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Sample records for surrogate decision maker

  1. A qualitative investigation of selecting surrogate decision-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edwards, S.J.L.; Brown, P.; Twyman, M.A.; Christie, D.; Rakow, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of surrogate decision-making tend to assume that surrogates should make only a 'substituted judgement'—that is, judge what the patient would want if they were mentally competent. Objectives To explore what people want in a surrogate decision-maker whom they themselves se

  2. End-of-life decisions: a cross-national study of treatment preference discussions and surrogate decision-maker appointments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Vega Alonso, T.; Block, L. van den; Miccinesi, G.; Viviane, V.C.; Donker, G.; Bertolissi, S.; Zurriaga, O.; Deliens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Making decisions in anticipation of possible future incapacity is part of patient participation in end-of-life decision-making. This study estimates and compares the prevalence of GP-patient end-of-life treatment preference discussions and appointments of surrogate decision-makers in Italy, Spa

  3. End-of-life decisions: a cross-national study of treatment preference discussions and surrogate decision-maker appointments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Vega Alonso, T.; Block, L. van den; Miccinesi, G.; Viviane, V.C.; Donker, G.; Bertolissi, S.; Zurriaga, O.; Deliens, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Making decisions in anticipation of possible future incapacity is part of patient participation in end-of-life decision-making. This study estimates and compares the prevalence of GP-patient end-of-life treatment preference discussions and appointments of surrogate decision-makers in Italy,

  4. Doubt and belief in physicians' ability to prognosticate during critical illness: the perspective of surrogate decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, Lucas S; Burack, Jeffrey H; Micco, Guy; Chipman, Anne K; Frank, James A; Luce, John M; White, Douglas B

    2008-08-01

    Although discussing a prognosis is a duty of physicians caring for critically ill patients, little is known about surrogate decision-makers' beliefs about physicians' ability to prognosticate. We sought to determine: 1) surrogates' beliefs about whether physicians can accurately prognosticate for critically ill patients; and 2) how individuals use prognostic information in their role as surrogate decision-makers. Multicenter study in intensive care units of a public hospital, a tertiary care hospital, and a veterans' hospital. We conducted semistructured interviews with 50 surrogate decision-makers of critically ill patients. We analyzed the interview transcripts using grounded theory methods to inductively develop a framework to describe surrogates' beliefs about physicians' ability to prognosticate. Validation methods included triangulation by multidisciplinary analysis and member checking. Overall, 88% (44 of 50) of surrogates expressed doubt about physicians' ability to prognosticate for critically ill patients. Four distinct themes emerged that explained surrogates' doubts about prognostic accuracy: a belief that God could alter the course of the illness, a belief that predicting the future is inherently uncertain, prior experiences where physicians' prognostications were inaccurate, and experiences with prognostication during the patient's intensive care unit stay. Participants also identified several factors that led to belief in physicians' prognostications, such as receiving similar prognostic estimates from multiple physicians and prior experiences with accurate prognostication. Surrogates' doubts about prognostic accuracy did not prevent them from wanting prognostic information. Instead, most surrogate decision-makers view physicians' prognostications as rough estimates that are valuable in informing decisions, but are not determinative. Surrogates identified the act of prognostic disclosure as a key step in preparing emotionally and practically for the

  5. End-of-life decisions: a cross-national study of treatment preference discussions and surrogate decision-maker appointments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Making treatment decisions in anticipation of possible future incapacity is an important part of patient participation in end-of-life decision-making. This study estimates and compares the prevalence of GP-patient end-of-life treatment discussions and patients' appointment of surrogate decision-makers in Italy, Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands and examines associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was conducted with representative GP networks in four countries. GPs recorded the health and care characteristics in the last three months of life of 4,396 patients who died non-suddenly. Prevalences were estimated and logistic regressions were used to examine between country differences and country-specific associated patient and care factors. RESULTS: GP-patient discussion of treatment preferences occurred for 10%, 7%, 25% and 47% of Italian, Spanish, Belgian and of Dutch patients respectively. Furthermore, 6%, 5%, 16% and 29% of Italian, Spanish, Belgian and Dutch patients had a surrogate decision-maker. Despite some country-specific differences, previous GP-patient discussion of primary diagnosis, more frequent GP contact, GP provision of palliative care, the importance of palliative care as a treatment aim and place of death were positively associated with preference discussions or surrogate appointments. A diagnosis of dementia was negatively associated with preference discussions and surrogate appointments. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed a higher prevalence of treatment preference discussions and surrogate appointments in the two northern compared to the two southern European countries. Factors associated with preference discussions and surrogate appointments suggest that delaying diagnosis discussions impedes anticipatory planning, whereas early preference discussions, particularly for dementia patients, and the provision of palliative care encourage participation.

  6. End-of-life decisions: a cross-national study of treatment preference discussions and surrogate decision-maker appointments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, N.; Pasman, H.R.; Vega Alonso, T.; Block, L. van den; Miccinesi, G.; Casteren, V. van; Donker, G.; Bertolissi, S.; Zurriaga, O.; Deliens, L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Making treatment decisions in anticipation of possible future incapacity is an important part of patient participation in end-of-life decision-making. This study estimates and compares the prevalence of GP-patient end-of-life treatment discussions and patients’ appointment of surrogate

  7. I don't want to be the one saying 'we should just let him die': intrapersonal tensions experienced by surrogate decision makers in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Dohan, Daniel; Tiver, Greer A; Arnold, Robert M; White, Douglas B

    2012-12-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed external factors associated with difficulty in surrogate decision making, intrapersonal sources of tension are an important element of decision making that have received little attention. To characterize key intrapersonal tensions experienced by surrogate decision makers in the intensive care unit (ICU), and explore associated coping strategies. Qualitative interview study. Thirty surrogates from five ICUs at two hospitals in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who were actively involved in making life-sustaining treatment decisions for a critically ill loved one. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with surrogates, focused on intrapersonal tensions, role challenges, and coping strategies. We analyzed transcripts using constant comparative methods. Surrogates experience significant emotional conflict between the desire to act in accordance with their loved one's values and 1) not wanting to feel responsible for a loved one's death, 2) a desire to pursue any chance of recovery, and 3) the need to preserve family well-being. Associated coping strategies included 1) recalling previous discussions with a loved one, 2) sharing decisions with family members, 3) delaying or deferring decision making, 4) spiritual/religious practices, and 5) story-telling. Surrogates' struggle to reconcile personal and family emotional needs with their loved ones' wishes, and utilize common coping strategies to combat intrapersonal tensions. These data suggest reasons surrogates may struggle to follow a strict substituted judgment standard. They also suggest ways clinicians may improve decision making, including attending to surrogates' emotions, facilitating family decision making, and eliciting potential emotional conflicts and spiritual needs.

  8. Decision and decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use of Decision Support Systems (DSS, as a necessity in a competitive environment. DSS optimize the situation by getting a timely decision because the decision making process must acquire, process and interpret an even larger amount of data in the shortest possible time. A solution for this purpose is the artificial intelligence systems, in this case Decision Support Systems (DSS, used in a wider area due to expansion of all the new information technologies in decisionmaking processes. These substantial cyber innovations have led to a radical shift in the relationship between enterprise success and quality of decisions made by managers.

  9. Critical illness research involving collection of genomic data: the conundrum posed by low levels of genomic literacy among surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Ellen; Celious, Aaron; Shehane, Erica; Oerke, Mandy; Warren, Victoria; Eastman, Alexander; Kennedy, Carie R; Freeman, Bradley D

    2013-07-01

    Critical illness clinical trials that entail genomic data collection pose unique challenges. In this qualitative study, we found that surrogate decision makers (SDMs) for critically ill individuals, such as those who would be approached for study participation, appeared to have a limited grasp of genomic principles. We argue that low levels of genomic literacy should neither preclude nor be in conflict with the conduct of ethically rigorous clinical trials.

  10. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  11. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Allison L; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel K; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E

    2015-07-01

    Although the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered advance care planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living Control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥ 21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from po...

  13. Surrogate decision making and intellectual virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Patients can be harmed by a religiously motivated surrogate decision maker whose decisions are contrary to the standard of care; therefore, surrogate decision making should be held to a high standard. Stewart Eskew and Christopher Meyers proposed a two-part rule for deciding which religiously based decisions to honor: (1) a secular reason condition and (2) a rationality condition. The second condition is based on a coherence theory of rationality, which they claim is accessible, generous, and culturally sensitive. In this article, I will propose strengthening the rationality condition by grounding it in a theory of intellectual virtue, which is both rigorous and culturally sensitive. Copyright 2014 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-photon decision maker

    CERN Document Server

    Naruse, Makoto; Drezet, Aurelien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  15. Financial Surrogate Decision Making: Lessons from Applied Experimental Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Adam

    2016-09-20

    An estimated 1 in 4 elderly Americans need a surrogate to make decisions at least once in their lives. With an aging population, that number is almost certainly going to increase. This paper focuses on financial surrogate decision making. To illustrate some of the empirical and moral implications associated with financial surrogate decision making, two experiments suggest that default choice settings can predictably influence some surrogate financial decision making. Experiment 1 suggested that when making hypothetical financial decisions, surrogates tended to stay with default settings (OR = 4.37, 95% CI 1.52, 12.48). Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding suggesting that in a different context (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.1, 4.65). Experiment 2 also suggested that those who were more numerate were less likely to be influenced by default settings than the less numerate, but only when the decision is whether to "opt in" (p = .05). These data highlight the importance of a recent debate about "nudging." Defaults are common methods to nudge people to make desirable choices while allowing the liberty to choose otherwise. Some of the ethics of using default settings to nudge surrogate decision makers are discussed.

  16. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  17. Decision maker based on atomic switches

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Ju Kim; Tohru Tsuruoka; Tsuyoshi Hasegawa; Masashi Aono; Kazuya Terabe; Masakazu Aono

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple model for an atomic switch-based decision maker (ASDM), and show that, as long as its total number of metal atoms is conserved when coupled with suitable operations, an atomic switch system provides a sophisticated ``decision-making'' capability that is known to be one of the most important intellectual abilities in human beings. We considered a popular decision-making problem studied in the context of reinforcement learning, the multi-armed bandit problem (MAB); the probl...

  18. Financial planning. Influencing the decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, E K

    1985-11-01

    Decision makers are most influenced by the impact on the whole, while budget preparers often concentrate on the upcoming fiscal year or on daily operations. This difference in approach becomes obvious in the budget process. Remember that your budget proposal is only one segment of the overall financial plan. Be aware of the goals of the governing body and of your CEO in projecting outcomes. Look to other disciplines to understand how they influence decision makers for funds. Resistance to this approach will neither enhance nor promote our competitive skills. We must think as financial planners to achieve our financial goals.

  19. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  20. Worksite Nutrition: A Decision-Maker's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Dietetic Association, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed specifically to assist decision makers in business and industry, including chief executive officers, benefits managers, human resource directors, wellness coordinators, and owners of small businesses, in understanding how diet and nutrition affect employees and the company. It addresses the concerns of both small and large…

  1. The Confucian bioethics of surrogate decision making: its communitarian roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruiping

    2011-10-01

    The family is the exemplar community of Chinese society. This essay explores how Chinese communitarian norms, expressed in thick commitments to the authority and autonomy of the family, are central to contemporary Chinese bioethics. In particular, it focuses on the issue of surrogate decision making to illustrate the Confucian family-grounded communitarian bioethics. The essay first describes the way in which the family, in Chinese bioethics, functions as a whole to provide consent for significant medical and surgical interventions when a patient has lost decision-making capacity. It is argued that the practice of not having an established order for surrogate decision makers (e.g., spouse, children, and then parents), as it is done in the United States, reflects the acknowledgment that the family as a social reality cannot be reduced to a stereotype of the appropriate order of default decision makers. This description of the family as being in authority to make surrogate decisions for an incompetent family member is enriched by an elaboration of the differences among the concepts of patient autonomy, family autonomy, and moral autonomy. The Chinese model, as well as the Confucian communitarian life of families, engages a family autonomy that is supported by a Confucian understanding of moral autonomy, rather than individual autonomy. Finally, the issue of possible conflicts between patient and family interests in relation to a patient's past wishes in the Chinese model is addressed in light of the role of the physician.

  2. Decision maker based on atomic switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Ju Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple model for an atomic switch-based decision maker (ASDM, and show that, as long as its total number of metal atoms is conserved when coupled with suitable operations, an atomic switch system provides a sophisticated ``decision-making'' capability that is known to be one of the most important intellectual abilities in human beings. We considered a popular decision-making problem studied in the context of reinforcement learning, the multi-armed bandit problem (MAB; the problem of finding, as accurately and quickly as possible, the most profitable option from a set of options that gives stochastic rewards. These decisions are made as dictated by each volume of precipitated metal atoms, which is moved in a manner similar to the fluctuations of a rigid body in a tug-of-war game. The ``tug-of-war (TOW dynamics'' of the ASDM exhibits higher efficiency than conventional reinforcement-learning algorithms. We show analytical calculations that validate the statistical reasons for the ASDM to produce such high performance, despite its simplicity. Efficient MAB solvers are useful for many practical applications, because MAB abstracts a variety of decision-making problems in real-world situations where an efficient trial-and-error is required. The proposed scheme will open up a new direction in physics-based analog-computing paradigms, which will include such things as ``intelligent nanodevices'' based on self-judgment.

  3. Religion and Spirituality in Surrogate Decision Making for Hospitalized Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geros-Willfond, Kristin N; Ivy, Steven S; Montz, Kianna; Bohan, Sara E; Torke, Alexia M

    2016-06-01

    We conducted semi-structured interviews with 46 surrogate decision makers for hospitalized older adults to characterize the role of spirituality and religion in decision making. Three themes emerged: (1) religion as a guide to decision making, (2) control, and (3) faith, death and dying. For religious surrogates, religion played a central role in end of life decisions. There was variability regarding whether God or humans were perceived to be in control; however, beliefs about control led to varying perspectives on acceptance of comfort-focused treatment. We conclude that clinicians should attend to religious considerations due to their impact on decision making.

  4. Learning a decision maker's utility function from (possibly) inconsistent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    decision problem, there exists a utility function which canaccount for all the observed behavior. Unfortunately, this assumption israrely valid in real-world decision problems, and in these situationsexisting learning methods may only identify a trivial utilityfunction. In this paper we relax...... developed for learning the probabilities from a database.However, methods for learning the utilities have only received limitedattention in the computer science community. A promising approach for learning a decision maker's utility function is to takeoutset in the decision maker's observed behavioral...... patterns, and then find autility function which (together with a domain model) can explainthis behavior. That is, it is assumed that decision maker's preferences arereflected in the behavior. Standard learning algorithmsalso assume that the decision maker is behavioralconsistent, i.e., given a model ofthe...

  5. Responsibility Attribution for Collective Decision Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duch, Raymond; Przepiorka, Wojtek; Stevenson, Randolph

    2015-01-01

    We argue that individuals use responsibility attribution heuristics that apply to collective decisions made, for example, by families, teams within firms, boards in international organizations, or coalition governments. We conduct laboratory and online experiments to tease out the heuristics subject

  6. Training Conservation Practitioners to be Better Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred A. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional conservation curricula and training typically emphasizes only one part of systematic decision making (i.e., the science, at the expense of preparing conservation practitioners with critical skills in values-setting, working with decision makers and stakeholders, and effective problem framing. In this article we describe how the application of decision science is relevant to conservation problems and suggest how current and future conservation practitioners can be trained to be better decision makers. Though decision-analytic approaches vary considerably, they all involve: (1 properly formulating the decision problem; (2 specifying feasible alternative actions; and (3 selecting criteria for evaluating potential outcomes. Two approaches are available for providing training in decision science, with each serving different needs. Formal education is useful for providing simple, well-defined problems that allow demonstrations of the structure, axioms and general characteristics of a decision-analytic approach. In contrast, practical training can offer complex, realistic decision problems requiring more careful structuring and analysis than those used for formal training purposes. Ultimately, the kinds and degree of training necessary depend on the role conservation practitioners play in a decision-making process. Those attempting to facilitate decision-making processes will need advanced training in both technical aspects of decision science and in facilitation techniques, as well as opportunities to apprentice under decision analysts/consultants. Our primary goal should be an attempt to ingrain a discipline for applying clarity of thought to all decisions.

  7. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers.

  8. Impact of a Decision Aid on Surrogate Decision-makers’ Perceptions of Feeding Options for Patients with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, E. Amanda; Caprio, Anthony J.; Wessell, Kathryn; Lin, Feng Chang; Hanson, Laura C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In advanced dementia, feeding problems are nearly universal, and families face difficult decisions about feeding options. Initial interviews for a randomized trial were used to describe surrogates’ perceptions feeding options, and to determine if a decision aid on feeding options in advanced dementia would improve knowledge, reduce expectation of benefit from tube feeding, and reduce conflict over treatment choices for persons with advanced dementia. Design Semi-structured interview with pre-post study design for surrogates in the intervention group. Setting Twenty-four skilled nursing facilities across North Carolina participating in a cluster randomized trial. Participants Two hundred fifty-five surrogate decision-makers for nursing home residents with advanced dementia and feeding problems, in control (n=129) and intervention (n=126) groups. Intervention For intervention surrogates only, an audiovisual-print decision aid provided information on dementia, feeding problems in dementia, advantages and disadvantages of feeding tubes or assisted oral feeding options and the role of surrogates in making these decisions. Measurements The interview included open-ended items asking surrogates to report advantages and disadvantages of tube feeding and assisted oral feeding. Knowledge of feeding options was measured with 19 true-false items, and items measuring expectation of benefit from tube feeding. Surrogates reported which of these two feeding options they preferred for the person with dementia, and how confident they were in this choice; their level of conflict about the choice was measured using the Decisional Conflict Scale. Results Prior to the decision aid, surrogates described advantages and disadvantages of assisted oral feeding and tube feeding in practical, ethical and medical terms. After review of the decision aid, intervention surrogates had improved knowledge scores (15.5 vs. 16.8; p<0.001), decreased expectation of benefits from tube feeding

  9. Market orientation in the mental models of decision-makers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Campos, Emilio Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    , decision makers exhibit overlap in their views of what drives their business. The pork chain appears dominated by a focus on efficiency, technology, and quality control, though it also acknowledges communication as important. The salmon chain places more emphasis on new product development and good......Purpose: This study determines whether predictions about different degrees of market orientation in two cross-border value chains also appear in the mental models of decision makers at two levels of these value chains. Design: The laddering method elicits mental models of actors in two value chains......: Norwegian salmon exported to Japan and Danish pork exported to Japan. The analysis of the mental models centers on potential overlap and linkages between actors in the value chain, including elements in the mental models that may relate to the actors' market orientation. Findings: In both value chains...

  10. Strategic issues in information technology international implications for decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Schütte, Hellmut

    1988-01-01

    Strategic Issues in Information Technology: International Implications for Decision Makers presents the significant development of information technology in the output of components, computers, and communication equipment and systems. This book discusses the integration of information technology into factories and offices to increase productivity.Organized into six parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the advancement towards an automated interpretation communication system to achieve real international communication. This text then examines the main determining

  11. Category theoretic analysis of single-photon decision maker

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Makoto Naruse Song-Ju; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Hori, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Decision making is a vital function in the era of artificial intelligence; however, its physical realizations and their theoretical fundamentals are not yet known. In our former study [Sci. Rep. 5, 513253 (2015)], we demonstrated that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. The multi-armed bandit problem was successfully solved using the dual probabilistic and particle attributes of single photons. Herein, we present the category theoretic foundation of the single-photon-based decision making, including quantitative analysis that agrees well with the experimental results. The category theoretic model unveils complex interdependencies of the entities of the subject matter in the most simplified manner, including a dynamically changing environment. In particular, the octahedral structure in triangulated categories provides a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the single-photon decision maker. This is the first demonstration of a category the...

  12. Love as a regulative ideal in surrogate decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestreet, Erica Lucast

    2014-10-01

    This discussion aims to give a normative theoretical basis for a "best judgment" model of surrogate decision making rooted in a regulative ideal of love. Currently, there are two basic models of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients: the "substituted judgment" model and the "best interests" model. The former draws on the value of autonomy and responds with respect; the latter draws on the value of welfare and responds with beneficence. It can be difficult to determine which of these two models is more appropriate for a given patient, and both approaches may seem inadequate for a surrogate who loves the patient. The proposed "best judgment" model effectively draws on the values incorporated in each of the traditional standards, but does so because these values are important to someone who loves a patient, since love responds to the patient as the specific person she is.

  13. Climate Modeling and Analysis with Decision Makers in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. D.; Jagannathan, K.; Calvin, K. V.; Lamarque, J. F.; Ullrich, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need for information about future climate conditions to support adaptation planning across a wide range of sectors and stakeholder communities. However, our principal tools for understanding future climate - global Earth system models - were not developed with these user needs in mind, nor have we developed transparent methods for evaluating and communicating the credibility of various climate information products with respect to the climate characteristics that matter most to decision-makers. Several recent community engagements have identified a need for "co-production" of knowledge among stakeholders and scientists. Here we highlight some of the barriers to communication and collaboration that must be overcome to improve the dialogue among researchers and climate adaptation practitioners in a meaningful way. Solutions to this challenge are two-fold: 1) new institutional arrangements and collaborative mechanisms designed to improve coordination and understanding among communities, and 2) a research agenda that explicitly incorporates stakeholder needs into model evaluation, development, and experimental design. We contrast the information content in global-scale model evaluation exercises with that required for in specific decision contexts, such as long-term agricultural management decisions. Finally, we present a vision for advancing the science of model evaluation in the context of predicting decision-relevant hydroclimate regime shifts in North America.

  14. Introducing Complex Decision Models to the Decision Maker with Computer Software - The Profile Distance Method (PDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Bernroider

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate how the profile distance method was transformed into a software environment enabling the decision maker to utilize a complex decision making tool without any advanced knowledge of the underlying mathematical and technical features. We present theoretical and technical aspects as well as contextual and usage related information from the viewpoint of the decision maker. Preliminary empirical results suggest that the developed software component is effective in terms of platform independence, usability and intuitive interface design. The data showed a good rating for usefulness, which, however, was targeted as the main goal for further development.

  15. The Theory and Practice of Surrogate Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, David

    2017-01-01

    When a patient lacks decision-making capacity and has not left a clear advance directive, there is now widespread agreement that patient-designated and next-of-kin surrogates should implement substituted judgment within a process of shared decision-making. Specifically, after discussing the "best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient's values, goals, and preferences" with the patient's clinicians, the patient-designated or next-of-kin surrogate should attempt to determine what decision the patient would have made in the circumstances. To the extent that this approach works, it seems to provide about as much respect for the autonomy of incapacitated patients as we could ask for. But, as articles in this issue of the Report by Jeffrey Berger and by Ellen Robinson and colleagues emphasize, reality presents challenges. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  16. Communicating Ecological Indicators to Decision Makers and the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford S. Russell

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological assessments and monitoring programs often rely on indicators to evaluate environmental conditions. Such indicators are frequently developed by scientists, expressed in technical language, and target aspects of the environment that scientists consider useful. Yet setting environmental policy priorities and making environmental decisions requires both effective communication of environmental information to decision makers and consideration of what members of the public value about ecosystems. However, the complexity of ecological issues, and the ways in which they are often communicated, make it difficult for these parties to fully engage such a dialogue. This paper describes our efforts to develop a process for translating the indicators of regional ecological condition used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency into common language for communication with public and decision-making audiences. A series of small-group sessions revealed that people did not want to know what these indicators measured, or how measurements were performed. Rather, respondents wanted to know what such measurements can tell them about environmental conditions. Most positively received were descriptions of the kinds of information that various combinations of indicators provide about broad ecological conditions. Descriptions that respondents found most appealing contained general reference to both the set of indicators from which the information was drawn and aspects of the environment valued by society to which the information could be applied. These findings can assist with future efforts to communicate scientific information to nontechnical audiences, and to represent societal values in ecological programs by improving scientist-public communication.

  17. Market orientation in the mental models of decision-makers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Campos, Emilio Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    : Norwegian salmon exported to Japan and Danish pork exported to Japan. The analysis of the mental models centers on potential overlap and linkages between actors in the value chain, including elements in the mental models that may relate to the actors' market orientation. Findings: In both value chains......Purpose: This study determines whether predictions about different degrees of market orientation in two cross-border value chains also appear in the mental models of decision makers at two levels of these value chains. Design: The laddering method elicits mental models of actors in two value chains...... in promoting the market orientation of value chains. Originality: This article offers three novel ideas: using the concept of mental models as a possible mediator between factors that influence the degree of market orientation and market-oriented activity; using a laddering method to elicit mental models...

  18. Computerized clinical decision support systems for chronic disease management: a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanov, Pavel S; Misra, Shikha; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Garg, Amit X; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Mackay, Jean A; Weise-Kelly, Lorraine; Navarro, Tamara; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2011-08-03

    The use of computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) may improve chronic disease management, which requires recurrent visits to multiple health professionals, ongoing disease and treatment monitoring, and patient behavior modification. The objective of this review was to determine if CCDSSs improve the processes of chronic care (such as diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of disease) and associated patient outcomes (such as effects on biomarkers and clinical exacerbations). We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for potentially eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials that compared the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS was designed to support chronic disease management. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of relevant outcomes. Of 55 included trials, 87% (n = 48) measured system impact on the process of care and 52% (n = 25) of those demonstrated statistically significant improvements. Sixty-five percent (36/55) of trials measured impact on, typically, non-major (surrogate) patient outcomes, and 31% (n = 11) of those demonstrated benefits. Factors of interest to decision makers, such as cost, user satisfaction, system interface and feature sets, unique design and deployment characteristics, and effects on user workflow were rarely investigated or reported. A small majority (just over half) of CCDSSs improved care processes in chronic disease management and some improved patient health. Policy makers, healthcare administrators, and practitioners should be aware that the evidence of CCDSS effectiveness is limited, especially with respect to the small number and size of studies measuring patient outcomes.

  19. Computerized clinical decision support systems for chronic disease management: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro Tamara

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs may improve chronic disease management, which requires recurrent visits to multiple health professionals, ongoing disease and treatment monitoring, and patient behavior modification. The objective of this review was to determine if CCDSSs improve the processes of chronic care (such as diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of disease and associated patient outcomes (such as effects on biomarkers and clinical exacerbations. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for potentially eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials that compared the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS was designed to support chronic disease management. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of relevant outcomes. Results Of 55 included trials, 87% (n = 48 measured system impact on the process of care and 52% (n = 25 of those demonstrated statistically significant improvements. Sixty-five percent (36/55 of trials measured impact on, typically, non-major (surrogate patient outcomes, and 31% (n = 11 of those demonstrated benefits. Factors of interest to decision makers, such as cost, user satisfaction, system interface and feature sets, unique design and deployment characteristics, and effects on user workflow were rarely investigated or reported. Conclusions A small majority (just over half of CCDSSs improved care processes in chronic disease management and some improved patient health. Policy makers, healthcare administrators, and practitioners should be aware that the evidence of CCDSS effectiveness is limited, especially with respect to the small number and size of studies

  20. A New Kind of Economy is Born - Social Decision-Makers Beat the "Homo Economicus"

    CERN Document Server

    Helbing, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and Social Media change our way of decision-making. We are no longer the independent decision makers we used to be. Instead, we have become networked minds, social decision-makers, more than ever before. This has several fundamental implications. First of all, our economic theories must change, and second, our economic institutions must be adapted to support the social decision-maker, the "homo socialis", rather than tailored to the perfect egoist, known as "homo economicus".

