WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrogate minerals incubated

  1. A Common Loon incubates rocks as surrogates for eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Pereira, Jillian W.

    2013-01-01

    A nesting Gavia immer (Common Loon) was discovered incubating 2 rocks on a floating nest platform on the Quabbin reservoir in central Massachusetts for 43 days, well beyond the typical period of 28 days, before we moved in to investigate. The rocks were likely unearthed in the soil and vegetation used on the platform to create a more natural substrate for the nest. We suggest sifting through soil and vegetation to remove rocks before placing material on nest platforms.

  2. Incubating incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Pötz, Katharina Anna

    Setting up business incubators has become and industry in its own right. In this article, we return to incubator development studies but focus on the specific process through which involved stakeholders develop the new organization that should deliver services to future incubatees and become a self......-sustaining, dynamic business. In particular, we raise the question of how incubators should be set-up with regard to the context-dependent balance between business planning and venture creation approaches. We illustrate this challenge through providing insight into a case of a project-based and mainly planning......-oriented business incubator program in Africa. Insights gained suggest that there is a need for more balanced approaches to establishing incubators, especially when environments are uncertain and the goals of business incubation are not yet clear. We finish our conceptual article with a set of propositions...

  3. Incubating incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Pötz, Katharina Anna

    Setting up business incubators has become and industry in its own right. In this article, we return to incubator development studies but focus on the specific process through which involved stakeholders develop the new organization that should deliver services to future incubatees and become a self......-sustaining, dynamic business. In particular, we raise the question of how incubators should be set-up with regard to the context-dependent balance between business planning and venture creation approaches. We illustrate this challenge through providing insight into a case of a project-based and mainly planning...... to inspire further research on incubator development processes....

  4. Ice nucleation by surrogates for atmospheric mineral dust and mineral dust/sulfate particles at cirrus temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Archuleta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the potential role of some types of mineral dust and mineral dust with sulfuric acid coatings as heterogeneous ice nuclei at cirrus temperatures. Commercially-available nanoscale powder samples of aluminum oxide, alumina-silicate and iron oxide were used as surrogates for atmospheric mineral dust particles, with and without multilayer coverage of sulfuric acid. A sample of Asian dust aerosol particles was also studied. Measurements of ice nucleation were made using a continuous-flow ice-thermal diffusion chamber (CFDC operated to expose size-selected aerosol particles to temperatures between -45 and -60°C and a range of relative humidity above ice-saturated conditions. Pure metal oxide particles supported heterogeneous ice nucleation at lower relative humidities than those required to homogeneously freeze sulfuric acid solution particles at sizes larger than about 50 nm. The ice nucleation behavior of the same metal oxides coated with sulfuric acid indicate heterogeneous freezing at lower relative humidities than those calculated for homogeneous freezing of the diluted particle coatings. The effect of soluble coatings on the ice activation relative humidity varied with the respective uncoated core particle types, but for all types the heterogeneous freezing rates increased with particle size for the same thermodynamic conditions. For a selected size of 200 nm, the natural mineral dust particles were the most effective ice nuclei tested, supporting heterogeneous ice formation at an ice relative humidity of approximately 135%, irrespective of temperature. Modified homogeneous freezing parameterizations and theoretical formulations are shown to have application to the description of heterogeneous freezing of mineral dust-like particles with soluble coatings.

  5. Mineralization of carbon during moist incubation of soil JF79 treated with organic heat-transfer and storage fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishita, H.; Haug, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Biodegradability of four heat transfer/storage fluids (ethylene glycol, Therminol 66, Caloria HT43, and Dow Corning Fluid No. 200) were examined. The degradation was monitored by periodically measuring the mineralization of carbon in moist fluid-contaminated soils incubated at 28/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C for 8 weeks. Ethylene glycol mineralized relatively readily. The other three fluids did not show measurable amount of carbon mineralization during the experimental period. This implies potential long term environmental effects of mismanaged or accidental releases of these fluids into natural environment.

  6. Evaluation and simulation of nitrogen mineralization of paddy soils in Mollisols area of Northeast China under waterlogged incubation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Zhang

    Full Text Available Understanding the nitrogen (N mineralization process and applying appropriate model simulation are key factors in evaluating N mineralization. However, there are few studies of the N mineralization characteristics of paddy soils in Mollisols area of Northeast China.The soils were sampled from the counties of Qingan and Huachuan, which were located in Mollisols area of Northeast China. The sample soil was incubated under waterlogged at 30°C in a controlled temperature cabinet for 161 days (a 2: 1 water: soil ratio was maintained during incubation. Three models, i.e. the single first-order kinetics model, the double first-order kinetics model and the mixed first-order and zero-order kinetics model were used to simulate the cumulative mineralised N (NH4+-N and TSN in the laboratory and waterlogged incubation.During 161 days of waterlogged incubation, the average cumulative total soluble N (TSN, ammonium N (NH4+-N, and soluble organic N (SON was 122.2 mg kg-1, 85.9 mg kg-1, and 36.3 mg kg-1, respectively. Cumulative NH4+-N was significantly (P 0.05 correlated with C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC, extractable iron (Fe, clay, and sand. When the cumulative NH4+-N and TSN were simulated, the single first-order kinetics model provided the least accurate simulation. The parameter of the double first-order kinetics model also did not represent the actual data well, but the mixed first-order and zero-order kinetics model provided the most accurate simulation, as demonstrated by the estimated standard error, F statistic values, parameter accuracy, and fitting effect.Overall, the results showed that SON was involved with N mineralization process, and the mixed first-order and zero-order kinetics model accurately simulates the N mineralization process of paddy soil in Mollisols area of Northeast China under waterlogged incubation.

  7. Influence of sterilization on the mineralization of titanium implants induced by incubation in various biological model fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Saramago, B

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the sterilization processes on the mineralization of titanium implants induced by incubation in various biological model fluids. Titanium samples were submitted to the following sterilization processes used for implant materials: steam autoclaving, glow discharge Ar plasma treatment and gamma-irradiation. The modification of the treated surfaces was evaluated by contact angle determinations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser profilometry and X-ray diffraction. The most significant modifications were detected on the wettability: while the samples treated with Ar plasma became highly hydrophilic (water contact angle approximately 0 degrees), gamma-irradiation and steam sterilization induced an increase in the hydrophobicity. After being sterilized, the samples were incubated for one week in three biological model fluids: Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution, Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF) and a fluid, designated by SBF0, with the same composition of SBF but without buffer TRIS. The level of mineralization of the incubated Ti samples, assessed by dynamic contact angle analysis, scanning electron microscopy, electron dispersive spectroscopy and XPS, indicated that the early stages of mineralization are essentially independent of the sterilization method. In contrast, the incubating fluid plays a determinant role, SBFO being the most efficient medium for biomineralization of titanium.

  8. Incubation and hatch management: consequences for bone mineralization in Cobb 500 meat chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, W I; Groves, P J

    2017-08-08

    From ~35 days of age fast growing meat chickens spend extended periods sitting or lying and less time standing. In a fast-feathering parent line lower early incubation temperatures which delayed chick hatch time, improved bone ash and extended their standing time. This incubation study assessed the consequences of incubation temperatures, hatch time and chick management at hatch/take off on femoral bone ash (BA) in Cobb 500 meat chickens. Embryos were incubated under either Control (between 37.8°C and 38.2°C egg shell temperature (EST)) or a Slow start (from 37.2°C at sett (the start of incubation), reaching 37.8°C EST at day 13 incubation), temperatures. Hatched chicks were identified at 492 h (20.5 days of incubation - classified as early (E)) or, between >492 and ⩽516 h (>20.5 and ⩽21.5 days of incubation - classified as late (L)), from setting. The E hatch chicks were allocated across three post-hatch treatments; treatment 1: E hatch chicks that were sampled E at 492 h from setting; treatment 2: E hatch chicks that were fed for a further 24 h in a floorpen before being sampled L at 516 h from setting; treatment 3: E hatch chicks that spent a further 24 h in the incubator before being sampled L at 516 h from setting. All L hatch chicks formed one treatment group which was sampled L at 516 h (i.e. L hatch chicks sampled L). It is not possible to sample L hatching chicks E hence this treatment is absent from the experimental design. Slow start incubation resulted in a higher total hatch percentage with a greater proportion of chicks hatching L, compared with the Control incubation. The L hatching chicks had significantly higher BA than the E hatching chicks. Of the E hatching chicks, those sampled both E and L had significantly lower BA than E hatching chicks fed for 24 h before L sampling. The E hatch, fed and sampled L chicks had the numerically highest BA, which was not significantly different from the BA of the L hatching chicks sampled L These results

  9. EARTHWORM PONTOSCOLEXCORETHRURUS AND NITROGEN MINERALIZATION RATE IN INCUBATION EXPERIMENT WITH DIFFERENT QUALITY ORGANIC MATTERS FROM SUGARAGRO-INDUSTRY WASTE

    OpenAIRE

    J.B.Naik; S.P.Zine

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of earthworm inoculation on N mineralization rates of different quality organic matters from sugar agro-industry waste, we conducted a green house incubation experiment for 14 weeks in pots containing 7 kg dry soil. There are 12 treatment combinations.Factor I waswith (P) and without inoculation of P.corethrurus (N). Factor II was the type of OM which consisted of six levels: (1) without application of OM (control), (2) cow manure (CM), (3) filter cake (FC), (4) suga...

  10. Effect of temperature and moisture on the mineralization and humification of leaf litter in a model incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Maltseva, A. N.; Lopes de Gerenyu, V. O.; Kvitkina, A. K.; Bykhovets, S. S.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Kudeyarov, V. N.

    2017-04-01

    The mineralization and humification of leaf litter collected in a mixed forest of the Prioksko-Terrasny Reserve depending on temperature (2, 12, and 22°C) and moisture (15, 30, 70, 100, and 150% of water holding capacity ( WHC)) has been studied in long-term incubation experiments. Mineralization is the most sensitive to temperature changes at the early stage of decomposition; the Q 10 value at the beginning of the experiment (1.5-2.7) is higher than at the later decomposition stages (0.3-1.3). Carbon losses usually exceed nitrogen losses during decomposition. Intensive nitrogen losses are observed only at the high temperature and moisture of litter (22°C and 100% WHC). Humification determined from the accumulation of humic substances in the end of incubation decreases from 34 to 9% with increasing moisture and temperature. The degree of humification CHA/CFA is maximum (1.14) at 12°C and 15% WHC; therefore, these temperature and moisture conditions are considered optimal for humification. Humification calculated from the limit value of litter mineralization is almost independent of temperature, but it significantly decreases from 70 to 3% with increasing moisture. A possible reason for the difference between the humification values measured by two methods is the conservation of a significant part of hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin during the transformation of litter and the formation of a complex of humic substances with plant residues, where HSs fulfill a protectoral role and decrease the decomposition rate of plant biopolymers.

  11. Mineralization of nitrogen from pelletized sewage sludge - a laboratory incubation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattiez, Anne-Laure

    2000-07-01

    Nitrogen limits the productivity of most ecosystems, but can also cause environmental problems. With the increasing amount of sludge generated by better wastewater treatment, land application of pelletized sludge appears as a combined solution to waste disposal and plant nitrogen nutrition issues. Six types of sludge pellets/granules, containing different mixtures of sludge, ash and/or lime have been inoculated and incubated for 8 weeks at 20 deg C in the dark, to study N net mineralisation rates. Laboratory results showed no indication of general differences between sludge/ash and sludge/lime mixtures, with respect to N mineralisation and nitrification, but some differences between Umeaa pellets and GaevIe granules were discernible. The higher net N mineralisation rates in pellets appeared to be related to sludge properties. On the contrary pellets had a low level of nitrification, which might be explained by preliminary heat treatment of the sludge and the seemingly slow recolonization of nitrifiers. It is also believed that considerable amounts of N were lost, and that the major route for these losses was ammonia volatilisation. From an economical point of view, sludge pelletisation appears to be the most cost-effective means of disposal. It transforms sludge into a valuable, odourless and storable fertiliser or heat source. Some income could even be expected. The benefits obtained from an increased tree growth could justify forest fertilisation with pelletized sludge, but further research is needed to determine more precisely the possible growth increment and the consequences on the environment.

  12. Mineralization of nitrogen from pelletized sewage sludge - a laboratory incubation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattiez, Anne-Laure

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen limits the productivity of most ecosystems, but can also cause environmental problems. With the increasing amount of sludge generated by better wastewater treatment, land application of pelletized sludge appears as a combined solution to waste disposal and plant nitrogen nutrition issues. Six types of sludge pellets/granules, containing different mixtures of sludge, ash and/or lime have been inoculated and incubated for 8 weeks at 20 deg C in the dark, to study N net mineralisation rates. Laboratory results showed no indication of general differences between sludge/ash and sludge/lime mixtures, with respect to N mineralisation and nitrification, but some differences between Umeaa pellets and GaevIe granules were discernible. The higher net N mineralisation rates in pellets appeared to be related to sludge properties. On the contrary pellets had a low level of nitrification, which might be explained by preliminary heat treatment of the sludge and the seemingly slow recolonization of nitrifiers. It is also believed that considerable amounts of N were lost, and that the major route for these losses was ammonia volatilisation. From an economical point of view, sludge pelletisation appears to be the most cost-effective means of disposal. It transforms sludge into a valuable, odourless and storable fertiliser or heat source. Some income could even be expected. The benefits obtained from an increased tree growth could justify forest fertilisation with pelletized sludge, but further research is needed to determine more precisely the possible growth increment and the consequences on the environment

  13. Microbial and Mineral Controls on Soil Organic Carbon Decomposition: Testing the MEND Model with Data from Lab Incubations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Jagadamma, S.; Steinweg, J. M.; Mayes, M. A.; Post, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microbes (including enzymes) and physical-chemical protection play important roles in controlling soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition. The Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model was used to examine the dynamics of physically fractionated SOC pools in lab incubation experiments. The carbon pools in MEND consist of particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved organic carbon (POC, MOC, and DOC, respectively), microbial biomass, and associated exoenzymes. The following component carbon fluxes are described in MEND: POC and MOC decomposition, DOC uptake by microbes, adsorption and desorption of DOC, microbial growth and maintenance respiration, microbial mortality, and enzyme production and turnover. The kinetic parameters pertaining to these processes were determined based on the measured respiration processes and the a priori ranges/distributions of parameters. We attempted to demonstrate different dynamics of POC and MOC pools regulated by microbial-enzyme activities under different physical-chemical circumstances. Carbon pools and fluxes in the microbial-enzyme-mediated decomposition model

  14. Variations of the natural isotopic composition (15N) of mineral nitrogen from calcareous soils, studied during incubation experiment and on the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, A.; Guillemot, J.

    1980-01-01

    This study was intended to follow the variations of isotope composition of mineral nitrogen formed during incubation of calcareous soils (rendzine), humidity and temperature conditions approximating natural ones. We compared the isotope composition with that of mineral nitrogen formed in a lysimeter cut out from a natural soil with the same pedological features. During the incubation experiments, two steps were recognized. A step with production of nitrates and nitrites depleted in 15 N and a second step where the isotope composition leans towards an equilibrium value. During the first step, the 15 N depletion for the sum NO 3 + NO 2 correlates with a 15 N enrichment for ammonium. On the whole, the total mineral nitrogen isotope composition is approximately constant. This first step corresponds also to a great speed of nitrification, to the presence of nitrite and to a large evolution (production or use) of ammonium. On the contrary, nitrites have disappeared and ammonium is in dynamic equilibrium (constant concentration) when the delta 15 N of nitrates is stabilized. In another set of experiments, with the same conditions, small quantity of a nitrogen substrate (vegetal proteins or amino acids) easily mineralizable, was added to the soil: the 15 N depletion of NO 3 + NO 2 formed during the first step is much greater than with the mere soil. It is concluded that the initial step corresponds to the fast mineralization of a very labile organic component which could be, for the mere soil, the microbial biomass destroyed during air-drying of sample before incubations: this could correspond to the 'flush effect'. On the contrary, the step when nitrates becomes constant could correspond to the mineralization (slower and more regular) of an another organic pool, perhaps part of humified organic matter [fr

  15. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover and carbon content of a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleeem Abbasi, M.; Tahir, M. Mahmood; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2015-02-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in soil-plant systems. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water-filled pore space) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues, i.e., the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata, incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed a wide variation in total N, C, lignin, polyphenols and C / N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of Glycine max and the shoot and root of Trifolium repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% recovery of N that had been released from these added resources. The roots of Glycine max and Zea mays and the shoot of Zea mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation. After an initial immobilization, leaves of Populus euramericana, Robinia pseudoacacia and Elaeagnus umbellata exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively, and representing a 16, 32 and 33% N recovery, respectively. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01) and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C / N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin / N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol / N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and (lignin + polyphenol) : N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating a

  16. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  17. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making ...

  18. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bit of each one. Trace minerals includes iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium. Let's take a closer look at some of the minerals you get from food. Calcium Calcium is the top macromineral when it comes to your bones. This mineral helps build strong bones, so you ...

  19. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  20. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  1. Rural Incubator Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    This profile summarizes the responses of 20 managers of rural business incubators, reporting on their operations, entry and exit policies, facility promotion, service arrangements and economic development outcomes. Incubators assist small businesses in the early stages of growth by providing them with rental space, shared services, management and…

  2. Humidification of incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1985-01-01

    The effect of increasing the humidity in incubators was examined in 62 infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation. Thirty three infants nursed in high humidity for two weeks were compared retrospectively with 29 infants from an earlier study who were nursed under plastic bubble blankets or with topical paraffin but without raised humidity. Humidification reduced skin water loss and improved maintenance of body temperature from birth, but did not delay the normal postnatal maturation of the skin. Infants nursed without humidity frequently became hypothermic in spite of a high incubator air temperature. These advantages must be weighed against the finding that overheating was more common and Pseudomonas was more commonly isolated from the infants. It is recommended that incubator humidity is raised for babies under 30 weeks' gestation in the first days of life but meticulous attention should be paid to fluid balance, avoiding overheating, and cleansing of the humidifier reservoir. PMID:3985653

  3. Integrating education and incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    on the integration of extracurricular activities with formal credit awarding activities. In a Danish context, such integration has become increasingly important due to recent political reforms aimed at shortening the time it takes students to graduate in order to reduce national higher education expenditures....... On this backdrop, this paper explores the following questions: • How and to what extent do university student incubators collaborate with formal study programmes? • And which factors influence this integration of curricular and extracurricular activities?......During the last decade student business incubation activities have become mainstream activities in Western universities. This is also the case in Danish higher education where all universities have established in-house student incubators. The models applied are different and place varied emphasis...

  4. Integrating education and incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    During the last decade student business incubation activities have become mainstream activities in Western universities. This is also the case in Danish higher education where all universities have established in-house student incubators. The models applied are different and place varied emphasis...... on the integration of extracurricular activities with formal credit awarding activities. In a Danish context, such integration has become increasingly important due to recent political reforms aimed at shortening the time it takes students to graduate in order to reduce national higher education expenditures...

  5. Incubation of NASA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard

    1996-03-01

    Traditionally, government agencies have sought to transfer technology by licensing to large corporations. An alternative route to commercialization is through the entrepreneurial process: using government technology to assist new businesses in the environment of a business incubator. The NASA Ames Technology Commercialization Center, in Sunnyvale, California, is a business incubator used to commercialize NASA technology. In operation almost two years, it has helped twenty new, high technology ventures. Ice Management Systems is one of these. The Center is funded by NASA and operated by IC2, a think-tank associated with the University of Texas at Austin.

  6. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  7. Effect of pre-incubation and incubation conditions on hatchability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A study was conducted to review the effects of pre-incubation and incubation conditions on hatchability and chick quality of Kuroiler chickens. The most important incubation factors that affect hatch time, hatchability and hatch window (temperature, humidity, turning, and ventilation) were reviewed. There was a significant ...

  8. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  9. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... and (ii) genus- and family-level data for invertebrates (when available). We used three distinct species data sets for sub-Saharan Africa, Denmark and Uganda, which cover different spatial scales, biogeographic regions and taxa (vertebrates, invertebrates and plants). 3. We found that networks of priority...

  10. Nanoporous microscale microbial incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhifei; Girguis, Peter R; Buie, Cullen R

    2016-02-07

    Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals abundant microbial diversity that has not been cultured in the laboratory. Many attribute this so-called 'great plate count anomaly' to traditional microbial cultivation techniques, which largely facilitate the growth of a single species. Yet, it is widely recognized that bacteria in nature exist in complex communities. One technique to increase the pool of cultivated bacterial species is to co-culture multiple species in a simulated natural environment. Here, we present nanoporous microscale microbial incubators (NMMI) that enable high-throughput screening and real-time observation of multi-species co-culture. The key innovation in NMMI is that they facilitate inter-species communication while maintaining physical isolation between species, which is ideal for genomic analysis. Co-culture of a quorum sensing pair demonstrates that the NMMI can be used to culture multiple species in chemical communication while monitoring the growth dynamics of individual species.

  11. SULPHUR AVAILABILITY IN BRAZILIAN SOILS: EVALUATION OF NITROGEN AND SULPHUR MINERALIZATION POTENTIAL BY OPEN INCUBATION DISPONIBILIDADE DE ENXOFRE EM SOLOS BRASILEIROS: AVALIAÇÃO DOS POTENCIAIS DE MINERALIZAÇÃO DE NITROGÊNIO E ENXOFRE POR INCUBAÇÃO ABERTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huberto José Kliemann

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Two open incubation experiments in laboratory conditions were carried out, using columns containing 50 g of soils, from the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Goiás (Brazil. The clay contents varied from 8.0 to 60.0%, total sulphur (S from 0.0104 to 0.0319% and carbon from 0.50 to 3.03%. In the first experiment the leachate was used for the determination of mineral nitrogen (ammonium + nitrate and mineral sulphur (sulphate. In the second incubation trial carrier free H235S04 (0.62 microCi.g-1 soil was applied at “zero” time of incubation. The mineralization potentials of native N and S were estimated by using hyperbolic equations. Sandy soils low in C possess small mineralization potentials, being unaffected by liming. The reverse is true in the case of clayey soils with higher C content. The half life of both N and S was modified by liming. There was not, however, a proportionality factor between the mineralization rates of the elements. The mineralization of native N and S, as well the specific activity of the added 35S tended to level off in the 8th week of incubation, no effect of liming being evident.

    Conduziram-se em laboratório dois experimentos de incubação aberta em colunas com 50 g de terra, na ausência e presença de calagem, usando solos provenientes dos Estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Goiás, com teores de argila entre 8 e 60%, de carbono entre 0,5 e 3,0% e de enxofre entre 0,0104 e 0,0319%. No primeiro experimento utilizaram-se os lixiviados para a determinação do nitrogênio mineral (NH4+ + NO3- e do enxofre mineral (S-SO4=. No segundo experimento adicionou-se enxofre radioativo (35S, livre de carregador, na forma de H2 35SO4, com atividade inicial de 0,62 microCi.g-1 de solo no tempo “zero” de incubação, previamente à obtenção do primeiro extrato. Estimaram-se os

  12. Effect of pre-incubation and incubation conditions on hatchability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Kuroilers, a dual-purpose breed producing meat and eggs, can live on a kitchen diet and agricultural waste, and ... food and substantial incomes for rural households Jagdev (2011). In modern hatcheries, with a fixed ..... Modeling incubation temperature: the effects of incubator design, embryonic development, and egg size.

  13. Small Business Incubator Resource Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    This kit consists of a set of resources to assist those interested in the start-up and management (incubation) of a new business. A guide to starting and managing a small business incubator (SBI) is provided. Included in the guide are the following: a discussion of the role and characteristics of the SBI concept; guidelines for carrying out the…

  14. Managing a Small Business Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Charles, Ed.

    An increasingly popular economic development tool to improve the success rate of new firms is the small business incubator. These are buildings in which a number of new or growing businesses can locate and operate at a much lower overhead cost than in conventional space where market rates prevail. Incubator facilities are characterized by access…

  15. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas; Holzwarth, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used.......A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used....

  16. CO2 emissions from soil incubated with sugarcane straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporated sugarcane residue and N applications produce higher total organic carbon (TOC) mineralization rates when compared to application on the soil surface and without N. Nevertheless, there was no difference between TOC and C in the humin fraction (C-HU) 80 days after incubation. CO2 emissions peaked at ...

  17. Diffusion of student business incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Honig, Benson; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    This paper undertakes a longitudinal examination of the diffusion of a relatively new organizational activity - university student business incubators - by studying the processes through which actors grounded in three different institutional logics interact in the organizational field of higher....... The process was facilitated by the institutional logic of entrepreneurial culture that integrated elements of the commercial and classic university logics. We find that the diffusion and adaptation process were mainly influenced by resources available, organizational constituencies mobilized, discretional...... education. Applying neo-institutional theory, we examine the development of student incubation activities in the field of general state-funded Danish universities. We review institutional pressures from the political sphere that led to the diffusion of student incubation, introducing a three-phase process...

  18. Airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds in neonatal incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazad, P; Cortes, D R; Puppala, B L; Donovan, R; Kumar, S; Gulati, A

    2008-08-01

    To identify and quantify airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside neonatal incubators during various modes of operation within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment. Air samples were taken from 10 unoccupied incubators in four operational settings along with ambient air samples using air sampling canisters. The samples were analyzed following EPA TO-15 using a Tekmar AutoCan interfaced to Agilent 6890 Gas Chromatograph with a 5973 Mass Spectrometer calibrated for 60 EPA TO-15 method target compounds. Non-target compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectral interpretation and with a mass spectral library created by National Institute for Standards and Technology. Two non-target compounds, 2-heptanone and n-butyl acetate, were found at elevated concentrations inside the incubators compared with ambient room air samples. Increase in temperature and addition of humidity produced further increased concentrations of these compounds. Their identities were verified by mass spectra and relative retention times using authentic standards. They were quantified using vinyl acetate and 2-hexanone as surrogate standards. The emission pattern of these two compounds and background measurements indicate that they originate inside the incubator. There is evidence that exposure to some VOCs may adversely impact the fetal and developing infants' health. Currently, as there is no definitive information available on the effects of acute or chronic low-level exposure to these compounds in neonates, future studies evaluating the health effects of neonatal exposure to these VOCs are needed.

  19. Business support within business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  20. BUSINESS INCUBATORS AND SUSTAINABLE INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schebesch Klaus Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative businesses are often the result of collective action of organisations involved in many-sided market structures, which can be found in and around business incubators or technology centres. Within such frame environments, many group interests beyond those of single producers and their immediate clients exist and interfere. Rather generically, important economic outcomes of innovations are sequences of cost reduction events at the level of economic sectors, where the nature of (sector-wise technology is influencing the pace of these events. At the conceptual level, we describe the social learning and social innovation process which leads to sustainable innovation by means of the influence exerted by firms on each other within constrained environments such as business incubators. These environments need not to be organized according to any sector logic. We propose that the influence exerted between firms is increasing in firm similarity, in the degree of product complementarity, and also to depend on (mutual trust relations. We note that, very much in symmetry with the role of sustainability in society as a whole, in the world of firms and markets, the incubation process may be viewed as a moderator, which attempts to overcome the disadvantages of highly paced, short-term oriented capitalist economies. In sections 2 and 3 a concept for representing the societal forces shaping sustainability and incubation for the innovating firm is described and ways of transforming the concept into concrete tools of assessment and valuation are pointed at.

  1. Business support within business incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  2. The evolution of business incubators: comparing demand and supply of business incubation services across different incubator generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruneel, J.; Ratinho, Tiago; Clarysse, B.; Groen, Arend J.

    2012-01-01

    Business incubators (BIs) have been established around the world to stimulate new business creation. Whilst it is accepted that incubation models have evolved, little is known about whether existing incubators have adjusted their value proposition to incorporate recent incubation paradigms or have

  3. Naturally occurring flavonoids against human norovirus surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-06-01

    Naturally occurring plant-derived flavonoids are reported to have antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The objectives of this study were to determine the antiviral effects of four flavonoids (myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, and naringenin) on the infectivity of food borne norovirus surrogates after 2 h at 37 °C. The lab-culturable surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) at titers of ~7 log₁₀ PFU/ml (high titer) or ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml (low titer) and murine norovirus (MNV-1) at ~5 log₁₀ PFU/ml, were mixed with equal volumes of myricetin, L-epicatechin, tangeretin, or naringenin at concentrations of 0.5 or 1 mM, and incubated for 2 h at 37 °C. Treatments of viruses were neutralized in cell culture medium containing 10 % heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum, serially diluted, and plaque assayed. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 (low titer) was not found to be reduced by tangeretin or naringenin, but was reduced to undetectable levels by myricetin at both concentrations. Low titer FCV-F9 was also decreased by 1.40 log₁₀ PFU/ml with L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM. FCV-F9 at high titers was decreased by 3.17 and 0.72 log₁₀ PFU/ml with myricetin and L-epicatechin at 0.5 mM, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml with myricetin at 0.25 mM, respectively. However, MNV-1 showed no significant inactivation by the four tested treatments. The antiviral effects of the tested flavonoids are dependent on the virus type, titer, and dose. Further research will focus on understanding the antiviral mechanism of myricetin and L-epicatechin.

  4. Saraniyadhamma Community knowledge Incubator area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Arundechachai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to 1 study the situation of the community knowledge incubator area at the past to the present time in Banhad,Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 2 study guidelines Buddhadhamma “Saraniyadhamma” revised by Community knowledge application Banhad, Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 3 study workflow of Saraniyadhamma that led to the creation of the network community knowledge incubator area together with another community. The target groups used in this research of the purposive sampling family farmers of 10, in Tambon banhad,Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen. the Qualitative research.was used in this Study The results showed that 1 diversing issues in the Community live action of the relationships or occupations experience can be passed down, as well as the risk of loss the relationships between the people and people, people and supernatural. After people and nature lost in the community, but thay Continue to Perform, because community has strengths given the importance of all, to themselves, to others, generous, generosity, mounting traditions, Led to the creation Community Knowledge Incubator 2 adopting Buddhism’s “Saraniyadhamma 6” that applied to community Knowledge Incubator by giving to make immunity community. Strong The six fetures, were Principle 1: Metta-kayakamma, feature on sacrifiction, unity and synergy. Principle 2: Metta-manokamma, feature on mercifulness, collective sacrification. Principle 3: Metta-kayakamma, feature on good things, speak well, good action. Principle 4: Sadharana-bhogi, feature on humane society, mutual respect. Principle 5 Sila-samannata, feature on, follow the rules of society. Principle 5 Metta-manokamma feature on rationality, listening to the opinion of others. It found that there were process-driven learning and following six rules of saraniyadhamma, and immunity system, risk Decoupled. 3 Networks Saraniyadhamma learnt together with other

  5. What determines a successful business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Sophia; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    these results in a generic business incubation process model, which is elaborated in a pre-, main- and after-incubation phase. Finally, we introduce an incubator guide, which is summarizing the key areas into a questionnaire. Hence, on the one hand, we foster future research on business incubation with our......Business incubators have become an important pillar in the attraction and the support of innovation and entrepreneurship – in practice, and to a greater extent in theory as well. Based on earlier research, we give an overview of business incubator literature between 2001 and 2013. We review...

  6. Technology Business Incubators as Engines of Growth: Towards a distinction between Technology Incubators and Non-Technology Incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  7. Technology business incubators as engines of growth: towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Langan Fox, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  8. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  9. 21 CFR 880.5400 - Neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal incubator. 880.5400 Section 880.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5400 Neonatal incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal incubator is a device consisting of a...

  10. Bedload-surrogate monitoring technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in technologies for quantifying bedload fluxes and in some cases bedload size distributions in rivers show promise toward supplanting traditional physical samplers and sampling methods predicated on the collection and analysis of physical bedload samples. Four workshops held from 2002 to 2007 directly or peripherally addressed bedload-surrogate technologies, and results from these workshops have been compiled to evaluate the state-of-the-art in bedload monitoring. Papers from the 2007 workshop are published for the first time with this report. Selected research and publications since the 2007 workshop also are presented. Traditional samplers used for some or all of the last eight decades include box or basket samplers, pan or tray samplers, pressure-difference samplers, and trough or pit samplers. Although still useful, the future niche of these devices may be as a means for calibrating bedload-surrogate technologies operating with active- and passive-type sensors, in many cases continuously and automatically at a river site. Active sensors include acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), sonar, radar, and smart sensors. Passive sensors include geophones (pipes or plates) in direct contact with the streambed, hydrophones deployed in the water column, impact columns, and magnetic detection. The ADCP for sand and geophones for gravel are currently the most developed techniques, several of which have been calibrated under both laboratory and field conditions. Although none of the bedload-surrogate technologies described herein are broadly accepted for use in large-scale monitoring programs, several are under evaluation. The benefits of verifying and operationally deploying selected bedload-surrogate monitoring technologies could be considerable, providing for more frequent and consistent, less expensive, and arguably more accurate bedload data obtained with reduced personal risk for use in managing the world's sedimentary resources. Twenty-six papers are

  11. Directed percolation with incubation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Dalmaroni, Andrea

    2006-07-01

    We introduce a model for directed percolation with a long-range temporal diffusion, while the spatial diffusion is kept short ranged. In an interpretation of directed percolation as an epidemic process, this non-Markovian modification can be understood as incubation times, which are distributed accordingly to a Lévy distribution. We argue that the best approach to find the effective action for this problem is through a generalization of the Cardy-Sugar method, adding the non-Markovian features into the geometrical properties of the lattice. We formulate a field theory for this problem and renormalize it up to one loop in a perturbative expansion. We solve the various technical difficulties that the integrations possess by means of an asymptotic analysis of the divergences. We show the absence of field renormalization at one-loop order, and we argue that this would be the case to all orders in perturbation theory. Consequently, in addition to the characteristic scaling relations of directed percolation, we find a scaling relation valid for the critical exponents of this theory. In this universality class, the critical exponents vary continuously with the Lévy parameter.

  12. The Co-evolution of Business Incubators and National Incubator Networks in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Robinson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes a three stage model of the development of business incubation practices in emerging markets. The model addresses the diffusion of incubation practices to new markets, the institutionalization of those practices and the co-evolution of incubators and national networks of incubation. The model is based on interviews conducted in Bolivia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. New incubators in emerging markets often face strong cultural norms and institutional impediments to helping entrepreneurs start new businesses. As incubation becomes better established in a country, incubators provide more advanced technical, legal and market-based advice. Networks of incubators form to share specialized services across many incubators, to allocate government funding to incubators, and to lobby for public and private support of innovation.

  13. Surrogate Analysis and Index Developer (SAID) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Landers, Mark N.

    2015-10-01

    The use of acoustic and other parameters as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) in rivers has been successful in multiple applications across the Nation. Tools to process and evaluate the data are critical to advancing the operational use of surrogates along with the subsequent development of regression models from which real-time sediment concentrations can be made available to the public. Recent developments in both areas are having an immediate impact on surrogate research and on surrogate monitoring sites currently (2015) in operation.

  14. Use of Surrogate Outcomes in Nephrology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Joshua

    2016-11-01

    Clinical trials are large and expensive and could require exceedingly long-term follow-up for subjects to reach clinically meaningful end points. To combat these methodologic issues, researchers sometimes use biomarkers as surrogate end points. A biomarker is an objectively measured characteristic that is indicative of some underlying phenomenon or process, while a surrogate is a biomarker that "takes the place" of a clinically meaningful outcome, usually earlier in the disease process. This paper reviews the history, strengths, and weaknesses of surrogate outcome use in clinical research and then discusses potential surrogate outcomes in nephrology research. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surrogate motherhood: unacceptable answer to infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connery, J R

    1985-03-01

    Although many see surrogate motherhood as a solution to female sterility, it produces problems with the marriage relationship, parental responsibility, and parent-child bonding. Pope Pius XII condemned artificial insemination from a donor (surrogate fatherhood) because it separates procreation from marriage. This condemnation would extend to surrogate motherhood for the same reasons: Human procreation is reduced simply to transmitting biological life rather than a Christian way of living, which is a task that requires parents' commitment to each other and the child. Many other problems make this procedure unacceptable. These include commercialization, the child's possible anxiety because of its ambiguous parentage, and the surrogate's wanting to keep the child.

  16. The business incubator in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...... addressed in this paper is why this new model has emerged and what distinguishes it from the more traditional incubator model. The theoretical basis of the research is social capital theory. Empirically, the paper is based on 6 months' ethnographic data collected in one of the first known networked...

  17. The interactive surrogate travel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, I; Ichimura, A; Juzoji, H; Mugita, K

    1999-01-01

    The Interactive Surrogate Travel (IST) system is based on the super-miniaturized system of virtual technology, Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE). Using bilateral virtual reality (VR-to-VR) communications, IST enables the testing of subjects via interactive communications. It appears that IST will find practical applications in the near future. We examined the utility of IST in medical treatment and psychiatric tests. Psychiatric symptoms reflect human pathos, which in turn are greatly influenced by culture. If these culture-bound symptoms can be adequately communicated between providers and clients of different cultures, we can develop effective telepsychiatric services across different societies and cultures. IST requires high-speed transmission and gigabyte circuits. A pilot project tested the utility of IST (through the use of optical fiber communications on earth) as a basis for experiments via the Gigabit satellite, to be launched in the year 2002.

  18. MONITORING BABY INCUBATOR SENTRAL DENGAN KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Sulistyo Utomo

    2018-04-01

    180m. Pengujian suhu ruang baby incubator menggunakan termometer sebagai perbandingan dengan nilai suhu yang dibaca pada alat. Dari pengukuran diperoleh tingkat perbedaan 0% pada suhu 30oC dan 2,8% pada suhu 37oC.   Kata kunci: baby incubator, sistem monitoring sentral, microsoft visual studio, arduino.

  19. Micro and Small Enterprises Incubator - Phase III

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The goals of the Mozambique Information and Communication Technology Micro and Small Enterprises Incubator (MICTI Incubator) are twofold: to identify sustainable opportunities for technology-based businesses in priority development areas; and to test the assumption that technology-based businesses can mentor the ...

  20. Understanding management practices in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent; Thijssen, Sander; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Following the call for process-oriented research on business incubation processes, this paper investigates the process of business incubation (BI) via an understanding of management practices and interactions. Based on a comprehensive literature review and empirical evidence of management practices

  1. The Reparative Motive in Surrogate Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanefield, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Explores the motivations of surrogate mothers, focusing on underlying reparative motive--to compensate for or repair an earlier loss or sense of damage. Provides an overview of the typical surrogate's characteristics and personality, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the reparative motive, and considers the tension between reparation and…

  2. Imaging Seeker Surrogate for IRCM evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Carpenter, S.R.; Mellier, B.; Dimmeler, A.

    2007-01-01

    NATO-SCI-139 and its predecessor groups have more than a decade of history in the evaluation and recommendation of EO and IR Countermeasures against anti-aircraft missiles. Surrogate Seekers have proven to be a valuable tool for this work. The use of surrogate seekers in international co-operations

  3. 34 CFR 303.406 - Surrogate parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surrogate parents. 303.406 Section 303.406 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.406 Surrogate parents. (a) General. Each lead agency shall ensure that the rights of children eligible under this part are protected if— (1) No parent (as defined...

  4. 34 CFR 300.519 - Surrogate parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surrogate parents. 300.519 Section 300.519 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.519 Surrogate parents... parent (as defined in § 300.30) can be identified; (2) The public agency, after reasonable efforts...

  5. Potassium ferrate [Fe(VI] does not mediate self-sterilization of a surrogate mars soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paszczynski Andrzej

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Martian soil is thought to be enriched with strong oxidants such as peroxides and/or iron in high oxidation states that might destroy biological materials. There is also a high flux of ultraviolet radiation at the surface of Mars. Thus, Mars may be inhospitable to life as we know it on Earth. We examined the hypothesis that if the soil of Mars contains ferrates [Fe(VI], the strongest of the proposed oxidizing species, and also is exposed to high fluxes of UV radiation, it will be self-sterilizing. Results Under ambient conditions (25°C, oxygen and water present K2FeO4 mixed into sand mineralized some reactive organic molecules to CO2, while less reactive compounds were not degraded. Dried endospores of Bacillus subtilis incubated in a Mars surrogate soil comprised of dry silica sand containing 20% by weight K2FeO4 and under conditions similar to those now on Mars (extreme desiccation, cold, and a CO2-dominated atmosphere were resistant to killing by the ferrate-enriched sand. Similar results were observed with permanganate. Spores in oxidant-enriched sand exposed to high fluxes of UV light were protected from the sporocidal activity of the radiation below about 5 mm depths. Conclusion Based on our data and previously published descriptions of ancient but dormant life forms on Earth, we suggest that if entities resembling bacterial endospores were produced at some point by life forms on Mars, they might still be present and viable, given appropriate germination conditions. Endospores delivered to Mars on spacecraft would possibly survive and potentially compromise life detection experiments.

  6. Use of Surrogate end points in HTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangiapane, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The different actors involved in health system decision-making and regulation have to deal with the question which are valid parameters to assess the health value of health technologies.So called surrogate endpoints represent in the best case preliminary steps in the casual chain leading to the relevant outcome (e. g. mortality, morbidity and are not usually directly perceptible by patients. Surrogate endpoints are not only used in trials of pharmaceuticals but also in studies of other technologies. Their use in the assessment of the benefit of a health technology is however problematic. In this report we intend to answer the following research questions: Which criteria need to be fulfilled for a surrogate parameter to be considered a valid endpoint? Which methods have been described in the literature for the assessment of the validity of surrogate endpoints? Which methodological recommendations concerning the use of surrogate endpoints have been made by international HTA agencies? Which place has been given to surrogate endpoints in international and German HTA reports? For this purpose, we choose three different approaches. Firstly, we conduct a review of the methodological literature dealing with the issue of surrogate endpoints and their validation. Secondly, we analyse current methodological guidelines of HTA agencies members of the International network of agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA as well as of agencies concerned with assessments for reimbursement purposes. Finally, we analyse the outcome parameter used in a sample of HTA reports available for the public. The analysis of methodological guidelines shows a very cautious position of HTA institutions regarding the use of surrogate endpoints in technology assessment. Surrogate endpoints have not been prominently used in HTA reports. None of the analysed reports based its conclusions solely on the results of surrogate endpoints. The analysis of German HTA reports shows a

  7. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    Chinese government now requires government-sponsored non-for-profit technology-based business incubators (TBIs) to be profitable self-sustainability with less dependent on direct public subsidies, aiming to motivate these TBIs to provide higher quality services for their tenant new technology......-based firms (NTBFs). Simultaneously, these TBIs are required to remain social functions to satisfy government demands. Thus the conception "hybrid incubators" derived from hybrid organizations is introduced. A hybrid incubator means that a TBI can implement various distinct value creation processes...... with the integration of the advantages of non-for-profit and for-profit TBIs at same time. However, research on specific paths or key factors for integration of non-for- and for-profit TBIs to be one hybrid incubator are in sufficient. In addition, there are few relevant investigations about incubators in developing...

  8. Active noise control for infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Gujjula, Shruthi; Kuo, Sen M

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an active noise control system for infant incubators. Experimental results show that global noise reduction can be achieved for infant incubator ANC systems. An audio-integration algorithm is presented to introduce a healthy audio (intrauterine) sound with the ANC system to mask the residual noise and soothe the infant. Carbon nanotube based transparent thin film speaker is also introduced in this paper as the actuator for the ANC system to generate the destructive secondary sound, which can significantly save the congested incubator space and without blocking the view of doctors and nurses.

  9. Informal Social Networks and Incubated Business Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Volney Lagemann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to explore and analyze the relationship between social networks and firm performance, this longitudinal multicase study was developed, interviewing five incubated companies, selected by accessibility and convenience, which were in different stages of incubation, at Softville, a technologically based incubator of Joinville-SC. Managers and employees of these companies answered the sociometric questionnaire, at three moments in the period of a year. The reliability, technical information and management information networks were mapped, as were their structural features of size, density and cohesion, besides studying the company performance data (team size, number of customers and sales. The companies studied with more cohesive networks have a better performance, confirming that which is indicated by the relevant literature and suggest that practices for supporting incubated companies should emphasize competence in network.

  10. Surrogate decision making in patients with schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Pozón, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the process of the surrogate decision making in schizophrenic patients. First, we rely on a number of ethical principles that will guide the surrogate decision making. Second, we analyze which are the legal rules about guardianship and conservatorship. Third, we expose some action rules for the trial for substitution. Fourth, we develop some norms for the intervention that impose limit to substitutes. Finally, we make a proposal about who is best trained to represent ...

  11. Surrogate Models for Direct Dark Matter Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeno, D. G.; Cheek, A.; Reid, E.; Schulz, H.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we introduce RAPIDD, a surrogate model that speeds up the computation of the expected spectrum of dark matter particles in direct detection experiments. RAPIDD replaces the exact calculation of the dark matter differential rate (which in general involves up to three nested integrals) with a much faster parametrization in terms of ordinary polynomials of the dark matter mass and couplings, obtained in an initial training phase. In this article, we validate our surrogate model on t...

  12. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-07-01

    To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost.

  13. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  14. The Business Incubator Management Strategy Case study of the Business Incubator Located in Mangalia

    OpenAIRE

    Epure Danut Tiberius; Cusu Dorinela; Teliceanu Claudiu Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Through this paper we intend to analyze the management process of a business incubator. To achieve our aim we will use for example the Business Incubator located in Mangalia developed by the Establishment and Development of Business Incubators Project in Romania, a program initiated by The Agency for Implementing Projects and Programmes for SMEs (AIPPSME) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The main aspects considered in this work are related to the administrator selection proced...

