highlight the interconnected nature of cell death forms, particularly apoptosis and necrosis. The interdependence between apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis, and their significance for cancer development and treatment are also analyzed in further parts of the review. In the concluding parts, the afore-mentioned issues will be put in perspective for the development of novel anti-cancer therapies.

  9. Analyzing the Interdependence Between Some Certain Gene Loci by Epistasis Measures in Fitness Landscapes of Schemata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建武; 李敏强

    2003-01-01

    GA-hardness and interdependence between genes in the chromosome are important questions in the study of genetic algorithms(GA). Traditional methods, which are used to measure the interaction between genes, can only reflect the extent of epistasis between all genes in the chromosome. Therefore, the definition of the fitness landscape of schemata is proposed in this paper, and epistasis measures on this landscape of schemata are used to analyze the degree of interdependence between some certain gene loci in study. Some information between these sites can be reflected by some characters of the fitness landscape of schemata which are composed of these fixed sites. The stronger the interaction between these sites, the larger the variation of the fitness of schemata whose fixed sites correspond to those sites in study, and the more rugged the fitness landscape of these schemata. According to the degree of interaction between these given gene loci, building blocks of GA can be analyzed and determined, and further genetic operators and the structure of GA can be designed and adjusted to improve the performance of GA. At last, a lot of experiments including NK-models are done, and results of empirical analysis show that this method is effective.

  10. The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M.

    2013-12-01

    Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the potential for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its electricity demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate potential water savings, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy savings. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy savings, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy savings to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008

  11. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

    2014-02-18

    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally.

  12. Interdependencies in the energy-bioenergy-food price systems: A cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Kancs, d' Artis [European Commission (DG Joint Research Centre), Catholic University of Leuven (LICOS), and Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2011-01-15

    The present paper studies the interdependencies between the energy, bioenergy and food prices. We develop a vertically integrated multi-input, multi-output market model with two channels of price transmission: a direct biofuel channel and an indirect input channel. We test the theoretical hypothesis by applying time-series analytical mechanisms to nine major traded agricultural commodity prices, including corn, wheat, rice, sugar, soybeans, cotton, banana, sorghum and tea, along with one weighted average world crude oil price. The data consists of 783 weekly observations extending from January 1994 to December 2008. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical hypothesis that the prices for crude oil and agricultural commodities are interdependent including also commodities not directly used in bioenergy production: an increase in oil price by 1 $/barrel increases the agricultural commodity prices between 0.10 $/tonne and 1.80 $/tonne. Contrary to the theoretical predictions, the indirect input channel of price transmission is found to be small and statistically insignificant. (author)

  13. The impact of interdependent cross -age peer tutoring on social and mathematics self-concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjan Zeneli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper adds to the limited body of literature and concentrates on investigating the impact of a new peer tutoring framework, ‘Interdependent Cross Age-Peer Tutoring’ (ICAT, on the socio-academic process of learning of self-concepts. ICAT is informed by Social Interdependence Theory, a socio-psychological perspective which aims to make cross-age peer tutoring more cooperative. The intervention took place in 2013 with three schools in England: Two of the schools adopted a pre-post-test quasi experimental design and one school (school C adopted a single group design. In school A Year 8 students tutored Year 6 (n=201, in school B Year 9 students tutored Year 7 (n=115, and in school C Year 10 students tutored Year 8 (n=102. ICAT was applied once a week for a period of 35-40 minutes across six weeks, covering school -planned mathematic topics. For school A, which implemented ICAT according to programme specifications, some positive and significant effect sizes were observed.

  14. Cascading failures in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Li, Ming; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-05-04

    We study the percolation in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links, where the inner- and inter-dependency links represent the dependencies between nodes in the same or different networks, respectively. We find that when most of dependency links are inner- or inter-ones, the coupled networks system is fragile and makes a discontinuous percolation transition. However, when the numbers of two types of dependency links are close to each other, the system is robust and makes a continuous percolation transition. This indicates that the high density of dependency links could not always lead to a discontinuous percolation transition as the previous studies. More interestingly, although the robustness of the system can be optimized by adjusting the ratio of the two types of dependency links, there exists a critical average degree of the networks for coupled random networks, below which the crossover of the two types of percolation transitions disappears, and the system will always demonstrate a discontinuous percolation transition. We also develop an approach to analyze this model, which is agreement with the simulation results well.

  15. Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages With Multi-Type Branching Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Junjian; Yu, Wenyun; Sun, Kai

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the multi-type branching process is applied to describe the statistics and interdependencies of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multi-type branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multi-type branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multitype branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multitype branching process can effectively predict the distribution of the load shed and isolated buses and their conditional largest possible total outages even when there are no data of them.

  16. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, H.

    1992-01-01

    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  17. A Study on Trade Interdependence between Korea, China, Japan, the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu-in Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Using an international input-output table, our study analyzes the interdependence among four countries (i.e. Korea, China, Japan and the US using empirical trade and industry data. While both China and Korea exhibit high backward linkage effects, China's - as well as Japan's - forward linkage effects are still higher than Korea's. These results imply that interdependence among the three countries in Northeast Asia is increasing. Moreover, Korea and China's dependence on Japan and the US has been augmented, whereby economic cooperation is increasingly rising among the three Northeast Asian countries (Korea, China and Japan realizing each country's comparative advantages. However, these countries need to prepare themselves for long-term negative aspects of closer cooperation, especially the negative impact of economic fluctuations in counterpart countries. In this context, Korea and China need to concentrate development of three key industries: the materials industry, parts industry, and high-technology industry. Furthermore, these countries need to establish an independent industrial system by diversifying trading partners, develop the service industry to support the manufacturing industry, and stimulate domestic demand. Finally, a sound economy structure needs to be established through improvement of productivity.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  19. The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) moderates cultural difference in independent versus interdependent social orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; King, Anthony; Yoon, Carolyn; Tompson, Steve; Huff, Sarah; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-06-01

    Prior research suggests that cultural groups vary on an overarching dimension of independent versus interdependent social orientation, with European Americans being more independent, or less interdependent, than Asians. Drawing on recent evidence suggesting that the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) plays a role in modulating cultural learning, we predicted that carriers of DRD4 polymorphisms linked to increased dopamine signaling (7- or 2-repeat alleles) would show higher levels of culturally dominant social orientations, compared with noncarriers. European Americans and Asian-born Asians (total N = 398) reported their social orientation on multiple scales. They were also genotyped for DRD4. As in earlier work, European Americans were more independent, and Asian-born Asians more interdependent. This cultural difference was significantly more pronounced for carriers of the 7- or 2-repeat alleles than for noncarriers. Indeed, no cultural difference was apparent among the noncarriers. Implications for potential coevolution of genes and culture are discussed.

  20. Priming interdependence affects processing of context information in causal inference--but not how you might think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, Kelly M; Grimm, Lisa R; Markman, Arthur B; Spellman, Barbara A

    2014-02-01

    Cultural mindset is related to performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. In particular, studies of both chronic and situationally-primed mindsets show that individuals with a relatively interdependent mindset (i.e., an emphasis on relationships and connections among individuals) are more sensitive to background contextual information than individuals with a more independent mindset. Two experiments tested whether priming cultural mindset would affect sensitivity to background causes in a contingency learning and causal inference task. Participants were primed (either independent or interdependent), and then saw complete contingency information on each of 12 trials for two cover stories in Experiment 1 (hiking causing skin rashes, severed brakes causing wrecked cars) and two additional cover stories in Experiment 2 (school deadlines causing stress, fertilizers causing plant growth). We expected that relative to independent-primed participants, those interdependent-primed would give more weight to the explicitly-presented data indicative of hidden alternative background causes, but they did not do so. In Experiment 1, interdependents gave less weight to the data indicative of hidden background causes for the car accident cover story and showed a decreased sensitivity to the contingencies for that story. In Experiment 2, interdependents placed less weight on the observable data for cover stories that supported more extra-experimental causes, while independents' sensitivity did not vary with these extra-experimental causes. Thus, interdependents were more sensitive to background causes not explicitly presented in the experiment, but this sensitivity hurt rather than improved their acquisition of the explicitly-presented contingency information.

  1. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonella Fiacca; Nikolaos Matzakos; Nikolaos S Papageorgiou; Raffaella Servadei

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all $\\mathbb{R}$. Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower solution, we prove the existence of a solution between them. Also for a special version of the problem, we prove the existence of extremal solutions in the order interval formed by the upper and lower solutions. Then we drop the requirement that the monotone nonlinearity is defined on all of $\\mathbb{R}$. This case is important because it covers variational inequalities. Using the theory of operators of monotone type we show that the problem has a solution. Finally in the last part we consider an eigenvalue problem with a nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearity. Using the critical point theory for nonsmooth locally Lipschitz functionals we prove the existence of at least two nontrivial solutions (multiplicity theorem).

  2. The Investigation of Relationship among Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal, Cyberbullying, and Psychological Disharmony in Adolescents: An Investigation of Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Bayram; Eroglu, Yuksel; Peker, Adem; Akbaba, Sirri; Pepsoy, Sevim

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of relational-interdependent self-construal on cyberbullying and the effect of cyberbullying on psychological disharmony. Participants were 258 high school students. In this study, the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, the Revised Cyberbullying Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety,…

  3. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  4. Cascading of Fluctuations in Interdependent Energy Infrastructures: Gas-Grid Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, Michael; Backhaus, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipeli...

  5. An actor-partner interdependence model of spousal criticism and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A

    2010-08-01

    Although perceived criticism is relational, most theory and research concerns only relatives' criticism toward patients and not the converse. With a sample of 33 depressed patients and their spouses, we take a fully relational approach to criticism by testing an actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Patient intended criticism was especially strongly associated with depressive symptoms for wives, whereas patient perceived criticism was especially negatively related to depressive symptoms for husbands. Nondepressed partner intended criticism was positively related to patient depressive symptoms, but nondepressed wife perceived criticism was negatively related to husband depressive symptoms. The importance of including patient intended and partner perceived criticism as well as examining sex differences in models of criticism and depression are discussed.

  6. When interdependence shapes social perception: cooperation and competition moderate implicit gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Bukowski, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of interdependence goals on the accessibility of implicit gender stereotypical associations. Participants were asked to cooperate with or compete against a woman on a mathematical abilities task and subsequently the relative activation of positive and negative warmth and competence traits was measured using a primed categorization task. Results showed that female primes (vs. male primes) facilitated the activation of low warmth and high competence in the competition condition, whereas high warmth was activated in the cooperation condition and no differences were found for competence traits. These results are discussed referring to the stereotype content model and the compensation effect in person perception. The goal dependent nature of implicit gender stereotypes is emphasized.

  7. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Nicholas; Baucom, Katherine; Bourne, Stacia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor–partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal...... patterns estimated in RM-APIM. Interpretation of results from these models largely focuses on the meaning of single-parameter estimates in isolation from all the others. However, considering individual coefficients separately impedes the understanding of how these associations combine to produce...... to improve the understanding and presentation of dyadic patterns of association described by standard RM-APIMs. The current article briefly reviews the conceptual foundations of RM-APIMs, demonstrates how change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and VFDs can aid interpretation of standard RM-APIMs, and provides a tutorial...

  8. Testing crossover effects in an actor-partner interdependence model among Chinese dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Cheung, Fanny M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the crossover effects from one partner's work-family interface (work-family conflict [WFC] and work-family enrichment [WFE]) to the other partner's four outcomes (psychological strain, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction and job satisfaction) in a sample of Chinese dual-earner couples. Married couples (N = 361) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the work-family interface scale, the psychological strain scale, the life, marital, as well as job satisfaction scale. Results from the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses showed that wives' WFE was negatively associated with husbands' psychological strain, and positively associated with husbands' life, marital and job satisfaction. Furthermore, husbands' WFC was negatively related to wives' marital satisfaction, whereas husbands' WFE was positively related to wives' marital satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, and future research directions were provided.

  9. Model complex of forecasting of interdependent development of migration processes and region labour market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Aleksandrovich Chereshnev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential problems of current international labor migration raising the need to forecast interdependent labor market and migration processes in a region for improving the effectiveness of regional migration policy in Russia are considered. A model for the prediction of migration flows as determined by wage differentials, distances between populations of the regions as well as wages and unemployment, which come from the impact of migration on the availability of jobs at the labor market with search-matching frictions for source and host regions is presented in the framework of search and matching theory. Applying the model to statistical data, the forecast for labor migration flows to regions of Russia from CIS countries, as well as its effects on regional labor markets for 2012-2021 is maid. Recommendations for improving the effectiveness of regional migration policy are given on the basis of the forecast.

  10. Teams and teamwork during a cancer diagnosis: interdependency within and between teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephen H; Weaver, Sallie; Chollette, Veronica; Marks, Lawrence B; Jacobs, Andrew; Schiff, Gordon; Stricker, Carrie T; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Salas, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses the care process among three groups (primary care, radiology, and surgery) aiding a 57-year-old woman during her screening mammography and diagnosis of breast cancer. This is the first in a series of articles exploring principles and topics relevant to teams guiding clinicians involved in cancer care. The challenges demonstrated in this case illustrate how clinicians work within and between groups to deliver this first phase of cancer care. The case helps demonstrate the differences between groups and teams. Focusing on the patient and the overall process of care coordination can help move groups toward becoming teams who deliver better care by identifying and managing goals, roles, and interdependent care tasks. Care providers and researchers can use the case to consider their own work and essential aspects of teamwork needed to improve care, patient outcomes, and the evidence that supports each. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  11. Interdependence of the volume and stress ensembles and equipartition in statistical mechanics of granular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Raphael; Jordan, Joe F; Edwards, Sam F

    2012-12-07

    We discuss the statistical mechanics of granular matter and derive several significant results. First, we show that, contrary to common belief, the volume and stress ensembles are interdependent, necessitating the use of both. We use the combined ensemble to calculate explicitly expectation values of structural and stress-related quantities for two-dimensional systems. We thence demonstrate that structural properties may depend on the angoricity tensor and that stress-based quantities may depend on the compactivity. This calls into question previous statistical mechanical analyses of static granular systems and related derivations of expectation values. Second, we establish the existence of an intriguing equipartition principle-the total volume is shared equally amongst both structural and stress-related degrees of freedom. Third, we derive an expression for the compactivity that makes it possible to quantify it from macroscopic measurements.

  12. Mutual information detects a decreased interdependence between RR and SAP in orthostatic intolerance after microgravity condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, G; Chillemi, S; Michelassi, C; Di Garbo, A; Varanini, M; Legramante, J; Balocchi, R

    2002-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is the most serious symptom of cardiovascular deconditioning induced by microgravity. However, the exact mechanisms underlying these alterations have not been completely clarified. Several methods for studying the time series of systolic arterial pressure and RR interval have been proposed both in the time and in the frequency domain. However, these methods did not produce definitive results. In fact heart rate and arterial pressure show a complex pattern of global variability which is likely due to non linear feedback which involves the autonomic nervous system and to "stochastic" influences. Aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of interdependence between the mechanisms responsible for the variability of SAP and RR signals in subjects exposed to head down (HD). This quantification was achieved by using Mutual Information (MI).

  13. Historical review of the interdependence of settlements and urban and rural blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlov Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the emergence of a new way of shaping settlement space, process when the basic characteristics of the traditionally formed blocks are lost, an idea about searching the role of the urban and rural block in forming the structure and the identity of a settlement is initiated.1 The basic aim of the research is to prove that the block has always been an integral part, and sometimes even inseparable part of a settlement structure, its recognizable element and a significant place of neighboring, and that due to this it is important to preserve its values in future interventions in settlements. In order to understand the cause for the disappearance of the traditional block, its characteristics have been researched in the settlements from the past and the interdependence between the forms of settlements and the blocks has been established.

  14. The Multi-voicedness of Independence and Interdependence - The case of Cameroonian Nso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Heidi; Demuth, Carolin; Yovsi, Relindis D.

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that independence and interdependence are two dimensions that are part of any culture and the psychology of any human being. While previous studies have considered these two concepts merely as a matter of degree, this article argues that, in fact, they can be of different...... quality and have a variety of meanings depending on the specific socio-cultural context. From a systemic approach, the study addresses the dialogical co-existence of these dimensions and views culture as an open system that allows for adaptation and constant reorganization according to the given context....... Interviews with 10 mothers from the ethnic group of the Cameroonian Nso on their ideas on childrearing revealed that different conceptions of autonomy and interpersonal relatedness not only co-exist in this ethnic group but may serve different purposes and change depending on the specific socio-cultural...

  15. Environmental assessment and viable interdependence: the Great Whale River case in northern Quebec (First Nations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulvihill, P. R.

    1997-12-31

    This study is based on the belief that environmental assessment (EA) can be supportive of viable interdependence between regions and cultures. The central focus is on the scoping stage of the EA conducted for the proposed Great Whale hydroelectric project in northern Quebec. The evaluative framework consists of 16 criteria divided into three interrelated categories, i.e. substantive, general process-oriented and specific process-oriented. The specific process-oriented criteria constitute the primary analytical focus and are the subject of five separate sub-analysis, which reveal various strengths and weaknesses in the performance of the case study. It was concluded that environmental assessment in an intercultural setting is largely within the control of EA panels and the key shortcoming of the process, namely the lack of dialogue between the proponents and the intervenors, could be addressed by making public hearings more dynamic and interactive.

  16. Effects of climate model interdependency on the uncertainty quantification of extreme reinfall projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunyer Pinya, Maria Antonia; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan;

    The inherent uncertainty in climate models is one of the most important uncertainties in climate change impact studies. In recent years, several uncertainty quantification methods based on multi-model ensembles have been suggested. Most of these methods assume that the climate models...... are independent. This study investigates the validity of this assumption and its effects on the estimated probabilistic projections of the changes in the 95% quantile of wet days. The methodology is divided in two main parts. First, the interdependency of the ENSEMBLES RCMs is estimated using the methodology...... developed by Pennell and Reichler (2011). The results show that the projections from the ENSEMBLES RCMs cannot be assumed independent. This result is then used to estimate the uncertainty in climate model projections. A Bayesian approach has been developed using the procedure suggested by Tebaldi et al...

  17. The new fiscal rules for the EMU. Threats from heterogeneity and interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tamborini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reform of fiscal rules in the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU, in particular the Stability and Convergence Plans (SCP of public debts. The focus is on factors of heterogeneity and interdependence in the key variables of growth and interest rates. By means of dynamic models of the debt/GDP ratio in a multi-country setup, the paper shows how these factors may jeopardize the main goal of fostering convergence and keeping debt/GDP ratios equalized and stable over time, especially in case of uncoordinated implementation of large SCPs across member countries. Controlling for these factors in practice may be quite demanding, but the key flaw isthat they are almost entirely ignored in the SGP institutional framework that therefore requires a different approach.