  1. Research into the Decision-maker's Utility in the Enterprise's Decision System Based on Network Economy Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚钟华; 张涛

    2004-01-01

    The decision system based on network economy is the foundation of enterprise's making good winning in its market. This paper describes the decision makers' utility model based on network economy, considers the roles decision-makers not only play in the enterprises are decision making, coordinating, controlling and monitoring, but also they are mainly designers, executants and educators in the mode of network economy

  2. A rough set approach for determining weights of decision makers in group decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Du, Ping-an; Wang, Yong; Liang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present a novel approach for determining the weights of decision makers (DMs) based on rough group decision in multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems. First, we construct a rough group decision matrix from all DMs’ decision matrixes on the basis of rough set theory. After that, we derive a positive ideal solution (PIS) founded on the average matrix of rough group decision, and negative ideal solutions (NISs) founded on the lower and upper limit matrixes of rough group decision. Then, we obtain the weight of each group member and priority order of alternatives by using relative closeness method, which depends on the distances from each individual group member’ decision to the PIS and NISs. Through comparisons with existing methods and an on-line business manager selection example, the proposed method show that it can provide more insights into the subjectivity and vagueness of DMs’ evaluations and selections. PMID:28234974

  3. Using Cognitive Conflict to Promote the Use of Dialectical Learning for Strategic Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision-makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision-makers to integrate conflicting information causing…

  4. Health Impact Assessment: a useful tool for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Turco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment is defined as ‘the combination of procedures, methods and tools through which it is possible to evaluate a policy, a program or a development plan concerning possible effects on public health and their distribution in the general population’. In a constructive debate this definition points out some interesting observations: - health is not the result of health policies alone, but it is often defined by the attention given to it in other contexts; - health is however the result of policies and it therefore must deserve the attention of Decision Makers; - health must not be taken into consideration without taking into account an evaluation of its distribution and its determinants within a population. Particular attention must therefore be paid into inequalities; - following the Council of the European Union recent conclusions on Health in All Policies we have to consider that everyday environments such as day-care centers, schools,workplaces,neighborhoods and the commute between them have significant effects on health and that health, in turn, has an effect on the economy by enabling active and productive participation in working life. In the past 20 years huge progress has been achieved in the epidemiological contest to define risks. Nowadays, it is known that a low cultural level lowers the capacity to respond to prevention, that elevated pollution levels do represent a health risk, and that the scarce social relationships that elderly people have in our society have strong consequences on their health and their quality of life.

  5. A false sense of security: lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) surrogate health care decision-making rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance; Fiester, Autumn

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the timely and ethically problematic issue of surrogate decision-making rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients and their families in the American health care system. Despite multiple pro-LGBT recommendations that have been released in recent years by the Obama administration, the Institute of Medicine, and the US Department of Health and Human Services, such initiatives, while laudable, also have unfortunately occasioned a "false sense of security" for many LGBT patients, their families, and their caregivers. In particular, new regulations on surrogate decision making merely invoke a sense of universal patient rights rather than actually generating them. Therefore, it is imperative that primary care physicians urge all LGBT patients to take proactive steps to protect themselves and their loved ones by naming proxy decision makers well before the crises that would necessitate such decisions.

  6. Targeting Continuing Medical Education on Decision Makers: Who Decides to Transfuse Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Lawrence T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Staff communication patterns were observed during 13 open-heart surgeries to identify the transfusion decision makers. It was determined that targeting decision makers for continuing medical education would improve the quality of transfusion practice and increase the efficiency of continuing education. (SK)

  7. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: A novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision curve analysis (DCA has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1, and analytical, deliberative process (system 2, thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. We use the cognitive emotion of regret to serve as a link between systems 1 and 2 and to reformulate DCA. Methods First, we analysed a classic decision tree describing three decision alternatives: treat, do not treat, and treat or no treat based on a predictive model. We then computed the expected regret for each of these alternatives as the difference between the utility of the action taken and the utility of the action that, in retrospect, should have been taken. For any pair of strategies, we measure the difference in net expected regret. Finally, we employ the concept of acceptable regret to identify the circumstances under which a potentially wrong strategy is tolerable to a decision-maker. Results We developed a novel dual visual analog scale to describe the relationship between regret associated with "omissions" (e.g. failure to treat vs. "commissions" (e.g. treating unnecessary and decision maker's preferences as expressed in terms of threshold probability. We then proved that the Net Expected Regret Difference, first presented in this paper, is equivalent to net benefits as described in the original DCA. Based on the concept of acceptable regret we identified the circumstances under which a decision maker tolerates a potentially wrong decision and expressed it in terms of probability of disease. Conclusions We present a novel method for eliciting decision maker's preferences and an alternative derivation of DCA based on regret theory. Our approach may

  8. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: a novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Vickers, Andrew; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2010-09-16

    Decision curve analysis (DCA) has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1), and analytical, deliberative process (system 2), thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. We use the cognitive emotion of regret to serve as a link between systems 1 and 2 and to reformulate DCA. First, we analysed a classic decision tree describing three decision alternatives: treat, do not treat, and treat or no treat based on a predictive model. We then computed the expected regret for each of these alternatives as the difference between the utility of the action taken and the utility of the action that, in retrospect, should have been taken. For any pair of strategies, we measure the difference in net expected regret. Finally, we employ the concept of acceptable regret to identify the circumstances under which a potentially wrong strategy is tolerable to a decision-maker. We developed a novel dual visual analog scale to describe the relationship between regret associated with "omissions" (e.g. failure to treat) vs. "commissions" (e.g. treating unnecessary) and decision maker's preferences as expressed in terms of threshold probability. We then proved that the Net Expected Regret Difference, first presented in this paper, is equivalent to net benefits as described in the original DCA. Based on the concept of acceptable regret we identified the circumstances under which a decision maker tolerates a potentially wrong decision and expressed it in terms of probability of disease. We present a novel method for eliciting decision maker's preferences and an alternative derivation of DCA based on regret theory. Our approach may be intuitively more appealing to a decision-maker, particularly

  9. Which criteria considered in healthcare decisions? Insights from an international survey of policy and clinical decision makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanios, Nataly; Wagner, Monika; Tony, Michele; Baltussen, Rob; van Til, Janine Astrid; Rindress, Donna; Kind, Paul; Goetghebeur, Mireille M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to gather qualitative and quantitative data on criteria considered by healthcare decision makers. Methods: Using snowball sampling and an online questionnaire with forty-three criteria organized into ten clusters, decision makers were invited by an international

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    JAN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision...by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due « Image designed by Diane Fleischer... Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule Its Due Chad Dacus and Col Stephen Hagel, USAF (Ret.) Conceptual

  11. Sustainable energy catalogue - for European decision-makers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram, S.; Jacobsen, Soeren

    2006-10-15

    The Green paper - A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, 2006 states that Europe has a rising dependency on imported energy reserves, which are concentrated in a few countries. The Rising gas and oil prices along with demands on lower emissions of CO2 adds pressure on the need for a new energy future for Europe. EU has since 1990 planned to become world leader in the renewable energy field. Therefore the EU member states have agreed that by 2010 21% of the consumed electricity and 5,75% of the consumed gasoline and diesel should originate from renewable energy sources. If the EU countries are to reach their goals, a commitment on several levels to develop and install energy from sustainable energy sources is needed. The purpose of this catalogue is to offer planners and decision-makers in EU states an inspirational tool to be used during local or regional transition towards sustainable energy technologies. The catalogue can also be used by everyone else who needs an overview of the sustainable energy technologies and their current development level and future potential, among others educational use is relevant. The catalogue provides an introduction to the following technologies that are already or are estimated to become central to a development with renewable energy in EU: Technologies for wind energy, wave energy, geothermal energy, bioenergy, solar energy, hydropower and fuel cells. The catalogue also includes a section about energy systems, which also includes a part about technologies for efficient use of energy. The catalogue could have included a few other technologies as e.g. heating pumps, but due to the size of the catalogue a priority was necessary. The catalogue does not claim to give all answers or to be complete regarding all details about the individual technologies; even so it offers information, which cannot easily be looked up on the Internet. In the back of the catalogue, under 'References and links' there

  12. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  13. A Framework for Investigating Influence of Organizational Decision Makers on Data Mining Process Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Hajisafari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, few studies deal with evaluation of data mining plans in context of solvng organizational problems. A successful data miner is searching to solve a fully defined business problem. To make the data mining (DM results actionable, the data miner must explain them to the business insider. The interaction process between the business insiders and data miners is actually a knowledge-sharing process. In this study through representing a framwork, influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process and results investigated. By investigating research literature, the critical success factors of data mining plans was identified and the role of organizational decision makers in each step of data mining was investigated.‌ Then, the conceptual framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement was designed. By getting expert opinions, the proposed framework was analyzed and evantually designed the final framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement. Analysis of experts opinions showed that by knowledge sharing of data ming results with decision makers, "learning", "action or internalization" and "enforcing/unlearning" will become as critical success factors. Also, results of examining importance of decision makers' feedback on data mining steps showed that getting feedback from decision makers could have most influence on "knowledge extraction and representing model" step and least on "data cleaning and preprocessing" step.

  14. Clustering Analysis of Black-start Decision-making with a Large Group of Decision-makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The optimization of black start decisiommaking plays an important role in the rapid restoration of a power system after a major failure/outage. With the introduction of the concept of smart grids and the development of real-time communication networks, the black-start decision-makers are no longer limited to only one or a few power system experts such as dispatchers, but rather a large group of professional people in practice. The overall behaviors of a large decision-making group of decision-makers/experts are more complicated and unpredictable. However, the existing methods for black-start decision-making cannot handle the situations with a large group of decision-makers. Given this background, a clustering algorithm is presented to optimize the black-start decision-making problem with a large group of decision-makers. Group decision-making preferences are obtained by clustering analysis, and the final black-start decisiommaking results are achieved by combining the weights of black-start indexes and the preferences of the decision-making group. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by a practical case. This work extends the black-start decision-making problem to situations with a large group of decision-makers.

  15. Goal-Programming Model Based on the Utility Function of the Decision-maker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-jiang

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the problems in traditional GP model, this paper provides the model with the utility function of the decision-maker and compares this model with the one presented in reference article [1].

  16. Issues in Distance Education: A Primer for Higher Education Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of current issues related to distance learning in higher education. It identifies central questions, issues, challenges, and opportunities that must be addressed by decision makers, as well as key attributes of effective leaders.

  17. Inconsistency of the judgement matrix in the AHP method and decision maker's knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Szczypinska, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method of quantitative estimation of the decision maker's knowledge in the context of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in case, when the judgement matrix is inconsistent. We show that the matrix of deviation from the transitivity condition corresponds to the rate matrix for transaction costs in the financial market. For the quantity estimation of the decision maker's professionalism we apply the Ising model and the thermodynamics tools.

  18. Outsourced Investment Management: An Overview for Institutional Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing of investment management is a growing trend among institutional investors. With a broad range of institutions using or exploring the outsourced chief investment officer (OCIO) model, portfolio size is no longer the determining factor driving the outsourcing decision. For all but the largest institutional investors--those with deep…

  19. Bridging the Gap: Tailor-made Information Products for Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandler, B. E.; Rose, C. A.; Gonzales, L. M.; Boland, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) is launching a new information platform designed to link decision makers with information generated by geoscientific research. Decision makers, especially those at the state and local level, frequently need scientific information but do not always have easy access to it, while scientists create new knowledge but often lack opportunities to communicate this knowledge more broadly to the people who need it the most. Major differences in communication styles and language can also hinder the use of scientific information by decision makers. AGI is building an online portfolio of case studies and fact sheets that are based on cutting-edge research presented in a format and style that meets the needs and expectations of decision makers. Based on discussions with state and local decision makers around the country, AGI has developed a template for these products. Scientists are invited to write short (500-700-word) summaries of their research and the ways in which it provides useful tools and information to decision makers. We are particularly interested in showcasing actionable information derived from basic or applied research. Researchers are encouraged to contact AGI to discuss topics that may be an appropriate basis for case studies or fact sheets, and AGI may also contact researchers based on scientific needs identified during our discussions with decision makers. All submissions will be edited and reviewed by AGI staff and an external peer review team before being published online and made available to decision makers through AGI's Critical Issues web platform and extensive professional networks. Publicizing the results of scientific research to key legislative, regulatory, advisory, and engaged citizen groups and individuals broadens the impact of scientists' research and highlights the value and importance of the geosciences to society. By presenting the information in a format that is designed with the end-user in mind

  20. Combining communication technology utilization and organizational innovation: evidence from Canadian healthcare decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jbilou, Jalila; Landry, Réjean; Amara, Nabil; El Adlouni, Salaheddine

    2009-08-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Organizational Innovation (OI) are seen as the miracle of post-modernity in organizations. In this way, they are supposed to resolve most organizational problems, efficiently and rapidly. OI is highly dependent on the capacity and the investment in knowledge management (internal and external) to support decision making process and to implement significant changes. We know what explains ICT utilization (ICTU) and what determines OI development (OID) in healthcare services. Moreover, the literature tends to link ICTU to OID and vice versa. However, this dependency has never been explored empirically through the lens of roles combination. To identify the existing combined roles profiles of ICTU and OID among healthcare decision makers and determine factors of the shift from a profile to another. We did the following: (1) a structured review of the literature on healthcare management by focusing on ICTU and OID which allowed us to build two indexes and a comprehensive framework; (2) a copula methodology to identify with high precision the thresholds for ICTU and OID; and (3) a cross-sectional study based on a survey done with a sample of 942 decision makers from Canadian healthcare organizations through a multinomial logit model to identify determinants of the shift. ICTU and OID are correlated at 22% (Kendal's Tau). The joint distribution (combination) of ICTU and OID shows that four major profiles exist among decision makers in Canadian healthcare organizations: the traditional decision maker, the innovative decision maker, the technologic decision maker and the contemporary decision maker. We found out that classic factors act as barriers to the shift from one profile to the desired profile (from 1 to 4, from 2 to 4 and from 3 to 4). We have identified that the attitude toward research and relational capital are transversal barriers of shift. We have also found that some factors have a specific impact such as

  1. Decision-makers' Risk Perception in the Internationalisation of Small and Medium-Sized Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Jonas Strømfeldt; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2016-01-01

    awareness exists, decision-makers do not perceive internationalisation as risky behaviour. Findings highlight the importance of decision-makers’ background, including cognitive and psychological characteristics, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, and their experiences in explaining risk perceptions...

  2. ELECTRE I Based Relevance Decision-Makers Feedback to the Location Selection of Distribution Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroi Agrebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The location selection of distribution centers is one of the important strategies to optimize the logistics system. To solve this problem, under certain environment, this paper presents a new multicriteria decision-making method based on ELECTRE I. The proposed method helps decision-makers to select the best location from a given set of locations for implementing. After having identified decision-makers, the criteria, and the set of locations, the factors influencing the selection are analyzed in order to identify the best location. A sensitivity analysis is then performed to determine the influence of criteria weights on the selection decision. The strength of the proposed method is to incorporate decision-makers’ preferences into the decision-making process. In addition, the proposed method considers both quantitative and qualitative criteria. Finally, the selected solution is validated by both tests of concordance and discordance simultaneously. A case study is provided to illustrate the proposed method.

  3. The Decision-Makers' Forum on a new paradigm for nuclear energy -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloch, C.G.

    1998-09-14

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, ``a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies.'' Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end.

  4. The Decision-Makers Forum on a new Paradigm for Nuclear Energy, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motloch, Chester George

    1998-09-01

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, "a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies." Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end.

  5. A Reward-Maximizing Spiking Neuron as a Bounded Rational Decision Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibfried, Felix; Braun, Daniel A

    2015-08-01

    Rate distortion theory describes how to communicate relevant information most efficiently over a channel with limited capacity. One of the many applications of rate distortion theory is bounded rational decision making, where decision makers are modeled as information channels that transform sensory input into motor output under the constraint that their channel capacity is limited. Such a bounded rational decision maker can be thought to optimize an objective function that trades off the decision maker's utility or cumulative reward against the information processing cost measured by the mutual information between sensory input and motor output. In this study, we interpret a spiking neuron as a bounded rational decision maker that aims to maximize its expected reward under the computational constraint that the mutual information between the neuron's input and output is upper bounded. This abstract computational constraint translates into a penalization of the deviation between the neuron's instantaneous and average firing behavior. We derive a synaptic weight update rule for such a rate distortion optimizing neuron and show in simulations that the neuron efficiently extracts reward-relevant information from the input by trading off its synaptic strengths against the collected reward.

  6. Disease management in healthcare organizations: results of in-depth interviews with disease management decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whellan, David J; Cohen, Elizabeth J; Matchar, David B; Califf, Robert M

    2002-07-01

    Despite the widening use of disease management (DM) programs throughout the country, little is understood about the "state of DM" in healthcare systems and managed care organizations. To better characterize the range of users of DM in healthcare and to identify critical issues, both present and future, for DM. Qualitative survey. Forty-seven healthcare systems (n = 22) and managed care organizations (n = 25) were randomly selected. Decision makers were identified and interviewed between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2000. We limited quantitative analysis to tabulations of suitable responses, without statistical testing. Responses were organized around 3 themes: models for DM, implementation strategies, and measurements of success. Of 47 decision makers surveyed, 42 (89%) reported that their organizations currently have (75%) or are working to develop (14%) DM programs. Although the goals of DM programs were similar, organizations took a variety of approaches to achieving these ends. There were typically 3 steps in implementing a DM program: analysis of patient data, external analysis, and organizational analysis. Decision makers believed that DM programs had only achieved partial success in reaching the 2 main goals of improved quality of care and cost savings. Given the variety of DM programs, there is a need to develop a classification scheme to allow for better comparison between programs. Further quantitative studies of decision makers' opinions would be helpful in developing programs and in designing necessary studies of patient management strategies.

  7. Students as Rational Decision-Makers: The Question of Beliefs and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice theorists have analysed rates of participation in post-compulsory education, and, in particular, class differentials in these rates. Various claims have been made about the motivations of student decision-makers, but these claims have not been grounded empirically. This paper will assess the question of whether students' attitudes…

  8. Placing Handicapped Students in the Least Restrictive Environment: An Adapted Model for Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Gary; And Others

    Intended for local school district personnel, the document suggests a model for assisting decision makers in placing handicapped students in the least restrictive environment (LRE). Basic considerations of a multidisciplinary team in determining the appropriate placement for the handicapped students are listed (including the nature and degree of…

  9. Information paradox of new product development: A case of decision-makers' focus of attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    Drawing on theory of bounded rationality and the attention-based view of the company, decision-makers' focus of attention is examined within the new product development process. Attention, defined as something which occupies individual consciousness, should be directed at selecting development...

  10. 38 CFR 53.10 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RETENTION OF NURSES AT STATE VETERANS HOMES § 53.10 Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. The Chief Consultant, Geriatrics and Extended Care, will make all determinations regarding..., notifications, and additional information. 53.10 Section 53.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans'...

  11. Decision Maker Perception of Information Quality: A Case Study of Military Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Grayson B.

    2013-01-01

    Decision maker perception of information quality cues from an "information system" (IS) and the process which creates such meta cueing, or data about cues, is a critical yet un-modeled component of "situation awareness" (SA). Examples of common information quality meta cueing for quality criteria include custom ring-tones for…

  12. Reciprocal Dialogue between Educational Decision Makers and Students of Color: Opportunities and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the possibilities for reciprocal dialogue between educational decision makers and Students of Color. Such dialogue--defined as interactions in which participants build on each other's words--may provide the means to develop creative ways to address manifestations of systemic racism in education. The article uses…

  13. Constructing Perceptions of Climate Change: a case study of regional political decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D.

    2012-12-01

    This case study of climate change communications assesses the salient means of communication and the message adopted by regional political decision makers on the German Baltic coast. Realizing that cultural factors and local values (and not simply knowledge) are significant influences in explaining attitudes towards climate change, this analysis draws from the records of regional weather, from scientists with a specific focus on the region, from the political decision makers for that region, and the media message reaching the decision makers, ensuring all elements of the analysis are drawn from the same socioeconomic, geophysical, political and cultural context. This is important as the social dynamics surrounding the trust in science is of critical importance and, as such, all elements of the case study are specifically contained within a common context. If the utility of climate change knowledge is to prompt well conceived adaptation/mitigation strategies then the political decision process, or at least the perceptions shaping it, can best be understood by locating it within the world view of the decision makers involved in the production process. Using the results of two survey questionnaires, one of regional climate scientists and one of regional political decision makers, ten years of local weather records, and a summary of the message from mass media circulation, the discord in perceptions of regional climate change are quantitatively explored. The conclusions drawn from the analysis include, compared to the scientific assessment: The decision makers' perceptions of recent past differ from actual observations. The decision makers' perceptions of the future differ from scientific assessments. The decision makers tend to over estimate the magnitude of regional climate change and its impacts. The decision makers tend to over estimate the sense of immediacy for adaptation measures. The conclusions drawn suggest that in the regional political realm, it is often a

  14. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  15. Climate science information needs among natural resource decision-makers in the Northwest US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Allen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing water resources, air quality, forests, rangelands and agricultural systems in the context of climate change requires a new level of integrated knowledge. In order to articulate a role for university-based research teams as providers of climate services, this paper analyzes environmental change concerns and expectations about climate models among natural resources decision-makers in the Northwest US. Data were collected during a series of workshops organized by researchers from BioEarth, a regional earth systems modeling initiative. Eighty-three stakeholders from industry, government agencies and non-governmental organizations engaged with a team of academic researchers developing integrated biophysical and economic climate modeling tools. Analysis of transcripts of workshop discussions, surveys, and questionnaires reveals diverse attitudes among stakeholders about: 1 preferred modes of engaging in climate science research, 2 specific concerns and questions about climate change impacts, and 3 the most relevant and usable scope and scale of climate change impacts projections. Diverse concerns and information needs among natural resource decision-makers highlight the need for research teams to define clear and precise goals for stakeholder engagement. Utilizing the skills of research team members who have communication and extension expertise is pivotally important. We suggest impactful opportunities for research teams and natural resource decision-makers to interface and learn from one another. Effective approaches include structuring group discussions to identify gaps in existing climate change impacts information, explicitly considering changing policies, technologies and management practices, and exploring possible unintended consequences of decisions.

  16. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada.

  17. Decision makers' experiences of prioritisation and views about how to finance healthcare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werntoft, Elisabet; Edberg, Anna-Karin

    2009-10-01

    Prioritisation in healthcare is an issue of growing importance due to scarcity of resources. The aims of this study were firstly to describe decision makers' experience of prioritisation and their views concerning willingness to pay and how to finance healthcare costs. An additional aim was to compare the views of politicians and physicians. The study was a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire administered to 700 Swedish politicians and physicians. This was analysed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A majority of the decision makers (55%) suggested that increasing costs should be financed through higher taxation but more physicians than politicians thought that higher patient fees, private health insurance and a reduction in social expenditure were better alternatives. Prioritisation aroused anxiety; politicians were afraid of displeasing voters while physicians were afraid of making medically incorrect decisions. This study do not answer the question about how to make prioritisation in health care but the result highlights the different ways that the decision makers view the subject and thereby elicit that publicly elected politicians and physicians perhaps not always work with the same goal ahead. There are needs for more research but also more media focus on the subject so the citizens will be aware and take part in the debate.

  18. Decision maker views on priority setting in the Vancouver Island Health Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitton Craig

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions regarding the allocation of available resources are a source of growing dissatisfaction for healthcare decision-makers. This dissatisfaction has led to increased interest in research on evidence-based resource allocation processes. An emerging area of interest has been the empirical analysis of the characteristics of existing and desired priority setting processes from the perspective of decision-makers. Methods We conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 18 senior managers and medical directors with the Vancouver Island Health Authority, an integrated health care provider in British Columbia responsible for a population of approximately 730,000. Interviews were transcribed and content-analyzed, and major themes and sub-themes were identified and reported. Results Respondents identified nine key features of a desirable priority setting process: inclusion of baseline assessment, use of best evidence, clarity, consistency, clear and measurable criteria, dissemination of information, fair representation, alignment with the strategic direction and evaluation of results. Existing priority setting processes were found to be lacking on most of these desired features. In addition, respondents identified and explicated several factors that influence resource allocation, including political considerations and organizational culture and capacity. Conclusion This study makes a contribution to a growing body of knowledge which provides the type of contextual evidence that is required if priority setting processes are to be used successfully by health care decision-makers.

  19. Priority setting in the provincial health services authority: survey of key decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitton Craig

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, decision makers in Canada and elsewhere have expressed a desire for more explicit, evidence-based approaches to priority setting. To achieve this aim within health care organizations, knowledge of both the organizational context and stakeholder attitudes towards priority setting are required. The current work adds to a limited yet growing body of international literature describing priority setting practices in health organizations. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 25 key decision makers of the Provincial Health Services Authority (PHSA of British Columbia. Major themes and sub-themes were identified through content analysis. Results Priorities were described by decision makers as being set in an ad hoc manner, with resources generally allocated along historical lines. Participants identified the Strategic Plan and a strong research base as strengths of the organization. The main areas for improvement were a desire to have a more transparent process for priority setting, a need to develop a culture which supports explicit priority setting, and a focus on fairness in decision making. Barriers to an explicit allocation process included the challenge of providing specialized services for disparate patient groups, and a lack of formal training in priority setting amongst decision makers. Conclusion This study identified factors important to understanding organizational context and informed next steps for explicit priority setting for a provincial health authority. While the PHSA is unique in its organizational structure in Canada, lessons about priority setting should be transferable to other contexts.

  20. Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihlgren Mona

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to

  1. How can research organizations more effectively transfer research knowledge to decision makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Robertson, Dave; Woodside, Jennifer M; McLeod, Christopher B; Abelson, Julia

    2003-01-01

    Five questions--What should be transferred to decision makers? To whom should it be transferred? By whom? How? With what effect?--provide an organizing framework for a knowledge transfer strategy. Opportunities for improving how research organizations transfer research knowledge can be found in the differences between the answers suggested by our understanding of the research literature and those provided by research-organization directors asked to describe what they do. In Canada, these opportunities include developing actionable messages for decision makers (only 30 percent of research organizations frequently or always do this), developing knowledge-uptake skills in target audiences and knowledge-transfer skills in research organizations (only 20 to 22 percent frequently or always do this), and evaluating the impact of knowledge-transfer activities (only 8 to 12 percent frequently or always conduct an evaluation). Research funders can help research organizations take advantage of these opportunities.

  2. Economic evaluation databases as an aid to healthcare decision makers and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Ibáñez, Raquel; Nixon, John; Glanville, Julie; Craig, Dawn; Rice, Stephen; Christie, James; Drummond, Michael F

    2005-12-01

    Economic evaluation databases have been developed to assist in setting priorities and facilitating research within the healthcare sector. This paper presents an overview of the major databases of economic evaluations currently available (HEED, NHS EED, the CEA Registry, CODECS, PEDE, EURONHEED and JEED). It describes the key features of each database and the main user groups. It also presents evidence of the value of access to economic evaluation databases, particularly for the researchers and decision makers who form their main target audience. The research available shows that both decision makers and researchers find economic evaluation databases helpful as a source of information. However, database producers may also need to better understand the requirements of their users and consider adaptations to their products.

  3. HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION OF NATURAL PRODUCTION INVENTORY MODELS WITH THE PREFERENCE OF A DECISION MAKER

    OpenAIRE

    CHIH HSUN HSIEH

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, two natural production inventory models based on fuzzy total production inventory cost with the preference of a decision maker are introduced, and combined by natural number parameters in which values are linguistic values in natural language, crisp real number variables, and fuzzy number variables. These are the one natural production inventory model for crisp production quantity, and the other natural production inventory model for fuzzy production quantity. The natural arith...

  4. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  5. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  6. Bridging the Gap between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers through the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.; Miller, T. N.; Crepps, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations who collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations to enhance decision making on a local level. DEVELOP partners with a wide variety of organizations, including state and local governments, federal agencies, regional entities, tribal governments, international organizations and governments, NGOs and private companies. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations, and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This presentation will highlight best practices, feedback from project end-users, and case studies of successful adoption of methods in the decision making process.

  7. Mapping of multiple criteria for priority setting of health interventions: an aid for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp Noor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rationing decisions in health, many criteria like costs, effectiveness, equity and feasibility concerns play a role. These criteria stem from different disciplines that all aim to inform health care rationing decisions, but a single underlying concept that incorporates all criteria does not yet exist. Therefore, we aim to develop a conceptual mapping of criteria, based on the World Health Organization’s Health Systems Performance and Health Systems Building Blocks frameworks. This map can be an aid to decision makers to identify the relevant criteria for priority setting in their specific context. Methods We made an inventory of all possible criteria for priority setting on the basis of literature review. We categorized the criteria according to both health system frameworks that spell out a country’s health system goals and input. We reason that the criteria that decision makers use in priority setting exercises are a direct manifestation of this. Results Our map includes thirty-one criteria that are distributed among five categories that reflect the goals of a health system (i.e. to improve level of health, fair distribution of health, responsiveness, social & financial risk protection and efficiency and leadership/governance one category that reflects feasibiliy based on the health system building blocks (i.e. service delivery, health care workforce , information, medical products, vaccines & technologies, financing and. Conclusions This conceptual mapping of criteria, based on well-established health system frameworks, will further develop the field of priority setting by assisting decision makers in the identification of multiple criteria for selection of health interventions.