  15. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  16. Recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2017-12-06

    Petroleum-derived gasoline is currently the most widely used fuel for transportation propulsion. The design and operation of gasoline fuels is governed by specific physical and chemical kinetic fuel properties. These must be thoroughly understood in order to improve sustainable gasoline fuel technologies in the face of economical, technological, and societal challenges. For this reason, surrogate mixtures are formulated to emulate the thermophysical, thermochemical, and chemical kinetic properties of the real fuel, so that fundamental experiments and predictive simulations can be conducted. Early studies on gasoline combustion typically adopted single component or binary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane) as surrogates. However, the last decade has seen rapid progress in the formulation and utilization of ternary mixtures (n-heptane/isooctane/toluene), as well as multicomponent mixtures that span the entire carbon number range of gasoline fuels (C4–C10). The increased use of oxygenated fuels (ethanol, butanol, MTBE, etc.) as blending components/additives has also motivated studies on their addition to gasoline fuels. This comprehensive review presents the available experimental and chemical kinetic studies which have been performed to better understand the combustion properties of gasoline fuels and their surrogates. Focus is on the development and use of surrogate fuels that emulate real fuel properties governing the design and operation of engines. A detailed analysis is presented for the various classes of compounds used in formulating gasoline surrogate fuels, including n-paraffins, isoparaffins, olefins, naphthenes, and aromatics. Chemical kinetic models for individual molecules and mixtures of molecules to emulate gasoline surrogate fuels are presented. Despite the recent progress in gasoline surrogate fuel combustion research, there are still major gaps remaining; these are critically discussed, as well as their implications on fuel formulation and engine

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of organic matter of a soil and vinasse mixture during aerobic or anaerobic incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelsch, Emmanuel; Masion, Armand; Cazevieille, Patrick; Condom, Nicolas

    2009-06-01

    Mineralization potentials are often used to classify organic wastes. These methods involve measuring CO(2) production during batch experiments, so variations in chemical compounds are not addressed. Moreover, the physicochemical conditions are not monitored during the reactions. The present study was designed to address these deficiencies. Incubations of a mixture of soil and waste (vinasse at 20% dry matter from a fermentation industry) were conducted in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and liquid samples obtained by centrifugation were collected at 2h, 1d and 28 d. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) patterns highlighted that: there was a "soil effect" which increased organic matter (OM) degradation in all conditions compared to vinasse incubated alone; and OM degradation was faster under aerobic conditions since 500 mgkg(-1) of C remained after aerobic incubation, as compared to 4000 mgkg(-1) at the end of the anaerobic incubation period. No changes were detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) between 2h and 1d incubation. At 28 days incubation, the FTIR signal of the aerobic samples was deeply modified, thus confirming the high OM degradation. Under anaerobic conditions, the main polysaccharide contributions (nu(C-O)) disappeared at 1000 and 1200 cm(-1), as also confirmed by the (13)C NMR findings. Under aerobic incubation, a 50% decrease in the polysaccharide proportion was observed. Under anaerobic conditions, significant chemical modifications of the organic fraction were detected, namely formation of low molecular weight organic acids.

  18. Incubation behaviour of the African jacana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-14

    Aug 14, 1990 ... within the optimal temperature range is achieved by the parent transferring its body heat to the eggs via its brood patch. The parent regulates the egg temperature by maintain- ing an inCubation time-table according to the temperature gradient existing between the eggs and their immediate. R eprod u ced.

  19. Technology Business Incubators in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Mingfeng; Baskaran, Angathevar; Pancholi, Jatin

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative case study of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in two major emerging economies in Asia - China and India. We employ an integrative analytical framework that combines three broad categories of indicators (originally developed by developed by Mian, 1997): Management po...

  20. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clasen, E

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator micro-organism to determine whether water is safe for human consumption. This paper discusses the design of a micro-incubator that can be applied to concentrate bacteria prior...

  1. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. *Corresponding author (Fax, 972-4-8542092; Email, erica@rambam.health.gov.il). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals.

  2. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that ...

  3. Pavlovian Incubation of US Signal Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments with rats examined Pavlovian incubation, in which responding increases when Pavlovian conditioning is followed by a testing delay. In a within-subjects design, Experiment 1 first showed that when a single food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) signaled the delivery of three additional pellets, responding after the single US was…

  4. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from healthy donors were tested for stimulated release of superoxide anions after being incubated with serum of welders and of a group of unexposed individuals. These two groups were further subdivided either according to age or to smoking habits. The experiments showed that ...

  5. [Immunological surrogate endpoints to evaluate vaccine efficacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengfei; Li, Jingxin; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Fengcai

    2015-12-01

    An immunological surrogate endpoints is a vaccine-induced immune response (either humoral or cellular immune) that predicts protection against clinical endpoints (infection or disease), and can be used to evaluate vaccine efficacy in clinical vaccine trials. Compared with field efficacy trials observing clinical endpoints, immunological vaccine trials could reduce the sample size or shorten the duration of a trial, which promote the license and development of new candidate vaccines. For these reasons, establishing immunological surrogate endpoints is one of 14 Grand Challenges of Global Health of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. From two parts of definition and statistical methods for evaluation of surrogate endpoints, this review provides a more comprehensive description.

  6. Can we go beyond surrogates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    underlying atherosclerotic process. It is likely that all SGLT2 inhibitors will receive an indication for secondary prevention of heart failure; whether the agents should be used in primary prevention is a much more difficult question, because it would require a very large study of patients without heart disease. The introduction of HbA1c measurements in the late 1970s radically and significantly improved our treatment of diabetes. However, our treatment of diabetes is ultimately not to lower HbA1c, but to prevent the complications of diabetes. Values of HbA1c are only a surrogate measure of diabetes. Currently, there is little agreement on the treatment algorithm for diabetes after metformin therapy. One may now argue that an SGLT2 inhibitor should be the preferred second-line therapy. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Social capital dimensions among incubated entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ezequiel Quijano Quijano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows contributions from leading researchers in the fi eld of social capital as support of corporate sustainability and the contribution generated by a descriptive case study based on a representative sample from entrepreneurs from the Fundación Parque de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Parquesoft in Colombia, to contrast the theoretical approaches. The findings show a slight presence of social capital in the performance of incubated entrepreneurs.

  8. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-11-01

    Future thrusts for gasoline engine development can be broadly summarized into two categories: (i) efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines, and (ii) development of advance compression ignition (ACI) concepts. Efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines requires downsizing (and turbocharging) which may be achieved by using high octane gasolines, whereas, low octane gasolines fuels are anticipated for ACI concepts. The current work provides the essential combustion kinetic data, targeting both thrusts, that is needed to develop high fidelity gasoline surrogate mechanisms and surrogate complexity guidelines. Ignition delay times of a wide range of certified gasolines and surrogates are reported here. These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate complexity requirements for these gasolines in homogeneous environments are specified. For the discussions presented here, gasolines are classified into three categories: (i)\\tLow octane gasolines including Saudi Aramco’s light naphtha fuel (anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2 = 64; Sensitivity (S) = RON – MON = 1), certified FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline I and J (AKI ~ 70, S = 0.7 and 3 respectively), and their Primary Reference Fuels (PRF, mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane) and multi-component surrogates. (ii)\\t Mid octane gasolines including FACE A and C (AKI ~ 84, S ~ 0 and 1 respectively) and their PRF surrogates. Laser absorption measurements of intermediate and product species formed during gasoline/surrogate oxidation are also reported. (iii)\\t A wide range of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene (TPRF) blends to adequately represent the octane and sensitivity requirements of high octane gasolines including FACE gasoline F and G

  9. A novel surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vangipurapu, J

    2011-03-01

    In epidemiological and genetic studies surrogate indices are needed to investigate insulin resistance in different insulin-sensitive tissues. Our objective was to develop a surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

  10. Nontraditional Surrogate Decision Makers for Hospitalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Amber R; Slaven, James E; Montz, Annie; Burke, Emily; Inger, Lev; Torke, Alexia

    2018-02-26

    Without advanced preparation of legal documents, state law determines who may serve as a surrogate decision maker for patients in hospitals. To examine the relationship characteristics associated with traditional versus nontraditional health care surrogates who are making medical decisions for patients in hospitals. Secondary analysis of a baseline cross-sectional survey of a larger prospective observational study. In total, 364 patient/surrogate dyads consisting of patients aged 65 years and older admitted to the medical or medical intensive care unit services who lacked decision-making capacity based on a physician assessment and also had a surrogate available. This study of surrogate decision makers for hospitalized older adults found that the relationships of nontraditional surrogates such as, nieces, nephews, and friends serving in the surrogate role is nearly identical to those of traditional, first degree relatives serving as a surrogate. Over two-thirds (71.2%) of nontraditional surrogates saw the patient in-person at least weekly compared with 80.8% of legal surrogates (P-value, 0.9023). Almost all traditional and nontraditional surrogates discussed the patient's medical preferences with the patient (96.9% of legal surrogates and 89.2% of nontraditional surrogates; P=0.0510). This study shows that both traditional and nontraditional surrogates, who are a patient's primary care giver have similar relationships with patients. The findings of this study suggest that requiring family members such as grandchildren to take the extra step of formal appointment through a legal channel may not be necessary to protect patients. Therefore, broader state laws expanding the list of surrogates authorized by state statute to include more nontraditional surrogates may be necessary.

  11. The Role of Surrogate Speakers in the 1980 Presidential Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Martha Stout

    1981-01-01

    Describes the employment of surrogate speakers and examines their role in the 1980 presidential contest. Considers the advantages and disadvantages of their use and concludes that surrogates served the important needs of three groups--the candidates for whom they spoke, the audiences they addressed, and the surrogates themselves. (PD)

  12. System Reliability Analysis Capability and Surrogate Model Application in RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Huang, Dongli [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gleicher, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Bei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Adbel-Khalik, Hany S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report collect the effort performed to improve the reliability analysis capabilities of the RAVEN code and explore new opportunity in the usage of surrogate model by extending the current RAVEN capabilities to multi physics surrogate models and construction of surrogate models for high dimensionality fields.

  13. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  14. Weight monitoring system for newborn incubator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, Arif; Nurfitri, Intan; Mahatidana, Pradipta; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih., Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    We proposed weight monitoring system using load cell sensor for newborn incubator application. The weight sensing system consists of a load cell, conditioning signal circuit, and microcontroller Arduino Uno R3. The performance of the sensor was investigated by using the various weight from 0 up to 3000 g. Experiment results showed that this system has a small error of 4.313% and 12.5 g of threshold and resolution value. Compared to the typical baby scale available in local market, the proposed system has a lower error value and hysteresis.

  15. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  16. Carbon dioxide emission from maize straw incubated with soil under various moisture and nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, S.A.; Tian, X.; Hussain, Q.; Talpur, M.; Singh, U.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the decomposition of maize straw incorporated into soil amended with nitrogen (N) and moisture (M) levels. Clay loam topsoil amended with maize straw was adjusted to four initial nitrogen treatments (C/N ratios of 72, 36, 18, and 9) and four moisture levels (60%, 70%, 80% and 90 % of field capacity) for the total of 16 treatments and incubated at 20 deg. C for 51 days. CO/sub 2/-C evolved was regularly recorded for all treatments during entire incubation period. Results showed that the mixing of straw with soil accelerated decomposition rates and enhanced cumulative CO/sub 2/-C production. The incorporation of straw brought about 50% increase in the cumulative CO/sub 2/-C production as compared with controls. About 45% of added maize straw C was mineralized to CO/sub 2/-C in 51 days. We conclude that incorporation of straw into soil along with the addition of N and moisture levels significantly affected CO/sub 2/-C evolution, cumulative CO/sub 2-C/, C mineralization and soil organic carbon deposition. The CO/sub 2/ emission was in positive correlation with (R2=0.99) N, moisture and incubation time (days). The straw returning into soil may enhance carbon pools and, thus will improve soil and environmental quality. (author)

  17. Surrogate decision making and intellectual virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by a religiously motivated surrogate decision maker whose decisions are contrary to the standard of care; therefore, surrogate decision making should be held to a high standard. Stewart Eskew and Christopher Meyers proposed a two-part rule for deciding which religiously based decisions to honor: (1) a secular reason condition and (2) a rationality condition. The second condition is based on a coherence theory of rationality, which they claim is accessible, generous, and culturally sensitive. In this article, I will propose strengthening the rationality condition by grounding it in a theory of intellectual virtue, which is both rigorous and culturally sensitive. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  18. Self- and surrogate-reported communication functioning in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patrick J; Hula, William D; Austermann Hula, Shannon N; Stone, Clement A; Wambaugh, Julie L; Ross, Katherine B; Schumacher, James G

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the dimensionality and measurement invariance of the aphasia communication outcome measure (ACOM), a self- and surrogate-reported measure of communicative functioning in aphasia. Responses to a large pool of items describing communication activities were collected from 133 community-dwelling persons with aphasia of ≥ 1 month post-onset and their associated surrogate respondents. These responses were evaluated using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. Chi-square difference tests of nested factor models were used to evaluate patient-surrogate measurement invariance and the equality of factor score means and variances. Association and agreement between self- and surrogate reports were examined using correlation and scatterplots of pairwise patient-surrogate differences. Three single-factor scales (Talking, Comprehension, and Writing) approximating patient-surrogate measurement invariance were identified. The variance of patient-reported scores on the Talking and Writing scales was higher than surrogate-reported variances on these scales. Correlations between self- and surrogate reports were moderate-to-strong, but there were significant disagreements in a substantial number of individual cases. Despite minimal bias and relatively strong association, surrogate reports of communicative functioning in aphasia are not reliable substitutes for self-reports by persons with aphasia. Furthermore, although measurement invariance is necessary for direct comparison of self- and surrogate reports, the costs of obtaining invariance in terms of scale reliability and content validity may be substantial. Development of non-invariant self- and surrogate report scales may be preferable for some applications.

  19. Classifying benthic biotopes on sub-tropical continental shelf reefs: How useful are abiotic surrogates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Sarah; Stevens, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Biodiversity of marine areas beyond the reach of conventional diving technology (>30 m) is poorly known, yet subjected to increasing stresses from expanding recreational and commercial fishing, minerals exploration and other anthropogenic influences. In part, resource managers address this by using abiotic surrogates for patterns of biodiversity in planning marine protected areas or other management measures. However, the efficacy of these surrogates varies from place to place, and is often not quantified at the scale used by MPA designers and managers. This study surveyed and classified benthic assemblages of continental shelf rocky reefs across three depth categories from 30 to 70 m, using a suspended HD camera array, which is both non-destructive and cost-effective compared to any other methods of sampling at these depths. Five distinct benthic biotopes were defined, characterised primarily by variations in abundances of sea whips, sponges, kelp, and urchins. Derived patterns of benthic assemblage structure were compared to abiotic surrogates available at the scale (local) used in MPA planning. The individual factors with most influence on the classification were recreational fishing pressure, water temperature at the bottom, and distance from nearest estuary. The best combination of abiotic surrogates had a relatively strong relationship with the benthic assemblage, explaining 42% of the variation in assemblage structure (BIOENV ρ = 0.65), however the performance of a classification based on commonly used physical surrogates was relatively poor, explaining only 22% of variation. The results underline the limitations of using abiotic variables for habitat mapping at the local scale, and the need for robust surveys to quantify patterns of biodiversity.

  20. INNOVATION CLUSTERS: SOCIAL LEARNING AND BUSINESS INCUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Deac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable innovation is more expensive than a regular one but it may lead to long termbenefits and durable competitive advantage, especially if many firms from the networkcollude or act within constrained environments such as business incubators. The opinionformation process, which leads to sustainable innovation, may be viewed as a collectivecognitive process resembling that of branding and re-branding. Technological innovationscan be viewed as sequences of cost reduction events and, in a many-firm setting, sociallearning which leads to sustainability-oriented behaviour depends on (mutual trustrelations. The experimental modelling part of the paper illustrates selected aspects of theconcept just outlined by developing a stylized dynamic model of the firm.

  1. Innovation Incubator: Whisker Labs Technical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN2) is a program to foster and accelerate startup companies with commercial building energy-efficiency and demand management technologies. The program is funded by the Wells Fargo Foundation and co-administered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Whisker Labs, an Oakland, California-based company, was one of four awardees in the first IN2 cohort and was invited to participate in the program because of its novel electrical power sensing technology for circuit breakers. The stick-on Whisker meters install directly on the front face of the circuit breakers in an electrical panel using adhesive, eliminating the need to open the panel and install current transducers (CTs) on the circuit wiring.

  2. Novel bone surrogates for cranial surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollensteiner, Marianne; Fürst, David; Esterer, Benjamin; Augat, Peter; Schrödl, Falk; Hunger, Stefan; Malek, Michael; Stephan, Daniel; Schrempf, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Parietal graft lifts are trained on human or animal specimens or are directly performed on patients without extensive training. In order to prevent harm to the patient resulting from fast rotating machinery tools, the surgeon needs to apply appropriate forces. Realistic haptics are essential to identify the varying parietal bone layers and to avoid a penetration of the brain. This however, requires experience and training. Therefore, in this study, bone surrogate materials were evaluated with the aim to provide an anatomically correct artificial skull cap with realistic haptic feedback for graft lift training procedures. Polyurethane composites made of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate were developed and were used to create customized bone surrogates, imitating both cancellous and cortical bone. Mechanical properties of these surrogates were validated for drilling, milling and sawing by comparison with human parietal bones. For that, surgical tool tips were automatically inserted into artificial and human bones in a customized test bench and the maximum axial insertion forces were analyzed. Axial tool insertion measurements in human parietal bones resulted in mean maximum forces of 1.8±0.5N for drilling, 1.7±0.3N for milling and 0.9±0.1N for sawing. Calcium carbonate-based materials achieved higher forces than the human bone for drilling and milling, and lower forces for sawing. The calcium phosphate-based bone surrogates showed comparable axial insertions forces for all investigated tools and were identified as a suitable surrogate for drilling (p=0.87 and 0.41), milling (p=0.92 and 0.63) and sawing (p=0.11 and 0.76) of the cortical layer and the cancellous bone, respectively. In conclusion, our findings suggest, that a suitable material composition for artificial parietal bones has been identified, mimicking the properties of human bone during surgical machinery procedures. Thus, these materials are suitable for surgical training and education in

  3. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates and incubated at a high incubation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of this study, in ovo feeding of CHO increased CWTP without altering hatchability traits. Hatched chicks from eggs injected with 250 mg CHO/egg had a higher liver glycogen content and glycogen index than those of the control treatments. The high incubation temperature reduced chick weight, hatching time, liver ...

  4. Incubating Integrative Medicine in India through PMO's Atal Incubator Scheme of Niti Aayog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Akshay; Tyagi, Rahul; Kaur, Paramvir

    2017-07-01

    Incubation centers are considered important tools to advance in a field of activity with multidisciplinary approach. The idea of incubation emerged long time back but it is actively pursued by funding agencies as a medium to propel community development. India's fast developing economy had limited tryst with Integrative Medicine until Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, role modelled for Yoga in Chandigarh on the occasion of International Yoga Day. Integrative Medicine is a growing field and widely accepted as a cost-effective problem solving method that simplifies the management of incurable and complex disorders where modern medicine has little to offer. Development of integrative medicine health incubator is the key to development of multidisciplinary program that offers to reduce the cost of healthcare, out of pocket expenses and emphasizes on preventive healthcare as means to achieve a healthy population in a developing country like India. Incubation center may become practical solution for many health problems in singular platform for healthier society by integrating traditional and modern medicine.

  5. In ovo feeding of carbohydrates and incubated at a high incubation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    The chicken embryo is very sensitive to a deficiency of energy during the hatching process. This deficiency can ... (CHO) on hatchability traits and glycogen status of hatched broiler chickens from eggs incubated under high temperature during the last ..... Carbohydrate, hatchery stressors affect poult survival. In: Feedstuffs 67 ...

  6. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  7. RELIABILITY ASSESSMENTS OF INFANT INCUBATOR AND THE ANALYZER

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemirci, Emre; Özarslan Yatak, Meral; Duran, Fecir; Canal, Mehmet Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of newborn in Turkey are put in neonatal incubators because of their problematic cases. Incubators used for treatment may adversely affect baby’s health seriously, if they adjusts or measures the parameters incorrectly. In this study, complications arisen because of inaccurate adjustment and measurement of incubator parameters were investigated. Current infant incubator analyzers were researched and the deficiencies were evaluated considering the standards and clin...

  8. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Brand et al., 2007). Embryonic deaths during both the first half and the second half of incubation were proportionally increased in older females, the effect being more pronounced for deaths during the second ..... the incubation environment, it is possible that the exposure of eggs to the elements prior to incubation may.

  9. Temperature, latency and incubation time of Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Latency and incubation periods of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longifilis and the incubation period of C. gariepinuseggs fertilized with sperm of H. longifiliswere studied. There was a negative correlation between the water temperature, latency and incubation periods for the two species and their hybrids. The latency ...

  10. 21 CFR 880.5410 - Neonatal transport incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neonatal transport incubator. 880.5410 Section 880.5410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5410 Neonatal transport incubator. (a) Identification. A neonatal transport incubator is a...

  11. The Role of Ukrainian Universities in Creating Technology Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. GA. Gardner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the opportunities for economic growth and business development from university-based incubators. Universities are shown to be excellent sources of technical and business management assistance for start-up businesses in the incubator and national policies are recommended to support the establishment of incubators at Ukrainian universities.

  12. Passive solar poultry eggs incubator: II development and preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A passive solar powered poultry eggs incubator consisting of a solar collector panel, a collector thermal storage device and the incubating cabinet was designed and constructed to provide environmental conditions necessary to initiate and sustain the entire incubation process of the fertilized eggs up to the hatching stage.

  13. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  14. A comparison of different indices for nitrogen mineralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.R.; Houba, V.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    Indices of N mineralization in soils of contrasting texture, pH, and organic matter contents were compared at different dates during the growing season. The indices were derived from a 12-week aerobic incubation, determination of the amount of microbial biomass at the start of the incubation,

  15. Improving the Nitrogen Mineralization of Dried Azolla pinnata as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incubation experiment was conducted to improve the rate of nitrogen mineralization of dried Azolla pinnata samples in the Akuse series of the Vertisol. Incubation was done for 60 days at soil moisture content of 40% and at room temperature of 28 °C. The available N (ammonium and nitrate N) was determined for each of ...

  16. Incubator management in an assisted reproductive technology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, H Lee; Blackhurst, Dawn W; Boone, William R

    2008-03-01

    To study the effect of incubator management on assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. Series of retrospective and controlled, randomized studies. Tertiary care infertility practice. Mammalian gametes/embryos. Evaluation of human and bovine oocytes/embryos cultured in various environmental conditions. Fertilization and embryo development rate as well as clinical pregnancy rate (PR). Here we review the general topic of incubator management as it pertains to ART. Discussed within the context of this article will be our experiences as they relate to incubator management. Details as they apply to incubator environment also will include gamete/embryo positions within incubator, air quality, and quality control.

  17. Humidity control tool for neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiche, M; Farges, G; Delanaud, S; Bach, V; Villon, P; Libert, J P

    1998-03-01

    In the first days of life, the daily evaporative loss from premature neonates can reach up to 20% of body mass. Such loss can be reduced by increasing the air humidity inside the incubator. Neither passive humidification nor open loop systems allow high humidity rates to be maintained or easily controlled: at 34 degrees C, the maximum levels vary with the system from 40% to 77% of relative humidity. The skin evaporative exchanges between the neonate and the environment are directly proportional to the water vapour partial pressure difference between the neonate's skin and the air. An active closed loop system has been designed, which permits reliable and accurate control of humidity according to the water vapour partial pressure set, between 1 and 6 kPa, in an air temperature range of 28-39 degrees C. It is characterised by variations of about 0.05 kPa around the set value and a maximum humidification speed of 0.25 kPa min-1. The algorithm is based on optimal control and the dynamic programming principles. Test results place this active system above usual systems for its power, precision and adaptability. It is an exploitable tool in fundamental and clinical research, to precisely study the humidity effects on neonatal comfort and thermo-regulation evolution.

  18. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  19. Sound transmission into incubators in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A; Cooper-Peel, C; Vos, P

    1999-01-01

    To measure the attenuation of sound by modern incubators. LEQ, LMAX, LPEAK, and frequency distribution were measured simultaneously inside and outside two recent model incubators. The attenuation of sound (outside minus inside) was 15 to 18 dBA with the motor off and 4 to 8 dBA with the motor on. There was a significant difference between incubators in their attenuation of sound. Octave band analysis showed attenuation in frequency bands of > 31.5 Hz with the motor off. With the motor on, the sound level inside the incubator was higher than outside at frequency bands of incubators reduces "averaged" sound exposure to levels near those recommended for the neonatal intensive care unit. Lower frequency sounds are louder inside the incubator and arise from the incubator motor.

  20. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  1. Interactions between Human Norovirus Surrogates and Acanthamoeba spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Tun-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of food-borne disease outbreaks, as well as virus-related waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Here, we hypothesize that common free-living amoebae (FLA)—ubiquitous in the environment, known to interact with pathogens, and frequently isolated from water and fresh produce—could potentially act as reservoirs of HuNoV and facilitate the environmental transmission of HuNoVs. To investigate FLA as reservoirs for HuNoV, the interactions between two Acanthamoeba species, A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, as well as two HuNoV surrogates, murine norovirus type 1 (MNV-1) and feline calicivirus (FCV), were evaluated. The results showed that after 1 h of amoeba-virus incubation at 25°C, 490 and 337 PFU of MNV-1/ml were recovered from A. castellanii and A. polyphaga, respectively, while only few or no FCVs were detected. In addition, prolonged interaction of MNV-1 with amoebae was investigated for a period of 8 days, and MNV-1 was demonstrated to remain stable at around 200 PFU/ml from day 2 to day 8 after virus inoculation in A. castellanii. Moreover, after a complete amoeba life cycle (i.e., encystment and excystment), infectious viruses could still be detected. To determine the location of virus associated with amoebae, immunofluorescence experiments were performed and showed MNV-1 transitioning from the amoeba surface to inside the amoeba over a 24-h period. These results are significant to the understanding of how HuNoVs may interact with other microorganisms in the environment in order to aid in its persistence and survival, as well as potential transmission in water and to vulnerable food products such as fresh produce. PMID:25841006

  2. Virucidal Effectiveness Testing Using Feline Calicivirus as Surrogate for Norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    These documents describe the effectiveness test using Feline Calicivirus as Surrogate for Norovirus, including initial and confirmatory testing and testing with pre-saturated or impregnated towelettes.

  3. Imaging seeker surrogate for IRCM evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleijpen, H. M. A.; Carpenter, S. R.; Mellier, B.; Dimmeler, A.

    2006-09-01

    NATO-SCI-139 and its predecessor groups have more than a decade of history in the evaluation and recommendation of EO and IR Countermeasures against anti-aircraft missiles. Surrogate Seekers have proven to be a valuable tool for this work. The use of surrogate seekers in international co-operations has several advantages over the use of an operational seeker, which is in service or in development: 1) the system is flexible, allowing both hardware and software modifications to be made in order to test the effectiveness of specific IRCM techniques; 2) the seeker design is open - every last parameter is available to the science team, allowing detailed, end-to-end validation of software models and simulations; 3) the availability of an unclassified seeker facilitates open discussions on CM issues between the participants in the NATO-group. Testing of high intensity countermeasures (for example based on lasers) needs a system with realistic seeker optics, with proper representation of optical scatter in seeker optics, which differs from scatter in commercial infrared camera optics. A technical description of the ISS is given: an overview of the optical design and the detector, the principle of the tracking software and the possibilities to implement alternative tracking algorithms in order to represent different threat CCM techniques. The ISS is built for use both in the laboratory and in the field. Finally, some experimental results will be presented.

  4. Airfoil Shape Optimization based on Surrogate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, R.; Lingadurai, K.; Selvakumar, U.

    2018-02-01

    Engineering design problems always require enormous amount of real-time experiments and computational simulations in order to assess and ensure the design objectives of the problems subject to various constraints. In most of the cases, the computational resources and time required per simulation are large. In certain cases like sensitivity analysis, design optimisation etc where thousands and millions of simulations have to be carried out, it leads to have a life time of difficulty for designers. Nowadays approximation models, otherwise called as surrogate models (SM), are more widely employed in order to reduce the requirement of computational resources and time in analysing various engineering systems. Various approaches such as Kriging, neural networks, polynomials, Gaussian processes etc are used to construct the approximation models. The primary intention of this work is to employ the k-fold cross validation approach to study and evaluate the influence of various theoretical variogram models on the accuracy of the surrogate model construction. Ordinary Kriging and design of experiments (DOE) approaches are used to construct the SMs by approximating panel and viscous solution algorithms which are primarily used to solve the flow around airfoils and aircraft wings. The method of coupling the SMs with a suitable optimisation scheme to carryout an aerodynamic design optimisation process for airfoil shapes is also discussed.

  5. Business Incubation in Chile: Development, Financing and Financial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Chandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 27 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to create the framework conditions for entrepreneurship by investing in business incubators, organizing risk capital for early stage ventures to fill capital market gaps and support for angel networks as well as incubator funding are discussed. Policy implications for the continued growth of the incubation industry are provided.

  6. Enzymatically induced mineralization of platelet-rich fibrin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.L.; Gassling, V.; Declercq, H.A.; Purcz, N.; Pamula, E.; Haugen, H.J.; Chasan, S.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Jansen, J.A.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Membranes of the autologous blood-derived biomaterial platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) were functionalized by incorporation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in mineralization of bone, and subsequently incubated in calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) solution to induce PRFs mineralization with

  7. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  8. Tractable Experiment Design via Mathematical Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This presentation summarizes the development and implementation of quantitative design criteria motivated by targeted inference objectives for identifying new, potentially expensive computational or physical experiments. The first application is concerned with estimating features of quantities of interest arising from complex computational models, such as quantiles or failure probabilities. A sequential strategy is proposed for iterative refinement of the importance distributions used to efficiently sample the uncertain inputs to the computational model. In the second application, effective use of mathematical surrogates is investigated to help alleviate the analytical and numerical intractability often associated with Bayesian experiment design. This approach allows for the incorporation of prior information into the design process without the need for gross simplification of the design criterion. Illustrative examples of both design problems will be presented as an argument for the relevance of these research problems.

  9. Comparison of surrogate models with different methods in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and kriging methods were compared for building surrogate models of a multiphase flow simulation model in a simplified ... 2001;. Keywords. Surrogate modelling; simulation optimization; groundwater remediation; polynomial regression; radial basis .... silty clay with a thickness of 1–2 m, while the lower part is made up of ...

  10. Human surrogate neck response to +Gz vertical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Uittenbogaard, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the evaluation of impact scenarios with a substantial vertical component, the performance of current human surrogates - the RID 3D hardware dummy and two numerical human models - was evaluated. Volunteer tests with 10G and 6G pulses were compared to reconstructed tests with human surrogates.

  11. Surrogate motherhood in illness that does not cause infertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'The view of medical doctors is that surrogate motherhood is a form of medically assisted procreation that is usually only consi- dered as a last option. This view is based on the medical, ethical and legal issues involved. Owing to all the risk factors inherent in surrogate motherhood, this option should only be available as a.

  12. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization in Material Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas B.; Holzwarth, Natalie A.W.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new approach based on surrogate modeling for geometry optimization in material design. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)......We propose a new approach based on surrogate modeling for geometry optimization in material design. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  13. Space Mapping Optimization of Microwave Circuits Exploiting Surrogate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    A powerful new space-mapping (SM) optimization algorithm is presented in this paper. It draws upon recent developments in both surrogate model-based optimization and modeling of microwave devices, SM optimization is formulated as a general optimization problem of a surrogate model. This model...

  14. Comparison of surrogate models with different methods in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since groundwater remediation is a time consuming and costly ... and sea water intrusion management problems. Hemker et al. .... Case study. 3.1 Site overview. To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different surrogate models of groundwater simula- tion model, three different surrogate models (PR model ...

  15. Inactivation of Tulane virus, a novel surrogate for human norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause of non-bacterial epidemics of gastroenteritis. Due to the inability to cultivate HuNoVs and the lack of an efficient small animal model, surrogates are used to study HuNoV biology. Two such surrogates, the feline calicivirus (FCV) and the murine norovir...

  16. INTEC SBW Solid Sludge Surrogate Recipe and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Vince; Janikowski, Stuart; Johnson, Jim; Maio, Vince; Pao, Jenn-Hai

    2004-06-01

    A nonhazardous INTEC tank farm sludge surrogate that incorporated metathesis reactions to generate solids from solutions of known elements present in the radioactive INTEC tank farm sodium-bearing waste sludges was formulated. Elemental analyses, physical property analyses, and filtration testing were performed on waste surrogate and tank farm waste samples, and the results were compared. For testing physical systems associated with moving the tank farm solids, the surrogate described in this report is the best currently available choice. No other available surrogate exhibits the noted similarities in behavior to the sludges. The chemical morphology, particle size distribution, and settling and flow characteristics of the surrogate were similar to those exhibited by the waste sludges. Nonetheless, there is a difference in chemical makeup of the surrogate and the tank farm waste. If a chemical treatment process were to be evaluated for final treatment and disposition of the waste sludges, the surrogate synthesis process would likely require modification to yield a surrogate with a closer matching chemical composition.

  17. Comparison of surrogate models with different methods in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surrogate modelling is an effective tool for reducing computational burden of simulation optimization. In this article, polynomial regression (PR), radial basis function artificial neural network (RBFANN), and kriging methods were compared for building surrogate models of a multiphase flow simulation model in a simplified ...

  18. Electromagnetic fields in neonatal incubators: the reasons for an alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Nardi, Valentina; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Di Fabio, Sandra; Pinto, Iole; Verrotti, Alberto

    2017-10-23

    Neonatal incubators are important tools for sick newborns in the first few days of life. Nevertheless, their electric engine, often very close to the newborn's body, emits electromagnetic fields (EMF) to which newborns are exposed. Aim of this paper is to review the available literature on EMF exposure in incubators, and the effects of such exposures on newborns that have been investigated. We carried out a systematic review of studies about EMF emissions produced by incubators, using Medline and Embase databases from 1993 to 2017. We retrieved 15 papers that described the EMF exposure in incubators and their biological effects on babies. EMF levels in incubators appear to be between 2 and 100 mG, depending on the distance of the mattress from the electric engine. In some cases, they exceed this range. These values interfere with melatonin production or with vagal tone. Even caregivers are exposed to high EMF, above 200 mG, when working at close contact with the incubators. EMF have been described as potentially hazardous for human health, and values reported in this review are an alert to prevent babies' and caregivers' exposure when close to the incubators. A precautionary approach should be adopted in future incubator design, to prevent high exposures of newborns in incubators and of caregivers as well.

  19. Surrogate Plant Data Base : Volume 1. Introduction, Appendix A : The Development of Surrogate Plant Data ; Appendix B : Application of the Surrogate .

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    This four volume report consists of a data base describing "surrogate" automobile and truck manufacturing plants developed as part of a methodology for evaluating capital investment requirements in new manufacturing facilities to build new fleets of ...

  20. A simple system for in-droplet incubation and quantification of agglutination assays

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, David

    2013-10-28

    This work reports on a simple system for quantitative sensing of a target analyte based on agglutination in micro-channels. Functionalized microbeads and analyte with no prior incubation are flowed in droplets (~2μL) through a thin silicone tube filled with mineral oil at a flow rate of 150 μL/min. Hydrodynamic forces alone produce a highly efficient mixing of the beads within the droplet, without the need of complex mixing structures or magnetic actuation. The setup allows rapid observation of agglutination (<2 min), which is quantified using image analysis, and has potential application to high-throughput analysis.

  1. Neutron-induced cross-sections via the surrogate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutoux, G.

    2011-11-01

    The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining neutron-induced cross sections through transfer or inelastic scattering reactions. This method presents the advantage that in some cases the target material is stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. The method is based on the hypothesis that the excited nucleus is a compound nucleus whose decay depends essentially on its excitation energy and on the spin and parity state of the populated compound state. Nevertheless, the spin and parity population differences between the compound-nuclei produced in the neutron and transfer-induced reactions may be different. This work reviews the surrogate method and its validity. Neutron-induced fission cross sections obtained with the surrogate method are in general good agreement. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the surrogate method can be applied to infer radiative capture cross sections. We performed an experiment to determine the gamma decay probabilities for 176 Lu and 173 Yb by using the surrogate reactions 174 Yb( 3 He,pγ) 176 Lu * and 174 Yb( 3 He,αγ) 173 Yb * , respectively, and compare them with the well-known corresponding probabilities obtained in the 175 Lu(n,γ) and 172 Yb(n,γ) reactions. This experiment provides answers to understand why, in the case of gamma-decay, the surrogate method gives significant deviations compared to the corresponding neutron-induced reaction. In this work, we have also assessed whether the surrogate method can be applied to extract capture probabilities in the actinide region. Previous experiments on fission have also been reinterpreted. Thus, this work provides new insights into the surrogate method. This work is organised in the following way: in chapter 1, the theoretical aspects related to the surrogate method will be introduced. The validity of the surrogate method will be investigated by means of statistical model calculations. In chapter 2, a review on

  2. Basal organic phosphorus mineralization in soils under different farming systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oehl, F.; Frossard, E.; Fliessbach, A.; Dubois, D.; Oberson, A.

    2004-01-01

    Soil organic P (Po) mineralization plays an important role in soil P cycling. Quantitative information on the release of available inorganic P (Pi) by this process is difficult to obtain because any mineralized Pi gets rapidly sorbed. We applied a new approach to quantify basal soil Po mineralization, based on 33PO4 isotopic dilution during 10 days of incubation, in soils differing in microbiological activity. The soils originated from a 20 years old field experiment, including a conventional...

  3. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ability and survival of ostrich chicks. Z Brand, SWP Cloete, IA Malecki, CR Brown. Abstract. Despite numerous studies, the effect of artificial incubation on the hatchability and survival of near-term ostrich chicks is still not well understood. Records from 13 975 ...

  4. Development Of A Biogas-Powered Poultry Egg Incubator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study advances the utilization of biogas energy for chick production. A wooden frame still-air incubator was developed, which uses biogas as a fuel to supply heat through a burner installed at the base. A no-load test was carried out during which incubator temperatures were calibrated against ambient temperatures ...

  5. Avian Incubation Patterns Reflect Temporal Changes in Developing Clutches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B Cooper

    Full Text Available Incubation conditions for eggs influence offspring quality and reproductive success. One way in which parents regulate brooding conditions is by balancing the thermal requirements of embryos with time spent away from the nest for self-maintenance. Age related changes in embryo thermal tolerance would thus be expected to shape parental incubation behavior. We use data from unmanipulated Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus nests to examine the temporal dynamics of incubation, testing the prediction that increased heat flux from eggs as embryos age influences female incubation behavior and/or physiology to minimize temperature fluctuations. We found that the rate of heat loss from eggs increased with embryo age. Females responded to increased egg cooling rates by altering incubation rhythms (more frequent, shorter on- and off- bouts, but not brood patch temperature. Consequently, as embryos aged, females were able to increase mean egg temperature and decrease variation in temperature. Our findings highlight the need to view full incubation as more than a static rhythm; rather, it is a temporally dynamic and finely adjustable parental behavior. Furthermore, from a methodological perspective, intra- and inter-specific comparisons of incubation rhythms and average egg temperatures should control for the stage of incubation.

  6. A recirculating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design, construction and evaluation of the capacity of a re-circulating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish eggs. ... Water flowed out of the incubation unit through a small section of glass and then plastic tubing inserted through a second hole in the rubber stopper to a PVC drain ...

  7. Are incubators the new wonder tool for entrepreneurship education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toon Buddingh

    2014-01-01

    In the nineties of the last century, a lot of (ICT) incubators started in the Netherlands, many private (GorillaPark, Ant Factory, Lost Boys and Newconomy), some public, such as Twinning. Most of them stopped early this century or gone bankrupt. From 2005 university incubators like YesDelft!,

  8. CENTEV/UFV Technology Incubator : Brazil Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    A professor at Brazil's prestigious Federal University of Vicosa saw a need on campus for an incubator to support technologically-oriented businesses, including agribusinesses. This resulted in the CENTEV Technology Incubator, which is partially funded by the university but which also receives state and private grants. Its function is to nurture entrepreneurs to develop viable technology b...

  9. Business Incubators: A Review. Digest Number 97-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Gwyer

    A business incubator is an organization of services designed to nurture new businesses. Services that can be offered include management assistance, access to financing, business or technical support services, and shared office services. In 1997, 550 incubators served more than 13,000 clients, affiliates, and graduates. More than 80 percent of the…

  10. [Centralized management strategy of the infant incubators in NICUs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-cheng

    2005-07-01

    There are many problems existing at present in the incubator applications and management. Among them, the prominent problems are their cleaning and disinfection. We hope to find, through the centralized management and clinical engineering, an efficient strategy in order to get more reasonable and better maintenance, cleaning and training for infant incubators in NICUs. Scientific management will provide an excellent service to infant patients.

  11. The Impact of the Incubator on the Internationalization of Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Engelman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how technology incubators contribute to the internationalization of incubated Brazilian companies. To do so, was developed a framework that, in addition to supporting research, can be used to provide a basis for studies of internationalization in small technology-based companies and incubators and to assist their managers. By comparing the factors identified as influencing internationalization and the actions and services provided by the technology incubators, an integrated model with four constructs (entrepreneurs; organizational characteristics; network; foreign market was built. The results demonstrate that incubation positively affects the internationalization of companies and indicate the actions and services that contribute towards the internationalization, as also reveals aspects that could be improved.

  12. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral associat......The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  13. Comparison of different incubation conditions for microbiological environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Oliver; Berchtold, Manfred; Staerk, Alexandra; Roesti, David

    2014-01-01

    Environmental monitoring represents an integral part of the microbiological quality control system of a pharmaceutical manufacturing operation. However, guidance documents differ regarding recommendation of a procedure, particularly regarding incubation time, incubation temperature, or nutrient media. Because of these discrepancies, many manufacturers decide for a particular environmental monitoring sample incubation strategy and support this decision with validation data. Such validations are typically laboratory-based in vitro studies, meaning that these are based on comparing incubation conditions and nutrient media through use of cultured microorganisms. An informal survey of the results of these in vitro studies performed at Novartis or European manufacturing sites of different pharmaceutical companies highlighted that no consensus regarding the optimal incubation conditions for microbial recovery existed. To address this question differently, we collected a significant amount of samples directly from air, inanimate surfaces, and personnel in pharmaceutical production and packaging rooms during manufacturing operation (in situ study). Samples were incubated under different conditions suggested in regulatory guidelines, and recovery of total aerobic microorganisms as well as moulds was assessed. We found the highest recovery of total aerobic count from areas with personnel flow using a general microbiological growth medium incubated at 30-35 °C. The highest recovery of moulds was obtained with mycological medium incubated at 20-25 °C. Single-plate strategies (two-temperature incubation or an intermediate incubation temperature of 25-30 °C) also yielded reasonable recovery of total aerobic count and moulds. However, recovery of moulds was found to be highly inefficient at 30-35 °C compared to lower incubation temperatures. This deficiency could not be rectified by subsequent incubation at 20-25 °C. A laboratory-based in vitro study performed in parallel was

  14. Temperature induced decoupling of enzymatic hydrolysis and carbon remineralization in long-term incubations of Arctic and temperate sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robador, Alberto; Brüchert, Volker; Steen, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    , as demonstrated by increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved carbohydrates. This effect was stronger at higher incubation temperatures, particularly in the Arctic sediments. In all experiments, concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) were low, indicating tight coupling......Extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis of high-molecular weight organic matter is the initial step in sedimentary organic carbon degradation and is often regarded as the rate-limiting step. Temperature effects on enzyme activities may therefore exert an indirect control on carbon mineralization. We...... explored the temperature sensitivity of enzymatic hydrolysis and its connection to subsequent steps in anoxic organic carbon degradation in long-term incubations of sediments from the Arctic and the North Sea. These sediments were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 24 months at temperatures of 0, 10...

  15. A minimalist functional group (MFG) approach for surrogate fuel formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2018-03-20

    Surrogate fuel formulation has drawn significant interest due to its relevance towards understanding combustion properties of complex fuel mixtures. In this work, we present a novel approach for surrogate fuel formulation by matching target fuel functional groups, while minimizing the number of surrogate species. Five key functional groups; paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, paraffinic CH, naphthenic CH–CH and aromatic C–CH groups in addition to structural information provided by the Branching Index (BI) were chosen as matching targets. Surrogates were developed for six FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline target fuels, namely FACE A, C, F, G, I and J. The five functional groups present in the fuels were qualitatively and quantitatively identified using high resolution H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A further constraint was imposed in limiting the number of surrogate components to a maximum of two. This simplifies the process of surrogate formulation, facilitates surrogate testing, and significantly reduces the size and time involved in developing chemical kinetic models by reducing the number of thermochemical and kinetic parameters requiring estimation. Fewer species also reduces the computational expenses involved in simulating combustion in practical devices. The proposed surrogate formulation methodology is denoted as the Minimalist Functional Group (MFG) approach. The MFG surrogates were experimentally tested against their target fuels using Ignition Delay Times (IDT) measured in an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT), as specified by the standard ASTM D6890 methodology, and in a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM). Threshold Sooting Index (TSI) and Smoke Point (SP) measurements were also performed to determine the sooting propensities of the surrogates and target fuels. The results showed that MFG surrogates were able to reproduce the aforementioned combustion properties of the target FACE gasolines across a wide range of conditions

  16. Polynomial Chaos Surrogates for Bayesian Inference

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier

    2016-01-06

    The Bayesian inference is a popular probabilistic method to solve inverse problems, such as the identification of field parameter in a PDE model. The inference rely on the Bayes rule to update the prior density of the sought field, from observations, and derive its posterior distribution. In most cases the posterior distribution has no explicit form and has to be sampled, for instance using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. In practice the prior field parameter is decomposed and truncated (e.g. by means of Karhunen- Lo´eve decomposition) to recast the inference problem into the inference of a finite number of coordinates. Although proved effective in many situations, the Bayesian inference as sketched above faces several difficulties requiring improvements. First, sampling the posterior can be a extremely costly task as it requires multiple resolutions of the PDE model for different values of the field parameter. Second, when the observations are not very much informative, the inferred parameter field can highly depends on its prior which can be somehow arbitrary. These issues have motivated the introduction of reduced modeling or surrogates for the (approximate) determination of the parametrized PDE solution and hyperparameters in the description of the prior field. Our contribution focuses on recent developments in these two directions: the acceleration of the posterior sampling by means of Polynomial Chaos expansions and the efficient treatment of parametrized covariance functions for the prior field. We also discuss the possibility of making such approach adaptive to further improve its efficiency.