  18. The Hydro-Economic Interdependency of Cities: Virtual Water Connections of the Phoenix, Arizona Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Rushforth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water footprinting has revealed hydro-economic interdependencies between distant global geographies via trade, especially of agricultural and manufactured goods. However, for metropolitan areas, trade not only entails commodity flows at many scales from intra-municipal to global, but also substantial intra-metropolitan flows of the skilled labor that is essential to a city’s high-value economy. Virtual water flows between municipalities are directly relevant for municipal water supply policy and infrastructure investment because they quantify the hydro-economic dependency between neighboring municipalities. These municipalities share a physical water supply and also place demands on their neighbors’ water supplies by outsourcing labor and commodity production outside the municipal and water supply system boundary to the metropolitan area. Metropolitan area communities span dense urban cores to fringe agricultural towns, spanning a wide range of the US hydro-economy. This study quantifies water footprints and virtual water flows of the complete economy of the Phoenix Metropolitan Area’s municipalities. A novel approach utilized journey to work data to estimate virtual water flows embedded in labor. Commodities dominate virtual water flows at all scales of analysis, however labor is shown to be important for intra-metropolitan virtual water flows. This is the first detailed water footprint analysis of Phoenix, an important city in a water-scarce region. This study establishes a hydro-economic typology for communities to define several niche roles and decision making points of view. This study’s findings can be used to classify communities with respect to their relative roles, and to benchmark future improvements in water sustainability for all types of communities. More importantly, these findings motivate cooperative approaches to intra-metropolitan water supply policy that recognize the hydro-economic interdependence of these

  19. Globalization, interdependence and education%全球化、相互依赖与教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁胤·纽保尔

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary globalization is marked by rapidly and dramatically increasing interdependence, which operates both within and among countries. Increasing global interdependence has profound influence on education at all levels, such as how to deal with a world with more permeable boundaries in which people are on the move more frequently (migration) than ever before in human history, and in which urbanization is increasing at an unprecedented rate. This paper proposes a transformational analysis of contemporary globalization and identifies the increasing challenge for education due to the globalization, including the struggle to match the pace of technology change in society, to provide graduates with skills relevant to contemporary society, and to lead education students to an accommodation with persistent and rapid social change.%当代全球化的一个重要标志是深刻而日益加剧的相互依赖,它不仅发生在国家内部,也发生在国家之间.日益加剧的全球化相互依赖在很多层面对教育都有着重要的影响,包括如何应对一个界限消融而相互可渗透的世界.本文对当代全球化进行了分析,并探讨了全球化给教育带来的诸多挑战,包括教育如何赶上技术革新的步伐,如何培养毕业生才能使其掌握与当今社会相适应的技术,如何培养学生才能使其适应持久而快速的社会变迁.

  20. A framework for linking cybersecurity metrics to the modeling of macroeconomic interdependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joost R; Haimes, Yacov Y; Lian, Chenyang

    2007-10-01

    Hierarchical decision making is a multidimensional process involving management of multiple objectives (with associated metrics and tradeoffs in terms of costs, benefits, and risks), which span various levels of a large-scale system. The nation is a hierarchical system as it consists multiple classes of decisionmakers and stakeholders ranging from national policymakers to operators of specific critical infrastructure subsystems. Critical infrastructures (e.g., transportation, telecommunications, power, banking, etc.) are highly complex and interconnected. These interconnections take the form of flows of information, shared security, and physical flows of commodities, among others. In recent years, economic and infrastructure sectors have become increasingly dependent on networked information systems for efficient operations and timely delivery of products and services. In order to ensure the stability, sustainability, and operability of our critical economic and infrastructure sectors, it is imperative to understand their inherent physical and economic linkages, in addition to their cyber interdependencies. An interdependency model based on a transformation of the Leontief input-output (I-O) model can be used for modeling: (1) the steady-state economic effects triggered by a consumption shift in a given sector (or set of sectors); and (2) the resulting ripple effects to other sectors. The inoperability metric is calculated for each sector; this is achieved by converting the economic impact (typically in monetary units) into a percentage value relative to the size of the sector. Disruptive events such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and large-scale accidents have historically shown cascading effects on both consumption and production. Hence, a dynamic model extension is necessary to demonstrate the interplay between combined demand and supply effects. The result is a foundational framework for modeling cybersecurity scenarios for the oil and gas sector. A

  1. Networks and Mechanisms of Interdependence. Theoretical developments beyond the rational action model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Bailón, Sandra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is interdependence when the actions of an individual influence the decisions (and later actions of other individuals. This paper claims that social networks define the structure of that range of influence and unleash a number of mechanisms that go beyond those captured by rational action theory. Networks give access to the ideas and actions of other individuals, and this exposure determines the activation of thresholds, the timing of actions, and the emergence of contagion processes, informational cascades and epidemics. This paper sustains that rational action theory does not offer the necessary tools to model these processes if it is not inserted in a general theory of networks. This is especially the case in the context opened by new information and communication technologies, where the interdependence of individuals is acquiring greater empirical relevance.

    Existe interdependencia cuando las acciones de unos individuos influyen en las decisiones (y posteriores acciones de otros individuos. Este artículo sostiene que las redes sociales definen la estructura de ese espacio de influencia y desatan una serie de mecanismos de los que la teoría de la elección racional no puede dar cuenta. Las redes sociales abren acceso a las ideas y acciones de otros individuos, y esta exposición determina la satisfacción de umbrales, el tempo con en el que se llevan a cabo las acciones y la emergencia de procesos de contagio, cascadas de información y epidemias. Este artículo defiende que la teoría de la elección racional no ofrece las herramientas necesarias para modelizar tales procesos si no se inserta en una teoría general de redes. Éste es especialmente el caso en unos momentos en los que la interdependencia de individuos está adquiriendo, al amparo de las nuevas tecnologías, mayor relevancia empírica.

  2. Nonlinear Cross Gramians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Tudor C.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain linearization results that correspond to the notion of a cross Gramian for symmetric linear systems. Furthermore, first steps towards relations with the singular value functions of the nonlinear Hankel operator are studied and yield promising results.

  3. Nonlinear functional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Fouché

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss some aspects of nonlinear functional analysis. It included reviews of Banach’s contraction theorem, Schauder’s fixed point theorem, globalising techniques and applications of homotopy theory to nonlinear functional analysis. The author emphasises that fundamentally new ideas are required in order to achieve a better understanding of phenomena which contain both nonlinear and definite infinite dimensional features.

  4. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and QED

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The limits of linear electrodynamics are reviewed, and possible directions of nonlinear extension are explored. The central theme is that the qualitative character of the empirical successes of quantum electrodynamics must be used as a guide for understanding the nature of the nonlinearity of electrodynamics at the subatomic level. Some established theories of nonlinear electrodynamics, namely, those of Mie, Born, and Infeld are presented in the language of the modern geometrical and topologi...

  5. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  6. Nonlinear magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kozyrev, Alexander B; van der Weide, Daniel W; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-12-08

    We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America

  7. Organic nonlinear optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umegaki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  8. Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2007-12-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.

  9. Effect of Starch/Polylactic Acid Ratio on the Interdependence of Two-Phase and the Properties of Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yingfeng; GU Jiyou; CAO Jun; WEI Shuangying; TAN Haiyan; ZHANG Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Starch/polylactic acid (PLA) composites were prepared by melt extrusion, with corn starch and PLA as raw materials, glycerol as the plasticizer. Effects of starch/PLA ratio on the interdependence of two-phase and other properties of the composites were studied. The combination of results of TGA with SEM indicated that the interdependence between starch and PLA was increased gradually as the starch/PLA ratio reduced. DSC results showed that the glass transition temperature (Tg), melting temperature (Tm) and degree of crystallinity of PLA in composites were increased gradually, whereas the cold crystallization temperature (Tc) was gradually decreased as the starch/PLA ratio reduced. The rheological properties of composites were closely related with the interdependence of two-phase, with reducing starch/PLA proportion, the interdependence was increased, and then the strain for storage modulus was ifrstl reduced and then gradually increased. Frequency scanning showed that the storage modulus and complex viscosity were decreased with reducing starch content. As the starch/PLA ratio reduced, the matrix phase PLA was increased, so that the strength of composites was increased gradually, whereas water absorption rate was decreased gradually.

  10. Utility Evaluation Based on One-To-N Mapping in the Prisoner’s Dilemma Game for Interdependent Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Lu, Wenwen; Liu, Lina; Li, Li; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    In the field of evolutionary game theory, network reciprocity has become an important means to promote the level of promotion within the population system. Recently, the interdependency provides a novel perspective to understand the widespread cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In previous works, interdependency is often built from the direct or indirect connections between two networks through the one-to-one mapping mode. However, under many realistic scenarios, players may need much more information from many neighboring agents so as to make a more rational decision. Thus, beyond the one-to-one mapping mode, we investigate the cooperation behavior on two interdependent lattices, in which the utility evaluation of a focal player on one lattice may not only concern himself, but also integrate the payoff information of several corresponding players on the other lattice. Large quantities of simulations indicate that the cooperation can be substantially promoted when compared to the traditionally spatial lattices. The cluster formation and phase transition are also analyzed in order to explore the role of interdependent utility coupling in the collective cooperation. Current results are beneficial to deeply understand various mechanisms to foster the cooperation exhibited inside natural, social and engineering systems. PMID:27907024

  11. Utility Evaluation Based on One-To-N Mapping in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game for Interdependent Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Lu, Wenwen; Liu, Lina; Li, Li; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    In the field of evolutionary game theory, network reciprocity has become an important means to promote the level of promotion within the population system. Recently, the interdependency provides a novel perspective to understand the widespread cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In previous works, interdependency is often built from the direct or indirect connections between two networks through the one-to-one mapping mode. However, under many realistic scenarios, players may need much more information from many neighboring agents so as to make a more rational decision. Thus, beyond the one-to-one mapping mode, we investigate the cooperation behavior on two interdependent lattices, in which the utility evaluation of a focal player on one lattice may not only concern himself, but also integrate the payoff information of several corresponding players on the other lattice. Large quantities of simulations indicate that the cooperation can be substantially promoted when compared to the traditionally spatial lattices. The cluster formation and phase transition are also analyzed in order to explore the role of interdependent utility coupling in the collective cooperation. Current results are beneficial to deeply understand various mechanisms to foster the cooperation exhibited inside natural, social and engineering systems.

  12. In-Migration, Entrepreneurship and Rural-Urban Interdependencies: The Case of East Cleveland, North East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantaridis, Christos

    2010-01-01

    In-migration is a key influence in the process of rural economic development in England, Continental Europe and the US. New arrivals are often viewed in the literature as contributors in new venture creation, as well as catalysts in enhancing rural-urban interdependencies in the countryside. This paper sets out to explore the validity of this view…

  13. Water-scarcity patterns : spatiotemporal interdependencies between water use and water availability in a semi-arid river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oel, van Pieter Richard

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the interdependencies between water use and water availability and describes a model that has been developed to improve understanding of the processes that drive changes and variations in the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources in a semi-arid river basin. These

  14. Promoting VET Teachers' Innovative Behaviour: Exploring the Roles of Task Interdependence, Learning Goal Orientation and Occupational Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runhaar, Piety; Bednall, Timothy; Sanders, Karin; Yang, Huadong

    2016-01-01

    Changing employer demands, new technological and pedagogical insights are examples of developments which urge Vocational Education and Training (VET) institutes to continually renew and innovate their educational programmes. This, in turn, requires teachers to show innovative behaviour. Our study focuses on the effects of task interdependence on…

  15. Effects on Homework Completion and Accuracy of Varied and Constant Reinforcement within an Interdependent Group Contingency System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque; Newman-Eig, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the efficacy of an interdependent group contingency program on increasing homework completion and accuracy rates in fourth grade students in an elementary school. In addition, the present study attempted to determine whether randomized reinforcement was more effective than constant reinforcement. Overall, the…

  16. Interdependency between Risk Assessments for Self and Other in the Field of Comparative Optimism: The Contribution of Response Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzenstetter, Florence; Schimchowitsch, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a response-time measure in the field of comparative optimism, this study was designed to explore how people estimate risk to self and others depending on the evaluation order (self/other or other/self). Our results show the interdependency between self and other answers. Indeed, while response time for risk assessment for the self…

  17. Effects of Self-Construal Differences on Cognitive Dissonance Examined by Priming the Independent and Interdependent Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Jia Yan Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior cross-cultural research on dissonance has relied on cultural stereotypes in assuming that individuals from Western cultures are individualistic and have independent self-construals whereas individuals from Asian cultures are collectivistic and have interdependent self-construals. The current research made use of priming to avoid relying on cultural stereotypes and examined how having an independent or interdependent self-construal accounted for differences in dissonance experienced. A total of 120 participants who were Singapore citizens or permanent residents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Participants received either an independent or interdependent prime, and rated and ranked CDs before and after they made a choice between closely valued alternatives either for oneself or a close other. Results indicated that independently primed participants demonstrated significant dissonance when they made choices for themselves and close others whereas interdependently primed participants demonstrated significant dissonance when they made choices for close others but not for themselves. The study’s findings suggest that having either self-construal accounted for differences in dissonance experienced.

  18. The Relative Effects of Positive Interdependence and Group Processing on Student Achievement and Attitude in Online Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chang Woo; Zellner, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of positive interdependence and group processing on student achievement and attitude in online learning. Students in three university courses received initial instruction about teamwork skills and cooperative learning and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups in each course. The "positive…

  19. Nonlinear Analysis and Intelligent Control of Integrated Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing and more stringent requirements for advanced vehicle integration, including vehicle dynamics and control, traditional control and optimization strategies may not qualify for many applications. This is because, among other factors, they do not consider the nonlinear characteristics of practical systems. Moreover, the vehicle wheel model has some inadequacies regarding the sideslip angle, road adhesion coefficient, vertical load, and velocity. In this paper, an adaptive neural wheel network is introduced, and the interaction between the lateral and vertical dynamics of the vehicle is analyzed. By means of nonlinear analyses such as the use of a bifurcation diagram and the Lyapunov exponent, the vehicle is shown to exhibit complicated motions with increasing forward speed. Furthermore, electric power steering (EPS and active suspension system (ASS, which are based on intelligent control, are used to reduce the nonlinear effect, and a negotiation algorithm is designed to manage the interdependences and conflicts among handling stability, driving smoothness, and safety. Further, a rapid control prototype was built using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform dSPACE and used to conduct a real vehicle test. The results of the test were consistent with those of the simulation, thereby validating the proposed control.

  20. When Low Self-Esteem Encourages Behaviors that Risk Rejection to Increase Interdependence: The Role of Relational Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Levi R.; McNulty, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interdependence in an intimate relationship requires engaging in behaviors that risk rejection, such as expressing affection and asking for support. Who takes such risks and who avoids them? Although several theoretical perspectives suggest that self-esteem plays a crucial role in shaping such behaviors, they can be used to make competing predictions regarding the direction of this effect. Six studies reconcile these contrasting predictions by demonstrating that the effects of self-esteem on behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence depend on relational self-construal— i.e., the extent to which people define themselves by their close relationships. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were given the opportunity to disclose negative personal information (Study 1) and feelings of intimacy (Study 2) to their dating partners. In Study 3, married couples reported the extent to which they confided in one another. In Study 4, we manipulated self-esteem and relational self-construal and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that increase interdependence. In Studies 5 and 6, we manipulated the salience of interpersonal risk and participants reported their willingness to engage in behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence. In all six studies, self-esteem was positively associated with behaviors that can increase interdependence among people low in relational self-construal but negatively associated with those behaviors among people high in relational self-construal. Accordingly, theoretical descriptions of the role of self-esteem in relationships will be most complete to the extent that they consider the degree to which people define themselves by their close relationships. PMID:23586411

  1. Lasers for nonlinear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frank

    2013-03-01

    Various versions of nonlinear microscopy are revolutionizing the life sciences, almost all of which are made possible because of the development of ultrafast lasers. In this article, the main properties and technical features of short-pulse lasers used in nonlinear microscopy are summarized. Recent research results on fiber lasers that will impact future instruments are also discussed.

  2. Nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D F

    1991-07-19

    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  3. Estimating nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, S. A.

    1988-03-01

    Time and frequency domain identification methods for nonlinear systems are reviewed. Parametric methods, prediction error methods, structure detection, model validation, and experiment design are discussed. Identification of a liquid level system, a heat exchanger, and a turbocharge automotive diesel engine are illustrated. Rational models are introduced. Spectral analysis for nonlinear systems is treated. Recursive estimation is mentioned.

  4. Nonlinear Cross Gramians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionescu, T. C.; Scherpen, J. M. A.; Korytowski, A; Malanowski, K; Mitkowski, W; Szymkat, M

    2009-01-01

    We study the notion of cross Gramians for nonlinear gradient systems, using the characterization in terms of prolongation and gradient extension associated to the system. The cross Gramian is given for the variational system associated to the original nonlinear gradient system. We obtain

  5. Engineered nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Torner, L.

    1999-01-01

    We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear...

  6. Controllability in nonlinear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    An explicit expression for the reachable set is obtained for a class of nonlinear systems. This class is described by a chain condition on the Lie algebra of vector fields associated with each nonlinear system. These ideas are used to obtain a generalization of a controllability result for linear systems in the case where multiplicative controls are present.

  7. Nonlinear Maneuver Autopilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Badgett, M. E.; Walker, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    Trajectory-control laws based on singular-perturbation theory and nonlinear dynamical modeling. Nonlinear maneuver autopilot commands flight-test trajectories of F-15 airplane. Underlying theory of controller enables separation of variables processed in fast and slow control loops, reducing amount of computation required.

  8. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  9. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  10. Applications of fractal and non-linear time series analysis to the study of short-term cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Julián J; Pereda, Ernesto

    2004-04-01

    The short-term cardiovascular control system is reviewed from the analysis of the heart rate, respiration and blood pressure beat-to-beat variability signals. The present state of the art concerning fractal and non-linear techniques as applied to the cardiovascular system and the differences between both approaches are highlighted. We present results obtained in mammals from statistics, such as the fractal exponent, the correlation dimension or the maximal Lyapunov exponent and discuss the convenience of these indexes for characterizing the irregularity present in the signals. Finally, the interdependence between the systems involved in the cardiovascular control is addressed. Recent results obtained from interdependence indexes between the cardio, respiratory and vascular signals are discussed and their convenience in physiological studies and clinical applications are stressed.