  8. An Assessment of Family Planning Decision Makers' and Advocates' Needs and Strategies in Three East African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ellen; Musila, Ruth; Murunga, Violet; Godbole, Ramona

    2015-09-01

    Despite decades of evidence-based advocacy for family planning in developing countries, research on how decision makers perceive and respond to such efforts is lacking. A literature review yielded 10 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 1999 and 2012 on decision makers' needs for and experiences with health advocacy and evidence. Two sets of questions about family planning research and advocacy-one for decision makers and another for advocates-were developed from emerging themes and used in structured interviews with 68 key informants in Ethiopia, Kenya and Malawi. Decision makers reported understanding family planning's value and confirmed that advocacy had helped to spur recent favorable shifts in government support of family planning. Key informants stressed that advocacy messages and formats must be tailored to the needs and interests of particular audiences to be effective. Messages must also consider barriers to decision makers' support for family planning: constituents' negative attitudes; fear that increased adherence to family planning will shrink the size and influence of specific voting blocs and ethnic groups; and competing economic, social, cultural, religious and political priorities. Decision makers reported valuing the contributions of international family planning organizations and donors, but were more comfortable receiving advocacy messages from local sources. According to decision makers, sustained and strategic family planning advocacy developed and delivered by culturally attuned national actors, with support from international actors, can diminish barriers to government support for family planning.

  9. An approach for Web service selection based on confidence level of decision maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezrian, Mojtaba; Jahan, Ali; Kadir, Wan Mohd Nasir Wan; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Web services today are among the most widely used groups for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Service selection is one of the most significant current discussions in SOA, which evaluates discovered services and chooses the best candidate from them. Although a majority of service selection techniques apply Quality of Service (QoS), the behaviour of QoS-based service selection leads to service selection problems in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). In the existing works, the confidence level of decision makers is neglected and does not consider their expertise in assessing Web services. In this paper, we employ the VIKOR (VIšekriterijumskoKOmpromisnoRangiranje) method, which is absent in the literature for service selection, but is well-known in other research. We propose a QoS-based approach that deals with service selection by applying VIKOR with improvement of features. This research determines the weights of criteria based on user preference and accounts for the confidence level of decision makers. The proposed approach is illustrated by an example in order to demonstrate and validate the model. The results of this research may facilitate service consumers to attain a more efficient decision when selecting the appropriate service.

  10. What contributes to a technical purchasing decision maker's reliance on brand name for design decisions involving I&T products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutoumanos, Vincent

    The following research is intended to develop more formal mechanisms for collection, analysis, retention and dissemination of information relating to brand influence on high-technology products. Specifically, these high-technology products are associated with the engineering applications that likely would involve the loss of human life in the advent of catastrophic failure. The results of the study lead to an extension of theory involving marketing and product selection of "highly engineered" parts within the aerospace industry. The findings were separated into three distinct areas: 1) Information load will play a large role in the final design decision. If the designer is under a high level of information load during the time of a design decision, he or she likely will gravitate to the traditional design choice, regardless of the level of brand strength. 2) Even when strong brand names, like 3M, were offered as the non-traditional design choice, engineers gravitated to the traditional design choice that was presented in a mock Society for Manufacturing Engineers article. 3) Designer self-efficacy by itself will not often contribute to a decision maker's design choice. However, these data collected indicates that a combination of high designer self-efficacy moderated by high brand strength is likely to contribute significantly to a decision maker's decision. The post-hoc finding shows that many designers having high levels of self-efficacy could be developing a sense of comfort with strong brand names (like 3M) when making a design choice.

  11. EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKERS IN EUROPEAN PRE – UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRAȘCU DANUȚ DUMITRU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKERS IN EUROPEAN PRE – UNIVERSITY EDUCATION Ana Tuºa, 1 Affiliation , “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economics, Department of management Claudiu Sorin Voinia 2 , Affiliation, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering Dãnuþ Dumitru Dumitraºcu 3 Affiliation, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economics, Department of management The theme paper consists in a comparative analysis of European preuniveristary education decision makers. Decision makers in preuniversity education management remain the key issue in the political agenda of most European countries. The diversity of educational policies in each European country aims to increase school autonomy, in a way that allows comparison of their main elements of management. Scientific research carried out aimed both theoretical and practical terms: - comparative analysis of how the makers of European schools are responsible for the management practiced in the educational institution. - identification of the achievement of school autonomy. Lately, in terms of policy makers and school autonomy, schools have gone through many reforms. It was felt the need to improve the democratic management and the quality of the educational process. The analysis and the approaches differ in terms of pace of reform, scale transfer of authority and areas that apply. No approach can be chosen as the ideal one or more effective than others, because the contexts in which they were made are so diverse. However, as it moves along, educational policy makers can learn from the approaches and experiences of others. The methodology was based on: the study of scientific literature from the country and abroad, on the theory and practice regarding the decision in the management of school education activities. Comparative analysis was conducted based on questionnaires

  12. Bridging the Gap Between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers Through the NASA Develop National Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, C. M.; Madden, M.; Favors, J.; Childs-Gleason, L.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations that collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This paper will present the DEVELOP model, best practices, and two case studies, the Colombia Ecological Forecasting project and the Miami-Dade County Ecological Forecasting project, that showcase the successful adoption of tools and methods for decision making. Through over 90 projects each year, DEVELOP is always striving for the innovative, practical, and beneficial use of NASA Earth science data.

  13. Use of modified Delphi to plan knowledge translation for decision makers: an application in the field of advanced practice nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nancy; Lavis, John N; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Disseminating research to decision makers is difficult. Interaction between researchers and decision makers can identify key messages and processes for dissemination. To gain agreement on the key findings from a synthesis on the integration of advanced practice nurses, we used a modified Delphi process. Nursing decision makers contributed ideas via e-mail, discussed and clarified ideas face to face, and then prioritized statements. Sixteen (89%) participated and 14 (77%) completed the final phase. Priority key messages were around access to care and outcomes. The majority identified "NPs increase access to care" and "NPs and CNSs improve patient and system outcomes" as priority messaging statements. Participants agreed policy makers and the public were target audiences for messages. Consulting with policy makers provided the necessary context to develop tailored policy messages and is a helpful approach for research dissemination.

  14. Learning environment simulator: a tool for local decision makers and first responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclaire, Rene J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hirsch, Gary B [CLE, INCORPORATED

    2009-01-01

    The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) has developed a prototype learning environment simulator (LES) based on the Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System (CIPDSS) infrastructure and scenario models. The LES is designed to engage decision makers at the grass-roots level (local/city/state) to deepen their understanding of an evolving crisis, enhance their intuition and allow them to test their own strategies for events before they occur. An initial version is being developed, centered on a pandemic influenza outbreak and has been successfully tested with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. LES is not a predictive tool but rather a simulated environment allowing the user to experience the complexities of a crisis before it happens. Users can contrast various approaches to the crisis, competing with alternative strategies of their own or other participants. LES is designed to assist decision makers in making informed choices by functionally representing relevant scenarios before they occur, including impacts to critical infrastructures with their interdependencies, and estimating human health & safety and economic impacts. In this paper a brief overview of the underlying models are given followed by a description of the LES, its interface and usage and an overview of the experience testing LES with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the work remaining to make LES operational.

  15. Effective Decision Maker-Scientist Engagement:Climate Change Vulnerability Analysis of California's Water System to Using Decision Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, A. M.; Ray, P.; Brown, C.; Wi, S.

    2016-12-01

    For nearly 2 years the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) has been working with the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass) to evaluate climate change vulnerabilities to the California State Water Project. Working cooperatively, the team has developed tools and methods to employ a decision scaling approach to CDWR's existing water system model (CalSim-II/CalLite 3.0). This presentation will discuss how and why this partnership came to be, the co-production model the team has developed to share expertise, the new understanding of the system that has been gained through the process, and current and future efforts to influence planning and investments based on the findings of the work. This cooperative decision-maker-with-scientist engagement is unique in that CDWR has not outsourced the application of the science to their systems, and instead has worked directly with UMass researchers to develop the process, produce results, and interpret findings. Further, CDWR staff has worked with UMass researchers to present results in ways that are more useable and actionable for decision-makers. As will be shown, many of these graphics allow the team to use the science differently to improve decision making.

  16. Decision-Makers As Messengers Of Climate Change Impacts And Ambassadors For Their Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; DeBenedict, C.; Bruce, L.; Estrada, M.; Hedge, N.; Silva-Send, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past several years there have been many coordinated efforts to improve climate change literacy of diverse audiences. The challenge has been to balance science content with audience-specific messaging with a goal to reach solutions and build community resilience. In the San Diego Region, Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been working with business leaders, elected officials, tribal leaders, and other community leaders to develop a suite of programs and activities to enhance the channels of communication outside traditional settings. CEP has employed a multidisciplinary approach that integrates climate science, social and learning sciences and effective communication strategies to create innovative resources and new approaches to climate change communication in order to engage audiences more effectively. We have interviewed over 140 key San Diego leaders and invited them to serve as ambassadors to the project by engaging them directly in the creation of a variety of innovative educational resources as well as serving as spokespersons for outreach activities. Our program has evolved from having only scientists, educators and community practitioners serve as presenters to strategically and deliberately engaging a mix of scientists, educators and decision makers as the conveyers of key messages. Our protocol for events includes preparing all speakers in advance, researching our audience, creating a script, immediate debriefs of each activity and a qualitative and quantitative assessment of each event. Two examples of this integrated approach will show how to engage decision-makers more deeply: (1) coastal flooding tour as a place-based activity and (2) impact videos that blend climate science, local personal stories and key messages from decision makers themselves. For climate change communication to be successful in the future, we will need creative and coordinated approaches.

  17. Solution to multiple attribute group decision making problems with two decision makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangwei Zhang; Wei Wang; Xuedong Hua

    2015-01-01

    A kind of multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problem is discussed from the perspective of statistic decision-making. Firstly, on the basis of the stability theory, a new idea is proposed to solve this kind of problem. Secondly, a con-crete method corresponding to this kind of problem is proposed. The main tool of our research is the technique of the jackknife method. The main advantage of the new method is that it can identify and determine the reliability degree of the existed decision making information. Final y, a traffic engineering example is given to show the effectiveness of the new method.

  18. Family matters: effects of birth order, culture, and family dynamics on surrogate decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T; McMahan, Ryan D; Williams, Brie A; Sharma, Rashmi K; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision-making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English and Spanish speakers from county and Veterans Affairs hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants' experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision-making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis, and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 ± 14, and 29% were African American, 26% were white, 26% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within three overarching categories: communication (unspoken expectations and discussion of death as taboo), emotion (emotional stress and feelings of loneliness), and conflict (family conflict and potential solutions to prevent conflict). These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict.

  19. Finding common ground to achieve a “good death”: family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Amy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a “bad death” experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians’ experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Methods Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Results Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated. The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a “good death” and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death. Finding Common Ground to Achieve a “Good Death” for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1 Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2 Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3 Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for

  20. Finding common ground to achieve a "good death": family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amy; Manca, Donna

    2013-01-22

    Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a "bad death" experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians' experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated.The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a "good death" and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death.Finding Common Ground to Achieve a "Good Death" for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is described. A novel framework for developing

  1. Voice in political decision-making: the effect of group voice on perceived trustworthiness of decision makers and subsequent acceptance of decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwel, Bart W; Harinck, Fieke; Ellemers, Naomi; Daamen, Dancker D L

    2010-06-01

    The implementation of carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS) is considered an important climate change mitigation strategy, but the viability of this technology will depend on public acceptance of CCS policy decisions. The results of three experiments with students as participants show that whether or not interest groups receive an opportunity to express their opinions in the decision-making process (i.e., group voice) affects acceptance of CCS policy decisions, with inferred trustworthiness of the decision maker mediating this effect. Decision-making procedures providing different interest groups with equal opportunities to voice their opinions instigate more trust in the decision maker and, in turn, lead to greater willingness to accept decisions compared to no-voice procedures (i.e., unilateral decision-making-Study 1) and unequal group-voice procedures (i.e., when one type of interest group receives voice, but another type of interest group does not-Study 2). Study 3 further shows that an individual's own level of knowledge about CCS moderates the desire for an opportunity for members of the general public to voice opinions in the decision-making process, inferred trustworthiness of decision makers, and policy acceptance. These results imply that people care about voice in decision-making even when they are not directly personally involved in the decision-making process. We conclude that people tend to use procedural information when deciding to accept or oppose policy decisions on political complex issues; hence, it is important that policymakers use fair group-voice procedures and that they communicate to the public how they arrive at their decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Economic assessment of flood forecasts for a risk-averse decision-maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier-Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-04-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. It has also been suggested in past studies that ensemble forecasts might possess a greater economic value than deterministic forecasts. However, the vast majority of recent hydro-economic literature is based on the cost-loss ratio framework, which might be appealing for its simplicity and intuitiveness. One important drawback of the cost-loss ratio is that it implicitly assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. By definition, a risk-neutral individual is indifferent to forecasts' sharpness: as long as forecasts agree with observations on average, the risk-neutral individual is satisfied. A risk-averse individual, however, is sensitive to the level of precision (sharpness) of forecasts. This person is willing to pay to increase his or her certainty about future events. In fact, this is how insurance companies operate: the probability of seeing one's house burn down is relatively low, so the expected cost related to such event is also low. However, people are willing to buy insurance to avoid the risk, however small, of loosing everything. Similarly, in a context where people's safety and property is at stake, the typical decision maker is more risk-averse than risk-neutral. Consequently, the cost-loss ratio is not the most appropriate tool to assess the economic value of flood forecasts. This presentation describes a more realistic framework for assessing the economic value of such forecasts for flood mitigation purposes. Borrowing from economics, the Constant Absolute Risk Aversion utility function (CARA) is the central tool of this new framework. Utility functions allow explicitly accounting for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker and fully exploiting the information related to ensemble forecasts' uncertainty. Three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared in terms of quality (comparison with

  3. Advisory Committee: A Powerful Tool for Helping Decision Makers inEnvironmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur; Lafrance; Ansseau; Renaud; Morin; Audet

    1997-05-01

    / It has been suggested that the general public should be moreinvolved in environmental policy and decision making. It is important forthem to realize that they will have to live with the consequences ofenvironmental policies and decisions. Consequently, policy makers shouldconsider the concerns and opinions of the general public before makingdecisions on environmental issues. This raises questions such as: How can weintegrate the perceptions and reactions of the general population inenvironmental decisions? What kind of public participation should weconsider? In the present study, using a new regional ecosystem model, weattempted to integrate these aspects in its decision making model byincluding the formation of an advisory committee to resolve problems relatedto waste management. The advisory committee requested the activeparticipation of representatives from all levels of the community: economic,municipal, and governmental intervenors; environmental groups; and citizens.Their mandates were to examine different management strategies available inthe region, considering all the interdisciplinary aspects of each strategy,elaborate recommendations concerning the management strategies that are mostsuitable for all, and collaborate in communication of the information to thegeneral population. The results showed that at least in small municipalitiessuch an advisory committee can be a powerful tool in environmental decisionmaking. Conditions required for a successful consultation process, such aseveryday lay language and the presence of a facilitator other than ascientific expert, are discussed.KEY WORDS: Public consultation; Environmental policies;Interdisciplinary aspects; Municipal sewage sludge management; Generalpopulation; Decision-making process

  4. Charting a path forward: building AGU's capacity to help foster scientist-decision maker engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.; Behar, D. H.; Mote, P.; Ferguson, D. B.; Pandya, R.

    2016-12-01

    Most research proposals, papers, and presentation abstracts begin with the motivation that the new science presented will benefit society. Behind this, beyond making good on the promises to get funding, is a sincere effort to contribute our knowledge and talent to build a better (safer, sustainable, more resilient) world. For this to happen, however, the science needs to be connected to people in communities who make decisions. While this happens in a variety of ways, often for research to be most useful to society, engagement with decision makers should occur at the beginning and throughout the research process. Increasingly this is being recognized as important, as evidenced by the growing number of boundary organizations (e.g., U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers, NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment programs). Even within AGU, in recent years there has been a number of new activities and networks that suggest a growing community of practice for those doing work at the science-society interface (e.g., The Thriving Earth Exchange, the Water and Society Technical Committee in the Hydrology Section). In this presentation, we highlight what these activities are and share insights from those involved. We evaluate trends (e.g., have the number of abstracts on this topic increased?) and present responses from AGU members to questions on where this community of practice should go next (e.g., What is the most important task the AGU community should do to improve decision maker-scientist engagement?). The goal of this presentation is to promote a conversation about how the AGU community can be better prepared to foster engagement with decision makers that will lead to more actionable science. This will help us ensure our science is useful to society, fulfilling our motivations, and arguably responsibilities, both individually and as a community. It will also serve to prepare new scientists for a broader range of careers beyond

  5. Science in Society: Bridging the gap to connect science to decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Bwarie, J.; Pearce, I.

    2016-12-01

    The gap between science and decision making in our society can be large and multi-faceted, involving communication, process, cultural and even subconscious differences. In sweeping generalization, scientists reject anecdotes, focus on uncertainty and details, and expect conflict as part of the scientific process, while non-scientists respond to stories, want certainty and the big picture, and see conflict as a reason to reject the message. Bridging this gap often requires ongoing collaboration to find the intersection of three independent domains: what science can provide, the technical information decision makers need to make the most effective choices and what information decision makers need to motivate action. For ten years, the USGS has experimented with improving the usefulness of its science through the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project and its predecessor, the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California. Through leading and participating in these activities, we have recognized 3 steps that have been essential to successful partnerships between scientists and decision makers. First, determining what makes for a successful product cannot be done in isolation by either scientists or users. The users may want something science cannot produce (e.g., accurate short-term earthquake predictions), while the scientists can fail to see that the product they know how to make may not be relevant to the decisions that need to be made. Real discussions with real exchange and absorption of information on both sides makes for the most useful products. Second, most scientific results need work beyond what belongs in a journal to create a product that can be used. This is not just a different style of communication, but analyses that focus on the community's local questions rather than on scientific advances. Third, probabilities of natural hazards almost never motivate action to mitigate. The probabilities are usually low on human time

  6. Information transfer: what do decision makers want and need from researchers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Mary

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to undertake a systematic assessment of the need for research-based information by decision-makers working in community-based organizations. It is part of a more comprehensive knowledge transfer and exchange strategy that seeks to understand both the content required and the format/methods by which such information should be presented. Methods This was a cross-sectional telephone survey. Questions covered current practices, research use, and demographic information, as well as preferences for receiving research information. Three types of organizations participated: Children's Treatment Centres of Ontario (CTCs; Ontario Community Care Access Centres (CCACs; and District Health Councils (DHCs. The analysis used descriptive statistics and analyses of variance (ANOVA to describe and explore variations across organizations. Results The participation rate was 70%. The highest perception of barriers to the use of research information was reported by the CCAC respondents, followed by CTCs and DHCs. The CTCs and DHCs reported greater use of research evidence in planning decisions as compared to the CCACs. Four sources of information transfer were consistently identified. These were websites, health-related research journals, electronic mail, and conferences and workshops. Preferred formats for receiving information were executive summaries, abstracts, and original articles. Conclusion There were a number of similarities across organization type with respect to perceived barriers to research transfer, as well as the types of activities the organizations engaged in to promote research use in decision-making. These findings support the importance of developing interactive, collaborative knowledge transfer strategies, as well as the need to foster relationships with health care decision-makers, practitioners and policymakers.

  7. "Interventions for Promoting Research Knowledge Translation: Selection and Grading of Research Projects for Decision Makers"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharnaz Nedjat

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nResearch-based knowledge transfer is considered an important principle in health. The status of knowledge transfer was studied in earlier studies and accordingly certain interventions were designed on the basis of its weaknesses. The idea was to design an algorithm for selection of research projects which are legible for knowledge transfer."nUsing literature review, grading of research projects was examined for its design and methodology. A decision was then made on the method of grading projects using relevant expert opinions. In the next stage, considering the validity of the aforementioned grading, and contextual examination, an algorithm was designed to define the method of selecting projects and their result transfer."nSince articles usually don't convey all the research findings, and don't reach decision makers on time, article writing doesn't seem sufficient for knowledge transfer. It is therefore necessary to adopt a mechanism that will convey valid research findings to target audiences. The algorithm presented in this article will help research authorities systematically decide about selecting research projects for knowledge transfer. Evaluation of this intervention was suggested for future researches. The results of this study can be beneficial to research policy makers in the university.

  8. A conceptual model of family surrogate end-of-life decision-making process in the nursing home setting: goals of care as guiding stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    An increasing proportion of dying is occurring in America's nursing homes (NH). Family members are involved in (and affected by) medical decision-making on behalf of NH residents approaching the end of life, especially when the resident is cognitively impaired. This article proposes an empirically derived conceptual model of the key factors NH family surrogate decision-makers consider when establishing or changing goals of care and the iterative process as applied to the NH setting. This model also establishes the importance of family social role expectations toward their loved one as well as the concept, "stance toward dying," as key in establishing or changing the main goal of care. NH staff and physicians can use the model as a framework for providing information and support to family members. Research is needed to better understand how to prepare staff and settings to support family surrogate decision-makers, in particular around setting goals of care. The model can be generalized beyond nursing homes.

  9. NPD gate decision criteria: A consequence of strategic orientation or decision-maker expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    All NPD projects are evaluated at some point of time during the course of the process. These evaluations require the use criteria for deciding whether to carry on or 'kill' the project. The focus of this paper is on the origin of decision criteria and what determines the prioritisation of various...

  10. A Proposed Computer-Assisted Decision Making System for the Hellenic Navy Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    creates and sustains a corporate moral code. It appears that nations with a long history, especially of fighting defensive wars, are’ more likely to...experiences and needs of the potential adopters. An idea that is not comnatible with the prevalent values and norms of a cultural and social Estem will...Decision Support Systems, ed: \\V. C. House, Petrocelli Books, New YorK/Princeton, 1983. " Corporate war rooms pluginto the computer," Business Week, August

  11. Development of policies for Natura 2000 sites: a multi-criteria approach to support decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Carla; Boggia, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to present a methodology to support decision makers in the choice of Natura 2000 sites needing an appropriate management plan to ensure a sustainable socio-economic development. In order to promote sustainable development in the Natura 2000 sites compatible with nature preservation, conservation measures or management plans are necessary. The main issue is to decide when only conservation measures can be applied and when the sites need an appropriate management plan. We present a case study for the Italian Region of Umbria. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria approach to identify the biodiversity index (BI), and on the development of a human activities index (HAI). By crossing the two indexes for each site on a Cartesian plane, four groups of sites were identified. Each group corresponds to a specific need for an appropriate management plan. Sites in the first group with a high level both of biodiversity and human activities have the most urgent need of an appropriate management plan to ensure sustainable development. The proposed methodology and analysis is replicable in other regions or countries by using the data available for each site in the Natura 2000 standard data form. A multi-criteria analysis is especially suitable for supporting decision makers when they deal with a multidimensional decision process. We found the multi-criteria approach particularly sound in this case, due to the concept of biodiversity itself, which is complex and multidimensional, and to the high number of alternatives (Natura 2000 sites) to be assessed.

  12. Establishing the connection between crowd-sourced data and decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, L. J.; Swartz, W.; Strong, S. B.; Nix, M. G.; Schaefer, R. K.; Weiss, M.

    2014-12-01

    There are many challenges in using, developing, and ensuring the viability of crowd-sourced data. Establishing and maintaining relevance is one of them but each participant in the challenge has different criteria for relevance. Consider, for example, the collection of data using smart phones. Some participants just like to contribute to something they consider good for the community. How do you engender that commitment? This becomes especially problematic when an additional sensor may need to be added to the smart phone. Certainly the humanitarian-egalitarian may be willing to "buy-in" but what value does it hold for the entrepreneurial-individualist? Another challenge is that of the crowd-sourced data themselves. Most readily available apps collect only one kind of data. The frontier lies in not only aggregating the data from those devices but in fusing the data with other data types (e.g. satellite imagery, installed sensors, radars, etc.). Doing this requires resources and the establishment and negotiation of data rights, how data are valued, how data are used, and the model used for support of the process (e.g. profit-driven, communal, scientific, etc.). In this talk we will discuss a few problems that we have looked at wherein distributed sensor networks provide potential value, data fusion is a "value multiplier" of those crowd-sourced data and how we make that connection to decision makers. We have explored active decision making through our Global Assimilation of Information for Action project (see our old website http://gaia.jhuapl.edu) and the use of "serious games" to establish affinities and illuminate opportunities and issues. We assert that the field of dreams approach ("build it and they will come") is not a sufficiently robust approach; the decision-makers (or paying customers) must be involved in the process of defining the data system products and quantifying the value proposition for their clients.

  13. Interpreting Climate Model Projections of Extreme Weather Events for Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrus, S. J.; Notaro, M.

    2014-12-01

    The proliferation of output from climate model ensembles, such as CMIP3 and CMIP5, has greatly expanded access to future projections, but there is no accepted blueprint for how this data should be interpreted. Decision makers are thus faced with difficult questions when trying to utilize such information: How reliable are the multi-model mean projections? How should the changes simulated by outlier models be treated? How can raw projections of temperature and precipitation be translated into probabilities? The multi-model average is often regarded as the most accurate single estimate of future conditions, but higher-order moments representing the variance and skewness of the distribution of projections provide important information about uncertainty. We have analyzed a set of statistically downscaled climate model projections from the CMIP3 archive to conduct an assessment of extreme weather events at a level designed to be relevant for decision makers. Our analysis uses the distribution of 13 GCM projections to derive the inter-model standard deviation (and coefficient of variation, COV), skewness, and percentile ranges for simulated changes in extreme heat, cold, and precipitation during the middle and late 21st century for the A1B emissions scenario. These metrics help to establish the overall confidence level across the entire range of projections (via the inter-model COV), relative confidence in the simulated high-end versus low-end changes (via skewness), and probabilistic uncertainty bounds derived from a bootstrapping technique. Over our analysis domain centered on the United States Midwest, some primary findings include: (1) Greater confidence in projections of less extreme cold than more extreme heat and intense precipitation, (2) Greater confidence in the low-end than high-end projections of extreme heat, and (3) Higher spatial and temporal variability in the confidence of projected increases of heavy precipitation. In addition, our bootstrapping

  14. Is economic valuation of ecosystem services useful to decision-makers? Lessons learned from Australian coastal and marine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marre, Jean-Baptiste; Thébaud, Olivier; Pascoe, Sean; Jennings, Sarah; Boncoeur, Jean; Coglan, Louisa

    2016-08-01

    Economic valuation of ecosystem services is widely advocated as being useful to support ecosystem management decision-making. However, the extent to which it is actually used or considered useful in decision-making is poorly documented. This literature blindspot is explored with an application to coastal and marine ecosystems management in Australia. Based on a nation-wide survey of eighty-eight decision-makers representing a diversity of management organizations, the perceived usefulness and level of use of economic valuation of ecosystem services, in support of coastal and marine management, are examined. A large majority of decision-makers are found to be familiar with economic valuation and consider it useful - even necessary - in decision-making, although this varies across groups of decision-makers. However, most decision-makers never or rarely use economic valuation. The perceived level of importance and trust in estimated dollar values differ across ecosystem services, and are especially high for values that relate to commercial activities. A number of factors are also found to influence respondent's use of economic valuation. Such findings concur with conclusions from other studies on the usefulness and use of ESV in environmental management decision-making. They also demonstrate the strength of the survey-based approach developed in this application to examine this issue in a variety of contexts.

  15. The Ecological Model Web Concept: A Consultative Infrastructure for Decision Makers and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, G.; Nativi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers want better information about what these changes will be and how various resources will be affected, while researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Although there are many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is only limited coordination among them, and accessible, openly shared models or model systems that can be consulted to gain insight on important ecological questions or assist with decision-making are rare. A "consultative infrastructure" that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit decision makers, researchers, as well as modelers. Of course, envisioning such an ambitious system is much easier than building it, but several complementary approaches exist that could contribute. The one discussed here is called the Model Web. This is a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases based on making models and their outputs available as services ("model as a service"). Initially, it might consist of a core of several models from which it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. However, a model web would not be a monolithic, rigidly planned and built system--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. One difference from the WWW is that a model web is much harder to create, and has more pitfalls, and thus is a long term vision. However, technology, science, observations, and models have advanced enough so that parts of an ecological model web can be built and utilized now, forming a framework for gradual growth as well as a broadly accessible infrastructure. Ultimately, the value of a model

  16. Anxious Individuals Are Impulsive Decision-Makers in the Delay Discounting Task: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lisheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity, which is linked to a wide range of psychiatric disorders, is often characterized by a preference for immediate but smaller rewards over delayed but larger rewards. However, debate exists on the relationship between anxiety and impulsivity. Here we use event-related potential (ERP) components as biomarkers in the temporal discounting task to examine the effect of anxiety on inter-temporal decision-making. Our behavioral results indicated that the high trait anxiety (HTA) group made significantly more immediate choices than the low trait anxiety (LTA) group. Compared with the LTA group, shorter response time was associated with immediate rewards in the HTA group. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated three ERP components that are associated with impulsivity and/or delay discounting. First, the N1 is an early sensory component involved in selective attention and attention processing for goal-directed actions. Second, the reward positivity (RewP) reflects reward-related dopaminergic activity and encodes reward values. Third, the P3 is regarded as a measure of motivational significance in the decision-making literature. Accordingly, this study found in the immediate-option-evoked ERPs that the HTA group had a larger N1 than the LTA group did. For the delayed-option-evoked ERPs, the HTA group had larger N1 and RewP for the immediate choice than the LTA group did, while the LTA group had a larger P3 for the delayed choice than the HTA group did. These results support the notion that anxiety individuals are impulsive decision-makers in the Delay Discounting Task.