  17. SURROGATE MOTHER DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM PIDANA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Muntaha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of science and technology, in particular in the field of health, has already recently brought a huge advantage and problem in human life. An example of technological marvel that not only requires deep legal thoughts but also at the same time solution is the bio-medical technology advancement of surrogacy. Surrogacy deals with human’s inclination towards reproductive activity. However, it opens up legal complication, in particular with regards to the potential commission of a criminal action as well as to the notion of doctor’s liability. Perkembangan ilmu dan teknologi di bidang kesehatan yang semakin maju dan pesat telah membawa berbagai manfaat dan masalah dalam kehidupan manusia dewasa ini. Salah satu perkembangan yang tidak hanya membutuhkan pemikiran di bidang hukum, tetapi juga sekaligus solusinya adalah mengenai kecanggihan teknologi bio-medis surrogate mother. Surrogacy menyentuh sisi kemanusiaan seorang insan terhadap reproduksi. Akan tetapi, lembaga surrogacy juga membawa komplikasi hukum terutama terkait dengan potensi tindak pidana dan dengan persoalan tanggung jawab dokter.

  18. Single stage incubators and Hypercapnia during incubation affect the vascularization of the chorioallantoic membrane in broiler embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, J I M; Bortoluzzi, C; Schmidt, J M; Scapini, L B; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E

    2017-01-01

    Incubation management can have direct effects on neonate health and consequently affect post-hatching development. The effects of incubation in multiple and single stage incubators with different concentrations of CO 2 were evaluated in terms of the vessel density in the chorioallantoic membrane, hatching, heart morphology, and body development of the neonate up to the tenth day. A total of 2,520 fertile eggs were used and distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 levels of CO 2 in 4 single-stage incubators (4,000; 6,000; 8,000; and 10,000 ppm) and a control treatment based on multiple-stage incubation, totaling 5 treatments. The levels of CO 2 were used during the first 10 d of the incubation period, and after this period, all eggs were submitted to the same level of CO 2 (4,000 ppm). Eggs that were incubated in multiple-stage incubators presented a lower percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane, lower yolk absorption by the embryo, wall depth of the right ventricle, and greater humidity losses in the eggs when compared to eggs in the single-stage incubators. The eggs submitted to hypercapnia, between 5,000 and 6,000 ppm of CO 2 , had a higher percentage of vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane; the embryos originating from these eggs had higher weight, with higher relative weight of the liver. However, the same levels reduced the yolk absorption. Single-stage incubation with moderate levels of hypercapnia is an efficient tool to be adopted by the hatcheries when attempting to improve chick quality. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Toward a fuzzy logic control of the infant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narender P; Mathur, Garima; Hariharan, S I

    2009-10-01

    Premature birth is a world wide problem. Thermo regulation is a major problem in premature infants. Premature infants are often kept in infant incubators providing convective heating. Currently either the incubator air temperature is sensed and used to control the heat flow, or infant's skin temperature is sensed and used in the close loop control. Skin control often leads to large fluctuations in the incubator air temperature. Air control also leads to skin temperature fluctuations. The question remains if both the infant's skin temperature and the incubator air temperature can be simultaneously used in the control. The purpose of the present study was to address this question by developing a fuzzy logic control which incorporates both incubator air temperature and infant's skin temperature to control the heating. The control was evaluated using a lumped parameter mathematical model of infant-incubator system (Simon, B. N., N. P. Reddy, and A. Kantak, J. Biomech. Eng. 116:263-266, 1994). Simulation results confirmed previous experimental results that the on-off skin control could lead to fluctuations in the incubator air temperature, and the air control could lead to too slow rise time in the core temperature. The fuzzy logic provides a smooth control with the desired rise time.

  20. Liquid incubator with perfluorochemicals for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroma, Takehiko; Baba, Atsushi; Tamura, Masanori; Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of appropriate body temperature, humidification and prevention of skin injury are very important in the management of extremely premature infants with immature skin. We have developed a new closed liquid incubator, utilising the characteristics of perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids, i.e., high specific gravity and chemical and biological inertness. The potential of this incubator to control body temperature was evaluated in rats. PFC liquid (FC43; 3M Company, Tokyo, Japan) within the incubator was heated or cooled and the rectal temperature of each rat and the PFC temperature were monitored. The rectal temperature of rats floating on the PFC liquid surface changed almost in parallel to the temperature of PFC within the incubator, indicating that this technique can be used to warm or cool adults rats in a stable manner. The relative humidity of air within the incubator was maintained constant at 100%. The liquid incubator used in the present study maintained an environment with a relative humidity of 100% and allowed stable maintenance of temperature in adult rats. We also demonstrated that heating and cooling the PFC liquid allowed control of body temperature. Although further studies are required, this new incubator may be useful for the clinical management of extremely premature infants. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea F. Şchiopu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from around the world. In this paper, the authors have identified several types of incubators that could be used successfully for the benefit of start-ups in the tourism sector, such as network incubators, incubators in ecotourism or nature-based incubators. The authors also propose a new perspective on best practices in business incubation, emphasizing the role of the emotions that entrepreneurs have to cope with. Even though the studies in this area are still scarce, the authors strongly believe that this will be a topic highly discussed in the near future, given the fact that emotion and logical thought are intertwined, interacting in complex ways during problem solving, decision making, and other important forms of cognition that entrepreneurs use when pursuing their ventures.

  2. Aligning business strategy of incubator center and tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Agustiani, Elly; Jumayla, Sari

    2017-06-01

    Incubator center is developed to help a particular group of small business players to achieve the expected business growth. In this center, business players often called as tenants will get assistances in pertaining with space, professional network, marketing, investment or funding, and training to improve their business capability. There are three types of incubator center, namely universities that help their alumni or business people in their surrounded area, company that supports small business as the corporate social responsibility, and independent organizations that have specialties in the business development. Some might success in increasing the capacity of the tenants, while other can have difficulties to increase the simplest business capability, e.g., to define the production cost to measure the profit. This study was intended to propose a model to align the business strategy between incubator center and its tenants. The sales and profit growth are the main priorities for the tenants together with their business capability and sustainability. The proposed alignment model provides measurement tools that link the motivation of tenants for joining the incubation process with the mission of incubator center. The linkage covered the key performance indicators (KPI), steps to achieve the target and evaluation tools to improve the current handicaps. An experiment on 4 (four) diverse business fields of the tenants of an incubator center was performed to test the model. As a result, the increase of KPI of incubator center will simultaneously yield a higher value of the tenants' sales.

  3. A Large-Scale Study of Surrogate Physicality and Gesturing on Human–Surrogate Interactions in a Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangsoo Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological human surrogates, including robotic and virtual humans, have been popularly used in various scenarios, including training, education, and entertainment. Prior research has investigated the effects of the surrogate’s physicality and gesturing in human perceptions and social influence of the surrogate. However, those studies have been carried out in research laboratories, where the participants were aware that it was an experiment, and the participant demographics are typically relatively narrow—e.g., college students. In this paper, we describe and share results from a large-scale exploratory user study involving 7,685 people in a public space, where they were unaware of the experimental nature of the setting, to investigate the effects of surrogate physicality and gesturing on their behavior during human–surrogate interactions. We evaluate human behaviors using several variables, such as proactivity and reactivity, and proximity. We have identified several interesting phenomena that could lead to hypotheses developed as part of future hypothesis-based studies. Based on the measurements of the variables, we believe people are more likely to be engaged in a human–surrogate interaction when the surrogate is physically present, but movements and gesturing with its body parts have not shown the expected benefits for the interaction engagement. Regarding the demographics of the people in the study, we found higher overall engagement for females than males, and higher reactivity for younger than older people. We discuss implications for practitioners aiming to design a technological surrogate that will directly interact with real humans.

  4. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    A state of the art incubator for studies of the biological effect of controlled atmosphere was designed. Working conditions are all combinations of: Temperature (5 to 40°C), Humidity (25 to 98%), oxygen (0.1 to 30%) and nitrogen (0.1 to 50%). Several points were given specific considerations...... in the design of the incubator, due to their importance for the final performance of the incubator. This includes choice of temperature control system, humidification system, gas addition and control, data collection and process control, and the physical design which includes airlocks for taking out samples...

  5. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    and in sedimented rifts adjacent to continental margins. The hydrothermal deposits mainly occur in the tectonically active regions, where plates shift and spread creating fissures in the seafloor. Mineralization at the spreading ridges is the result of sea-floor... processes. Submarine hydrothermal circulation in the oceanic crust and its activity on the ocean floor are fundamental processes controlling the transfer of energy and material from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere. Thermally induced circulation...

  6. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accord...

  7. Uncertainty Quantification for Combined Polynomial Chaos Kriging Surrogate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmeister, Justin; Gao, Xinfeng; Krishna Prasad, Aditi; Roy, Sourajeet

    2017-11-01

    Surrogate modeling techniques are currently used to perform uncertainty quantification on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for their ability to identify the most impactful parameters on CFD simulations and help reduce computational cost in engineering design process. The accuracy of these surrogate models depends on a number of factors, such as the training data created from the CFD simulations, the target functions, the surrogate model framework, and so on. Recently, we have combined polynomial chaos expansions (PCE) and Kriging to produce a more accurate surrogate model, polynomial chaos Kriging (PCK). In this talk, we analyze the error convergence rate for the Kriging, PCE, and PCK model on a convection-diffusion-reaction problem, and validate the statistical measures and performance of the PCK method for its application to practical CFD simulations.

  8. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  9. Error modeling for surrogates of dynamical systems using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Sumeet; Carlberg, Kevin T.; Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2017-12-01

    A machine-learning-based framework for modeling the error introduced by surrogate models of parameterized dynamical systems is proposed. The framework entails the use of high-dimensional regression techniques (e.g., random forests, LASSO) to map a large set of inexpensively computed `error indicators' (i.e., features) produced by the surrogate model at a given time instance to a prediction of the surrogate-model error in a quantity of interest (QoI). This eliminates the need for the user to hand-select a small number of informative features. The methodology requires a training set of parameter instances at which the time-dependent surrogate-model error is computed by simulating both the high-fidelity and surrogate models. Using these training data, the method first determines regression-model locality (via classification or clustering), and subsequently constructs a `local' regression model to predict the time-instantaneous error within each identified region of feature space. We consider two uses for the resulting error model: (1) as a correction to the surrogate-model QoI prediction at each time instance, and (2) as a way to statistically model arbitrary functions of the time-dependent surrogate-model error (e.g., time-integrated errors). We apply the proposed framework to model errors in reduced-order models of nonlinear oil--water subsurface flow simulations. The reduced-order models used in this work entail application of trajectory piecewise linearization with proper orthogonal decomposition. When the first use of the method is considered, numerical experiments demonstrate consistent improvement in accuracy in the time-instantaneous QoI prediction relative to the original surrogate model, across a large number of test cases. When the second use is considered, results show that the proposed method provides accurate statistical predictions of the time- and well-averaged errors.

  10. The Arts Incubators, Influence on the Development of System Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Černevičiūtė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the arts incubators’ influence on the development of system innovations and on the ensuring the sustainability of the creativity process in the creative industries’ enterprises. The influence of cultural and creative industries on the economy development is analysed in the article. The analysis of system innovations’ specific features and importance for creative industries is presented. The paper analyses the arts incubators as a part of creative city and as a creative cluster. The factors for the sustainability of creativity process are identified as well as the role of the arts incubators when ensuring the sustainability of system innovations development. Clustering analysis of Vilnius arts incubators was made and the proposals how the existing arts incubators can contribute to the development of system innovations in creative industries were presented.

  11. Learning Incubator: an instrument to foster entrepreneurship in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Obem, Marielle Kulakowski; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Gomes, Carine Alves; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    this study aimed to know the contributions of the Learning Incubator to the process of lifelong education in health. this is a qualitative field research whose data was collected from August to December 2014 by the focus group technique. The research had 34 employees of a Teaching Hospital in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul that participated previously in the incubation process. from the data encoded by content analysis, three themes were selected: Learning Incubator - welcoming and integrating space; An instigating instrument that enhances possibilities; Continuous and lifelong education strategy. the Learning Incubator is an important instrument to foster entrepreneurship in nursing and other health areas due to its capacity of rethinking mechanized practices, to the possibility of instigating new ways of being and acting, and to the ability of creating and developing new ideas based on individual and institutional needs.

  12. Entrepreneurship and Social Capital: Evidence from a Colombian Business Incubator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Castro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the important body of research on entrepreneurship and social capital. Most previous work on social capital and business incubators has analyzed how the structure of personal networks (measured by network size or density and their quality (measured by tie strength influence venture performance. However, few studies have focused on the mobilization of partners’ resources. This paper analyses how these three dimensions of social capital —defined in this article as the structural dimension, the relational dimension and the resource dimension— are closely linked to the three types of interactions in a business incubator: networking, counseling and resourcing. An Ordinary Least Squares regression was applied to a sample made up of incubating firms in Colombia. Results from the data analysis show that resourcing interactions constitute the most significant aspect of business incubators for entrepreneurs.

  13. Stochastic Modeling Approach to the Incubation Time of Prionic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A. S.; da Silva, M. A.; Cressoni, J. C.

    2003-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are neurodegenerative diseases for which prions are the attributed pathogenic agents. A widely accepted theory assumes that prion replication is due to a direct interaction between the pathologic (PrPSc) form and the host-encoded (PrPC) conformation, in a kind of autocatalytic process. Here we show that the overall features of the incubation time of prion diseases are readily obtained if the prion reaction is described by a simple mean-field model. An analytical expression for the incubation time distribution then follows by associating the rate constant to a stochastic variable log normally distributed. The incubation time distribution is then also shown to be log normal and fits the observed BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) data very well. Computer simulation results also yield the correct BSE incubation time distribution at low PrPC densities.

  14. Optimization using surrogate models - by the space mapping technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    Surrogate modelling and optimization techniques are intended for engineering design in the case where an expensive physical model is involved. This thesis provides a literature overview of the field of surrogate modelling and optimization. The space mapping technique is one such method for constr......Surrogate modelling and optimization techniques are intended for engineering design in the case where an expensive physical model is involved. This thesis provides a literature overview of the field of surrogate modelling and optimization. The space mapping technique is one such method...... conditions are satisfied. So hybrid methods, combining the space mapping technique with classical optimization methods, should be used if convergence to high accuracy is wanted. Approximation abilities of the space mapping surrogate are compared with those of a Taylor model of the expensive model. The space...... mapping surrogate has a lower approximation error for long steps. For short steps, however, the Taylor model of the expensive model is best, due to exact interpolation at the model origin. Five algorithms for space mapping optimization are presented and the numerical performance is evaluated. Three...

  15. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  16. Neonatal response to control of noise inside the incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A N

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of acoustical foam on the level of noise inside the incubator and examine neonatal response behaviors to changes in environmental noise. The study used a repeated measure, within subject, comparative design. Data on 65 premature neonates were collected over a 14-month period at a large teaching hospital in Delaware. Sound levels, oxygen saturation, and infant states were measured and recorded during three study conditions: pre-study neonate in incubator, neonate in incubator with 5 x 5 x 1 inch acoustical foam pieces placed in each of four corners, and post-study recovery of neonate in incubator with foam removed. All state assessments were measured with oxygen saturation and sound level measurements every 2 minutes of the study for a total 40 minutes. The findings demonstrate a significant treatment effect of acoustical foam on decreasing environmental noise measurements inside the incubator (p = 0.006). Findings also demonstrate significantly changed neonatal state response behaviors with decreasing environmental noise measurements inside the incubator (p = 0.00). The results of this study support the use of acoustical foam as one method of environmental noise management in the intensive care nursery. Because there was a significant correlation between higher noise levels and oxygen support therapy, the findings suggest that special nursing considerations should be taken when caring for ventilator-dependent infants. Noise control protocols should focus on essential environmental interventions for care of these infants.

  17. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  18. Mineral-Microbe Interaction and Methanogenesis: The Role of Mineral Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarino, P. B.; Harvey, O. R.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial processes in anoxic subsurface environments are well known to be affected by physicochemical factors including pH, temperature, and pressure. Recent experimental evidence also suggests that mineral type/composition may have regulatory effects on archaea-mediated methanogenesis in geologic environments. For example, in experiments involving the model methanogenic archaea, Methanococcus Maripaludis, and various sulfide-bearing minerals; we observe significant differences across minerals (and in some cases, between mineral-free and mineral treatments). After 14 days of incubation, methane production in pyrite(FeS2)-containing treatments was twice that in comparable galena(PbS)-containing treatments. No significant difference in methane production was observed between mineral-free and pyrite-containing treatments. Our data pointed to mineral alterations of 1) solution chemistry and/or 2) mineral-methanogen interactions as potentially key factors impacting microbial methane production in deep earth, as well as near-surface, anoxic environments. This presentation will discuss data that further explores the extent to which mineral-archaea interactions alter methane production in experiments containing different types of minerals including sulfides, carbonates, silicates, and sulfide-rich coals.

  19. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  20. Identifying Novel Clinical Surrogates to Assess Human Bone Fracture Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granke, Mathilde; Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Does, Mark D; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2015-07-01

    Fracture risk does not solely depend on strength but also on fracture toughness; ie, the ability of bone material to resist crack initiation and propagation. Because resistance to crack growth largely depends on bone properties at the tissue level, including collagen characteristics, current X-ray based assessment tools may not be suitable to identify age-related, disease-related, or treatment-related changes in fracture toughness. To identify useful clinical surrogates that could improve the assessment of fracture resistance, we investigated the potential of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and reference point indentation (RPI) to explain age-related variance in fracture toughness. Harvested from cadaveric femurs (62 human donors), single-edge notched beam (SENB) specimens of cortical bone underwent fracture toughness testing (R-curve method). NMR-derived bound water showed the strongest correlation with fracture toughness properties (r = 0.63 for crack initiation, r = 0.35 for crack growth, and r = 0.45 for overall fracture toughness; p toughness properties were best explained by a combination of NMR properties including pore water and RPI-derived tissue stiffness with age as a significant covariate (adjusted R(2)  = 53.3%, 23.9%, and 35.2% for crack initiation, crack growth, and overall toughness, respectively; p toughness and emphasize the utility of a multimodal assessment of fracture resistance. Exploring the mechanistic origin of fracture toughness, glycation-mediated nonenzymatic collagen crosslinks and intracortical porosity are possible determinants of bone fracture toughness and could explain the sensitivity of NMR to changes in fracture toughness. Assuming fracture toughness is clinically important to the ability of bone to resist fracture, our results suggest that improvements in fracture risk assessment could potentially be achieved by accounting for water distribution (quantitative ultrashort echo time magnetic

  1. Development of a Human Cranial Bone Surrogate for Impact Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Jack C.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Carneal, Catherine M.; Voo, Liming M.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Paulson, Jeff M.; Tankard, Sara; Uy, O. Manny

    2013-01-01

    In order to replicate the fracture behavior of the intact human skull under impact it becomes necessary to develop a material having the mechanical properties of cranial bone. The most important properties to replicate in a surrogate human skull were found to be the fracture toughness and tensile strength of the cranial tables as well as the bending strength of the three-layer (inner table-diplöe-outer table) architecture of the human skull. The materials selected to represent the surrogate cranial tables consisted of two different epoxy resins systems with random milled glass fiber to enhance the strength and stiffness and the materials to represent the surrogate diplöe consisted of three low density foams. Forty-one three-point bending fracture toughness tests were performed on nine material combinations. The materials that best represented the fracture toughness of cranial tables were then selected and formed into tensile samples and tested. These materials were then used with the two surrogate diplöe foam materials to create the three-layer surrogate cranial bone samples for three-point bending tests. Drop tower tests were performed on flat samples created from these materials and the fracture patterns were very similar to the linear fractures in pendulum impacts of intact human skulls, previously reported in the literature. The surrogate cranial tables had the quasi-static fracture toughness and tensile strength of 2.5 MPa√ m and 53 ± 4.9 MPa, respectively, while the same properties of human compact bone were 3.1 ± 1.8 MPa√ m and 68 ± 18 MPa, respectively. The cranial surrogate had a quasi-static bending strength of 68 ± 5.7 MPa, while that of cranial bone was 82 ± 26 MPa. This material/design is currently being used to construct spherical shell samples for drop tower and ballistic tests.

  2. Incongruity between Prion Conversion and Incubation Period following Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenfeld, Katie A.; Shikiya, Ronald A.; Kincaid, Anthony E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT When multiple prion strains are inoculated into the same host, they can interfere with each other. Strains with long incubation periods can suppress conversion of strains with short incubation periods; however, nothing is known about the conversion of the long-incubation-period strain during strain interference. To investigate this, we inoculated hamsters in the sciatic nerve with long-incubation-period strain 139H prior to superinfection with the short-incubation-period hyper (HY) strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). First, we found that 139H is transported along the same neuroanatomical tracks as HY TME, adding to the growing body of evidence indicating that PrPSc favors retrograde transneuronal transport. In contrast to a previous report, we found that 139H interferes with HY TME infection, which is likely due to both strains targeting the same population of neurons following sciatic nerve inoculation. Under conditions where 139H blocked HY TME from causing disease, the strain-specific properties of PrPSc corresponded with the strain that caused disease, consistent with our previous findings. In the groups of animals where incubation periods were not altered, we found that the animals contained a mixture of 139H and HY TME PrPSc. This finding expands the definition of strain interference to include conditions where PrPSc formation is altered yet disease outcome is unaltered. Overall, these results contradict the premise that prion strains are static entities and instead suggest that strain mixtures are dynamic regardless of incubation period or clinical outcome of disease. IMPORTANCE Prions can exist as a mixture of strains in naturally infected animals, where they are able to interfere with the conversion of each other and to extend incubation periods. Little is known, however, about the dynamics of strain conversion under conditions where incubation periods are not affected. We found that inoculation of the same animal with two strains

  3. Testing of mechanical ventilators and infant incubators in healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badnjevic, Almir; Gurbeta, Lejla; Jimenez, Elvira Ruiz; Iadanza, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The medical device industry has grown rapidly and incessantly over the past century. The sophistication and complexity of the designed instrumentation is nowadays rising and, with it, has also increased the need to develop some better, more effective and efficient maintenance processes, as part of the safety and performance requirements. This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on 50 mechanical ventilators and 50 infant incubators used in various public healthcare institutions. Testing was conducted in accordance to safety and performance requirements stated in relevant international standards, directives and legal metrology policies. Testing of output parameters for mechanical ventilators was performed in 4 measuring points while testing of output parameters for infant incubators was performed in 7 measuring points for each infant incubator. As performance criteria, relative error of output parameters for mechanical ventilators and absolute error of output parameters for infant incubators was calculated. The ranges of permissible error, for both groups of devices, are regulated by the Rules on Metrological and Technical Requirements published in the Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina No. 75/14, which are defined based on international recommendations, standards and guidelines. All ventilators and incubators were tested by etalons calibrated in an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory, which provides compliance to international standards for all measured parameters.The results show that 30% of the tested medical devices are not operating properly and should be serviced, recalibrated and/or removed from daily application.

  4. An Investigative Study into Perspectives and Experiences of Incubates at the Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre at the Kenyatta University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyanyiwa, Takaruza; Mutsau, Morgen; Rudhumbu, Norman; Svotwa, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The study presents results from an investigative study undertaken at the Kenyatta University (KU) Chandaria Business Innovation and Incubation Centre. A total of 10 incubates representing 10 projects were engaged in face to face interviews. The incubates were appreciative of the value that incubation centre such as the one at KU contributed to…

  5. Surrogate for oropharyngeal cancer HPV status in cancer database studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megwalu, Uchechukwu C; Chen, Michelle M; Ma, Yifei; Divi, Vasu

    2017-12-01

    The utility of cancer databases for oropharyngeal cancer studies is limited by lack of information on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. The purpose of this study was to develop a surrogate that can be used to adjust for the effect of HPV status on survival. The study cohort included 6419 patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma between 2004 and 2012, identified in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The HPV surrogate score was developed using a logistic regression model predicting HPV-positive status. The HPV surrogate score was predictive of HPV status (area under the curve [AUC] 0.73; accuracy of 70.4%). Similar to HPV-positive tumors, HPV surrogate positive tumors were associated with improved overall survival (OS; hazard ratio [HR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.91; P = .005), after adjusting for important covariates. The HPV surrogate score is useful for adjusting for the effect of HPV status on survival in studies utilizing cancer databases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Uncertainty quantification for accident management using ACE surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varuttamaseni, A.; Lee, J. C.; Youngblood, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    The alternating conditional expectation (ACE) regression method is used to generate RELAP5 surrogates which are then used to determine the distribution of the peak clad temperature (PCT) during the loss of feedwater accident coupled with a subsequent initiation of the feed and bleed (F and B) operation in the Zion-1 nuclear power plant. The construction of the surrogates assumes conditional independence relations among key reactor parameters. The choice of parameters to model is based on the macroscopic balance statements governing the behavior of the reactor. The peak clad temperature is calculated based on the independent variables that are known to be important in determining the success of the F and B operation. The relationship between these independent variables and the plant parameters such as coolant pressure and temperature is represented by surrogates that are constructed based on 45 RELAP5 cases. The time-dependent PCT for different values of F and B parameters is calculated by sampling the independent variables from their probability distributions and propagating the information through two layers of surrogates. The results of our analysis show that the ACE surrogates are able to satisfactorily reproduce the behavior of the plant parameters even though a quasi-static assumption is primarily used in their construction. The PCT is found to be lower in cases where the F and B operation is initiated, compared to the case without F and B, regardless of the F and B parameters used. (authors)

  7. Solubility of actinides and surrogates in nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear wastes are currently incorporated in borosilicate glass matrices. The resulting glass must be perfectly homogeneous. The work discussed here is a study of actinide (thorium and plutonium) solubility in borosilicate glass, undertaken to assess the extent of actinide solubility in the glass and to understand the mechanisms controlling actinide solubilization. Glass specimens containing; actinide surrogates were used to prepare and optimize the fabrication of radioactive glass samples. These preliminary studies revealed that actinide Surrogates solubility in the glass was enhanced by controlling the processing temperature, the dissolution kinetic of the surrogate precursors, the glass composition and the oxidizing versus reducing conditions. The actinide solubility was investigated in the borosilicate glass. The evolution of thorium solubility in borosilicate glass was determined for temperatures ranging from 1200 deg C to 1400 deg C.Borosilicate glass specimens containing plutonium were fabricated. The experimental result showed that the plutonium solubility limit ranged from 1 to 2.5 wt% PuO 2 at 1200 deg C. A structural approach based on the determination of the local structure around actinides and their surrogates by EXAFS spectroscopy was used to determine their structural role in the glass and the nature of their bonding with the vitreous network. This approach revealed a correlation between the length of these bonds and the solubility of the actinides and their surrogates. (author)

  8. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  9. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ NDF incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Nørgaard, P.; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    evaluated in terms of particle size for a broad range of feedstuffs which typically serve as NDF sources in dairy cow rations. Early and late cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were I) drying and grinding of forage samples...... determined and image analysis was used to estimate particle size profiles and thereby the risk for particle loss. Particle dimensions changed during NDF determination and in situ rumen incubation and variations depended on feedstuff and treatment. Late cut grass silage varied most in particle area among...... feedstuffs with a decrease of 74 % between 24 h and 288 h in situ rumen incubation. Together with the highest mass proportion (20 %) of particles in the critical zone for escape (smaller than 0.005 mm2 in area) for late cut grass silage after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, this imposes a risk for particle...

  10. Soil nitrogen mineralization and enzymatic activities in fire and fire surrogate treatments in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Miesel; R. E. J. Boerner; C. N. Skinner

    2011-01-01

    Forest thinning and prescribed fire are management strategies used to reduce hazardous fuel loads and catastrophic wildfires in western mixed-conifer forests. We evaluated effects of thinning (Thin) and prescribed fire (Burn), alone and in combination (Thin+Burn), on N transformations and microbial enzyme activities relative to an untreated control (Control) at 1 and 3...

  11. A comparison of artificial incubation and natural incubation hatching success of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) eggs in southern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Krista M.; Qualls, Carl P.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have found that Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, populations in southern Mississippi exhibit low recruitment, due in part to very low hatching success of their eggs. We sought to determine if the cause(s) of this low hatching success was related to egg quality (intrinsic factors), unsuitability of the nest environment (extrinsic factors), or a combination of the two. In 2003, hatching success was monitored simultaneously for eggs from the same clutches that were incubated in the laboratory and left to incubate in nests. A subset of randomly chosen eggs from each clutch was incubated in the laboratory under physical conditions that were known to be conducive to successful hatching to estimate the proportion of eggs that were capable of hatching in a controlled setting. Hatching success in the laboratory was compared with that of eggs incubated in natural nests to estimate the proportion of eggs that failed to hatch presumably from extrinsic factors. Laboratory hatching success was 58.8%, suggesting that roughly 40% of the eggs were intrinsically incapable of hatching even when incubated under controlled conditions. Hatching success in natural nests, 16.7%, was significantly lower than hatching success in the laboratory, suggesting that approximately 42.1% of eggs were capable of hatching but failed to hatch due to some extrinsic aspect(s) of the nest environment. Thus, the low hatching success of Gopher Tortoise eggs in southern Mississippi appears to be attributable to a combination of intrinsic (egg quality) and extrinsic (nest environment) factors.

  12. Virucides in apiculture: persistence of surrogate enterovirus under simulated field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodělalová, Jana; Malenovská, Hana; Moutelíková, Romana; Titěra, Dalibor

    2017-12-01

    Honeybee viruses have been recognized as being among the most important factors leading to colony losses worldwide. Colony food and faeces are regarded as possible sources of infectious viruses able to contaminate the environment and equipment of apiaries. Thus, methods for elimination of viruses are required. No cell culture assay for testing the effect of disinfectants on honeybee viruses is yet available. Therefore, surrogate virus was employed for testing of the efficacy of iodophor- and peracetic acid-based disinfectants in combination with six organic contaminants at +6 °C and +22 °C. Moreover, we evaluated the persistence of the surrogate in honey at +6 °C, +22 °C, and +50 °C. Iodophor-based disinfectant showed a maximum reduction of virus titre of 3.4 log 10 . Peracetic acid reduced the titre (≥4 log 10 ) only at 22 °C and without yeast extract/bovine serum albumin. After 25 days of incubation of the virus - honey mix, no decrease of virus titre was observed at +6 °C, whereas a significant reduction (3.5 log 10 ) was found at +50 °C already after 1 day. Both tested disinfectants can serve as appropriate virucides in apiaries. The effect of peracetic acid significantly depended on temperature and organic contaminants. The iodophor-based disinfectant showed a stable antiviral effect at different temperatures and with different contaminants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Bacterial entombment by intratubular mineralization following orthograde mineral trioxide aggregate obturation: a scanning electron microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun Sang; Chang, Seok-Woo; Oh, So Ram; Perinpanayagam, Hiran; Lim, Sang-Min; Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Oh, Yeo-Rok; Woo, Sang-Bin; Han, Seung-Hyun; Zhu, Qiang; Kum, Kee-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The time domain entombment of bacteria by intratubular mineralization following orthograde canal obturation with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Single-rooted human premolars (n=60) were instrumented to an apical size #50/0.06 using ProFile and treated as follows: Group 1 (n=10) was filled with phosphate buffered saline (PBS); Group 2 (n=10) was incubated with Enterococcus faecalis for 3 weeks, and then filled with PBS; Group 3 (n=20) was obturated orthograde with a paste of OrthoMTA (BioMTA, Seoul, Korea) and PBS; and Group 4 (n=20) was incubated with E. faecalis for 3 weeks and then obturated with OrthoMTA–PBS paste. Following their treatments, the coronal openings were sealed with PBS-soaked cotton and intermediate restorative material (IRM), and the roots were then stored in PBS for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. After each incubation period, the roots were split and their dentin/MTA interfaces examined in both longitudinal and horizontal directions by SEM. There appeared to be an increase in intratubular mineralization over time in the OrthoMTA-filled roots (Groups 3 and 4). Furthermore, there was a gradual entombment of bacteria within the dentinal tubules in the E. faecalis inoculated MTA-filled roots (Group 4). Therefore, the orthograde obturation of root canals with OrthoMTA mixed with PBS may create a favorable environment for bacterial entombment by intratubular mineralization. PMID:25012869

  14. Surrogate Model for Recirculation Phase LBLOCA and DET Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fynan, Douglas A; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Lee, John C.

    2014-01-01

    In the nuclear safety field, response surfaces were used in the first demonstration of the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty (CSAU) methodology to quantify the uncertainty of the peak clad temperature (PCT) during a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA). Surrogates could have applications in other nuclear safety areas such as dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Dynamic PSA attempts to couple the probabilistic nature of failure events, component transitions, and human reliability to deterministic calculations of time-dependent nuclear power plant (NPP) responses usually through the use of thermal-hydraulic (TH) system codes. The overall mathematical complexity of the dynamic PSA architectures with many embedded computational expensive TH code calculations with large input/output data streams have limited realistic studies of NPPs. This paper presents a time-dependent surrogate model for the recirculation phase of a hot leg LBLOCA in the OPR-1000. The surrogate model is developed through the ACE algorithm, a powerful nonparametric regression technique, trained on RELAP5 simulations of the LBLOCA. Benchmarking of the surrogate is presented and an application to a simplified dynamic event tree (DET). A time-dependent surrogate model to predict core subcooling during the recirculation phase of a hot leg LBLOCA in the OPR-1000 has been developed. The surrogate assumed the structure of a general discrete time dynamic model and learned the nonlinear functional form by performing nonparametric regression on RELAP5 simulations with the ACE algorithm. The surrogate model input parameters represent mass and energy flux terms to the RCS that appeared as user supplied or code calculated boundary conditions in the RELAP5 model. The surrogate accurately predicted the TH behavior of the core for a variety of HPSI system performance and containment conditions when compared with RELAP5 simulations. The surrogate was applied in a DET application replacing

  15. Defining Surrogate Endpoints for Clinical Trials in Severe Falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeyapant, Atthanee; Kingston, Hugh W; Plewes, Katherine; Maude, Richard J; Hanson, Josh; Herdman, M Trent; Leopold, Stije J; Ngernseng, Thatsanun; Charunwatthana, Prakaykaew; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Ghose, Aniruddha; Hasan, M Mahtab Uddin; Fanello, Caterina I; Faiz, Md Abul; Hien, Tran Tinh; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trials in severe falciparum malaria require a large sample size to detect clinically meaningful differences in mortality. This means few interventions can be evaluated at any time. Using a validated surrogate endpoint for mortality would provide a useful alternative allowing a smaller sample size. Here we evaluate changes in coma score and plasma lactate as surrogate endpoints for mortality in severe falciparum malaria. Three datasets of clinical studies in severe malaria were re-evaluated: studies from Chittagong, Bangladesh (adults), the African 'AQUAMAT' trial comparing artesunate and quinine (children), and the Vietnamese 'AQ' study (adults) comparing artemether with quinine. The absolute change, relative change, slope of the normalization over time, and time to normalization were derived from sequential measurements of plasma lactate and coma score, and validated for their use as surrogate endpoint, including the proportion of treatment effect on mortality explained (PTE) by these surrogate measures. Improvements in lactate concentration or coma scores over the first 24 hours of admission, were strongly prognostic for survival in all datasets. In hyperlactataemic patients in the AQ study (n = 173), lower mortality with artemether compared to quinine closely correlated with faster reduction in plasma lactate concentration, with a high PTE of the relative change in plasma lactate at 8 and 12 hours of 0.81 and 0.75, respectively. In paediatric patients enrolled in the 'AQUAMAT' study with cerebral malaria (n = 785), mortality was lower with artesunate compared to quinine, but this was not associated with faster coma recovery. The relative changes in plasma lactate concentration assessed at 8 or 12 hours after admission are valid surrogate endpoints for severe malaria studies on antimalarial drugs or adjuvant treatments aiming at improving the microcirculation. Measures of coma recovery are not valid surrogate endpoints for mortality.

  16. Disinfection byproduct regulatory compliance surrogates and bromide-associated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Chelsea; Francis, Royce A; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-08-01

    Natural and anthropogenic factors can alter bromide concentrations in drinking water sources. Increasing source water bromide concentrations increases the formation and alters the speciation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed during drinking water treatment. Brominated DBPs are more toxic than their chlorinated analogs, and thus have a greater impact on human health. However, DBPs are regulated based on the mass sum of DBPs within a given class (e.g., trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids), not based on species-specific risk or extent of bromine incorporation. The regulated surrogate measures are intended to protect against not only the species they directly represent, but also against unregulated DBPs that are not routinely measured. Surrogates that do not incorporate effects of increasing bromide may not adequately capture human health risk associated with drinking water when source water bromide is elevated. The present study analyzes trihalomethanes (THMs), measured as TTHM, with varying source water bromide concentrations, and assesses its correlation with brominated THM, TTHM risk and species-specific THM concentrations and associated risk. Alternative potential surrogates are evaluated to assess their ability to capture THM risk under different source water bromide concentration conditions. The results of the present study indicate that TTHM does not adequately capture risk of the regulated species when source water bromide concentrations are elevated, and thus would also likely be an inadequate surrogate for many unregulated brominated species. Alternative surrogate measures, including THM 3 and the bromodichloromethane concentration, are more robust surrogates for species-specific THM risk at varying source water bromide concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Choice of surrogate tissue influences neonatal EWAS findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xinyi; Teh, Ai Ling; Chen, Li; Lim, Ives Yubin; Tan, Pei Fang; MacIsaac, Julia L; Morin, Alexander M; Yap, Fabian; Tan, Kok Hian; Saw, Seang Mei; Lee, Yung Seng; Holbrook, Joanna D; Godfrey, Keith M; Meaney, Michael J; Kobor, Michael S; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Karnani, Neerja

    2017-12-05

    Epigenomes are tissue specific and thus the choice of surrogate tissue can play a critical role in interpreting neonatal epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) and in their extrapolation to target tissue. To develop a better understanding of the link between tissue specificity and neonatal EWAS, and the contributions of genotype and prenatal factors, we compared genome-wide DNA methylation of cord tissue and cord blood, two of the most accessible surrogate tissues at birth. In 295 neonates, DNA methylation was profiled using Infinium HumanMethylation450 beadchip arrays. Sites of inter-individual variability in DNA methylation were mapped and compared across the two surrogate tissues at birth, i.e., cord tissue and cord blood. To ascertain the similarity to target tissues, DNA methylation profiles of surrogate tissues were compared to 25 primary tissues/cell types mapped under the Epigenome Roadmap project. Tissue-specific influences of genotype on the variable CpGs were also analyzed. Finally, to interrogate the impact of the in utero environment, EWAS on 45 prenatal factors were performed and compared across the surrogate tissues. Neonatal EWAS results were tissue specific. In comparison to cord blood, cord tissue showed higher inter-individual variability in the epigenome, with a lower proportion of CpGs influenced by genotype. Both neonatal tissues were good surrogates for target tissues of mesodermal origin. They also showed distinct phenotypic associations, with effect sizes of the overlapping CpGs being in the same order of magnitude. The inter-relationship between genetics, prenatal factors and epigenetics is tissue specific, and requires careful consideration in designing and interpreting future neonatal EWAS. This birth cohort is a prospective observational study, designed to study the developmental origins of health and disease, and was retrospectively registered on 1 July 2010 under the identifier NCT01174875 .

  18. Successful isolation of Helicobacter pylori after prolonged incubation: A case report of prolonged incubation for H. pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of Helicobacter pylori from a gastric biopsy is the “gold standard” in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. However, the primary isolation of H. pylori from gastric biopsies is rather demanding. The duration of incubation for the isolation of H. pylori has been recommended to be five to seven days: in the present case, we found that a prolonged incubation period allowed the successful isolation of H. pylori from a patient with ulcus ventriculi. Biopsies were placed directly into transport medium and processed for culture within two hours. On day 14, one suspected H. pylori-like colony appeared on one of the plates. The isolate was confirmed to be H. pylori based on its typical colony morphology, negative Gram stain, and positive urease, catalase and oxidase tests. The isolate, requiring 14 days recovery, later exhibited the normal growth characteristics of H. pylori strains, indicating its unusually long incubation requirement was a temporary predicament.

  19. (d,pγ) Reactions and the surrogate reaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizewski, J.A.; Hatarik, R.; Jones, K.L.; Pain, S.D.; Thomas, J.S.; Johnson, M.S.; Bardayan, D.W.; Blackmon, J.C.; Smith, M.S.; Kozub, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron-capture reactions on neutron-rich nuclei are important to understand r-process nucleosynthesis, as well as applied needs such as stewardship science and nuclear energy. Because of the short half-lives of these species, it is not possible to measure these reactions directly with neutron beams on unstable targets. The (d,pγ) reaction with radioactive ion beams has been proposed as a surrogate reaction for (n,γ). Experiments to develop (d,pγ) techniques with radioactive ion beams and to demonstrate the efficacy of the (d,pγ) reaction as a surrogate for (n,γ) are discussed

  20. Fast Prediction and Evaluation of Gravitational Waveforms Using Surrogate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Field

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a solution to the problem of quickly and accurately predicting gravitational waveforms within any given physical model. The method is relevant for both real-time applications and more traditional scenarios where the generation of waveforms using standard methods can be prohibitively expensive. Our approach is based on three offline steps resulting in an accurate reduced order model in both parameter and physical dimensions that can be used as a surrogate for the true or fiducial waveform family. First, a set of m parameter values is determined using a greedy algorithm from which a reduced basis representation is constructed. Second, these m parameters induce the selection of m time values for interpolating a waveform time series using an empirical interpolant that is built for the fiducial waveform family. Third, a fit in the parameter dimension is performed for the waveform’s value at each of these m times. The cost of predicting L waveform time samples for a generic parameter choice is of order O(mL+mc_{fit} online operations, where c_{fit} denotes the fitting function operation count and, typically, m≪L. The result is a compact, computationally efficient, and accurate surrogate model that retains the original physics of the fiducial waveform family while also being fast to evaluate. We generate accurate surrogate models for effective-one-body waveforms of nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with durations as long as 10^{5}M, mass ratios from 1 to 10, and for multiple spherical harmonic modes. We find that these surrogates are more than 3 orders of magnitude faster to evaluate as compared to the cost of generating effective-one-body waveforms in standard ways. Surrogate model building for other waveform families and models follows the same steps and has the same low computational online scaling cost. For expensive numerical simulations of binary black hole coalescences, we thus anticipate extremely large speedups in

  1. Space Mapping Optimization of Microwave Circuits Exploiting Surrogate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    A powerful new space-mapping (SM) optimization algorithm is presented in this paper. It draws upon recent developments in both surrogate model-based optimization and modeling of microwave devices, SM optimization is formulated as a general optimization problem of a surrogate model. This model...... is a convex combination of a mapped coarse model and a linearized fine model. It exploits, in a novel way, a linear frequency-sensitive mapping. During the optimization iterates, the coarse and fine models are simulated at different sets of frequencies. This approach is shown to be especially powerful...

  2. Total staphylococci as performance surrogate for greywater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoults, David C; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2017-05-01

    Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are commonly used as water quality indicators; implying faecal contamination and therefore the potential presence of pathogenic enteric bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Hence in wastewater treatment, the most commonly used treatment process measures (surrogates) are total coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci. However, greywater potentially contains skin pathogens unrelated to faecal load, and E. coli and other FIB may grow within greywater unrelated to pathogens. Overall, FIB occurs at fluctuating and relatively low concentrations compared to other endogenous greywater bacteria affecting their ability as surrogates for pathogen reduction. Therefore, unlike municipal sewage, FIB provides a very limited and unreliable log-reduction surrogate measure for on-site greywater treatment systems. Based on our recent metagenomic study of laundry greywater, skin-associated bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, and Propionibacterium spp. dominate and may result in more consistent treatment surrogates than traditional FIB. Here, we investigated various Staphylococcus spp. as potential surrogates to reliably assay over 4-log 10 reduction by the final-stage UV disinfection step commonly used for on-site greywater reuse, and compare them to various FIB/phage surrogates. A collimated UV beam was used to determine the efficacy of UV inactivation (255, 265 and 285 nm) against E. coli, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, E. casseliflavus, Staphylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Staphylococcus spp. was estimated by combining the bi-linear dose-response curves for S. aureus and S. epidermidis and was shown to be less resistant to UV irradiation than the other surrogates examined. Hence, a relative inactivation credit is suggested; whereas, the doses required to achieve a 4 and 5-log 10 reduction of Staphylococcus spp. (13.0 and 20.9 mJ cm -2 , respectively) were used to determine the relative

  3. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in water bird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ?? 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ?? 1.6 days and 1.9 ?? 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ?? 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ?? 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  4. Comparative clinical evaluation of a prototype non-electric transport incubator and an electrical infant incubator in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadeh, Y; Nili, F; Nayeri, F; Wickramasinghe, Y

    2001-09-01

    A new non-electric transport incubator has been developed for transferring babies between health facilities in developing countries. The temperature performance of this prototype was compared with a commercial electric incubator. The warm-up time for the prototype was 51.8 min, compared with 48.1 min for the electric incubator. Forty-five non-distressed premature babies, aged 24-72 h, with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were continuously evaluated for a 2 h period. Twenty-five babies, with a mean weight of 2073 g (range 1500-2500 g), were studied in the prototype, and 20 babies, with a mean weight of 2076g (range 1550-2500 g), were studied in the electrical incubator. The rectal and abdominal skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate of the babies were recorded. The temperature, oxygen and humidity level of the canopy and the room temperature were also measured. The SaO2, heart rate and respiratory rate were within the normal range (in the prototype: 96.5%, 130.5 beats min(-1) and 43 breaths min(-1), respectively; and, in the electric incubator: 96.5%, 128.5 beats min(-1) and 40 breaths min(-1), respectively). No evidence of carbon dioxide narcosis, hypoxia, acidosis or adverse thermoregulatory behaviour were observed in the two groups. The mean rectal temperature for both groups was within the range 36.5 degrees C-37.5 degrees C. There was no significant difference between the measurements of the two groups. The level of oxygen inside the canopy was 21%, and no decrease was observed. The new nonelectric transport incubator confirmed its safety and efficiency in providing a warm environment for non-distressed premature babies over a 2 h period.