  11. Nonlinear cochlear mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, George

    2016-05-01

    An earlier paper characterizing the linear mechanical response of the organ of Corti [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1102-1121 (2015)] is extended to the nonlinear domain. Assuming the existence of nonlinear oscillators nonlocally coupled through the pressure they help create, the oscillator equations are derived and examined when the stimuli are modulated tones and clicks. The nonlinearities are constrained by the requirements of oscillator stability and the invariance of zero crossings in the click response to changes in click amplitude. The nonlinear oscillator equations for tones are solved in terms of the fluid pressure that drives them, and its time derivative, presumably a proxy for forces created by outer hair cells. The pressure equation is reduced to quadrature, the integrand depending on the oscillators' responses. The resulting nonlocally coupled nonlinear equations for the pressure, and oscillator amplitudes and phases, are solved numerically in terms of the fluid pressure at the stapes. Methods for determining the nonlinear damping directly from measurements are described. Once the oscillators have been characterized from their tone and click responses, the mechanical response of the cochlea to natural sounds may be computed numerically. Signal processing inspired by cochlear mechanics opens up a new area of nonlocal nonlinear time-frequency analysis.

  12. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2001-01-01

    The Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering have awarded Govind Agrawal with an honorable mention for the Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award for his work on Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edition.Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers. It retains most of the material that appeared in the first edition, with the exception of Chapter 6, which is now devoted to the polarization effects relevant for light propagation in optical

  13. Will Nonlinear Backcalculation Help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    2000-01-01

    demonstrates, that treating the subgrade as a nonlinear elastic material, can result in more realistic moduli and a much better agreement between measured and calculated stresses and strains.The response of nonlinear elastic materials can be calculated using the Finite Element Method (FEM). A much simpler...... approach is to use the Method of Equivalent Thicknesses (MET), modified for a nonlinear subgrade. The paper includes an example where moduli backcalculated using FEM, linear elastic theory and MET are compared. Stresses and strains predicted by the three methods are also compared to measured values...

  14. Nonlinear graphene metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaenko, Andrey E; Atmatzakis, Evangelos; Luo, Zhiqiang; Shen, Ze Xiang; De Angelis, Francesco; Boden, Stuart A; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that the broadband nonlinear optical response of graphene can be resonantly enhanced by more than an order of magnitude through hybridization with a plasmonic metamaterial,while retaining an ultrafast nonlinear response time of ~1 ps. Transmission modulation close to ~1% is seen at a pump uence of ~0.03 mJ/cm^2 at the wavelength of ~1600 nm. This approach allows to engineer and enhance graphene's nonlinearity within a broad wavelength range enabling applications in optical switching, mode-locking and pulse shaping.

  15. A cross-linguistic and bilingual evaluation of the interdependence between lexical and grammatical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine within and across language relationships between lexical and grammatical domains by focusing on measures of lexical diversity and grammatical complexity in Spanish and English. One hundred and ninety-six preschool and school-aged Latino children with different levels of English and Spanish proficiencies and different language abilities produced narratives in Spanish, English, or both. Analyses revealed strong associations between lexical (number of different words and number of different verbs) and grammatical measures (mean length of utterances in words and use of ditransitive predicates), supporting the domain interdependence hypothesis within a language. Cross-linguistic comparisons indicate a greater diversity of verbs and ditransitive predicates in Spanish compared to English for this population. In the language samples of children who produced narratives in the two languages, there was no relationship between the two domains across languages. The lack of cross-language correlations may be related to other variables influencing lexical and semantic development in bilingual learners. Methodological issues to be considered in future studies with bilingual speakers are discussed.

  16. [Analysis of interdependence of temperament, neuroendocrine control and psychophysiological status during dry immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichiporuk, I A

    2008-01-01

    Interdependence of temperament, hormonal and psychophysiological status was investigated in 8 young volunteers for 7-d dry immersion (DI). Blood levels of insulin, sex, steroid, thyroid hormones and psychomotor parameters were determined on DI days 3 and 7, and on day 7 of recovery. Before DI, the volunteers filled in the Kettelle personality questionnaire. During DI, anxious subjects spent less time to compare visual patterns demonstrating high and stable speed of reactions but made a bit more errors. Extraverts showed high speed of reactions and stability of psychomotor parameters and did not increase the number of errors. Easy-tempered and introvert subjects preserved inherently high insulin concentrations in DI. Support deprivation was attended by drop of the levels of triiodothyronine and cortisol and rise of prolactin and thyroxin. Results of multiple correlation analysis led to the conclusion that DI accentuates the role of original extra-introversion and dampens origin anxiety. Successfulness can be attained by adequate alteration of the levels of steroid and thyroid hormones with effectively balanced vagoinsulin-sympathoadrenal neuroendocrine control and monoaminergic CNV activity.

  17. Russian gas and european energy security: Interdependence following the crisis with Georgia and the Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gullo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, gas represents one of the main energy raw materials that are used for producing electricity and other private uses. The dual political conflict between the Ukraine and the Russian Federation (winter 2005 and Christmas 2008 and 2009 has highlighted the EU’s position of structural weaknesses both in terms of the supply of its raw materials and as regards possible alternatives to Russia as an energy supplier. The European countries worst hit by Russian-Ukrainian tensions have been those with the greatest dependence on Russian gas. This crisis scenario has led governments to promote a common European energy policy with the aim of, in the future, being in a stronger position than Europe’s current one when negotiating with both Russia and all the other suppliers of energy sources. The article attempts to develop and analyse what has happened since 2005 between the two crises (also with particular references to the recent conflicts between Georgia and Russia in August 2008. The authors begin by analysing the main theoretical framework with respect to interdependence. They then go on to analyse the events, identifying and delimiting the movements of the actors so as to be able to understand both the present situation and the foreseeable consequences of same. In the last part, the authors attempt to analyse the different theoretical frameworks delimited at the beginning of the research by comparing them with the events that have taken place.

  18. Inter-dependence not Over-dependence: Reducing Urban Transport Energy Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Michael James; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio Nelson

    2007-07-01

    A major issue of concern in today's world is urban transport energy dependence and energy supply security. In an energy inter-dependent world, energy over-dependence brings risks to urban transport systems. Many urban areas are over-dependent on finite petroleum resources for transport. New technology and the development and integration of renewable resources into transport energy systems may reduce some of the current transport energy dependence of urban areas. However, the most effective means of reducing energy dependence is to first design urban areas for this condition. An urban policy framework is proposed that requires transport energy dependence to be measured and controlled in the urban development process. A new tool has been created for this purpose, the Transport Energy Specification (TES), which measures transport energy dependence of urban areas. This creates the possibility for cities to regulate urban development with respect to energy dependence. Trial assessments were performed in Germany, New Zealand and Brazil; initial analysis by transport and government professionals shows promise of this tool being included into urban policy. The TES combined with a regulatory framework has the potential to significantly reduce transport energy consumption and dependence in urban areas in the future. (auth)

  19. The interdependence of the reactive species of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bild, Walther; Ciobica, Alin; Padurariu, Manuela; Bild, Veronica

    2013-03-01

    This mini-review tries to summarize the main interdependences between the free radicals of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon. Also, the main metabolic pathways for these radical species are described, as well as how these affect their interaction and functional implications. Emphasis is made on the metabolic disturbances induced by stressing aggressions that produce radical species. In this way, cellular oxidative imbalances created by the superiority of reactive oxygen species over the antioxidant systems produce both activation of nitroxide synthases and the oxidation of terminal nitrogen from L-arginine, as well as the metabolization of heme until carbon monoxide by nitric oxide-activated hemoxygenase. Also, multiple cellular protein and nucleoprotein alterations determined by these three kinds of radical species are completed by the involvement of hydrogen sulfide, which results from the degradation of L-cysteine by cistationine-γ-lyase. In this way, sufficient experimental data tend to demonstrate the involvement of hydrogen sulfide and other thiol derivatives in the interrelations between oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, which results in a true radical cascade. Thus, oxidative stress, together with nitrosative and carbonilic stress, may constitute a central point where other factors of vulnerability meet, and their interactions could have an important impact in many modern diseases. Considering that the actions of reactive species can be most of the time corrected, future studies need to establish the therapeutical importance of various agents which modulate oxidative, nitrosative, or carbonilic stress.

  20. On Revenue-Optimal Dynamic Auctions for Bidders with Interdependent Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Florin; Parkes, David C.

    In a dynamic market, being able to update one's value based on information available to other bidders currently in the market can be critical to having profitable transactions. This is nicely captured by the model of interdependent values (IDV): a bidder's value can explicitly depend on the private information of other bidders. In this paper we present preliminary results about the revenue properties of dynamic auctions for IDV bidders. We adopt a computational approach to design single-item revenue-optimal dynamic auctions with known arrivals and departures but (private) signals that arrive online. In leveraging a characterization of truthful auctions, we present a mixed-integer programming formulation of the design problem. Although a discretization is imposed on bidder signals the solution is a mechanism applicable to continuous signals. The formulation size grows exponentially in the dependence of bidders' values on other bidders' signals. We highlight general properties of revenue-optimal dynamic auctions in a simple parametrized example and study the sensitivity of prices and revenue to model parameters.

  1. Relevance-based control over visual attention is fast and interdependent with stimulus-driven capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfang, Maria; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    An object that is relevant to the current task is more readily encoded than a similar, less relevant object (e.g., Wolfe, Cave, & Franzel, 1989). However, it is highly debated whether relevance-based selection is feasible at short exposure durations (e.g., Theeuwes, 2010). It has been argued that......, the study provided new evidence that both contrast and relevance influence attentional selection at very short exposure durations and the effects of the two factors are interdependent.......An object that is relevant to the current task is more readily encoded than a similar, less relevant object (e.g., Wolfe, Cave, & Franzel, 1989). However, it is highly debated whether relevance-based selection is feasible at short exposure durations (e.g., Theeuwes, 2010). It has been argued...... that high local feature contrast attracts attention independently of task-relevance. Yet, recent studies have provided evidence that effects of task-irrelevant feature contrast interact with the task-relevance of the object in question (Nordfang, 2011). In a new experiment, display size was kept constant...

  2. Analysis of linseed (Linum usitatissiumum L. plant branching as related to variability and interdependence of traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching process of two linseed cultivars ('Hungarian Gold' and 'Opal' was analysed each year of vegetation between 1999 and 2002 characterised by different weather course. The estimation included also the extent and variability of selected morphological traits and structural traits. as well as correlation between them. On the basis of biometric measurements the hierarchy of plant shoots has been established within a plant, and four plant groups were distinguished: 1-. 2-, 3- and 4-shoot plants. It was demonstrated that the intensity of linseed branching depended mainly on young plant planting density and, to a certain extent also the weather conditions in April and May. In the years when the weather course favoured vegetation. between 23 and 40% plants per stand were branched. Beside increasing its productivity linseed branching may also inhibit a development of secondary weed infestation of the canopy. Similar plant groups with analogous shoot hierarchy formed in both linseed cultivars. Bio social position of shoot on a plant determined the extent of its traits. A dominance of the maiii shoot over lateral shoots was marked, especially concerning the number of seed vessels. Particularly big prevalence of the main shoot over lateral ones was visible in 3- and 4-9hoot plants. Lateral shoots had greater variability of morphological traits, especially concerning the number of seed vessels per shoot. Linear, exponential and power interdependencies between traits of linseed cultivars were also revealed.

  3. Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages with Multi-Type Branching Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Junjian; Sun, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-type branching process is applied to describe the statistics of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multi-type branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multi-type branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multi-type branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multi-type branching process can effectively predi...

  4. INTERDEPENDENT ANALYSIS OF LEVERAGE, DIVIDEND, AND MANAGERIAL OWNERSHIP POLICIES: Agencies Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibisono Hardjopranoto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate interdependent mechanism among leverage, dividend, and managerial ownership policies. This paper considers firm size and economic conditions to control their effect on the relationship among the three policies. The interrelationship between leverage, dividend, and managerial ownership policies will be tested using two-stage least squares. Five exogenous variables are employed in simultaneous equation: current assets and structure of assets as leverage determinants, book to market and return on investment as dividend determinants, and relative return to risk as managerial ownership determinant. The research employs year 1994-2004 data, with 1717 firm years. The research findings can be summarised as follows. First, there is a negative relationship between managerial ownership and leverage policies as suggested by agency theory. Second, there is a relationship between managerial ownership and dividend policies, but the relationship between leverage and dividend is insignificant. Third, the relationship between leverage and dividend is insensitive to economic condition and firm size. Fourth, all exogenous variables have significant effect on endogenous variables, except relative return. Fifth, the effects of exogenous variables are not sensitive to control variables. Sixth, we find that managers show self-interest behaviours by reducing managerial ownership when the economic condition worsens.

  5. ANALISIS HABITS OF THINKING INTERDEPENDENTLY (HTI SISWA SMP DALAM PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummul Huda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research is motivated by the lack of social interaction among students to improve the quality of understanding and learning. Yet this is very important  to achieve maximum results in learning, including the habit of students to give feedback, criticism, responses, compliments to each other; mutual energies and thoughts to the group; more concerned with common interests rather than personal interests; mutual aid among fellow members of the group to ensure that all members understand the task they are doing; and they not only contribute but also learn something from the group. Therefore, this study discusses about how the image of students HTI in learning math is done cooperatively. The method used is descriptive quantitative research, the subjects are students of SMPN 5 Bandung totaling 29 person. The instrument that this research used was a questionnaire and observation sheet. The result of this research show that students’ HTI in learning cooperative are good, such as they are care/emphathize to the others feeling and thought, to look at and listen to others with understanding and empathy, showing their independence in learning and collaborative team. Kata Kunci: Habit of Thinking Interdependently (HTI, Pembelajaran Kooperatif

  6. Strategic R and D Planning for an Energy Future in an Interdependent World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schainker, R.B.; Gellings, C.; Rosinski, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of key results of a comprehensive analysis of technology R and D needs for the U.S. electric utility industry. It focuses on the impacts of the world-wide interdependencies for the price of gas/oil fuel and the costs for environmental emissions as drivers to define four 'what-if' scenarios that act as a basis to define key R and D topics U.S. electric utilities need to address. This paper is based on past work the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute performed on a technology roadmap, which is a high-level document that provides guidance on strategic technology planning over the next 40-50 years for the electricity industry. However, critical uncertainties over this timeframe - such as fuel prices, the economy, the environment, technology advances, and regulatory policies - complicate effective identification and development of R and D priorities. To address these uncertainties and to develop a nearer-term technology-oriented action plan, EPRI undertook an Electric Power Industry Technology Scenarios project that uses scenario planning to explicitly incorporate uncertainty and focuses on a 20-year planning horizon. (auth)

  7. Impact of Degraded Communication on Interdependent Power Systems: The Application of Grid Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di-An Tian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication is increasingly present for managing and controlling critical infrastructures strengthening their cyber interdependencies. In electric power systems, grid splitting is a topical communication-critical application. It amounts to separating a power system into islands in response to an impending instability, e.g., loss of generator synchronism due to a component fault, by appropriately disconnecting transmission lines and grouping synchronous generators. The successful application of grid splitting depends on the communication infrastructure to collect system-wide synchronized measurements and to relay the command to open line switches. Grid splitting may be ineffective if communication is degraded and its outcome may also depend on the system loading conditions. This paper investigates the effects of degraded communication and load variability on grid splitting. To this aim, a communication delay model is coupled with a transient electrical model and applied to the IEEE 39-Bus and the IEEE 118-Bus Test System. Case studies show that the loss of generator synchronism following a fault is mitigated by timely splitting the network into islands. On the other hand, the results show that communication delays and increased network flows can degrade the performance of grid splitting. The developed framework enables the identification of the requirements of the dedicated communication infrastructure for a successful grid-splitting procedure.

  8. Latin American students and language learning in Catalonia: what does the linguistic interdependence hypothesis show us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The massive arrival in Spain of students of immigrant origin has visibly altered the traditional configuration of schools, where ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity is becoming increasingly manifest. This situation is worth being mentioned insofar as it affects all the different autonomous communities in the country, even more clearly Catalonia, where the educational system is organized under the parameters of bilingual education. One of the theoretical constructs supporting this educational model is the Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis, developed by Jim Cummins at the beginning of the 1980s. According to the author, whenever the instruction in a given language (Lx) takes place under certain conditions, competence acquired in this language can be transferred onto another (Ly). Bearing this theoretical construct in mind, our study focuses on a sample of 237 Spanish-speaking subjects (123 native and 114 immigrant students) who completed a series of parallel tests evaluating their skills in Catalan and Spanish. Drawing on the data analyzed we can conclude that the Hypothesis accounts for the results in both native and immigrant students with the same L1.

  9. NAFTA countries` energy and environmental interdependence: deviations arising from trading-bloc exclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, R.M. [Mackay Research, Sevenoaks (United Kingdom); Probert, S.D. [Cranfield Univ., Bedford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Energy

    1995-10-01

    The assessed NAFTA countries (i.e. the USA, Canada and Mexico) are categorised on the bases of their levels of economic development and indigenous energy resources, i.e. classified as energy rich and either: advanced industrialised (i.e. Canada and the USA) or: developing (i.e. Mexico). For each country its energy balance (including considerations of resources, rates of consumption, fuels-demand types as well as the degree of national self-sufficiency with respect to each fuel) is related to the rate of economic development of the nation state. This investigation explores the growing interdependency between the USA, Canada and Mexico and the economic implications for neighbouring countries excluded from this trading bloc. Worldwide, we are failing to address with sufficient urgency and adequate immediate actions the simultaneous related problems and consequences of: the major depletion of fossil-fuel reserves that will occur during the next 50 years; environmental degradation, which is occurring as a result of our non-sustainable lifestyles. These are considered with respect to the NAFTA countries. (Author)

  10. Simulating Transport and Land Use Interdependencies for Strategic Urban Planning—An Agent Based Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Huynh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agent based modelling has been widely accepted as a promising tool for urban planning purposes thanks to its capability to provide sophisticated insights into the social behaviours and the interdependencies that characterise urban systems. In this paper, we report on an agent based model, called TransMob, which explicitly simulates the mutual dynamics between demographic evolution, transport demands, housing needs and the eventual change in the average satisfaction of the residents of an urban area. The ability to reproduce such dynamics is a unique feature that has not been found in many of the like agent based models in the literature. TransMob, is constituted by six major modules: synthetic population, perceived liveability, travel diary assignment, traffic micro-simulator, residential location choice, and travel mode choice. TransMob is used to simulate the dynamics of a metropolitan area in South East of Sydney, Australia, in 2006 and 2011, with demographic evolution. The results are favourably compared against survey data for the area in 2011, therefore validating the capability of TransMob to reproduce the observed complexity of an urban area. We also report on the application of TransMob to simulate various hypothetical scenarios of urban planning policies. We conclude with discussions on current limitations of TransMob, which serve as suggestions for future developments.