  17. Anxious Individuals Are Impulsive Decision-Makers in the Delay Discounting Task: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lisheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity, which is linked to a wide range of psychiatric disorders, is often characterized by a preference for immediate but smaller rewards over delayed but larger rewards. However, debate exists on the relationship between anxiety and impulsivity. Here we use event-related potential (ERP) components as biomarkers in the temporal discounting task to examine the effect of anxiety on inter-temporal decision-making. Our behavioral results indicated that the high trait anxiety (HTA) group made significantly more immediate choices than the low trait anxiety (LTA) group. Compared with the LTA group, shorter response time was associated with immediate rewards in the HTA group. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated three ERP components that are associated with impulsivity and/or delay discounting. First, the N1 is an early sensory component involved in selective attention and attention processing for goal-directed actions. Second, the reward positivity (RewP) reflects reward-related dopaminergic activity and encodes reward values. Third, the P3 is regarded as a measure of motivational significance in the decision-making literature. Accordingly, this study found in the immediate-option-evoked ERPs that the HTA group had a larger N1 than the LTA group did. For the delayed-option-evoked ERPs, the HTA group had larger N1 and RewP for the immediate choice than the LTA group did, while the LTA group had a larger P3 for the delayed choice than the HTA group did. These results support the notion that anxiety individuals are impulsive decision-makers in the Delay Discounting Task. PMID:28174528

  18. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  19. How to Reach Decision Makers: Build a network of educators and practitioners with common goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Gershunov, A.

    2013-12-01

    In San Diego County, the Climate Education Partners (CEP) includes climate scientists, science educators, behavioral scientists, environmental practitioners and community organizations that are dedicated to providing local decision makers (elected officials, business leaders, community leaders) with sound climate science learning opportunities and resources that promote informed decision making. Their work over the past three years has found that effective climate education programs are designed for specific audiences with tailored information that is relevant to them, while simultaneously building community efficacy, identity and values. An integrated approach that blends rigorous scientific facts, local climate change impact, and social science education theory is contributing towards the development of a cadre of engaged leaders and communities. To track project progress and to inform the project strategy, local Key Influentials are being interviewed to gauge their current understanding of climate change and their interest in either becoming messengers to their community or becoming the portal to their constituency. Innovation comes from productive collaboration. For this reason, CEP has been working with leading scientists (climatologists, hydrologists, meteorologists, ecologists), environmental groups, museums and zoos, media experts and government agencies (Water Authority, CalFire) to develop and refine a program of learning activities and resources geared specifically for Key Influentials. For example, a water tour has been designed to bring 25 key influential leaders in San Diego County to a dam, a pumping station and a reservoir and provide climate change facts, impacts and potential solutions to the critical issue of water supply for the San Diego Region. While learning local facts about the causes and impacts of climate change, participants also learn about what they can do (increasing efficacy), that they can be a part of a solution centered community

  20. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, David P [ORNL; McGervey, Joseph [SRA International, Inc.; Curran, Scott [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  1. New challenges for seismology and decision makers after L'Aquila trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    2013-04-01

    On 22 October seven experts who attended a Major Risk Committee meeting were sentenced to six years in prison on charges of manslaughter for underestimating the risk before the devastating 6.3-magnitude earthquake that struck the hillside city of L'Aquila on 6 April 2009, which caused more than 300 deaths. The earthquake followed a sequence of seismic events that started at the beginning of the year, with the largest shock - a 4.2-magnitude earthquake - occurring on 30 March. A day later, the seven experts met in L'Aquila; the minutes of the meeting, which were released after the quake, contained three main conclusions: that earthquakes are not predictable in a deterministic sense; that the L'Aquila region has the highest seismic hazard in Italy; and that the occurrence of a large earthquake in the short term was unlikely. There is not doubt that this trial will represent an important turning point for seismologists, and more in general for scientists who serve as advisors for public safety purposes. Here, starting from the analysis of the accusations made by the prosecutor and a detailed scientific appraisal of what happened, we try to figure out how seismology can evolve in order to be more effective in protecting people, and (possibly) avoiding accusations like the ones who characterize the L'Aquila trial. In particular, we discuss (i) the principles of the Operational Earthquake Forecasting that were put forward by an international Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) nominated after L'Aquila earthquake, (ii) the ICEF recommendations for Civil Protection, and (iii) the recent developments in this field in Italy. Finally, we also explore the interface between scientists and decision makers, in particular in the framework of making decisions in a low probability environment.

  2. Computerized clinical decision support systems for drug prescribing and management: a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemens, Brian J; Holbrook, Anne; Tonkin, Marita; Mackay, Jean A; Weise-Kelly, Lorraine; Navarro, Tamara; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2011-08-03

    Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) for drug therapy management are designed to promote safe and effective medication use. Evidence documenting the effectiveness of CCDSSs for improving drug therapy is necessary for informed adoption decisions. The objective of this review was to systematically review randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of CCDSSs for drug therapy management on process of care and patient outcomes. We also sought to identify system and study characteristics that predicted benefit. We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We updated our earlier reviews (1998, 2005) by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, Inspec, and other databases, and consulting reference lists through January 2010. Authors of 82% of included studies confirmed or supplemented extracted data. We included only randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect on process of care or patient outcomes of a CCDSS for drug therapy management compared to care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement) if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Sixty-five studies met our inclusion criteria, including 41 new studies since our previous review. Methodological quality was generally high and unchanged with time. CCDSSs improved process of care performance in 37 of the 59 studies assessing this type of outcome (64%, 57% of all studies). Twenty-nine trials assessed patient outcomes, of which six trials (21%, 9% of all trials) reported improvements. CCDSSs inconsistently improved process of care measures and seldomly improved patient outcomes. Lack of clear patient benefit and lack of data on harms and costs preclude a recommendation to adopt CCDSSs for drug therapy management.

  3. Scenarios use to engage scientists and decision-makers in a changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios provide a framework to develop more adaptive Arctic policies that allow decision makers to consider the best available science to address complex relationships and key uncertainties in drivers of change. These drivers may encompass biophysical factors such as climate change, socioeconomic drivers, and wild-cards that represent low likelihood but influential events such as major environmental disasters. We outline some of the lessons learned from the North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) scenarios project that could help in the development of adaptive science-based policies. Three spatially explicit development scenarios were identified corresponding to low, medium and high resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas. In the case of the high energy development scenario science needs were focused on new technology, oil spill response, and the effects of offshore activities on marine mammals important for subsistence. Science needs related to community culture, erosion, permafrost degradation and hunting and trapping on land were also identified for all three scenarios. The NSSI science needs will guide recommendations for future observing efforts, and data from these observing activities could subsequently improve policy guidance for emergency response, subsistence management and other issues. Scenarios at pan-Arctic scales may help improve the development of international policies for resilient northern communities and encourage the use of science to reduce uncertainties in plans for adapting to change in the Arctic.

  4. Engagement Between Decision Makers and the Research Community in Califonria'a Climate Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedsworth, L. W.; Franco, G.; Wilhelm, S.; DeLaRosa, J.

    2016-12-01

    The State of California has been supporting the development of regional climate change science for more than two decades. The engagement between the scientific community in California and State agencies has been strong, and supported by multiple formalized relationships. For example, research results have informed state climate policy formulation such as the passage of AB32, a law that requires the State to bring GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and three Bills on climate adaptation that became law late in 2015. Scientific research has also been used for long-term planning of state resources such as the Forestry Plan, the Water Plan, and the Integrated Energy Policy Report. The Climate Action Team Research Working Group meets monthly to coordinate climate-related research activities supported by more than 20 state agencies and is the steering committee for the next California Climate Assessment that will be released in 2018. The State is co-producing the research commissioned for the 2018 Assessment in various ways, including the identification of research projects, the integration of more than 50 research studies, and active participation during execution of the research. The presentation will discuss the State's successes in linking decision-makers and the scientific community as well as challenges and potential ways to enhance these linkages.

  5. Knowledge gaps regarding APN roles: what hospital decision-makers tell us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen; Ireland, Sandra; Hoxby, Heather; Peachey, Gladys; DiCenso, Alba

    2013-12-01

    The implementation of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles can yield improvements in patient and health system outcomes, and supportive leadership is integral in facilitating the implementation of such roles. The purpose of this study was to explore the awareness and understanding of APN roles among hospital decision-makers, and to learn about the information they require and the ways in which they prefer to receive that information. Fifteen administrators and leaders from two multi-site acute care organizations were interviewed. Their practical knowledge of APN roles was based on experience developing the roles or working with APNs in hospital programs. The most common sources of APN information were internal contacts (i.e., APNs) and documents from nursing organizations. Participants reported difficulty distinguishing between the roles of nurse practitioners (NPs) and clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), and identified knowledge regarding CNS roles as their greatest need. They required specific information regarding the "value-added" benefits offered by an APN role. Strategies to address the knowledge gaps of healthcare leaders are urgently needed in order to support the implementation of new APN roles and to sustain existing ones.

  6. Perspectives of Women Decision-Makers Over the Participation and Recreational Events in Sports: A Turkish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzel, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to put forth the role of the leisure and recreation events awareness including women decision-makers effects on their fellow women. Three main themes were recognized: Past; "Process of leisure and recreation events of women in Turkey", Present; "Model of Turkey for women on leisure and…

  7. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  8. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  9. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  10. It Takes Two to Tango: Researchers and Decision-Makers Collaborating to Implement Practice Changes for Patients with Multimorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Martin; Couture, Martine; Bouhali, Tarek; Leclerc, Esther; Stewart, Moira

    2016-01-01

    An integrated knowledge translation strategy is a key factor in fostering the implementation of practice changes. Building on a 15-year history of projects that include close collaboration between researchers and decision-makers in the Saguenay region of Quebec (Canada), the authors identify several key elements that resulted in practice changes in primary care and improved outcomes for patients with multimorbidity.

  11. Transferring Knowledge from Observations and Models to Decision Makers: An Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada Abu

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching to public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, security, air quality and public health can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is the organizational

  12. Different approaches for centralized and decentralized water system management in multiple decision makers' problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general agreement that one of the most challenging issues related to water system management is the presence of many and often conflicting interests as well as the presence of several and independent decision makers. The traditional approach to multi-objective water systems management is a centralized management, in which an ideal central regulator coordinates the operation of the whole system, exploiting all the available information and balancing all the operating objectives. Although this approach allows to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions representing the maximum achievable benefit, it is based on assumptions which strongly limits its application in real world contexts: 1) top-down management, 2) existence of a central regulation institution, 3) complete information exchange within the system, 4) perfect economic efficiency. A bottom-up decentralized approach seems therefore to be more suitable for real case applications since different reservoir operators may maintain their independence. In this work we tested the consequences of a change in the water management approach moving from a centralized toward a decentralized one. In particular we compared three different cases: the centralized management approach, the independent management approach where each reservoir operator takes the daily release decision maximizing (or minimizing) his operating objective independently from each other, and an intermediate approach, leading to the Nash equilibrium of the associated game, where different reservoir operators try to model the behaviours of the other operators. The three approaches are demonstrated using a test case-study composed of two reservoirs regulated for the minimization of flooding in different locations. The operating policies are computed by solving one single multi-objective optimal control problem, in the centralized management approach; multiple single-objective optimization problems, i.e. one for each operator, in the independent case

  13. Strategies for Teaching Regional Climate Modeling: Online Professional Development for Scientists and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.; Yarker, M. B.; Mesquita, M. D. S.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    structures of both courses, evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of each, along with the educational approaches used. We conclude by proposing a framework for the develop of educationally robust online professional development programs that actively supports decision makers in understanding, developing and applying regional climate models.

  14. Voices of decision makers on evidence-based policy: A case of evolving TB/HIV co-infection policy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Srikanth; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    This study explores decision makers' perspectives on evidence-based policy (EBP) development using the case of TB/HIV co-infection in India. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected key national and international policy decision makers in India. Verbatim transcripts were processed and analysed thematically using QSR (NUD*IST 6). The decision makers were unequivocal in recognizing the TB/HIV co-infection as an important public health issue in India and stated the problem to be different than Africa. The need of having a "third programme" for co-infection was not felt. According to them, the public health management of this co-infection must be within the realm of these two programmes. The study also emphasized on decision makers' perspectives on evidence and the process of utilization of evidence for decision-making for co-infection. Study findings showed global evidence was not always accepted by the decision makers and study shows several examples of decision makers demanding local evidence for policy decisions. Decision makers did make interim policies based on global evidence but most of the time their mandate was to get local evidence. Thus, operations research/implementation science especially multi-centric studies emerge as important strategy for EBP development. Researcher-policy maker interface was a gap where role of researcher as aggressive communicator of research findings was expected.

  15. Market orientation in the mental models of decision-makers in two cross-border value chains: A pilot study using the laddering technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Campos, Emilio Gonzalo

    in the mental models that can be related to actors? market orientation. In both value chains decision-makers have a fair degree of overlap in their views on what drives their business. There are also differences, between the chains, in what decision-makers believe are the major success factors. The pork chain...

  16. Who to Blame: Irrational Decision-Makers or Stupid Modelers? (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Water management benefits from a suite of modelling tools and techniques that help simplifying and understanding the complexities involved in managing water resource systems. Early water management models were mainly concerned with optimizing a single objective, related to the design, operations or management of water resource systems (e.g. economic cost, hydroelectricity production, reliability of water deliveries). Significant improvements in methodologies, computational capacity, and data availability over the last decades have resulted in developing more complex water management models that can now incorporate multiple objectives, various uncertainties, and big data. These models provide an improved understanding of complex water resource systems and provide opportunities for making positive impacts. Nevertheless, there remains an alarming mismatch between the optimal solutions developed by these models and the decisions made by managers and stakeholders of water resource systems. Modelers continue to consider decision makers as irrational agents who fail to implement the optimal solutions developed by sophisticated and mathematically rigours water management models. On the other hand, decision makers and stakeholders accuse modelers of being idealist, lacking a perfect understanding of reality, and developing 'smart' solutions that are not practical (stable). In this talk I will have a closer look at the mismatch between the optimality and stability of solutions and argue that conventional water resources management models suffer inherently from a full-cooperation assumption. According to this assumption, water resources management decisions are based on group rationality where in practice decisions are often based on individual rationality, making the group's optimal solution unstable for individually rational decision makers. I discuss how game theory can be used as an appropriate framework for addressing the irrational "rationality assumption" of water

  17. Computerized clinical decision support systems for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise-Kelly Lorraine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some drugs have a narrow therapeutic range and require monitoring and dose adjustments to optimize their efficacy and safety. Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs may improve the net benefit of these drugs. The objective of this review was to determine if CCDSSs improve processes of care or patient outcomes for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. Studies from our previous review were included, and new studies were sought until January 2010 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and Inspec databases. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of a CCDSS on process of care or patient outcomes were selected by pairs of independent reviewers. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Results Thirty-three randomized controlled trials were identified, assessing the effect of a CCDSS on management of vitamin K antagonists (14, insulin (6, theophylline/aminophylline (4, aminoglycosides (3, digoxin (2, lidocaine (1, or as part of a multifaceted approach (3. Cluster randomization was rarely used (18% and CCDSSs were usually stand-alone systems (76% primarily used by physicians (85%. Overall, 18 of 30 studies (60% showed an improvement in the process of care and 4 of 19 (21% an improvement in patient outcomes. All evaluable studies assessing insulin dosing for glycaemic control showed an improvement. In meta-analysis, CCDSSs for vitamin K antagonist dosing significantly improved time in therapeutic range. Conclusions CCDSSs have potential for improving process of care for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing, specifically insulin and vitamin K antagonist dosing. However, studies were small and generally of modest quality, and effects on patient outcomes were uncertain, with no convincing

  18. A cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization for multiple decision maker vehicle routing problems with fuzzy random time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanfang; Xu, Jiuping

    2015-06-01

    This article puts forward a cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization (CTPSO) algorithm for solving a variant of the vehicle routing problem, namely a multiple decision maker vehicle routing problem with fuzzy random time windows (MDVRPFRTW). A new mathematical model is developed for the proposed problem in which fuzzy random theory is used to describe the time windows and bi-level programming is applied to describe the relationship between the multiple decision makers. To solve the problem, a cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization (CTPSO) is proposed. More specifically, this approach makes improvements in initialization, inertia weight and particle updates to overcome the shortcomings of the basic particle swarm optimization (PSO). Parameter tests and results analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, and comparison of the algorithm with the basic PSO and the genetic algorithm demonstrates its efficiency.

  19. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  20. Urban Sustainability and Parking Areas in Naples: a Tool for Decision-Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodological target of this paper consists in setting up a supporting tool for the public decision-maker in individuating the areas for parking within urban territory. The construction of this tool is guided by criteria referring more to urban and regional planning choices than to transport ones and concerning mostly the integration among environmental safeguard, activities distribution and need for mobility. As matter of fact, the methodological route tends to join the morphologicalsettlement and environmental characteristics of the site with the demand for parking, which depends on the activities settled in the urban ambit of reference, considering them as keyelements in building compatible choices of city transformation either in the phase of localization, distribution and sizing of interventions or in the following phase of planning the building typology of parking equipments. This paper shares the position expressed in the report on sustainable European Cities, destined to the local authorities of any city in the states of the European Union, which belongs to those documents targeted to affect the development and implementation of innovating policies and actions for promoting a more sustainable urban Europe. Therefore, the paper is divided into three parts. The first part defines the algorithm showing the iter through which it is possible to define feasible and compatible solutions for envisaging localization, distribution and typology of the areas and spaces to be realized. The second part, through the real implementation in a particular case, the city of Naples, deals with the definition of further criteria that are time by time implemented according to the urban context of reference. The tird part deals with the application to Naples and individuates a specific typology of parking areas, as implementation of the worked out algorythm and of the abovesaid criteria. The central part of the paper deals, then, with defining a route

  1. E-mail as the Appropriate Method of Communication for the Decision-Maker When Soliciting Advice for an Intellective Decision Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Swol, Lyn Van; Braun, Michael T; Epstein, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    For many problems in operating room and anesthesia group management, there are tasks with optimal decisions, and yet experienced personnel tend to make decisions that are worse or no better than random chance. Such decisions include staff scheduling, case scheduling, moving cases among operating rooms, and choosing patient arrival times. In such settings, operating room management leadership decision-making should typically be autocratic rather than participative. Autocratic-style decision-making calls for managers to solicit and consider feedback from stakeholders in the decision outcome but to make the decision themselves using their expert knowledge and the facts received. For this to be effective, often the manager will obtain expert advice from outside the organization (e.g., health system). In this narrative review, we evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using prompt asynchronous written communication (i.e., e-mail) as a communication channel for such interaction between a decision-maker (manager) and advisor. A detailed Appendix (Supplemental Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/AA/B72) lists each observational and experimental result. We find that the current ubiquitous role of e-mail for such communication is appropriate. Its benefits include improved time management via asynchronicity, low cognitive load (e.g., relative to Web conferencing), the ability to hide undesirable and irrelevant cues (e.g., physical appearance), the appropriateness of adding desirable cues (e.g., titles and degrees), the opportunity to provide written expression of confidence, and the ability for the advisor to demonstrate the answer for the decision-maker. Given that the manager is e-mailing an advisor whose competence the manager trusts, it is unnecessary to use a richer communication channel to develop trust. Finally, many of the limitations of e-mail can be rectified through training. We expect that decades from now, e-mail (i.e., asynchronous writing) between an

  2. Low-frequency electrical and magnetic fields: The precautionary principle for national authorities. Guidance for decision-makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This publication is intended as a support for making decisions on health hazards and electromagnetic fields. It is based on the strength of scientific findings hitherto, at the same time as technical and economic aspects of possible measures are considered in the light of limited community resources. The national authorities recommend a precautionary principle based primarily on non-discountable cancer risks. Similar principles should also be applied to other suspected effects on health. The guide offers supportive documentation to decision-makers` tasks with assessing what is reasonable in each individual case, balancing possible hazards against technical and economic considerations. 6 refs

  3. Marketing Authorization Procedures for Advanced Cancer Drugs: Exploring the Views of Patients, Oncologists, Healthcare Decision Makers, and Citizens in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protiére, Christel; Baker, Rachel; Genre, Dominique; Goncalves, Anthony; Viens, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    The past decades have seen advances in cancer treatments in terms of toxicity and side effects but progress in the treatment of advanced cancer has been modest. New drugs have emerged improving progression free survival but with little impact on overall survival, raising questions about the criteria on which to base decisions to grant marketing authorizations and about the authorization procedure itself. For decisions to be fair, transparent and accountable, it is necessary to consider the views of those with relevant expertise and experience. We conducted a Q-study to explore the views of a range of stakeholders in France, involving: 54 patients (18 months after diagnosis); 50 members of the general population; 27 oncologists; 19 healthcare decision makers; and 2 individuals from the pharmaceutical industry. Three viewpoints emerged, focussing on different dimensions entitled: 1) 'Quality of life (QoL), opportunity cost and participative democracy'; 2)'QoL and patient-centeredness'; and 3) 'Length of life'. Respondents from all groups were associated with each viewpoint, except for healthcare decision makers, who were only associated with the first one. Our results highlight plurality in the views of stakeholders, emphasize the need for transparency in decision making processes, and illustrate the importance of a re-evaluation of treatments for all 3 viewpoints. In the context of advanced cancer, our results suggest that QoL should be more prominent amongst authorization criteria, as it is a concern for 2 of the 3 viewpoints.

  4. Methods for providing decision makers with optimal solutions for multiple objectives that change over time

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available maker with the set of optimal solutions. Vector eValuated PSo Kennedy and eberhart [1] introduced particle swarm optimisation (PSo) that is based on the social behaviour of bird flocks. each swarm has a number of particles, with each particle...

  5. A Rational Decision Maker with Ordinal Utility under Uncertainty: Optimism and Pessimism

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Ji

    2009-01-01

    In game theory and artificial intelligence, decision making models often involve maximizing expected utility, which does not respect ordinal invariance. In this paper, the author discusses the possibility of preserving ordinal invariance and still making a rational decision under uncertainty.

  6. Fairness and accountability for reasonableness. Do the views of priority setting decision makers differ across health systems and levels of decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiriri, Lydia; Norheim, Ole F; Martin, Douglas K

    2009-02-01

    Accountability for reasonableness is an ethical framework for fair priority setting process. This framework has been used to evaluate fairness in several contexts, and a few studies have evaluated its acceptability to decision makers. However, no studies have compared the acceptability of the four conditions of the framework to decision makers across health systems and levels of priority setting. This paper reports the elements of fairness described by 184 decision makers involved in priority setting at the macro-, meso- and micro-levels of priority setting in the Canadian (Ontario), Norwegian and Ugandan health care systems and compares them against the four conditions of 'Accountability for Reasonableness' and across levels of decision making, and health care systems. Our respondents identified 23 elements of fair priority setting. Most of these (17) were well aligned with the four conditions of Accountability for Reasonableness; six were not. Comparisons across health care system and levels of decision making revealed that four elements (transparency, participatory and among the criteria-need based and objective) were common to all and the rest were common to only the health care systems (but not at all levels), or only the levels of decision making (but not to all health are systems). Perceptions varied remarkably across levels of decision making. The overlap between the elements of fairness found in this study and the conditions of Accountability for Reasonableness demonstrates that the four conditions are recognizable and applicable across health care systems and levels of decision making. However, the framework should be used with flexibility to allow for identification of elements and relevant explicit criteria (such as those identified in this study) - that may not directly fit under any of the four conditions.

  7. Product Life Cycle concept use and application by marketing decision-makers in small South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to test the underlying theory of the product life cycle concept with the primary objective of establishing what the use and practical value of the product life cycle concept is in making marketing decisions in small manufacturing and dealer organisations in Gauteng. The main focus was to test the ability of marketing decision-makers in these small organisations to associate their application and use of the product life cycle concept with Kotler's assumptions on marketing characteristics, described marketing objectives and proposed marketing strategies. A major finding was that small organisations tended to display a marketing knowledge level with the existing marketing theory. Another important conclusion of the study was that the current product life cycle concept theory needs to be broadened to include strategies on the expanded marketing mix. Apart from the different use and application by marketing decision-makers in small organisations in South Africa the product life cycle concept theory has potential as a strategic tool and a high likelihood for its future use as a marketing decision-making instrument.

  8. Moving beyond the cost-loss ratio: economic assessment of streamflow forecasts for a risk-averse decision maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-06-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. Numerous studies have shown that ensemble forecasts are of higher quality than deterministic ones. Many studies also conclude that decisions based on ensemble rather than deterministic forecasts lead to better decisions in the context of flood mitigation. Hence, it is believed that ensemble forecasts possess a greater economic and social value for both decision makers and the general population. However, the vast majority of, if not all, existing hydro-economic studies rely on a cost-loss ratio framework that assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. To overcome this important flaw, this study borrows from economics and evaluates the economic value of early warning flood systems using the well-known Constant Absolute Risk Aversion (CARA) utility function, which explicitly accounts for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker. This new framework allows for the full exploitation of the information related to a forecasts' uncertainty, making it especially suited for the economic assessment of ensemble or probabilistic forecasts. Rather than comparing deterministic and ensemble forecasts, this study focuses on comparing different types of ensemble forecasts. There are multiple ways of assessing and representing forecast uncertainty. Consequently, there exist many different means of building an ensemble forecasting system for future streamflow. One such possibility is to dress deterministic forecasts using the statistics of past error forecasts. Such dressing methods are popular among operational agencies because of their simplicity and intuitiveness. Another approach is the use of ensemble meteorological forecasts for precipitation and temperature, which are then provided as inputs to one or many hydrological model(s). In this study, three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared: simple statistically dressed

  9. Moving beyond the cost–loss ratio: economic assessment of streamflow forecasts for a risk-averse decision maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. Numerous studies have shown that ensemble forecasts are of higher quality than deterministic ones. Many studies also conclude that decisions based on ensemble rather than deterministic forecasts lead to better decisions in the context of flood mitigation. Hence, it is believed that ensemble forecasts possess a greater economic and social value for both decision makers and the general population. However, the vast majority of, if not all, existing hydro-economic studies rely on a cost–loss ratio framework that assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. To overcome this important flaw, this study borrows from economics and evaluates the economic value of early warning flood systems using the well-known Constant Absolute Risk Aversion (CARA utility function, which explicitly accounts for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker. This new framework allows for the full exploitation of the information related to a forecasts' uncertainty, making it especially suited for the economic assessment of ensemble or probabilistic forecasts. Rather than comparing deterministic and ensemble forecasts, this study focuses on comparing different types of ensemble forecasts. There are multiple ways of assessing and representing forecast uncertainty. Consequently, there exist many different means of building an ensemble forecasting system for future streamflow. One such possibility is to dress deterministic forecasts using the statistics of past error forecasts. Such dressing methods are popular among operational agencies because of their simplicity and intuitiveness. Another approach is the use of ensemble meteorological forecasts for precipitation and temperature, which are then provided as inputs to one or many hydrological model(s. In this study, three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared: simple

  10. Anchor effects in decision making can be reduced by the interaction between goal monitoring and the level of the decision maker's executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; Wegmann, Elisa; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    Models of decision making postulate that interactions between contextual conditions and characteristics of the decision maker determine decision-making performance. We tested this assumption by using a possible positive contextual influence (goals) and a possible negative contextual influence (anchor) in a risky decision-making task (Game of Dice Task, GDT). In this task, making advantageous choices is well known to be closely related to a specific decision maker variable: the individual level of executive functions. One hundred subjects played the GDT in one of four conditions: with self-set goal for final balance (n = 25), with presentation of an anchor (a fictitious Top 10 list, showing high gains of other participants; n = 25), with anchor and goal definition (n = 25), and with neither anchor nor goal setting (n = 25). Subjects in the conditions with anchor made more risky decisions irrespective of the negative feedback, but this anchor effect was influenced by goal monitoring and moderated by the level of the subjects' executive functions. The findings imply that impacts of situational influences on decision making as they frequently occur in real life depend upon the individual's cognitive abilities. Anchor effects can be overcome by subjects with good cognitive abilities.