  5. Shifting microbial communities sustain multiyear iron reduction and methanogenesis in ferruginous sediment incubations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, M S; Wu, J; Reed, B C; Kretz, C B; Belli, K M; Simister, R L; Henny, C; Stewart, F J; DiChristina, T J; Brandes, J A; Fowle, D A; Crowe, S A; Glass, J B

    2017-09-01

    Reactive Fe(III) minerals can influence methane (CH 4 ) emissions by inhibiting microbial methanogenesis or by stimulating anaerobic CH 4 oxidation. The balance between Fe(III) reduction, methanogenesis, and CH 4 oxidation in ferruginous Archean and Paleoproterozoic oceans would have controlled CH 4 fluxes to the atmosphere, thereby regulating the capacity for CH 4 to warm the early Earth under the Faint Young Sun. We studied CH 4 and Fe cycling in anoxic incubations of ferruginous sediment from the ancient ocean analogue Lake Matano, Indonesia, over three successive transfers (500 days in total). Iron reduction, methanogenesis, CH 4 oxidation, and microbial taxonomy were monitored in treatments amended with ferrihydrite or goethite. After three dilutions, Fe(III) reduction persisted only in bottles with ferrihydrite. Enhanced CH 4 production was observed in the presence of goethite, highlighting the potential for reactive Fe(III) oxides to inhibit methanogenesis. Supplementing the media with hydrogen, nickel and selenium did not stimulate methanogenesis. There was limited evidence for Fe(III)-dependent CH 4 oxidation, although some incubations displayed CH 4 -stimulated Fe(III) reduction. 16S rRNA profiles continuously changed over the course of enrichment, with ultimate dominance of unclassified members of the order Desulfuromonadales in all treatments. Microbial diversity decreased markedly over the course of incubation, with subtle differences between ferrihydrite and goethite amendments. These results suggest that Fe(III) oxide mineralogy and availability of electron donors could have led to spatial separation of Fe(III)-reducing and methanogenic microbial communities in ferruginous marine sediments, potentially explaining the persistence of CH 4 as a greenhouse gas throughout the first half of Earth history. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    incubation period and temperature had significant effects (P = 0.05) on the efficiency of H2S technique. The times when H2S bottles take to turn ..... because at reduced temperature cellular metabolic activi- ties and growth decreases, therefore ..... that the rate of blackening depended on the concen- tration and temperature.

  7. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits | Brand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (CWT). Between ...

  8. Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. Z Brand, S Cloete, I Malecki, C Brown. Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 ...

  9. Egg incubator control system with short message service (sms) fault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the condition of the incubator system. The heater is interfaced with the controller through the optocoupler. The optocoupler isolates the microcontroller from the alternating current (AC) power, thereby preventing any possible flow back of the AC into the control circuit. The software intelligent agent was embedded into 8051 ...

  10. Water loss during incubation in red bishop (Euplectes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water loss during incubation in red bishop (Euplectes orix) eggs. P.F. Woodall and D.F. Parry. University of Queensland, Australia, and University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, Republic of South Africa ... humidity of deserted eggs (12,6 torr) was close to the mean .... a large drop in the rate of water loss of 3 January 1975.

  11. Rabies With Unusually Long Incubation Period in a Nigerian Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rabies is a highly contagious viral infection of the nervous system with a still as yet high mortality rate even in advanced settings. Management maybe enhanced with early presentation. The incubation period usually ranges from 7 days to I year with a mean of 1 - 2 months. Method: The case report of a 34 year ...

  12. Business incubators: (how) do they support their tenants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  13. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  14. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera and Its Effect During Yogur Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt is milk derivative highly consumed around the world,as well as aloe vera. Both have reports tocontribute to human health. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of the addition of capsules with aloe vera during the incubation of yogurt. Aloeverawas encapsulated in alginate at two different concentrations, 1% and 2%,addingthe capsules from the moment of incubation and comparing the effect of the addition of capsules withthe non-addition of them. For these samples were determined: pH, acidity, syneresis, lactic acid bacteria count, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis. The results indicated that for the three treatments pH values and acid behaved similarly to each characteristic of the yogurt during incubation. The lactic acid bacteria count indicated that treatment with capsules containing 2% sodium alginate had higher counts. Sensorially, three treatments had a favorable acceptability; proximate analysis had favorable values . In conclusion,the tests showed the viability of encapsulated aloe vera in the manufacture of yogurt during incubation time without being affected by the concentration of sodium alginate.

  15. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  16. Human-centered incubator : Beyond a design concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, R.H.M.; Willemsen, H.

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005,

  17. Factors affecting sleep/vigilance behaviour in incubating mallards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrková, V.; Hořák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klvaňa, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 4 (2011), s. 345-355 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  18. Designing the Online Collaboratory for the Global Social Benefit Incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ramos, Pedro; Koch, James L.; Bruno, Albert; Carlson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pedro Hernandez-Ramos, James L. Koch, Albert Bruno, and Eric Carlson describe the online collaboratory planned for the Global Social Benefit Incubator (GSBI), an international education program designed to serve social benefit entrepreneurs working in the fields of education, health, economic development, the environment, and equality around the…

  19. [The oxygen consumption of ostrich embryos during incubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, G; Dzapo, V

    1995-02-01

    This work deals with the oxygen consumption of ostrich chicks during incubation. Brood eggs were incubated in a hermetic isolated acrylic-glass cylinder. Reduction of oxygen content in the air surrounding the egg was measured using an oxygen-sensitive electrode. A sigmoid curve could be drawn during incubation, with the steepest phase being around day 26. Maximum oxygen consumption was reached on day 36. It was slightly decreased until day 39, when the embryo switches to lung circulation, followed again by an increase until hatching. Average oxygen consumptions for the whole brood interval were calculated to 63.6 liters. Oxygen volumes consumed on day 36 result in a demand about to 240 liters of fresh air per egg and day. Oxygen consumption of the embryos on day 36 was significantly positive correlated with their vitality. Numb or less vital embryos could be clearly differentiated from others. The higher a chick's oxygen consumption, the earlier and shorter its hatching. Possible applications of the method in regard to the evaluation of incubation parameters or chicken constitution are discussed.

  20. Innovation Hubs, student driven incubators in regional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der J.D. (Han)

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.14261/postit/0AC5BB0E-3951-48E2-B00D49D5194985A7 In 2015 and 2016, Saxion University of Applied Sciences organized the 2nd and 3rd edition of the Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship Conference (RIEC).   University Business Incubators (UBI) are being considered

  1. The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) technique for detection of faecal contamination in water. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home ... A total of 171 water samples from 3 sources were analyzed for the presence of faecal contamination by

  2. Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubation Environments: A Framework of Key Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dajani, Haya; Dedoussis, Evangelos; Watson, Erika; Tzokas, Nikalaos

    2014-01-01

    The benchmarking framework developed in this study is specifically designed for higher education institutions to consider when developing environments to encourage entrepreneurship among their students, graduates and staff. The objective of the study was to identify key success factors of Graduate Entrepreneurship Incubator Environments (GEIEs)…

  3. Contamination of Laboratory Bench-tops, Incubators and the Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hours after the spray disinfection, only 5 (10%) of the bench-top swabs yielded growth of B. subtilis, while the swabs from incubators, even after 10 days yielded no growth. This study recommends that spray disinfectant, mostly quaternary ammonium compounds, free of aldehydes can minimize contamination of ...

  4. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Traldi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval determined for each breeder age were weighed, broken, and their components were separated and weighed. At hatch, hatchlings were sexed and weighed, determining the average initial weight of the progeny of each breeder age. Data were analyzed using the Analyst program of SAS® software package. In Experiment 1, the weight difference between eggs produced by young and mature breeders was 10.92 g, and the component that mostly influenced this difference was the yolk (7.51 g heavier in mature breeders, compared with 4.23 g difference in albumen and 0.8 g in eggshell weights. Hatchling weight difference was 9.4 g higher in eggs from mature breeders. In Experiment 2, egg weight difference was only 0.74 g, but yolk weight was 4.59 g higher in the eggs of mature breeders. The results obtained in the present study indicate that hatchling weight is influenced by egg weight, and not by breeder age.

  5. Effect of varying incubation periods on cytotoxicity and virucidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgrounds: Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. has an anti-HIV activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of incubation periods on the cytotoxicity and virucidal activities of the J. gendarussa leaves extract on MOLT-4 cells. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity assay was evaluated by using the WST-1 test with ...

  6. Development of a Biogas-powered Poultry Egg Incubator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    incubation efficiency. The growth processes in the development of the embryo are very sensitive and small deviations can cause development to progress out of sequence resulting in losses or deformities ... documented concerning nutrition of birds. (Ayidin et al. ..... developing embryo to occur at the correct rate. Also, the ...

  7. note on variable incubation period within a clutch of eggs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compo Biochem. Physiol. 53A: 1-6. MENDELSOHN, 1. M., BIGOS, H. C. & LEDGER, 1. A. In press. The biology of the black-shouldered. NOTE ON VARIABLE. INCUBATION PERIOD WITHIN A. CLUTCH OF EGGS OF THE. LEOPARD TORTOISE. (GEOCHELONE P ARDALIS). (CHELONIA: CRYPTODIRA: TESTUDINIDAE).

  8. MARKETING CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC SECTOR BUSINESS INCUBATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Walter James

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and innovation form the cornerstone of economic development in many developing countries. Through this, rather ideal combination employment can be enhanced, communities can be uplifted through education, and growth can be increased through discretionary purchasing power. This cycle has positive spinoffs which can alleviate poverty and decrease famine. Recent local research suggests that more than eighty percent of entrepreneurs, start-ups and Business ‘Incubatees’ don’t make it through their first year of establishment after leaving a Business Incubator programme. This paper tries to identify some of the marketing challenges faced by Business Incubators, and indeed BIMs in the Public Sector environment in South Africa. Identification and highlighting the possible drawbacks for ‘incubatees’ may assist them with success or meeting competitive challenges when they depart from the security of the relevant programmes. This study examines some of the skills, knowledge and attributes required for BIMs in this sector and what is required to meet the business and marketing challenges faced to remain sustainable. The survey was aimed at the largest, focused segment of South African Business Incubators affiliated to the industrial public sector and the hypothesis was to prove that strategic marketing information, acumen and knowledge is a key differentiator towards the growth and sustainability of Business Incubators in that sector. It is notable that these marketing challenges may also compare favourably with several other public sector segments in relevant countries of the southern African region as similar macroeconomic challenges are faced.

  9. Blueberry proanthocyanidins against human norovirus surrogates in model foods and under simulated gastric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2017-05-01

    Blueberry proanthocyanidins (B-PAC) are known to decrease titers of human norovirus surrogates in vitro. The application of B-PAC as therapeutic or preventive options against foodborne viral illness needs to be determined using model foods and simulated gastric conditions in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiviral effect of B-PAC in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% reduced fat milk) and simulated gastrointestinal fluids against cultivable human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus; FCV-F9 and murine norovirus; MNV-1) over 24 h at 37 °C. Equal amounts of each virus (5 log PFU/ml) was mixed with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) prepared either in AJ, or 2% milk, or simulated gastric fluids and incubated over 24 h at 37 °C. Controls included phosphate buffered saline, malic acid (pH 7.2), AJ, 2% milk or simulated gastric and intestinal fluids incubated with virus over 24 h at 37 °C. The tested viruses were reduced to undetectable levels within 15 min with B-PAC (1, 2 and 5 mg/ml) in AJ (pH 3.6). However, antiviral activity of B-PAC was reduced in milk. FCV-F9 was reduced by 0.4 and 1.09 log PFU/ml with 2 and 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk, respectively and MNV-1 titers were reduced by 0.81 log PFU/ml with 5 mg/ml B-PAC in milk after 24 h. B-PAC at 5 mg/ml in simulated intestinal fluid reduced titers of the tested viruses to undetectable levels within 30 min. Overall, these results show the potential of B-PAC as preventive and therapeutic options for foodborne viral illnesses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effects of calcium salts of acidic monomers on mineral induction of phosphoprotein immobilized to agarose beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shuichi; Iijima, Masahiro; Motai, Fumiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Saito, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the mineralizing potential of acidic monomers and their calcium salts for mineralization, using an in vitro mineral induction model. Phosvitin (PV) was used as a model phosphoprotein in this study. PV was immobilized on agarose beads with divinyl sulfone. Five aliquots of agarose-immobilized PV, acidic monomers, and their calcium salts were incubated in mineralizing solution at various concentrations. The PV beads and acidic monomers were incubated at 37°C. Samples were taken at several time points during the incubation. Then, the agarose beads were analyzed for bound calcium by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral formed on the agarose beads was identified as an apatite by microarea X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mineral induction time decreased with increasing solution saturation. 4-METCa salt [calcium salt of 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate (CMET)] significantly reduced the mineral induction time. Using these data, the interfacial tension for mineral induction of PV and CMET was determined to be 90.1 and 92.7 ergs/cm(2), respectively. The mineral induced in each specimen after incubation for 24 h was identified by its X-ray diffraction pattern as apatite. SEM observation showed that lath-shaped crystals were formed on the surfaces of the CMET. We conclude that CMET could play a role in dentin remineralization. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  12. Internal incubation and early hatching in brood parasitic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, T R; Hemmings, N; Spottiswoode, C N; Mikulica, O; Moskát, C; Bán, M; Schulze-Hagen, K

    2011-04-07

    The offspring of brood parasitic birds benefit from hatching earlier than host young. A proposed but little-known strategy to achieve this is 'internal incubation', by retaining the egg in the oviduct for an additional 24 h. To test this, we quantified the stage of embryo development at laying in four brood parasitic birds (European cuckoo, Cuculus canorus; African cuckoo, Cuculus gularis; greater honeyguide, Indicator indicator; and the cuckoo finch, Anomalospiza imberbis). For the two cuckoos and the honeyguide, all of which lay at 48 h intervals, embryos were at a relatively advanced stage at laying; but for the cuckoo finch (laying interval: 24 h) embryo stage was similar to all other passerines laying at 24 h intervals. The stage of embryo development in the two cuckoos and honeyguide was similar to that of a non-parasitic species that lay at an interval of 44-46 h, but also to the eggs of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata incubated artificially at body temperature immediately after laying, for a further 24 h. Comparison with the zebra finch shows that internal incubation in the two cuckoos and honeyguide advances hatching by 31 h, a figure consistent with the difference between the expected and the observed duration of incubation in the European cuckoo predicted from egg mass. Rather than being a specific adaptation to brood parasitism, internal incubation is a direct consequence of a protracted interval between ovulation (and fertilization) and laying, but because it results in early hatching may have predisposed certain species to become brood parasitic.

  13. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  14. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral Supplements Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... MVMs? Disclaimer What are multivitamin/mineral (MVM) dietary supplements? Multivitamin/mineral (MVM) supplements contain a combination of ...

  15. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  16. Heavy mineral placers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    ], which contains economic quantities of valuable minerals such as gold, tin and platinum etc. Placer deposit can also be defined as a “mineral deposit formed by the process of mechanical concentration of mineral particles from weathered debris... Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 32 Heavy mineral placers A. R. Gujar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403004 agujar@nio.org Heavy mineral placers Heavy mineral placer deposit is defined as “Alluvial...

  17. A randomized clinical trial comparing embryo culture in a conventional incubator with a time-lapse incubator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjaer, Johnny Juhl; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse monitoring allows for a flexible embryo evaluation and potentially provides new dynamic markers of embryo competence. Before introducing time-lapse monitoring in a clinical setting, the safety of the instrument must be properly documented. Accordingly, the aim of this study...... was to evaluate the safety of a commercially available time-lapse incubator....

  18. Being flexible through customization : The impact of incubator focus and customization strategies on incubate survival and growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Matthyssens, P.; Andreassi, T.

    Given the increased importance of flexibility in company development models, it is not surprising that start-up support structures such as business incubators give more attention to flexible service offerings. In this paper, we argue that an incubator’s service customization strategy is ideal in

  19. Incubating Innovation: A standard model for nurturing new businesses, the incubator gains prominence in the world of biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifantini, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Incubators, accelerators, innovation centers, launch pads. Everyone defines the idea a bit differently, but, generally, these infrastructures refer to a subsidized space where fledgling companies get support?a combination of mentorship, funding, low rent, networking opportunities, and other training?with the goal of propelling early businesses to success.

  20. Phytase-mediated enzymatic mineralization of chitosan-enriched hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lišková, Jana; Douglas, Timothy E.L.; Wijnants, Robbe

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogels mineralized with calcium phosphate (CaP) are increasingly popular bone regeneration biomaterials. Mineralization can be achieved by phosphatase enzyme incorporation and incubation in calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP). Gellan gum (GG) hydrogels containing the enzyme phytase and chitosan...... oligomer were mineralized in CaGP solution and characterized with human osteoblast-like MG63 cells and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC). Phytase induced CaP formation. Chitosan concentration determined mineralization extent and hydrogel mechanical reinforcement. Phytase-induced mineralization...... promoted MG63 adhesion and proliferation, especially in the presence of chitosan, and was non-toxic to MG63 cells (with and without chitosan). ADSC adhesion and proliferation were poor without mineralization. Chitosan did not affect ADSC osteogenic differentiation....

  1. Summary of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    High Explosives Science and Technology (M-7) completed all required formulation and testing of Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogates on April 27, 2016 as specified in PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing Standard Procedure", released February 16, 2016. This report summarizes the results of the work and also includes additional documentation required in that test plan. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B. The work was carried out in three rounds, with the full matrix of samples formulated and tested in each round. Results from the first round of formulation and testing were documented in memorandum M7-J6-6042, " Results from First Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Results from the second round of formulation and testing were documented in M7-16-6053 , "Results from the Second Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Initial results from the third round were documented in M7-16-6057, "Initial Results from the Third Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Formulation and Testing."

  2. Surrogate marker profiles for genetic lesions in acute leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paietta, Elisabeth

    2010-09-01

    The basic hypothesis of surrogate marker profiles is that individual genetic lesions result in characteristic distortions of the cellular phenotype with some predictable consistency that can be exploited by sophisticated immunophenotyping. While cytogenetic and molecular aberrancies currently are accepted prognostic predictors in acute leukemias, single antigen expression and even antigenic profiles rarely impact on prognosis. However, increasingly, phenotypes are delineated which can serve as surrogates for underlying genetic aberrations of clinical importance. This development is of particular significance as antileukemic therapy becomes available that targets any component of the disturbed molecular pathways associated with these genetic lesions. This chapter will focus on established surrogate marker profiles, such as those for PML/RARα, AML1/ETO, FLT3-gene mutated acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and BCR/ABL(POS) ALL. As the list of therapeutic targets grows, the role of surrogate antigen profiles will grow, as they can predict for the efficacy of targeted approaches in lieu of expensive, time-consuming and not always accessible genetic analyses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human surrogate models of histaminergic and non-histaminergic itch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hjalte Holm; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Within the last decade understanding of the mechanistic basis of itch has improved significantly, resulting in the development of several human surrogate models of itch and related dysesthetic states. Well-characterized somatosensory models are useful in basic studies in healthy volunteers...

  4. Adaptation-II of the surrogate methods for linear programming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adaptation-II of the surrogate methods for linear programming problems. SO Oko. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 63-71. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjmas.v5i1.21381.

  5. Frequency response as a surrogate eigenvalue problem in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Ferrari, Federico; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the use of frequency response surrogates for eigenvalue optimization problems in topology optimization that may be used to avoid solving the eigenvalue problem. The motivation is to avoid complications that arise from multiple eigenvalues and the computational complexity...... associated with computation of eigenvalues in very large problems....

  6. SPEECH SURROGATES OF AFRICA: A STUDY OF THE FANTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adwoa Arhine *. Abstract. Various forms of communication based on sounds produced by instruments are common in many African societies. Among these, the slit gong and drums are the most popular and the most widely used as speech surrogates in Africa (Nketia,. 1971: 700). With the introduction of ...

  7. Mechanical Properties of K Basin Sludge Constituents and Their Surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2004-01-01

    A survey of the technical literature was performed to summarize the mechanical properties of inorganic components in K Basins sludge. The components included gibbsite, ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and goethite, hematite, quartz, anorthite, calcite, basalt, Zircaloy, aluminum, and, in particular, irradiated uranium metal and uranium dioxide. Review of the technical literature showed that information on the hardness of uranium metal at irradiation exposures similar to those experienced by the N Reactor fuel present in the K Basins (typically up to 3000 MWd/t) were not available. Measurements therefore were performed to determine the hardness of coupons taken from three irradiated N Reactor uranium metal fuel elements taken from K Basins. Hardness values averaged 30 ± 8 Rockwell C units, similar to values previously reported for uranium irradiated to ∼1200 MWd/t. The physical properties of candidate uranium metal and uranium dioxide surrogates were gathered and compared. Surrogates having properties closest to those of irradiated uranium metal appear to be alloys of tungsten. The surrogate for uranium dioxide, present both as particles and agglomerates in actual K Basin sludge, likely requires two materials. Cerium oxide, CeO2, was identified as a surrogate of the smaller UO2 particles while steel grit was identified for the UO2 agglomerates

  8. Salmonella surrogate reduction using industrial peanut dry roasting parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of industrial peanut dry roasting parameters in Salmonella reduction using a Salmonella surrogate, Enterococcus faecium, which is slightly more heat tolerant than Salmonella. Runner-type peanuts were inoculated with E. faecium and roasted in a lab...

  9. Frequency response as a surrogate eigenvalue problem in topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Ferrari, Federico; Sigmund, Ole

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses the use of frequency response surrogates for eigenvalue optimization problems in topology optimization that may be used to avoid solving the eigenvalue problem. The motivation is to avoid complications that arise from multiple eigenvalues and the computational complexity as...

  10. Bioaccessibility of metals in alloys: evaluation of three surrogate biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwalker, Wendy E; Anderson, Kim A

    2014-02-01

    Bioaccessibility in vitro tests measure the solubility of materials in surrogate biofluids. However, the lack of uniform methods and the effects of variable test parameters on material solubility limit interpretation. One aim of this study was to measure and compare bioaccessibility of selected economically important alloys and metals in surrogate physiologically based biofluids representing oral, inhalation and dermal exposures. A second aim was to experimentally test different biofluid formulations and residence times in vitro. A third aim was evaluation of dissolution behavior of alloys with in vitro lung and dermal biofluid surrogates. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of sixteen elements in six alloys and 3 elemental/metal powders. We found that the alloys/metals, the chemical properties of the surrogate fluid, and residence time all had major impacts on metal solubility. The large variability of bioaccessibility indicates the relevancy of assessing alloys as toxicologically distinct relative to individual metals. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J

    2009-09-04

    There has been much recent progress in the area of surrogate fuels for diesel. In the last few years, experiments and modeling have been performed on higher molecular weight components of relevance to diesel fuel such as n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane). Chemical kinetic models have been developed for all the n-alkanes up to 16 carbon atoms. Also, there has been much experimental and modeling work on lower molecular weight surrogate components such as n-decane and do-decane which are most relevant to jet fuel surrogates, but are also relevant to diesel surrogates where simulation of the full boiling point range is desired. For the cycloalkanes, experimental work on decalin and tetralin recently has been published. For multi-component surrogate fuel mixtures, recent work on modeling of these mixtures and comparisons to real diesel fuel is reviewed. Detailed chemical kinetic models for surrogate fuels are very large in size. Significant progress also has been made in improving the mechanism reduction tools that are needed to make these large models practicable in multidimensional reacting flow simulations of diesel combustion. Nevertheless, major research gaps remain. In the case of iso-alkanes, there are experiments and modeling work on only one of relevance to diesel: iso-cetane. Also, the iso-alkanes in diesel are lightly branched and no detailed chemical kinetic models or experimental investigations are available for such compounds. More components are needed to fill out the iso-alkane boiling point range. For the aromatic class of compounds, there has been no new work for compounds in the boiling point range of diesel. Most of the new work has been on alkyl aromatics that are of the range C7 to C8, below the C10 to C20 range that is needed. For the chemical class of cycloalkanes, experiments and modeling on higher molecular weight components are warranted. Finally for multi-component surrogates needed to treat real diesel

  12. Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, W J; Mueller, C J

    2009-12-09

    There has been much recent progress in the area of surrogate fuels for diesel. In the last few years, experiments and modeling have been performed on higher molecular weight components of relevance to diesel fuel such as n-hexadecane (n-cetane) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (iso-cetane). Chemical kinetic models have been developed for all the n-alkanes up to 16 carbon atoms. Also, there has been much experimental and modeling work on lower molecular weight surrogate components such as n-decane and n-dodecane that are most relevant to jet fuel surrogates, but are also relevant to diesel surrogates where simulation of the full boiling point range is desired. For two-ring compounds, experimental work on decalin and tetralin recently has been published. For multi-component surrogate fuel mixtures, recent work on modeling of these mixtures and comparisons to real diesel fuel is reviewed. Detailed chemical kinetic models for surrogate fuels are very large in size. Significant progress also has been made in improving the mechanism reduction tools that are needed to make these large models practicable in multi-dimensional reacting flow simulations of diesel combustion. Nevertheless, major research gaps remain. In the case of iso-alkanes, there are experiments and modeling work on only one of relevance to diesel: iso-cetane. Also, the iso-alkanes in diesel are lightly branched and no detailed chemical kinetic models or experimental investigations are available for such compounds. More components are needed to fill out the iso-alkane boiling point range. For the aromatic class of compounds, there has been no new work for compounds in the boiling point range of diesel. Most of the new work has been on alkyl aromatics that are of the range C7 to C8, below the C10 to C20 range that is needed. For the chemical class of cycloalkanes, experiments and modeling on higher molecular weight components are warranted. Finally for multi-component surrogates needed to treat real

  13. Hall et al., 2016 Artificial Turf Surrogate Surface Methods Paper Data File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mercury dry deposition data quantified via static water surrogate surface (SWSS) and artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS) collectors. This dataset is associated...

  14. comparative studies on the mineralization of furfural urea and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... regarding groundwater pollution ( Myrold, 2008). The aims of the research is to determine the best form of fertilizer (furfural urea or urea ) that releases N through mineralization and to improved manure management to meet crop demands. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Incubation Study. The soil sample for ...

  15. Neonatal incubators: a toxic sound environment for the preterm infant?*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik, Paul E; Fuller, Christopher; Levitov, Alexander; Moll, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    High sound pressure levels may be harmful to the maturing newborn. Current guidelines suggest that the sound pressure levels within a neonatal intensive care unit should not exceed 45 dB(A). It is likely that environmental noise as well as the noise generated by the incubator fan and respiratory equipment may contribute to the total sound pressure levels. Knowledge of the contribution of each component and source is important to develop effective strategies to reduce noise within the incubator. The objectives of this study were to determine the sound levels, sound spectra, and major sources of sound within a modern neonatal incubator (Giraffe Omnibed; GE Healthcare, Helsinki, Finland) using a sound simulation study to replicate the conditions of a preterm infant undergoing high-frequency jet ventilation (Life Pulse, Bunnell, UT). Using advanced sound data acquisition and signal processing equipment, we measured and analyzed the sound level at a dummy infant's ear and at the head level outside the enclosure. The sound data time histories were digitally acquired and processed using a digital Fast Fourier Transform algorithm to provide spectra of the sound and cumulative sound pressure levels (dBA). The simulation was done with the incubator cooling fan and ventilator switched on or off. In addition, tests were carried out with the enclosure sides closed and hood down and then with the enclosure sides open and the hood up to determine the importance of interior incubator reverberance on the interior sound levels With all the equipment off and the hood down, the sound pressure levels were 53 dB(A) inside the incubator. The sound pressure levels increased to 68 dB(A) with all equipment switched on (approximately 10 times louder than recommended). The sound intensity was 6.0 × 10(-8) watts/m(2); this sound level is roughly comparable with that generated by a kitchen exhaust fan on high. Turning the ventilator off reduced the overall sound pressure levels to 64 dB(A) and

  16. Innovation, incubation and entrepreneurship case studies from IIT Kanpur

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on promoting entrepreneurial ecosystems within universities and educational institutes. It especially emphasizes the thriving systems and practices existing within the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK). It discusses cases and successes of the SIDBI Incubation and Innovation Centre in the Institute. This edited volume highlights the vision of IITK and describes a few of the major achievements of the past few years. It especially showcases the requirements and challenges of creating, sustaining, and boosting such entrepreneurial ecosystems and incubation centres. The contents of this book will be useful to researchers, administrators, and corporate collaborators working in the area of monetizing technology coming from educational institutions by converting it to successful products and business ideas. .

  17. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible......High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial...... and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow...

  18. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  19. Internal incubation and early hatching in brood parasitic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, T. R.; Hemmings, N.; Spottiswoode, C. N.; Mikulica, O.; Moskát, C.; Bán, M.; Schulze-Hagen, K.

    2011-01-01

    The offspring of brood parasitic birds benefit from hatching earlier than host young. A proposed but little-known strategy to achieve this is ‘internal incubation’, by retaining the egg in the oviduct for an additional 24 h. To test this, we quantified the stage of embryo development at laying in four brood parasitic birds (European cuckoo, Cuculus canorus; African cuckoo, Cuculus gularis; greater honeyguide, Indicator indicator; and the cuckoo finch, Anomalospiza imberbis). For the two cuckoos and the honeyguide, all of which lay at 48 h intervals, embryos were at a relatively advanced stage at laying; but for the cuckoo finch (laying interval: 24 h) embryo stage was similar to all other passerines laying at 24 h intervals. The stage of embryo development in the two cuckoos and honeyguide was similar to that of a non-parasitic species that lay at an interval of 44–46 h, but also to the eggs of the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata incubated artificially at body temperature immediately after laying, for a further 24 h. Comparison with the zebra finch shows that internal incubation in the two cuckoos and honeyguide advances hatching by 31 h, a figure consistent with the difference between the expected and the observed duration of incubation in the European cuckoo predicted from egg mass. Rather than being a specific adaptation to brood parasitism, internal incubation is a direct consequence of a protracted interval between ovulation (and fertilization) and laying, but because it results in early hatching may have predisposed certain species to become brood parasitic. PMID:20880882

  20. Extinction instead of incubation following classical aversive conditioning in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, H D; Kearns, W D; Anderson, D E

    1992-01-01

    Two dogs received a single paired classical conditioning trial, with tone CS and 12 mA shock US. Both dogs then showed a conditioned blood pressure increase in response to the nonreinforced CS, which extinguished with additional nonreinforced presentations. The CR showed spontaneous recovery four days later, but reextinguished with additional nonreinforced presentations. The results were interpreted as not supporting Eysenck's theory of "incubation" following one-trial aversive conditioning.

  1. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  2. Food conditions affect yolk testosterone deposition but not incubation attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwen, Jonas; Goerlich, Vivian C; Groothuis, Ton G G; Eens, Marcel; Müller, Wendt

    2012-03-01

    In many bird species with hatching asynchrony, yolk androgens increase across the laying sequence. This has been hypothesized to represent a compensatory mechanism for disadvantages of later-hatching chicks - via positive effects of yolk androgens on early competitiveness and growth. However, the costs and benefits of this compensatory strategy probably depend on environmental factors determining the survival chances of the chicks such as the food conditions, which should, therefore, influence maternal yolk androgen deposition. We studied the consequences of manipulated food conditions on the expected level of hatching asynchrony in canaries (Serinus canaria) assigning females to either a low (=LQ) or high quality (=HQ) diet. We measured the incubation behaviour (as incubation attendance) and the yolk androgen deposition in order to investigate whether and how females modulate hatching asynchrony in relation to the food conditions. Females on a HQ diet laid larger and heavier clutches, showed a stronger increase in yolk testosterone content towards the last-laid eggs, but did not alter their incubation attendance. Thus, females on a HQ diet seem to favour the survival of later hatching chicks, as indicated by their yolk testosterone deposition pattern. However, females on a HQ diet laid larger clutches and might need to compensate more in order to achieve a similar degree of hatching asynchrony than females on a LQ diet, given the lack of plasticity in incubation attendance. This suggests that canary females respond to food manipulations mainly via changes in clutch size rather than by altering the degree of hatching asynchrony. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mineralization of residual fertilizer nitrogen in soil after rice harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, S.; Sarkar, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Remineralization of immobilized 15 N labelled urea N applied to rice crop at the rate of 180 kg N/ha was determined. Mineral N increased rapidly up to 14 days of incubation and thereafter remained more or less constant. The recovery of fertilizer as mineral N varied between 0.7 and 3.1 μg/g soil. The percent mineralization of labelled organic N ranged between 3.1 and 9.5. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Cot-nursing versus incubator care for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter H; Flenady, Vicki

    2011-08-10

    Preterm infants are usually nursed in incubators, but cot-nursing may provide an alternative. While there may be benefits of nursing preterm infants in open cots, there may be potential risks such as nosocomial infection caused by more handling due to easier access. To assess effects of cot-nursing versus incubator care on temperature control and weight gain in preterm infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE, as well as previous reviews including cross references through November 2009. All trials using random or quasi-random patient allocation in which infants receiving care in standard newborn cots were compared to infants managed in a conventional air heated incubator. The authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data for the primary outcomes of temperature control and weight gain. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed-effect model. Eleven potential studies were identified of which five, involving 247 infants, were included in this review. When compared to incubator care, cot-nursing resulted in no significant difference in mean body temperature (MD 0.02 degrees C; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.07, four trials), though the one trial that reported on episodes of hyperthermia found this to be statistically more common in the cot-nursing group (RR 1.48; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09). There were no statistically significant differences in weight gain. In the cot-nursing group, fewer infants were breast fed on discharge (typical RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.14, three trials, 150 infants) and fewer infants died prior to hospital discharge (typical RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.25, four trials, 235 infants) but these results failed to reach statistical significance. The comparison of cot-nursing using a heated water-filled mattress

  5. Thermal management in closed incubators: New software for assessing the impact of humidity on the optimal incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Durand, Estelle; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates are nursed in closed incubators to prevent transcutaneous water loss. The RH's impact on the optimal incubator air temperature setting has not been studied. On the basis of a clinical cohort study, we modelled all the ambient parameters influencing body heat losses and gains. The algorithm quantifies the change in RH on the air temperature, to maintain optimal thermal conditions in the incubator. Twenty-three neonates (gestational age (GA): 30.0 [28.9-31.6] weeks) were included. A 20% increase and a 20% decrease in the RH induced a change in air temperature of between -1.51 and +1.85°C for a simulated 650g neonate (GA: 26 weeks), between -1.66 and +1.87°C for a 1000g neonate (GA: 31 weeks), and between -1.77 and +1.97°C for a 2000g neonate (GA: 33 weeks) (phumidity +c age +d weight (phumidity. The software constitutes a decision support tool for improving patient care in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long term field evaluation of phosphate rock and superphosphate in acid soils of Hungary; Incubation and pot experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, T.; Osztoics, E.; Csatho, P.; Radimszky, L.; Baczo, G.Y.

    2002-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to compare the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock (from Algeria) and of single superphosphate (from Russia, Kola) on a moderately acidic pseudogley brown forest soil (Szentgyoergyvoelgy) and on a slightly acidic chernozem brown forest soil (Kompolt). Dynamics of water-soluble and ammonium lactate-soluble P-contents (AL-P) and soil pH-H 2 O changes were studied in a half-year long incubation experiment. A follow-up pot experiment with the same soils was carried out with winter rape as test plants. Both experiments were set up with similar P fertilizer sources and P rates (100, 200, and 400 mg mineral acid soluble P 2 O 5 per kg soil). At the beginning of incubation experiment, the water-soluble P content of the pseudogley brown forest soil was influenced by both the sources of P and the experimental conditions. The water-soluble P content decreased with time. After the 15 th to 20 th day of incubation, when the fast binding process of the water-soluble P ended, the effects of the P forms decreased. In this stage, the effects of environmental conditions depended on the form of the P fertilizer. The water-soluble P content of the phosphate rock-treated samples was affected to a great extent by soil water content, while the incubation temperature had a greater effect in soils treated with superphosphate. The AL-P content of soils was increased similarly by addition of equal rates of phosphate rock and super-phosphate at the beginning of incubation. The AL-P content of phosphate rock-treated soils was higher throughout the incubation period than of the superphosphate-treated soils -treated. Temperature had a greater effect on the AL-P content of soils than soil water content. As the AL-extraction may dissolve a substantial amount of the undecomposed phosphate rock, this method is not applicable to soil testing of available P forms from phosphate rock-treated soils. Initial soil pH decreased on average by 0.5 units in the

  7. EMPOWERING IT ENTREPRENEURSHIPS: WHAT’S THE CONTRIBUTION OF BUSINESS INCUBATORS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wescley Silva Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the contribution of Business Incubators for small IT business. In this way, a deep research in three Brazilian IT Incubators was developed. We investigated the perception of incubators’ managers, tenant and graduated entrepreneurs regarding to the key elements of incubation process, as support and infrastructure, university-incubator interaction, and management training. Our findings indicate some deficiencies in IT Incubators, predominantly in prospecting customers, attracting financial resources, and establishing relationships within universities and research centers.

  8. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  9. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the influence of multiple parameters in a complex simulation setting is a difficult task. In the ideal case, the scientist can freely steer such a simulation and is immediately presented with the results for a certain configuration of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute for the time-consuming simulation. The surrogate model we propose is based on the sparse grid technique, and we identify the main computational tasks associated with its evaluation and its extension. We further show how distributed data management combined with the specific use of accelerators allows us to approximate and deliver simulation results to a high-resolution visualization system in real-time. This significantly enhances the steering workflow and facilitates the interactive exploration of large datasets. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Short communication. Effects of the time to change from incubation to hatching temperature on the artificial incubation of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Gomez-de-Travecedo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates, in red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, the effects of the time to change from incubation to hatching temperature on egg weight loss, hatchability, chick weight at hatch, incubation length, and development stage at embryonic mortality. Five batches of 80 eggs each were incubated at 37.8ºC during the first 18, 19, 20, 21 or 22 d of incubation, and subsequently at 37.5ºC until hatching. Hatchability, development stage at embryonic mortality and chick weight at hatch were not affected by the time of temperature change (p > 0.05. However, incubation length and egg weight loss after 21 d of incubation as representative of that of developed embryos were influenced by the incubation treatment (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. Thus, eggs maintained at the incubation temperature of 37.8ºC for 22 d not only hatched earlier (23.04 d but also with lower dispersion than eggs from the other treatments. As hatching may start around day 22 of incubation, to improve hatching synchrony we could recommend to move A. rufa eggs from the incubator, set at 37.8ºC, to the hatcher on the 21st d of incubation keeping the temperature unchanged, and reduce it to 37.5ºC on the 22nd d. Nevertheless, further research should be carried out to study the effect of this temperature scheduling on chick growth and performance.

  11. Biochar effect on the mineralization of soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Bruun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify whether the addition of biochar to the soil affects the degradation of litter and of soil organic matter (SOM. In order to investigate the effect of biochar on the mineralization of barley straw, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled barley straw with or without unlabelled biochar. To investigate the effect of straw on the mineralization of biochar, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled biochar with or without straw. In addition, to investigate the effect of biochar on old SOM, a soil labelled by applying labelled straw 40 years ago was incubated with different levels of biochar. All experiments had a control treatment, without any soil amendment. The effect of biochar on the straw mineralization was small and nonsignificant. Without biochar, 48±0.2% of the straw carbon was mineralized within the 451 days of the experiment. In comparison, 45±1.6% of C was mineralized after biochar addition of 1.5 g kg-1. In the SOM-labelled soil, the organic matter mineralized more slowly with the increasing doses of biochar. Biochar addition at 7.7 g kg-1 reduced SOM mineralization from 6.6 to 6.3%, during the experimental period. The addition of 15.5 g kg-1 of biochar reduced the mineralized SOM to 5.7%. There is no evidence of increased degradation of either litter or SOM due to biochar addition; consequently, there is no evidence of decreased stability of SOM.

  12. Surrogates for validation of electron beam irradiation of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Oscar; Castell-Perez, M Elena; Ekpanyaskun, Nont; Moreira, Rosana G; Castillo, Alejandro

    2006-07-15

    The aim of this study was to identify a potential surrogate to describe the radiation sensitivity of the most common pathogens encountered in fruits. Three pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7 933, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 51414, and Salmonella Poona, and five non-pathogens: E. coli K-12 MG1655, Listeria innocua Seeliger 1983 (NRRL B-33003 and NRRl B-33014), Enterobacter aerogenes, and Salmonella LT2 were inoculated (populations of 10(7)-10(9) CFU/ml) into model food systems (10% w/w gelatin) and exposed to doses up to 1.0 kGy using a 2 MeV Van der Graaf linear accelerator. The non-pathogen E. coli K-12 MG1655 was highly resistant to radiation (D(10)=0.88 kGy) in comparison to the other strains while L. monocytogenes was the more radiation-resistant pathogen (D(10)=1.09 kGy). Thus, E. coli K-12 MG1655 could be a suitable surrogate for e-beam studies with L. monocytogenes as the indicator pathogen. L. innocua strains were more radiation-sensitive (D(10)=0.66, 0.72 kGy) than their pathogenic counterpart. S. Poona and E. coli O157:H7 were even more radiation-sensitive (D(10)=0.38, 0.36 kGy, respectively). S. LT2 was the least radiation-resistant pathogen with D(10)=0.12 kGy. In a later study, the radiation resistance of the pathogens and the surrogate was evaluated when inoculated in a real food (i.e., fresh cantaloupe). The D(10) values obtained in this experiment were higher than those obtained with the model foods. However, the surrogate was still more radiation-resistant and could therefore be used to indicate decontamination of the target pathogens under electron beam irradiation.

  13. Development of Cranial Bone Surrogate Structures Using Stereolithographic Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    human cranium. Surrogate structures were designed to replicate the solid volume and thickness of the diploë and inner and outer tables typical of human...by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. iii Contents List of Figures iv List of Tables iv Preface v...polymer layer deposition relative to dumbbell geometry for edge and flat specimen types ........................................................... 9

  14. Regression calibration with more surrogates than mismeasured variables

    KAUST Repository

    Kipnis, Victor

    2012-06-29

    In a recent paper (Weller EA, Milton DK, Eisen EA, Spiegelman D. Regression calibration for logistic regression with multiple surrogates for one exposure. Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference 2007; 137: 449-461), the authors discussed fitting logistic regression models when a scalar main explanatory variable is measured with error by several surrogates, that is, a situation with more surrogates than variables measured with error. They compared two methods of adjusting for measurement error using a regression calibration approximate model as if it were exact. One is the standard regression calibration approach consisting of substituting an estimated conditional expectation of the true covariate given observed data in the logistic regression. The other is a novel two-stage approach when the logistic regression is fitted to multiple surrogates, and then a linear combination of estimated slopes is formed as the estimate of interest. Applying estimated asymptotic variances for both methods in a single data set with some sensitivity analysis, the authors asserted superiority of their two-stage approach. We investigate this claim in some detail. A troubling aspect of the proposed two-stage method is that, unlike standard regression calibration and a natural form of maximum likelihood, the resulting estimates are not invariant to reparameterization of nuisance parameters in the model. We show, however, that, under the regression calibration approximation, the two-stage method is asymptotically equivalent to a maximum likelihood formulation, and is therefore in theory superior to standard regression calibration. However, our extensive finite-sample simulations in the practically important parameter space where the regression calibration model provides a good approximation failed to uncover such superiority of the two-stage method. We also discuss extensions to different data structures.

  15. Assessment of radiant temperature in a closed incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décima, Pauline; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Pelletier, Amandine; Ghyselen, Laurent; Delanaud, Stéphane; Dégrugilliers, Loïc; Telliez, Frédéric; Bach, Véronique; Libert, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    In closed incubators, radiative heat loss (R) which is assessed from the mean radiant temperature (Tr) accounts for 40-60% of the neonate's total heat loss. In the absence of a benchmark method to calculate Tr--often considered to be the same as the air incubator temperature-errors could have a considerable impact on the thermal management of neonates. We compared Tr using two conventional methods (measurement with a black-globe thermometer and a radiative "view factor" approach) and two methods based on nude thermal manikins (a simple, schematic design from Wheldon and a multisegment, anthropometric device developed in our laboratory). By taking the Tr estimations for each method, we calculated metabolic heat production values by partitional calorimetry and then compared them with the values calculated from V(O2) and V(CO2) measured in 13 preterm neonates. Comparisons between the calculated and measured metabolic heat production values showed that the two conventional methods and Wheldon's manikin underestimated R, whereas when using the anthropomorphic thermal manikin, the simulated versus clinical difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is a need for a safety standard for measuring TR in a closed incubator. This standard should also make available estimating equations for all avenues of the neonate's heat exchange considering the metabolic heat production and the modifying influence of the thermal insulation provided by the diaper and by the mattress. Although thermal manikins appear to be particularly appropriate for measuring Tr, the current lack of standardized procedures limits their widespread use.

  16. Ecophysiological Changes in Microbial Mats Incubated in a Greenhouse Collaboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Brad; DesMarais, David J.; GarciaPichel, Ferran; Hogan, Mary; Jahnke, Linda; Keller, Richard M.; Miller, Scott R.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial mats are modern examples of the earliest microbial communities known. Among the best studied are microbial mats growing in hypersaline ponds managed for the production of salt by Exportadora de Sal, S.A. de C.V., Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. In May, 2001, we collected mats from Ponds 4 and 5 in this system and returned them to Ames Research Center, where they have been maintained for a period of over nine months. We report here on both the ecophysiological changes occurring in the mats over that period of time as well as the facility in which they were incubated. Mats (approximately 1 sq. meter total area) were incubated in a greenhouse facility modified to provide the mats with natural levels of visible and ultraviolet radiation as well as constantly flowing, temperature-controlled water. Two replicated treatments were maintained, a 'high salinity' treatment (about 120 ppt) and a 'low salinity' treatment (about 90 ppt). Rates of net biological activity (e.g., photosynthesis, respiration, trace gas production) in the mats were relatively constant over the several months, and were similar to rates of activity measured in the field. However, over the course of the incubation, mats in both treatments changed in physical appearance. The most obvious change was that mats in the higher salinity treatments developed a higher proportion of carotenoid pigments (relative to chlorophyll), resulting in a noticeably orange color in the high salinity mats. This trend is also seen in the natural salinity gradient present at the field site. Changes in the community composition of the mats, as assayed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), as well as biomarker compounds produced in the mats were also monitored. The degree to which the mats kept in the greenhouse changed from the originally collected mats, as well as differences between high and low salinity mats will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended

  17. Long-term manure carbon sequestration in soil simulated with the Daisy model on the basis of short-term incubation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Yubaraj Kumar; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on simulating the long-term soil carbon sequestration after application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle manure using the Daisy model. The model was parameterized and calibrated for soil carbon (C) release during a 247 days incubation study including a coarse...... application of the two manures (70 kg organic manure N ha-1 plus 90 kg mineral N ha-1) and compared with a mineral N reference (120 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Carbon retention in soil was related to the initial C in non-digested manure, and after 52 years of repeated manure application extra C retention was equivalent...