  11. Robustness of coevolution in resolving prisoner's dilemma games on interdependent networks subject to attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Penghui; Liu, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Recently, coevolution between strategy and network structure has been established as a rule to resolve social dilemmas and reach optimal situations for cooperation. Many follow-up researches have focused on studying how coevolution helps networks reorganize to deter the defectors and many coevolution methods have been proposed. However, the robustness of the coevolution rules against attacks have not been studied much. Since attacks may directly influence the original evolutionary process of cooperation, the robustness should be an important index while evaluating the quality of a coevolution method. In this paper, we focus on investigating the robustness of an elementary coevolution method in resolving the prisoner's dilemma game upon the interdependent networks. Three different types of time-independent attacks, named as edge attacks, instigation attacks and node attacks have been employed to test its robustness. Through analyzing the simulation results obtained, we find this coevolution method is relatively robust against the edge attack and the node attack as it successfully maintains cooperation in the population over the entire attack range. However, when the instigation probability of the attacked individuals is large or the attack range of instigation attack is wide enough, coevolutionary rule finally fails in maintaining cooperation in the population.

  12. The interdependence of public witness and institutional unity in the Dutch Reformed family of churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D E de Villiers

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Belhar Confession of the then Dutch Reformed Mission Church officially approved in 1986 confesses that the unity of the church should be made visible. Very little has since then come of this visible unity in the family of Dutch Reformed churches. Since 1996, however, new impetus has been given to the effort to bring about institutional unity. It has especially been in their ministries of public witness and service that these churches succeeded to a large extent to give visible and institutional expression to their unity. This would hopefully enable the churches of the Dutch Reformed family to play a more effective public role in the present South African society. They, however, face two serious restrictions in this regard: the limited scope for churches to play a public role within the new liberal democratic dispensation in South Africa and the limited motivation to play a transforming public role in the churches of the Dutch Reformed family. In the article a few pre-conditions for playing an effective public role the churches of the Dutch Reformed family have to meet are discussed. The most important one is that these churches should achieve full institutional unity as soon as possible. The conclusion of the article is therefore that the interdependence of institutional unity and public witness is a reality they will have to deal with effectively if they want to move forward.

  13. Critical clusters in interdependent economic sectors. A data-driven spectral clustering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Gabriele; Setola, Roberto; Panzieri, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we develop a data-driven hierarchical clustering methodology to group the economic sectors of a country in order to highlight strongly coupled groups that are weakly coupled with other groups. Specifically, we consider an input-output representation of the coupling among the sectors and we interpret the relation among sectors as a directed graph; then we recursively apply the spectral clustering methodology over the graph, without a priori information on the number of groups that have to be obtained. In order to do this, we resort to the eigengap criterion, where a suitable number of groups is selected automatically based on the intensity and structure of the coupling among the sectors. We validate the proposed methodology considering a case study for Italy, inspecting how the coupling among clusters and sectors changes from the year 1995 to 2011, showing that in the years the Italian structure underwent deep changes, becoming more and more interdependent, i.e., a large part of the economy has become tightly coupled.

  14. Mapping interpersonal communication between pediatricians and mothers: understandings, interdependencies and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookerjee, Devalina

    2013-12-01

    Interpersonal communication between pediatricians and mothers is both complex and interdependent. The mother is dependent on the pediatrician for her child's wellbeing and care along expertise-related dimensions for which she cannot provide. The pediatrician is dependent on the mother's ability to provide accurate information about the child's health and habits, so that the doctor, who has limited time with the child, is able to make continuing accurate diagnoses. This paper seeks to provide a basic understanding of interpersonal mis-/communication between mothers and pediatricians, a complex area which has not heretofore been mapped in the contemporary Indian context. Therefore, the paper presents a small-scale exploratory qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with both doctors and mothers in the city of Kolkata (Calcutta), India. It focuses on providing an understanding of the factors that may enable or disenable instrumental or relational communication in the mother-pediatrician situation. Four major themes emerge from the data: first, the shifting borders of information between pediatricians and parents; second, the respective roles of verbal and non-verbal communication in the consultation; third, a tension between the traditional and the modern; and fourth, understandings of professional and interpersonal relationship in the context of responsibility for a child.

  15. Interdependence of conformational and chemical reaction dynamics during ion assembly in polar solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Minbiao; Hartsock, Robert W; Sun, Zheng; Gaffney, Kelly J

    2011-10-01

    We have utilized time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy to study the interdependence of the conformational and chemical reaction dynamics of ion assembly in solution. We investigated the chemical interconversion dynamics of the LiNCS ion pair and the (LiNCS)(2) ion-pair dimer, as well as the spectral diffusion dynamics of these ionic assemblies. For the strongly coordinating Lewis base solvents benzonitrile, dimethyl carbonate, and ethyl acetate, we observe Li(+) coordination by both solvent molecules and NCS(-) anions, while the weak Lewis base solvent nitromethane shows no evidence for solvent coordination of Li(+) ions. The strong interaction between the ion-pair dimer structure and the Lewis base solvents leads to ion-pair dimer solvation dynamics that proceed more slowly than the ion-pair dimer dissociation. We have attributed the slow spectral diffusion dynamics to electrostatic reorganization of the solvent molecules coordinated to the Li(+) cations present in the ion-pair dimer structure and concluded that the dissociation of ion-pair dimers depends more critically on longer length scale electrostatic reorganization. This unusual inversion of the conformational and chemical reaction rates does not occur for ion-pair dimer dissociation in nitromethane or for ion pair association in any of the solvents.

  16. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Andrea W U; Montgomery, Beronda L

    2015-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms. Copyright © 2015 The Authprs. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF THE INTERNAL / MANAGERIAL CONTROL STANDARD NO. 6 - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut-Cosmin BĂLOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our initiative of analyzing the internal control standard which deals with the organizational structure comes from the observations on the significance of these essential aspects of modern management and on the sensitivity with which this standard is treated in most of the public institutions considered representative for the Oltenia region. Although the administrators of public institutions strive to optimize the systems of internal/managerial control, they frequently face many issues concerning the misunderstanding of these standards, vaguely explained, for example throughout some guidelines or other documents. The hypothesis of our study is that most of public institutions face gaps in understanding, interpreting, adapting and implementing an effective model of organizational structure, and the causes are due to the lack of an interdependent, correlated approach of the pillars that support the internal/managerial control system: the 25 standards required by the Romanian legislation. Our study critically describes the superficial approach founded in the self-evaluation reports of the public institutions, if we refer only to the conformity of the organizational structure and the four standards that we consider inextricably related with this internal/managerial control standard. From the methodological point of view, our study tests the correlation between the level of compliance of these standards and the functionality of the system composed by them in the public organizations that we have investigated.

  18. A cross-linguistic and bilingual evaluation of the interdependence between lexical and grammatical domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine within and across language relationships between lexical and grammatical domains by focusing on measures of lexical diversity and grammatical complexity in Spanish and English. One hundred and ninety-six preschool and school-aged Latino children with different levels of English and Spanish proficiencies and different language abilities produced narratives in Spanish, English, or both. Analyses revealed strong associations between lexical (number of different words and number of different verbs) and grammatical measures (mean length of utterances in words and use of ditransitive predicates), supporting the domain interdependence hypothesis within a language. Cross-linguistic comparisons indicate a greater diversity of verbs and ditransitive predicates in Spanish compared to English for this population. In the language samples of children who produced narratives in the two languages, there was no relationship between the two domains across languages. The lack of cross-language correlations may be related to other variables influencing lexical and semantic development in bilingual learners. Methodological issues to be considered in future studies with bilingual speakers are discussed. PMID:19444336

  19. Interdependence of reabsorption and internal energy losses in luminescent solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digaum, Jennefir; Kuebler, Stephen M.

    2014-03-01

    As a complementary device to photovoltaic (PV) cells, luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) can reduce the cost of solar energy by replacing the expensive PV material with inexpensive energy-harvesting plastic or glass matrix. However, due to its low efficiency, LSCs are still not commercially viable. The low efficiency is due to the various losses associated with light harvesting and trapping. Most of these losses come from reabsorption and escape of reemitted energy from the LSC device. State-of-the-art LSC technology focuses on decreasing reabsorption loss by employing luminophores with a large Stokes shift. But these materials typically have low quantum yield. Increasing the Stokes shift of the luminophore reduces reabsorption but introduces substantial loss due to low quantum yield and the Stokes shift of the re-emitted photons. The interdependence of these losses is studied computationally using a ray-tracing model that accounts for reabsorption, Stokes shift, escape cone loss, and matrix loss. It is shown that using high Stokesshift luminophores does not give the highest energy efficiency. Higher energy efficiency is obtained by optimizing the Stokes shift. Even greater performance can be achieved by employing high-quantum-yield dyes with intermediate Stokes shift. LSC devices based on this approach could be nearly twice as efficient as those based on conventional luminophores, such as Rhodamine B.

  20. Spatio-temporal dynamics of security investments in an interdependent risk environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Kamran; Bender, Axel; Zhong, Weicai; Abbass, Hussein A.

    2012-10-01

    In a globalised world where risks spread through contagion, the decision of an entity to invest in securing its premises from stochastic risks no longer depends solely on its own actions but also on the actions of other interacting entities in the system. This phenomenon is commonly seen in many domains including airline, logistics and computer security and is referred to as Interdependent Security (IDS). An IDS game models this decision problem from a game-theoretic perspective and deals with the behavioural dynamics of risk-reduction investments in such settings. This paper enhances this model and investigates the spatio-temporal aspects of the IDS games. The spatio-temporal dynamics are studied using simple replicator dynamics on a variety of network structures and for various security cost tradeoffs that lead to different Nash equilibria in an IDS game. The simulation results show that the neighbourhood configuration has a greater effect on the IDS game dynamics than network structure. An in-depth empirical analysis of game dynamics is carried out on regular graphs, which leads to the articulation of necessary and sufficient conditions for dominance in IDS games under spatial constraints.

  1. Cascading of Fluctuations in Interdependent Energy Infrastructures. Gas-Grid Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lebedev, Vladimir [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation). L.D. Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-05

    The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipelines and use this model to explore the effect of intermittent wind generation on the fluctuations of pressure in natural gas pipelines. The mean square pressure fluctuations are found to grow linearly in time with points of maximum deviation occurring at the locations of flow reversals.

  2. Interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism, the generation of oxidative stress and the mitigative oxidative stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea W.U. Busch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetrapyrroles are involved in light harvesting and light perception, electron-transfer reactions, and as co-factors for key enzymes and sensory proteins. Under conditions in which cells exhibit stress-induced imbalances of photosynthetic reactions, or light absorption exceeds the ability of the cell to use photoexcitation energy in synthesis reactions, redox imbalance can occur in photosynthetic cells. Such conditions can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS associated with alterations in tetrapyrrole homeostasis. ROS accumulation can result in cellular damage and detrimental effects on organismal fitness, or ROS molecules can serve as signals to induce a protective or damage-mitigating oxidative stress signaling response in cells. Induced oxidative stress responses include tetrapyrrole-dependent and -independent mechanisms for mitigating ROS generation and/or accumulation. Thus, tetrapyrroles can be contributors to oxidative stress, but are also essential in the oxidative stress response to protect cells by contributing to detoxification of ROS. In this review, we highlight the interconnection and interdependence of tetrapyrrole metabolism with the occurrence of oxidative stress and protective oxidative stress signaling responses in photosynthetic organisms.

  3. SAS-6 engineering reveals interdependence between cartwheel and microtubules in determining centriole architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Manuel; Noga, Akira; Frey, Daniel; Hamel, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Kraatz, Sebastian H W; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Hosner, Sarah; Flückiger, Isabelle; Jaussi, Rolf; Wieser, Mara M; Thieltges, Katherine M; Deupi, Xavier; Müller, Daniel J; Kammerer, Richard A; Gönczy, Pierre; Hirono, Masafumi; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-04-01

    Centrioles are critical for the formation of centrosomes, cilia and flagella in eukaryotes. They are thought to assemble around a nine-fold symmetric cartwheel structure established by SAS-6 proteins. Here, we have engineered Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SAS-6-based oligomers with symmetries ranging from five- to ten-fold. Expression of a SAS-6 mutant that forms six-fold symmetric cartwheel structures in vitro resulted in cartwheels and centrioles with eight- or nine-fold symmetries in vivo. In combination with Bld10 mutants that weaken cartwheel-microtubule interactions, this SAS-6 mutant produced six- to eight-fold symmetric cartwheels. Concurrently, the microtubule wall maintained eight- and nine-fold symmetries. Expressing SAS-6 with analogous mutations in human cells resulted in nine-fold symmetric centrioles that exhibited impaired length and organization. Together, our data suggest that the self-assembly properties of SAS-6 instruct cartwheel symmetry, and lead us to propose a model in which the cartwheel and the microtubule wall assemble in an interdependent manner to establish the native architecture of centrioles.

  4. Player Experiences and Behaviors in a Multiplayer Game: designing game rules to change interdependent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Vegt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Serious gaming is used as a means for improving organizational teamwork, yet little is known about the effect of individual game elements constituting serious games. This paper presents a game design experiment aimed at generating knowledge on designing game elements for teamwork. In previous work, we suggested that interaction- and goal-driven rules could guide interdependence and teamwork strategies. Based on this finding, for the present experiment we developed two versions of multiplayer Breakout, varying in rule-sets, designed to elicit player strategies of either dependent competition or dependent cooperation. Results showed that the two rule-sets could generate distinct reported player experiences and observable distinct player behaviors that could be further discriminated into four patterns: expected patterns of helping and ignoring, and unexpected patterns of agreeing and obstructing. Classic game theory was applied to understand the four behavior patterns and made us conclude that goal-driven rules steered players towards competition and cooperation. Interaction rules, in contrast, mainly stimulated dependent competitive behavior, e.g. obstructing each other. Since different types of rules thus led to different player behavior, discriminating in game design between interaction- and goal-driven rules seems relevant. Moreover, our research showed that game theory proved to be useful for understanding goal-driven rules.

  5. Interdependence and contagion among industry-level US credit markets: An application of wavelet and VMD based copula approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Nor, Safwan Mohd; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Mensi, Walid

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the interdependence and contagion among US industry-level credit markets. We use daily data of 11 industries from 17 December 2007 to 31 December 2014 for the time-frequency, namely, wavelet squared coherence analysis. The empirical analysis reveals that Basic Materials (Utilities) industry credit market has the highest (lowest) interdependence with other industries. Basic Materials credit market passes cyclical effect to all other industries. The little "shift-contagion" as defined by Forbes and Rigobon (2002) is examined using elliptical and Archimedean copulas on the short-run decomposed series obtained through Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD). The contagion effects between US industry-level credit markets mainly occurred during the global financial crisis of 2007-08.

  6. Independence and interdependence in collective decision making: an agent-based model of nest-site choice by honeybee swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Christian; Elsholtz, Christian; Seeley, Thomas D

    2009-03-27

    Condorcet's jury theorem shows that when the members of a group have noisy but independent information about what is best for the group as a whole, majority decisions tend to outperform dictatorial ones. When voting is supplemented by communication, however, the resulting interdependencies between decision makers can strengthen or undermine this effect: they can facilitate information pooling, but also amplify errors. We consider an intriguing non-human case of independent information pooling combined with communication: the case of nest-site choice by honeybee (Apis mellifera) swarms. It is empirically well documented that when there are different nest sites that vary in quality, the bees usually choose the best one. We develop a new agent-based model of the bees' decision process and show that its remarkable reliability stems from a particular interplay of independence and interdependence between the bees.

  7. The Interdependence of Long- and Short-Term Components in Unmasked Repetition Priming: An Indication of Shared Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merema, Matt R; Speelman, Craig P

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that unmasked repetition priming is composed of distinct long-and short-term priming components. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between these components by examining the relationship between them. A total of 60 people (45 females, 15 males) participated in a computer-based lexical decision task designed to measure levels of short-term priming across different levels of long-term priming. The results revealed an interdependent relationship between the two components, whereby an increase in long-term priming prompted a decrease in short-term priming. Both long-term and short-term priming were accurately captured by a single power function over seven minutes post repetition, suggesting the two components may draw on the same resources. This interdependence between long- and short-term priming may serve to improve fluency in reading.

  8. Multipolar nonlinear nanophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field with many useful applications for a design of nonlinear nanoantennas, light sources, nanolasers, sensors, and ultrafast miniature metadevices. A tight confinement of the local electromagnetic fields in resonant photonic nanostructures can boost nonlinear optical effects, thus offering versatile opportunities for subwavelength control of light. To achieve the desired functionalities, it is essential to gain flexible control over the near- and far-field properties of nanostructures. Thus, both modal and multipolar analyses are widely exploited for engineering nonlinear scattering from resonant nanoscale elements, in particular for enhancing the near-field interaction, tailoring the far-field multipolar interference, and optimization of the radiation directionality. Here, we review the recent advances in this recently emerged research field ranging from metallic structures exhibiting localized plasmonic resonances to hybrid metal-dielectric and all-dielectric...

  9. Solitons in nonlinear lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Torner, Lluis

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a comprehensive survey of results obtained for solitons and complex nonlinear wave patterns supported by purely nonlinear lattices (NLs), which represent a spatially periodic modulation of the local strength and sign of the nonlinearity, and their combinations with linear lattices. A majority of the results obtained, thus far, in this field and reviewed in this article are theoretical. Nevertheless, relevant experimental settings are surveyed too, with emphasis on perspectives for implementation of the theoretical predictions in the experiment. Physical systems discussed in the review belong to the realms of nonlinear optics (including artificial optical media, such as photonic crystals, and plasmonics) and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). The solitons are considered in one, two, and three dimensions (1D, 2D, and 3D). Basic properties of the solitons presented in the review are their existence, stability, and mobility. Although the field is still far from completion, general conclusions c...

  10. Nonlinear plasmonic antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeeb Bin Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to traditional optical elements, plasmonic antennas made from nanostructured metals permit the localization of electromagnetic fields on length scales much smaller than the wavelength of light. This results in huge amplitudes for the electromagnetic field close to the antenna being conducive for the observation of nonlinear effects already at moderate pump powers. Thus, these antennas exhibit a promising potential to achieve optical frequency conversion and all-optical control of light at the nano-scale. This opens unprecedented opportunities for ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy, sensing devices, on-chip optical frequency conversion, nonlinear optical metamaterials, and novel photon sources. Here, we review some of the recent advances in exploiting the potential of plasmonic antennas to realize robust nonlinear applications.

  11. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck

    2013-01-01

    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  12. Nonlinear Source Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem

    and remains the prime source of energy in non-terrestrial applications such as those in sky-explorers. However, a renewable energy source is expensive, bulky, and its performance is weather dependent, which make testing of downstream converters very difficult. As a result, a nonlinear source emulator (NSE......) is a good solution to solve the problems associated with the use of real nonlinear sources in testing phases. However, a recent technical survey conducted during this work shows that most existing NSEs have only been concerned with simulating nonlinear systems in terrestrial applications. Furthermore......, their dynamic performance were not fast enough in order to imitate how a real nonlinear energy source would react under extreme conditions and operation modes. Particularly, a system in the sky can experience a step change of sunlight irradiation. Moreover, operation modes may include load step between nominal...