  11. Defining products for a new health technology assessment agency in Madrid, Spain: a survey of decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andradas, Elena; Blasco, Juan-Antonio; Valentín, Beatriz; López-Pedraza, María-José; Gracia, Francisco-Javier

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the needs and requirements of decision makers in our regional healthcare system for health technology assessment (HTA) products to support portfolio development planning for a new HTA agency in Madrid, Spain. A Delphi study was conducted during 2003. Questionnaires were developed based on a review of products and services offered by other agency members of the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment, and included preference and prioritization questions to evaluate twenty-two different products and services. The initial Delphi panel involved eighty-seven experts from twenty-one public hospitals, eleven primary healthcare centers, six private hospitals, and eight departments of the Regional Ministry of Health of the Community of Madrid. The global participation rate was 83.9 percent. Ten of the twenty-two possible products were rated of high interest by more than 80 percent of respondents. Important differences in preferences and priorities were detected across different settings. Public hospitals and primary healthcare centers shared a more "micro" perspective, preferring classic technology-centered HTA products, whereas private hospitals and Ministry representatives demanded more "macro" products and services such as organizational model and information system assessments. The high participation rate supports the representativeness of the results for our regional context. The strategic development of an HTA portfolio based on decision makers' needs and requirements as identified in this type of exercise should help achieve a better impact on policy development and decision making.

  12. Communication with U.S. federal decision makers : a primer with notes on the use of computer models as a means of communication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Erik Karl; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2009-10-01

    This document outlines ways to more effectively communicate with U.S. Federal decision makers by outlining the structure, authority, and motivations of various Federal groups, how to find the trusted advisors, and how to structure communication. All three branches of Federal governments have decision makers engaged in resolving major policy issues. The Legislative Branch (Congress) negotiates the authority and the resources that can be used by the Executive Branch. The Executive Branch has some latitude in implementation and prioritizing resources. The Judicial Branch resolves disputes. The goal of all decision makers is to choose and implement the option that best fits the needs and wants of the community. However, understanding the risk of technical, political and/or financial infeasibility and possible unintended consequences is extremely difficult. Primarily, decision makers are supported in their deliberations by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis of options as well as the day-to-day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the best case, the trusted advisors use many sources of information to inform the process including the opinion of experts and if possible predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. The paper covers the following: (1) Understanding Executive and Legislative decision makers - What can these decision makers do? (2) Finding the target audience - Who are the internal and external trusted advisors? (3) Packaging the message - How do we parse and integrate information, and how do we use computer simulation or models in policy communication?

  13. The Application of AHP Model to Guide Decision Makers: A Case Study of E-banking Security

    CERN Document Server

    Syamsuddin, Irfan; 10.1109/ICCIT.2009.251

    2010-01-01

    Changes in technology have resulted in new ways for bankers to deliver their services to costumers. Electronic banking systems in various forms are the evidence of such advancement. However, information security threats also evolving along this trend. This paper proposes the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methodology to guide decision makers in banking industries to deal with information security policy. The model is structured according aspects of information security policy in conjunction with information security elements. We found that cultural aspect is valued on the top priority among other security aspects, while confidentiality is considered as the most important factor in terms of information security elements.

  14. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    .... We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices...

  15. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies.

  16. Science communication and vernal pool conservation: a study of local decision maker attitudes in a knowledge-action system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreavy, Bridie; Webler, Thomas; Calhoun, Aram J K

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we describe local decision maker attitudes towards vernal pools to inform science communication and enhance vernal pool conservation efforts. We conducted interviews with town planning board and conservation commission members (n = 9) from two towns in the State of Maine in the northeastern United States. We then mailed a questionnaire to a stratified random sample of planning board members in August and September 2007 with a response rate of 48.4% (n = 320). The majority of survey respondents favored the protection and conservation of vernal pools in their towns. Decision makers were familiar with the term "vernal pool" and demonstrated positive attitudes to vernal pools in general. General appreciation and willingness to conserve vernal pools predicted support for the 2006 revisions to the Natural Resource Protection Act regulating Significant Vernal Pools. However, 48% of respondents were unaware of this law and neither prior knowledge of the law nor workshop attendance predicted support for the vernal pool law. Further, concerns about private property rights and development restrictions predicted disagreement with the vernal pool law. We conclude that science communication must rely on specific frames of reference, be sensitive to cultural values, and occur in an iterative system to link knowledge and action in support of vernal pool conservation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, M. P.; O& #x27; Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  18. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Storage by Information Technology Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses a survey methodology to determine the factors behind the decision to adopt cloud storage. The dependent variable in the study is the intent to adopt cloud storage. Four independent variables are utilized including need, security, cost-effectiveness and reliability. The survey includes a pilot test, field test and statistical…

  19. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Storage by Information Technology Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses a survey methodology to determine the factors behind the decision to adopt cloud storage. The dependent variable in the study is the intent to adopt cloud storage. Four independent variables are utilized including need, security, cost-effectiveness and reliability. The survey includes a pilot test, field test and statistical…

  20. Data quality for decision makers a dialog between a board member and a DQ expert

    CERN Document Server

    Morbey, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Currently many companies are confronted with the decision how to deal with the new data quality requirements of the regulatory authorities. Future data quality statements for enterprise key figures and their origins are being demanded. Applying methods of a data quality management system can produce these statements best. Guilherme Morbey explains the introduction of such a system in the form of a dialogue.

  1. Improving Children's Competence as Decision Makers: Contrasting Effects of Collaborative Interaction and Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Anderson, Richard C.; Morris, Joshua; Miller, Brian; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim Thi; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Zhang, Jie; Jadallah, May; Scott, Theresa; Sun, Jingjing; Latawiec, Beata; Ma, Shufeng; Grabow, Kay; Hsu, Judy Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the influence of contrasting instructional approaches on children's decision-making competence. A total of 764 fifth graders, mostly African Americans and Hispanic Americans, from 36 classrooms in eight public schools serving children from low-income families completed a six-week unit on wolf management, using either direct…

  2. Assessing the Benefits of Wetland Restoration: A Rapid Benefit Indicators Approach for Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide presents the Rapid Benefits Indicators (RBI) Approach, a rapid process for assessing the social benefits of ecosystem restoration. Created for those who conduct, advocate for, or support restoration, the RBI approach consists of five steps: (1) Describe the decision co...

  3. Effects of computerized clinical decision support systems on practitioner performance and patient outcomes: Methods of a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczynski Nancy L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerized clinical decision support systems are information technology-based systems designed to improve clinical decision-making. As with any healthcare intervention with claims to improve process of care or patient outcomes, decision support systems should be rigorously evaluated before widespread dissemination into clinical practice. Engaging healthcare providers and managers in the review process may facilitate knowledge translation and uptake. The objective of this research was to form a partnership of healthcare providers, managers, and researchers to review randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of computerized decision support for six clinical application areas: primary preventive care, therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing, drug prescribing, chronic disease management, diagnostic test ordering and interpretation, and acute care management; and to identify study characteristics that predict benefit. Methods The review was undertaken by the Health Information Research Unit, McMaster University, in partnership with Hamilton Health Sciences, the Hamilton, Niagara, Haldimand, and Brant Local Health Integration Network, and pertinent healthcare service teams. Following agreement on information needs and interests with decision-makers, our earlier systematic review was updated by searching Medline, EMBASE, EBM Review databases, and Inspec, and reviewing reference lists through 6 January 2010. Data extraction items were expanded according to input from decision-makers. Authors of primary studies were contacted to confirm data and to provide additional information. Eligible trials were organized according to clinical area of application. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect on practitioner performance or patient outcomes of patient care provided with a computerized clinical decision support system compared with patient care without such a system. Results Data will be summarized

  4. MOBILE 5G TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION INVESTMENT TIMING DECISION MAKERS CLUSTERING AND WILLINGNESS TO INVEST UNDER VOLATILE DEMAND CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulius Adamauskas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises need to identify the optimal timing for technological change in order to increase competitiveness and increase the value of the company in an uncertain demanding environment. Investment decisions for adopting new technologies are costly and sometimes risky because technological investments are irreversible. To simulate the process, comprehensive technological adoption regarding investment timing was used in a management decision support model. The constructed model is structured as follows: 1 historical demand paths analysis; 2 application of statistical data validity tests; 3 the forecast of market parameters regarding data arrays using the geometric Brownian motion method, based on Monte Carlo simulation; 4 determination of technological life cycle using a Hodrick–Prescott filter; 5 technological adoption time-window determination; and 6 calculation of company net present values (NPV based on change in free cash-flow. The model for mature 5G mobile markets, created and empirical tested, was performed in relation to 18 largest Europe mobile service providers, as potential decision makers operating across 33 countries. Results confirmed that selection of the technological investment time depends on companies’ strategic financial decisions and financial state. The performed simulations revealed the consequence of 5G technology investment for investor roles, clustered according to financial data within a 5-year period (2010–2014. The analyzed companies were assigned to roles of pioneers-innovators, pragmatics, followers, or laggards. Finally, it is assumed and argued that financial parameters indicate the willingness to adopt new technologies in a global technologically changing environment.

  5. Older adults as adaptive decision makers: evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stacey; Busemeyer, Jerome; Koling, Andreas; Cox, Cathy R; Davis, Hasker

    2005-06-01

    Older adults process emotional information differently than younger adults and may demonstrate less of a negativity bias on cognitive tasks. The Iowa Gambling Task designed by A. Bechara, H. Damasio, D. Tranel, and A. R. Damasio (1997) has been used to examine the integration of emotion and cognition in a risky-choice decision task and may give insight into differences in the decision-making strategies in younger and older adults. Eighty-eight younger adults (18-34 years) and 67 older adults (65-88 years) completed the Iowa Gambling Task. Using a theoretical decomposition of the task designed by J. R. Busemeyer and J. C. Stout (2002), the authors found that both groups were successful at solving the task but used very different strategies that reflected each group's strength. For younger adults, that strength was learning and memory. For older adults, that strength was an accurate representation of wins and losses (valence).

  6. Preference-driven biases in decision makers' information search and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Chaxel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While it is well established that the search for information after a decision is biased toward supporting that decision, the case of preference-supporting search before the decision remains open. Three studies of consumer choices consistently found a complete absence of a pre-choice bias toward searching for preference-supporting information. The absence of this confirming search bias occurred for products that were both hedonic and utilitarian, both expensive and inexpensive, and both high and low in expected brand loyalty. Experiment 3 also verified the presence of the expected post-choice search bias to support the chosen alternative. Therefore the absence of a pre-choice search bias in all three studies was not likely to be due to our using a method that was so insensitive that a search bias would not be observed under any circumstances. In addition to the absence of an effect of prior preferences on information selection, subjects' self-reported search strategies exhibited a clear tendency toward a balance of positive and negative information. Across the three studies, we also tested for the presence of a preference-supporting bias in the evaluation of the information acquired in the search process. This evaluation bias was found both pre- and post-choice.

  7. Are We Telling Decision-makers the Wrong Things - and with Too Much Confidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J.; Nowak, K. C.; Vano, J. A.; Newman, A. J.; Mizukami, N.; Mendoza, P. A.; Nijssen, B.; Wood, A.; Gutmann, E. D.; Clark, M. P.; Rasmussen, R.

    2016-12-01

    Water-resource management relies on decision-making over a wide range of space-time scales, nearly none of which maps cleanly onto the scales of current hydroclimatic scenarios of anthropogenic change. Myriad choices are made during vulnerability and impact assessments to quantify the changed-climate sensitivities of models used in that decision-making, including choices of hydrologic models, parameters, and parameterizations; their input forcings determined with various climate downscaling approaches; selected GCMs and output variables to be downscaled; and the forcing emissions scenarios, to name a few. Choosing alternative methods for producing gridded meteorological fields, for examples, can produce very different effects on the projected hydrologic outcomes they drive, with uncertainties across those methods revealed to be as large or larger than the climate change signal itself in some cases. Additionally, many popular climate downscaling methods simply rescale GCM precipitation, producing hydroclimatic projections with too much drizzle, incorrect representations of extreme events, and improper spatial scaling of variables crucial to water-resource vulnerability assessments and, importantly, the decisions they seek to inform. Real-world water-resource vulnerability and impacts assessments can be highly time-sensitive and resource limited, though, so they typically do not confront or even fully represent uncertainties associated with all choices. That deficiency results in assessments built on only partially revealed uncertainties which can misrepresent significant sensitivities and impacts in the final assessments of climate threats and hydrologic vulnerabilities. This talk will describe recent work by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Bureau of Reclamation, University of Washington, and National Center for Atmospheric Research to develop and test methods to characterize more fully the uncertainties in the modeling chain for real-world uses. Examples will

  8. Alleviating water scarcity in Northern China: balancing options and policies among Chinese decision-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, F

    2003-01-01

    Water scarcity is mostly a man-made problem that increasingly affects people's lives and questions economic output in Northern China. Policy options addressing the serious water shortages in the region include conservation and water management reform, which is unpopular; grain imports and the downsizing of agriculture; derivation of Yangze water; derivation of the Amur and other international rivers. All solutions present major difficulties, whether domestic or international, for the Chinese authorities. While major decisions have not yet been taken, evidence shows major works such as water transfers from the Yangze or water pricing are not only unavoidable, but will not be enough to meet the growing demand for water in the region.

  9. Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Overland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to significantly affect these countries’ capacity to reduce subsidies, as far as can be judged from the data in this article. Politicians in all three fear that taking unpopular decisions may provoke social unrest.

  10. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Masood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective

  11. Involving decision-makers in the research process: Challenges of implementing the accountability for reasonableness approach to priority setting at the district level in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; Ndawi, Benedict; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a growing call for researchers, policy-makers and health care providers to collaborate in efforts to bridge the gaps between research, policy and practice. However, there has been a little attention focused on documenting the challenges of dealing with decision-makers in the course of implementing a research project. This paper highlights a collaborative research project aiming to implement the accountability for reasonableness (AFR) approach to priority setting in accordance with the Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) project in Tanzania. Specifically, the paper examines the challenges of dealing with decision-makers during the project-implementation process and shows how the researchers dealt with the decision-makers to facilitate the implementation of the REACT project. Key informant interviews were conducted with the Council Health Management Team (CHMT), local government officials and other stakeholders, using a semi-structured interview guide. Minutes of the Action Research Team and CHMT were analysed. Additionally, project-implementation reports were analysed and group priority-setting processes in the district were observed. The findings show that the characteristics of the REACT research project, the novelty of some aspects of the AFR approach, such as publicity and appeals, the Action Research methodology used to implement the project and the traditional cultural contexts within which the project was implemented, created challenges for both researchers and decision-makers, which consequently slowed down the implementation of the REACT project. While collaboration between researchers and decision-makers is important in bridging gaps between research and practice, it is imperative to understand the challenges of dealing with decision-makers in the course of implementing a collaborative research project. Such analyses are crucial in designing proper strategies for improved communication

  12. Optimal global value of information trials: better aligning manufacturer and decision maker interests and enabling feasible risk sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Willan, Andrew R

    2013-05-01

    Risk sharing arrangements relate to adjusting payments for new health technologies given evidence of their performance over time. Such arrangements rely on prospective information regarding the incremental net benefit of the new technology, and its use in practice. However, once the new technology has been adopted in a particular jurisdiction, randomized clinical trials within that jurisdiction are likely to be infeasible and unethical in the cases where they would be most helpful, i.e. with current evidence of positive while uncertain incremental health and net monetary benefit. Informed patients in these cases would likely be reluctant to participate in a trial, preferring instead to receive the new technology with certainty. Consequently, informing risk sharing arrangements within a jurisdiction is problematic given the infeasibility of collecting prospective trial data. To overcome such problems, we demonstrate that global trials facilitate trialling post adoption, leading to more complete and robust risk sharing arrangements that mitigate the impact of costs of reversal on expected value of information in jurisdictions who adopt while a global trial is undertaken. More generally, optimally designed global trials offer distinct advantages over locally optimal solutions for decision makers and manufacturers alike: avoiding opportunity costs of delay in jurisdictions that adopt; overcoming barriers to evidence collection; and improving levels of expected implementation. Further, the greater strength and translatability of evidence across jurisdictions inherent in optimal global trial design reduces barriers to translation across jurisdictions characteristic of local trials. Consequently, efficiently designed global trials better align the interests of decision makers and manufacturers, increasing the feasibility of risk sharing and the expected strength of evidence over local trials, up until the point that current evidence is globally sufficient.

  13. Barriers and challenges in adopting Saudi telemedicine network: The perceptions of decision makers of healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaboudi, Abdulellah; Atkins, Anthony; Sharp, Bernadette; Balkhair, Ahmed; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Sunbul, Tamara

    Despite emerging evidence about the benefits of telemedicine, there are still many barriers and challenges to its adoption. Its adoption is often cited as a failed project because 75% of them are abandoned or 'failed outright' and this percentage increases to 90% in developing countries. The literature has clarified that there is neither one-size-fit-all framework nor best-practice solution for all ICT innovations or for all countries. Barriers and challenges in adopting and implementing one ICT innovation in a given country/organisation may not be similar - not for the same ICT innovation in another country/organisation nor for another ICT innovation in the same country/organisation. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive scientific study has investigated these challenges and barriers in all Healthcare Facilities (HCFs) across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This research, which is undertaken based on the Saudi Telemedicine Network roadmap and in collaboration with the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH), is aimed at identifying the principle predictive challenges and barriers in the context of the KSA, and understanding the perspective of the decision makers of each HCF type, sector, and location. Three theories are used to underpin this research: the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) theoretical framework, and the Evaluating Telemedicine Systems Success Model (ETSSM). This study applies a three-sequential-phase approach by using three mixed methods (i.e., literature review, interviews, and questionnaires) in order to utilise the source triangulation and the data comparison analysis technique. The findings of this study show that the top three influential barriers to adopt and implement telemedicine by the HCF decision makers are: (i) the availability of adequate sustainable financial support to implement, operate, and maintain the telemedicine system, (ii) ensuring conformity of

  14. Transportation Energy Futures: Key Opportunities and Tools for Decision Makers (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-12-01

    The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examines underexplored greenhouse gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities by consolidating transportation energy knowledge, conducting advanced analysis, and exploring additional opportunities for sound strategic action. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal is to provide analysis to accompany DOE-EERE's long-term transportation energy planning by addressing high-priority questions, informing domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments. Research and analysis were conducted with an eye toward short-term actions that support long-term energy goals The project looks beyond technology to examine each key question in the context of the marketplace, consumer behavior, industry capabilities, and infrastructure. This updated fact sheet includes a new section on initial project findings.

  15. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness.

  16. The CAULDRON game: Helping decision makers understand extreme weather event attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    There is a recognition from academics and stakeholders that climate science has a fundamental role to play in the decision making process, but too frequently there is still uncertainty about what, when, how and why to use it. Stakeholders suggest that it is because the science is presented in an inaccessible manner, while academics suggest it is because the stakeholders do not have the scientific knowledge to understand and apply the science appropriately. What is apparent is that stakeholders need support, and that there is an onus on academia to provide it. This support is even more important with recent developments in climate science, such as extreme weather event attribution. We are already seeing the impacts of extreme weather events around the world causing lost of life and damage to property and infrastructure with current research suggesting that these events could become more frequent and more intense. If this is to be the case then a better understanding of the science will be vital in developing robust adaptation and business planning. The use of games, role playing and simulations to aid learning has long been understood in education but less so as a tool to support stakeholder understanding of climate science. Providing a 'safe' space where participants can actively engage with concepts, ideas and often emotions, can lead to deep understanding that is not possible through more passive mechanisms such as papers and web sites. This paper reports on a game that was developed through a collaboration led by the Red Cross/Red Crescent, University of Oxford and University of Reading to help stakeholders understand the role of weather event attribution in the decision making process. The game has already been played successfully at a number of high profile events including COP 19 and the African Climate Conference. It has also been used with students as part of a postgraduate environmental management course. As well as describing the design principles of the

  17. Sharing NASA Science with Decision Makers: A Perspective from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, A. I.; Blevins, B.; Hook, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA ARSET http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support. The program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The target audience for the program are professionals engaged in environmental management in the public and private sectors, such as air quality forecasters, public utilities, water managers and non-governmental organizations engaged in conservation. Many program participants have little or no expertise in NASA remote sensing, and it's frequently their very first exposure to NASA's vast resources. One the key challenges for the program has been the evolution and refinement of its approach to communicating NASA data access, research, and ultimately its value to stakeholders. We discuss ARSET's best practices for sharing NASA science, which include 1) training ARSET staff and other NASA scientists on methods for science communication, 2) communicating the proper amount of scientific information at a level that is commensurate with the technical skills of program participants, 3) communicating the benefit of NASA resources to stakeholders, and 4) getting to know the audience and tailoring the message so that science information is conveyed within the context of agencies' unique environmental challenges.

  18. GAIA - a generalizable, extensible structure for integrating games, models and social networking to support decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, L. J.; Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Fountain, G. H.; Weiss, M.; Swartz, W. H.; Parker, C. L.; MacDonald, L.; Ihde, A. G.; Simpkins, S.; GAIA Team

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions embodied in real-world decision making to water scarcity and water resources. We have developed a generalizable, extensible facility we call "GAIA" - Global Assimilation of Information for Action - and applied it to different problem sets. We describe the use of the "Green Country Model" and other gaming/simulation tools to address the impacts of climate and climate disruption issues at the intersection of science, economics, policy, and society. There is a long history in the Defense community of using what are known as strategic simulations or "wargames" to model the complex interactions between the environment, people, resources, infrastructure and the economy in a competitive environment. We describe in this paper, work that we have done on understanding how this heritage can be repurposed to help us explore how the complex interplay between climate disruption and our socio/political and economic structures will affect our future. Our focus here is on a fundamental and growing issue - water and water availability. We consider water and the role of "virtual water" in the system. Various "actors" are included in the simulations. While these simulations cannot definitively predict what will happen, they do illuminate non-linear feedbacks between, for example, treaty agreement, the environment, the economy, and the government. These simulations can be focused on the global, regional, or local environment. We note that these simulations are not "zero sum" games - there need not be a winner and a loser. They are, however, competitive influence games: they represent the tools that a nation, state, faction or group has at its disposal to influence policy (diplomacy), finances, industry (economy), infrastructure, information, etc to achieve their particular goals. As in the real world the problem is competitive - not everyone shares the same

  19. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  20. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange

  1. How is the New Public Management applied in the occupational health care system? - decision-makers' and OH personnel's views in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rissanen Sari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries occupational health care system is in change. Occupational health studies are mainly focused on occupational health substance and content. This study offers new perspectives on municipal OHS and its operations from management perspective. Aim The aim of this study is to analyse how New Public Management (NPM doctrines are applied in the Finnish occupational health care system (OHS. The main focus is to describe and compare the views of decision-makers' and OH workers within the framework of NPM. Methods The data were collected by semi-structured interviews from 17 municipal decision-makers' and 26 municipal OH workers. Data was analyzed by examining coded data in a theory-driven way according to Hood's doctrine of NPM. Results The doctrines were not as compatible with the OH personnel view as with the decision-makers' view. Decision-makers and OH personnel highlighted the strict criteria required for operation evaluation. Moreover, decision-makers strongly accentuated professional management in the public sector and the reorganization of public sector units. These were not equally relevant in OH personnel views. In OH personnel views, other doctrines (more attention to performance and accomplishments, emphasizing and augmentation of the competition and better control of public expense and means test were not similarly in evidence, only weak evidence was observed when their importance viewed as medium by decision-makers. Neither of the respondents group kept the doctrine of management models of the private sector relevant. Conclusions The NPM and Hoods doctrine fitted well with OH research. The doctrine brought out view differences and similarities between decision-makers and OH personnel. For example, policymakers highlighted more strongly the structural change by emphasizing professional management compared to OH personnel. The need for reorganization of municipal OH, regardless of different operational

  2. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation and Personal Insurance: A Qualitative Study Presenting Perspectives from Canadian Patients and Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratien Dalpé

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic stratification approaches in personalized medicine may considerably improve our ability to predict breast cancer risk for women at higher risk of developing breast cancer. Notwithstanding these advantages, concerns have been raised about the use of the genetic information derived in these processes, outside of the research and medical health care settings, by third parties such as insurers. Indeed, insurance applicants are asked to consent to insurers accessing their medical information (implicitly including genetic to verify or determine their insurability level, or eligibility to certain insurance products. This use of genetic information may result in the differential treatment of individuals based on their genetic information, which could lead to higher premium, exclusionary clauses or even the denial of coverage. This phenomenon has been commonly referred to as “Genetic Discrimination” (GD. In the Canadian context, where federal Bill S-201, An Act to prohibit and prevent genetic discrimination, has recently been enacted but may be subject to constitutional challenges, information about potential risks to insurability may raise issues in the clinical context. We conducted a survey with women in Quebec who have never been diagnosed with breast cancer to document their perspectives. We complemented the research with data from 14 semi-structured interviews with decision-makers in Quebec to discuss institutional issues raised by the use of genetic information by insurers. Our results provide findings on five main issues: (1 the reluctance to undergo genetic screening test due to insurability concerns, (2 insurers' interest in genetic information, (3 the duty to disclose genetic information to insurers, (4 the disclosure of potential impacts on insurability before genetic testing, and (5 the status of genetic information compared to other health data. Overall, both groups of participants (the women surveyed and the decision-makers

  3. Exploring the Ocean Through Climate Indicators: What Do Research, Predictions, and Decision-makers Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are several new and ongoing efforts around communicating climate and global change and variability by developing Climate Indicators (e.g. the US Global Change Research Project's Pilot Indicators Program, the US EPA's Climate Change Indicators, and the Ocean Observations Panel for Climate State of the Ocean indicators). Indicators provide information tailored to identified stakeholders and facilitate monitoring status, trends, extremes and variability of important climate features or processes. NOAA's Climate Monitoring program is in the middle of a three-year initiative toward supporting research toward the development of Ocean Climate Indicators for research, prediction, and decision makers. These indices combine ocean observations, climate data and products from platforms like (but not limited to) the drifting buoy, Argo, satellite, and buoy arrays that provide fundamental observations that contribute towards climate understanding, predictions, and projections. The program is supporting eight distinct projects that focus on primarily regional indices that target varied stakeholders and outreach strategies - from public awareness and education to targeted model performance improvement. This presentation will discuss the diverse set of projects, initial results, and discuss possibilities for and examples of using the indicators and processes for developing them for broader science outreach and education, with an eye toward the aim of organizing the ocean climate and observing community around developing a comprehensive ocean monitoring and indicators system.

  4. Haitian and international responders' and decision-makers' perspectives regarding disability and the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Chung, Ryoa; Durocher, Evelyne; Henrys, Jean Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Following disasters, persons with disabilities (PWD) are especially vulnerable to harm, yet they have commonly been excluded from disaster planning, and their needs have been poorly addressed during disaster relief. Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, thousands of individuals experienced acute injuries. Many more individuals with preexisting disabilities experienced heightened vulnerability related to considerations including safety, access to services, and meeting basic needs. The objective of this research was to better understand the perceptions of responders and decision-makers regarding disability and efforts to address the needs of PWD following the 2010 earthquake. We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description methodology and semistructured interviews with 14 Haitian and 10 international participants who were involved in the earthquake response. Participants identified PWD as being among the most vulnerable individuals following the earthquake. Though some forms of disability received considerable attention in aid efforts, the needs of other PWD did not. Several factors were identified as challenges for efforts to address the needs of PWD including lack of coordination and information sharing, the involvement of multiple aid sectors, perceptions that this should be the responsibility of specialized organizations, and the need to prioritize limited resources. Participants also reported shifts in local social views related to disability following the earthquake. Addressing the needs of PWD following a disaster is a crucial population health challenge and raises questions related to equity and responsibility for non-governmental organizations, governments, and local communities.

  5. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key

  6. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc.