  18. A rumor transmission model with incubation in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianwen; Wu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a rumor transmission model with incubation period and constant recruitment in social networks. By carrying out an analysis of the model, we study the stability of rumor-free equilibrium and come to the local stable condition of the rumor equilibrium. We use the geometric approach for ordinary differential equations for showing the global stability of the rumor equilibrium. And when ℜ0 = 1, the new model occurs a transcritical bifurcation. Furthermore, numerical simulations are used to support the analysis. At last, some conclusions are presented.

  19. Surrogate Assisted Design Optimization of an Air Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Badhurshah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogates are cheaper to evaluate and assist in designing systems with lesser time. On the other hand, the surrogates are problem dependent and they need evaluation for each problem to find a suitable surrogate. The Kriging variants such as ordinary, universal, and blind along with commonly used response surface approximation (RSA model were used in the present problem, to optimize the performance of an air impulse turbine used for ocean wave energy harvesting by CFD analysis. A three-level full factorial design was employed to find sample points in the design space for two design variables. A Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes solver was used to evaluate the objective function responses, and these responses along with the design variables were used to construct the Kriging variants and RSA functions. A hybrid genetic algorithm was used to find the optimal point in the design space. It was found that the best optimal design was produced by the universal Kriging while the blind Kriging produced the worst. The present approach is suggested for renewable energy application.

  20. Love as a regulative ideal in surrogate decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestreet, Erica Lucast

    2014-10-01

    This discussion aims to give a normative theoretical basis for a "best judgment" model of surrogate decision making rooted in a regulative ideal of love. Currently, there are two basic models of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients: the "substituted judgment" model and the "best interests" model. The former draws on the value of autonomy and responds with respect; the latter draws on the value of welfare and responds with beneficence. It can be difficult to determine which of these two models is more appropriate for a given patient, and both approaches may seem inadequate for a surrogate who loves the patient. The proposed "best judgment" model effectively draws on the values incorporated in each of the traditional standards, but does so because these values are important to someone who loves a patient, since love responds to the patient as the specific person she is. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of gestational surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, N; Jadva, V; Kadam, K; Golombok, S

    2018-02-23

    How does the psychological well-being and prenatal bonding of Indian surrogates differ from a comparison group of mothers? Surrogates had higher levels of depression during pregnancy and post-birth, displayed lower emotional connection with the unborn baby, and greater care towards the healthy growth of the foetus, than the comparison group of mothers. Studies in the West have found that surrogates do not suffer long-term psychological harm. One study has shown that surrogates bond less with the foetus than expectant mothers. This study uses a prospective, longitudinal and cross-sectional design. Surrogates and a matched group of expectant mothers were seen twice, during 4-9 months of pregnancy and 4-6 months after the birth. Semi-structured interviews and standardized questionnaires were administered to 50 surrogates and 69 expectant mothers during pregnancy and 45 surrogates and 49 expectant mothers post-birth. All gestational surrogates were hosting pregnancies for international intended parents. Surrogates had higher levels of depression compared to the comparison group of mothers, during pregnancy and post-birth (P eating habits and were more likely to avoid unhealthy practices during pregnancy, than expectant mothers (P < 0.05). No associations were found between greater prenatal bonding and greater psychological distress during pregnancy or after relinquishment. All surrogates were recruited from one clinic in Mumbai, and thus the representativeness of this sample is not known. Also, the possibility of socially desirable responding from surrogates cannot be ruled out. As this is the first study of the psychological well-being of surrogates in low-income countries, the findings have important policy implications. Providing support and counselling to surrogates, especially during pregnancy, may alleviate some of the psychological problems faced by surrogates. This study was supported by the Wellcome Trust [097857/Z/11/Z] and Nehru Trust, Cambridge. K.K. is the

  2. Urethral and periurethral dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy: is there a convenient surrogate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucci, Joseph; Spadinger, Ingrid; Hilts, Michelle; Sidhu, Sabeena; Smith, Clarke; Keyes, Mira; Morris, W. James

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare two models for a surrogate urethra to be used for postimplant dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty men with a urinary catheter present at the time of postimplant computed tomographic imaging were studied. Urethral and periurethral volumes were defined as 5-mm and 10-mm diameter volumes, respectively. Three contours of each were used: one contour of the true urethra (and periurethra), and two surrogate models. The true volumes were centered on the catheter center. One surrogate model used volumes centered on the geometrical center of each prostate contour (centered surrogate). The other surrogate model was based on the average deviation of the true urethra from a reference line through the geometrical center of the axial midplane of the prostate (deviated surrogate). Maximum point doses and the D 10 , D 25 , D 50 , D 90 , V 100 , V 120 , and V 150 of the true and surrogate volumes were measured and compared (D n is the minimum dose [Gy] received by n% of the structure, and V m is the volume [%] of the structure that received m% of the prescribed dose) as well as the distances between the surrogate urethras and the true urethra. Results: Doses determined from both surrogate urethral and periurethral volumes were in good agreement with the true urethral and periurethral doses except in the superior third of the gland. The deviated surrogate provided a physically superior likeness to the true urethra. Certain dose-volume histogram (DVH)-based parameters could also be predicted reasonably well on the basis of the surrogates. Correlation coefficients ≥0.85 were seen for D 25 , D 50 , V 100 , V 120 , and V 150 for both models. All the other parameters had correlation coefficients in the range of 0.73 - 0.85. Conclusions: Both surrogate models predicted true urethral dosimetry reasonably well. It is recommended that the simpler deviated surrogate would be a more suitable surrogate for routine clinical practice

  3. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic programming approach for newborn's incubator humidity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattoura, D; Villon, P; Farges, G

    1998-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the human skin have been studied for a long time. A special interest has been shown in the water permeability of the premature infant's skin, which is known to be an important factor in the maintenance of a controlled water and heat balance. The rate of evaporative heat exchange between the skin surface of a very premature infant and the surrounding incubator air may be so high that evaporative heat loss alone may exceed the infant's total metabolic heat production. However, it has been demonstrated in several investigations published in recent years that basal evaporative water loss can be consistently reduced by increasing the ambient humidity. Nevertheless, the passive humidification system (water reservoir) used in most incubators cannot achieve high and steady humidity levels. In this paper, we propose an active humidification system. The algorithm is based on a combination of optimal control theory and dynamic programming approach. The relative-humidity (R.H.) regulation is performed in range of 35-90% at 33 degrees C with small oscillations (+/- 0.5% R.H.) around the reference value (i.e., prescribed R.H.).

  5. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A; Lu, Zhengfeng

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: 1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, 2) only the support tray included and 3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient.

  6. Ectoparasite Activity During Incubation Increases Microbial Growth on Avian Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, G; Martín-Gálvez, D; Ruiz-Castellano, C; Ruiz-Rodríguez, M; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Martín-Vivaldi, M; Soler, J J

    2018-01-13

    While direct detrimental effects of parasites on hosts are relatively well documented, other more subtle but potentially important effects of parasitism are yet unexplored. Biological activity of ectoparasites, apart from skin injuries and blood-feeding, often results in blood remains, or parasite faeces that accumulate and modify the host environment. In this way, ectoparasite activities and remains may increase nutrient availability that may favour colonization and growth of microorganisms including potential pathogens. Here, by the experimental addition of hematophagous flies (Carnus hemapterus, a common ectoparasite of birds) to nests of spotless starlings Sturnus unicolor during incubation, we explore this possible side effect of parasitism which has rarely, if ever, been investigated. Results show that faeces and blood remains from parasitic flies on spotless starling eggshells at the end of incubation were more abundant in experimental than in control nests. Moreover, eggshell bacterial loads of different groups of cultivable bacteria including potential pathogens, as well as species richness of bacteria in terms of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), were also higher in experimental nests. Finally, we also found evidence of a link between eggshell bacterial loads and increased embryo mortality, which provides indirect support for a bacterial-mediated negative effect of ectoparasitism on host offspring. Trans-shell bacterial infection might be one of the main causes of embryo death and, consequently, this hitherto unnoticed indirect effect of ectoparasitism might be widespread in nature and could affect our understanding of ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.

  7. Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator Program Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesky, Marcia [Optical Society of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-06

    The Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator was a scientific meeting held in Washington, DC on 6-8 November 2016. This Incubator provided unique and focused experiences and valuable opportunities to discuss advances, challenges and opportunities regarding this important area of research. Quantum optics and classical optics have coexisted for nearly a century as two distinct, but consistent descriptions of light in their respective domains. Recently, a number of detailed examinations of the structure of classical light beams have revealed that effects widely thought to be solely quantum in origin also have a place in classical optics. These new quantum-classical connections are informing classical optics in meaningful ways specifically by expanding understanding of optical coherence. Simultaneously, relationships discovered with classical light beams now also serve as a vehicle to illuminate concepts that no longer solely belong to the quantum realm. Interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement are a partial list of elementary notions that now appear to belong to both quantum and classical optics. The goal of this meeting was to bring emerging quantum-classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work would promote discussion and lead to a more unified understanding of optics.

  8. Hydrogeomorphology influences soil nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in floodplain wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Rybicki, Nancy B.

    2013-01-01

    Conceptual models of river–floodplain systems and biogeochemical theory predict that floodplain soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) mineralization should increase with hydrologic connectivity to the river and thus increase with distance downstream (longitudinal dimension) and in lower geomorphic units within the floodplain (lateral dimension). We measured rates of in situ soil net ammonification, nitrification, N, and P mineralization using monthly incubations of modified resin cores for a year in the forested floodplain wetlands of Difficult Run, a fifth order urban Piedmont river in Virginia, USA. Mineralization rates were then related to potentially controlling ecosystem attributes associated with hydrologic connectivity, soil characteristics, and vegetative inputs. Ammonification and P mineralization were greatest in the wet backswamps, nitrification was greatest in the dry levees, and net N mineralization was greatest in the intermediately wet toe-slopes. Nitrification also was greater in the headwater sites than downstream sites, whereas ammonification was greater in downstream sites. Annual net N mineralization increased with spatial gradients of greater ammonium loading to the soil surface associated with flooding, soil organic and nutrient content, and herbaceous nutrient inputs. Annual net P mineralization was associated negatively with soil pH and coarser soil texture, and positively with ammonium and phosphate loading to the soil surface associated with flooding. Within an intensively sampled low elevation flowpath at one site, sediment deposition during individual incubations stimulated mineralization of N and P. However, the amount of N and P mineralized in soil was substantially less than the amount deposited with sedimentation. In summary, greater inputs of nutrients and water and storage of soil nutrients along gradients of river–floodplain hydrologic connectivity increased floodplain soil nutrient mineralization rates.

  9. Visualizing the Stability of Char: Molecular- to Micron-scale Observations of Char Incubated in a Tropical Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, K. A.; Ramon, C.; Weber, P. K.; Torn, M. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Nico, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of pyrogenic materials (hereafter referred to as char) in terrestrial ecosystems is of interest both from a carbon cycle modelling perspective and a climate change mitigation standpoint. However, the fate of newly introduced char in soils remains unclear. Recent reviews attempting to summarize trends in char decomposition have come to differing conclusions, further stressing the complexity of factors dictating char stability in soils. The current dataset specifically addresses the stability of char additions to a tropical clay-rich soil, possible priming effects, and interactions among char, microbial communities and the mineral matrix. 13C- and 15N-labeled Acer rubrum(red maple) wood was combusted at 400°C and added to surface (0-10 cm) and subsurface (20-30 cm) soils from the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Soils were incubated for 13 and 345 days at 26°C. Following incubation, intact microaggregates were frozen and cryosectioned into thin sections of approximately 5 μm thickness and mounted on gold-coated quartz slides. Thin sections were examined by synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS). The combination of these μm to nm scale techniques allowed us to create corresponding spatial maps of native organic matter, char, and mineral phase distribution, track spatial variability in organic matter molecular structure, and dispersion of 13C and 15N isotopic labels. We present preliminary results indicating a high degree of stability of char in these wet tropical soils throughout the incubation period, suggesting that applied char may persist for long periods of time in similar soils.

  10. In vitro effects of pomegranate juice and pomegranate polyphenols on foodborne viral surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; Sangster, Mark Y; D'Souza, Doris H

    2010-12-01

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) has gained popularity because of its associated antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects against epidemiologically significant foodborne viruses have not been investigated. In the absence of culturable human noroviruses, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and MS2 (ssRNA) bacteriophage were used as foodborne viral surrogates. The aim of this research was to study the effects of PJ and pomegranate polyphenols (PP) on foodborne viral infectivity. Viruses at high (∼ 7 log(10) PFU/mL) or low (∼ 5 log(10) PFU/mL) titers were mixed with equal volumes of PJ, 8, 16, and 32 mg/mL of PP, or water (control) and incubated for 1 h at room temperature. Viral infectivity after treatments was evaluated using standardized plaque assays. PJ decreased the titer of FCV-F9, MNV-1, and MS2 by 2.56, 1.32, and 0.32 log(10) PFU/mL, respectively, for low titers and 1.20, 0.06, and 0.63 log(10) PFU/mL, respectively, for high titers. Interestingly, FCV-F9 was undetectable after exposure to the three tested PP solutions using both low and high titers. MNV-1 at low initial titers was reduced by 1.30, 2.11, and 3.61 log(10) PFU/mL and at high initial titers by 1.56, 1.48, and 1.54 log(10) PFU/mL with 4, 8, and 16 mg/mL of PP treatment, respectively. MS2 at low initial titers was reduced by 0.41, 0.45, and 0.93 log(10) PFU/mL and at high initial titers by 0.32, 0.41, and 0.72 log(10) PFU/mL after 4, 8, and 16 mg/mL of PP treatment, respectively. PJ and PP resulted in titer reductions of foodborne virus surrogates after 1 h exposure, showing promise for use in hurdle technologies and/or for therapeutic or preventive use. To suggest the use of PJ and PP as natural remedies for foodborne viral illness prevention, their mechanism of action against viral infectivity needs to be further investigated.

  11. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  12. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  13. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  14. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  15. Incubator weaning in preterm infants and associated practice variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, R; Kirkby, S; Turenne, W; Greenspan, J

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship of weight of preterm infants when first placed into an open crib with days to full oral feedings, growth velocity and length of stay (LOS), and to identify unwarranted variation in incubator weaning after adjusting for severity indices. A retrospective study using the ParadigmHealth neonatal database from 2003 to 2006 reviewed incubator weaning to an open crib in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants from 22 to weeks gestation. Primary outcome measurements included days to full oral (PO) feeding, weight gain from open crib to discharge and length of stay. Models were severity adjusted. To understand hospital practice variation, we also used a regression model to estimate the weight at open crib for the top 10 volume hospitals. In all 2908 infants met the inclusion criteria for the study. Their mean weight at open crib was 1850 g. On average every additional 100 g an infant weighed at the open crib was associated with increased time to full PO feeding by 0.8 days, decreased weight gained per day by 1 gram and increased LOS by 0.9 days. For the top 10 volume hospitals, severity variables alone accounted for 9% of the variation in weight at open crib, whereas the hospital in which the baby was treated accounted for an additional 19% of the variation. Even after controlling for severity, significant practice variation exists in weaning to an open crib, leading to potential delays in achieving full-volume oral feeds, decreased growth velocity and prolonged LOS.

  16. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL CERNE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CRITERIA INCUBATION SELECTION IN TECHNOLOGY BASED BUSINESSES : A STUDY IN INCUBATORS OF TECHNOLOGICAL BASE OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clobert Jefferson Passoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators are a great source of encouragement for innovative projects, enabling the development of new technologies, providing infrastructure, advice and support, which are key elements for the success of new business. The technology-based firm incubators (TBFs, which are 154 in Brazil. Each one of them has its own mechanism for the selection of the incubation companies. Because of the different forms of management of incubators, the business model CERNE - Reference Center for Support for New Projects - was created by Anprotec and Sebrae, in order to standardize procedures and promote the increase of chances for success in the incubations. The objective of this study is to propose selection criteria for the incubation, considering CERNE’s five dimensions and aiming to help on the decision-making in the assessment of candidate companies in a TBF incubator. The research was conducted from the public notices of 20 TBF incubators, where 38 selection criteria were identified and classified. Managers of TBF incubators validated 26 criteria by its importance via online questionnaires. As a result, favorable ratings were obtained to 25 of them. Only one criterion differed from the others, with a unfavorable rating.

  17. Effects of minerals on sporulation and heat resistance of Clostridium sporogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jae-Hyung; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Tang, Juming

    2008-12-10

    In this study, various mineral supplements, such as chloride salts (CaCl2, MgCl2, MnCl2, FeCl2 and KCl) supplying cations and calcium salts (CaCl2, CaCO3, CaSO4, Ca(OH)2 and CaHPO4) supplying anions, were tested if they could stimulate the sporulation of Clostridium sporogenes, a surrogate microorganism for C. botulinum. Of the cations tested, the addition of CaCl2 showed a slightly, but not significantly, greater increase in spore levels within 3 weeks of incubation, compared to that of the other cations. The optimum concentration of CaCl2 was 0.5%, which yielded nearly 10(4) CFU/ml of spores. Of the anions tested, CaCO3 promoted sporulation within one week, which was the most effective compound for promoting rapid sporulation among the minerals tested. CaSO4 produced a pattern of sporulation similar to that of CaCl2. While CaHPO4 resulted in the maximum production of spores after 4 weeks, Ca(OH)2 failed to induce sporulation. With an optimized concentration of 0.5% CaCO3, the spore yield was approximately 10(5) CFU/ml. The spores prepared in sporulation medium with CaCO3 (pH 5.0) had slightly, but not significantly, higher D values than those produced with CaCl2 (pH 5.0) at temperatures ranging from 113 to 121 degrees C. However, no significant differences were observed in Z values (both 10.76 degrees C). In a large scale spore production, D(121 degrees C) values of the spore crops prepared with CaCl2 and CaCO3 and resuspended in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) were found to be both 0.92 min. In conclusion, our data suggest that CaCO3 is highly effective in reducing sporulation time as well as enhancing heat resistance.

  18. Uncertainty quantification of squeal instability via surrogate modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, Amir; Ouyang, Huajiang; Bannister, Paul

    2015-08-01

    One of the major issues that car manufacturers are facing is the noise and vibration of brake systems. Of the different sorts of noise and vibration, which a brake system may generate, squeal as an irritating high-frequency noise costs the manufacturers significantly. Despite considerable research that has been conducted on brake squeal, the root cause of squeal is still not fully understood. The most common assumption, however, is mode-coupling. Complex eigenvalue analysis is the most widely used approach to the analysis of brake squeal problems. One of the major drawbacks of this technique, nevertheless, is that the effects of variability and uncertainty are not included in the results. Apparently, uncertainty and variability are two inseparable parts of any brake system. Uncertainty is mainly caused by friction, contact, wear and thermal effects while variability mostly stems from the manufacturing process, material properties and component geometries. Evaluating the effects of uncertainty and variability in the complex eigenvalue analysis improves the predictability of noise propensity and helps produce a more robust design. The biggest hurdle in the uncertainty analysis of brake systems is the computational cost and time. Most uncertainty analysis techniques rely on the results of many deterministic analyses. A full finite element model of a brake system typically consists of millions of degrees-of-freedom and many load cases. Running time of such models is so long that automotive industry is reluctant to do many deterministic analyses. This paper, instead, proposes an efficient method of uncertainty propagation via surrogate modelling. A surrogate model of a brake system is constructed in order to reproduce the outputs of the large-scale finite element model and overcome the issue of computational workloads. The probability distribution of the real part of an unstable mode can then be obtained by using the surrogate model with a massive saving of

  19. A new bone surrogate model for testing interbody device subsidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Anthony G; Aiyangar, Ameet K; Anderson, Paul A; Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn

    2011-07-15

    An in vitro biomechanical study investigating interbody device subsidence measures in synthetic vertebrae, polyurethane foam blocks, and human cadaveric vertebrae. To compare subsidence measures of bone surrogates with human vertebrae for interbody devices varying in size/placement. Bone surrogates are alternatives when human cadaveric vertebrae are unavailable. Synthetic vertebrae modeling cortices, endplates, and cancellous bone have been developed as an alternative to polyurethane foam blocks for testing interbody device subsidence. Indentors placed on the endplates of synthetic vertebrae, foam blocks, and human vertebrae were subjected to uniaxial compression. Subsidence, measured with custom-made extensometers, was evaluated for an indentor seated either centrally or peripherally on the endplate. Failure force and indentation stiffness were determined from force-displacement curves. Subsidence measures in human vertebrae varied with indentor placement: failure forces were higher and indentors subsided less with peripheral placement. Subsidence measures in foam blocks were insensitive to indentor size/placement; they were similar to human vertebrae for centrally placed but not for peripherally placed indentors. Although subsidence measures in synthetic vertebrae were sensitive to indentor size/placement, failure force and indentation stiffness were overestimated, and subsidence underestimated, for both centrally placed and peripherally placed indentors. The synthetic endplate correctly represented the human endplate geometry, and thus, failure force, stiffness, and subsidence in synthetic vertebrae were sensitive to indentor size/placement. However, the endplate was overly strong and thus synthetic vertebrae did not accurately model indentor subsidence in human cadaveric vertebrae. Foam blocks captured subsidence measures more accurately than synthetic vertebrae for centrally placed indentors, but because of their uniform density were not sufficiently robust to

  20. Performance of surrogate high-level waste glass in the presence of iron corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Pan, Y.M.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide release from a waste package (WP) is a series of processes that depend upon the composition and flux of groundwater contacting the waste-forms (WF); the corrosion rate of WP containers and internal components made of Alloy 22, 316L SS, 304L SS and carbon steel; the dissolution rate of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass and spent nuclear fuel (SNF); the solubility of radionuclides; and the retention of radionuclides in secondary mineral phases. In this study, forward reaction rate measurements were made on a surrogate HLW glass in the presence of FeCl 3 species. Results indicate that the forward reaction rate increases with an increase in the FeCl 3 concentration. The addition of FeCl 3 causes the drop in the pH due to hydrolysis of Fe 3+ ions in the solution. Results based on the radionuclide concentrations and dissolution rates for HLW glass and SNF indicate that the contribution from glass is similar to SNF at 75 deg C. (authors)

  1. Mobi-incubation user experience for rural entrepreneurs in emerging economies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chelule, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation has long been a successful economic development tool in developed and emerging economies. It helps entrepreneurs start businesses that remain sustainable. However, business incubation theory designed for developed countries...

  2. Surrogate based approaches to parameter inference in ocean models

    KAUST Repository

    Knio, Omar

    2016-01-06

    This talk discusses the inference of physical parameters using model surrogates. Attention is focused on the use of sampling schemes to build suitable representations of the dependence of the model response on uncertain input data. Non-intrusive spectral projections and regularized regressions are used for this purpose. A Bayesian inference formalism is then applied to update the uncertain inputs based on available measurements or observations. To perform the update, we consider two alternative approaches, based on the application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods or of adjoint-based optimization techniques. We outline the implementation of these techniques to infer dependence of wind drag, bottom drag, and internal mixing coefficients.

  3. Nutritive value of palm oil sludge fermentation by some incubation process

    OpenAIRE

    Bintang I.A.B; A.P Sinurat; T Purwadaria; T Pasaribu

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of fermented palm oil sludge (PaS) incubated with different ways towards metabolic digestibility on dry matter,true metabolizable energy (TME) and protein digestibilities. A completely randomized design was used. Treatments consisted of unfermented pas (control) and fermented pas with and without enzymatic incubation proces, two levels of incubation temperatures (28°C and 32°C) and three levels of incubation times (3, 4 and 5 days). The digestib...

  4. Diesel Surrogate Fuels for Engine Testing and Chemical-Kinetic Modeling: Compositions and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles J; Cannella, William J; Bays, J Timothy; Bruno, Thomas J; DeFabio, Kathy; Dettman, Heather D; Gieleciak, Rafal M; Huber, Marcia L; Kweon, Chol-Bum; McConnell, Steven S; Pitz, William J; Ratcliff, Matthew A

    2016-02-18

    The primary objectives of this work were to formulate, blend, and characterize a set of four ultralow-sulfur diesel surrogate fuels in quantities sufficient to enable their study in single-cylinder-engine and combustion-vessel experiments. The surrogate fuels feature increasing levels of compositional accuracy (i.e., increasing exactness in matching hydrocarbon structural characteristics) relative to the single target diesel fuel upon which the surrogate fuels are based. This approach was taken to assist in determining the minimum level of surrogate-fuel compositional accuracy that is required to adequately emulate the performance characteristics of the target fuel under different combustion modes. For each of the four surrogate fuels, an approximately 30 L batch was blended, and a number of the physical and chemical properties were measured. This work documents the surrogate-fuel creation process and the results of the property measurements.

  5. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  6. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N A

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  7. The influence of incubation on the formation of volatile bacterial metabolites in mastitis milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, K.A.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility to detect mastitis-causing pathogens based on their volatile metabolites was previously studied. In that study, the mastitis samples were incubated overnight. To minimize the total analysis time, no incubation, or a short incubation, would be preferred. We therefore investigated the

  8. Network brokers or hit makers? Analyzing the influence of incubation on start-up investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Van Weele, Marijn A.; Eveleens, Chris P.

    Incubators are a prominent way to support technology based start-ups. Yet, it remains unclear to what extent these incubators enhance start-up performance, nor is it known through which mechanisms this would occur. In this paper we test two mechanisms to explain the relationship between incubation

  9. Effects of egg position during late incubation on hatching parameters and chick quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de L.J.F.; Baller, L.; Wagenberg, van A.V.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2011-01-01

    Chicken eggs are commonly incubated for 17 to 18 d in setters, after which they are transferred to the hatchery for the last 3 to 4 d of incubation. Whereas eggs are positioned vertically with the air cell up during the first incubation phase, they are placed horizontally for the hatching phase. It

  10. Unpainting the black box : exploring mechanisms and practices of start-up incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Although incubators have become one of the most prominent instruments to stimulate the emergence and growth of start-ups, questions are being raised about their effectiveness. One major obstacle to evaluate the effectiveness of incubators is that the incubator remains a ‘black box’: the extant

  11. The representation of healthcare end users' perspectives by surrogates in healthcare decisions: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra; Robinson, Ian

    2009-12-01

    The representation of end users' perspectives in healthcare decisions requires involvement of their surrogates when the end users, i.e. certain patients, elderly people, children and people with disabilities, are unable to present their views. To review critical issues, and the advantages and disadvantages of involving surrogates in representing end users' perspectives in healthcare decisions. A systematic review of literature published in peer-reviewed journals from 1990 to 2005. Findings show that surrogates are used widely in health care and that they are necessary to represent end users' perspectives in healthcare decisions when the latter are unable to do so themselves. Critical issues in using surrogates include key ethical, social, cultural, legal and medico-technological factors; ascertaining the best interest of end users; potential conflict of interest; possible biased decisions and the burden on surrogates. The key advantage of surrogate involvement in healthcare decisions is their ability to represent end users' needs, values and wishes. The main disadvantages include potential discrepancies between the decisions and conclusions of surrogates and end users; the failure of surrogates to predict end users' preferences accurately and the lack of certainty that useful information will be obtained through the surrogacy process. This systematic review has revealed that the involvement of surrogates is an additional vital way to represent end users' perspectives in healthcare decisions where for a range of reasons their opinions are unable to be effectively ascertained. However, because of the heterogeneity of surrogates and end users, the selection of appropriate surrogates and deploying surrogate decisions require particularly careful consideration of their value in individual cases; thus, subsequent decision-making must be reviewed on a case-to-case basis to seek to ensure that the best interests, needs and wishes of the end user are fully and accurately

  12. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission.

  13. The effect of cranberry juice and cranberry proanthocyanidins on the infectivity of human enteric viral surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; Howell, Amy B; D'Souza, Doris H

    2010-06-01

    The effect of cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), MS2(ssRNA) bacteriophage, and phiX-174(ssDNA) bacteriophage was studied. Viruses at high (approximately 7 log(10) PFU/ml) or low (approximately 5 log(10) PFU/ml) titers were mixed with equal volumes of CJ, 0.30, 0.60, and 1.20 mg/ml final PAC concentration, or water and incubated for 1 h at room temperature. Viral infectivity after treatments was evaluated using standardized plaque assays. At low viral titers, FCV-F9 was undetectable after exposure to CJ or the three tested PAC solutions. MNV-1 was reduced by 2.06 log(10) PFU/ml with CJ, and 2.63, 2.75, and 2.95 log(10) PFU/ml with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml PAC, respectively. MS2 titers were reduced by 1.14 log(10) PFU/ml with CJ, and 0.55, 0.80, and 0.96 log(10) PFU/ml with 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml PAC, respectively. phi-X174 titers were reduced by 1.79 log(10) PFU/ml with CJ, and 1.95, 3.67, and 4.98 log(10) PFU/ml with PAC at 0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml, respectively. Experiments using high titers showed similar trends but with decreased effects. CJ and PAC show promise as natural antivirals that could potentially be exploited for foodborne viral illness treatment and prevention. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surrogate Parenthood Act 1988 (No. 65 of 1988), 6 October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This document contains provisions of the 1988 Queensland Australia Act prohibiting surrogate parenthood contracts. The Act defines "surrogate parent" and "prescribed contract" and prohibits the publication of any type of document which intends to induce a person to act as a surrogate parent, to seek such a person, or to state willingness to act as a surrogate. Offering to enter into a prescribed contract holds a penalty of 100 penalty units or three years' imprisonment or both. This Act applies if the offense occurs in Queensland or if the offender is normally a resident of Queensland, irrespective of where the offense occurs.

  15. Bayesian calibration of the Community Land Model using surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Jaideep; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Swiler, Laura Painton

    2014-02-01

    We present results from the Bayesian calibration of hydrological parameters of the Community Land Model (CLM), which is often used in climate simulations and Earth system models. A statistical inverse problem is formulated for three hydrological parameters, conditional on observations of latent heat surface fluxes over 48 months. Our calibration method uses polynomial and Gaussian process surrogates of the CLM, and solves the parameter estimation problem using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler. Posterior probability densities for the parameters are developed for two sites with different soil and vegetation covers. Our method also allows us to examine the structural error in CLM under two error models. We find that surrogate models can be created for CLM in most cases. The posterior distributions are more predictive than the default parameter values in CLM. Climatologically averaging the observations does not modify the parameters' distributions significantly. The structural error model reveals a correlation time-scale which can be used to identify the physical process that could be contributing to it. While the calibrated CLM has a higher predictive skill, the calibration is under-dispersive.

  16. Defining useful surrogates for user participation in online medical learning.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beddy, Peter

    2012-02-01

    "School for Surgeons" is a web-based distance learning program which provides online clinical-based tutorials to surgical trainees. Our aim was to determine surrogates of active participation and to assess the efficacy of methods to improve usage. Server logs of the 82 participants in the "School for Surgeons" were assessed for the two terms of the first year of the program. Data collected included total time online, mean session time, page requests, numbers of sessions online and the total number of assignments. An intervention regarding comparative peer usage patterns was delivered to the cohort between terms one and two. Of the 82 trainees enrolled, 83% (85% second term) logged into the program. Of all participants 88% (97% second term) submitted at least one assignment. Median submissions were four (eight second term) per trainee. Assignment submission closely correlated with number of sessions, total time online, downloads and page requests. Peer-based comparative feedback resulted in a significant increase in the number of assignments submitted (p < 0.01). Despite its recent introduction, "School for Surgeons" has a good participation rate. Assignment submission is a valid surrogate for usage. Students can be encouraged to move from passive observation to active participation in a virtual learning environment by providing structured comparative feedback ranking their performance.

  17. Surrogate modeling of joint flood risk across coastal watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Benjamin; Bedient, Philip

    2018-03-01

    This study discusses the development and performance of a rapid prediction system capable of representing the joint rainfall-runoff and storm surge flood response of tropical cyclones (TCs) for probabilistic risk analysis. Due to the computational demand required for accurately representing storm surge with the high-fidelity ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) hydrodynamic model and its coupling with additional numerical models to represent rainfall-runoff, a surrogate or statistical model was trained to represent the relationship between hurricane wind- and pressure-field characteristics and their peak joint flood response typically determined from physics based numerical models. This builds upon past studies that have only evaluated surrogate models for predicting peak surge, and provides the first system capable of probabilistically representing joint flood levels from TCs. The utility of this joint flood prediction system is then demonstrated by improving upon probabilistic TC flood risk products, which currently account for storm surge but do not take into account TC associated rainfall-runoff. Results demonstrate the source apportionment of rainfall-runoff versus storm surge and highlight that slight increases in flood risk levels may occur due to the interaction between rainfall-runoff and storm surge as compared to the Federal Emergency Management Association's (FEMAs) current practices.

  18. Imaging biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for drug development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Wolf S. [Global Medical Development Diagnostics, Schering AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    The employment of biomarkers (including imaging biomarkers, especially PET) in drug development has gained increasing attention during recent years. This has been partly stimulated by the hope that the integration of biomarkers into drug development programmes may be a means to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the drug development process by early identification of promising drug candidates - thereby counteracting the rising costs of drug development. More importantly, however, the interest in biomarkers for drug development is the logical consequence of recent advances in biosciences and medicine which are leading to target-specific treatments in the framework of ''personalised medicine''. A considerable proportion of target-specific drugs will show effects in subgroups of patients only. Biomarkers are a means to identify potential responders, or patient subgroups at risk for specific side-effects. Biomarkers are used in early drug development in the context of translational medicine to gain information about the drug's potential in different patient groups and disease states. The information obtained at this stage is mainly important for designing subsequent clinical trials and to identify promising drug candidates. Biomarkers in later phases of clinical development may - if properly validated - serve as surrogate endpoints for clinical outcomes. Regulatory agencies in the EU and the USA have facilitated the use of biomarkers early in the development process. The validation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints is part of FDA's ''critical path initiative''. (orig.)

  19. Surrogate reservoir models for CSI well probabilistic production forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Buitrago

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the construction and use of Surrogate Reservoir Models capable of accurately predicting cumulative oil production for every well stimulated with cyclic steam injection at any given time in a heavy oil reservoir in Mexico considering uncertain variables. The central composite experimental design technique was selected to capture the maximum amount of information from the model response with a minimum number of reservoir models simulations. Four input uncertain variables (the dead oil viscosity with temperature, the reservoir pressure, the reservoir permeability and oil sand thickness hydraulically connected to the well were selected as the ones with more impact on the initial hot oil production rate according to an analytical production prediction model. Twenty five runs were designed and performed with the STARS simulator for each well type on the reservoir model. The results show that the use of Surrogate Reservoir Models is a fast viable alternative to perform probabilistic production forecasting of the reservoir.

  20. Imaging biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for drug development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Wolf S.

    2006-01-01

    The employment of biomarkers (including imaging biomarkers, especially PET) in drug development has gained increasing attention during recent years. This has been partly stimulated by the hope that the integration of biomarkers into drug development programmes may be a means to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the drug development process by early identification of promising drug candidates - thereby counteracting the rising costs of drug development. More importantly, however, the interest in biomarkers for drug development is the logical consequence of recent advances in biosciences and medicine which are leading to target-specific treatments in the framework of ''personalised medicine''. A considerable proportion of target-specific drugs will show effects in subgroups of patients only. Biomarkers are a means to identify potential responders, or patient subgroups at risk for specific side-effects. Biomarkers are used in early drug development in the context of translational medicine to gain information about the drug's potential in different patient groups and disease states. The information obtained at this stage is mainly important for designing subsequent clinical trials and to identify promising drug candidates. Biomarkers in later phases of clinical development may - if properly validated - serve as surrogate endpoints for clinical outcomes. Regulatory agencies in the EU and the USA have facilitated the use of biomarkers early in the development process. The validation of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints is part of FDA's ''critical path initiative''. (orig.)

  1. Premixed flame chemistry of a gasoline primary reference fuel surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2017-03-10

    Investigating the combustion chemistry of gasoline surrogate fuels promises to improve detailed reaction mechanisms used for simulating their combustion. In this work, the combustion chemistry of one of the simplest, but most frequently used gasoline surrogates – primary reference fuel 84 (PRF 84, 84 vol% iso-octane and 16 vol% n-heptane), has been examined in a stoichiometric premixed laminar flame. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron light source for species photoionization was used. Reactants, major end-products, stable intermediates, free radicals, and isomeric species were detected and quantified. Numerical simulations were conducted using a detailed chemical kinetic model with the most recently available high temperature sub-mechanisms for iso-octane and heptane, built on the top of an updated pentane isomers model and AramcoMech 2.0 (C0C4) base chemistry. A detailed interpretation of the major differences between the mechanistic pathways of both fuel components is given. A comparison between the experimental and numerical results is depicted and rate of production and sensitivity analyses are shown for the species with considerable disagreement between the experimental and numerical findings.

  2. The effectiveness of surrogate taxa to conserve freshwater biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David R.; Underwood, Zachary E.; Rahel, Frank J.; Walters, Annika W.

    2018-01-01

    Establishing protected areas has long been an effective conservation strategy, and is often based on more readily surveyed species. The potential of any freshwater taxa to be a surrogate of other aquatic groups has not been fully explored. We compiled occurrence data on 72 species of freshwater fish, amphibians, mussels, and aquatic reptiles for the Great Plains, Wyoming. We used hierarchical Bayesian multi-species mixture models and MaxEnt models to describe species distributions, and program Zonation to identify conservation priority areas for each aquatic group. The landscape-scale factors that best characterized aquatic species distributions differed among groups. There was low agreement and congruence among taxa-specific conservation priorities (<20%), meaning that no surrogate priority areas would include or protect the best habitats of other aquatic taxa. We found that common, wide-ranging aquatic species were included in taxa-specific priority areas, but rare freshwater species were not included. Thus, the development of conservation priorities based on a single freshwater aquatic group would not protect all species in the other aquatic groups.

  3. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, David Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-13

    The actinide engineering and science group (MET-1) have completed simultaneous thermal analysis and offgas analysis by mass spectrometry (STA-MS) of remediated nitrate salt (RNS) surrogates formulated by the high explosives science and technology group (M-7). The 1.0 to 1.5g surrogate samples were first analyzed as received, then a new set was analyzed with 100-200mL 10M HNO3 +0.3 MHF added, and a third set was analyzed after 200 mL of a concentrated Pu-AM spike (in 10M HNO3 +0.3 MHF) was added. The acid and spike solutions were formulated by the actinide analytical chemistry group (C-AAC) using reagent-grade HNO3 and HF, which was also used to dissolve a small quantity of mixed, high-fired PuO2/ AmO2 oxide.

  4. Mineralization and carbon turnover in subarctic heath soil as affected by warming and additional litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Michelsen, Anders; Baath, Erland

    2007-01-01

    was to assess how factorial warming and litter addition in a long-term field experiment on a subarctic heath affect resource limitation of soil microbial communities (measured by thymidine and leucine incorporation techniques), net growing-season mineralization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and carbon...... the field incubation. The added litter did not affect the carbon content, but it was a source of nutrients to the soil, and it also tended to increase bacterial growth rate and net mineralization of P. The inorganic N pool decreased during the field incubation of soil cores, especially in the separate...... warming and litter addition treatments, while gross mineralized N was immobilized in the biomass of microbes and plants transplanted into the incubates soil cores, but without any significant effect of the treatments. The effects of warming plus litter addition on bacterial growth rates and of warming...

  5. Continuous measurements of nitrous oxide isotopomers during incubation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malte; Balslev-Harder, David; Christensen, Søren; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Crosson, Eric; Blunier, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important and strong greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. It is produced by microbes during nitrification and denitrification in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The main sinks for N2O are turnover by denitrification and photolysis and photo-oxidation in the stratosphere. In the linear N = N = O molecule 15N substitution is possible in two distinct positions: central and terminal. The respective molecules, 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O, are called isotopomers. It has been demonstrated that N2O produced by nitrifying or denitrifying microbes exhibits a different relative abundance of the isotopomers. Therefore, measurements of the site preference (difference in the abundance of the two isotopomers) in N2O can be used to determine the source of N2O, i.e., nitrification or denitrification. Recent instrument development allows for continuous position-dependent δ15N measurements at N2O concentrations relevant for studies of atmospheric chemistry. We present results from continuous incubation experiments with denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens (producing and reducing N2O) and Pseudomonas chlororaphis (only producing N2O). The continuous measurements of N2O isotopomers reveals the transient isotope exchange among KNO3, N2O, and N2. We find bulk isotopic fractionation of -5.01 ‰ ± 1.20 for P. chlororaphis, in line with previous results for production from denitrification. For P. fluorescens, the bulk isotopic fractionation during production of N2O is -52.21 ‰ ± 9.28 and 8.77 ‰ ± 4.49 during N2O reduction.The site preference (SP) isotopic fractionation for P. chlororaphis is -3.42 ‰ ± 1.69. For P. fluorescens, the calculations result in SP isotopic fractionation values of 5.73 ‰ ± 5.26 during production of N2O and 2.41 ‰ ± 3.04 during reduction of N2O. In summary, we implemented continuous measurements of N2O isotopomers during incubation of denitrifying bacteria and believe that similar experiments will lead to a better

  6. Fostering Entrepreneurship through Business Incubation: The Role and Prospects of Postsecondary Vocational-Technical Education. Report 1: Survey of Business Incubator Clients and Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Gantes, Victor M.; And Others

    A national survey examined the collective experiences of entrepreneurs, business incubator managers, and postsecondary institutions involved in educational and training strategies aimed at fostering entrepreneurship. The sample included incubators sponsored by universities (n=75), two-year colleges (n=25), and other sources (n=100). The survey…

  7. Magnetic susceptibilities of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sam; Brownfield, I.K.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic separation of minerals is a topic that is seldom reported in the literature for two reasons. First, separation data generally are byproducts of other projects; and second, this study requires a large amount of patience and is unusually tedious. Indeed, we suspect that most minerals probably are never investigated for this property. These data are timesaving for mineralogists who concentrate mono-mineralic fractions for chemical analysis, age dating, and for other purposes. The data can certainly be used in the ore-beneficiation industries. In some instances, magnetic-susceptibility data may help in mineral identification, where other information is insufficient. In past studies of magnetic separation of minerals, (Gaudin and Spedden, 1943; Tille and Kirkpatrick, 1956; Rosenblum, 1958; Rubinstein and others, 1958; Flinter, 1959; Hess, 1959; Baker, 1962; Meric and Peyre, 1963; Rojas and others, 1965; and Duchesne, 1966), the emphasis has been on the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic ranges of extraction. For readers interested in the history of magnetic separation of minerals, Krumbein and Pettijohn (1938, p. 344-346) indicated nine references back to 1848. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the magnetic-susceptibility data on as many minerals as possible, similar to tables of hardness, specific gravity, refractive indices, and other basic physical properties of minerals. A secondary purpose is to demonstrate that the total and best extraction ranges are influenced by the chemistry of the minerals. The following notes are offered to help avoid problems in separating a desired mineral concentrate from mixtures of mineral grains.

  8. Effectiveness of an acoustical product in reducing high-frequency sound within unoccupied incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellam, Barbara; Bhatia, Jatinder

    2009-08-01

    Few noise measurement studies in the neonatal intensive care unit have reported sound frequencies within incubators. Sound frequencies within incubators are markedly different from sound frequencies within the gravid uterus. This article reports the results of sound spectral analysis (SSA) within unoccupied incubators under control and treatment conditions. SSA indicated that acoustical foam panels (treatment condition) markedly reduced sound frequencies > or =500 Hz when compared with the control condition. The main findings of this study (a) illustrate the need to monitor high-frequency sound within incubators and (b) indicate one method to reduce atypical sound exposure within incubators.

  9. Sound Environments Surrounding Preterm Infants Within an Occupied Closed Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Aya; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants often exhibit functional disorders due to the stressful environment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The sound pressure level (SPL) in the NICU is often much higher than the levels recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Our study aims to describe the SPL and sound frequency levels surrounding preterm infants within closed incubators that utilize high frequency oscillation (HFO) or nasal directional positive airway pressure (nasal-DPAP) respiratory settings. This is a descriptive research study of eight preterm infants (corrected ageincubator. The actual noise levels were observed and the results were compared to the recommendations made by neonatal experts. Increased noise levels, which have reported to affect neonates' ability to self-regulate, could increase the risk of developing attention deficit disorder, and may result in tachycardia, bradycardia, increased intracranial pressure, and hypoxia. The care provider should closely assess for adverse effects of higher sound levels generated by different modes of respiratory support and take measures to ensure that preterm infants are protected from exposure to noise exceeding the optimal safe levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyzing the Dynamics of a Rumor Transmission Model with Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang'an Huo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a rumor transmission model with incubation that incorporates constant recruitment and has infectious force in the latent period and infected period. By carrying out a global analysis of the model and studying the stability of the rumor-free equilibrium and the rumor-endemic equilibrium, we use the geometric approach for ordinary differential equations which is based on the use of higher-order generalization of Bendixson’s criterion. It shows that either the number of rumor infective individuals tends to zero as time evolves or the rumor persists. We prove that the transcritical bifurcation occurs at R0 crosses the bifurcation threshold R0=1 by projecting the flow onto the extended center manifold. Since the rumor endemic level at the equilibrium is a continuous function of R0, as a consequence for successful eradication of the rumor, one should simply reduce R0 continuously below the threshold value 1. Finally, the obtained results are numerically validated and then discussed from both the mathematical and the sociological perspectives.

  11. Rethinking the extrinsic incubation period of malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Johanna R; Baldini, Francesco; Barreaux, Priscille; Lefevre, Thierry; Lynch, Penelope A; Suh, Eunho; Whitehead, Shelley A; Thomas, Matthew B

    2018-03-12

    The time it takes for malaria parasites to develop within a mosquito, and become transmissible, is known as the extrinsic incubation period, or EIP. EIP is a key parameter influencing transmission intensity as it combines with mosquito mortality rate and competence to determine the number of mosquitoes that ultimately become infectious. In spite of its epidemiological significance, data on EIP are scant. Current approaches to estimate EIP are largely based on temperature-dependent models developed from data collected on parasite development within a single mosquito species in the 1930s. These models assume that the only factor affecting EIP is mean environmental temperature. Here, we review evidence to suggest that in addition to mean temperature, EIP is likely influenced by genetic diversity of the vector, diversity of the parasite, and variation in a range of biotic and abiotic factors that affect mosquito condition. We further demonstrate that the classic approach of measuring EIP as the time at which mosquitoes first become infectious likely misrepresents EIP for a mosquito population. We argue for a better understanding of EIP to improve models of transmission, refine predictions of the possible impacts of climate change, and determine the potential evolutionary responses of malaria parasites to current and future mosquito control tools.