  13. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  14. Nonlinear magnetoinductive transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarides, Nikos; Tsironis, G P

    2011-01-01

    Power transmission in one-dimensional nonlinear magnetic metamaterials driven at one end is investigated numerically and analytically in a wide frequency range. The nonlinear magnetic metamaterials are composed of varactor-loaded split-ring resonators which are coupled magnetically through their mutual inductances, forming thus a magnetoiductive transmission line. In the linear limit, significant power transmission along the array only appears for frequencies inside the linear magnetoinductive wave band. We present analytical, closed form solutions for the magnetoinductive waves transmitting the power in this regime, and their discrete frequency dispersion. When nonlinearity is important, more frequency bands with significant power transmission along the array may appear. In the equivalent circuit picture, the nonlinear magnetoiductive transmission line driven at one end by a relatively weak electromotive force, can be modeled by coupled resistive-inductive-capacitive (RLC) circuits with voltage-dependent cap...

  15. Optimization under Nonlinear Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In this paper a timesaving method is proposed for maximizing likelihood functions when the parameter space is subject to nonlinear constraints, expressible as second order polynomials. The suggested approach is especially attractive when dealing with systems with many parameters.

  16. Nonlinearity in nanomechanical cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used to successfully predict the linear dynamics of micro-and nanocantilever beams. However, its capacity to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of these devices has not yet been rigorously assessed, despite its use in nanoelectromechanical systems development....... These findings underscore the delicate balance between inertial and geometric nonlinear effects in the fundamental mode, and strongly motivate further work to develop theories beyond the Euler-Bernoulli approximation. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.024304....... In this article, we report the first highly controlled measurements of the nonlinear response of nanomechanical cantilevers using an ultralinear detection system. This is performed for an extensive range of devices to probe the validity of Euler-Bernoulli theory in the nonlinear regime. We find that its...

  17. Nonlinear Stokes Mueller Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Samim, Masood; Barzda, Virginijus

    2015-01-01

    The Stokes Mueller polarimetry is generalized to include nonlinear optical processes such as second- and third-harmonic generation, sum- and difference-frequency generations. The overall algebraic form of the polarimetry is preserved, where the incoming and outgoing radiations are represented by column vectors and the intervening medium is represented by a matrix. Expressions for the generalized nonlinear Stokes vector and the Mueller matrix are provided in terms of coherency and correlation matrices, expanded by higher-dimensional analogues of Pauli matrices. In all cases, the outgoing radiation is represented by the conventional $4\\times 1$ Stokes vector, while dimensions of the incoming radiation Stokes vector and Mueller matrix depend on the order of the process being examined. In addition, relation between nonlinear susceptibilities and the measured Mueller matrices are explicitly provided. Finally, the approach of combining linear and nonlinear optical elements is discussed within the context of polarim...

  18. Adaptive and Nonlinear Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-29

    in [22], we also applied the concept of zero dynamics to the problem of exact linearization of a nonlinear control system by dynamic feedback. Exact ...nonlinear systems, although it was well-known that the conditions for exact linearization are very stringent and consequently do not apply to a broad...29th IEEE Conference n Decision and Control, Invited Paper delivered by Dr. Gilliam. Exact Linearization of Zero Dynamics, 29th IEEE Conference on

  19. Nonlinear Optics and Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    currently at Queen Mary College, London Patrick Dunne, (Ph.D., 1987, M.I.T., Hydrodynamic Stability, Nonlinear Waves), 1987-1988. Alecsander Dyachenko...U I I I U I I 3 9 3 V. BIOGRAPHIES A. FACULTY BRUCE BAYLY, 31, Ph.D. 1986, Princeton University. Postdoctoral visiting member 1986-88 at Courant...Caputo, A. C. Newell, and M. Shelley , "Nonlinear Wave Propagation Through a Random Medium and Soliton Tunneling", Integrable Systems and

  20. Associations between Perceived HIV Stigma and Quality of Life at the Dyadic Lvel: The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjie Liu; Yongfang Xu; Xinjin Lin; Jian Shi; Shiyi Chen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the relationship between HIV-related stigma and quality life at the dyadic level. The objective of this study was to examine the actor and partner effects of stigma that was perceived by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and caregivers on quality of life at the dyadic level. METHOD: A survey was conducted among 148 dyads consisting of one PLWHA and one caregiver (296 participants) in Nanning, China. The interdependent relationship between a pair of...

  1. The Mathematics of Aggregation, Interdependence, Organizations and Systems of Nash Equilibria (NE): A Replacement for Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    quorum sensing, a decentralized decision-making process used by bacteria and social insects to coordinate group behavior and to perform collective...distributions. In the future, a starting point would be to compare a team of two random walkers against two interdependent walkers with one coin for...consensus decisions and against another team of two walkers with an entangled coin . Conclusions. Traditional social science research has been

  2. Claiming sovereignty in the oil crisis: "Project Independence" and global interdependence in the United States, 1973/74

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Understanding sovereignty as a claim and not a property, the article scrutinizes how the US government under Nixon countered the challenge that emerged from the oil embargo and oil price increases in 1973/74. Using a distinction made by Stephen D. Krasner,it holds that the embargo challenged US international sovereignty by establishing the limits of its interdependence sovereignty, which was supposed to undermine its domestic sovereignty. The article examines how the Nixon administration t...

  3. The Independence and Interdependence of Coacting Observers in Regard to Performance Efficiency, Workload, and Stress in a Vigilance Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    surrendered their time pieces and cell phones and signed an informed consent form. They were unaware of the length of the vigil other than it would not... Academic Press. Waag, W. L., & Halcomb, C. G. (1972). Team size and decision rule in the performance of simulated monitoring teams. Human Factors, 14...interdependence of co-acting observers in regard to performance efficiency, workload, and stress in a vigilance task 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6501

  4. Communicating in Collectivistic Culture: Relationship between Interdependent Self-Construal and Cooperative Communication in Cross-Cultural Communication Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hoo Pin Lick Soo

    2017-01-01

    This concept paper proposes that when companies have expanded their business and operation throughout the Asian countries, the success or failure of a company abroad depends on how effectively its business negotiators can apply their cross-cultural communication skills in a new cultural environment. At the forefront of this change is interdependent self-construal, which stands as communication medium on interaction goals (international business negotiation outcome) in collectivistic culture. ...

  5. Leader Humility and Team Innovation: Investigating the Substituting Role of Task Interdependence and the Mediating Role of Team Voice Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxing; Mao, Jianghua; Chen, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Leadership has been found to be linked with team innovation. Based on social information processing theory and substitutes for leadership theory, this paper examines the influence of leader humility on team innovation. Results from 90 teams showed that leader humility will enhance team innovation by fostering team voice climate. Further, task interdependence substitutes the effect of leader humility on team innovation through an indirect way via team voice climate. This study discussed the theoretical and practical implementations of these observations.

  6. The relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth: The case of Korea with nonlinear evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sei-wan [Department of Economics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kihoon, E-mail: khl@cnu.ac.k [Department of Economics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kiseok [Sy Syms School of Business, Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Using STAR models, we investigate the nonlinear dynamic properties and the interdependence of CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth for Korea. The estimation results indicate that the growth rate of both CO{sub 2} emissions and industrial production exhibit a significant nonlinear asymmetric dynamics. While the linear Granger causality test finds no causality in any direction, the results of the nonlinear Granger causality tests show a two-way causality between CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth. The strong mutual causation between CO{sub 2} emissions and economic activities indicates that the economic impact from CO{sub 2} mitigation is expected to be higher in Korea. This suggests that the appropriate energy and environmental policy be to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions while having less impact on the economy.

  7. The relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth. The case of Korea with nonlinear evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sei-wan [Department of Economics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Kihoon [Department of Economics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea); Nam, Kiseok [Sy Syms School of Business, Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Using STAR models, we investigate the nonlinear dynamic properties and the interdependence of CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth for Korea. The estimation results indicate that the growth rate of both CO{sub 2} emissions and industrial production exhibit a significant nonlinear asymmetric dynamics. While the linear Granger causality test finds no causality in any direction, the results of the nonlinear Granger causality tests show a two-way causality between CO{sub 2} emissions and economic growth. The strong mutual causation between CO{sub 2} emissions and economic activities indicates that the economic impact from CO{sub 2} mitigation is expected to be higher in Korea. This suggests that the appropriate energy and environmental policy be to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions while having less impact on the economy. (author)

  8. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  9. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  10. Nonlinear systems in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, John P

    2002-01-01

    Many achievements in medicine have come from applying linear theory to problems. Most current methods of data analysis use linear models, which are based on proportionality between two variables and/or relationships described by linear differential equations. However, nonlinear behavior commonly occurs within human systems due to their complex dynamic nature; this cannot be described adequately by linear models. Nonlinear thinking has grown among physiologists and physicians over the past century, and non-linear system theories are beginning to be applied to assist in interpreting, explaining, and predicting biological phenomena. Chaos theory describes elements manifesting behavior that is extremely sensitive to initial conditions, does not repeat itself and yet is deterministic. Complexity theory goes one step beyond chaos and is attempting to explain complex behavior that emerges within dynamic nonlinear systems. Nonlinear modeling still has not been able to explain all of the complexity present in human systems, and further models still need to be refined and developed. However, nonlinear modeling is helping to explain some system behaviors that linear systems cannot and thus will augment our understanding of the nature of complex dynamic systems within the human body in health and in disease states.

  11. Communicating in Collectivistic Culture: Relationship between Interdependent Self-Construal and Cooperative Communication in Cross-Cultural Communication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo Pin Lick Soo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper proposes that when companies have expanded their business and operation throughout the Asian countries, the success or failure of a company abroad depends on how effectively its business negotiators can apply their cross-cultural communication skills in a new cultural environment. At the forefront of this change is interdependent self-construal, which stands as communication medium on interaction goals (international business negotiation outcome in collectivistic culture. The international trade may bring about a lot in terms of cross-cultural communication and international business negotiation, but adopting cooperative communication in the international business negotiations will create more integrative agreements between the international business negotiators. Many scholars believe that if both parties have similarities in communication styles, it will lead to positive interaction (cooperative communication that contributes to cooperation and influences the interaction goals (negotiation outcome. This paper offers critical insight into the theoretical link between interdependent selfconstrual and interaction goals. The proposed cross-cultural communication model uses interdependent self-construal and cooperative communication to understand when collectivistic business negotiators develop relationships that promotes positive interaction goals (negotiation outcome.

  12. Handbook of nonlinear optical crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Dmitriev, Valentin G; Nikogosyan, David N

    1991-01-01

    This Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals provides a complete description of the properties and applications of nonlinear crystals In addition, it presents the most important equations for calculating the main parameters of nonlinear frequency converters This comprehensive reference work will be of great value to all scientists and engineers working in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics and laser physics

  13. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing the impact of exploration prospect interdependency: an application to predict gas discoveries in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Mijnlieff, H.; Lutgert, J.; Breunese, J.; Bos, C.; Rosenkranz, P.; Neele, F.

    2008-01-01

    Prospect interdependencies, if present and positively correlated, result in a higher standard deviation of the portfolio volumetric expectation curve, compared to a portfolio with independent prospects. This wider uncertainty range offers options for companies to increase the expected cumulative net

  14. A Bayesian belief network approach for assessing the impact of exploration prospect interdependency: an application to predict gas discoveries in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Mijnlieff, H.; Lutgert, J.; Breunese, J.; Bos, C.; Rosenkranz, P.; Neele, F.

    2008-01-01

    Prospect interdependencies, if present and positively correlated, result in a higher standard deviation of the portfolio volumetric expectation curve, compared to a portfolio with independent prospects. This wider uncertainty range offers options for companies to increase the expected cumulative net

  15. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  16. Couple interdependence impacts HIV-related health behaviours among pregnant couples in southwestern Kenya: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anna Joy; Achiro, Lillian; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Musoke, Pamela L; Turan, Janet M; Weke, Elly; Darbes, Lynae A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection is frequently transmitted within stable couple partnerships. In order to prevent HIV acquisition in HIV-negative couples, as well as improve coping in couples with an HIV-positive diagnosis, it has been suggested that interventions be aimed at strengthening couple relationships, in addition to addressing individual behaviours. However, little is known about factors that influence relationships to impact joint decision-making related to HIV. Methods We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 40 pregnant women and 40 male partners in southwestern Kenya, an area of high HIV prevalence. Drawing from the interdependence model of communal coping and health behaviour change, we employed thematic analysis methods to analyze interview transcripts in Dedoose software with the aim of identifying key relationship factors that could contribute to the development of a couples-based intervention to improve health outcomes for pregnant women and their male partners. Results In accordance with the interdependence model, we found that couples with greater relationship-centred motivations described jointly engaging in more health-enhancing behaviours, such as couples HIV testing, disclosure of HIV status, and cooperation to improve medication and clinic appointment adherence. These couples often had predisposing factors such as stronger communication skills and shared children, and were less likely to face potential challenges such as polygamous marriages, wife inheritance, living separately, or financial difficulties. For HIV-negative couples, joint decision-making helped them face the health threat of acquiring HIV together. For couples with an HIV-positive diagnosis, communal coping helped reduce risk of interspousal transmission and improve long-term health prospects. Conversely, participants felt that self-centred motivations led to more concurrent sexual partnerships, reduced relationship satisfaction, and mistrust. Couples who lacked

  17. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Toruno

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  18. Enhancing the Resilience of Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Systems Using a Common Computational Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, J. C.; Filz, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    As modern societies become more complex, critical interdependent infrastructure systems become more likely to fail under stress unless they are designed and implemented to be resilient. Hurricane Katrina clearly demonstrated the catastrophic and as yet unpredictable consequences of such failures. Resilient infrastructure systems maintain the flow of goods and services in the face of a broad range of natural and manmade hazards. In this presentation, we illustrate a generic computational framework to facilitate high-level decision-making about how to invest scarce resources most effectively to enhance resilience in coastal protection, transportation, and the economy of a region. Coastal Louisiana, our study area, has experienced the catastrophic effects of several land-falling hurricanes in recent years. In this project, we implement and further refine three process models (a coastal protection model, a transportation model, and an economic model) for the coastal Louisiana region. We upscale essential mechanistic features of the three detailed process models to the systems level and integrate the three reduced-order systems models in a modular fashion. We also evaluate the proposed approach in annual workshops with input from stakeholders. Based on stakeholder inputs, we derive a suite of goals, targets, and indicators for evaluating resilience at the systems level, and assess and enhance resilience using several deterministic scenarios. The unifying framework will be able to accommodate the different spatial and temporal scales that are appropriate for each model. We combine our generic computational framework, which encompasses the entire system of systems, with the targets, and indicators needed to systematically meet our chosen resilience goals. We will start with targets that focus on technical and economic systems, but future work will ensure that targets and indicators are extended to other dimensions of resilience including those in the environmental and

  19. Coordinated Observations of Space Debris as Optimisation Problem of Inter-Dependent Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciotti, M.; Charlish, A.

    2013-08-01

    Optimal allocation of sensor resources is addressed in this paper in the frame of space surveillance application. Inspiration is taken from the optimal management of multi-functional sensors and netted surveillance sensors, for which the Sensor Management problem is often addressed as a Markov Decision Process. This approach allows determining the optimal decision at each discrete time instant by quantifying the expected payoff coming from the selected action. An action might be the assignment of the i -th surveillance task to the m -th sensor in the network ('tasking'), the selection of the i -th task at the k -th time slot ('scheduling'), or the activation of a specific sensor configuration for the completion of the i -th task ('resource allocation'). The common objective is the maximization of the global reward coming from the selected sequence of actions over a finite or infinite time horizon. This leads to a sequence of coordinated observations carried out by the sensor(s), which are determined statically or dynamically by the Sensor Manager. In this paper, the allocation of space surveillance resources is analysed as a management problem for sensor(s) with finite resources. The proposed allocation is driven by the operational requirements for space objects cataloguing, such as the object population coverage and the track accuracy. A sequential resource allocation strategy is formulated in order to cope with such inter-dependent, concurring performance metrics. The approach can be also extended to multiple sensors with different performance or nature. Promising results are demonstrated over a phased array radar case study.

  20. Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Andrew; Konow, Nicolai; Miller, Samuel; Konow, Pernille P.; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The material properties of a tendon affect its ability to store and return elastic energy, resist damage, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power. While the structural properties of a tendon are known to respond to a variety of stimuli, the extent to which material properties vary among individual muscles remains unclear. We studied the tendons of six different muscles in the hindlimb of Eastern wild turkeys to determine whether there was variation in elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and resilience. A hydraulic testing machine was used to measure tendon force during quasi-static lengthening, and a stress–strain curve was constructed. There was substantial variation in tendon material properties among different muscles. Average elastic modulus differed significantly between some tendons, and values for the six different tendons varied nearly twofold, from 829±140 to 1479±106 MPa. Tendons were stretched to failure, and the stress at failure, or ultimate tensile stress, was taken as a lower-limit estimate of tendon strength. Breaking tests for four of the tendons revealed significant variation in ultimate tensile stress, ranging from 66.83±14.34 to 112.37±9.39 MPa. Resilience, or the fraction of energy returned in cyclic length changes was generally high, and one of the four tendons tested was significantly different in resilience from the other tendons (range: 90.65±0.83 to 94.02±0.71%). An analysis of correlation between material properties revealed a positive relationship between ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus (r2=0.79). Specifically, stiffer tendons were stronger, and we suggest that this correlation results from a constrained value of breaking strain, which did not vary significantly among tendons. This finding suggests an interdependence of material properties that may have a structural basis and may explain some adaptive responses observed in studies of tendon plasticity. PMID:22771746

  1. An evolutionarily conserved mutual interdependence between Aire and microRNAs in promiscuous gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Olga; Tykocinski, Lars-Oliver; Dooley, James; Liston, Adrian; Kyewski, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The establishment and maintenance of central tolerance depends to a large extent on the ability of medullary thymic epithelial cells to express a variety of tissue-restricted antigens, the so-called promiscuous gene expression (pGE). Autoimmune regulator (Aire) is to date the best characterised transcriptional regulator known to at least partially coordinate pGE. There is accruing evidence that the expression of Aire-dependent and -independent genes is modulated by higher order chromatin configuration, epigenetic modifications and post-transcriptional control. Given the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) as potent post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression, we investigated their role in the regulation of pGE in purified mouse and human thymic epithelial cells (TECs). Microarray profiling of TEC subpopulations revealed evolutionarily conserved cell type and differentiation-specific miRNA signatures with a subset of miRNAs being significantly upregulated during terminal medullary thymic epithelial cell differentiation. The differential regulation of this subset of miRNAs was correlated with Aire expression and some of these miRNAs were misexpressed in the Aire knockout thymus. In turn, the specific absence of miRNAs in TECs resulted in a progressive reduction of Aire expression and pGE, affecting both Aire-dependent and -independent genes. In contrast, the absence of miR-29a only affected the Aire-dependent gene pool. These findings reveal a mutual interdependence of miRNA and Aire. © 2013 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published byWiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA Weinheim.