  7. Introducing economic evaluation as a policy tool in Korea: Will decision makers get quality information? A critical review of published Korean economic evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.-S. Lee (Kun-Sei); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); S.-I. Lee (Sang-Il); H.-W. Koo (Hye-Won)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractInterest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health In

  8. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key

  9. Thinking about the patient's wishes: practical wisdom of discharge planning nurses in assisting surrogate decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Yoko; Asano, Midori

    2017-01-31

    The accelerating trend towards shorter hospital stays in Japan has made modes of decision-making essential for effective patient transition from the hospital to recuperation in the regional community, and the ageing of the population has brought a rise in surrogate decision-making by the families of patients lacking decision-making ('self-decision') capacity. To verbalise and elucidate the practical wisdom of discharge planning nurses by focusing on the perceptions and judgements, they apply in practice and describing their methodology in concrete terms. Participants were six discharge planning nurses and one person with previous experience as a discharge planning nurse, all working at discharge planning departments of acute care hospitals. Separate, semi-structured, interactive interviews were conducted with each participant. The study design was qualitative descriptive in form with qualitative content analysis. All participants provided written informed consent to participate in the study, which was approved by the study institution. Three concepts were extracted as the basis for discharge planning nurses' perception and judgement at acute care hospitals: working for mutual envisionment of the available postdischarge options; helping the family act as spokesperson(s) for the patient's wishes; and understanding the family inclusive of the patient as a relationship of strongly interaffecting interests. The practical wisdom of the nurse, working in mutual envisionment with the family, and collaborative decision-making through discussion with those who know the patient, leads to rational discharge assistance. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part I: decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Making decisions for a patient affected by sudden devastating illness or injury traumatizes a patient's family and loved ones. Even in the absence of an emergency, surrogates making end-of-life treatment decisions may experience negative emotional effects. Helping surrogates with these end-of-life decisions under emergent conditions requires the emergency physician (EP) to be clear, making medical recommendations with sensitivity. This model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events comprises the following steps: 1) determine the patient's decision-making capacity; 2) identify the legal surrogate; 3) elicit patient values as expressed in completed advance directives; 4) determine patient/surrogate understanding of the life-limiting event and expectant treatment goals; 5) convey physician understanding of the event, including prognosis, treatment options, and recommendation; 6) share decisions regarding withdrawing or withholding of resuscitative efforts, using available resources and considering options for organ donation; and 7) revise treatment goals as needed. Emergency physicians should break bad news compassionately, yet sufficiently, so that surrogate and family understand both the gravity of the situation and the lack of long-term benefit of continued life-sustaining interventions. EPs should also help the surrogate and family understand that palliative care addresses comfort needs of the patient including adequate treatment for pain, dyspnea, or anxiety. Part I of this communications model reviews determination of decision-making capacity, surrogacy laws, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps; Part II (which will appear in a future issue of AEM) covers communication moving from resuscitative to end-of-life and palliative treatment. EPs should recognize acute devastating illness or injuries, when appropriate, as opportunities to initiate end-of-life discussions and to

  11. Fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making method based on decision maker's Vague confidence%基于决策者Vague信心度的模糊多准则方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坚强; 张红宇; 秦育智

    2011-01-01

    Trapezoidal Vague numbers and the decision maker's Vague confidence degree based on the risk attitude of decision maker are defined. A fuzzy multi-criteria decision making method based on decision maker's Vague confidence degree under incomplete information is proposed. In this method, criteria weights are derived through a linear programming model, and the decision maker's confidence degrees for alternatives are obtained through integrating all the decision maker's confidence degrees of criteria values in every alternative.Alternatives are ranked with the possibility degree method. An example shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.%定义了梯形Vague数和基于决策者风险态度的Vague信心度,提出了一种基于决策者Vague信心度的信息不完全的模糊多准则决策方法.该方法利用线性规划模型求出准则权重,并对方案在各个准则值下的决策者的Vague信心度进行集成,求出决策者对各个方案的综合信心度,进而利用可能度法对方案进行排序.最后实例验证了所提出方法的合理性与有效性.

  12. Corporate financial decision makers' perceptions of their company's safety performance, programs and personnel: Do company size and industry injury risk matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Sarah; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chen, Peter Y; Courtney, Theodore K

    2010-01-01

    Top-level managers make important decisions about safety-related issues, yet little research has been done involving these individuals. The current study explored corporate financial decisions makers' perceptions of their company's safety and their justifications for these perceptions. This study also explored whether their perceptions and justifications varied as a function of company size or industry injury risk. A total of 404 individuals who were the most senior managers responsible for making decisions about property and casualty risk at their companies participated in this study. The participants took part in a telephone survey. The results suggest that corporate financial decision makers have positive views of safety at their companies relative to safety at other companies within their industries. Further, many believe their company's safety is influenced by the attention/emphasis placed on safety and the selection and training of safety personnel. Participants' perceptions varied somewhat based on the size of their company and the level of injury risk in their industry. While definitive conclusions about corporate financial decision makers' perceptions of safety cannot be reached as a result of this single study, this work does lay groundwork for future research aimed at better understanding the perceptions top-level managers.

  13. From drought indicators to impacts: developing improved tools for monitoring and early warning with decision-makers in mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Jamie; Barker, Lucy; Svensson, Cecilia; Tanguy, Maliko; Laize, Cedric; Bachmair, Sophie; Tijdeman, Erik; Stahl, Kerstin; Collins, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    of M&EW and future aspirations. Different stakeholders clearly have different goals for M&EW, but there are a number of common themes, including a desire to better understand the links between the outputs of large-scale M&EW systems (rainfall, river flow, etc), localised triggers used by decision-makers during drought episodes, and actual impacts of drought. Secondly, we present analyses designed to test the utility of a wide range of drought indicators for their use in UK applications. We demonstrate the suitability of standardised indicators (like the SPI) for use in the UK, addressing the suitability of statistical distributions and using these indicators for drought severity quantification and for understanding propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought; all of which are currently poorly understood aspects that are vital for future monitoring. We then address the extent to which these indicators can be used to predict drought impacts, focusing on several sectors (water supply, agriculture and ecosystems). These analyses test which indicators perform best at predicting drought impacts, and seek to identify indicator thresholds that trigger impact occurrence. Unsurprisingly, we found that no single indicator best predicts impacts, and results are domain, sector and season specific. However, we reveal important linkages between indicators and impacts that could enhance the design and delivery of monitoring and forecasting information and its uptake by decision-makers concerned with drought.

  14. Advance care planning and end-of-life decision making in dialysis: a randomized controlled trial targeting patients and their surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E; Fine, Jason P; Hanson, Laura C; Lin, Feng-Chang; Hladik, Gerald A; Hamilton, Jill B; Bridgman, Jessica C

    2015-11-01

    Few trials have examined long-term outcomes of advance care planning (ACP) interventions. We examined the efficacy of an ACP intervention on preparation for end-of-life decision making for dialysis patients and surrogates and for surrogates' bereavement outcomes. A randomized trial compared an ACP intervention (Sharing Patient's Illness Representations to Increase Trust [SPIRIT]) to usual care alone, with blinded outcome assessments. 420 participants (210 dyads of prevalent dialysis patients and their surrogates) from 20 dialysis centers. Every dyad received usual care. Those randomly assigned to SPIRIT had an in-depth ACP discussion at the center and a follow-up session at home 2 weeks later. preparation for end-of-life decision making, assessed for 12 months, included dyad congruence on goals of care at end of life, patient decisional conflict, surrogate decision-making confidence, and a composite of congruence and surrogate decision-making confidence. bereavement outcomes, assessed for 6 months, included anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic distress symptoms completed by surrogates after patient death. adjusting for time and baseline values, dyad congruence (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3), surrogate decision-making confidence (β=0.13; 95% CI, 0.01-0.24), and the composite (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.0-3.2) were better in SPIRIT than controls, but patient decisional conflict did not differ between groups (β=-0.01; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.10). 45 patients died during the study. Surrogates in SPIRIT had less anxiety (β=-1.13; 95% CI, -2.23 to -0.03), depression (β=-2.54; 95% CI, -4.34 to -0.74), and posttraumatic distress (β=-5.75; 95% CI, -10.9 to -0.64) than controls. Study was conducted in a single US region. SPIRIT was associated with improvements in dyad preparation for end-of-life decision making and surrogate bereavement outcomes. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Age Targeting of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs Using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Kripke

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts to scale up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC for HIV prevention in priority countries over the last five years, implementation has faced important challenges. Seeking to enhance the effect of VMMC programs for greatest and most immediate impact, the U. S. President's Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR supported the development and application of a model to inform national planning in five countries from 2013-2014.The Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit (DMPPT 2.0 is a simple compartmental model designed to analyze the effects of client age and geography on program impact and cost. The DMPPT 2.0 model was applied in Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, and Uganda to assess the impact and cost of scaling up age-targeted VMMC coverage. The lowest number of VMMCs per HIV infection averted would be produced by circumcising males ages 20-34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 15-34 in Swaziland. The most immediate impact on HIV incidence would be generated by circumcising males ages 20-34 in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda and males ages 20-29 in Swaziland. The greatest reductions in HIV incidence over a 15-year period would be achieved by strategies focused on males ages 10-19 in Uganda, 15-24 in Malawi and South Africa, 10-24 in Tanzania, and 15-29 in Swaziland. In all countries, the lowest cost per HIV infection averted would be achieved by circumcising males ages 15-34, although in Uganda this cost is the same as that attained by circumcising 15- to 49-year-olds.The efficiency, immediacy of impact, magnitude of impact, and cost-effectiveness of VMMC scale-up are not uniform; there is important variation by age group of the males circumcised and countries should plan accordingly.

  16. Decision Making and Training: A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Studies of Decision Making and Their Implications for the Training of Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    1959. b Schlaifer, R. Anais 2f decisions under uncertainitv. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. Schopenhauer , A. The art of controversy. In J. B. Saunders...Ed.), 7_11a s qf L u Schopenhauer , New York: Wiley Book Co., no date. Schrenk, L. P. Objective difficulty and input history in sequential decision

  17. Computerized clinical decision support systems for acute care management: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review of effects on process of care and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahota Navdeep

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute medical care often demands timely, accurate decisions in complex situations. Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs have many features that could help. However, as for any medical intervention, claims that CCDSSs improve care processes and patient outcomes need to be rigorously assessed. The objective of this review was to systematically review the effects of CCDSSs on process of care and patient outcomes for acute medical care. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews databases (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, DARE, ACP Journal Club, and others, and the Inspec bibliographic database were searched to January 2010, in all languages, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CCDSSs in all clinical areas. We included RCTs that evaluated the effect on process of care or patient outcomes of a CCDSS used for acute medical care compared with care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Results Thirty-six studies met our inclusion criteria for acute medical care. The CCDSS improved process of care in 63% (22/35 of studies, including 64% (9/14 of medication dosing assistants, 82% (9/11 of management assistants using alerts/reminders, 38% (3/8 of management assistants using guidelines/algorithms, and 67% (2/3 of diagnostic assistants. Twenty studies evaluated patient outcomes, of which three (15% reported improvements, all of which were medication dosing assistants. Conclusion The majority of CCDSSs demonstrated improvements in process of care, but patient outcomes were less likely to be evaluated and far less likely to show positive results.

  18. Multi-criteria decision analysis of breast cancer control in low- and middle- income countries: development of a rating tool for policy makers

    OpenAIRE

    Venhorst, K.; Zelle, S.G.; Tromp, N.; Lauer, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop a rating tool for policy makers to prioritize breast cancer interventions in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs), based on a simple multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach. The definition and identification of criteria play a key role in MCDA, and our rating tool could be used as part of a broader priority setting exercise in a local setting. This tool may contribute to a more transparent priority-setting process and fairer...

  19. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  20. Possibilities and hindrances for prevention of intimate partner violence: perceptions among professionals and decision makers in a Swedish medium-sized town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, A; von Borgstede, C; Krantz, G; Spak, F; Hensing, G

    2013-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, but few evidence-based prevention programs have yet been implemented. This study explored the perceptions and beliefs of local-level decision makers, social and health-care professionals, and representatives from the police force regarding the possibilities and hindrances for prevention of IPV. An explorative qualitative approach was used, and participants were strategically selected for focus group discussions. The participants, 19 men and 23 women, were professionals or decision makers within health-care services, social welfare, municipal administration, the police force, local industry, and local politicians in a Swedish town of 54,000 inhabitants. The focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. A manifest content analysis was performed on the text. Preschools, schools, sports associations, workplaces, and the mass media were suggested as possible arenas for prevention measures. The proposed activities included norm building and improved social support structures. Hindrances were conceptualized as societal beliefs and attitudes, shame, silence, gender inequality, the counteracting influence of the media, and lack of resources. The participants demonstrated closeness and distance to IPV, expressed as acceptance or referral of responsibility to others regarding where and by whom prevention measures should be executed. This study gave new insights in the prevailing perceptions of professionals and decision makers of a medium-sized Swedish town, which can be a useful knowledge in future preventive work and contribute to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  1. Examining the Educative Aims and Practices of Decision-Makers in Sport for Development and Peace Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Per G.; Hancock, Meg G.; Hums, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) policy-makers and practitioners continue to offer ambitious claims regarding the potential role of sport-based programs for promoting social change. Yet, it is important to put sport under a critical lens in order to develop a more balanced and realistic understanding of the role of sport in society. Whether…

  2. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    In the communication chain between scientists and decision makers (end users), scientific outputs, as maps, are a fundamental source of information on hazards zoning and the related at risk areas definition. Anyway the relationship between volcanic phenomena, their probability and potential impact can be complex and the geospatial information not easily decoded or understood by not experts even if decision makers. Focusing on volcanic hazard the goal of MED SUV WP6 Task 3 is to improve the communication efficacy of scientific outputs, to contribute in filling the gap between scientists and decision-makers. Campi Flegrei caldera, in Neapolitan area has been chosen as the pilot research area where to apply an evaluation/validation procedure to provide a robust evaluation of the volcanic maps and its validation resulting from end users response. The selected sample involved are decision makers and officials from Campanian Region Civil Protection and municipalities included in Campi Flegrei RED ZONE, the area exposed to risk from to pyroclastic currents hazard. Semi-structured interviews, with a sample of decision makers and civil protection officials have been conducted to acquire both quantitative and qualitative data. The tested maps have been: the official Campi Flegrei Caldera RED ZONE map, three maps produced by overlapping the Red Zone limit on Orthophoto, DTM and Contour map, as well as other maps included a probabilistic one, showing volcanological data used to border the Red Zone. The outcomes' analysis have assessed level of respondents' understanding of content as displayed, and their needs in representing the complex information embedded in volcanic hazard. The final output has been the development of a leaflet as "guidelines" that can support decision makers and officials in understanding volcanic hazard and risk maps, and also in using them as a communication tool in information program for the population at risk. The same evaluation /validation process

  3. Comparing the sustainability impacts of solar thermal and natural gas combined cycle for electricity production in Mexico: Accounting for decision makers' priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Serrano, Irene; Caldés, Natalia; Oltra, Christian; Sala, Roser

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive sustainability assessment of the electricity generation with two alternative electricity generation technologies by estimating its economic, environmental and social impacts through the "Framework for Integrated Sustainability Assessment" (FISA). Based on a Multiregional Input Output (MRIO) model linked to a social risk database (Social Hotspot Database), the framework accounts for up to fifteen impacts across the three sustainability pillars along the supply chain of the electricity production from Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) technologies in Mexico. Except for value creation, results show larger negative impacts for NGCC, particularly in the environmental pillar. Next, these impacts are transformed into "Aggregated Sustainability Endpoints" (ASE points) as a way to support the decision making in selecting the best sustainable project. ASE points obtained are later compared to the resulting points weighted by the reported priorities of Mexican decision makers in the energy sector obtained from a questionnaire survey. The comparison shows that NGCC achieves a 1.94 times worse negative score than STE, but after incorporating decision makerś priorities, the ratio increases to 2.06 due to the relevance given to environmental impacts such as photochemical oxidants formation and climate change potential, as well as social risks like human rights risks.

  4. Use of a knowledge synthesis by decision makers and planners to facilitate system level integration in a large Canadian provincial health authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Suter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study is an examination of how a knowledge synthesis, conducted to fill an information gap identified by decision makers and planners responsible for integrating health systems in a western Canadian health authority, is being used within that organisation. Methods: Purposive sampling and snowball technique were used to identify 13 participants who were interviewed about how they are using the knowledge synthesis for health services planning and decision-making. Results: The knowledge synthesis is used by those involved in the strategic direction of the provincial healthcare organisation and those tasked with the operationalization of integration at the provincial or local level. Both groups most frequently use the ten key principles for integration, followed by the sections on integration processes, strategies and models. The key principles facilitate discussion on priority areas to be considered and provide a reference point for a desired future state. Perceived information gaps relate to a lack of detail on "how to" strategies, tools and processes that would lead to successful integration. Discussion and conclusion: The current project demonstrates that decision makers and planners will effectively use a knowledge synthesis if it is timely, relevant and accessible. The information can be applied at strategic and operations levels. Attention needs to be paid to include more information on implementation strategies and processes. Including knowledge users in identifying research questions will increase information uptake.

  5. Use of a knowledge synthesis by decision makers and planners to facilitate system level integration in a large Canadian provincial health authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Suter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study is an examination of how a knowledge synthesis, conducted to fill an information gap identified by decision makers and planners responsible for integrating health systems in a western Canadian health authority, is being used within that organisation.Methods: Purposive sampling and snowball technique were used to identify 13 participants who were interviewed about how they are using the knowledge synthesis for health services planning and decision-making.Results: The knowledge synthesis is used by those involved in the strategic direction of the provincial healthcare organisation and those tasked with the operationalization of integration at the provincial or local level. Both groups most frequently use the ten key principles for integration, followed by the sections on integration processes, strategies and models. The key principles facilitate discussion on priority areas to be considered and provide a reference point for a desired future state. Perceived information gaps relate to a lack of detail on "how to" strategies, tools and processes that would lead to successful integration.Discussion and conclusion: The current project demonstrates that decision makers and planners will effectively use a knowledge synthesis if it is timely, relevant and accessible. The information can be applied at strategic and operations levels. Attention needs to be paid to include more information on implementation strategies and processes. Including knowledge users in identifying research questions will increase information uptake.

  6. A Hierarchical Analysis of Bridge Decision Makers ... The Role of New Technology Adoption in the Timber Bridge Market: Special Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decisions across the United States. The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection decision of these individuals. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and local highway officials were personally interviewed in...

  7. Modelling of adaptation to climate change and decision-makers behaviours for the Veluwe forest area in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Didion, Markus; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl;

    2015-01-01

    rules for beliefs about climate trends, iii) evaluate the performance of adaptive strategies, and iv) apply (i)–(iii) at the local and forest landscape scale to find and compare individual versus joint adaptive decisions. We search for optimal forest management decisions maximizing total biomass...

  8. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanism Study on How Decision-maker's Emotion Affects the Emergency Decision-making:A Theoretical Framework%决策者情绪对应急决策的影响研究:一个理论框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云翌; 杨乃定

    2015-01-01

    Timely and effective emergency decision-making is the key to reduce the casualties and losses caused by the emergency. How-ever, emergency decision-making will be inevitably affected by the emergency decision-maker’s emotion, which may lead to serious de-cision failures in the emergency. This study firstly established the theoretical framework model of how the decision-maker's emotion may affect the emergency decision-making based on the behavioral decision-making paradigm. Secondly, it was analyzed and discussed in de-tail the impact of emotion on the subjective probability, risk perception, risk preference, clues searching, clues assessing, alternative scheme formation, scheme choosing and decision-making results during the decision-making process in the model. Moreover, it was also investigated how the decision-maker’s emotion was affected by environment characteristics, characteristics of decision-making task and the decision-maker characteristics in emergency decision-making. It is hoped to be a reference for the behavior and emotion management of emergency decision-makers.%突发事件下,及时有效的应急决策是减少伤亡与损失的关键。然而突发事件所致的决策者情绪难免影响其应急决策行为,对突发事件的处置决策过程造成偏差或失误。本研究基于行为决策研究范式,建立决策者情绪影响应急决策全过程的理论框架模型,详细分析情绪对应急决策中线索搜寻、线索评估、备选方案形成、主观概率、风险后果感知、风险偏好、方案选择和决策结果等环节的影响,以及决策任务特征、环境特征和决策者特征对决策者情绪的影响作用。以期对突发事件应急处置过程中决策者行为和情绪管理提供理论参考。

  10. Value of Information and Prospect theory as tools to involve decision-makers in water-related design, operation and planning of water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of decision-makers is to take the outputs from hydrological and hydraulic analyses and, in some extent, use them as inputs to make decisions that are related to planning, design and operation of water systems. However, the use of these technical analyses is frequently limited, since there are other non-hydrological issues that must be considered, that may end up in very different solutions than those envisaged by the purely technical ones. A possibility to account for the nature of the human decisions under uncertainty is by exploring the use of concepts from decision theory and behavioural economics, such as Value of Information and Prospect Theory and embed them into the methodologies we use in the hydrology practice. Three examples are presented to illustrate these multidisciplinary interactions. The first one, for monitoring network design, uses Value of Information within a methodology to locate water level stations in a complex canal of networks in the Netherlands. The second example, for operation, shows how the Value of Information concept can be used to formulate alternative methods to evaluate flood risk according to the set of options available for decision-making during a flood event. The third example, for planning, uses Prospect Theory concepts to understand how the "losses hurt more than gains feel good" effect can determine the final decision of urbanise or not a flood-prone area. It is demonstrated that decision theory and behavioural economic principles are promising to evaluate the complex decision-making process in water-related issues.

  11. Beyond the Academic Journal: Unfreezing Misconceptions About Mental Illness and Gun Violence Through Knowledge Translation to Decision-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Joshua; Grilley, Anna; Kennedy, Orla

    2015-06-01

    In a policy arena characterized by polarized debate, such as the consideration of legal interventions to prevent gun violence, research evidence is an important tool to inform decision-making processes. However, unless the evidence is communicated to stakeholders who can influence policy decisions, the research will often remain an academic exercise with little practical impact. The Educational Fund to Stop Violence's process of "unfreezing" individual perceptions and conventional interpretations of the relationship between mental illness and gun violence, forming a consensus, and translating this knowledge to stakeholders through state discussion forums is one way to inform policy change. The recent passage of gun violence prevention legislation in California provides an example of successfully closing the knowledge translation gap between research and decision-making processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The Myth of the Rational Decision Maker: A Framework for Applying and Enhancing Heuristic and Intuitive Decision Making by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen H.

    2004-01-01

    This article takes a critical look at administrative decision making in schools and the extent to which complex decisions conform to normative models and common expectations of rationality. An alternative framework for administrative decision making is presented that is informed, but not driven, by theories of rationality. The framework assumes…

  13. From whom the bell tolls: the emerging decision-makers for life-support systems in choices of who shall live and who shall die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzio, R

    1987-12-01

    In summary, how do we assess these decision-makers, with their wide variations in composition, emerging today from medical technology and advances unknown and unforeseen by earlier practitioners? At the threshold, we should not dismiss lightly the traditional role of the doctor as the autocrat. There is much to be said in his or her favor: 1. The basic decision, after all, is a medical one--diagnosis and prognosis--with the concurrence perhaps of a consultant or a specialist. That decision was and is a major premise. Miss it and one misses the mark. 2. What is so novel, what is so startling about a fateful life-death issue in the medical profession? It is quotidian. In the Armageddon between human life and human demise, doctors have been making those solemn decisions in other areas of medicine from time immemorial. Often--not always--the patient is silently saying to the doctor, "My life is in your hands." 3. And within what context does he act? Usually--not always--he knows the patient. He knows the family. He knows the surrounding circumstances. But there still lurks that gnawing, underlying flaw. The decision-making is not diffused. The doctor stands alone. Small "groups" or "committees," retaining medical guidance, share responsibilities, make more palatable to themselves those agonizing decisions, and contribute to their acceptability by society. Here, then, is the harvest to be reaped by diffusion. What is so striking is that the decision-making process anent life-support systems still calls for a superior breed of men and women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Getting Decision Makers to the Table: Digestible Facts, a Few Good Friends and Sharing Recipes for Solutions to Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Gershunov, A.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Young, E.

    2014-12-01

    Decision makers and community leaders are key audiences to engage in our efforts to improve climate literacy. Climate Education Partners has been working with business leaders, elected officials, tribal leaders, and other Key Influentials in the San Diego Region to enhance the channels of communication outside traditional settings. Over the past year we have interviewed over 90 Key Influential San Diego leaders asking them about their knowledge of climate change and their personal and professional efforts to adapt to and/or mitigate the impacts of climate change. We also engaged them directly in the creation of an innovative educational resource called "San Diego, 2050 is Calling. How will we answer?" Results of the interviews indicate that 90% of these leaders are concerned about climate change, more than 50% are already doing something about the impacts, and the majority of them want more information, greater dialogue and examples of actions taken by other community leaders. We found that repeated engagement of leaders at the San Diego County Water Authority went from basic collaboration in our water tours, to greater participation of their top leaders in a water tour for top decision makers from the City of San Diego, finally culminating with full support of and participation in the 2050 report. The 2050 report represents an integrated approach blending local climate change science, social science education theory and presentation of a suite of solution-driven opportunities for local leaders. The report includes science infographics that illustrate rigorous scientific facts, statements from expert scientists and direct quotes from decision makers, and examples of successful climate change adaptation actions from companies, government groups and others. The video and photography sessions for the 2050 report led to many unexpected discussion among leaders with differing opinions on climate change, greater enthusiasm to participate in outreach activities with other

  15. To notify or not to notify : Decision aid for policy makers on whether to make an infectious disease mandatorily notifiable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Paul; Fanoy, E. B.; Kardamanidis, K.; van der Plas, S. M.; te Wierik, M. J.; Kretzschmar, M. E.; Haringhuizen, G. B.; van Vliet, H. J.; van der Sande, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory notification can be a useful tool to support infectious disease prevention and control. Guidelines are needed to help policymakers decide whether mandatory notification of an infectious disease is appropriate. We developed a decision aid, based on a range of criteria previously used in the

  16. To notify or not to notify : Decision aid for policy makers on whether to make an infectious disease mandatorily notifiable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Paul; Fanoy, E. B.; Kardamanidis, K.; van der Plas, S. M.; te Wierik, M. J.; Kretzschmar, M. E.; Haringhuizen, G. B.; van Vliet, H. J.; van der Sande, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory notification can be a useful tool to support infectious disease prevention and control. Guidelines are needed to help policymakers decide whether mandatory notification of an infectious disease is appropriate. We developed a decision aid, based on a range of criteria previously used in the

  17. Effect of a Disease-Specific Planning Intervention on Surrogate Understanding of Patient Goals for Future Medical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Karin T.; Hammes, Bernard J.; Kehl, Karen A.; Briggs, Linda A.; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Patients with life-limiting illnesses, and their families, struggle with complex treatment decisions as these patients approach the last few years of life. Surrogates often do not clearly understand the patient's goals for future medical treatments. Objectives To determine if a disease-specific planning process can improve surrogate understanding of such patient goals for future, medical treatments. Design, Setting, and Participants A multisite randomized controlled trial conducted between January 1, 2004 and July 31, 2007 in 6 outpatient clinics of large community or university health systems in 3 Wisconsin cities. Subjects were patients with either chronic congestive heart failure or chronic renal disease and their surrogate decision makers. Participants had to be competent, English-speaking adults at least 18 years of age. Intervention Trained health professionals conducted a structured, patient-centered interview intended to promote informed decision making and to result in the completion of a document clarifying the goals of the patient with regard to four disease-specific health outcome situations and to the degree of decision-making latitude granted to the surrogate. Measurements Surrogate understanding of patient goals for care with regard to four expected, disease-specific outcomes situations and of the degree of surrogate latitude in decision making. Results Three hundred thirteen patient-surrogate pairs completed the study. As measured by Kappa (κ) scores and in all four situations and in the degree of latitude, intervention group surrogates demonstrated a significantly higher degree of understanding of patient goals than control group surrogates. Intervention group κ scores ranged from 0.61 to 0.78, while control group κ scores ranged from 0.07 to 0.28. Conclusion Surrogates in the intervention group had a significantly better understanding of patient goals and preferences than surrogates in the control group. This finding is the first step

  18. The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

    2012-12-01

    Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote

  19. The Statistical Value Chain - a Benchmarking Checklist for Decision Makers to Evaluate Decision Support Seen from a Statistical Point-Of-View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Henningsen, Geraldine; Wood, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    method that a DM can employ in order to evaluate the process of decision support from a statistical point-of-view. We call this approach the “Statistical Value Chain” (SVC): a consecutive benchmarking checklist with eight steps that can be used to evaluate decision support seen from a statistical point-of-view....