  12. Business Incubation as an Instrument of Innovation: The Experience of South America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the experience of business incubation as an innovative developmental instrument based on the recent experience of the South American countries of Brazil and Chile and the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. A qualitative research method was adopted involving a review of published reports, journal articles and relevant case studies; and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with incubator managerial staff. The major findings are that there are great similarities among the incubators studied in terms of their links to universities, services offered, and funding challenges, but there is growing acceptance of incubation as a potentially valid tool for promoting business development and innovation although most incubators are at the early stage. The paper is original because the case study application to incubation in Trinidad and Tobago is new with only one related article published, and this study therefore adds value to the body of research because business incubation has been under-researched in the study area. The research is limited to the extent that the case study focuses on a comparison of selected incubator features and did not include the views of clients. The practical implications of this study is that sponsors of incubators and managers need to obtain a deeper understanding of the incubation ecosystem especially with regard to innovation-based incubators, if successful innovative businesses are to emerge. The results of the study can also be generalized over the small island developing states of the Caribbean.

  13. Decisions for the IVF laboratory: comparative analysis of embryo culture incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jason E

    2014-05-01

    Incubators in the IVF laboratory play a pivotal role in providing a stable and appropriate culture environment required for optimizing embryo development and clinical outcomes. With technological advances, several types of incubators are now available and careful consideration is required for selection. Examination of variables, such as recovery/stabilization of temperature, gas atmosphere and humidity, as well as understanding various approaches utilized by each device to regulate these variables, is critical. Additionally, a comprehensive examination of clinical studies that compare various incubators may provide insight into their efficacy. Other factors, both technical and practical, must also be considered when selecting an incubator. Importantly, proper management, including patient volume and workflow, is paramount in optimizing function of any incubator, regardless of the technology incorporated. This review highlights incubator function and reviews key environmental variables controlled and the technology utilized in various units. Additionally, existing comparative studies focused on incubator recovery and clinical outcomes are critically analysed. Finally, strategies employed for incubator management, as well as future potential incubator improvements are discussed. While existing reports indicate that smaller benchtop/topload incubators provide faster recovery of environmental variables, there is no clear advantage of any particular incubator based on clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritive value of palm oil sludge fermentation by some incubation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintang I.A.B

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of fermented palm oil sludge (PaS incubated with different ways towards metabolic digestibility on dry matter,true metabolizable energy (TME and protein digestibilities. A completely randomized design was used. Treatments consisted of unfermented pas (control and fermented pas with and without enzymatic incubation proces, two levels of incubation temperatures (28°C and 32°C and three levels of incubation times (3, 4 and 5 days. The digestibility studies were carried out in 46 layer. The results showed that the dry matter digestibility of P_S was not significantly affected by fermentation process neither by incubation times. TME was not affected by fermentation process and incubation times, but it was significantly affected by incubation temperatures during fennentation (P<0,05. Incubation temperatures at 3rC more significant than 28°C. Enzimatic process was more significant than without enzimatic process. True metabolizable energy was highly significantly affected by enzimatic process (Pincubation process (Pincubation. It was concluded that fermentation process could improve the digestibility of palm oil sludge (paS. The best result obtained from incubation at 32°C for 3 days and continued by enzimatic process.

  15. Nitrogen dynamics in stream wood samples incubated with [14C]lignocellulose and potassium[15N]nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumen, N.G.; Bottomley, P.J.; Gregory, S.V.

    1985-01-01

    Surface wood samples obtained from a Douglas fir log incubated in vitro with [ 14 C]lignocellulose in a defined mineral salts medium supplemented with 10 mg of N liter -1 of 15 N-labeled NO 3 - (50 atom % 15 N). Evolution of 14 CO 2 , distribution and isotopic dilution of 15 N, filtrate N concentrations, and the rates of denitrification, N 2 fixation, and respiration were measured at 6, 12, and 18 days of incubation. The organic N content of the lignocellulose-wood sample mixture had increased from 132 μg of N to a maximum of 231 μg of N per treatment after 6 days of incubation. Rates of [ 14 C]lignocellulose decomposition were greatest during the first 6 days and then began to decline over the remaining 12 days. Total CO 2 evolution was also highest at day 6 and declined steadily over the remaining duration of the incubation. Filtrate NH 4 + -N increased from background levels to a final value of 57 μg of N per treatment. Filtrate NO 3 - N completely disappeared by day 6, and organic N showed a slight decline between days 12 and 18. The majority of the 15 N that could be recovered appeared in the particulate organic fraction by day 6 (41 μg of N), and the filtrate NH 4 + N fraction contained 11 μg of 15 N by day 18. The 15 N enrichment values of the filtrate NH 4 + and the inorganic N associated with the particulate fraction had increased to approximately 20 atom % 15 N by 18 days of incubation, whereas the particulate organic fraction reached its highest enrichment by day 6. Measurements of N 2 fixation and denitrification indicated an insignificant gain or loss of N from the experimental system by these processes. The data show that woody debris in stream ecosystems might function as a rapid and efficient sink for exogenous N, resulting in stimulation of wood decomposition and subsequent activation of other N cycling processes

  16. Experimental investigation on phase change materials as heating element for non-electric neonatal incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matahari, Rho Natta; Putra, Nandy; Ariantara, Bambang; Amin, Muhammad; Prawiro, Erwin

    2017-02-01

    High number of preterm births is one of the issues in improving health standard. The effort to help premature babies is hampered by high cost of NICU care in hospital. In addition, uneven distribution of electricity to remote area made it hard to operate the incubator. Utilization of phase change material beeswax to non-electricity incubator as heating element becomes alternative option to save premature babies. The objective of this experiment is to investigate the most efficient mass of beeswax according to Indonesian National Standard to earn over time and ideal temperature of incubator. Experiment was performed using prototype incubator, which utilizes natural convection phenomenon in the heating process of incubator. Utilization of fin is to accelerate heat distribution in the incubator. Result of experiment showed that the most efficient mass of PCM is 3 kg, which has 2.45 hours of running time for maintaining temperature of incubator in range of 32-36 °C.

  17. Improved fluid management utilizing humidified incubators in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M S; Wright, K; Lorch, K; Lorch, V; Walker, E

    2001-01-01

    To compare fluid and electrolyte management in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants nursed in humidified versus nonhumidified incubators. Setting--tertiary intensive care nursery. Subjects--all infants with birth weight incubators and survived for > 96 hours (N = 155). Intervention--retrospective comparison of daily weights, fluid intakes, urine outputs, and serum electrolytes between group 1 (n = 70, nonhumidified incubators, born 1/95 to 1/97) and group 2 (n = 85, humidified incubators, born 1/97 to 1/99) over the first 4 days after birth. Despite similar daily weight losses between groups, group 1 infants received higher fluid intakes, had lower urine outputs, and had a higher incidence of hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and azotemia (p incubators. ELBW weight infants nursed in humidified incubators have lower fluid requirements, improved electrolyte balance, and higher urine outputs during the first 4 days after birth compared to those nursed in nonhumidified incubators.

  18. Mineralization of detrital lignocelluloses by salt marsh sediment microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccubbin, A E; Hodson, R E

    1980-10-01

    Specifically radiolabeled C-(cellulose)-lignocellulose and C-(lignin)-lignocellulose were isolated from labeled cuttings of Spartina alterniflora (cordgrass) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine). These were used to estimate the rates of mineralization to CO(2) of lignocelluloses of estuarine and terrestrial origin in salt marsh estuarine sediments. The lignin moiety of pine lignocellulose was mineralized 10 to 14 times more slowly than that of Spartina lignocellulose, depending on the source of inoculum. Average values for percent mineralization after 835 h of incubation were 1.4 and 13.9%, respectively. For Spartina lignocellulose, mineralization of the cellulose moiety was three times faster than that of the lignin moiety. Average values for percent mineralization after 720 h of incubation were 32.1 and 10.6%, respectively. Lignocellulose and lignin contents of live pine and Spartina plants were analyzed and found to be 60.7 and 20.9%, respectively, for pine and 75.6 and 15.1%, respectively, for Spartina.

  19. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  20. On the vicissitudes of early primary surrogate mothering II: loss of the surrogate mother and arrest of mourning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, H T; Hardin, D H

    2000-01-01

    Among the catastrophic events experienced by infants and young children, one of the most frequent is the loss of an early primary surrogate mother (EPSM). Usually permanent, the loss is often followed by the advent of a new, "replacement" caregiver. One aspect of the emotional environment is unique to this kind of caregiving situation: that parents are often unable to validate the true nature of their child's relationship with the EPSM or, ultimately, the trauma experienced by the child when the EPSM leaves. The marked discrepancy between the parent's and the infant or child's experience of the surrogate mothering leads to an arrest of the child's mourning process, with the potential for serious developmental consequences. Issues related to EPSM loss and its aftermath are examined in the light of two examples. Further exploration of the environment of this kind of caregiving directs attention to the critical need to nurture and protect the attachments of both the infant or child and the parent to the ESPM.

  1. Nitrogen mineralization from sheep faeces can be predicted from the apparent digestibility of the feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, P.; Sørensen, P.; Møller, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is difficult to predict plant availability of N in faeces because most faecal N is bound in organic form. In this study the influence of diet and faeces composition on mineralization of sheep faeces in soil were investigated. Net mineralization of C and N from 16 different samples of sheep...... faeces originating from sheep fed different known diets was studied after incubation in a sandy soil. After 4 weeks net mineralization of N ranged from -41 to 9% of faeces N and after 12 weeks -28 to 43% was net mineralized. Mineralization was related to different feed and faeces characteristics...... of the mineralization of sheep faeces N in soil based on chemical analyses of the feed. However, when using a biological measure of the feed quality (apparent digestibility) a robust prediction of faeces N mineralization was possible....

  2. Critical care physicians’ approaches to negotiating with surrogate decision makers: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, David R.; Brown, Crystal E.; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how critical care physicians manage conflicts with surrogates about withdrawing or withholding patients’ life support. Design Qualitative analysis of key informant interviews with critical care physicians during 2010. We transcribed interviews verbatim and used grounded theory to code and revise a taxonomy of themes and to identify illustrative quotes. Setting 3 academic medical centers, 1 academic-affiliated medical center and 4 private practice groups or private hospitals in a large Midwestern city Subjects 14 critical care physicians Measurements and main results Physicians reported tailoring their approach to address specific reasons for disagreement with surrogates. Five common approaches were identified: (1) building trust, (2) educating and informing, (3) providing surrogates more time, (4) adjusting surrogate and physician roles, and (5) highlighting specific values. When mistrust was an issue, physicians endeavored to build a more trusting relationship with the surrogate before re-addressing decision making. Physicians also reported correcting misunderstandings by providing targeted education, and some reported highlighting specific patient, surrogate, or physician values that they hoped would guide surrogates to agree with them. When surrogates struggled with decision making roles, physicians attempted to reinforce the concept of substituted judgment. Physicians noted that some surrogates needed time to “come to terms” with the patent’s illness before agreeing with physicians. Many physicians had witnessed colleagues negotiate in ways they found objectionable, such as providing misleading information, injecting their own values into the negotiation, or behaving unprofessionally towards surrogates. While some physicians viewed their efforts to encourage surrogates’ agreement as persuasive, others strongly denied persuading surrogates and described their actions as “guiding” or “negotiating.” Conclusions Physicians

  3. Factors for Microbial Carbon Sources in Organic and Mineral Soils from Eastern United States Deciduous Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, Caroline R. [Mills College, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    Forest soils represent a large portion of global terrestrial carbon; however, which soil carbon sources are used by soil microbes and respired as carbon dioxide (CO2) is not well known. This study will focus on characterizing microbial carbon sources from organic and mineral soils from four eastern United States deciduous forests using a unique radiocarbon (14C) tracer. Results from the dark incubation of organic and mineral soils are heavily influenced by site characteristics when incubated at optimal microbial activity temperature. Sites with considerable differences in temperature, texture, and location differ in carbon source attribution, indicating that site characteristics play a role in soil respiration.

  4. Time-Frequency Learning Machines for Nonstationarity Detection Using Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgnat, Pierre; Flandrin, Patrick; Richard, Cédric; Ferrari, André; Amoud, Hassan; Honeine, Paul

    2012-03-01

    Time-frequency representations provide a powerful tool for nonstationary signal analysis and classification, supporting a wide range of applications [12]. As opposed to conventional Fourier analysis, these techniques reveal the evolution in time of the spectral content of signals. In Ref. [7,38], time-frequency analysis is used to test stationarity of any signal. The proposed method consists of a comparison between global and local time-frequency features. The originality is to make use of a family of stationary surrogate signals for defining the null hypothesis of stationarity and, based upon this information, to derive statistical tests. An open question remains, however, about how to choose relevant time-frequency features. Over the last decade, a number of new pattern recognition methods based on reproducing kernels have been introduced. These learning machines have gained popularity due to their conceptual simplicity and their outstanding performance [30]. Initiated by Vapnik’s support vector machines (SVM) [35], they offer now a wide class of supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms. In Ref. [17-19], the authors have shown how the most effective and innovative learning machines can be tuned to operate in the time-frequency domain. This chapter follows this line of research by taking advantage of learning machines to test and quantify stationarity. Based on one-class SVM, our approach uses the entire time-frequency representation and does not require arbitrary feature extraction. Applied to a set of surrogates, it provides the domain boundary that includes most of these stationarized signals. This allows us to test the stationarity of the signal under investigation. This chapter is organized as follows. In Section 22.2, we introduce the surrogate data method to generate stationarized signals, namely, the null hypothesis of stationarity. The concept of time-frequency learning machines is presented in Section 22.3, and applied to one-class SVM in order

  5. Error modeling for surrogates of dynamical systems using machine learning: Machine-learning-based error model for surrogates of dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trehan, Sumeet; Carlberg, Kevin T.; Durlofsky, Louis J.

    2017-01-01

    A machine learning–based framework for modeling the error introduced by surrogate models of parameterized dynamical systems is proposed. The framework entails the use of high-dimensional regression techniques (eg, random forests, and LASSO) to map a large set of inexpensively computed “error indicators” (ie, features) produced by the surrogate model at a given time instance to a prediction of the surrogate-model error in a quantity of interest (QoI). This eliminates the need for the user to hand-select a small number of informative features. The methodology requires a training set of parameter instances at which the time-dependent surrogate-model error is computed by simulating both the high-fidelity and surrogate models. Using these training data, the method first determines regression-model locality (via classification or clustering) and subsequently constructs a “local” regression model to predict the time-instantaneous error within each identified region of feature space. We consider 2 uses for the resulting error model: (1) as a correction to the surrogate-model QoI prediction at each time instance and (2) as a way to statistically model arbitrary functions of the time-dependent surrogate-model error (eg, time-integrated errors). We then apply the proposed framework to model errors in reduced-order models of nonlinear oil-water subsurface flow simulations, with time-varying well-control (bottom-hole pressure) parameters. The reduced-order models used in this work entail application of trajectory piecewise linearization in conjunction with proper orthogonal decomposition. Moreover, when the first use of the method is considered, numerical experiments demonstrate consistent improvement in accuracy in the time-instantaneous QoI prediction relative to the original surrogate model, across a large number of test cases. When the second use is considered, results show that the proposed method provides accurate statistical predictions of the time- and well

  6. The Incubation Period of Buruli Ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiano, Jason A.; Lavender, Caroline J.; Fyfe, Janet A. M.; Bittmann, Simone; Johnson, Paul D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Buruli Ulcer (BU) is caused by the environmental microbe Mycobacterium ulcerans. Despite unclear transmission, contact with a BU endemic region is the key known risk factor. In Victoria, Australia, where endemic areas have been carefully mapped, we aimed to estimate the Incubation Period (IP) of BU by interviewing patients who reported defined periods of contact with an endemic area prior to BU diagnosis. Method A retrospective review was undertaken of 408 notifications of BU in Victoria from 2002 to 2012. Telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire and review of notification records were performed. Patients with a single visit exposure to a defined endemic area were included and the period from exposure to disease onset determined (IP). Results We identified 111 of 408 notified patients (27%) who had a residential address outside a known endemic area, of whom 23 (6%) reported a single visit exposure within the previous 24 months. The median age of included patients was 30 years (range: 6 to 73) and 65% were male. 61% had visited the Bellarine Peninsula, currently the most active endemic area. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 71 days (range: 34–204 days). The midpoint of the reported IP range was utilized to calculate a point estimate of the IP for each case. Subsequently, the mean IP for the cohort was calculated at 135 days (IQR: 109–160; CI 95%: 113.9–156), corresponding to 4.5 months or 19.2 weeks. The shortest IP recorded was 32 days and longest 264 days (Figure 1 & 2). IP did not vary for variables investigated. Conclusions The estimated mean IP of BU in Victoria is 135 days (IQR: 109–160 days), 4.5 months. The shortest recorded was IP 34 days and longest 264 days. A greater understanding of BU IP will aid clinical risk assessment and future research. PMID:24098820

  7. The incubation period of Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Trubiano

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Buruli Ulcer (BU is caused by the environmental microbe Mycobacterium ulcerans. Despite unclear transmission, contact with a BU endemic region is the key known risk factor. In Victoria, Australia, where endemic areas have been carefully mapped, we aimed to estimate the Incubation Period (IP of BU by interviewing patients who reported defined periods of contact with an endemic area prior to BU diagnosis. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken of 408 notifications of BU in Victoria from 2002 to 2012. Telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire and review of notification records were performed. Patients with a single visit exposure to a defined endemic area were included and the period from exposure to disease onset determined (IP. RESULTS: We identified 111 of 408 notified patients (27% who had a residential address outside a known endemic area, of whom 23 (6% reported a single visit exposure within the previous 24 months. The median age of included patients was 30 years (range: 6 to 73 and 65% were male. 61% had visited the Bellarine Peninsula, currently the most active endemic area. The median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 71 days (range: 34-204 days. The midpoint of the reported IP range was utilized to calculate a point estimate of the IP for each case. Subsequently, the mean IP for the cohort was calculated at 135 days (IQR: 109-160; CI 95%: 113.9-156, corresponding to 4.5 months or 19.2 weeks. The shortest IP recorded was 32 days and longest 264 days (Figure 1 & 2. IP did not vary for variables investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated mean IP of BU in Victoria is 135 days (IQR: 109-160 days, 4.5 months. The shortest recorded was IP 34 days and longest 264 days. A greater understanding of BU IP will aid clinical risk assessment and future research.

  8. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of parietal bone surrogates for parietal graft lift training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollensteiner Marianne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently the surgical training of parietal bone graft techniques is performed on patients or specimens. Commercially available bone models do not deliver realistic haptic feedback. Thus customized parietal skull surrogates were developed for surgical training purposes. Two human parietal bones were used as reference. Based on the measurement of insertion forces of drilling, milling and saw procedures suitable material compositions for molding cortical and cancellous calvarial layers were found. Artificial skull caps were manufactured and tested. Additionally microtomograpy images of human and artificial parietal bones were performed to analyze outer table and diploe thicknesses. Significant differences between human and artificial skulls were not detected with the mechanical procedures tested. Highly significant differences were found for the diploe thickness values. In conclusion, an artificial bone has been created, mimicking the properties of human parietal bone thus being suitable for tabula externa graft lift training.

  10. Making fire and fire surrogate science available: a summary of regional workshops with clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Youngblood; Heidi Bigler-Cole; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl Fiedler; Eric E. Knapp; John F. Lehmkuhl; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Carl N. Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2007-01-01

    Operational-scale experiments that evaluate the consequences of fire and mechanical "surrogates" for natural disturbance events are essential to better understand strategies for reducing the incidence and severity of wildfire. The national Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) study was initiated in 1999 to establish an integrated network of long-term studies...

  11. Microbiologic surrogate end points in clinical trials of infectious diseases: example of acute otitis media trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John H

    2005-12-01

    Clinical outcomes that measure how patients feel, function, or survive are the most important and relevant outcomes of therapy in clinical trials and in clinical practice. Surrogate end points, which do not directly measure clinical benefit to the patient, may function as substitutes for clinical end points in clinical trials. Such surrogates are attractive as they may allow measurement of outcomes earlier in time or with a smaller sample size than with clinical outcomes. Microbiologic biomarkers, such as culture results at a specific time after start of therapy, or pharmacodynamic analyses of the effect of drugs on organisms often are proposed as surrogate end points in clinical trials of therapies for infectious diseases. However, evaluation of biomarkers as surrogate end points poses distinct challenges, and only a few biomarkers have been useful replacements for clinical end points. Evaluation of biomarkers as potential surrogate end points first requires an understanding of the differences among measurements of the cause of a disease, risk factors for outcome, and measurements of treatment effects. We will discuss the definitions of clinical and surrogate end points and the reasons why surrogate end points may not predict the true clinical benefit of therapies. We will use the example of the biomarker of microbiologic outcomes from tympanocenteses performed during therapy as the sole measure of clinical effectiveness in clinical trials of acute otitis media to illustrate the challenges in evaluating biomarkers as surrogate end points.

  12. Role of the direct mechanisms in the deuteron-induced surrogate reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Avrigeanu, M

    2015-01-01

    An extended analysis of the key role of direct interactions, i.e., breakup, stripping and pick-up processes, for the deuteron–induced surrogate reactions is presented. Particular comments concern the deuteron breakup which is dominant in the case of the ( d; p g ) surrogate reactions on actinides target nuclei, around the Coulomb barrier.

  13. Reaction of the captive infant baboon to a surrogate mother | Stoltz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each infant was placed with a surrogate mother. The infants accepted their surrogate mothers immediately. The very young infants spent most of their time with the mother where they suckled and slept for long periods. The older infants spent less time with their mothers. They only returned to the mother to be fed, to sleep or ...

  14. Birds as surrogates for biodiversity: an analysis of a data set from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    taneously be met: for instance, economic and social costs must be minimized, cultural priorities met, and so on. Of ... The relation of representation between estimator-surrogates and true surrogates (the former are supposed to ... met the targeted representation (which is set at the beginning of the process) that they contain ( ...

  15. Fire and fire surrogate treatments in mixed-oak forests: Effects on herbaceous layer vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Phillips; Todd Hutchinson; Lucy Brudnak; Thomas Waldrop

    2007-01-01

    Herbaceous layer vegetation responses to prescribed fire and fire surrogate treatments (thinning and understory removal) were examined. Results from 3 to 4 years following treatment are presented for the Ohio Hills Country and the Southern Appalachian Mountain sites of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study. At the Ohio Hills site, changes in forest structure were...

  16. A fast surrogate model tailor-made for real time control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Morten; Thrysøe, Cecilie; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    A surrogate model of a detailed hydraulic urban drainage model is created for supplying inflow forecasts to an MPC model for 31 separate locations. The original model is subdivided into 66 relationships extracted from the original model. The surrogate model is 9000 times faster than the original...... model, with just a minor deviation from the original model results....

  17. Critical review of norovirus surrogates in food safety research: rationale for considering volunteer studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inability to propagate human norovirus (NoV) or to clearly differentiate infectious from noninfectious virus particles have led to the use of surrogate viruses, like feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus-1 (MNV), which are propagatable in cell culture. The use of surrogates is predicate...

  18. Surrogate-assisted feature extraction for high-throughput phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng; Chakrabortty, Abhishek; Liao, Katherine P; Cai, Tianrun; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Gainer, Vivian S; Churchill, Susanne E; Szolovits, Peter; Murphy, Shawn N; Kohane, Isaac S; Cai, Tianxi

    2017-04-01

    Phenotyping algorithms are capable of accurately identifying patients with specific phenotypes from within electronic medical records systems. However, developing phenotyping algorithms in a scalable way remains a challenge due to the extensive human resources required. This paper introduces a high-throughput unsupervised feature selection method, which improves the robustness and scalability of electronic medical record phenotyping without compromising its accuracy. The proposed Surrogate-Assisted Feature Extraction (SAFE) method selects candidate features from a pool of comprehensive medical concepts found in publicly available knowledge sources. The target phenotype's International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and natural language processing counts, acting as noisy surrogates to the gold-standard labels, are used to create silver-standard labels. Candidate features highly predictive of the silver-standard labels are selected as the final features. Algorithms were trained to identify patients with coronary artery disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis using various numbers of labels to compare the performance of features selected by SAFE, a previously published automated feature extraction for phenotyping procedure, and domain experts. The out-of-sample area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and F -score from SAFE algorithms were remarkably higher than those from the other two, especially at small label sizes. SAFE advances high-throughput phenotyping methods by automatically selecting a succinct set of informative features for algorithm training, which in turn reduces overfitting and the needed number of gold-standard labels. SAFE also potentially identifies important features missed by automated feature extraction for phenotyping or experts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  19. Potential cryptosporidium surrogates and evaluation of compressible oocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.Y.; Goodrich, J.A.; Owens, J.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Cryptosporidium has been recognized as an important waterborne agent of gastroenteritis and a biological contaminant in drinking water. The widespread presence of Cryptosporidium in surface source water and either untreated or insufficiently treated drinking water has led to Cryptosporidium outbreaks in the United States and worldwide. Among the conventional control practices, filtration and high temperature distillation appear to be the potentially viable technologies for protection against Cryptosporidium in drinking water. As employed in many water plants, filtration is likely to be the most practical treatment technology utilized for Cryptosporidium removal in the near future. Consequently, accurate and reliable methods for evaluation of Cryptosporidium removal rates for filtration-based systems are necessary to assist States in determining drinking water quality and complying with the up-coming national standard for Cryptosporidium in drinking water. Furthermore, searching for reliable and non-hazardous surrogates for evaluation of treatment plant efficiency has been intensified because of the potential health risk associated with Cryptosporidium. Additionally, during the filtration procedure Cryptosporidium may squeeze and fold through pores size of the filtration systems that are smaller than the diameter of the organism; a fraction of these Cryptosporidium oocysts may still remain a certain degree of viability. These uncertainties are critical for the evaluation and optimization of filtration-based physical treatment systems. The in-house research studies described below consist of two parts. One is a potential surrogate study using bag filtration systems at the US EPA Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The second is Cryptosporidium compressibility and viability investigation.

  20. Indoor sorption of surrogates for sarin and related nerve agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C; Hodgson, Alfred T; Destaillats, Hugo; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Revzan, Kenneth L; Sextro, Richard G

    2005-05-01

    Sorption rate parameters were determined for three organophosphorus (OP) compounds [dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP), and triethyl phosphate (TEP)] as surrogates for the G-type nerve agents sarin (GB), soman (GD), and tabun (GA). OP surrogates were injected and vaporized with additional volatile organic compounds into a 50 m3 chamber finished with painted wallboard. Experiments were conducted at two furnishing levels: (i) chamber containing only hard surfaces including a desk, a bookcase, tables, and chairs and (ii) with the addition of plush materials including carpet with cushion, draperies, and upholstered furniture. Each furnishing level was studied with aged and new painted wallboard. Gas-phase concentrations were measured during sealed chamber adsorb and desorb phases and then fit to three mathematical variations of a previously proposed sorption model having a surface sink and allowing for an embedded sink. A four-parameter model allowing unequal transport rates between surface and embedded sinks provided excellent fits for all conditions. To evaluate the potential effect of sorption, this model was incorporated into an indoor air quality simulation model to predict indoor concentrations of a G-type agent and a nonsorbing agent for hypothetical outdoor releases with shelter-in-place (SIP) response. Sorption was simulated using a range of parameters obtained experimentally. Simulations considered outdoor Gaussian plumes of 1- and 5-h duration and infiltration rates of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.9 h(-1). Indoor toxic loads (TL) for a 10-h SIP were calculated as integral C2 dt for a G-type agent. For the 5-h plume, sheltering reduced TLs for the nonsorbing agent to approximately 10-65% of outdoor levels. Analogous TLs for a G-type agent were 2-31% or 0.3-12% of outdoor levels assuming slow or moderate sorption. The relative effect of sorption was more pronounced for the longer plume and higher infiltration rates.

  1. Effects of incubation temperature on growth and performance of the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Robin M

    2008-10-01

    I evaluated the effect of incubation temperature on phenotypes of the veiled chameleon, Chamaeleo calyptratus. I chose this species for study because its large clutch size (30-40 eggs or more) allows replication within clutches both within and among experimental treatments. The major research objectives were (1) to assess the effect of constant low, moderate, and high temperatures on embryonic development, (2) to determine whether the best incubation temperature for embryonic development also produced the "best" hatchlings, and (3) to determine how a change in incubation temperature during mid-development would affect phenotype. To meet these objectives, I established five experimental temperature regimes and determined egg survival and incubation length and measured body size and shape, selected body temperatures, and locomotory performance of lizards at regular intervals from hatching to 90 d, or just before sexual maturity. Incubation temperature affected the length of incubation, egg survival, and body mass, but did not affect sprint speed or selected body temperature although selected body temperature affected growth in mass independently of treatment and clutch. Incubation at moderate temperatures provided the best conditions for both embryonic and post-hatching development. The highest incubation temperatures were disruptive to development; eggs had high mortality, developmental rate was low, and hatchlings grew slowly. Changes in temperature during incubation increased the among-clutch variance in incubation length relative to that of constant temperature treatments. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The overlaying oil type influences in vitro embryo production: differences in composition and compound transfer into incubation medium between oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina A; Nohalez, Alicia; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Motas, Miguel; Roca, Jordi; Romero, Inmaculada; García-Gonza Lez, Diego L; Cuello, Cristina; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Martinez, Emilio A; Gil, Maria A

    2017-09-05

    The oil overlay micro-drop system is widely used for cultures of mammalian gametes and embryos. We evaluated hereby the effects of two unaltered commercial oils- Sigma mineral oil (S-MO) and Nidoil paraffin oil (N-PO)-on in vitro embryo production (IVP) outcomes using a pig model. The results showed that while either oil apparently did not affect oocyte maturation and fertilization rates, S-MO negatively affected embryo cleavage rates, blastocyst formation rates, and, consequently, total blastocyst efficiency of the system. No differences in the oxidation state were found between the oils or culture media incubated under S-MO or N-PO. Although both oils slightly differed in elemental composition, there were no differences in the concentrations of elements between fresh media and media incubated under oils. By contrast, we demonstrated clear oil-type differences in both the composition of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and the transfer of some of these VOC´s (straight-chain alkanes and pentanal and 1,3-diethyl benzene) to the culture medium, which could have influenced embryonic development.

  3. Effectiveness of biodiversity surrogates for conservation planning: different measures of effectiveness generate a kaleidoscope of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Hedley S; Pressey, Robert L; Wells, Jessie A; Beattie, Andrew J

    2010-07-14

    Conservation planners represent many aspects of biodiversity by using surrogates with spatial distributions readily observed or quantified, but tests of their effectiveness have produced varied and conflicting results. We identified four factors likely to have a strong influence on the apparent effectiveness of surrogates: (1) the choice of surrogate; (2) differences among study regions, which might be large and unquantified (3) the test method, that is, how effectiveness is quantified, and (4) the test features that the surrogates are intended to represent. Analysis of an unusually rich dataset enabled us, for the first time, to disentangle these factors and to compare their individual and interacting influences. Using two data-rich regions, we estimated effectiveness using five alternative methods: two forms of incidental representation, two forms of species accumulation index and irreplaceability correlation, to assess the performance of 'forest ecosystems' and 'environmental units' as surrogates for six groups of threatened species-the test features-mammals, birds, reptiles, frogs, plants and all of these combined. Four methods tested the effectiveness of the surrogates by selecting areas for conservation of the surrogates then estimating how effective those areas were at representing test features. One method measured the spatial match between conservation priorities for surrogates and test features. For methods that selected conservation areas, we measured effectiveness using two analytical approaches: (1) when representation targets for the surrogates were achieved (incidental representation), or (2) progressively as areas were selected (species accumulation index). We estimated the spatial correlation of conservation priorities using an index known as summed irreplaceability. In general, the effectiveness of surrogates for our taxa (mostly threatened species) was low, although environmental units tended to be more effective than forest ecosystems. The

  4. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  5. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  6. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2011 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2010 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2011 contains new chapters on iron oxide pigments, wollastonite, and zeolites. The chapters on mica (natural), scrap and flake and mica (natural), sheet have been combined into a single chapter - mica (natural). Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. "Appendix C - Reserves and Resources" has been divided into "Part A - Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals" and "Part B - Sources of Reserves Data," including some information that was previously in this introduction. A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2011 are welcomed.

  7. Mineral commodity summaries 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2018-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  8. Surrogate decision makers and proxy ownership: challenges of privacy management in health care decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bute, Jennifer J; Petronio, Sandra; Torke, Alexia M

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the communicative experiences of surrogates who served as decision makers for patients who were unable to convey health information and choices about treatment options. Drawing on assumptions from communication privacy management theory (Petronio, 2002), 35 surrogates were interviewed to explore how they navigated the role of guardian of patients' private health information while the patient was hospitalized. This research determined that not only are surrogates guardians and thereby co-owners of the patients' private health information, they actually served in a "proxy ownership" role. Surrogates described obstacles to both obtaining and sharing private health information about the patient, suggesting that their rights as legitimate co-owners of the patients' information were not fully acknowledged by the medical teams. Surrogates also described challenges in performing the proxy ownership role when they were not fully aware of the patient's wishes. Theoretical and practical implications of these challenges are discussed.

  9. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  10. Membranes and pathophysiological mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowska, Monika; Strzelecka-Kiliszek, Agnieszka; Magne, David; Pikula, Slawomir; Bessueille, Laurence

    Vascular calcification accompanies the pathological process of atherosclerotic plaque formation. Artery calcification results from trans-differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into cells resembling mineralization-competent cells such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes. The activity of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), a GPI-anchored enzyme necessary for physiological mineralization, is induced in VSMCs in response to inflammation. TNAP achieves its mineralizing function being anchored to plasma membrane of mineralizing cells and to the surface of their derived matrix vesicles (MVs), and numerous important reports indicate that membranes play a crucial role in initiating the crystal formation. In this review, we would like to highlight various functions of lipids and proteins associated to membranes at different stages of both physiological mineralization and vascular calcification, with an emphasis on the pathological process of atherosclerotic plaque formation.

  11. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  12. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...... resources was negotiated by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III). A most important outcome of this conference was the establishment of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of at least 200 nautical miles for all coastal states and the recognition of a deep-sea regime. Mineral deposits...... in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration...

  13. A computational methodology for formulating gasoline surrogate fuels with accurate physical and chemical kinetic properties

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2015-03-01

    Gasoline is the most widely used fuel for light duty automobile transportation, but its molecular complexity makes it intractable to experimentally and computationally study the fundamental combustion properties. Therefore, surrogate fuels with a simpler molecular composition that represent real fuel behavior in one or more aspects are needed to enable repeatable experimental and computational combustion investigations. This study presents a novel computational methodology for formulating surrogates for FACE (fuels for advanced combustion engines) gasolines A and C by combining regression modeling with physical and chemical kinetics simulations. The computational methodology integrates simulation tools executed across different software platforms. Initially, the palette of surrogate species and carbon types for the target fuels were determined from a detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA). A regression algorithm implemented in MATLAB was linked to REFPROP for simulation of distillation curves and calculation of physical properties of surrogate compositions. The MATLAB code generates a surrogate composition at each iteration, which is then used to automatically generate CHEMKIN input files that are submitted to homogeneous batch reactor simulations for prediction of research octane number (RON). The regression algorithm determines the optimal surrogate composition to match the fuel properties of FACE A and C gasoline, specifically hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, density, distillation characteristics, carbon types, and RON. The optimal surrogate fuel compositions obtained using the present computational approach was compared to the real fuel properties, as well as with surrogate compositions available in the literature. Experiments were conducted within a Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) engine operating under controlled autoignition (CAI) mode to compare the formulated surrogates against the real fuels. Carbon monoxide measurements indicated that the proposed surrogates

  14. Sub-seafloor Microbial Colonization of Igneous Minerals and Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Popa, R.; Fisk, M.; Nielsen, M.; Wheat, G.; Jannasch, H.; Fisher, A.; Sievert, S.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding how subsurface microorganisms (MOs) contribute to mineral weathering and global element cycling requires an initial investigation into the differential colonization of minerals by distinct physiological types of MOs. We initiated a sub-seafloor experiment utilizing a variety of igneous minerals and glasses at IODP borehole site 1301A on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. We selected twelve different igneous minerals and glasses and placed them in flow cell chambers at 278 meters below the seafloor in borehole 1301A. This horizon is approximately 15 meters into 3.5 million year old basalt basement, which underlies 263 meters of sediment. The samples were incubated in the borehole for four years and recovered in summer 2008. We report total colonization of the igneous minerals and glasses measured by cell density after DAPI staining and microscopic counting. To understand the relationship between MOs and mineral surfaces, we analyzed thin sections made from DAPI-treated minerals and glasses included in low- fluorescence resin.

  15. Laboratory and field evaluation of broiler litter nitrogen mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, K R; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L; Tewolde, H; Brink, G E

    2008-05-01

    Two studies were conducted for this research. First, a laboratory incubation to quantify broiler litter N mineralization with the following treatments: two soil moisture regimes, constant at 60% water fill pore space (WFPS) and fluctuating (60-30% WFPS), three soil types, Brooksville silty clay loam, Ruston sandy loam from Mississippi, and Catlin silt loam from Illinois. Second, a field incubation study to quantify broiler litter N mineralization using similar soils and litter application rates as the laboratory incubation. Broiler litter was applied at an equivalent rate of 350 kg total N ha(-1) for both studies except for control treatments. Subsamples were taken at different timing for both experiments for NO3-N and NH4-N determinations. In the laboratory experiment, soil moisture regimes had no significant impact on litter-derived inorganic N. Total litter-derived inorganic N across all treatments increased from 23 mg kg(-1) at time 0, to 159 mg kg(-1) at 93 d after litter application. Significant differences were observed among the soil types. Net litter-derived inorganic N was greater for Brooksville followed by Ruston and Catlin soils. For both studies and all soils, NH4-N content decreased while NO3-N content increased indicating a rapid nitrification of the mineralized litter N. Litter mineralization in the field study followed the same trend as the laboratory study but resulted in much lower net inorganic N, presumably due to environmental conditions such as precipitation and temperature, which may have resulted in more denitrification and immobilization of mineralized litter N. Litter-derived inorganic N from the field study was greater for Ruston than Brooksville. Due to no impact by soil moisture regimes, additional studies are warranted in order to develop predictive relationships to quantify broiler litter N availability.

  16. Microbial Mineral Colonization Across a Subsurface Redox Transition Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon eConverse

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the hypothesis that chemolithotrophic Fe(II-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB would preferentially colonize the Fe(II-bearing mineral biotite compared to quartz sand when the minerals were incubated in situ within a subsurface redox transition zone (RTZ at the Hanford 300 Area site in Richland, WA, USA. The work was motivated by the recently documented presence of neutral-pH chemolithotrophic FeOB capable of oxidizing structural Fe(II in primary silicate and secondary phyllosilicate minerals in 300 Area sediments and groundwater (Benzine et al., 2013. Sterilized portions of sand+biotite or sand alone were incubated in situ for five months within a multilevel sampling (MLS apparatus that spanned a ca. 2-m interval across the RTZ in two separate groundwater wells. Parallel MLS measurements of aqueous geochemical species were performed prior to deployment of the minerals. Contrary to expectations, the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed no significant difference in microbial communities that colonized the sand+biotite versus sand-only deployments. Both mineral-associated and groundwater communities were dominated by heterotrophic taxa, with organisms from the Pseudomonaceae accounting for up to 70% of all reads from the colonized minerals. These results are consistent with previous results indicating the capacity for heterotrophic metabolism (including anaerobic metabolism below the RTZ as well as the predominance of heterotrophic taxa within 300 Area sediments and groundwater. Although heterotrophic organisms clearly dominated the colonized minerals, several putative lithotrophic (NH4+, H2, Fe(II, and HS- oxidizing taxa were detected in significant abundance above and within the RTZ. Such organisms may play a role in the coupling of anaerobic microbial metabolism to oxidative pathways with attendant impacts on elemental cycling and redox-sensitive contaminant behavior in the vicinity of the

  17. Kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate mineralization in sludge-amended soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, P.L.; Thyme, J.B.; Henriksen, K.; Moeldrup, P.; Roslev, P. (Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Environmental Engineering Lab.)

    1999-08-01

    Sewage sludge is frequently used as a soil fertilizer although it may contain elevated concentrations of priority pollutants including di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). In the present study, the kinetics of microbial [[sup 14]C]DEHP mineralization was studied in laboratory microcosms with sewage sludge and agricultural soil. A biphasic model with two independent kinetic expressions was used to fit the mineralization data. The initial mineralization activity was described well by first-order kinetics, whereas mineralization in long-term incubations was described better by fractional power kinetics. The mineralization activity was much lower in the late phase presumably due to a decline in the bioavailability of DEHP caused by diffusion-limited desorption. The initial DEHP mineralization rate in sludge-amended soil varied between 3.7 and 20.3 ng of DEHP (g dw)[sup [minus]1]d[sup [minus]1] depending on incubation conditions. Aerobic DEHP mineralization was 4--5 times faster than anaerobic mineralization, DEHP mineralization in sludge-amended soil was much more temperature sensitive than was DEHP mineralization in soil without sludge. Indigenous microorganisms in the sewage sludge appeared to dominate DEHP degradation in sludge-amended soil. It was estimated that > 41% of the DEHP in sludge-amended soil will have escaped mineralization after 1 year. In the absence of oxygen, > 68% of the DEHP will not be mineralized within 1 year. Collectively, the data suggest that a significant fraction of the DEHP in sludge-amended soils may escape mineralization under in situ conditions.

  18. Detecting Virus Exposure During the Pre Symptomatic Incubation Period Using Physiological Data (with Supplementary Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    allowing the Page 4 of 32 algorithms to adapt to physiological changes between incubation and prodromal phases. One RF is trained using pre-fever...capable of indicating a general patho-physiological state during the viral incubation period in NHPs. Evaluating Algorithm Performance We...Page 1 of 32 Detecting Virus Exposure During the Pre-Symptomatic Incubation Period Using Physiological Data Lauren Milechin1, Shakti Davis1

  19. Light Reduction Capabilities of Homemade and Commercial Incubator Covers in NICU

    OpenAIRE

    Ludington-Hoe, Susan M.; Abouelfettoh, Amel

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of high-risk neonates' exposure to aversive light stimulation is an important component of developmentally supportive care. In neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), usually light is reduced by reducing the room's light level or by using incubator covers. Many types of incubator covers are in use, including homemade and commercial covers. A comparative study was used to determine the light reducing capabilities of 19 homemade incubator covers, 2 commercial covers, and 1 receiving blan...

  20. Is the evolution of clutch size limited by incubation ability in shorebirds?

    OpenAIRE

    Beatty, Jessica Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Incubation is a crucial aspect of avian life history where differences in incubation techniques and investments can have long lasting effects on offspring and parental well- being and reproductive success. The factors limiting why some birds, such as shorebirds, have fixed clutch sizes has intrigued life history theorist to propose different hypotheses about the evolution of clutch size. Lack's "incubation limitation hypothesis," suggesting that clutch size is limited by the amount of eggs a ...

  1. Network brokers or hit makers? Analyzing the influence of incubation on start-up investments

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Van Weele, Marijn A.; Eveleens, Chris P.

    2017-01-01

    Incubators are a prominent way to support technology based start-ups. Yet, it remains unclear to what extent these incubators enhance start-up performance, nor is it known through which mechanisms this would occur. In this paper we test two mechanisms to explain the relationship between incubation and the amount of investments raised by early stage start-ups as performance measure. The ‘hit maker’ mechanism refers to beneficial effects of the direct transfer of resources and organizational or...

  2. INCUBATORS WITHIN UNIVERSITY AND CLUSTERED CONTEXTS: CASES OF NATIONAL CHIAO TUNG UNIVERSITY (NCTU AND NATIONAL TSING HUA UNIVERSITY (NTHU INCUBATORS IN HSINCHU, TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Akmaliah Adham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research literature on business incubators has highlighted the significance of clustered locational contexts and networking as key to an incubator's success. Using the case study approach, this study aimed to test the validity of this framework for explaining the level of success of the National Chiao Tung University (NCTU and National Tsing Hua University (NTHU Incubators in Hsinchu, Taiwan – both of which are highly-networked, cluster-centric and university-based. In-depth interviews were conducted with the managers of both incubators, and these were followed by information gathering on university patents and knowledge transfers from the research and development (R&D office at each university. Analysis found that the incubators' locational contexts determined the degree and manner of their networking, but their profitability and growth potential were influenced by many other factors working in combination. Satisfying their sponsors' requirements and serving their core functions through sound management and strategic planning appeared to be the key to achieving profitability and sustainability, with benefits for all stakeholders. These constructs provide directions for more research on the performance of incubators and other business entities that are located within university and clustered contexts.

  3. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  4. Noise at the neonatal intensive care unit and inside the incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Eliana Moreira; Guinsburg, Ruth; Nabuco, Marco Antonio de Araujo; Kakehashi, Tereza Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to identify sound pressure level (SPL) at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and inside the incubator of a teaching hospital of a public university from São Paulo - SP, Brazil. SPL inside the NICU and the incubator were measured using four dosimeters in January/2010. SPL at the NICU varied from 52.6 dBA to 80.4 dBA and inside the incubator, from 45.4 dBA to 79.1 dBA. SPL both at the NICU and inside the incubator are above the recommended values, but levels were higher at the NICU than inside the incubator. Although there are some specific factors related to SPL inside the incubator, the NICU and incubator acoustic features present a system: an increase/decrease in SPL at the NICU usually tends to increase/decrease SPL inside the incubator. The study points to the need for simultaneous monitoring of SPL at the NICU and inside the incubator.

  5. Noise at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and inside the incubator

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro,Eliana Moreira; Guinsburg,Ruth; Nabuco,Marco Antonio de Araujo; Kakehashi,Tereza Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to identify sound pressure level (SPL) at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and inside the incubator of a teaching hospital of a public university from São Paulo - SP, Brazil. SPL inside the NICU and the incubator were measured using four dosimeters in January/2010. SPL at the NICU varied from 52.6 dBA to 80.4 dBA and inside the incubator, from 45.4 dBA to 79.1 dBA. SPL both at the NICU and inside the incubator are above the recommended values, but levels were higher at the...