  2. Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Andrew; Konow, Nicolai; Miller, Samuel; Konow, Pernille P; Roberts, Thomas J

    2012-10-15

    The material properties of a tendon affect its ability to store and return elastic energy, resist damage, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power. While the structural properties of a tendon are known to respond to a variety of stimuli, the extent to which material properties vary among individual muscles remains unclear. We studied the tendons of six different muscles in the hindlimb of Eastern wild turkeys to determine whether there was variation in elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and resilience. A hydraulic testing machine was used to measure tendon force during quasi-static lengthening, and a stress-strain curve was constructed. There was substantial variation in tendon material properties among different muscles. Average elastic modulus differed significantly between some tendons, and values for the six different tendons varied nearly twofold, from 829±140 to 1479±106 MPa. Tendons were stretched to failure, and the stress at failure, or ultimate tensile stress, was taken as a lower-limit estimate of tendon strength. Breaking tests for four of the tendons revealed significant variation in ultimate tensile stress, ranging from 66.83±14.34 to 112.37±9.39 MPa. Resilience, or the fraction of energy returned in cyclic length changes was generally high, and one of the four tendons tested was significantly different in resilience from the other tendons (range: 90.65±0.83 to 94.02±0.71%). An analysis of correlation between material properties revealed a positive relationship between ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus (r(2)=0.79). Specifically, stiffer tendons were stronger, and we suggest that this correlation results from a constrained value of breaking strain, which did not vary significantly among tendons. This finding suggests an interdependence of material properties that may have a structural basis and may explain some adaptive responses observed in studies of tendon plasticity.

  3. The interdependence of family functioning and problematic internet use in a representative quota sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Kammerl, Rudolf; Rosenkranz, Moritz; Hirschhäuser, Lena; Hein, Sandra; Schwinge, Christiane; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Rainer, Thomasius

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been carried out investigating the interdependence of family structures or interactions and excessive adolescent Internet use. In this study, we surveyed a representative German quota sample of 1,744 adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years with standardized questionnaires. Adolescents assessed their perceived own functioning in the family with the Self-Rating Scale (FB-S) of the German version of the Family Assessment Measure III, and reported on problematic Internet use with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). To predict problematic Internet use (CIUS summary score), we conducted a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with the seven FB-S scales, the FB-S overall index, and gender and age as explanatory variables. For the full sample, a model with only one predictor (FB-S overall index) that summarizes the quality of family functioning produced a corrected coefficient of determination of 0.239 and explained variance of nearly 24%. t Test results for unpaired samples showed significant differences in the mean values of the FB-S scales and the FB-S overall index for comparisons of both sexes, as well as of a lower age group and higher age group. The prediction of problematic Internet use between both sexes and both age groups showed comparable findings (males: corrected coefficient of determination=0.288; females: corrected coefficient of determination=0.183; lower age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.231; higher age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.251), each with a single predictor (FB-S overall index). The results emphasize the importance of family functioning for the occurrence of problematic Internet use in adolescents.

  4. Interdependence of Bad and Puma during ionizing-radiation-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toruno, Cristhian; Carbonneau, Seth; Stewart, Rodney A; Jette, Cicely

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks trigger an extensive cellular signaling response that involves the coordination of hundreds of proteins to regulate DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptotic pathways. The cellular outcome often depends on the level of DNA damage as well as the particular cell type. Proliferating zebrafish embryonic neurons are highly sensitive to IR-induced apoptosis, and both p53 and its transcriptional target puma are essential mediators of the response. The BH3-only protein Puma has previously been reported to activate mitochondrial apoptosis through direct interaction with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak, thus constituting the role of an "activator" BH3-only protein. This distinguishes it from BH3-only proteins like Bad that are thought to indirectly promote apoptosis through binding to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby preventing the sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins and allowing them to directly interact with and activate Bax and Bak. We have shown previously that overexpression of the BH3-only protein Bad in zebrafish embryos supports normal embryonic development but greatly sensitizes developing neurons to IR-induced apoptosis. While Bad has previously been shown to play only a minor role in promoting IR-induced apoptosis of T cells in mice, we demonstrate that Bad is essential for robust IR-induced apoptosis in zebrafish embryonic neural tissue. Moreover, we found that both p53 and Puma are required for Bad-mediated radiosensitization in vivo. Our findings show the existence of a hierarchical interdependence between Bad and Puma whereby Bad functions as an essential sensitizer and Puma as an essential activator of IR-induced mitochondrial apoptosis specifically in embryonic neural tissue.

  5. Using actor-partner interdependence modeling to understand HPV vaccine acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderDrift, Laura E; Vanable, Peter A; Bonafide, Katherine E; Brown, Jennifer L; Bostwick, Rebecca A; Carey, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of scientific literature has been devoted to understanding what factors influence parents and their adolescent children to obtain the HPV vaccine. This literature is relatively uniform in its methodological approach of sampling individuals (i.e., either parents or adolescents) and examining the predictors of uptake for that individual. To improve understanding of HPV vaccination uptake, we sampled low-income, African American parent-child dyads with either a female (n = 93) or a male (n = 116) adolescent who had not been vaccinated. Both parents and children completed self-report measures that tapped intent to receive the vaccine and hypothesized predictors of intent (i.e., self-efficacy, beliefs about the vaccine, beliefs about HPV, knowledge of HPV). Using a dyadic analytic approach (i.e., the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model or APIM) [1], we found that parents and their adolescents have different structures of beliefs regarding HPV vaccination (i.e., they are empirically distinguishable). Consistent with prior research, the majority of predictors of an individual's own intention to vaccinate were individual-level variables; uniquely though, some predictors endorsed by one member of the dyad influenced the intentions held by the other member. Specifically, parents' reports of HPV severity and their self-efficacy were both associated with adolescents' intent to obtain the vaccine. Further, adolescents' beliefs that the vaccine will lead to greater promiscuity or be stigmatizing were associated with parents holding an increased intent to vaccinate. Use APIM improves understanding of HPV vaccination uptake and can be used to guide intervention efforts.

  6. The Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis and the language development of Yucatec Maya-Spanish bilingual children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrooman, Michael D.

    2000-11-01

    The Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis as developed by Cummins (1978) argues that certain first language (L1) knowledge can be positively transferred during the process of second language (L2) acquisition. The L1 linguistic knowledge and skills that a child possesses can be extremely instrumental to the development of corresponding abilities in the L2. An integral component of these facilitative aspects of language influence is that the L1 be sufficiently developed prior to the extensive exposure to the L2 as would be found, for example, in an educational environment. An additional theoretical framework that has motivated this study incorporates principles of Universal Grammar, namely, that there are innate properties of language shared by the human species, and that language acquisition is the result of the interaction between these biologically determined aspects of language with the learner's linguistic environment. The principal goal of this dissertation is to examine children's knowledge of one area of Yucatec Maya L1 syntax, specifically, the word order of simple transitive sentences. By means of an experiment conducted with 28 Mayan children of 4 and 5 years of age, data were gathered and analyzed. Overall, the findings suggest that the subjects of the study are still in the process of acquiring the syntactic structure under investigation, that their L1 is still developing. Very few of the subjects demonstrated mastery of the structure under investigation. With regards to pedagogical concerns within the context of minority language education, the potentiality for these findings to enhance or inhibit the subsequent acquisition of Spanish as an L2 is examined.

  7. Risk Modeling of Interdependent Complex Systems of Systems: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimes, Yacov Y

    2017-04-24

    The emergence of the complexity characterizing our systems of systems (SoS) requires a reevaluation of the way we model, assess, manage, communicate, and analyze the risk thereto. Current models for risk analysis of emergent complex SoS are insufficient because too often they rely on the same risk functions and models used for single systems. These models commonly fail to incorporate the complexity derived from the networks of interdependencies and interconnectedness (I-I) characterizing SoS. There is a need to reevaluate currently practiced risk analysis to respond to this reality by examining, and thus comprehending, what makes emergent SoS complex. The key to evaluating the risk to SoS lies in understanding the genesis of characterizing I-I of systems manifested through shared states and other essential entities within and among the systems that constitute SoS. The term "essential entities" includes shared decisions, resources, functions, policies, decisionmakers, stakeholders, organizational setups, and others. This undertaking can be accomplished by building on state-space theory, which is fundamental to systems engineering and process control. This article presents a theoretical and analytical framework for modeling the risk to SoS with two case studies performed with the MITRE Corporation and demonstrates the pivotal contributions made by shared states and other essential entities to modeling and analysis of the risk to complex SoS. A third case study highlights the multifarious representations of SoS, which require harmonizing the risk analysis process currently applied to single systems when applied to complex SoS. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Design and Control of Nonlinear Mechanical Systems for Minimum Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated methodology for optimal design and control of nonlinear flexible mechanical systems, including minimum time problems. This formulation is implemented in an optimum design code and it is applied to the nonlinear behavior dynamic response. Damping and stiffness characteristics plus control driven forces are considered as decision variables. A conceptual separation between time variant and time invariant design parameters is presented, this way including the design space into the control space and considering the design variables as control variables not depending on time. By using time integrals through all the derivations, design and control problems are unified. In the optimization process we can use both types of variables simultaneously or by interdependent levels. For treating minimum time problems, a unit time interval is mapped onto the original time interval, then treating equally time variant and time invariant problems. The dynamic response and its sensitivity are discretized via space-time finite elements, and may be integrated either by at-once integration or step-by-step. Adjoint system approach is used to calculate the sensitivities.

  9. Nonlinear pulsation masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The advent of nonlinear pulsation theory really coincides with the development of the large computers after the second world war. Christy and Stobbie were the first to make use of finite difference techniques on computers to model the bumps'' observed in the classical Cepheid light and velocity curves, the so-called Hertzsprung'' sequence. Following this work a more sophisticated analysis of the light and velocity curves from the models was made by Simon and Davis using Fourier techniques. Recently a simpler amplitude equation formalism has been developed that helps explain this resonance mechanism. The determination of Population I Cepheid masses by nonlinear methods will be discussed. For the lower mass objects, such as RR Lyrae and BL Her. stars, we find general agreement using evolutionary masses and nonlinear pulsation theory. An apparent difficulty of nonlinear pulsation theory occurs in the understanding of double'' mode pulsation, which will also be discussed. Recent studies in nonlinear pulsation theory have dealt with the question of mode selection, period doubling and the trends towards chaotic behavior such as is observed in the transition from W Virginis to RV Tauri-like stars. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  11. Nonlinear Dynamic Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Björnham, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) is an experimental technique that is commonly used to assess information of the strength, energy landscape, and lifetime of noncovalent bio-molecular interactions. DFS traditionally requires an applied force that increases linearly with time so that the bio-complex under investigation is exposed to a constant loading rate. However, tethers or polymers can modulate the applied force in a nonlinear regime. For example, bacterial adhesion pili and polymers with worm-like chain properties are examples of structures that show nonlinear force responses. In these situations, the theory for traditional DFS cannot be readily applied. In this work we expand the theory for DFS to also include nonlinear external forces while still maintaining compatibility with the linear DFS theory. To validate the theory we modeled a bio-complex expressed on a stiff, an elastic and a worm-like chain polymer, using Monte Carlo methods, and assessed the corresponding rupture force spectra. It was found th...

  12. Nonlinear optomechanical paddle nanocavities

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviani, Hamidreza; Wu, Marcelo; Ghobadi, Roohollah; Barclay, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    A photonic crystal optomechanical system combining strong nonlinear optomechanical coupling, low effective mass and large optical mode spacing is introduced. This nanoscale "paddle nanocavity" device supports mechanical resonances with effective mass of 300--600 fg which couple nonlinearly to co-localized optical modes with a quadratic optomechanical coupling coefficient $g^{(2)} > 2\\pi\\times400$ MHz/nm$^2$, and a two phonon to single photon optomechanical coupling rate $\\Delta \\omega_0 > 2\\pi\\times 16$ Hz. This coupling relies on strong phonon-photon interactions in a structure whose optical mode spectrum is highly non--degenerate. Simulations indicate that nonlinear optomechanical readout of thermally driven motion in these devices should be observable for T $> 50 $ mK, and that measurement of phonon shot noise is achievable.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  14. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  15. Linearizing nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bruno E; Ernotte, Guilmot; Clerici, Matteo; Morandotti, Roberto; Ibrahim, Heide; Legare, Francois

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of linear optics, light fields do not interact with each other in a medium. Yet, when their field amplitude becomes comparable to the electron binding energies of matter, the nonlinear motion of these electrons emits new dipole radiation whose amplitude, frequency and phase differ from the incoming fields. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short, femtosecond (1fs = 10-15 sec.) laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra. Here, the matter not only couples incoming and outgoing fields but also causes different spectral components to interact and mix through a convolution process. In this contribution, we describe how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from this convolution in conventional time domain nonlinear optics1. We generate light fields with previously inaccessible properties because the uncontrolled coupling of amplitudes and phases is turned off. For example, arbitrary phase functions are transferred linearly to the second har...

  16. Nonlinear optomechanics with graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    To date, studies of cavity optomechanics have been limited to exploiting the linear interactions between the light and mechanics. However, investigations of quantum signal transduction, quantum enhanced metrology and manybody physics with optomechanics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. Graphene nanomembranes are an exciting prospect for realizing such studies due to their inherently nonlinear nature and low mass. We fabricate large graphene nanomembranes and study their mechanical and optical properties. By using dark ground imaging techniques, we correlate their eigenmode shapes with the measured dissipation. We study their hysteretic response present even at low driving amplitudes, and their nonlinear dissipation. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to use these resonators for studies of quantum optomechanics and force sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  17. Nonlinear Analysis of Buckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psotný Martin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The stability analysis of slender web loaded in compression was presented. To solve this problem, a specialized computer program based on FEM was created. The nonlinear finite element method equations were derived from the variational principle of minimum of potential energy. To obtain the nonlinear equilibrium paths, the Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm was used. Corresponding levels of the total potential energy were defined. The peculiarities of the effects of the initial imperfections were investigated. Special attention was focused on the influence of imperfections on the post-critical buckling mode. The stable and unstable paths of the nonlinear solution were separated. Obtained results were compared with those gained using ANSYS system.

  18. Nonlinear Metamaterials for Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, Euclides; Prior, Yehiam

    2015-01-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multi-layer metamaterial holograms where by the nonlinear process of Third Harmonic Generation, a background free image is formed at a new frequency which is the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analyzed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.

  19. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  20. Nonlinear airship aeroelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessert, N.; Frederich, O.

    2005-12-01

    The aeroelastic derivatives for today's aircraft are calculated in the concept phase using a standard procedure. This scheme has to be extended for large airships, due to various nonlinearities in structural and aerodynamic behaviour. In general, the structural model of an airship is physically as well as geometrically nonlinear. The main sources of nonlinearity are large deformations and the nonlinear material behaviour of membranes. The aerodynamic solution is also included in the nonlinear problem, because the deformed airship influences the surrounding flow. Due to these nonlinearities, the aeroelastic problem for airships can only be solved by an iterative procedure. As one possibility, the coupled aerodynamic and structural dynamic problem was handled using linked standard solvers. On the structural side, the Finite-Element program package ABAQUS was extended with an interface to the aerodynamic solver VSAERO. VSAERO is based on the aerodynamic panel method using potential flow theory. The equilibrium of the internal structural and the external aerodynamic forces leads to the structural response and a trimmed flight state for the specified flight conditions (e.g. speed, altitude). The application of small perturbations around a trimmed state produces reaction forces and moments. These constraint forces are then transferred into translational and rotational acceleration fields by performing an inertia relief analysis of the disturbed structural model. The change between the trimmed flight state and the disturbed one yields the respective aeroelastic derivatives. By including the calculated derivatives in the linearised equation of motion system, it is possible to judge the stability and controllability of the investigated airship.

  1. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  2. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...

  3. Fundamentals of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop

  4. Tunable nonlinear graphene metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Daria A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Khanikaev, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of nonlinear graphene metasurfaces employing the controllable interaction between a graphene layer and a planar metamaterial. Such hybrid metasurfaces support two types of subradiant resonant modes, asymmetric modes of structured metamaterial elements ("metamolecules") and graphene plasmons exhibiting strong mutual coupling and avoided dispersion crossing. High tunability of graphene plasmons facilitates strong interaction between the subradiant modes, modifying the spectral position and lifetime of the associated Fano resonances. We demonstrate that strong resonant interaction, combined with the subwavelength localization of plasmons, leads to the enhanced nonlinear response and high efficiency of the second-harmonic generation.

  5. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  6. a Perspective on Sustainability and Resilience in Interdependent Water-Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.; Devineni, N.

    2015-12-01

    Since the World Economic Forum highlighted the Water-Energy-Food-Climate nexus of issues, with examples that distinguised between the developing and developed country manifestations, there has been a tremendous interest in exploring related topics by academics, the media, industry, the public sector and leading politicians. It is clear that there is interdependence across these systems and exigencies in one can lead to impacts in the other. By and large, we have seen case studies exposing attributes of the nexus, and broad generalizations of the potential inersections. Some have proposed network models, others have spoken to the fact that the fragmentation of these issues across many institutions restricts the ability to manage these as an integrated control system. Given that hydroclimatic systems are globally connected dynamical systems that influence social systems that manage the production and consumption of water, food and energy, and are in turn influenced by them, one direction that needs to emerge is an understanding of the multiscale and bidirectional links between climate and the managed earth systems. However, a challenge in this regard is that our managed systems are not explicitly managed. We have market processes for food and energy, but with regulatory intervention and subsidies and incentives that often distort market outcomes. For water, we typically have disjunctive public sector managementof resources, with very limited market like approaches. How then can one understand the interlinked functioning of these systems, seek predictabiliy and develop rules that allow adaptive management across the nexus while developing a regulated market structure that stimulates innovation and cost reduction/efficiency improvements. This may be one of the more significant challenges facing those who wish to be earth system managers and postulate future scenarios, regulate emissions and foster life cycle thinking as part of green engineering. In this talk, I will

  7. Creation and evolution of North America's gas and electricity regime: A dynamic example of interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Growing interdependence of Canada, the United States, and Mexico in production, trade, and consumption of natural gas and electricity during the 1990s produced a new North American functional entity---partly governmental, partly non-governmental, and partly intergovernmental. Cooperation among three dissimilar, jealously sovereign countries has surmounted several shocks (California's flawed energy "deregulation" experiments, Enron's scandal, disagreements over the Kyoto Protocol and the Iraq invasion, soaring energy prices, and economic downturns). Explaining this as an international regime (a system of principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actor expectations converge in a given issue area), this work explains the timing of its emergence...and how its self-adjusting nature portends increasing significance. Extensive interviews are augmented by newly obtained U.S. government documents about U.S.-Mexican gas negotiations in the late 1970s---when a regime seemed logical, but when necessary and sufficient conditions were lacking. The North American Free Trade Agreement had to be accompanied by regulatory reforms and some market effects, while the gas and electricity industries converged and electronic developments facilitated exchanges of current and future supplies of gas and/or electricity. Now, mutually beneficial pipeline and powerline connections spur expansion, while backsliding from regime acceptance becomes ever more costly---especially for some regions. This is a "virtual" regime---sensed by those involved with no formal charter beyond NAFTA's vague treatment of energy. It is "metanational"---grounded both within and beyond these nation-states. Operating in accord with varied modes of governance, but also through such modest institutions as the North American Energy Working Group and the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the regime supports differing national energy policy goals for the three countries and

  8. The Identification of Filters and Interdependencies for Effective Resource Allocation: Coupling the Mitigation of Natural Hazards to Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, S. M.; Kunreuther, H.