  20. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  1. The Ruling Political Class? A Theoretical Analysis of the Political Actors’ Role as Major Decision Makers in the Context of the Politico-administrative Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina HARUȚĂ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines and reframes severaltheories and approaches regarding the decisionmakingprocess and the politico-administrativerelations. The inner logic and the structure of thispaper should be scrutinized as an aggregate ofthree interdependent concepts. Firstly, we mentionbriefly the theoretical context of decision-makingconsisting out of a plethora of models developedin time. Subsequently, an overview of thepolitico-administrative affinities is presented tothe reader in the second section of the paper withan emphasis on the patterns and asymmetriesof powers between politicians and bureaucrats.Finally, the purpose of this paper lies in offeringan up-to-date theoretical perspective referring tothe political means of oversight and control overthe bureaucracy, due to which use the politicalactors underscore and heighten their roles of majordecision makers.

  2. A Perspective on Consumers 3.0: They Are Not Better Decision-Makers Than Previous Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr eHoudek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0 exhibit selective recall, limited attention and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only on a narrow structure and content of the choice. The cognitive frames can be established by recent or regular purchases, but also extreme or primary purchase experiences. The article includes a short conceptual review of car, food, clothing, insurance, drugs, paintings and other product purchases showing that the local cognitive frames often lead to bad bargains across various sectors. The article presents several suggestions for future research.

  3. Point of care information services: a platform for self-directed continuing medical education for front line decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moja, Lorenzo; Kwag, Koren Hyogene

    2015-02-01

    The structure and aim of continuing medical education (CME) is shifting from the passive transmission of knowledge to a competency-based model focused on professional development. Self-directed learning is emerging as the foremost educational method for advancing competency-based CME. In a field marked by the constant expansion of knowledge, self-directed learning allows physicians to tailor their learning strategy to meet the information needs of practice. Point of care information services are innovative tools that provide health professionals with digested evidence at the front line to guide decision making. By mobilising self-directing learning to meet the information needs of clinicians at the bedside, point of care information services represent a promising platform for competency-based CME. Several points, however, must be considered to enhance the accessibility and development of these tools to improve competency-based CME and the quality of care.

  4. A model for the design of computer integrated manufacturing systems: Identification of information requirements of decision makers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1990-01-01

    are developed to support production planning and control processes as they are found in the present organizations. In this case, the result has been the evolution of "islands of automation" and in the CIM literature, integration is widely discussed in terms of standardization of communication protocols...... processes and production planning in these cases involve decisions within several different work domains which are normally known in detail by different people. The cases are used to illustrate how an explicit representation of the means-ends relations of the work domain can be used to identify......A predominant interest in recent design research has been the development of a general model of the design process to formulate a framework within which support systems based on modern information technology can be developed. Similarly, for manufacturing systems, advanced information systems...

  5. How seasonal forecast could help a decision maker: an example of climate service for water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Christian; Beaulant, Anne-Lise; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Céron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project EUPORIAS was a great opportunity for the climate community to co-design with stakeholders some original and innovative climate services at seasonal time scales. In this framework, Météo-France proposed a prototype that aimed to provide to water resource managers some tailored information to better anticipate the coming season. It is based on a forecasting system, built on a refined hydrological suite, forced by a coupled seasonal forecast model. It particularly delivers probabilistic river flow prediction on river basins all over the French territory. This paper presents the work we have done with "EPTB Seine Grands Lacs" (EPTB SGL), an institutional stakeholder in charge of the management of 4 great reservoirs on the upper Seine Basin. First, we present the co-design phase, which means the translation of classical climate outputs into several indices, relevant to influence the stakeholder's decision making process (DMP). And second, we detail the evaluation of the impact of the forecast on the DMP. This evaluation is based on an experiment realised in collaboration with the stakeholder. Concretely EPTB SGL has replayed some past decisions, in three different contexts: without any forecast, with a forecast A and with a forecast B. One of forecast A and B really contained seasonal forecast, the other only contained random forecasts taken from past climate. This placebo experiment, realised in a blind test, allowed us to calculate promising skill scores of the DMP based on seasonal forecast in comparison to a classical approach based on climatology, and to EPTG SGL current practice.

  6. The Heat Is On: Decision-Maker Perspectives on When and How to Issue a Heat Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, M.; Sampson, N.; McCormick, S.; Rood, R. B.; Buxton, M.; Ebi, K. L.; Gronlund, C. J.; Zhang, K.; Catalano, L.; White-Newsome, J. L.; Conlon, K. C.; Parker, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    To better understand how to prevent illness and deaths during hot weather, particularly among at-risk populations, we conducted a study in Detroit, Michigan; Phoenix, Arizona; New York, New York, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Our aims were to characterize and better understand how heatwave and health early warning systems (HHWS) and related prevention and sustainability programs can be more widely and effectively implemented. Specifically, we here report on the scientific evidence, expert judgments and the process used in deciding to trigger a HHWS and activate public health and social services interventions. We conducted interviews with public officials who decide if and when heat advisories/warnings are issued. After transcribing the interviews, we used a qualitative analysis software, QSR NVivo 9.0, to assign codes to portions of text from each transcript and allow analysis of information with common themes across the data. For example, several sentences in a transcript discussing a heat index might be coded as 'definition of heat wave'. A common theme across cities was that deciding what type of weather is dangerous to health is not straightforward. The time in season that heat occurs; the duration of the heat; the level of humidity and other meteorological factors; the extent to which temperatures drop at night, allowing people to cool off; and prevailing weather conditions all play a role. A single 'safe' threshold is unrealistic because people's individual sensitivity, housing, surrounding environments, behaviors, and access to air conditioning can differ greatly. However, choices must be made as to the trigger for the HHWS. Although quantitative analysis with health data (mortality, hospital admissions) can inform the design of the triggers, historical analysis has limitations, and decisions to issue heat warnings are sometimes related to planned activities, such as parades or fairs, that may expose large numbers of people to heat. The HHWS approach

  7. The impact of scientific information on ecosystem management: making sense of the contextual gap between information providers and decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Ernita; Roux, Dirk J; Drackner, Mikael; McCool, Stephen F

    2008-05-01

    Scientific information is not always effectively incorporated into decision-making processes. This phenomenon seems to hold even when the information is aligned with an articulated need, is generated according to sound scientific procedures, and is packaged with end-user preferences in mind. We propose that contextual or cultural differences contribute significantly to the misalignment in communication between those who generate information and those who seek information for improved management of natural resources. The solution is to cultivate shared understanding, which in turn relies on acknowledgment and sharing of diverse values and attitudes. This constitutes a difficult challenge in a culturally diverse environment. Whereas cultural diversity represents wealth in experiences, knowledge and perspectives it can constrain the potential to develop the shared understandings necessary for effective integration of new information. This article illustrates how a lack of shared understanding among participants engaged in a resource-management process can produce and perpetuate divergent views of the world, to the extent that information and knowledge flows are ineffective and scientific information, even when requested, cannot be used effectively. Four themes were distilled from interviews with management and scientific staff of a natural resource-management agency in South Africa. The themes are used to illustrate how divergent views embedded in different cultures can discourage alignment of effort toward a common purpose. The article then presents a sense-making framework to illustrate the potential for developing shared understandings in a culturally diverse world.

  8. Developmental changes in decision making under risk: The role of executive functions and reasoning abilities in 8- to 19-year-old decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; García-Arias, María; García-Villamisar, Domingo; Cabanyes-Truffino, Javier; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents often tend toward risky decisions despite explicit knowledge about the potential negative consequences. This phenomenon has been suggested to be associated with the immaturity of brain areas involved in cognitive control functions. Particularly, "frontal lobe functions," such as executive functions and reasoning, mature until young adulthood and are thought to be involved in age-related changes in decision making under explicit risk conditions. We investigated 112 participants, aged 8-19 years, with a frequently used task assessing decisions under risk, the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Additionally, we administered the Modified Card Sorting Test assessing executive functioning (categorization, cognitive flexibility, and strategy maintenance) as well as the Ravens Progressive Matrices assessing reasoning. The results showed that risk taking in the GDT decreased with increasing age and this effect was not moderated by reasoning but by executive functions: Particularly, young persons with weak executive functioning showed very risky decision making. Thus, the individual maturation of executive functions, associated with areas in the prefrontal cortex, seems to be an important factor in young peoples' behavior in risky decision-making situations.

  9. Marine Conservation: Effective Communication is Critical to Engaging the Public and Decision Makers in Sustaining our Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, L. B.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists are most comfortable talking to other scientists. But if we hope our science will be used to drive good policy decisions at the state or federal level, we have to be willing to leave the comfortable cloisters of science and venture out into a world where people speak different languages and have different perspectives. Early in my career, I had the good fortune to be involved in two research programs that were focused on basic science, but also proved to be relevant to management and policy. The first project involved modeling the bioenergetics of growth in salmonid fishes. The second modeled the population dynamics of a threatened marine species, loggerhead sea turtle. Somewhat to my surprise, both papers led to major policy changes and the models were actively employed by managers within a year of two of publication. The question for me then became whether this could be done deliberately. Since then I have had the opportunity to communicate with a wide variety of people from congressmen, to school children, to the public, and among professionals across disciplinary boundaries. Communication skills are critical for scientists to become influential in the policy arena. We have to listen to all people involved in the policymaking process AND we have to be able to communicate effectively with them. This requires a deep understanding of the science and a willingness to work hard on communicating the science clearly, concisely, and compellingly. Scientists can work to develop their own skills, but professional training helps. This can come via shortcourses, mentorships, or full university courses. At Duke Marine Lab, we initiated graduate course in Professional Writing that focuses upon writing for different audiences, including commercial fishermen, retirees, teenagers, scientists in different fields, politicians, and managers. This course has been widely endorsed by our graduates as one of the most important courses they attended; interviews and job offers

  10. Husbands as decision-makers in relation to family size: East-West regional differentials in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulu, I

    1990-01-01

    Fertility studies usually gather information from women only. This sex-bias present in the research fails to take into account the contribution that men make in forming fertility patterns. This study examines the role of Turkish husbands in the decision-making regarding family size and the use of family planning methods. The historic and cultural background in Turkey is based upon a male-dominant structure. This dominant role of men is present on individual, family, community, and national levels. The differences between the Eastern and Western regions, in regard to socio-economic factors is fully explored. The data used in this study comes from a 1988 national health survey. Three questionnaires were applied in 6,552 households in 5 regions. One questionnaire was for the household, one for ever-married women, and one for ever-married men. This paper focuses on the data generated by the husband's questionnaires (a sub-sample of 2,264 respondents). Several factors are identified that maintain an authoritarian, male-dominated system. These factors include type of marriage, arranged marriages, the payment of bride-price, and participation in the labor force. Both men in the East and West expect their wives to fulfill a traditional sex-role. Women are expected to be wives and mothers, and to obey their husbands. Most men do not approve of married women working outside of the home. Traditional values continue to shape the style of relating between men and women in both regions, despite the modernization that has taken place in the West. "Higher socioeconomic development does not necessarily imply the automatic acquisition of modern values." The author does establish that practices that subjugate women are more prevalent and are deeply rooted in the East. In keeping with the cultural practices of the society, male attitudes and values strongly influence family planning practices. One-fourth of the women in a national survey stated that the reason they did not use a

  11. What do hospital decision-makers in Ontario, Canada, have to say about the fairness of priority setting in their institutions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Douglas K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Priority setting, also known as rationing or resource allocation, occurs at all levels of every health care system. Daniels and Sabin have proposed a framework for priority setting in health care institutions called 'accountability for reasonableness', which links priority setting to theories of democratic deliberation. Fairness is a key goal of priority setting. According to 'accountability for reasonableness', health care institutions engaged in priority setting have a claim to fairness if they satisfy four conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals/revision, and enforcement. This is the first study which has surveyed the views of hospital decision makers throughout an entire health system about the fairness of priority setting in their institutions. The purpose of this study is to elicit hospital decision-makers' self-report of the fairness of priority setting in their hospitals using an explicit conceptual framework, 'accountability for reasonableness'. Methods 160 Ontario hospital Chief Executive Officers, or their designates, were asked to complete a survey questionnaire concerning priority setting in their publicly funded institutions. Eight-six Ontario hospitals completed this survey, for a response rate of 54%. Six close-ended rating scale questions (e.g. Overall, how fair is priority setting at your hospital?, and 3 open-ended questions (e.g. What do you see as the goal(s of priority setting in your hospital? were used. Results Overall, 60.7% of respondents indicated their hospitals' priority setting was fair. With respect to the 'accountability for reasonableness' conditions, respondents indicated their hospitals performed best for the relevance (75.0% condition, followed by appeals/revision (56.6%, publicity (56.0%, and enforcement (39.5%. Conclusions For the first time hospital Chief Executive Officers within an entire health system were surveyed about the fairness of priority setting practices in their

  12. Research of the Weight of Decision-maker in Group Decision-making Based on Interval Fuzz Number%基于区间模糊数的群决策中决策者权重研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒欢; 宁敬博

    2015-01-01

    针对指标属性值为区间模糊数的群决策问题,展开了对决策者客观权重确定的研究。在定义了个体决策矩阵和群体决策矩阵的基础上,计算两者的整体相对偏差距离,继而得到决策者的客观权重。并以一个算例验证了该方法的可行性和合理性。%In this paper we launched the study of objective weight for decision⁃maker for the group decision⁃making problem of index attribute value,which is interval fuzzy number. We calculated the overall relative deviation distance of the individual decision matrix and group decision matrix based on defining each others,then got the objective weight of decision⁃maker. Finally,a numerical example was given to demonstrate the feasibility and rationality of the method.

  13. Introducing economic evaluation as a policy tool in Korea: will decision makers get quality information? : a critical review of published Korean economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Sei; Brouwer, Werner B F; Lee, Sang-Il; Koo, Hye-Won

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) is considering making it mandatory for pharmaceutical companies to submit the results of an economic evaluation when demanding reimbursement of new pharmaceuticals. The usefulness of the results of economic evaluations depends highly on the quality of the studies. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to provide a critical review of economic evaluations of healthcare technologies published in the Korean context. Our results show that many studies did not meet international standards. Study designs were suboptimal, study perspectives and types were often stated incompletely, time periods were often too short, and outcome measures were often less than ideal. In addition, some articles did not distinguish between measurement and valuation of resource use. Capital, overhead and productivity costs were often omitted. Only half of the studies performed sensitivity analyses. In order to further rationalise resource allocation in the Korean healthcare sector, the quality of the information provided through economic evaluations needs to improve. Developing clear guidelines and educating and training researchers in performing economic evaluations is necessary.

  14. Comparisons of guardianship laws and surrogate decision-making practices in China, Japan, Thailand and Australia: a review by the Asia Consortium, International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) capacity taskforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoh, Joshua; Peisah, Carmelle; Narumoto, Jin; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; O'Neill, Nick; Jiang, Tao; Ogano, Shoichi; Mimura, Masaru; Kato, Yuka; Chiu, Helen

    2015-06-01

    The International Psychogeriatric Association (IPA) capacity taskforce was established to promote the autonomy, proper access to care, and dignity of persons with decision-making disabilities (DMDs) across nations. The Asia Consortium of the taskforce was established to pursue these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. This paper is part of the Asia Consortium's initiative to promote understanding and advocacy in regard to surrogate decision-making across the region. The current guardianship laws are compared, and jurisdictional variations in the processes for proxy decision-making to support persons with DMDs and other health and social needs in China, Japan, Thailand, and Australia are explored. The different Asia-Pacific countries have various proxy decision-making mechanisms in place for persons with DMDs, which are both formalized according to common law, civil law, and other legislation, and shaped by cultural practices. Various processes for guardianship and mechanisms for medical decision-making and asset management exist across the region. Processes that are still evolving across the region include those that facilitate advanced planning as a result of the paucity of legal structures for enduring powers of attorney (EPA) and guardianship in some regions, and the struggle to achieve consensual positions in regard to end-of-life decision-making. Formal processes for supporting decision-making are yet to be developed. The diverse legal approaches to guardianship and administration must be understood to meet the challenges of the rapidly ageing population in the Asia-Pacific region. Commonalities in the solutions and difficulties faced in encountering these challenges have global significance.

  15. Pre-assessment to assess the match between cost-effectiveness results and decision makers'information needs: (An Illustration Using Two Cases in Rehabilitation Medicine in The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten J.; Reuzel, Robert P.B.; Severens, Hans L.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine if a pre-assessment can be used to establish whether cost-effectiveness results would meet the actual information needs of Dutch healthcare decision makers. Methods: Two recent studies in rehabilitation medicine served as study material. Based on Wholey, a limited pre-assess

  16. A Study of MPNP Based on Limited Rationality of Decision-makers%基于决策者有限理性的多产品报童问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向阳; 周刚

    2012-01-01

    Under the assumption that inventory management decision-makers are limited in their rationality, the paper studies the multi-product newsvendor problem with budget constraint under the framework of prospect theory and establishes the inventory decision model which considers the aversion of loss, priority to safety and mental accounts of the decision makers, making the results obtained more practical.%从库存管理决策者有限理性出发,在预期理论框架下对资金约束下的多产品报童问题进行了研究,建立了考虑决策者损失厌恶、安全优先和心理账户行为下的库存决策模型,以期研究结果更加符合实际情况.

  17. An interval UTA method based on the satisfaction degree of decision maker%基于决策人满意度的区间UTA方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊文涛; 冯育强

    2016-01-01

    针对区间数多准则决策问题,扩展了传统的效用加性(utility additive,UTA)方法,提出了一种区间UTA方法。该方法首先根据传统的UTA方法,将参考方案的所有指标值转换为效用范围,即效用区间;然后利用区间数运算,得到参考方案的综合效用,进一步根据决策人的满意度和区间数的中点、半宽构建一个线性规划模型,计算出最小误差;在再优化分析中,以各指标下所有节点郊用的方差最小为目标函数,建立二次规划模型,计算出每一指标下各节点的效用值,利用效用值得到待评方案的综合效用区间和排序。算例表明,提出的区间UTA方法能有效地对方案排序,并与决策人以往的偏好信息一致。%An interval UTA method was proposed for inferring interval utility functions from a partial preorder of alter-natives evaluated on multiple criteria,which was an extension of the well-known UTA method capable to handle the in-terval evaluation data.Firstly,according to the original UTA method,the interval attribute values of all reference op-tions were transformed into the ranges of utility,namely,the utility intervals.Next,the overall utility intervals were calculated using the arithmetic operations of interval number.A linear programming model was constructed based on the satisfaction degree of decision maker utilizing the mid-point and half-width of interval numbers.After the total error val-ue was obtained,a quadratic programming model was established in the post-optimization step,where the objective function was the minimum utility variance of all nodes along all criteria.The obtained utility values of all nodes were used to calculate the overall utility intervals and ranking of alternatives under evaluation.Numerical example showed that the alternatives could effectively ranked using the proposed interval UTA method,which was compatible with the preference information of decision

  18. Exploring the experiences of substitute decision-makers with an exception to consent in a paediatric resuscitation randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa J; de Laat, Sonya; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-09-13

    Prospective informed consent is required for most research involving human participants; however, this is impracticable under some circumstances. The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) outlines the requirements for research involving human participants in Canada. The need for an exception to consent (deferred consent) is recognised and endorsed in the TCPS for research in individual medical emergencies; however, little is known about substitute decision-maker (SDM) experiences. A paediatric resuscitation trial (SQUEEZE) (NCT01973907) using an exception to consent process began enrolling at McMaster Children's Hospital in January 2014. This qualitative research study aims to generate new knowledge on SDM experiences with the exception to consent process as implemented in a randomised controlled trial. The SDMs of children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial will be the sampling frame from which ethics study participants will be derived. Qualitative research study involving individual interviews and grounded theory methodology. SDMs for children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial. Up to 25 SDMs. Qualitative methodology: SDMs will be invited to participate in the qualitative ethics study. Interviews with consenting SDMs will be conducted in person or by telephone, taped and professionally transcribed. Participants will be encouraged to elaborate on their experience of being asked to consent after the fact and how this process occurred. Data gathering and analysis will be undertaken simultaneously. The investigators will collaborate in developing the coding scheme, and data will be coded using NVivo. Emerging themes will be identified. This research represents a rare opportunity to interview parents/guardians of critically ill children enrolled into a resuscitation trial without their knowledge or prior consent. Findings will inform implementation of the exception to consent process in the planned definitive SQUEEZE

  19. How Deep is the Critical Zone: A Scientific Question with Potential Impact For Decision-makers in Areas of Shale-Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Citizens living in areas of shale-gas development such as the Marcellus gas play in Pennsylvania and surrounding states are cognizant of the possibility that drilling and production of natural gas -- including hydraulic fracturing -- may have environmental impacts on their water. The Critical Zone is defined as the zone from vegetation canopy to the lower limits of groundwater. This definition is nebulous in terms of the lower limit, and yet, defining the bottom of the Critical Zone is important if citizens are to embrace shale-gas development. This is because, although no peer-reviewed study has been presented that documents a case where hydraulic fracturing or formation fluids have migrated upwards from fracturing depths to drinking water resources, a few cases of such leakage have been alleged. On the other hand, many cases of methane migration into aquifers have been documented to occur and some have been attributed to shale-gas development. The Critical Zone science community has a role to play in understanding such contamination problems, how they unfold, and how they should be ameliorated. For example, one big effort of the Critical Zone science community is to promote sharing of data describing the environment. This data effort has been extended to provide data for citizens to understand water quality by a team known as the Shale Network. As scientists learn to publish data online, these efforts must also be made accessible to non-scientists. As citizens access the data, the demand for data will grow and all branches of government will eventually respond by providing more accessible data that will help the public and policy-makers make decisions.

  20. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  1. Memento of decision makers: the national organizations involved in the mastery of greenhouse gas emissions; Memento des decideurs: les collectivites territoriales engagees dans la maitrise des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In front of the risks linked with the increase of the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, the decision makers must take into consideration first, the scientific advice of climatic change experts, and second, the considerable inertia of the climatic system. Thus, any action implemented so far will have an impact all along the 21. century and later whatever the future human activities. The aim of this memento is to sensibilize the decision makers about the possible consequences of their choice in terms of volume of greenhouse gases and of medium- and long-term evolution: 1 - stakes, role of local decision-makers (greenhouse effect and climatic change, France's international commitment, stakes, liabilities of local decision makers, decentralization laws, local plans of fight against greenhouse effect, public information and dialogue); 2 - urbanism and transports (urban displacements, alternatives to individual cars, collective transportation systems, parking, inter-region transports, goods transport, local urbanization plan, localization of activities, vehicle fleets of local authorities, companies transportation plans); 3 - buildings (energy conservation and consumption in municipal and social buildings, high environmental quality approach, management of maintenance and exploitation contracts, choice of building materials and space heating systems, air-conditioning and space cooling, mastery of power demand, recreational, cultural, school and public health buildings, insulation of buildings); 4 - energy utilities, production and distribution (public lighting, water treatment, municipal wastes, use of renewable energies, cogeneration, district heating networks, power distribution in rural areas: mastery of consumptions and decentralized production, wood-fuel and biomass valorization); 5 - other possible domains of action (tourism, agriculture, forestry and by-products, north-south solidarity with new partnerships). (J.S.)

  2. Ensemble-based analysis of Front Range severe convection on 6-7 June 2012: Forecast uncertainty and communication of weather information to Front Range decision-makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincente, Vanessa

    -allowing ensemble also showed greater skill in forecasting heavy precipitation amounts in the vicinity of where they were observed during the most active convective period, particularly near urbanized areas. A total of 9 Front Range EMs were interviewed to research how they understood hazardous weather information, and how their perception of forecast uncertainty would influence their decision making following a heavy rain event. Many of the EMs use situational awareness and past experiences with major weather events to guide their emergency planning. They also highly valued their relationship with the National Weather Service to improve their understanding of weather forecasts and ask questions about the uncertainties. Most of the EMs perceived forecast uncertainty in terms of probability and with the understanding that forecasting the weather is an imprecise science. The greater the likelihood of occurrence (implied by a higher probability of precipitation) showed greater confidence in the forecast that an event was likely to happen. Five probabilistic forecast products were generated from the convection-allowing ensemble output to generate a hypothetical warm season heavy rain event scenario. Responses varied between the EMs in which products they found most practical or least useful. Most EMs believed that there was a high probability for flooding, as illustrated by the degree of forecasted precipitation intensity. Most confirmed perceiving uncertainty in the different forecast representations, sharing the idea that there is an inherent uncertainty that follows modeled forecasts. The long-term goal of this research is to develop and add reliable probabilistic forecast products to the "toolbox" of decision-makers to help them better assess hazardous weather information and improve warning notifications and response.

  3. Cultural change and environmentalism: a cross-national approach of mass publics and decision makers Mudança cultural e ambientalismo: uma abordagem transnacional sobre opinião pública e agentes decisórios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ester

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study - the Global Environmental Survey (GOES - is the impact of cultural influences on environmental attitudes. GOES examines the cultural impact from a basic cross-national perspective, investigating the impact of cultural change and value shifts on environmental concern, attitudes, and behavior in both Western and non-Western societies. This study provides cross-national insights in how mass publics and decision makers in both developed and developing countries frame environmental problems and solutions. In addition, the project has shown how leading environmental decision makers and opinion leaders assess the environmental beliefs and attitudes of the public. Apparently, citizens are not yet ready to translate pro-environmental concerns into acceptance of far-reaching environmental policy measures. Citizens in both developed and developing countries seem to prefer voluntary lifestyle changes. Moving from environmental concern via policy support to actual (reported environmental behavior, we can conclude that persistent pro-environmental behavior does not describe citizens' environmental involvement and commitment. Our data indicate that environmentally relevant behaviors (e.g., transportation, energy use, recycling, household purchases, political activism do not form a consistent and coherent pattern. Practice of one type of ecologically conscious behavior does not predict engagement in another. It is not that people reserve a distinctive spot in their mental software for judging the environmental impact of habitual behaviors. Their mental mapping probably consists of manifold decisional heuristics, including comfort, health, safety, price, efficiency, effectiveness, and social responsibility, which are likely to be hierarchically ordered and in competition with environmental heuristics. A focus on specific behaviors, though, reveals that citizens may be deeply involved in "green" behavior. This is related in part to

  4. The Effects of Decision Makers' Roles and Related Variables on Risk Preferences%决策者角色及相关变量对风险偏好的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段婧; 刘永芳; 何琪

    2012-01-01

    采用IAT技术测查被试的内隐自尊,并引入收益和损失两种任务框架,综合探讨了内隐自尊水平、任务得失框架对自我决策和为他人决策时风险偏好的影响.结果发现:(1)在收益框架下,被试为他人决策时更冒险,而在损失框架下,为自我和他人决策的风险偏好无显著差异;(2)与为自我决策相比,低内隐自尊者为他人决策时更冒险,而高内隐自尊者为自我和他人决策的风险偏好无显著差异;(3)内隐自尊水平与任务框架的交互作用及内隐自尊水平、任务框架和决策者角色之间的三级交互作用均不显著.依据相关的理论和发现对这种结果进行了分析和讨论.%Many studies have examined the self-other decision making bias, but few have considered the role of self-esteem in the bias. Conversely, many studies have examined how self-esteem affects risk preference, but almost none have considered the impact of the decision maker's role. In addition, these studies made few allowances for the gain and loss frameworks of decision tasks.In this study, the complex relationships among decision makers' roles, self-esteem, and the frameworks ofdecision tasks are explored. 111 undergraduate subjects with high or low self-esteem were asked to either make decisions for themselves or make decisions for others on a risk preference questionnaire involving twelve items under gain or loss task frameworks. Implicit self-esteem levels were tested with IAT technology.The results of the experiment show that (1) Subjects were more willing to take risks when making decisions for others than when making decisions for themselves in the gain framework but not in the loss framework; (2) Subjects were more willing to take risks when making decisions for others than when making decisions for themselves if they had low implicit self-esteem but not if they had high implicit self-esteem; (3) There was no significant interaction between task framework and

  5. Helping the decision maker effectively promote various experts’ views into various optimal solutions to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection through the organization of a pilot health care provider research system

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Liyang

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of China’s Health Care System Reform was to help the decision maker find the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection. A pilot health care provider research system was recently organized in China’s health care system, and it could efficiently collect the data for determining the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection from various experts, then the purpose of this study was to apply ...