  6. Care of 500-1500 Gram Premature Infants in Hybrid Incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Holly; Brand, M Colleen; Hagan, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Although technological advances have improved devices used to maintain the temperatures of 500- to 1500-g infants, managing the thermal environment remains challenging. To evaluate the effects of 2 methods of thermal support provided by a hybrid incubator during routine care in the first week of life. This descriptive, comparative study evaluates changes in temperature, humidity, heart rate, and oxygen saturation in the incubator versus radiant warmer (canopy) modes of hybrid warmers using data downloaded from the incubator and the monitor. The impact of the Boost Curtain on temperature when opening the portholes during the incubator mode was also examined. Mixed-effects linear models and the log-rank test were used to analyze patient data to determine the effect of thermal support on temperature and humidity changes during care, as well as during the postcare period. Entering the incubator through the portholes improved temperature control compared with using the canopy mode. The Boost Curtain resulted in an overall temperature stability and heat gain. Nurses caring for premature infants in hybrid incubators should minimize incubator openings and utilize portholes rather than the canopy whenever practical. The Boost Curtain should be used when opening the portholes during the incubator mode. Comparing time, accuracy, and tolerance of procedures in the canopy versus incubator modes would improve nurses' ability to determine the best approach for different clinical scenarios.

  7. Small business incubators: An emerging phenomenon in South Africa’s SMME economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukovhe Masutha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa much policy attention is focused on the potential of the small, medium and micro-enterprise (SMME economy for job creation. Nevertheless, despite government support for the SMME economy, high mortality rates are experienced by start-up enterprises. In common with international experience South Africa has adopted business incubation as a strategic tool for assisting the survival as well as building the competitiveness of SMMEs. This article analyses the state of business incubation in South Africa drawing attention to marked differences between the groups of public sector business incubators as opposed to those business incubators which have been initiated by the private sector.

  8. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  9. Inactivation of human norovirus surrogates by benzalkonium chloride, potassium peroxymonosulfate, tannic acid, and gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2012-09-01

    Novel methods to effectively disinfect contact surfaces and prevent human norovirus transmission are essential. The effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), potassium peroxymonosulfate (KPMS), tannic acid (TA), and gallic acid (GA) on enteric virus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), and bacteriophage MS2 was studied. Viruses at high (∼7 log₁₀ PFU/mL) or low (∼5 log₁₀ PFU/mL) titers were mixed with equal volumes of BAC (0.2, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL), KPMS (5, 10, and 20 mg/mL), TA (0.02 and 0.2 mg/mL), GA (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/mL), or water and incubated for 2 h at room temperature. Viral infectivity after triplicate treatments was evaluated using plaque assays in duplicate. Low titers of FCV-F9 and MNV-1 were completely reduced, while low-titer MS2 was reduced by 1.7-1.8 log₁₀ PFU/mL with BAC at all three concentrations. High-titer FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.87, 3.08, and 3.25 log₁₀ PFU/mL, and high-titer MNV-1 was reduced by 1.55, 2.32, and 2.75 log₁₀ PFU/mL with BAC at 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. High-titer MS2 was reduced by ∼2 log₁₀ PFU/mL with BAC at all three concentrations. KPMS at all three concentrations reduced high and low titers of FCV-F9 and MS2 and low-titer MNV-1 to undetectable levels, while high-titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.92 and 3.44 log₁₀ PFU/mL with KMPS at 2.5 and 5 mg/mL, respectively. TA at 0.2 mg/mL only reduced high-titer FCV-F9 by 0.98 log₁₀ PFU/mL and low-titer FCV-F9 by 1.95 log₁₀ PFU/mL. GA at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/mL reduced low-titer FCV-F9 by 2.50, 2.36, and 0.86 log₁₀ PFU/mL, respectively with negligible effects against high-titer FCV-F9. BAC and KPMS show promise to be used as broad-spectrum contact surface disinfectants for prevention of noroviral surrogate contamination.

  10. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    With increased exploitation of the onshore mineral resources, oceans that cover almost 71% of earth's surface and known as storehouse of minerals, provide a suitable alternative. Amongst the various underwater mineral resources, placer deposits...

  11. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  12. Surrogate mobility and orientation affect the early neurobehavioral development of infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M; Ruggiero, Angela M; Novak, Melinda A; Meyer, Jerrold S; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-05-01

    A biological mother's movement appears necessary for optimal development in infant monkeys. However, nursery-reared monkeys are typically provided with inanimate surrogate mothers that move very little. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, highly mobile surrogate mother on motor development, exploration, and reactions to novelty. Six infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were reared on mobile hanging surrogates (MS) and compared to six infants reared on standard stationary rocking surrogates (RS) and to 9-15 infants reared with their biological mothers (MR) for early developmental outcome. We predicted that MS infants would develop more similarly to MR infants than RS infants. In neonatal assessments conducted at Day 30, both MS and MR infants showed more highly developed motor activity than RS infants on measures of grasping (p = .009), coordination (p = .038), spontaneous crawl (p = .009), and balance (p = .003). At 2-3 months of age, both MS and MR infants displayed higher levels of exploration in the home cage than RS infants (p = .016). In a novel situation in which only MS and RS infants were tested, MS infants spent less time near their surrogates in the first five minutes of the test session than RS infants (p = .05), indicating a higher level of comfort. Collectively, these results suggest that when nursery-rearing of infant monkeys is necessary, a mobile hanging surrogate may encourage more normative development of gross motor skills and exploratory behavior and may serve as a useful alternative to stationary or rocking surrogates.

  13. Public’s Approach to Surrogate Consent for Dementia Research: Cautious Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Raymond; Ryan, Kerry A.; Stanczyk, Aimee; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Damschroder, Laura; Knopman, David S.; Kim, Scott Y. H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe how members of the older general public deliberate with one another in finding solutions to the dilemma of involving decisionally incapable persons in dementia research. Design, Setting, and Participants 160 persons aged 50+ who participated in an all-day deliberative democracy (DD) session on the ethics of surrogate consent for dementia research. The DD day consisted of both extensive, interactive education with experts in clinical research and ethics, as well as small group deliberations. Measurements Audiotaped small group deliberations were transcribed and analyzed, and the main thematic elements were coded. Results During deliberation, participants acknowledged the limitations of advanced research directives and discussed ways to improve their use. Although there was consensus about the necessity of surrogate consent, the participants recognized potential pitfalls and looked for ways to safeguard the process. Participants supporting surrogate consent for research emphasized societal and individual benefit, the importance of assent, and trust in surrogates and the oversight system. Other participants felt that the high risk of some research scenarios was not sufficiently offset by benefits to patients or society. Conclusions Members of the older general public are able to make use of in-depth education and peer deliberation to provide reasoned and informed opinions on the ethical use of surrogate consent for dementia research. The public’s approach to surrogate consent is one of cautious pragmatism: an overall trust in science and future surrogates with awareness of the potential pitfalls, suggesting that their trust cannot be taken for granted. PMID:23498383

  14. A meta-analysis of experiments linking incubation conditions with subsequent leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Peter J; Muir, Wendy I

    2014-01-01

    A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line) observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie). Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4-6 and 13-15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16-18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, PLie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1-15) and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16-18) will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C) for maximum hatchability and chick growth.

  15. A meta-analysis of experiments linking incubation conditions with subsequent leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Groves

    Full Text Available A series of incubation and broiler growth studies were conducted using one strain of broiler chicken (fast feathering dam line observing incubation effects on femoral bone ash % at hatch and the ability of the bird to remain standing at 6 weeks of age (Latency-To-Lie. Egg shell temperatures during incubation were consistently recorded. Parsimonious models were developed across eight studies using stepwise multiple linear regression of egg shell temperatures over 3-day periods and both bone ash at hatch and Latency-To-Lie. A model for bone ash at hatch explained 70% of the variation in this factor and revealed an association with lower egg shell temperatures during days 4-6 and 13-15 and higher egg shell temperatures during days 16-18 of incubation. Bone ash at hatch and subsequent Latency-To-Lie were positively correlated (r = 0.57, P<0.05. A model described 66% of the variation Latency-To-Lie showing significant association of the interaction of femoral ash at hatch and lower average egg shell temperatures over the first 15 days of incubation. Lower egg shell temperature in the early to mid incubation process (days 1-15 and higher egg shell temperatures at a later stage (days 16-18 will both tend to delay the hatch time of incubating eggs. Incubation profiles that resulted in later hatching chicks produced birds which could remain standing for a longer time at 6 weeks of age. This supports a contention that the effects of incubation observed in many studies may in fact relate more to earlier hatching and longer sojourn of the hatched chick in the final stage incubator. The implication of these outcomes are that the optimum egg shell temperature during incubation for broiler leg strength development may be lower than that regarded as ideal (37.8°C for maximum hatchability and chick growth.

  16. Surrogate alcohol: what do we know and where do we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    Consumption of surrogate alcohols (i.e., nonbeverage alcohols and illegally produced alcohols) was shown to impact on different causes of death, not only poisoning or liver disease, and appears to be a major public health problem in Russia and elsewhere. A computer-assisted literature review on chemical composition and health consequences of "surrogate alcohol" was conducted and more than 70 references were identified. A wider definition of the term "surrogate alcohol" was derived, including both nonbeverage alcohols and illegally produced alcohols that contain nonbeverage alcohols. Surrogate alcohol may contain substances that cause severe health consequences including death. Known toxic constituents include lead, which may lead to chronic toxicity, and methanol, which leads to acute poisoning. On the other hand, the role of higher alcohols (e.g., propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol) in the etiology of surrogate-associated diseases is currently unclear. Whether other constituents of surrogates have contributed to the high all-cause mortality over and above the effect of ethanol in recent studies also remains unclear. Given the high public health importance associated with the consumption of surrogate alcohols, further knowledge on its chemical composition is required as well as research on its links to various disease endpoints should be undertaken with priority. Some interventions to reduce the harm resulting from surrogate alcohol could be undertaken already at this point. For example, the use of methanol or methanol-containing wood alcohol should be abolished in denatured alcohol. Other possible surrogates (e.g., automobile products) should be treated with bittering agents to avoid consumption.

  17. Mineral composition of deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Studying of mineral and chemical composition of ores have immediate practical sense. It is a basic at solving problems of origin of deposit, choosing of most profitable method of their exploitation and problems of complex ores using

  18. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  19. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  20. [Pneumoconiosis in bauxite miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinini, R; Pesola, M; Digennaro, M A; Carino, M; Nuzzaco, A; Coviello, F

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined a group of 40 miners who were being working at an Apulian bauxite mine, presently inactive. Radiographic findings of pulmonary micronodulation without significant reduction of lung functions were showed in 15 miners. Mineralogical analysis of mine dust samples excluded any presence of more than 1% free silica. As a result of this study hypotheses have been formulated about pathogenesis of this moderated and non-invasive pneumoconiosis, showed in long exposed subjects to low silica content dusts.

  1. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  2. Evolutionary selection of enzymatically synthesized semiconductors from biomimetic mineralization vesicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bawazer, Lukmaan A.; Izumi, Michi; Kolodin, Dmitriy; Neilson, James R.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Morse, Daniel E. (UCSB)

    2012-10-29

    The way nature evolves and sculpts materials using proteins inspires new approaches to materials engineering but is still not completely understood. Here, we present a cell-free synthetic biological platform to advance studies of biologically synthesized solid-state materials. This platform is capable of simultaneously exerting many of the hierarchical levels of control found in natural biomineralization, including genetic, chemical, spatial, structural, and morphological control, while supporting the evolutionary selection of new mineralizing proteins and the corresponding genetically encoded materials that they produce. DNA-directed protein expression and enzymatic mineralization occur on polystyrene microbeads in water-in-oil emulsions, yielding synthetic surrogates of biomineralizing cells that are then screened by flow sorting, with light-scattering signals used to sort the resulting mineralized composites differentially. We demonstrate the utility of this platform by evolutionarily selecting newly identified silicateins, biomineralizing enzymes previously identified from the silica skeleton of a marine sponge, for enzyme variants capable of synthesizing silicon dioxide (silica) or titanium dioxide (titania) composites. Mineral composites of intermediate strength are preferentially selected to remain intact for identification during cell sorting, and then to collapse postsorting to expose the encoding genes for enzymatic DNA amplification. Some of the newly selected silicatein variants catalyze the formation of crystalline silicates, whereas the parent silicateins lack this ability. The demonstrated bioengineered route to previously undescribed materials introduces in vitro enzyme selection as a viable strategy for mimicking genetic evolution of materials as it occurs in nature.

  3. Methylene blue as a lignin surrogate in manganese peroxidase reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goby, Jeffrey D; Penner, Michael H; Lajoie, Curtis A; Kelly, Christine J

    2017-11-15

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is associated with lignin degradation and is thus relevant to lignocellulosic-utilization technologies. Technological applications require reaction mixture optimization. A surrogate substrate can facilitate this if its susceptibility to degradation is easily monitored and mirrors that of lignin. The dye methylene blue (MB) was evaluated in these respects as a surrogate substrate by testing its reactivity in reaction mixtures containing relevant redox mediators (dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids). Relative rates of MB degradation were compared to available literature reports of lignin degradation under similar conditions, and suggest that MB can be a useful lignin surrogate in MnP systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Results from Second Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-04

    High Explosives and Technology (M-7) completed the second round of formulation and testing of Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogates on March 17, 2016. This report summarizes the results of the work and also includes additional documentation required under test plan PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing Standard Procedure", released February 16, 2016. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B. Results from the first round of formulation and testing were documented in memorandum M7-16-6042, "Results from First Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing."

  5. Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S

    2014-01-01

    What impact does surrogacy have on the surrogates' own children? The children of surrogate mothers do not experience any negative consequences as a result of their mother's decision to be a surrogate, irrespective of whether or not the surrogate uses her own egg. Participants were recruited as part of a study of the long-term effects of surrogacy for surrogates and their family members. Data were collected from 36 children of surrogates at a single time point. Participants whose mother had been a surrogate 5-15 years prior to interview and who were aged over 12 years were eligible to take part. Thirty-six participants (14 male and 22 female) aged 12-25 years were interviewed (response rate = 52%). Questionnaires assessing psychological health and family functioning were administered. Forty-four per cent (15) of participants' mothers had undergone gestational surrogacy, 39% (14) had used their own egg (genetic surrogacy) and 19% (7) had completed both types of surrogacy. Most surrogates' children (86%, 31) had a positive view of their mother's surrogacy. Forty-seven per cent (17) of children were in contact with the surrogacy child and all reported good relationships with him/her. Forty per cent (14) of children referred to the child as a sibling or half-sibling and this did not differ between genetic and gestational surrogacy. Most children (89%, 32), reported a positive view of family life, with all enjoying spending time with their mother. Mean scores on the questionnaire assessments of psychological health and self-esteem were within the normal range and did not differ by surrogacy type. The sample size for this study was relatively small and not all children chose to take part, therefore their views cannot be known. Nevertheless, this is the first study to assess the experiences of surrogacy from the perspective of the surrogates' own children. There may be some bias from the inclusion of siblings from the same family. Findings of this study show that family

  6. Assessing the potential of surrogate EPS to mimic natural biofilm mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Moritz; Schimmels, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Biofilms growing on benthic sediments may increase the resistance towards erosion considerably by the sticky nature of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS is a biopolymer which is secreted by the microorganisms inhabiting the biofilm matrix and may be regarded as natural glue. However, laboratory studies on the biostabilization effect mediated by biofilms are often hampered by the unavailability of "environmental" flumes in which light intensities, water temperature and nutrient content can be controlled. To allow investigations on biostabilization in "traditional" flume settings the use of surrogate materials is studied. Another advantage of using appropriate surrogates is the potential to reduce the experimental time, as compared to cultivating natural biofilms, the surrogates can readily be designed to mimic biofilms at different growth stages. Furthermore, the use of surrogates which are expected to have more homogeneous mechanical properties could facilitate fundamental studies to improve our knowledge on biostabilization. Even though a number of studies have already utilized EPS surrogates it is not clear how to mix them to correctly mimic natural EPS mechanical properties. In this study the adhesiveness (a measure of stickiness) on the surface of several EPS surrogates (e.g. Xanthan Gum, sodium alginate) is measured. These surrogates which are originally used in the food industry as rheology modifiers are mixed by adding water to a powder at a desired concentration (C). The measured surface adhesion of different surrogates at different concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 6.7 N/m2, which is well in line with values found for laboratory cultured biofilms. We found that the surrogate characteristics differed largely especially in regard to a) the response of the adhesiveness to increased concentrations (powder to water) and b) in their rheological characteristics. A seemingly promising surrogate for the use in biostabilization studies is Xanthan Gum

  7. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  8. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  9. Clay Minerals: Adsorbophysical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotova, O

    2013-01-01

    The structure and features of surfaces of clay minerals (kaolin, montmorillonite, etc) have an important scientific and practical value. On the surface the interrelation of processes at electronic, atomic and molecular levels is realized. Availability of mineral surface to external influences opens wide scientific and technical opportunities of use of the surface phenomena, so the research of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near-surface area of clay minerals is important. After long term researches of gas-clay mineral system in physical fields the author has obtained experimental and theoretical material contributing to the creation of the surface theory of clays. A part of the researches is dedicated to studying the mechanism of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near surface area of clay mineral systems, selectivity of the surface centers to interact with gas phase molecules and adsorbophysical properties. The study of physical and chemical properties of fine clay minerals and their modification has a decisive importance for development of theory and practice of nanotechnologies: they are sorbents, membranes, ceramics and other materials with required electronic features

  10. Effectiveness of amphibians as biodiversity surrogates in pond conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Christiane; Oertli, Beat

    2017-04-01

    Amphibian decline has led to worldwide conservation efforts, including the identification and designation of sites for their protection. These sites could also play an important role in the conservation of other freshwater taxa. In 89 ponds in Switzerland, we assessed the effectiveness of amphibians as a surrogate for 4 taxonomic groups that occur in the same freshwater ecosystems as amphibians: dragonflies, aquatic beetles, aquatic gastropods, and aquatic plants. The ponds were all of high value for amphibian conservation. Cross-taxon correlations were tested for species richness and conservation value, and Mantel tests were used to investigate community congruence. Species richness, conservation value, and community composition of amphibians were weakly congruent with these measures for the other taxonomic groups. Paired comparisons for the 5 groups considered showed that for each metric, amphibians had the lowest degree of congruence. Our results imply that site designation for amphibian conservation will not necessarily provide protection for freshwater biodiversity as a whole. To provide adequate protection for freshwater species, we recommend other taxonomic groups be considered in addition to amphibians in the prioritization and site designation process. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Carney; Martha Finck; Christopher McGrath; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; Donald Dry; George Brooks; David Chamberlain

    2013-01-01

    Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a radioactive response training range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive 82 Br isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics. (author)

  12. The composition of surrogate and illegal alcohol products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Szucs, Sándor; Adány, Róza; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    To identify the composition of illegal and surrogate alcohol products consumed in Estonia. The initial source of information was a series of visits made in August 2005 to a soup kitchen in central Tartu, Estonia. Individuals were asked for brief details of their personal circumstances, what they normally drank, and in addition they were asked to bring samples of the substances they usually consumed. In other cases, the substances identified were purchased by the investigators or from informal contacts in north-eastern part of Estonia, an area that is well known for illegal alcohol consumption. Samples were tested for chemical contents. We identified a range of alcohol-containing substances that are consumed, although, not intended for consumption. These comprised medicinal products, aftershaves, illegally produced spirits, and fire-lighting fuel. The medicinal compounds contained, on average, 67% ethanol by volume; the aftershaves contained slightly less. Both were typically pure, with a few containing detectable quantities of isoamyl alcohol. The illegally produced alcohol contained, on average, 43% ethanol by volume, ranging from 32 to 53%. However, many also contained detectable quantities of long chain alcohols. These substances are half the price or less of commercial vodka, with fire lighting fuels especially inexpensive. There is in Estonia a range of alcohol-containing substances easily available at low cost. Some contain substantially higher concentrations of ethanol than commercial spirits and others also contain toxic long chain alcohols.

  13. Ozone inactivation of norovirus surrogates on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirneisen, K A; Markland, S M; Kniel, K E

    2011-05-01

    Preharvest contamination of produce by foodborne viruses can occur through a variety of agents, including animal feces/manures, soil, irrigation water, animals, and human handling. Problems of contamination are magnified by potential countrywide distribution. Postharvest processing of produce can involve spraying, washing, or immersion into water with disinfectants; however, disinfectants, including chlorine, have varying effects on viruses and harmful by-products pose a concern. The use of ozone as a disinfectant in produce washes has shown great promise for bacterial pathogens, but limited research exists on its efficacy on viruses. This study compares ozone inactivation of human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus [FCV] and murine norovirus [MNV]) on produce (green onions and lettuce) and in sterile water. Green onions and lettuce inoculated with FCV or MNV were treated with ozone (6.25 ppm) for 0.5- to 10-min time intervals. Infectivity was determined by 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID(50)) and plaque assay for FCV and MNV, respectively. After 5 min of ozone treatment, >6 log TCID(50)/ml of FCV was inactivated in water and ∼2-log TCID(50)/ml on lettuce and green onions. MNV inoculated onto green onions and lettuce showed a >2-log reduction after 1 min of ozone treatment. The food matrix played the largest role in protection against ozone inactivation. These results indicate that ozone is an alternative method to reduce viral contamination on the surface of fresh produce.

  14. Asymmetric synthesis of propargylamines as amino acid surrogates in peptidomimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wünsch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The amide moiety of peptides can be replaced for example by a triazole moiety, which is considered to be bioisosteric. Therefore, the carbonyl moiety of an amino acid has to be replaced by an alkyne in order to provide a precursor of such peptidomimetics. As most amino acids have a chiral center at Cα, such amide bond surrogates need a chiral moiety. Here the asymmetric synthesis of a set of 24 N-sulfinyl propargylamines is presented. The condensation of various aldehydes with Ellman’s chiral sulfinamide provides chiral N-sulfinylimines, which were reacted with (trimethylsilylethynyllithium to afford diastereomerically pure N-sulfinyl propargylamines. Diverse functional groups present in the propargylic position resemble the side chain present at the Cα of amino acids. Whereas propargylamines with (cycloalkyl substituents can be prepared in a direct manner, residues with polar functional groups require suitable protective groups. The presence of particular functional groups in the side chain in some cases leads to remarkable side reactions of the alkyne moiety. Thus, electron-withdrawing substituents in the Cα-position facilitate a base induced rearrangement to α,β-unsaturated imines, while azide-substituted propargylamines form triazoles under surprisingly mild conditions. A panel of propargylamines bearing fluoro or chloro substituents, polar functional groups, or basic and acidic functional groups is accessible for the use as precursors of peptidomimetics.

  15. Defining useful surrogates for user participation in online medical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddy, Peter; Ridgway, Paul F; Beddy, David; Clarke, Eric; Traynor, Oscar; Tierney, Sean

    2009-10-01

    "School for Surgeons" is a web-based distance learning program which provides online clinical-based tutorials to surgical trainees. Our aim was to determine surrogates of active participation and to assess the efficacy of methods to improve usage. Server logs of the 82 participants in the "School for Surgeons" were assessed for the two terms of the first year of the program. Data collected included total time online, mean session time, page requests, numbers of sessions online and the total number of assignments. An intervention regarding comparative peer usage patterns was delivered to the cohort between terms one and two. Of the 82 trainees enrolled, 83% (85% second term) logged into the program. Of all participants 88% (97% second term) submitted at least one assignment. Median submissions were four (eight second term) per trainee. Assignment submission closely correlated with number of sessions, total time online, downloads and page requests. Peer-based comparative feedback resulted in a significant increase in the number of assignments submitted (p learning environment by providing structured comparative feedback ranking their performance.

  16. Increase of cytotoxicity during wastewater chlorination: Impact factors and surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Lu, Yun; Hu, Hong-Ying; Yang, Yang; Liu, Rui; Liu, Feng

    2017-02-15

    Toxic and harmful disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were formed during wastewater chlorination. It was recently suggested that cytotoxicity to mammalian cells reflects risks posed by chlorinated wastewater. Here, ATP assays were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Chlorination significantly increased cytotoxicity of treated wastewater. Factors affecting cytotoxicity formation during wastewater chlorination were investigated. Quenching with sodium thiosulfate and ascorbic acid decreased the formed cytotoxicity, while ammonium kept the cytotoxicity stable. The chlorine dose required for the maximum cytotoxicity increase was dramatically affected by DOC and ammonia concentrations. The maximum cytotoxicity increase, defined as the cytotoxicity formation potential (CtFP), occurred when wastewater was treated for 48h with a chlorine dose of 2·DOC+11·NH 3 N+10 (mg-Cl 2 /L). During chlorination, the amounts of AOX formation was found to be significantly correlated with cytotoxicity formation when no DBPs were destroyed. AOX formation could be used as a surrogate to estimate cytotoxicity increase during wastewater chlorination. Besides, the CtFP of 14 treated wastewater samples was assessed ranged from 5.4-20.4mg-phenol/L. The CtFP could be estimated from UV 254 of treated wastewater because CtFP and UV 254 were strongly correlated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. You can't always get what you want : How entrepreneur's perceived resource needs affect the incubator's assertiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, Marijn; van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Nauta, Frans

    2017-01-01

    A possible explanation for the disappointing performance of incubators is that start-ups do not take full advantage of the resources offered by the incubator. In explaining the low usage of the incubator's resources, existing studies neglect that incubated entrepreneurs may not be aware of the gaps

  18. Are they really helping? : an assessment of evolving business incubators'value proposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruneel, Johan; Ratinho, Tiago; Clarysse, Bart; Groen, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    Most studies about business incubation describe an array of available services but often fail to present the tenants’ assessment quality. We set out to investigate if business incubators differ in terms of their value proposition. To do so, we identify three distinct generations of business

  19. Survival and growth of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) hatchlings after artificial incubation and repatriation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temsiripong, Y.; Woodward, A.R.; Ross, J.P.; Kubilis, P.S.; Percival, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Hatchling American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) produced from artificially incubated wild eggs were returned to their natal areas (repatriated). We compared artificially incubated and repatriated hatchlings released within and outside the maternal alligator's home range with naturally incubated hatchlings captured and released within the maternal alligator's home range on Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Orange Lake in Florida. We used probability of recapture and total length at approximately nine months after hatching as indices of survival and growth rates. Artificially incubated hatchlings released outside of the maternal alligator's home range had lower recapture probabilities than either naturally incubated hatchlings or artificially incubated hatchlings released near the original nest site. Recapture probabilities of other treatments did not differ significantly. Artificially incubated hatchlings were approximately 6% shorter than naturally incubated hatchlings at approximately nine months after hatching. We concluded that repatriation of hatchlings probably would not have long-term effects on populations because of the resiliency of alligator populations to alterations of early age-class survival and growth rates of the magnitude that we observed. Repatriation of hatchlings may be an economical alternative to repatriation of older juveniles for population restoration. However, the location of release may affect subsequent survival and growth. Copyright 2006 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  20. Tenant Recruitment and Support Processes in Sustainability-Profiled Business Incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Natasha; Kanda, Wisdom

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment and support processes in sustainability-profiled incubators have received little research attention. The article addresses this knowledge gap in an empirical investigation of three sustainability-oriented incubators in Sweden, Finland and Germany. The data are based on interviews with managers, stakeholders and tenants in Green Tech…

  1. Automatic Incubator-type Temperature Control System for Brain Hypothermia Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaohua, Lu; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    An automatic air-cooling incubator is proposed to replace the manual water-cooling blanket to control the brain tissue temperature for brain hypothermia treatment. Its feasibility is theoretically discussed as follows: First, an adult patient with the cooling incubator is modeled as a linear dynamical patient-incubator biothermal system. The patient is represented by an 18-compartment structure and described by its state equations. The air-cooling incubator provides almost same cooling effect as the water-cooling blanket, if a light breeze of speed around 3 m/s is circulated in the incubator. Then, in order to control the brain temperature automatically, an adaptive-optimal control algorithm is adopted, while the patient-blanket therapeutic system is considered as a reference model. Finally, the brain temperature of the patient-incubator biothermal system is controlled to follow up the given reference temperature course, in which an adaptive algorithm is confirmed useful for unknown environmental change and/or metabolic rate change of the patient in the incubating system. Thus, the present work ensures the development of the automatic air-cooling incubator for a better temperature regulation of the brain hypothermia treatment in ICU.

  2. Changes in the air cell volume of artificially incubated ostrich eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2160 images of candled, incubated ostrich eggs were digitized to determine the percentage of egg volume occupied by the air cell at different stages of incubation. The air cell on average occupied 2.5% of the volume of fresh eggs. For eggs that hatched successfully, this volume increased to an average of 24.4% ...

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the incubation period of Campylobacteriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofisayo-Okuyelu, A; Hall, I; Adak, G; Hawker, J I; Abbott, S; McCARTHY, N

    2017-08-01

    Accurate knowledge of pathogen incubation period is essential to inform public health policies and implement interventions that contribute to the reduction of burden of disease. The incubation period distribution of campylobacteriosis is currently unknown with several sources reporting different times. Variation in the distribution could be expected due to host, transmission vehicle, and organism characteristics, however, the extent of this variation and influencing factors are unclear. The authors have undertaken a systematic review of published literature of outbreak studies with well-defined point source exposures and human experimental studies to estimate the distribution of incubation period and also identify and explain the variation in the distribution between studies. We tested for heterogeneity using I 2 and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, regressed incubation period against possible explanatory factors, and used hierarchical clustering analysis to define subgroups of studies without evidence of heterogeneity. The mean incubation period of subgroups ranged from 2·5 to 4·3 days. We observed variation in the distribution of incubation period between studies that was not due to chance. A significant association between the mean incubation period and age distribution was observed with outbreaks involving only children reporting an incubation of 1·29 days longer when compared with outbreaks involving other age groups.

  4. A Conceptual Development Framework for Management and Leadership Learning in the UK Incubator Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Hannon, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses attention upon a recent phenomenon promoted by public sector policy and government funding and adopted within the private sector as a vehicle for wealth creation, where wealth can mean the development of different forms of capital such as financial, intellectual and social. Incubators and incubation programmes have established themselves…

  5. The Contribution of University Business Incubators to New Knowledge-based Ventures: Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Rosa; Grandi, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    University business incubators give businesses access to labs and equipment, scientific-technical knowledge, networks, and reputation. A study of incubators in Italy shows they do not resolve inadequate funding or lack of management and financial skills. However, the networking capacity can offset these problems. (Contains 25 notes/references.)…

  6. Effect of location of eggs in the incubator on hatchability of eggs from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the hatchability of all eggs set and of fertile eggs was the highest in eggs placed in the front of the machine. Furthermore, early and middle stage deaths during incubation were lower in the front of the incubator compared to the back. The differences between eggs placed in the upper, middle and lower parts of the machine ...

  7. A Study of Business Incubators: Models, Best Practices, and Recommendations for NASA and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide NASA-Kennedy Space Center with information and recommendations to support establishing one or more technology-based business incubators In Florida. The study involved assembling information about incubators: why they succeed, why they fail, how they are organized, and what services they provide. Consequently, this study focuses on widely-recognized "best practices," needed to establish successful technology- based business incubators. The findings are used to optimize the design and implementation of one or more technology-based business incubators to be established in Florida. Recommendations reflect both the essential characteristics of successful incubators and the optimal business demographics in Florida. Appendix A provides a fuller description of the objectives of the study. Technology-based business incubators are an increasing catalyst of new business development across the USi Incubators focus on providing entrepreneurs and small start-up firms with a wide array of support services necessary to bring forth new products and processes based on technologies developed in the nation's federal and private laboratories and universities. Appendix B provides extensive discussion of findings relative to technology- based business incubators.

  8. Effect of Incubator Type and Broiler Breeder Age on Hatchability and Chick Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICS Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of broiler breeder age and incubator type on hatching parameters, hatch window, embryo diagnosis results, and hatchling physical quality. The treatments consisted of a combination of three broiler breeder ages (29, 35 and 59 weeks of age and two incubator types (single stage, SS; or and multiple stage, MS. A completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied. In Experiment I, 1,896 eggs were used and 360 eggs in Experiment II. There was an interaction between breeder age and incubator type only for hatchling physical quality score. Independently of incubator type, hatchability rate, late embryo mortality, and egg contamination were higher in the eggs laid by older breeders (59-wk-old. Early mortality (0-4 days was higher in the embryos from young breeders (29-wk-old. A shorter hatch window birth was obtained in the SS incubator, resulting in higher hatchling body weight relative to egg weight, and better hatchling physical quality score. Both types of incubators provide good conditions for embryo development; however, the physical quality of chicks derived from eggs from intermediate-aged breeders (35-wk-old is better when eggs are incubated in SS incubators.

  9. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  10. Effects of temperature and CO2 during late incubation on broiler chicken development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Incubation conditions need to be adjusted to meet embryonic requirements to obtain optimal chick quality and hatchability. Eggshell temperature (EST) can be used as a non- invasive method to determine embryo temperature. A high EST of 38.9°C during the second or third week of incubation

  11. A Framework of Successful E-Business Incubator for Indonesian Public Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Gozali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many developed countries, many business incubators take part to help starts-up company to develop their own business; especially the baby born business cannot compete with the giant industries that have become the old business players. Universities play an important role in motivating young graduates to become technology entrepreneur. Unemployment in Indonesia is still the main issue for the government program to increase welfare in the future. In year 2014 the data from Statistic Center of Indonesia state that Indonesia has 4% unemployment from Indonesia’ work generation. In Indonesia, incubators has been developed since 1992 initiated by the government, Cooperative Department and also universities. This effort continued in 1997 when there was a program called the Development of Entrepreneurship Culture in universities, and of its activity was New Entrepreneur Incubator. The objectives of the research are to investigate the success factor for e-business incubator, and to propose and develop a framework for successful e-business incubator for public universities in Indonesia. Research location is in Indonesia for the public universities that have their e-business incubator. This research will conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses based on data collection from incubator managers and business founders in Indonesia. The result of this research is a framework for successful e-business incubator in Indonesian public universities.

  12. The Sustainability and Challenges of Business Incubators in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the growing interest in business incubation programmes and the benefits derived from such programmes, the path is beset by numerous challenges. This paper investigates the challenges faced by business incubators (BIs as they strive to support their clients. The study utilized a qualitative approach to collect data by way of interviews to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the concept and challenges of business incubators. The data were collected using structured and unstructured in-depth personal interviews, which were carried out with the respondents of business incubators in the Western Cape. The research participants for this study were limited to the business incubators on the database of a local organization that promotes small and medium enterprises (SMEs development strategy and programmes in the Western Cape Province. All five business incubators on the database were deemed suitable for the study. The results indicated that an average of twenty-five entrepreneurs graduated from the incubation programme in the last five years. Furthermore, lack of sponsorship, production space, advanced technological facilities (prototype and expansion to different areas were found to be among the challenges hindering incubators.

  13. High temperature and salinity enhance soil nitrogen mineralization in a tidal freshwater marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haifeng; Bai, Junhong; He, Xinhua; Zhao, Qingqing; Lu, Qiongqiong; Wang, Junjing

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization in wetlands is sensitive to various environmental factors. To compare the effects of salinity and temperature on N mineralization, wetland soils from a tidal freshwater marsh locating in the Yellow River Delta was incubated over a 48-d anaerobic incubation period under four salinity concentrations (0, 10, 20 and 35‰) and four temperature levels (10, 20, 30 and 40°C). The results suggested that accumulated ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) increased with increasing incubation time under all salinity concentrations. Higher temperatures and salinities significantly enhanced soil N mineralization except for a short-term (≈10 days) inhibiting effect found under 35‰ salinity. The incubation time, temperature, salinity and their interactions exhibited significant effects on N mineralization (Psalinity and temperature (P>0.05), while temperature exhibited the greatest effect (Pfreshwater wetlands under a range of 30 to 40°C (R2 = 0.88-0.99, Psalinity deriving from the projected global warming could have profound effects on nutrient cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems.

  14. Higher temperature sensitivity for stable than for labile soil organic carbon - Evidence from incubations of long-term bare fallow soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefèvre, Romain; Barré, Pierre; Moyano, Fernando E.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC)remains a major source of uncertainty in predicting future changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. One unsettled issue is whether the mineralization response to temperature depends on SOC mineralization rate. Long-term (>25 years......) bare fallow experiments (LTBF) in which the soil is kept free of any vegetation and organic inputs, and their associated archives of soil samples represent a unique research platform to examine this issue as with increasing duration of fallow, the lability of remaining total SOC decreases. We retrieved...... soils from LTBF experiments situated at Askov (Denmark), Grignon (France), Ultuna (Sweden), and Versailles (France) and sampled at the start of the experiments and after 25, 50, 52, and 79 years of bare fallow, respectively. Soils were incubated at 4, 12, 20, and 35 °C and the evolved CO2 monitored...

  15. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Komarova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly non-linear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology.

  16. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  17. Potential mineralization of nitrogen from organic wastes to ryegrass and wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovil, Claudia M D S; Cabral, Fernanda; Coutinho, João

    2007-12-01

    Two-pot experiments with ryegrass and wheat plants were conducted in a Cambic Arenosol to test the reliability of N fate predicted by incubation experiments previously performed, with the same soil, to assess potentially mineralizable nitrogen from six organic wastes (municipal solid waste compost, secondary pulp mill sludge, horn meal, poultry manure, solid phase from pig slurry and composted pig manure). Two treatments, corresponding to 80 and 160 kgN/ha were tested, with or without mineral N fertilization. Experimental data obtained in the pot trials was consistent with nitrogen net mineralization trend observed in the aerobic incubations with all the wastes tested. Values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N(0)) from the equations obtained by model fitting, to the incubation data, were well correlated to ryegrass and wheat N uptake. Poultry manure was the most efficient N supplier to crops.

  18. Incubation of human blood fractions leads to changes in apparent miRNA abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jørgensen, Stine Thuen; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    was performed. 19 specific miRNAs were compared in control samples (0 hours), incubated 24 hour samples, and incubated 24 hour samples with glass bead stimulation for each blood fraction. All 19 miRNAs were expressed in all blood fractions albeit at different levels for different miRNAs. Incubation resulted...... in plasma, RBC, PBMC and PMN, while expression of miR-25, miR15a, miR-126 and miR223 was significantly changed in PRP. Thus, PRP, as the only blood fraction depended on stimulation to change its miRNA profile upon incubation. For the other fractions, stimulation either leveled out the changes induced......A basic investigation on the presence and composition of miRNA species and their reaction to in vitro incubation and stimulation (borosilicate glass beads), in plasma, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), red blood cells (RBC), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells...

  19. Assessment and certification of neonatal incubator sensors through an inferential neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, José Medeiros; de Menezes, José Maria Pires; Moura de Albuquerque, Alberto Alexandre; da Mota Almeida, Otacílio; Ugulino de Araújo, Fábio Meneghetti

    2013-11-15

    Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal.

  20. Emission of volatile organic compounds from medical equipment inside neonatal incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colareta Ugarte, U; Prazad, P; Puppala, B L; Schweig, L; Donovan, R; Cortes, D R; Gulati, A

    2014-08-01

    To determine emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plastic medical equipment within an incubator. Air samples from incubators before and after adding medical equipment were analyzed using EPA TO-15 methodology. Headspace analysis was used to identify VOC emissions from each medical equipment item. Air changes per hour (ACH) of each incubator were determined and used to calculate the emission rate of identified VOCs. Cyclohexanone was identified in all incubator air samples. At 28 °C, the mean concentration before and after adding medical equipment items was 2.1 ± 0.6 and 57.2 ± 14.9 μg m(-3),respectively (Pincubator air samples containing plastic medical equipment. The concentration of cyclohexanone within the incubator was inversely related to ACH in the closed mode. The cyclohexanone concentration as well as the emission rate increased with higher temperature.

  1. Assessment and Certification of Neonatal Incubator Sensors through an Inferential Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Medeiros de Araújo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal.

  2. Salinity of incubation media influences embryonic development of a freshwater turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Deborah S; Hodges, Kate M; Georges, Arthur

    2013-02-01

    Variations in water potential have marked effects on aspects of embryological development in reptiles. Therefore variation in the salinity of the incubation environment is likely to have significant consequences on the early life stage. The combination of an extended incubation period, coupled with the real threat of soil salinisation within their range makes Chelodina expansa an ideal model to assess the influence of salinity on turtle embryology. We quantified the influence of salt on the development of C. expansa hatchlings in four substrate treatments varying in salinity. Embryos incubated in higher salinities had 39 % less survival than those incubated in substrates with freshwater. Hatchlings that emerged from eggs in saline treatments were smaller with higher concentrations of plasma sodium, chloride, urea, and potassium. The physiological effects of salinity mirror those of turtles incubated in drier media with low water potential. Salinisation of river banks has the potential to reduce hatching success and fitness of nesting reptiles.

  3. Characterization of injury in isolated rat proximal tubules during cold incubation and rewarming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bienholz

    Full Text Available Organ shortage leads to an increased utilization of marginal organs which are particularly sensitive to storage-associated damage. Cold incubation and rewarming-induced injury is iron-dependent in many cell types. In addition, a chloride-dependent component of injury has been described. This work examines the injury induced by cold incubation and rewarming in isolated rat renal proximal tubules. The tissue storage solution TiProtec® and a chloride-poor modification, each with and without iron chelators, were used for cold incubation. Incubation was performed 4°C for up to 168 h, followed by rewarming in an extracellular buffer (3 h at 37°C. After 48, 120 and 168 h of cold incubation LDH release was lower in solutions containing iron chelators. After rewarming, injury increased especially after cold incubation in chelator-free solutions. Without addition of iron chelators LDH release showed a tendency to be higher in chloride-poor solutions. Following rewarming after 48 h of cold incubation lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased and metabolic activity was tendentially better in tubules incubated with iron chelators. Morphological alterations included mitochondrial swelling and fragmentation being partially reversible during rewarming. ATP content was better preserved in chloride-rich solutions. During rewarming, there was a further decline of ATP content in the so far best conditions and minor alterations under the other conditions, while oxygen consumption was not significantly different compared to non-stored control tubules. Results show an iron-dependent component of preservation injury during cold incubation and rewarming in rat proximal renal tubules and reveal a benefit of chloride for the maintenance of tubular energy state during cold incubation.

  4. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  5. SURROGATE SPECIES IN ASSESSING CONTAMINANT RISK FOR ENDANGERED FISHES, INCLUDING INTERSPECIES TOXICITY CORRELATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout, fathead minnows, and sheepshead minnows were tested as surrogate species to assess contaminant risk for 17 endangered fishes and one toad species. Acute toxicity tests were conducted with carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and permethrin in accorda...

  6. Evaluation and Development of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the existing chemical kinetic mechanism reduction techniques. From here, an appropriate reduction scheme was developed to create compact yet comprehensive surrogate models for both diesel and biodiesel fuels for diesel engine applications. The reduction......-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study. A new reduction scheme was therefore formulated. A 68-species mechanism for biodiesel surrogate and a 49-species mechanism for diesel surrogate were successfully derived from the respective detailed mechanisms. An overall 97% reduction in species number......-hexadecane mechanism is expected to be a better representative of surrogate component for various transportation fuels such as biodiesel. Additionally, it can be applied to predict the reactivity of other n-alkane or interchange with one another for kinetic and CFD simulations....

  7. Surrogate Plant Data Base : Volume 2. Appendix C : Facilities Planning Baseline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    This four volume report consists of a data base describing "surrogate" automobile and truck manufacturing plants developed as part of a methodology for evaluating capital investment requirements in new manufacturing facilities to build new fleets of ...

  8. Surrogate Plant Data Base : Volume 4. Appendix E : Medium and Heavy Truck Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    This four volume report consists of a data base describing "surrogate" automobile and truck manufacturing plants developed as part of a methodology for evaluating capital investment requirements in new manufacturing facilities to build new fleets of ...

  9. Plutonium and surrogate fission products in a composite ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D. W.; Frank, S. M.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; Moschetti, T. L.; O'Holleran, T.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing a ceramic waste form to immobilize salt containing fission products and transuranic elements. Preliminary results have been presented for ceramic waste forms containing surrogate fission products such as cesium and the lanthanides. In this work results from scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction are presented in greater detail for ceramic waste forms containing surrogate fission products. Additionally, results for waste forms containing plutonium and surrogate fission products are presented. Most of the surrogate fission products appear to be silicates or aluminosilicates whereas the plutonium is usually found in an oxide form. There is also evidence for the presence of plutonium within the sodalite phase although the chemical speciation of the plutonium is not known

  10. Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of silver within surrogate high temperature gas reactor fuel coated particles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of metallic silver on Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD) grown silicon carbide and in Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) supplied tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles (with 500 µm diameter zirconium oxide surrogate kernel) has...

  11. An improved and explicit surrogate variable analysis procedure by coefficient adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunggeun; Sun, Wei; Wright, Fred A; Zou, Fei

    2017-06-01

    Unobserved environmental, demographic, and technical factors can negatively affect the estimation and testing of the effects of primary variables. Surrogate variable analysis, proposed to tackle this problem, has been widely used in genomic studies. To estimate hidden factors that are correlated with the primary variables, surrogate variable analysis performs principal component analysis either on a subset of features or on all features, but weighting each differently. However, existing approaches may fail to identify hidden factors that are strongly correlated with the primary variables, and the extra step of feature selection and weight calculation makes the theoretical investigation of surrogate variable analysis challenging. In this paper, we propose an improved surrogate variable analysis using all measured features that has a natural connection with restricted least squares, which allows us to study its theoretical properties. Simulation studies and real data analysis show that the method is competitive to state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Researches concerning the influence of inorganic substratum over glyphosate mineralization capacity in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica NEGREA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to study the dynamic of glyphosate mineralization in different agricultural soils characteristic to the west part of Romania: Black Chernozem, Typical Gleysol, Phaeozom and Slight Vertisol with moderate carbonatation. The degradation experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions using Glyphosatephosphonomethyl- 14C-labeled with specific activity 2,2mCi/mmol. The experimental results indicated that the dynamic of glyphosate mineralization until the stage CO2 in present of inorganic compounds is different for each soil, the mineralization of the herbicide is important in the first days of incubation and then decreases with time until the end of experimentation.