    2005-12-01

    Policy formulation for the mitigation and management of risks posed by natural hazards requires that governments confront difficult decisions for resource allocation and be able to justify their spending. Governments also need to recognize when spending offers little improvement and the circumstances in which relatively small amounts of spending can make substantial differences. Because natural hazards can have detrimental impacts on local and regional economies, patterns of economic development can also be affected by spending decisions for disaster mitigation. This paper argues that by mapping interdependencies among physical, social and economic factors, governments can improve resource allocation to mitigate the risks of natural hazards while improving economic development on local and regional scales. Case studies of natural hazards in Turkey have been used to explore specific "filters" that act to modify short- and long-term outcomes. Pre-event filters can prevent an event from becoming a natural disaster or change a routine event into a disaster. Post-event filters affect both short and long-term recovery and development. Some filters cannot be easily modified by spending (e.g., rural-urban migration) but others (e.g., land-use practices) provide realistic spending targets. Net social benefits derived from spending, however, will also depend on the ways by which filters are linked, or so-called "interdependencies". A single weak link in an interdependent system, such as a power grid, can trigger a cascade of failures. Similarly, weak links in social and commercial networks can send waves of disruption through communities. Conversely, by understanding the positive impacts of interdependencies, spending can be targeted to maximize net social benefits while mitigating risks and improving economic development. Detailed information on public spending was not available for this study but case studies illustrate how networks of interdependent filters can modify

  9. Nonlinear elliptic systems with exponential nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said El Manouni

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of solutions for {gather*} -mathop{m div}( a(| abla u | ^N| abla u |^{N-2}u = f(x,u,v quad mbox{in } Omega -mathop{m div}(a(| abla v| ^N| abla v |^{N-2}v = g(x,u,v quad mbox{in } Omega u(x = v(x = 0 quad mbox{on }partial Omega. end{gather*} Where $Omega$ is a bounded domain in ${mathbb{R}}^N$, $Ngeq 2$, $f$ and $g$ are nonlinearities having an exponential growth on $Omega$ and $a$ is a continuous function satisfying some conditions which ensure the existence of solutions.

  10. Nonlinearity and disorder: Classification and stability of nonlinear impurity modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects produced by competition of two physical mechanisms of energy localization in inhomogeneous nonlinear systems. As an example, we analyze spatially localized modes supported by a nonlinear impurity in the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and describe three types of no...

  11. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-10-01

    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  12. Nonlinear Regression with R

    CERN Document Server

    Ritz, Christian; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    R is a rapidly evolving lingua franca of graphical display and statistical analysis of experiments from the applied sciences. This book provides a coherent treatment of nonlinear regression with R by means of examples from a diversity of applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, engineering, medicine and toxicology.

  13. Methods of nonlinear kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Gorban, A. N.; Karlin, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear kinetic equations are reviewed for a wide audience of specialists and postgraduate students in physics, mathematical physics, material science, chemical engineering and interdisciplinary research. Contents: The Boltzmann equation, Phenomenology and Quasi-chemical representation of the Boltzmann equation, Kinetic models, Discrete velocity models, Direct simulation, Lattice Gas and Lattice Boltzmann models, Minimal Boltzmann models for flows at low Knudsen number, Other kinetic equati...

  14. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  15. Nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Finn

    1995-01-01

    It is generally very difficult to solve nonlinear systems, and such systems often possess chaotic solutions. In the rare event that a system is completely solvable, it is said to integrable. Such systems never have chaotic solutions. Using the Inverse Scattering Transform Method (ISTM) two...

  16. Nonlinear phased array imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxford, Anthony J.; Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.

    2016-04-01

    A technique is presented for imaging acoustic nonlinearity within a specimen using ultrasonic phased arrays. Acoustic nonlinearity is measured by evaluating the difference in energy of the transmission bandwidth within the diffuse field produced through different focusing modes. The two different modes being classical beam forming, where delays are applied to different element of a phased array to physically focus the energy at a single location (parallel firing) and focusing in post processing, whereby one element at a time is fired and a focused image produced in post processing (sequential firing). Although these two approaches are linearly equivalent the difference in physical displacement within the specimen leads to differences in nonlinear effects. These differences are localized to the areas where the amplitude is different, essentially confining the differences to the focal point. Direct measurement at the focal point are however difficult to make. In order to measure this the diffuse field is used. It is a statistical property of the diffuse field that it represents the total energy in the system. If the energy in the diffuse field for both the sequential and parallel firing case is measured then the difference between these, within the input signal bandwidth, is largely due to differences at the focal spot. This difference therefore gives a localized measurement of where energy is moving out of the transmission bandwidth due to nonlinear effects. This technique is used to image fatigue cracks and other damage types undetectable with conventional linear ultrasonic measurements.

  17. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  18. Trirefringence in nonlinear metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    De Lorenci, Vitorio A

    2012-01-01

    We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the limit of geometrical optics for a class of nearly transparent nonlinear uniaxial metamaterials for which their permittivity tensors present a negative principal component. Their permeability are assumed positive and dependent on the electric field. We show that light waves experience triple refraction -- trirefringence. Additionally to the ordinary wave, two extraordinary waves propagate in such media.

  19. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  20. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    , provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, treats the generation mechanisms from continuous wave to femtosecond pulse pump regimes and highlights the diverse applications. A full discussion of numerical methods and comprehensive computer code are also provided, enabling readers...

  1. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  2. Is this scaling nonlinear?

    CERN Document Server

    Leitao, J C; Gerlach, M; Altmann, E G

    2016-01-01

    One of the most celebrated findings in complex systems in the last decade is that different indexes y (e.g., patents) scale nonlinearly with the population~x of the cities in which they appear, i.e., $y\\sim x^\\beta, \\beta \

  3. Nonlinear Gravitational Lagrangians revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Magnano, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The Legendre transformation method, applied in 1987 to deal with purely metric gravitational Lagrangians with nonlinear dependence on the Ricci tensor, is extended to metric-affine models and is shown to provide a concise and insightful comparison of the dynamical content of the two variational frameworks.

  4. Nonlinearities in Microwave Superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ledenyov, Dimitri O.; Ledenyov, Viktor O.

    2012-01-01

    The research is focused on the modeling of nonlinear properties of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) thin films, using Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer and Lumped Element Circuit theories, with purpose to enhance microwave power handling capabilities of microwave filters and optimize design of microwave circuits in micro- and nano- electronics.

  5. Nonlinear tsunami generation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Nosov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear mechanism of long gravitational surface water wave generation by high-frequency bottom oscillations in a water layer of constant depth is investigated analytically. The connection between the surface wave amplitude and the parameters of bottom oscillations and source length is investigated.

  6. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  7. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...

  8. Post-Disaster Supply Chain Interdependent Critical Infrastructure System Restoration: A Review of Data Necessary and Available for Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national 'supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems' (SCICI. These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government

  9. Post-disaster supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure system restoration: A review of data necessary and available for modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Varun; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.; Corns, Steven; Carlo, Hector J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems (SCICI). These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation) is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government communities, a more

  10. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our approach is based on high-Q optical WGM resonators made with a nonlinear crystal. Such resonators have been demonstrated to dramatically enhance nonlinear...

  11. Phase retrieval using nonlinear diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chien-Hung; Barsi, Christopher; Williams, Matthew O; Kutz, J Nathan; Fleischer, Jason W

    2013-04-01

    We extend the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to phase retrieval in a nonlinear system. Using a tunable photorefractive crystal, we experimentally demonstrate the noninterferometric technique by reconstructing an unknown phase object from optical intensity measurements taken at different nonlinear strengths.

  12. Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2017-01-01

    This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.

  13. Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…

  14. Terahertz Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the nonlinear optical effects – selfphase modulation and saturable absorption of a single-cycle THz pulse in a semiconductor. Resulting from THz-induced modulation of Drude plasma, these nonlinear optical effects, in particular, lead to self-shortening and nonlinear spectral...

  15. Fault Detection for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a general method for designing fault detection and isolation (FDI) systems for nonlinear processes. For a rich class of nonlinear systems, a nonlinear FDI system can be designed using convex optimization procedures. The proposed method is a natural extension of methods based...

  16. Portfolio generation goes beyond project selection: interdependencies must drive new alternatives creation A geração de carteiras ultrapassa a seleção de projetos: deve ser guiada pelas interdependências entre os projetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Tromboni de Souza Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The portfolio management literature mainstream, the Project Selection Paradigm, regards projects as closed packages ready for choice. However, to generate a portfolio, such packages must be opened to reveal the inside sources of interdependencies among them. Then, the project elements so found may be recombined into new alternatives that better capture the synergies among projects and avoid negative interactions. Thus project selection can be superseded by a Project Portfolio Generation based on a projects' and portfolios' reformulation process.Centrada na Seleção de Projetos, a literatura de gestão de carteiras trata os projetos como pacotes fechados prontos para escolha. Contudo, para gerar uma carteira, tais pacotes precisam ser abertos para revelar as fontes interiores das interdependências entre eles. Na sequência, os elementos dos projetos encontrados nessa análise podem ser recombinados em novas alternativas que melhor expressem as sinergias entre os projetos e evitem suas interações negativas. Assim, a mera Seleção de Projetos pode ser superada por um processo de Geração da Carteira de Projetos que se apoia num processo de reformulação de projetos e carteiras.

  17. Nonlinear electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Avadhesh C.; Srivastava, Krishna M.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear analysis of electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is performed. It is shown that the analysis leads to the propagation of the weakly nonlinear dispersive waves, and the nonlinear behavior is governed by the nonlinear Burger's equation.

  18. Optothermal nonlinearity of silica aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Fleming, Adam; Samuels, Michiel C; Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We report on the characterization of silica aerogel thermal optical nonlinearity, obtained by z-scan technique. The results show that typical silica aerogels have nonlinear optical coefficient similar to that of glass $(\\simeq 10^{-12} $m$^2/$W), with negligible optical nonlinear absorption. The non\\-li\\-near coefficient can be increased to values in the range of $10^{-10} $m$^2/$W by embedding an absorbing dye in the aerogel. This value is one order of magnitude higher than that observed in the pure dye and in typical highly nonlinear materials like liquid crystals.

  19. Associations between perceived HIV stigma and quality of life at the dyadic level: the actor-partner interdependence model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the relationship between HIV-related stigma and quality life at the dyadic level. The objective of this study was to examine the actor and partner effects of stigma that was perceived by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs and caregivers on quality of life at the dyadic level. METHOD: A survey was conducted among 148 dyads consisting of one PLWHA and one caregiver (296 participants in Nanning, China. The interdependent relationship between a pair of dyadic members that influences the associations between stigma and quality of life was analyzed, using an innovative dyadic analysis technique: the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM. RESULTS: We found in this dyadic analysis that (1 PLWHAs compared to their caregivers exhibited a higher level of perceived HIV stigma and lower level of quality of life measured in four domains; (2 both PLWHAs' and caregivers' perceived HIV stigma influenced their own quality of life; (3 The quality of life was not substantially influenced by their partners' perceived stigma; and (4 Both actor and partner effects of stigma on quality of life were similar among PLWHAs and their caregivers. CONCLUSION: As HIV stigma and quality of life are complex phenomena rooted in cultures, intervention programs should be carefully planned based on social or cognitive theories and should be culturally adopted.

  20. Physiological description of multivariate interdependencies between process parameters, morphology and physiology during fed-batch penicillin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of productivity and economics of industrial bioprocesses requires characterization of interdependencies between process parameters and process performance. In the case of penicillin production, as in other processes, process performance is often closely interlinked with the physiology and morphology of the organism used for production. This study presents a systematic approach to efficiently characterize the physiological effects of multivariate interdependencies between bioprocess design parameters (spore inoculum concentration, pO2 control level and substrate feed rate), morphology, and physiology. Method development and application was performed using the industrial model process of penicillin production. Applying traditional, statistical bioprocess analysis, multivariate correlations of raw bioprocess design parameters (high spore inoculum concentration, low pO2 control as well as reduced glucose feeding) and pellet morphology were identified. A major drawback of raw design parameter correlation models; however, is the lack of transferability across different process scales and regimes. In this context, morphological and physiological bioprocess modeling based on scalable physiological parameters is introduced. In this study, raw parameter effects on pellet morphology were efficiently summarized by the physiological parameter of the biomass yield per substrate. Finally, for the first time to our knowledge, the specific growth rate per spore was described as time-independent determinant for switching from pellet to disperse growth during penicillin production and thus introduced as a novel, scalable key process parameter for pellet morphology and process performance.

  1. Stakeholder Analysis and Social-Biophysical Interdependencies for Common Pool Resource Management: La Brava Wetland (Argentina) as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E.; Escalante, Alicia H.

    2011-09-01

    This article gives an account of the implementation of a stakeholder analysis framework at La Brava Wetland Basin, Argentina, in a common-pool resource (CPR) management context. Firstly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Secondly, a four-step methodology is applied: (1) stakeholder identification, (2) stakeholder differentiation-categorization, (3) investigation of stakeholders' relationships, and (4) analysis of social-biophysical interdependencies. This methodology classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the system and their potential in the conservation of natural resources. The main influential stakeholders are La Brava Village residents and tourism-related entrepreneurs who are empowered to make the more important decisions within the planning process of the ecosystem. While these key players are seen as facilitators of change, there are other groups (residents of the inner basin and fishermen) which are seen mainly as key blockers. The applied methodology for the Stakeholder Analysis and the evaluation of social-biophysical interdependencies carried out in this article can be seen as an encouraging example for other experts in natural sciences to learn and use these methods developed in social sciences. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this method in the practice by non-experts are discussed.

  2. Interspecies avian brain chimeras reveal that large brain size differences are influenced by cell-interdependent processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chun; Balaban, Evan; Jarvis, Erich D

    2012-01-01

    Like humans, birds that exhibit vocal learning have relatively delayed telencephalon maturation, resulting in a disproportionately smaller brain prenatally but enlarged telencephalon in adulthood relative to vocal non-learning birds. To determine if this size difference results from evolutionary changes in cell-autonomous or cell-interdependent developmental processes, we transplanted telencephala from zebra finch donors (a vocal-learning species) into Japanese quail hosts (a vocal non-learning species) during the early neural tube stage (day 2 of incubation), and harvested the chimeras at later embryonic stages (between 9-12 days of incubation). The donor and host tissues fused well with each other, with known major fiber pathways connecting the zebra finch and quail parts of the brain. However, the overall sizes of chimeric finch telencephala were larger than non-transplanted finch telencephala at the same developmental stages, even though the proportional sizes of telencephalic subregions and fiber tracts were similar to normal finches. There were no significant changes in the size of chimeric quail host midbrains, even though they were innervated by the physically smaller zebra finch brain, including the smaller retinae of the finch eyes. Chimeric zebra finch telencephala had a decreased cell density relative to normal finches. However, cell nucleus size differences between each species were maintained as in normal birds. These results suggest that telencephalic size development is partially cell-interdependent, and that the mechanisms controlling the size of different brain regions may be functionally independent.

  3. Interdependence between Greece and other European stock markets: A comparison of wavelet and VMD copula, and the portfolio implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Ali, Sajid; Ameer, Saba

    2016-09-01

    The interdependence of Greece and other European stock markets and the subsequent portfolio implications are examined in wavelet and variational mode decomposition domain. In applying the decomposition techniques, we analyze the structural properties of data and distinguish between short and long term dynamics of stock market returns. First, the GARCH-type models are fitted to obtain the standardized residuals. Next, different copula functions are evaluated, and based on the conventional information criteria and time varying parameter, Joe-Clayton copula is chosen to model the tail dependence between the stock markets. The short-run lower tail dependence time paths show a sudden increase in comovement during the global financial crises. The results of the long-run dependence suggest that European stock markets have higher interdependence with Greece stock market. Individual country's Value at Risk (VaR) separates the countries into two distinct groups. Finally, the two-asset portfolio VaR measures provide potential markets for Greece stock market investment diversification.

  4. Interspecies avian brain chimeras reveal that large brain size differences are influenced by cell-interdependent processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Like humans, birds that exhibit vocal learning have relatively delayed telencephalon maturation, resulting in a disproportionately smaller brain prenatally but enlarged telencephalon in adulthood relative to vocal non-learning birds. To determine if this size difference results from evolutionary changes in cell-autonomous or cell-interdependent developmental processes, we transplanted telencephala from zebra finch donors (a vocal-learning species into Japanese quail hosts (a vocal non-learning species during the early neural tube stage (day 2 of incubation, and harvested the chimeras at later embryonic stages (between 9-12 days of incubation. The donor and host tissues fused well with each other, with known major fiber pathways connecting the zebra finch and quail parts of the brain. However, the overall sizes of chimeric finch telencephala were larger than non-transplanted finch telencephala at the same developmental stages, even though the proportional sizes of telencephalic subregions and fiber tracts were similar to normal finches. There were no significant changes in the size of chimeric quail host midbrains, even though they were innervated by the physically smaller zebra finch brain, including the smaller retinae of the finch eyes. Chimeric zebra finch telencephala had a decreased cell density relative to normal finches. However, cell nucleus size differences between each species were maintained as in normal birds. These results suggest that telencephalic size development is partially cell-interdependent, and that the mechanisms controlling the size of different brain regions may be functionally independent.

  5. Stakeholder analysis and social-biophysical interdependencies for common pool resource management: La Brava Wetland (Argentina) as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E; Escalante, Alicia H

    2011-09-01

    This article gives an account of the implementation of a stakeholder analysis framework at La Brava Wetland Basin, Argentina, in a common-pool resource (CPR) management context. Firstly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Secondly, a four-step methodology is applied: (1) stakeholder identification, (2) stakeholder differentiation-categorization, (3) investigation of stakeholders' relationships, and (4) analysis of social-biophysical interdependencies. This methodology classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the system and their potential in the conservation of natural resources. The main influential stakeholders are La Brava Village residents and tourism-related entrepreneurs who are empowered to make the more important decisions within the planning process of the ecosystem. While these key players are seen as facilitators of change, there are other groups (residents of the inner basin and fishermen) which are seen mainly as key blockers. The applied methodology for the Stakeholder Analysis and the evaluation of social-biophysical interdependencies carried out in this article can be seen as an encouraging example for other experts in natural sciences to learn and use these methods developed in social sciences. Major difficulties and some recommendations of applying this method in the practice by non-experts are discussed.

  6. Interdependence of antioxidants and micronutrients in oral cancer and potentially malignant oral disorders: a serum and saliva study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In our previous studies we have evaluated the role of antioxidants and trace elements in potentially malignant disorders and cancers of the oral cavity, taking into consideration the importance of antioxidants as biomarkers in cancer detection. We felt that other than evaluation, the correlation and interdependence that existed among antioxidants and trace elements require further evaluation in order to develop a better understanding.Serum and salivary zinc, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase levels were evaluated in 65 healthy controls, 115 subjects with potentially malignant oral disorders, and 50 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma, using the atom absorption photometry, [5, 5-Dithiobis (2 nitrobenzoic acid], and nitroblue tetrazolium methods, respectively.Serum zinc and serum glutathione showed significant positive correlation (r=0.76, P=0.01. Similarly, salivary glutathione and salivary zinc levels had a positive correlation (r=0.68, P=0.01. Serum superoxide dismutase showed a strong positive correlation with serum zinc (r=0.64, P=0.01. Similarly, there was a moderate positive correlation between salivary superoxide dismutase and salivary zinc (r=0.67, P=0.01.Our findings showed that trace elements and antioxidants exhibited interdependence in serum, as well as in saliva, in both physiologic and pathologic states such as oral cancer.

  7. The Interdependence between Biodiversity and Socio-Economic Variables on a Local and Regional Level: Evidence for German Counties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, Angela; Völkl, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores possible interdependence of biodiversity and several socioeconomic and political factors at the county level. It is aimed at the empirical identification of direct and indirect effects between biodiversity (loss) and their theoretical major impact factors. To date, research sh...... of regional socioeconomic structures on biodiversity should not be underestimated. Specifically, in regard to biodiversity loss, the socioeconomic structure determines political measures instituted to protect biodiversity and to change agricultural practice.......This paper explores possible interdependence of biodiversity and several socioeconomic and political factors at the county level. It is aimed at the empirical identification of direct and indirect effects between biodiversity (loss) and their theoretical major impact factors. To date, research...... shows that in addition to geography, agriculture is one major determinant of biodiversity status. In our analysis of Bavarian counties, we show that low-yield areas with low species abundance tend to attract more grassland farming with a lower degree in the intensity of the farming practice. This result...

  8. Examining the efficiency and interdependence of US credit and stock markets through MF-DFA and MF-DXA approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Nor, Safwan Mohd; Mensi, Walid; Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the power law properties of 11 US credit and stock markets at the industry level. We use multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) to first investigate the relative efficiency of credit and stock markets and then evaluate the mutual interdependence between CDS-equity market pairs. The scaling exponents of the MF-DFA approach suggest that CDS markets are relatively more inefficient than their equity counterparts. However, Banks and Financial credit markets are relatively more efficient. Basic Materials (both CDS and equity indices) is the most inefficient sector of the US economy. The cross-correlation exponents obtained through MF-DXA also suggest that the relationship of the CDS and equity sectors within and across markets is multifractal for all pairs. Within the CDS market, Basic Materials is the most dependent sector, whereas equity market sectors can be divided into two distinct groups based on interdependence. The pair-wise dependence between Basic Materials sector CDSs and the equity index is also the highest. The degree of cross-correlation shows that the sectoral pairs of CDS and equity markets belong to a persistent cross-correlated series within selected time intervals.

  9. Essentials of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Murti, Y V G S

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on Nonlinear Optics varies widely in terms of content, style, and coverage of specific topics, relative emphasis of areas and the depth of treatment. While most of these books are excellent resources for the researchers, there is a strong need for books appropriate for presenting the subject at the undergraduate or postgraduate levels in Universities. The need for such a book to serve as a textbook at the level of the bachelors and masters courses was felt by the authors while teaching courses on nonlinear optics to students of both science and engineering during the past two decades. This book has emerged from an attempt to address the requirement of presenting the subject at college level. A one-semester course covering the essentials can effectively be designed based on this.

  10. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-08-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency--the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed.

  11. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora

    2016-01-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency—the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581

  12. Nonlinear data assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Reich, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on nonlinear data assimilation that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. Both contributions focus on so-called particle filters. The first contribution by Jan van Leeuwen focuses on the potential of proposal densities. It discusses the issues with present-day particle filters and explorers new ideas for proposal densities to solve them, converging to particle filters that work well in systems of any dimension, closing the contribution with a high-dimensional example. The second contribution by Cheng and Reich discusses a unified framework for ensemble-transform particle filters. This allows one to bridge successful ensemble Kalman filters with fully nonlinear particle filters, and allows a proper introduction of localization in particle filters, which has been lacking up to now.

  13. Nonlinearity without Superluminality

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    2002-01-01

    Quantum theory is compatible with special relativity. In particular, though measurements on entangled systems are correlated in a way that cannot be reproduced by local hidden variables, they cannot be used for superluminal signalling. As Gisin and Polchinski first pointed out, this is not true for general nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation. Excluding superluminal signalling has thus been taken to rule out most nonlinear versions of quantum theory. The no superluminal signalling constraint has also been used for alternative derivations of the optimal fidelities attainable for imperfect quantum cloning and other operations. These results apply to theories satisfying the rule that their predictions for widely separated and slowly moving entangled systems can be approximated by non-relativistic equations of motion with respect to a preferred time coordinate. This paper describes a natural way in which this rule might fail to hold. In particular, it is shown that quantum readout devices which di...

  14. Monte Carlo and nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Dauchet, Jérémi; Blanco, Stéphane; Caliot, Cyril; Charon, Julien; Coustet, Christophe; Hafi, Mouna El; Eymet, Vincent; Farges, Olivier; Forest, Vincent; Fournier, Richard; Galtier, Mathieu; Gautrais, Jacques; Khuong, Anaïs; Pelissier, Lionel; Piaud, Benjamin; Roger, Maxime; Terrée, Guillaume; Weitz, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is widely used to numerically predict systems behaviour. However, its powerful incremental design assumes a strong premise which has severely limited application so far: the estimation process must combine linearly over dimensions. Here we show that this premise can be alleviated by projecting nonlinearities on a polynomial basis and increasing the configuration-space dimension. Considering phytoplankton growth in light-limited environments, radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres, electromagnetic scattering by particles and concentrated-solar-power-plant productions, we prove the real world usability of this advance on four test-cases that were so far regarded as impracticable by Monte Carlo approaches. We also illustrate an outstanding feature of our method when applied to sharp problems with interacting particles: handling rare events is now straightforward. Overall, our extension preserves the features that made the method popular: addressing nonlinearities does not compromise o...

  15. Nonlinear Photonics 2014: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmediev, N; Kartashov, Yaroslav

    2015-01-12

    International Conference "Nonlinear Photonics-2014" took place in Barcelona, Spain on July 27-31, 2014. It was a part of the "Advanced Photonics Congress" which is becoming a traditional notable event in the world of photonics. The current focus issue of Optics Express contains contributions from the participants of the Conference and the Congress. The articles in this focus issue by no means represent the total number of the congress contributions (around 400). However, it demonstrates wide range of topics covered at the event. The next conference of this series is to be held in 2016 in Australia, which is the home of many researchers working in the field of photonics in general and nonlinear photonics in particular.

  16. Nonlinear fractional relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Tofighi

    2012-04-01

    We define a nonlinear model for fractional relaxation phenomena. We use -expansion method to analyse this model. By studying the fundamental solutions of this model we find that when → 0 the model exhibits a fast decay rate and when → ∞ the model exhibits a power-law decay. By analysing the frequency response we find a logarithmic enhancement for the relative ratio of susceptibility.

  17. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2005-03-01

    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  18. Controllability of nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmann, H. J.; Jurdjevic, V.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the controllability of nonlinear systems described by the equation dx/dt - F(x,u). Concepts formulated by Chow (1939) and Lobry (1970) are applied to establish criteria for F and its derivatives to obtain qualitative information on sets which can be obtained from x which denotes a variable of state in an arbitrary, real, analytical manifold. It is shown that controllability implies strong accessibility for a large class of manifolds including Euclidean spaces.-

  19. Stochastic Nonlinear Aeroelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    STOCHASTIC NONLINEAR AEROELASTICITY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In- house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0601102 6. AUTHOR(S) Philip S...ABSTRACT This report documents the culmination of in- house work in the area of uncertainty quantification and probabilistic techniques for... coff U∞ cs ea lw cw Figure 6: Wing and store geometry (left), wing box structural model (middle), flutter distribution (right

  20. Nonlinear Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC- 48, pp. 1712-1723, (2003). [14] C.I. Byrnes, A. Isidori...Nonlinear internal models for output regulation,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , AC-49, pp. 2244-2247, (2004). [15] C.I. Byrnes, F. Celani, A...approach,” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 48 (Dec. 2003), 2172–2190. 2. C. I. Byrnes, “Differential Forms and Dynamical Systems,” to appear

  1. Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A

    2014-10-20

    We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics.

  2. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  3. Quantum well nonlinear microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, J. L.; Kuszelewicz, R.; Sfez, B.; Pellat, D.; Azoulay, R.

    We report on recent progress in reducing the power threshold of all-optical bistable quantum well vertical microcavities. Significant improvements are achieved through an increase of the cavity finesse, together with a reduction of the device active layer thickness. A critical intensity of 5 μW/μm 2 has been observed on a microcavity of finesse 250, with a nonlinear medium of only 18 GaAs quantum wells of 10 nm thickness. Further improvements of the Bragg mirror quality resulted in a finesse of 700 and a power-lifetime product of 15 fJ/μm 2. Microresonator pixellation allows to obtain 2-dimensional arrays. A thermally-induced alloy-mixing technique is described, which produced a 110 meV carrier confinement energy, together with a refractive index change of -.012, averaged over the 2.6 μm nonlinear medium thickness. The resulting electrical and optical confinement is shown to improve the nonlinear characteristics, by limiting lateral carrier diffusion and light diffraction.

  4. Nonlinear robust hierarchical control for nonlinear uncertain systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonessa Alexander

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  5. Nonlinear scattering in plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shi-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear phenomena provide novel light manipulation capabilities and innovative applications. Recently, we discovered nonlinear saturation on single-particle scattering of gold nanospheres by continuous-wave laser excitation and innovatively applied to improve microscopic resolution down to λ/8. However, the nonlinearity was limited to the green-orange plasmonic band of gold nanosphere, and the underlying mechanism has not yet been fully understood. In this work, we demonstrated that nonlinear scattering exists for various material/geometry combinations, thus expanding the applicable wavelength range. For near-infrared, gold nanorod is used, while for blue-violet, silver nanospheres are adopted. In terms of mechanism, the nonlinearity may originate from interband/intraband absorption, hot electron, or hot lattice, which are spectrally mixed in the case of gold nanosphere. For gold nanorod and silver nanosphere, nonlinear scattering occurs at plasmonic resonances, which are spectrally far from interband/intraband absorptions, so they are excluded. We found that the nonlinear index is much larger than possible contributions from hot electrons in literature. Therefore, we conclude that hot lattice is the major mechanism. In addition, we propose that similar to z-scan, which is the standard method to characterize nonlinearity of a thin sample, laser scanning microscopy should be adopted as the standard method to characterize nonlinearity from a nanostructure. Our work not only provides the physical mechanism of the nonlinear scattering, but also paves the way toward multi-color superresolution imaging based on non-bleaching plasmonic scattering.

  6. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.

    2006-01-01

    A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowi......-Ladik equation. As a common property, these equations possess three kinds of exact analytical stationary solutions for which the Peierls-Nabarro barrier is zero. Several properties of these solutions, including stability, discrete breathers, and moving solutions, are investigated....

  7. Dichromatic nonlinear eigenmodes in slab waveguide with chi(2) nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanyan, S A; Nevière, M

    2001-03-01

    The existence of purely nonlinear eigenmodes in a waveguiding structure composed of a slab with quadratic nonlinearity surrounded by (non)linear claddings is reported. Modes having bright and dark solitonlike shapes and consisting of two mutually locked harmonics are identified. Asymmetrical modes are shown to exist in symmetrical environments. Constraints for the existence of the modes are derived in terms of parameters of guiding structure materials.

  8. Nonlinear Schrodinger equation with chaotic, random, and nonperiodic nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, W B; Avelar, A T; Bazeia, D; Hussein, M S

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we deal with a nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with chaotic, random, and nonperiodic cubic nonlinearity. Our goal is to study the soliton evolution, with the strength of the nonlinearity perturbed in the space and time coordinates and to check its robustness under these conditions. Comparing with a real system, the perturbation can be related to, e.g., impurities in crystalline structures, or coupling to a thermal reservoir which, on the average, enhances the nonlinearity. We also discuss the relevance of such random perturbations to the dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates and their collective excitations and transport.

  9. Nonlinear Optical Rectennas

    CERN Document Server

    Stolz, A; Markey, L; Francs, G Colas des; Bouhelier, A

    2013-01-01

    We introduce strongly-coupled optical gap antennas to interface optical radiation with current-carrying electrons at the nanoscale. The transducer relies on the nonlinear optical and electrical properties of an optical antenna operating in the tunneling regime. We discuss the underlying physical mechanisms controlling the conversion and demonstrate that a two-wire optical antenna can provide advanced optoelectronic functionalities beyond tailoring the electromagnetic response of a single emitter. Interfacing an electronic command layer with a nanoscale optical device may thus be facilitated by the optical rectennas discussed here.

  10. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  11. Nonlinear electrodynamics with birefringence

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglov, S I

    2015-01-01

    A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with three parameters is suggested. The phenomena of vacuum birefringence takes place when there is the external constant magnetic field. We calculate the indices of refraction for two polarizations of electromagnetic waves, parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic induction field. From the Bir\\'{e}fringence Magn\\'{e}tique du Vide (BMV) experiment one of the coefficients, $\\gamma\\approx 10^{-20}$ T$^{-2}$, was estimated. The canonical, symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensors and dilatation current were obtained. The dilatation symmetry and the dual symmetry are broken in the model considered.

  12. Nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhuo Qun; Li Hui Lai; Zhao Jun Ning

    2001-01-01

    Nonlinear diffusion equations, an important class of parabolic equations, come from a variety of diffusion phenomena which appear widely in nature. They are suggested as mathematical models of physical problems in many fields, such as filtration, phase transition, biochemistry and dynamics of biological groups. In many cases, the equations possess degeneracy or singularity. The appearance of degeneracy or singularity makes the study more involved and challenging. Many new ideas and methods have been developed to overcome the special difficulties caused by the degeneracy and singularity, which

  13. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  14. Nonlinear Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-18

    analytic semigroup T(t) ~ eAl is exponentially stable (Notice that it is also a contraction semigroup ). 3. Be 3(U, Z) and P e £(W, 2) are bounded. 4. Ce...quite often in practice, .4 is self-adjoint. We also note that, since we assume (—A) is sectorial, we work with the semigroup exp(.4f) rather than...Uniform Output Regulation of Nonlinear Sys- tems: A convergent Dynamics Approach, Birkhauser, Boston, 2006. 23 135] A. Pazy, Semigroups of Linear

  15. Nonlinear elliptic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJAIRO G. DEFIGUEIREDO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we treat the question of the existence of solutions of boundary value problems for systems of nonlinear elliptic equations of the form - deltau = f (x, u, v,Ñu,Ñv, - deltav = g(x, u, v, Ñu, Ñv, in omega, We discuss several classes of such systems using both variational and topological methods. The notion of criticality takes into consideration the coupling, which plays important roles in both a priori estimates for the solutions and Palais-Smale conditions for the associated functional in the variational case.

  16. Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics collects chapters on recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems with a particular emphasis on cell mapping methods developed by Professor C.S. Hsu of the University of California, Berkeley. This collection of contributions prepared by a diverse group of internationally recognized researchers is intended to stimulate interests in global analysis of complex and high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, whose global properties are largely unexplored at this time. This book also: Presents recent developments in global analysis of non-linear dynamical systems Provides in-depth considerations and extensions of cell mapping methods Adopts an inclusive style accessible to non-specialists and graduate students Global Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamics is an ideal reference for the community of nonlinear dynamics in different disciplines including engineering, applied mathematics, meteorology, life science, computational science, and medicine.  

  17. Nonlinear evolution of drift instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.W.; Krommes, J.A.; Oberman, C.R.; Smith, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of collisionless drift instabilities in a shear-free magnetic field has been studied by means of gyrokinetic particle simulation as well as numerical integration of model mode-coupling equations. The purpose of the investigation is to identify relevant nonlinear mechanisms responsible for the steady-state drift wave fluctuations. It is found that the saturation of the instability is mainly caused by the nonlinear E x B convection of the resonant electrons and their associated velocity space nonlinearity. The latter also induces energy exchange between the competing modes, which, in turn, gives rise to enhanced diffusion. The nonlinear E x B convection of the ions, which contributes to the nonlinear frequency shift, is also an important ingredient for the saturation.

  18. Z-scan theory for nonlocal nonlinear media with simultaneous nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian Vaziri, Mohammad Reza

    2013-07-10

    In this paper, the Z-scan theory for nonlocal nonlinear media has been further developed when nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction appear simultaneously. To this end, the nonlinear photoinduced phase shift between the impinging and outgoing Gaussian beams from a nonlocal nonlinear sample has been generalized. It is shown that this kind of phase shift will reduce correctly to its known counterpart for the case of pure refractive nonlinearity. Using this generalized form of phase shift, the basic formulas for closed- and open-aperture beam transmittances in the far field have been provided, and a simple procedure for interpreting the Z-scan results has been proposed. In this procedure, by separately performing open- and closed-aperture Z-scan experiments and using the represented relations for the far-field transmittances, one can measure the nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear index of refraction as well as the order of nonlocality. Theoretically, it is shown that when the absorptive nonlinearity is present in addition to the refractive nonlinearity, the sample nonlocal response can noticeably suppress the peak and enhance the valley of the Z-scan closed-aperture transmittance curves, which is due to the nonlocal action's ability to change the beam transverse dimensions.

  19. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eDietrich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire- TFEQ (Stunkard and Messick, 1985, sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the BIS/BAS Scales (Carver and White, 1994 and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (Patton et al., 1995. We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ~25%, women: ~32%. A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition, but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS. Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  20. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.