  13. 75 FR 80947 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... exercise due diligence on the source and chain of custody of its conflict minerals. These due diligence... establishing the source and chain of custody of such minerals.'' Further, the Conflict Minerals Report must... measures it had taken to exercise due diligence on the source and chain of custody of its conflict minerals...

  14. Neutron Protection Factor Determination and Validation for a Vehicle Surrogate Using a Californium Fission Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    FACTOR DETERMINATION AND VALIDATION FOR A VEHICLE SURROGATE USING A CALIFORNIUM FISSION SOURCE by Jacob D. Glesmann June 2017 Thesis...searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments...A VEHICLE SURROGATE USING A CALIFORNIUM FISSION SOURCE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jacob D. Glesmann 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  15. Variable reliability of surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Svane, Maria S; Jørgensen, Nils B; Holst, Jens J; Richter, Erik A; Madsbad, Sten

    2017-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces weight loss and improves insulin sensitivity when evaluated by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity calculated from insulin and glucose concentrations at fasting or after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) are frequently used, but have not been validated after RYGB. Our aim was to evaluate whether surrogate indices reliably estimate changes in insulin sensitivity after RYGB. Four fasting surrogates (inverse-HOMA-IR, HOMA2-%S, QUICKI, revised-QUICKI) and three OGTT-derived surrogates (Matsuda, Gutt, OGIS) were compared with HEC-estimated peripheral insulin sensitivity ( R d or R d /I, depending on how the index was originally validated) and the tracer-determined hepatic insulin sensitivity index (HISI) in patients with preoperative type 2 diabetes ( n = 10) and normal glucose tolerance ( n = 10) 1 wk, 3 mo, and 1 yr postoperatively. Post-RYGB changes in inverse-HOMA-IR and HOMA2-%S did not correlate with changes in R d at any visit, but were comparable to changes in HISI at 1 wk. Changes in QUICKI and revised-QUICKI correlated with R d /I after surgery. Changes in the Matsuda and Gutt indices did not correlate with changes in R d /I and R d , respectively, whereas OGIS changes correlated with R d changes at 1 yr post-RYGB. In conclusion, surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity may not reflect results obtained with gold standard methodology after RYGB, underscoring the importance of critical reflection when surrogate endpoints are used. Fasting surrogate indices may be particularly affected by post-RYGB changes in insulin clearance, whereas the validity of OGTT-derived surrogates may be compromised by surgical rearrangements of the gut. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Desorption of a methamphetamine surrogate from wallboard under remediation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppendieck, Dustin; Morrison, Glenn; Corsi, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Thousands of homes in the United States are found to be contaminated with methamphetamine each year. Buildings used to produce illicit methamphetamine are typically remediated by removing soft furnishings and stained materials, cleaning and sometimes encapsulating surfaces using paint. Methamphetamine that has penetrated into paint films, wood and other permanent materials can be slowly released back into the building air over time, exposing future occupants and re-contaminating furnishings. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of two wallboard remediation techniques for homes contaminated with methamphetamine: 1) enhancing desorption by elevating temperature and relative humidity while ventilating the interior space, and 2) painting over affected wallboard to seal the methamphetamine in place. The emission of a methamphetamine surrogate, N-isopropylbenzylamine (NIBA), from pre-dosed wallboard chambers over 20 days at 32 °C and two values of relative humidity were studied. Emission rates from wallboard after 15 days at 32 °C ranged from 35 to 1400 μg h-1 m-2. Less than 22% of the NIBA was removed from the chambers over three weeks. Results indicate that elevating temperatures during remediation and latex painting of impacted wallboard will not significantly reduce freebase methamphetamine emissions from wallboard. Raising the relative humidity from 27% to 49% increased the emission rates by a factor of 1.4. A steady-state model of a typical home using the emission rates from this study and typical residential building parameters and conditions shows that adult inhalation reference doses for methamphetamine will be reached when approximately 1 g of methamphetamine is present in the wallboard of a house.

  17. Validation of surrogate endpoint biomarkers in prostate cancer chemoprevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trock, B J

    2001-04-01

    Phase 2 cancer chemoprevention trials are designed to provide estimates of the efficacy of an agent at a specified dose, and the expected size of the risk reduction that may be achieved in a subsequent phase 3 randomized trial. To allow these trials to be rapid and efficient, the study outcome is modulation of a surrogate endpoint biomarker (SEB), that is, a molecular event assumed to be on the causal pathway between the chemopreventive agent and the desired reduction in cancer incidence. However, SEBs commonly used in prostate cancer chemoprevention studies, such as prostate-specific antigen, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, proliferation, and apoptosis, have not been validated by documenting that changes in the SEBs ultimately translate to decreased prostate cancer risk. Because of uncertainty in the pathway from SEBs to cancer, additional considerations are necessary to permit valid inferences from phase 2 trial data. This article considers the framework underlying validation and use of SEBs in specific chemoprevention models and methodologic issues in quantifying the effect of an agent. In particular, inferences depend on whether a single pathway involving the SEBs is assumed to mediate the effect of the agent on cancer incidence. If there are competing pathways of equal or greater importance than the one involving the candidate SEB, then the estimate of chemopreventive efficacy will be biased and may greatly underestimate the magnitude of the achievable risk reduction. Strategies for validating biomarkers and minimizing the degree of bias in the risk reduction estimate are discussed. Finally, problems associated with phase 2 study designs commonly used for prostate cancer chemoprevention are discussed, along with possible solutions.

  18. Enhancing Convective Heat Transfer over a Surrogate Photovoltaic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Fama

    This research is particularly focused on studying heat transfer enhancement of a photovoltaic (PV) panel by putting an obstacle at the panel's windward edge. The heat transfer enhancement is performed by disturbing the airflow over the surface and increasing the heat and momentum transfer. Different objects such as triangular, square, rectangular, and discrete rectangular ribs and partial grids were applied at the leading edge of a surrogate PV panel and flow and the heat transfer of the panel are investigated experimentally. This approach was selected to expand understanding of effect of these different objects on the flow and turbulence structures over a flat surface by analyzing the flow comprehensively. It is observed that, a transverse object at the plate's leading edge would cause some flow blockage in the streamwise direction, but at the same time creates some velocity in the normal and cross stream directions. In addition to that, the obstacle generates some turbulence over the surface which persists for a long downstream distance. Also, among all studied objects, discrete rectangular ribs demonstrate the highest heat transfer rate enhancement (maximum Nu/Nu0 of 1.5). However, ribs with larger gap ratios are observed to be more effective at enhancing the heat transfer augmentation at closer distances to the rib, while at larger downstream distances from the rib, discrete ribs with smaller gap ratios are more effective. Furthermore, this work attempted to recognize the most influential flow parameters on the heat transfer enhancement of the surface. It is seen that the flow structure over a surface downstream of an object (flow separation-reattachment behaviour) has a significant effect on the heat transfer enhancement trend. Also, turbulence intensities are the most dominant parameters in enhancing the heat transfer rate from the surface; however, flow velocity (mostly normal velocity) is also an important factor.

  19. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian France

    Full Text Available Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling. Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  20. Modeling of Heating and Evaporation of FACE I Gasoline Fuel and its Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid

    2016-04-05

    The US Department of Energy has formulated different gasoline fuels called \\'\\'Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE)\\'\\' to standardize their compositions. FACE I is a low octane number gasoline fuel with research octane number (RON) of approximately 70. The detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA) of FACE I shows that it contains 33 components. This large number of components cannot be handled in fuel spray simulation where thousands of droplets are directly injected in combustion chamber. These droplets are to be heated, broken-up, collided and evaporated simultaneously. Heating and evaporation of single droplet FACE I fuel was investigated. The heating and evaporation model accounts for the effects of finite thermal conductivity, finite liquid diffusivity and recirculation inside the droplet, referred to as the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model. The temporal variations of the liquid mass fractions of the droplet components were used to characterize the evaporation process. Components with similar evaporation characteristics were merged together. A representative component was initially chosen based on the highest initial mass fraction. Three 6 components surrogates, Surrogate 1-3, that match evaporation characteristics of FACE I have been formulated without keeping same mass fractions of different hydrocarbon types. Another two surrogates (Surrogate 4 and 5) were considered keeping same hydrocarbon type concentrations. A distillation based surrogate that matches measured distillation profile was proposed. The calculated molar mass, hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratio and RON of Surrogate 4 and distillation based one are close to those of FACE I.

  1. Surrogate alcohol containing methanol, social deprivation and public health in Novosibirsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Maria; Lachenmeier, Dirk; Hausler, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    Surrogate alcohol, i.e. alcohol not intended or not officially intended for human consumption, continues to play an important role in alcohol consumption in Russia, especially for people with alcohol dependence. Among the different types of surrogate alcohol, there are windshield washer antifreeze liquids; these products are the cheapest kinds of non-beverage alcohol available and thus likely to be used by the most deprived and marginalised groups such as homeless people with alcohol dependence. Although it is well known, that non-beverage alcohol is used for consumption by various groups in Russia, and although there are laws to prohibit the use of methanol as part of windshield washer antifreeze liquids for the very reason that such products could be used as surrogate alcohol, we detected products in retail sale which were a mix of water and methanol only. Methanol poses serious health threats including blindness and death, and there had been repeated methanol deaths from surrogate alcohol in Russia over the last years. If law-enforcement does not change for surrogate products, we can expect more methanol-resulting deaths in the most deprived and marginalized groups of people with alcohol dependence in Russia. In addition, ingredients with questionable safety profiles such as formic acid should also be prohibited in non-beverage alcohol products that are likely to be consumed as surrogate alcohol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Comparative study of surrogate models for groundwater contamination source identification at DNAPL-contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zeyu; Lu, Wenxi

    2018-05-01

    Knowledge of groundwater contamination sources is critical for effectively protecting groundwater resources, estimating risks, mitigating disaster, and designing remediation strategies. Many methods for groundwater contamination source identification (GCSI) have been developed in recent years, including the simulation-optimization technique. This study proposes utilizing a support vector regression (SVR) model and a kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) model to enrich the content of the surrogate model. The surrogate model was itself key in replacing the simulation model, reducing the huge computational burden of iterations in the simulation-optimization technique to solve GCSI problems, especially in GCSI problems of aquifers contaminated by dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). A comparative study between the Kriging, SVR, and KELM models is reported. Additionally, there is analysis of the influence of parameter optimization and the structure of the training sample dataset on the approximation accuracy of the surrogate model. It was found that the KELM model was the most accurate surrogate model, and its performance was significantly improved after parameter optimization. The approximation accuracy of the surrogate model to the simulation model did not always improve with increasing numbers of training samples. Using the appropriate number of training samples was critical for improving the performance of the surrogate model and avoiding unnecessary computational workload. It was concluded that the KELM model developed in this work could reasonably predict system responses in given operation conditions. Replacing the simulation model with a KELM model considerably reduced the computational burden of the simulation-optimization process and also maintained high computation accuracy.

  3. A Conceptual Model of the Role of Communication in Surrogate Decision Making for Hospitalized Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torke, Alexia M.; Petronio, Sandra; Sachs, Greg A.; Helft, Paul R.; Purnell, Christianna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To build a conceptual model of the role of communication in decision making, based on literature from medicine, communication studies and medical ethics. Methods We propose a model and describe each construct in detail. We review what is known about interpersonal and patient-physician communication, describe literature about surrogate-clinician communication, and discuss implications for our developing model. Results The communication literature proposes two major elements of interpersonal communication: information processing and relationship building. These elements are composed of constructs such as information disclosure and emotional support that are likely to be relevant to decision making. We propose these elements of communication impact decision making, which in turn affects outcomes for both patients and surrogates. Decision making quality may also mediate the relationship between communication and outcomes. Conclusion Although many elements of the model have been studied in relation to patient-clinician communication, there is limited data about surrogate decision making. There is evidence of high surrogate distress associated with decision making that may be alleviated by communication–focused interventions. More research is needed to test the relationships proposed in the model. Practice Implications Good communication with surrogates may improve both the quality of medical decisions and outcomes for the patient and surrogate. PMID:21889865

  4. Development of an instrumented spinal cord surrogate using optical fibers: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinello, Yann; Wagnac, Éric; Ung, Bora; Petit, Yvan; Pradhan, Prabin; Peyrache, Louis-Marie; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-01

    In vitro replication of traumatic spinal cord injury is necessary to understand its biomechanics and to improve animal models. During a traumatic spinal cord injury, the spinal cord withstands an impaction at high velocity. In order to fully assess the impaction, the use of spinal canal occlusion sensor is necessary. A physical spinal cord surrogate is also often used to simulate the presence of the spinal cord and its surrounding structures. In this study, an instrumented physical spinal cord surrogate is presented and validated. The sensing is based on light transmission loss observed in embedded bare optical fibers subjected to bending. The instrumented surrogate exhibits similar mechanical properties under static compression compared to fresh porcine spinal cords. The instrumented surrogate has a compression sensing threshold of 40% that matches the smallest compression values leading to neurological injuries. The signal obtained from the sensor allows calculating the compression of the spinal cord surrogate with a maximum of 5% deviation. Excellent repeatability was also observed under repetitive loading. The proposed instrumented spinal cord surrogate is promising with satisfying mechanical properties and good sensing capability. It is the first attempt at proposing a method to assess the internal loads sustained by the spinal cord during a traumatic injury. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A surrogate fuel formulation to characterize heating and evaporation of light naphtha droplets

    KAUST Repository

    Kabil, I.

    2018-03-08

    Light naphtha (LN) is gaining interest in internal combustion (IC) engine applications due to its low refining cost and higher heating values compared to commercial gasoline. To properly describe the chemical and physical behavior of the LN fuel under IC engine conditions, a systematic procedure to develop unified physical and chemical surrogates is described. The reduced component models to describe the chemical characteristics of LN are combined with the effective thermal conductivity/effective diffusivity (ETC/ED) model to represent the accurate evaporation behavior. Three surrogate fuels consisting of three to five components are presented and their performance in heating and evaporation of a single LN droplet is compared against the conventional primary reference fuel (PRF65) surrogate which is based on chemical aspects only. Unlike the previous approaches, the new surrogates also target matching the hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and research octane number in order to accurately describe the chemical behavior of the fuel. Subsequently, the performance of the surrogates in describing spray characteristics is tested by computational simulations compared with experimental measurements. The simulations were carried out using CONVERGE CFD package. The ETC/ED model was implemented into CONVERGE using user-defined functions. The predicted spray penetration length for the developed surrogates shows good agreement with the experimental data. At engine-like conditions, the ETC/ED model predicts higher vapor mass than the infinite thermal conductivity/infinite diffusivity model, hence showing the expected trend by incorporating the realistic droplet heating process.

  6. Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Anti-Fusarium Activity and Optimization of Incubation Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Vegi, Anuradha; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2017-10-01

    Anti-Fusarium activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus plantarum 299V, L. plantarum NRRL-4496, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1 were determined by a microdilution assay developed in this study against Fusarium graminearum 08/RG/BF/51. A cell-free Lactobacillus culture supernatant (CFLCS) of L. rhamnosus VT1 had the highest anti-Fusarium activity. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the incubation conditions for production of CFLCS. A Box-Behnken factorial design was used to investigate the effects of incubation time, shaking speed, and incubation temperature on the inhibition rate of CFLCS. A model equation was generated to predict the inhibition rate of CFLCS under various incubation conditions. A low probability value (0.0012) and associated F value of 25.10 suggested that the model was highly significant. A high R 2 value (0.978) indicated a very satisfactory model performance. Response surface methodology analysis suggested that an incubation temperature at 34°C, a shaking speed at 170 rpm, and an incubation time of 55 h were the best combination for production of CFLCS from L. rhamnosus VT1. Under these incubation conditions, a 10% L. rhamnosus VT1 CFLCS solution was predicted to inhibit the growth of F. graminearum by 75.6% in vitro and inhibited 83.7% of the growth in the validation experiment. Thus, the CFLCS of L. rhamnosus VT1 was an effective anti-Fusarium mixture.

  7. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  8. The infant incubator in the neonatal intensive care unit: unresolved issues and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Roberto; Porcella, Annalisa; Fanos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Since the 19th century, devices termed incubators were developed to maintain thermal stability in low birth weight (LBW) and sick newborns, thus improving their chances of survival. Remarkable progress has been made in the production of infant incubators, which are currently highly technological devices. However, they still need to be improved in many aspects. Regarding the temperature and humidity control, future incubators should minimize heat loss from the neonate and eddies around him/her. An unresolved issue is exposure to high noise levels in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Strategies aimed at modifying the behavior of NICU personnel, along with structural improvements in incubator design, are required to reduce noise exposure. Light environment should be taken into consideration in designing new models of incubators. In fact, ambient NICU illumination may cause visual pathway sequelae or possibly retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), while premature exposure to continuous lighting may adversely affect the rest-activity patterns of the newborn. Accordingly, both the use of incubator covers and circadian lighting in the NICU might attenuate these effects. The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on infant health is still unclear. However, future incubators should be designed to minimize the EMF exposure of the newborn.

  9. Impact of nursing care on temperature environment in preterm newborns nursed in closed convective incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguines, C; Dégrugilliers, L; Ghyselen, L; Chardon, K; Bach, V; Tourneux, P

    2013-03-01

    Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates require regular nursing procedures with frequent opening of the incubator resulting in a decrease in incubator air temperature. This study was designed to assess changes in the thermal status of VLBW neonates according to the type of nursing care and incubator openings. Thirty-one VLBW neonates (mean gestational age: 28.7 ± 0.3 weeks of gestation) were included. Over a 10-day period, each opening of the incubator was recorded together with details about caregiving. Body temperature was recorded continuously, and door opening and closing events were recorded by a video camera. This study analysed 1,798 caregiving procedures with mean durations ranging from 6.2 ± 2.1 to 88.5 ± 33.4 min. Abdominal skin temperature decreased by up to 1.08°C/h for procedures such as tracheal intubation (p incubator opening (p neonates nursed in skin temperature servo-control incubators, the decrease in abdominal skin temperature during caregiving was correlated with the type of procedure, incubator opening modalities and procedure duration. These parameters should be considered to optimize the thermal management of VLBW neonates. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  10. DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN ISO 9001:2008 IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTS IN INCUBATED TECHNOLOGY-BASED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gome Salgado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality Management Systems (QMS are designed to continuously improve the performance of organizations aiming to constantly improve their services seeking to overcome their results. Thus, for the services and/or products offered to transmit confidence and credibility, they should be designed within appropriate norms and standards. This research aims to assess the difficulties encountered by the incubated companies participating in the PRIME-FINEP project and developing projects for certification of their QMS in accordance with ISO 9001:2008. An exploratory survey was performed in nine incubated technology-based companies (TBC, through a questionnaire with 21 questions totaling the opinion of 20 respondents. After analyzing the data it is concluded, with statistical meaning, that the TBC's with little incubation time present difficulties in implementing the quality policy (5.3, difficulty not identified in other studies conducted in large companies. However difficulties similar to those of the large companies are present in the incubated TBC, and are the following: documentation requirements (4.2 present in all incubated companies (regardless of incubation time, and design and development (7.3 present in companies with little incubation time. The difficulty in implementing the quality policy (5.3 is reflected in the achievement of the QMS certification project in accordance with ISO 9001:2008.

  11. Incubation temperature affects the behavior of adult leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, D; Tousignant, A; Crews, D

    1994-06-01

    The leopard gecko has temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD); females are predominantly produced when incubated at 26 degrees C (100%), 30 degrees C (70%), and 34 degrees C (95%), whereas males are predominantly produced at 32.5 degrees C (75%). Exogenous estradiol can override the effect of temperature on sex determination. To compare temperature-determined females with hormone-determined females, eggs from the male-biased temperature were treated with estradiol benzoate during incubation. As adults, animals from a male-biased incubation temperature were more likely to exhibit aggression than animals from female-biased incubation temperatures. Furthermore, females from a male-biased incubation temperature tended to be less attractive than females from female-biased temperatures. Hormone-determined females were both attractive and aggressive. This suggests that incubation temperature is an important development determinant of adult aggressiveness and attractiveness. The 26 degrees C animals ovariectomized on the day of hatch exhibited more frequent aggression and were unreceptive to males, indicating that postnatal ovarian hormones also play a role in adult sociosexual behaviors. The parallel between incubation temperature and intrauterine position in laboratory mammals is discussed.

  12. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPANY AND INCUBATOR FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Ferreira Alves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biotechnology activities development demands an intense academic and scientific basis, a productive sector capable of transforming academic research in scientific products and services, and the creation of an institutional environment to promote the sector’s development. Moreover, many biotechnology companies establish formal partnerships with Universities (by technological incubator to expand innovative capacity coming into the market. The importance of biotechnology for developing countries is perceived by its ability to promote national development based on knowledge and innovation. In Brazil, the government establishes technological incubators to accelerate the company consolidation. In this way, it is important to study the relationship between the actors involved. In this context, this article aims to analyze the relationship between a technological incubator and a biotech company. To do so, the qualitative approach was adopted to reach the objective. Interviews with incubator’s employees of a Brazilian University and biotechnology company’s managers were conducted. The results show that the company-incubator interaction promoted projects approval which were able to support new researches development and to purchase production equipment. Incubated companies have higher chances of survival in the market from the interaction with University, through the technological incubator. The relationship between the incubator and the biotech company is considered a fundamental condition for biotechnology activities development.

  13. Noise level in neonatal incubators: A comparative study of three models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Zacarías, F; Beira Jiménez, J L; Bustillo Velázquez-Gaztelu, P J; Hernández Molina, R; Lubián López, Simón

    2018-04-01

    Preterm infants usually have to spend a long time in an incubator, excessive noise in which can have adverse physiological and psychological effects on neonates. In fact, incubator noise levels typically range from 45 to 70 dB but differences in this respect depend largely on the noise measuring method used. The primary aim of this work was to assess the extent to which noise in an incubator comes from its own fan and how efficiently the incubator can isolate external noise. Three different incubator models were characterized for acoustic performance by measuring their internal noise levels in an anechoic chamber, and also for noise isolation efficiency by using a pink noise source in combination with an internal and an external microphone that were connected to an SVAN958 noise analyzer. The incubators studied produced continuous equivalent noise levels of 53.5-58 dB and reduced external noise by 5.2-10.4 dB. A preterm infant in an incubator is exposed to noise levels clearly exceeding international recommendations even though such levels usually comply with the limit set in the standard IEC60601-2-19: 2009 (60 dBA) under normal conditions of use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E; Auer, Sonya K; Bassar, Ronald D; Niklison, Alina M; Lloyd, Penn

    2007-11-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized.

  15. Biochemical ripening of dredged sediments. Part 1. Kinetics of biological organic matter mineralization and chemical sulfur oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Johan; van Gool, Martine P M; Dorleijn, Arne S; Joziasse, Jan; Bruning, Harry; Rulkens, Wim H; Grotenhuis, J T C Tim

    2007-12-01

    After dredged sediments have settled in a temporary upland disposal site, ripening starts, which turns waterlogged sediment into aerated soil. Aerobic biological mineralization of organic matter (OM) and chemical oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds are the major biochemical ripening processes. Quantitative data describing these processes are scarce. Therefore, aerobic oxidation and mineralization of five previously anaerobic dredged sediments were studied during a 160-d laboratory incubation experiment at 30 degrees C. A double exponential decay model could adequately describe sulfur oxidation and OM mineralization kinetics. During the first 7 d of incubation, 23 to 80% of the total sulfur was oxidized, after which no further sulfur oxidation was observed. Oxygen used for sulfur oxidation amounted up to 95% of the total oxygen uptake in the first 7 d and up to 45% of the oxygen uptake during the entire incubation period. Mineralization rates of the rapidly mineralizable OM fractions that degraded during the first 14 to 28 d of incubation were 10(2) to 10(3) times higher than the mineralization rates of the slowly mineralizable OM during the remaining period. First-order mineralization rates of the slowly mineralizable OM were 0.22 x 10(-3) to 0.54 x 10(-3) d(-1) and can be compared with those of terrestrial soils. Yields of biomass on substrate ranged from 0.08 to 0.45 g C(biomass)/g C(OM) and appeared to be higher for rapidly mineralizing OM than for slowly mineralizing OM. The results of this study can be used to optimize conditions during temporary disposal of sediments, to estimate the potential decrease in OM, and for future studies on the possible link between OM mineralization and degradation of hydrophobic organic contaminants.

  16. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  17. Mineralization of organic phosphorus in soil size fractions under different vegetation covers in the north of Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Rita,Joice Cleide de Oliveira; Gama-Rodrigues,Antonio Carlos; Gama-Rodrigues,Emanuela Forestieri; Zaia,Francisco Costa; Nunes,Danielle Aparecida Duarte

    2013-01-01

    In unfertilized, highly weathered tropical soils, phosphorus (P) availability to plants is dependent on the mineralization of organic P (Po) compounds. The objective of this study was to estimate the mineralization of total and labile Po in soil size fractions of > 2.0, 2.0-0.25 and < 0.25 mm under leguminous forest tree species, pasture and "capoeira" (secondary forest) in the 0-10 cm layer of a Red-Yellow Latosol after 90 d of incubation. The type of vegetation cover, soil incubation tim...

  18. Implementation of PID control using Arduino microcontrollers for glucose measurements and micro incubator applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Hugo; Mattsson, Viktor; Senek, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    The task is to build a low-cost thermostat and design necessary elements to perform a study on water mixed glucose-impedance at different temperatures and cell growth in a temperature-controlled incubator housing a magnetic field of up to 3 mT. The incubator was designed in solidworks and made to fit petri dishes of two relevant sizes and necessary wiring. The coils designed to extend across the large of the incubator with six turns and a 4A current to yield a sixth of the required magnetic f...

  19. Role of Anterior Intralaminar Nuclei of Thalamus Projections to Dorsomedial Striatum in Incubation of Methamphetamine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Witonsky, Kailyn R; Lofaro, Olivia M; Surjono, Felicia; Zhang, Jianjun; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2018-02-28

    Relapse to methamphetamine (Meth) seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration (incubation of Meth craving). We previously demonstrated a role of dorsomedial striatum (DMS) dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) in this incubation. Here, we studied the role of afferent glutamatergic projections into the DMS and local D1R-glutamate interaction in this incubation in male rats. We first measured projection-specific activation on day 30 relapse test by using cholera toxin b (retrograde tracer) + Fos (activity marker) double-labeling in projection areas. Next, we determined the effect of pharmacological reversible inactivation of lateral or medial anterior intralaminar nuclei of thalamus (AIT-L or AIT-M) on incubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 30. We then used an anatomical asymmetrical disconnection procedure to determine whether an interaction between AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections and postsynaptic DMS D1Rs contributes to incubated Meth seeking. We also determined the effect of unilateral inactivation of AIT-L and D1R blockade of DMS on incubated Meth seeking, and the effect of contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections on nonincubated Meth seeking on withdrawal day 1. Incubated Meth seeking was associated with selective activation of AIT→DMS projections; other glutamatergic projections to DMS were not activated. AIT-L (but not AIT-M) inactivation or anatomical disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections decreased incubated Meth seeking. Unilateral inactivation of AIT-L or D1R blockade of the DMS had no effect on incubated Meth craving, and contralateral disconnection of AIT-L→DMS projections had no effect on nonincubated Meth seeking. Our results identify a novel role of AIT-L and AIT-L→DMS glutamatergic projections in incubation of drug craving and drug seeking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Methamphetamine seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from drug self-administration, a phenomenon termed incubation of

  20. Incubation Effect on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Produced Using Colloidal Gas Aphrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifful Kamaluddin Muzakir; Shahidan Radiman

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles has been synthesized using colloidal gas aphrons as template. Zinc sulfate (ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O) and ammonia gas used as reactants. The incubation periods that have been studied are 2 h and 18 h. From the scanning electron microscope analysis, nano sheet morphology can be observed with thickness of 125 nm to 200 nm. From the UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis, the estimated average size for zinc oxide nanoparticles with 2 h incubation time is 2:03 nm and 2.1 nm for 18 h of incubation time. (author)

  1. Decomposition and nitrogen release patterns of Gliricidia sepium tree residues under controlled incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintu, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Tree legumes can serve as nitrogen (N) source for cereals in resource poor farms where chemical fertilizer is financially unaffordable. Over the past decade, ICRAF and partners have developed several 'fertilizer tree systems' that are low-cost, easy to manage, highly productive and profitable. These have been widely disseminated in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, much work remains to broaden the scientific underpinning of these systems and develop the management principles to guide further research and dissemination into areas beyond the initial pilot research areas. Gliricidia sepium roots and leaves, as individual components and as a mixture, were incubated in an 15 N labeled acidic Ultisol under controlled laboratory conditions. Decomposition was monitored as CO 2 evolution and inorganic N released over time. The aim was to determine inorganic soil N and pH dynamics as affected by residue quality. This study used 15 N dilution method to determine 'percent N derived from tree residues (%Ndfr) of G. sepium residues. The greatest attribute of this technique is its ability to distinguish between residue-N and soil derived N. The possibility to distinguish between the major N forms (nitrate and ammonium-N) and their quantities at different stages of decomposition exists, according to this study. This information is valuable in predicting the fate of applied residue N in actual field situations, since the forms and quantity of available soil N determine the magnitude of N loss to the environment or utilization by crop under respective field conditions and practices. The 15 N dilution method, leading to computation of %Ndfr therefore, offers an invaluable qualitative and quantitative way of measuring N mineralization from agroforestry residues. Our results showed that NO 3 -Ndfr remained low through out the study, indicating that loss of Ndfr via NO 3 -N leaching would probably not be an important concern. However, inorganic N availability from

  2. Controllable mineral coatings on PCL scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Darilis; Barnhart, Kara; Migneco, Francesco; Flanagan, Colleen; Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have developed mineral coatings on polycaprolactone scaffolds to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO(3)) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mm, 25 mm, and 100 mm. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite, the major inorganic constituent of human bone tissue in coatings formed in all HCO(3) concentrations. Mineral coatings with increased HCO(3) substitution showed more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate but showed re-precipitation in an environment with the aforementioned ions. The mineral coating provided an effective mechanism for growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. We also demonstrated sustained release of all growth factors with release kinetics that were strongly dependent in the solubility of the mineral coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis for grouping of factors of performance of technology-based enterprise in incubators: study of the incubators of the State of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Andrade Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study it has for objective to evaluate the capacity of overcoming of difficulties of Technology-based enterprise in incubators, aiming at to the proposal of action of improvements and performance for groupings, using as reference the incubators the State of Santa Catarina. The used methodology privileges the qualitative approach. The research is characterized for being of the type description-exploratory, carried through under the study form multicase. The interview constitutes the main instrument of collection of data. Intentional samples had been used to select the citizens of this inquiry. For presentation and analysis of the data set and interpretation of the verbal stories, it was used technique of content analysis and the technique of triangulation for quarrel of the results. The results of the research had allowed identifying to the difficulties of resident enterprise in incubators and its relevance in the overcoming of the difficulties on the basis of four groupings: in the financial restrictions, of management, production and commercialization considering elements that allow action of improvement. Moreover, the research contributes practice by proposing of actions for improvements to be adopted by companies and also by incubators in order to improve their factors of performance and evaluation.

  4. Biomedically assisted reproduction and child birth: Surrogate motherhood in comparative European law and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate motherhood is an arrangement in which a woman agrees to carry and deliver a child for another couple who ordered the pregnancy. This procedure is applied today in Great Britain, Holland (although without legal regulations, Israel, Greece, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, the USA and Australia, and it is forbidden in France, Austria, Spain, Germany, Switzerland and Slovenia. There are two types of surrogacy, one when the woman gives birth to a child who is genetically her own ("partial", genetic surrogacy, and the other where the surrogate mother only carries and gives birth to a child, whereby the child is genetically from the couple that wanted the child, or the fertilized egg is from a third woman (donor, or the embryo was donated ("full", "total", gestational surrogacy. In these cases two women take part in conception and birth of the child while in the last case there is a third woman who will raise the child. Biologically observed, the woman whose egg has been fertilized may be called the genetic mother, while the woman who carried the pregnancy and gave birth to the child - the gestational carrier. Taking into consideration that the Preliminary Draft of the Serbian Civil Law anticipates the introduction of surrogate motherhood into domestic law, we believe restrictive solutions should first be taken into consideration. This would mean that only full surrogating should be allowed, namely the egg should be from the woman who wants the child and not the surrogate mother. In domestic conditions, genetic surrogation should not be allowed as it leads to confusion in family relations, and kinships still have an important social and legal significance in our country. The surrogate mother should be a woman who has already given birth, because in that way any possible shocks which might arise after birth when the woman who has to handover the child to the intended couple would be avoided. The next condition would be that persons involved in this

  5. Circumpolar assessment of permafrost C quality and its vulnerability over time using long-term incubation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädel, Christina; Schuur, Edward A G; Bracho, Rosvel; Elberling, Bo; Knoblauch, Christian; Lee, Hanna; Luo, Yiqi; Shaver, Gaius R; Turetsky, Merritt R

    2014-02-01

    High-latitude ecosystems store approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon (C), which is twice as much C as is currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw and subsequent microbial decomposition of permafrost organic matter could add large amounts of C to the atmosphere, thereby influencing the global C cycle. The rates at which C is being released from the permafrost zone at different soil depths and across different physiographic regions are poorly understood but crucial in understanding future changes in permafrost C storage with climate change. We assessed the inherent decomposability of C from the permafrost zone by assembling a database of long-term (>1 year) aerobic soil incubations from 121 individual samples from 23 high-latitude ecosystems located across the northern circumpolar permafrost zone. Using a three-pool (i.e., fast, slow and passive) decomposition model, we estimated pool sizes for C fractions with different turnover times and their inherent decomposition rates using a reference temperature of 5 °C. Fast cycling C accounted for less than 5% of all C in both organic and mineral soils whereas the pool size of slow cycling C increased with C : N. Turnover time at 5 °C of fast cycling C typically was below 1 year, between 5 and 15 years for slow turning over C, and more than 500 years for passive C. We project that between 20 and 90% of the organic C could potentially be mineralized to CO2 within 50 incubation years at a constant temperature of 5 °C, with vulnerability to loss increasing in soils with higher C : N. These results demonstrate the variation in the vulnerability of C stored in permafrost soils based on inherent differences in organic matter decomposability, and point toward C : N as an index of decomposability that has the potential to be used to scale permafrost C loss across landscapes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Effects of variable temperature on organic carbon mineralization in typical limestone soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Ge; Gao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Chang-Huan; Ci, En; Xie, De-Ti

    2014-11-01

    Soil sampling in the field and incubation experiment in the laboratory were conducted to investigate the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization to variable temperature regimes in the topsoil of limestone soils from forest land and dry land. Two incubated limestone soils were sampled from the 0-10 cm layers of typical forest land and dry land respectively, which were distributed in Tianlong Mountain area of Puding county, Guizhou province. The soils were incubated for 56 d under two different temperature regimes including variable temperature (range: 15-25 degrees C, interval: 12 h) and constant temperature (20 degrees C), and the cumulative temperature was the same in the two temperature treatments. In the entire incubation period (56 d), the SOC cumulative mineralization (63.32 mg x kg(-1)) in the limestone soil from dry land (SH) under the variable temperature was lower than that (63.96 mg x kg(-1)) at constant 20 degrees C, and there was no significant difference in the SOC cumulative mineralization between the variable and constant temperature treatments (P variable temperature was significantly lower than that (209.52 mg x kg(-1)) at constant 20 degrees C. The results indicated that the responses of SOC mineralization to the variable temperature were obviously different between SL and SH soils. The SOC content and composition were significantly different between SL and SH soils affected by vegetation and land use type, which suggested that SOC content and composition were important factors causing the different responses of SOC mineralization to variable temperature between SL and SH soils. In addition, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of two limestone soils were highly (P variable temperature mainly influenced SOC mineralization by changing microbial community activity rather than by changing microbial quantity.

  7. Microbial mineralization of organic nitrogen forms in poultry litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Cook, Kimberly L; Warren, Jason G; Eiteman, Mark A; Sistani, Karamat

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization from the mineralization of uric acid and urea has a major impact on the poultry industry and the environment. Dry acids are commonly used to reduce ammonia emissions from poultry houses; however, little is known about how acidification affects the litter biologically. The goal of this laboratory incubation was to compare the microbiological and physiochemical effects of dry acid amendments (Al+Clear, Poultry Litter Treatment, Poultry Guard) on poultry litter to an untreated control litter and to specifically correlate uric acid and urea contents of these litters to the microbes responsible for their mineralization. Although all three acidifiers eventually produced similar effects within the litter, there was at least a 2-wk delay in the microbiological responses using Poultry Litter Treatment. Acidification of the poultry litter resulted in >3 log increases in total fungal concentrations, with both uricolytic (uric acid degrading) and ureolytic (urea degrading) fungi increasing by >2 logs within the first 2 to 4 wk of the incubation. Conversely, total, uricolytic, and ureolytic bacterial populations all significantly declined during this same time period. While uric acid and urea mineralization occurred within the first 2 wk in the untreated control litter, acidification resulted in delayed mineralization events for both uric acid and urea (2 and 4 wk delay, respectively) once fungal cell concentrations exceeded a threshold level. Therefore, fungi, and especially uricolytic fungi, appear to have a vital role in the mineralization of organic N in low-pH, high-N environments, and the activity of these fungi should be considered in best management practices to reduce ammonia volatilization from acidified poultry litter.

  8. Perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas The profile of the support offered by the brazilian incubators to the incubated companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Maury Raupp

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo objetiva delinear o perfil do suporte oferecido pelas incubadoras brasileiras às empresas incubadas. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de natureza quanti-qualitativa, realizado por meio de pesquisa survey. A população da pesquisa corresponde a 179 incubadoras brasileiras, tendo-se obtido um retorno de 37 delas. A coleta de dados deu-se com base em questionário enviado por e-mail aos coordenadores das incubadoras. Inicia-se o estudo fazendo uma breve incursão teórica acerca de incubadoras de empresas, fases do processo de incubação e suporte das incubadoras às empresas incubadas. Na seqüência, identifica-se os procedimentos metodológicos adotados. Em seguida, procede-se à descrição e análise dos dados coletados. Por último, apresenta-se as conclusões do estudo realizado, bem como recomendações para futuras pesquisas.The goal of this article is to outline the profile of the support offered by the Brazilian incubators to the incubated companies. This is a descriptive study, based on both quality and quantity, done through a survey. The target of the research was 179 Brazilian incubators, having heard from 37 of them. The data collection was based on questionnaire sent through e-mail to the coordinators of the incubators. The study began with a brief theoretical foray about incubators of companies. After that, the adopted methodological procedures are identified. Then, the description and the analysis of the data collected are done. At last, the conclusion of the study and recommendation for future researches are presented.

  9. Uranium mineralizations in Niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Ch.; Gerbeaud, O.; James, O.; Le Goux, F.; Pouradier, A.; Salabert, J.; Wagani, I.; Breton, G.; Feybesse, J.L.; Parize, O.; Wattinne, A.; Flotte, N.; Brouand, M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the analysis of mineralizations located in the Tim Mersoi basin in Niger where sediments deposited between the Paleozoic and the Cretaceous era. They analyse and describe the tectonic evolution of this area during different periods, and focus on some specific uranium mineralisation sites

  10. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goso, H.

    1967-01-01

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  11. Vitamins and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... animal products at all, including dairy products) may need to take vitamin supplements. If you're thinking about becoming a ... eating plan that includes the nutrients your body needs. Check with your doctor before taking vitamin or mineral supplements. Some people think that if ...

  12. The design of neonatal incubators: a systems-oriented, human-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, T K; Shepley, M M

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a multidisciplinary design project conducted in an academic setting reflecting a systems-oriented, human-centered philosophy in the design of neonatal incubator technologies. Graduate students in Architectural Design and Human Factors Engineering courses collaborated in a design effort that focused on supporting the needs of three user groups of incubator technologies: infant patients, family members and medical personnel. Design teams followed established human-centered design methods that included interacting with representatives from the user groups, analyzing sets of critical tasks and conducting usability studies with existing technologies. An iterative design and evaluation process produced four conceptual designs of incubators and supporting equipment that better address specific needs of the user groups. This report introduces the human-centered design approach, highlights some of the analysis findings and design solutions, and offers a set of design recommendations for future incubation technologies.

  13. Multi-channel real time active noise control system for infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lichuan; Gujjula, Shruthi; Kuo, Sen M

    2009-01-01

    Excessive noise levels inside infants incubators in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) contribute to number of harmful effects on the infant's health. This paper develops and implements practical active noise control (ANC) systems for the infant incubators. The filtered-X least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm is used to cancel the noise inside the incubator. The multi-channel and pseudo multi-channel ANC systems are proposed to enhance the noise cancellation performance in terms of cancellation gain and quiet zone. An experimental setup based on real Giraffe incubator from GE Healthcare is used for real-time experiments. The results show that the ANC system can dramatically reduce the noise and cost effective.

  14. How do entrepreneurs’ characteristics influence the benefits from the various elements of a business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær; Jørgensen, Søren Berg

    2016-01-01

    and a survey of 100 incubatees in order to study entrepreneurs within a specific incubator programme called the Growth Factories located in Region Zealand, Denmark. Findings – The authors find that there are significant differences in the perceived benefit of various business incubator elements for incubatees...... depending on their entrepreneurial characteristics. Research limitations/implications – Future studies are particularly important in order to learn which elements provide the different kinds of entrepreneurs with a critical factor in determining their success or failure. Practical....../implications – The conclusions have importance for regional government and development managers aiming at designing new business incubators. The authors suggest that in order to enhance the effect of incubator programmes they must be tailor-made to the individual entrepreneur. Originality/value – Previous studies have either...

  15. Simulation of prenatal maternal sounds in NICU incubators: a pilot safety and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotidis, John; Lahav, Amir

    2010-10-01

    This pilot study evaluated the safety and feasibility of an innovative audio system for transmitting maternal sounds to NICU incubators. A sample of biological sounds, consisting of voice and heartbeat, were recorded from a mother of a premature infant admitted to our unit. The maternal sounds were then played back inside an unoccupied incubator via a specialized audio system originated and compiled in our lab. We performed a series of evaluations to determine the safety and feasibility of using this system in NICU incubators. The proposed audio system was found to be safe and feasible, meeting criteria for humidity and temperature resistance, as well as for safe noise levels. Simulation of maternal sounds using this system seems achievable and applicable and received local support from medical staff. Further research and technology developments are needed to optimize the design of the NICU incubators to preserve the acoustic environment of the womb.

  16. Curcumin uptake enhancement using low dose light illumination during incubation in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; da Silva, Ana P.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    A new PDI protocol is presented in this study. C. albicans cells pre-illuminated with a low dose light demonstrated an increase of curcumin uptake when compared to dark incubation, leading to a higher PDI efficacy.

  17. Effects of caffeine supplementation in post-thaw human semen over different incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariz, J R; Hallak, J

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caffeine supplementation in post-cryopreservation human semen over different incubation periods. After collection by masturbation, 17 semen samples were analysed according to World Health Organization criteria, processed and cryopreserved with TEST-yolk buffer (1 : 1) in liquid nitrogen. After a thawing protocol, samples were incubated with 2 mm of caffeine for 0, 5, 15, 30 or 60 min, followed by analysis of motility and mitochondrial activity using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). Mean variance analysis was performed, and P caffeine was associated with an increase in sperm motility, particularly 15-min incubation, suggesting that incubation with caffeine can be an important tool in patients with worsening seminal quality undergoing infertility treatment. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Pit incubation at passive iron-nickel alloys as a stochastic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristofaro, N.B. de (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Industrial, San Martin (Argentina). Sector Electroquimica Aplicada); Heusler, K.E. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Korrosion und Korrosionsschutz)

    1990-05-01

    The distribution functions of pit incubation times were measured with homogeneous iron-nickel alloys containing 40, 60, and 90 wt% nickel, respectively, at different electrode potentials in borate buffer, pH 7.5, after addition of 50 mM sodium chloride. The empirical moments of the distribution function are the same as for iron. Considering a general distribution function of the exponential type with a time-dependent frequency function, the logarithms of its parameters all are linearly related to the reciprocal potential difference towards the critical pitting potential. The same relationship is also observed for the mean incubation times. At constant electrode potential the mean incubation times grow longer with increasing concentration of nickel in the alloy. The ciritical pitting potentials become more positive with the nickel concentration. The independence of the kinetics of pit incubation form the nature of the metal indicates a universal mechanism of pit nucleation. (orig.).

  19. ENHANCING INNOVATION ROLES OF PESANTREN BUSINESS INCUBATOR IN PONDOK PESANTREN SUNAN DRAJAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyati Ahwarumi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Incubator is one of PPSD’s (Pondok Pesantren Sunan Drajat sub-units that supports their owneconomy independency. PPSD have existed as an important part of education, social and especially economic institution for Muslim community in East Java. Each year, Muslim intellectuals graduate from PPDS as Santri graduates, and mostly work, not only as religion teachers, but also as entrepreneurs, back in their hometown. The phenomenon of Santri Entrepreneurs appears to be the main inspiration for Business Incubator foundation. The researcher subsequently observes such phenomenon, also known as Santri anti-poverty agent, by using Action Research method as a base of observation for data collecting, analysis and synthesis process. The aim is to describe innovative methods of PPSD’s Business Incubator in generating entrepreneurs along with pesantren ecosystem where this research was conducted. The research findings are the description of knowledge management and recommendation for developing entrepreneurship within incubator related to PPSD policy.

  20. Mobile Incubation in Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata: Associated Hatching Failure and Artificial Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Awkerman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Waved albatrosses often relocate their eggs during incubation by placing the egg between the tarsi and shuffling forward. This behavior frequently results in eggs becoming lodged between rocks, accounting for at least 10%, and perhaps as much as 80%, of breeding failures. Because albatross populations worldwide are currently threatened, artificial means of augmenting reproductive success may be necessary to mitigate losses caused by anthropogenic effects. We characterize the frequency and extent of egg movement; test several hypotheses related to microhabitat, timing, and incubation location to explain the behavior; and investigate the utility of repositioning lodged eggs in a location in which breeding birds might resume incubation. Egg rescue increased both the likelihood of continued incubation as well as the hatching rate in our experiment, and provides an efficient, low-cost management option for this species.