  6. Opinions of decision-makers on the liberalization of abortion laws in Mexico Opiniones de tomadores de decisiones sobre la liberalización de la ley del aborto en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke G van Dijk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, important advances were made in the struggle for reproductive rights in Mexico. The goal of this study was to discover the opinions of decision-makers about the grounds for legal abortion as well as to explore their perceptions about further liberalization of abortion laws countrywide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with eight prominent decision-makers working in governmental health, law and social institutions as well as representatives of political parties. RESULTS: Six decision-makers favored a further liberalization of abortion laws. They proposed several strategies to move forward with liberalization. Two decision-makers were against abortion under all circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: Three factors seem to play a key role in the liberalization of abortion: a liberal party governing at the state level, a favorable public opinion and the pressure of NGOs promoting reproductive rights. A state-by-state approach seems more effective for generating changes in abortion laws.OBJETIVO: En la última década se realizaron avances importantes en la lucha por los derechos reproductivos en México. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer las opiniones de tomadores de decisiones (TD sobre las causales para un aborto legal, así como explorar sus percepciones sobre la liberalización de las leyes en todo el país. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad con ocho TD de instituciones gubernamentales de asuntos sociales, legales y de salud, así como representantes de partidos políticos. RESULTADOS: Seis entrevistados favorecieron la liberalización de las leyes y propusieron varias estrategias para realizarla. Dos entrevistados estuvieron en contra del aborto bajo cualquier circunstancia. CONCLUSIONES: En la liberalización del aborto, tres factores parecen tener un papel relevante: un partido liberal gobernando estatalmente, una opinión pública favorable y la presión de ONG que

  7. Moral Hypocrisy on the Basis of Construal Level: To Be a Utilitarian Personal Decision Maker or to Be a Moral Advisor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wu, Qing; Yang, Qun; Zhou, Liang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaxi; Miao, Danmin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-01-01

    Background People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice. Objective This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT). Methods A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal Levels (self or others) by two different numbers of people saved (5 people or 15 people) by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem). The investigation examined participants’ decisions to opt to take action or refrain from action that would have the consequence of saving more people. Results The main effects of Construal Level (F1, 752 = 6.46, p = .011), saving number (F1, 752 = 35.81, p utilitarian reasoning in the decision-making, and their behaviors appeared more utilitarian at low Construal Levels (CLs) compared to high. Conclusion CLs, saving numbers, and problem situation significantly affected moral decision-making and exhibited significant interaction. Making decisions for oneself (low-construal) rather than giving advice to others (high-construal) was one important factor that determined whether the people were utilitarian or not. Utilitarian considerations are more relevant in impersonal dilemmas. PMID:25689521

  8. 无边界职涯背景下的离职:重回决策者中心%Turnover under the Background of Boundaryless Career:Refocus on Employees as Decision-makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杲; 杨东涛

    2015-01-01

    Turnover is a very important topic in management research. Taking the position of organization, most literature focused on how to reduce turnover by influencing employees’ attitude and thus minimize the negative impact on organizations. However, the nature of leaving an organization is an individual decision of employees. Therefore, under the background of boundaryless career, turnover research should shift its focus back to the employees as decision makers. This paper suggests: firstly, discussing the influential factors on turnover with a focus on the decision-maker; secondly, exploring the inner process of turnover decision-making; thirdly, paying more attention to the actual quitting behavior and the subsequent behavior.%离职曾被视作组织中的“问题”而受到学术界的重视。传统离职研究更关注通过改变员工的态度来减少离职,进而降低离职对组织产生的负面影响,具有鲜明的组织立场。然而离职的本质是员工个体的决策。无边界职业生涯背景下,面对更加多样化的生涯选择,员工在离职决策中的主体性更加凸显,离职研究需要重回决策者中心,重新聚焦决策者:(1)以决策者为中心探讨离职影响因素;(2)探讨决策者制定离职决策的内在过程;(3)关注员工离职的实际行为及后果。

  9. Moral hypocrisy on the basis of construal level: to be a utilitarian personal decision maker or to be a moral advisor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    Full Text Available People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice.This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT.A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal Levels (self or others by two different numbers of people saved (5 people or 15 people by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem. The investigation examined participants' decisions to opt to take action or refrain from action that would have the consequence of saving more people.The main effects of Construal Level (F1, 752 = 6.46, p = .011, saving number (F1, 752 = 35.81, p < .001, and problem situation type (F1, 752 = 330.55, p < .001 were all significant. The interaction of the problem situation and saving number (F1, 752 = 1.01, p = .31, and social distance and saving number (F1, 752 = 0.85, p = .36, and interaction of the three independent factors (F1, 752 = 0.47, p = .49 were not significant. However, the interaction of social distance and problem situation (F1, 752 = 9.46, p = .002 was significant. Results indicated the participants utilized a component of utilitarian reasoning in the decision-making, and their behaviors appeared more utilitarian at low Construal Levels (CLs compared to high.CLs, saving numbers, and problem situation significantly affected moral decision-making and exhibited significant interaction. Making decisions for oneself (low-construal rather than giving advice to others (high-construal was one important factor that determined whether the people were utilitarian or not. Utilitarian considerations are more relevant in impersonal dilemmas.

  10. The Use of land evaluation information by land use planners and decision-makers; a case study in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacic, I.L.Z.; Rossiter, D.G.; Bregt, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Land evaluation is the prediction of land performance over time under specific uses, to guide strategic land use decisions. Modern land evaluation has a 30 year history, yet the results have often been disappointing. Land users and planners have been reported to ignore land evaluations, perhaps refl

  11. Bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health: A qualitative study among decision-makers in the healthcare sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.M. van; Tompa, E.; Clune, L.; Sarnocinska-Hart, A.; Bongers, P.M.; Tulder, M.W. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Wier, M.F. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Continued improvements in occupational health can only be ensured if decisions regarding the implementation and continuation of occupational health and safety interventions (OHS interventions) are based on the best available evidence. To ensure that this is the case, scientific evidence

  12. 具有风险决策者的供应链定量模型的综述与分析%A Review on Supply Chain Models with Risk-Averse Decision-makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉霜; 张纪会

    2012-01-01

    In reality, decision-makers are always risk-averse because of various uncertainty, so risk issues in supply chain management attract much attention recently. This paper first reviews several kinds of risk analytical methods used in supply chain risk management, then summarizes the major literatures that focus on supply chain models with risk-averse decision makers. Some quantitative models are analyzed, which include the inventory problems, asymmetric information, supply chain coordination and contract problems under different supply chain structures. Finally, current study situations are summarized; and future research directions of supply chain risk decision are proposed.%供应链管理过程中存在着种种不确定性,使得供应链中的行为主体是具有风险偏好的决策者,具有风险决策者的供应链管理目前成为供应链研究的一个重要方向.基于金融领域的各种风险分析工具,对具有风险厌恶决策者的一些供应链定量模型进行分类评述,讨论了风险厌恶对供应链系统性能的影响、单供应商对单零售商和单供应商对多零售商等不同供应链结构下的风险决策模型、以及具有风险厌恶决策者的供应链契约协调问题等,总结了目前的研究现状,并提出了进一步的研究方向.

  13. Dual worth trade-off method and its application for solving multiple criteria decision making problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Junwen

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of the traditional surrogate worth trade-off (SWT) method and solve the multiple criteria decision making problem more efficiently and interactively, a new method labeled dual worth trade-off (DWT) method is proposed. The DWT method dynamically uses the duality theory related to the multiple criteria decision making problem and analytic hierarchy process technique to obtain the decision maker's solution preference information and finally find the satisfactory compromise solution of the decision maker. Through the interactive process between the analyst and the decision maker, trade-off information is solicited and treated properly, the representative subset of efficient solutions and the satisfactory solution to the problem are found. The implementation procedure for the DWT method is presented. The effectiveness and applicability of the DWT method are shown by a practical case study in the field of production scheduling.

  14. Etude statistique des brevets: un nouvel outil d'aide à la décision Patent Statistics: a New Tool for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moureau M.

    2006-11-01

    . Such analyses then fall within the scope of decision-making tools, since they bring to light a certain interpretation of the past and can be used for forecasts in the future.

  15. "Good idea but not feasible" – the views of decision makers and stakeholders towards strategies for better palliative care in Germany: a representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Nils

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statements on potential measures to improve palliative care in Germany predominantly reflect the points of view of experts from specialized palliative care organizations. By contrast, relatively little is known about the views of representatives of organizations and institutions that do not explicitly specialize in palliative care, but are involved to a relevant extent in the decision-making and policy-making processes. Therefore, for the first time in Germany, we carried out a representative study of the attitudes of a broad range of different stakeholders acting at the national or state level of the health care system. Methods 442 organizations and institutions were included and grouped as follows: patient organizations, nursing organizations, medical associations, specialized palliative care organizations, political institutions, health insurance funds and others. Using a standardized questionnaire, the participants were asked to rate their agreement with the World Health Organization's definition of palliative care (five-point scale: 1 = completely agree, 5 = completely disagree and to evaluate 18 pre-selected improvement measures with regard to their general meaningfulness and the feasibility of their introduction into the German health care system (two-point scale: 1 = good, 2 = poor. Results The response rate was 67%. Overall, the acceptance of the aims of palliative care in the WHO definition was strong. However, the level of agreement among health insurance funds' representatives was significantly less than that among representatives of the palliative care organizations. All the improvement measures selected for evaluation were rated significantly higher in respect of their meaningfulness than of their feasibility in Germany. In detail, the meaningfulness of 16 measures was evaluated positively (70–100% participants chose the answer "good"; for six of these measures feasibility was evaluated negatively (0–30

  16. Disrupting Capacity Management of Service Operation System under Decision-maker's Risk Attitude%考虑管理者风险态度的大型服务运作系统能力应急管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包兴; 季建华

    2009-01-01

    The capacity loss of large-scale service operation system after disruption is considered, and the capacity management mode during the disrupting periods is analyzed. Mathematic model is created with the capacity recovery and procurement under the consideration of decision-maker's risk attitude. Four important managerial insights are obtained through numerical simulation, which are useful for the guidance in the scientific decision making of service operation system and social administration department.%以突发事件发生后,大型服务运作系统的运营能力遭受损伤为研究背景,分析了应急期间服务运作系统能力的应急管理模式,围绕应急期间系统内部能力恢复和外部能力采购以及管理者风险态度的3方面因素,构建了以应急总成本最小为目标的能力应急管理模型.通过数值分析得到4个重要的应急管理结论,对社会管理部门以及运作系统自身科学的应急决策均具有一定的指导意义.

  17. The unsustainable Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Arvidsson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Makers is the latest novel of the American science fiction writer, blogger and Silicon Valley intellectual Cory Doctorow. Set in the 2010s, the novel describes the possible impact of the present trend towards the migration of modes of production and organization that have emerged online into the sphere of material production. Called New Work, this movement is indebted to a new maker culture that attracts people into a kind of neo-artisan, high tech mode of production. The question is: can a corporate-funded New Work movement be sustainable? Doctorow seems to suggest that a capitalist economy of abundance is unsustainable because it tends to restrict the reach of its value flows to a privileged managerial elite.

  18. Use of Surrogate end points in HTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangiapane, Sandra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The different actors involved in health system decision-making and regulation have to deal with the question which are valid parameters to assess the health value of health technologies.So called surrogate endpoints represent in the best case preliminary steps in the casual chain leading to the relevant outcome (e. g. mortality, morbidity and are not usually directly perceptible by patients. Surrogate endpoints are not only used in trials of pharmaceuticals but also in studies of other technologies. Their use in the assessment of the benefit of a health technology is however problematic. In this report we intend to answer the following research questions: Which criteria need to be fulfilled for a surrogate parameter to be considered a valid endpoint? Which methods have been described in the literature for the assessment of the validity of surrogate endpoints? Which methodological recommendations concerning the use of surrogate endpoints have been made by international HTA agencies? Which place has been given to surrogate endpoints in international and German HTA reports? For this purpose, we choose three different approaches. Firstly, we conduct a review of the methodological literature dealing with the issue of surrogate endpoints and their validation. Secondly, we analyse current methodological guidelines of HTA agencies members of the International network of agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA as well as of agencies concerned with assessments for reimbursement purposes. Finally, we analyse the outcome parameter used in a sample of HTA reports available for the public. The analysis of methodological guidelines shows a very cautious position of HTA institutions regarding the use of surrogate endpoints in technology assessment. Surrogate endpoints have not been prominently used in HTA reports. None of the analysed reports based its conclusions solely on the results of surrogate endpoints. The analysis of German HTA reports shows a

  19. The Role of a Hospital Ethics Consultation Service in Decision-Making for Unrepresented Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtwright, Andrew M; Abrams, Joshua; Robinson, Ellen M

    2017-03-06

    Despite increased calls for hospital ethics committees to serve as default decision-makers about life-sustaining treatment (LST) for unrepresented patients who lack decision-making capacity or a surrogate decision-maker and whose wishes regarding medical care are not known, little is known about how committees currently function in these cases. This was a retrospective cohort study of all ethics committee consultations involving decision-making about LST for unrepresented patients at a large academic hospital from 2007 to 2013. There were 310 ethics committee consultations, twenty-five (8.1 per cent) of which involved unrepresented patients. In thirteen (52.0 per cent) cases, the ethics consultants evaluated a possible substitute decision-maker identified by social workers and/or case managers. In the remaining cases, the ethics consultants worked with the medical team to contact previous healthcare professionals to provide substituted judgement, found prior advance care planning documents, or identified the patient's best interest as the decision-making standard. In the majority of cases, the final decision was to limit or withdraw LST (72 per cent) or to change code status to Do Not Resuscitate/Do Not Intubate (12 per cent). Substitute decision-makers who had been evaluated through the ethics consultation process and who made the final decision alone were more likely to continue LST than cases in which physicians made the final decision (50 per cent vs 6.3 per cent, p = 0.04). In our centre, the primary role of ethics consultants in decision-making for unrepresented patients is to identify appropriate decision-making standards. In the absence of other data suggesting that ethics committees, as currently constituted, are ready to serve as substitute decision-makers for unrepresented patients, caution is necessary before designating these committees as default decision-makers.

  20. 个体决策者有限理性的影响因素分析%Analysis on Impact Factors of Bounded Rationality of Individual Decision-maker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵令锐; 张骥骧

    2012-01-01

    有限理性是比完全理性更符合社会经济实际情况的假说.论文在相关文献梳理的基础上,主要从决策者自身和决策环境两方面来考虑,采用定性分析的方法对影响个体决策者有限理性的四大因素——认知、心智成本、不确定性和信息成本进行系统研究,分析有限理性与这四个影响因素之间的复杂关系,并对影响因素之间的交互效应进行研究.%Bounded rationality is more consistent with social and economic reality than complete rationality. Based on review of relevant literatures, this paper, by using a qualitative method, discussed four impact factors of bounded rationality of individual decision-maker: cognition, cost of intelligence, uncertainty and cost of information. The complex relations between bounded rationality and the four impact factors were analyzed, and then the interactive effect of the four impact factors was studied.

  1. Mediation and surrogate decision-making for LGBTQ families in the absence of an advance directive : comment on "Ethical challenges in end-of-life care for GLBTI individuals" by Colleen Cartwright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance; Fiester, Autumn

    2012-09-01

    In this commentary on a clinical ethics case pertaining to a same-sex couple that does not have explicit surrogate decision-making or hospital-visitation rights (in the face of objections from the family-of-origin of one of the queer partners), the authors invoke contemporary legal and policy standards on LGBTQ health care in the United States and abroad. Given this historical moment in which some clinical rights are guaranteed for LGBTQ families whilst others are in transition, the authors advocate for the implementation of clinical ethics mediation as the soundest and most humane form of resolution in matters where there is a dispute between family members about an incapacitated loved one. They argue that clinical ethics mediation is an ideal alternative solution because it works toward consensus about outcome, even where consensus about values is not achievable.

  2. MARKET MAKER AND MAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN VICTOR SĂNDIŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the research of multiagent systems for knowledge and information management has known a significant development. The interest for multiagent systems is in continuous growth due to the multitude of benefits associated with using these. The development of the architectures of mutiagents systems which facilitate information management, is an important direction in nowadays research. This paper presents the implementation of a multiagent system designed to perform the specific activities of a market maker in the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The system works in real time without an intervention from the operator and allows the insertion in the real market and/or the automatic cancelation of buy orders and stock exchange. The agents can be installed in one or more work stations and communicate through TCP/IP and UDP.

  3. Needed Research in Adult Literacy for Policy Makers and Planners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the formulation of a global strategy for the eradication of adult illiteracy. The strategy must involve the definition and discussion of options available to policy makers and the promotion of research that clarifies policy choices and planning decisions. (JOW)

  4. Development and Testing of a Decision Aid on Goals of Care for Advanced Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einterz, Seth F.; Gilliam, Robin; Lin, Feng Chang; McBride, J. Marvin; Hanson, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Decision aids are effective to improve decision-making, yet they are rarely tested in nursing homes (NHs). Study objectives were to 1) examine the feasibility of a Goals of Care (GOC) decision aid for surrogate decision-makers (SDMs)of persons with dementia; and 2) test its effect on quality of communication and decision-making. Design Pre-post intervention to test a GOC decision aid intervention for SDMs for persons with dementia in NHs. Investigators collected data from reviews of resident health records and interviews with SDMs at baseline and 3-month follow up. Setting Two NHs in North Carolina. Participants 18 residents who were over 65 years of age, had moderate to severe dementia on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS=5,6,7), and an English-speaking surrogate decision-maker. Intervention 1) GOC Decision Aid video viewed by the SDM, and 2) a structured care plan meeting between the SDM and interdisciplinary NH team Measurements Surrogate knowledge, quality of communication with health care providers, surrogate-provider concordance on goals of care, and palliative care domains addressed in the care plan. Results 89% of the SDMs thought the decision aid was relevant to their needs. After viewing the video decision aid, SDMs increased the number of correct responses on knowledge-based questions (12.5 vs 14.2, P<.001). At 3 months they reported improved quality of communication scores (6.1 vs 6.8, P=.01) and improved concordance on primary goal of care with nursing home team (50% vs 78%, P=.003). The number of palliative care domains addressed in the care plan increased (1.8 vs 4.3, P<.001). Conclusion The decision-support intervention piloted in this study was feasible and relevant for surrogate decision-makers of persons with advanced dementia in nursing homes, and it improved quality of communication between SDM and NH providers. A larger randomized clinical trial is underway to provide further evidence of the effects of this decision aid

  5. Programming of a refinery from the perspective of the decision makers: trade-offs analysis for corporate and technical guidelines; A programacao de uma refinaria sob a otica do decisor: uma analise dos trade-offs diante das orientacoes tecnicas e corporativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, Thais; Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur; Proenca, Adriano [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Refineries usually gather a set of activities that shape how complex and dynamic it is. Adding to the complexity of the refining process, there is also a great freedom in the refinery operations, multiple arrangements possible to convert certain oil in derivatives. In this context, this article focuses on decision-making processes that lead refineries of an integrated oil company in their day to day. As decision-making, the text refers to a process that always brings a kind of conflict resolution, in which contradictory goals have to be negotiated and reconciled. The object of analysis is inserted in hierarchical decision-making processes, ie a process of disintegration, which begins with a comprehensive assessment, and then divides the decision in elements smaller and more defined, so that they are interdependent. The output at an aggregate level shall be the input in the next detailed level. In each level of the hierarchical, decision-making is the result of a problem, presented in a given context to a decision maker. Decision maker will be the responsible for the direction of the refinery production to which it is allocated. The programmer of each refinery is general guidelines that should be considered, albeit non-explicit or non-configurable, in some cases these take the form of technical criteria and in other situations derived from the business. From these, this article presents a critical and analytical in the face of dilemmas that emerge in front of decision makers search for converging a production schedule that meets both the criteria set. (author)

  6. Research of Project Portfolio Selection Model and Optimization Considering Interdependencies based on Preferences Incorporation of Decision Maker%决策者偏好交互项目组合选择模型及算法优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗淑娟; 白思俊; 郭云涛

    2016-01-01

    Project Portfolio Selection is known as the essential element of strategic project management and deci⁃sion. There are also some disadvantages in model and methods which are based on the project portfolio selection considering interdependencies and preference incorporation of decision maker. The paper proposes an novel outran⁃king model to classify the preference relationship between different projects, and it also bring the synergies and in⁃terdependencies into consideration which makes the model more complete. Moreover, it proposes the improved par⁃ticle swarm optimization algorithm based on the model which speeds up convergence an expand the diversity of non⁃dominant solutions simultaneously. In the restrained condition of preferences incorporation and interdependencies, the paper comes up with the experiments to verify the model and method respectively. The results indicate that the non⁃dominant solutions achieved by the outranking model are likely to the optimum of project portfolio selection, and the improved particle swarm optimization search the results faster.%项目组合选择是战略项目管理决策的重要环节,目前基于决策者偏好的交互项目组合选择的研究仍然在模型和算法上存在不足。首先提出级别优先模型细致划分了项目间的偏好关系,并引入了项目间的协同交互,使模型更加完备。进而结合该模型改进了多目标粒子群算法,加快其收敛速度,并拓展其非劣解的多样性。在考虑决策者偏好和项目间交互约束的条件下,分别对偏好模型和模型求解算法进行了仿真验证。仿真结果表明,采用级别优先模型所得的非劣解更加接近项目组合选择的最优解,改进粒子群算法的搜索速度更快。

  7. Real Life Decision Optimization Model

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, Naga; Reddy, Diwakar; Reddy, Rajeswara; Krishnaiah, G

    2016-01-01

    In real life scientific and engineering problems decision making is common practice. Decision making include single decision maker or group of decision makers. Decision maker’s expressions consists imprecise, inconsistent and indeterminate information. Also, the decision maker cannot select the best solution in unidirectional (single goal) way. Therefore, proposed model adopts decision makers’ opinions in Neutrosophic Values (SVNS/INV) which effectively deals imprecise, inconsistent and indet...

  8. 公司最高决策者教育背景与公司风险承受关系的实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Relationship between the Educational Background of Top Decision Makers and Their Corporate Risk Tolerance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永海; 周为

    2013-01-01

    Educational background of top decision makers in corporation has important influences on corporate risk tolerance level. Using a sample set of listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2003 to 2012, we document a significant negative correlation between top decision makers' education level and their corporate risk tolerance. Corporations run by more highly educated decision makers were found to have lower earnings volatility and asset-liability ratio, and higher risk management and tolerance capacity. We also found a significant difference between top decision makers under different educational patterns. Top decision makers with higher education background are more risk averse than those who have vocational education background. This study implicates that education has significant influence on risk decision. Moreover, it contributes to deep understanding of educational investment and return, and has important theoretical significance on optimizing corporate management.%公司最高决策者的教育背景对公司风险承受水平有着重要影响。本文以2003年-2012年上海、深圳交易所的上市公司为研究样本,实证检验了我国上市公司最高决策者(董事长)的教育背景与其公司风险承受水平的关系。研究发现:最高决策者受教育程度越高,公司盈余波动性和资产负债率越低,风险管理和承受能力越强。普通高等教育模式下培养的最高决策者比职业教育模式下培养的最高决策者风险规避态度更强,两者管理的公司风险承受水平有显著差异。研究证明了教育对风险决策产生显著影响,这一结论有助于加深对教育投资与回报的理解,对公司管理优化也有重要理论意义。

  9. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  10. Birds as biodiversity surrogates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft; Balmford, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    1. Most biodiversity is still unknown, and therefore, priority areas for conservation typically are identified based on the presence of surrogates, or indicator groups. Birds are commonly used as surrogates of biodiversity owing to the wide availability of relevant data and their broad popular...... appeal. However, some studies have found birds to perform relatively poorly as indicators. We therefore ask how the effectiveness of this approach can be improved by supplementing data on birds with information on other taxa. 2. Here, we explore two strategies using (i) species data for other taxa...... areas identified on the basis of birds alone performed well in representing overall species diversity where birds were relatively speciose compared to the other taxa in the data sets. Adding species data for one taxon increased surrogate effectiveness better than adding genus- and family-level data...

  11. 考虑管理者风险态度因子的生产运作系统能力应急管理模型研究%Disrupting Capacity Management Model of Production Operation System by Including Decision-Maker's Risk Attitude Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包兴

    2011-01-01

    In the recent decades, many external factors (e. G. Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and political turmoil) have constantly disrupted the normal operations of some large-scaled systems, such as power grids, communication stations and chemical plants. The system disruption can cause great losses to a society and its economy. The management begins paying attention to hedging risks of system disruptions. Current literature underestimates the potential influence of a decision maker's risk attitude ( e. G. Risk-netural, conservative or aggressive) on risk management. To provide a reasonable model to manage risks associated with the capacity disruption, we add the risk attitude of decision makers to a mathematical model.In the year of 2008, a great freezingA heavy rain hit the southern China in 2008 and, which caused the a wide-ranged collapse of power grids. When managing the disruption, we found that damaged systems need to face two important issues. First, During the disruption management, we found two interesting restricts that capacity-injured systems have to face; first, the recovery of critical capacity is a cost-expensive and multi-periods process, due to the technique of maintenance department and provision of spare parts.Second, capacity-sharing partners could support parts of capacity that is usually much cheaper than recovery; however, the sharing of capacity has limited quantity and uncertain provision. Based on these findings, a a factor is firstly constructed to map the inventory and capacity-shortage into a decision-maker's risk attitude. Second, we proposed a single-period capacity disruption management model and then extended it to a multi-period model that has a proven unique solution sequence. Finally, we present a sensitive analysis towards key parameters by using the Genetic Algorithm.A comparison is presented with the research of [ 17 ] , we find 4Four interesting managerial insights were discovered. First, aggressive or conservative of

  12. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  13. Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace

  14. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  15. Decision support for participatory wetland decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, H.; Janssen, R.H.H.; Vermaat, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Decision support systems can be helpful tools in wetland planning and management. Decision support systems can contribute to efficient exchange of information between experts, stakeholders, decision makers and laypeople. However, the achievements of decision support systems are repeatedly being repo

  16. FileMaker Pro 9

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    FileMaker Pro 9: The Missing Manual is the clear, thorough and accessible guide to the latest version of this popular desktop database program. FileMaker Pro lets you do almost anything with the information you give it. You can print corporate reports, plan your retirement, or run a small country -- if you know what you're doing. This book helps non-technical folks like you get in, get your database built, and get the results you need. Pronto.The new edition gives novices and experienced users the scoop on versions 8.5 and 9. It offers complete coverage of timesaving new features such as the Q

  17. MakerBot projects blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    MakerBot Projects Blueprints is a project-based book, with each chapter taking you through the creation of an awesome stand-alone project. MakerBot Project Blueprints is for anyone with an interest in the 3D printing revolution and the slightest bit of computer skills. Whether you own a 3D printer or not you can design for them. All it takes is Blender, a free 3D modeling tool, this book and a little creativity and someday you'll be able to hold something you designed in the computer in your hands.

  18. Environmental diversity as a surrogate for species representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Paul; de Albuquerque, Fábio Suzart

    2015-10-01

    Because many species have not been described and most species ranges have not been mapped, conservation planners often use surrogates for conservation planning, but evidence for surrogate effectiveness is weak. Surrogates are well-mapped features such as soil types, landforms, occurrences of an easily observed taxon (discrete surrogates), and well-mapped environmental conditions (continuous surrogate). In the context of reserve selection, the idea is that a set of sites selected to span diversity in the surrogate will efficiently represent most species. Environmental diversity (ED) is a rarely used surrogate that selects sites to efficiently span multivariate ordination space. Because it selects across continuous environmental space, ED should perform better than discrete surrogates (which necessarily ignore within-bin and between-bin heterogeneity). Despite this theoretical advantage, ED appears to have performed poorly in previous tests of its ability to identify 50 × 50 km cells that represented vertebrates in Western Europe. Using an improved implementation of ED, we retested ED on Western European birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, and combined terrestrial vertebrates. We also tested ED on data sets for plants of Zimbabwe, birds of Spain, and birds of Arizona (United States). Sites selected using ED represented European mammals no better than randomly selected cells, but they represented species in the other 7 data sets with 20% to 84% effectiveness. This far exceeds the performance in previous tests of ED, and exceeds the performance of most discrete surrogates. We believe ED performed poorly in previous tests because those tests considered only a few candidate explanatory variables and used suboptimal forms of ED's selection algorithm. We suggest future work on ED focus on analyses at finer grain sizes more relevant to conservation decisions, explore the effect of selecting the explanatory variables most associated with species turnover, and investigate

  19. How Firms Make Boundary Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus

    2014-01-01

    We report findings from an analysis of 234 firm boundary decisions that a manufacturing firm has made during a 10 year period. Extensive interviews with all major decision makers located both at the headquarters and subsidiaries allow us to examine (a) who was involved in each boundary decision......, and (b) how the firm arrived at a particular transactional choice in each decision. We find that decision makers extensively adapt decision structures in order to effectively make governance mode choices. They adapt hierarchy span, i.e. the number of hierarchical levels involved, and expertise span, i.......e. the number of same-level decision makers with dissimilar knowledge basis. We observe that decision makers heavily rely on varying hierarchy and expertise span in order to improve the quality of the decision outcome. Central to the adaption of decision structures is that decision makers, over time...

  20. Enhanced decision support for policy makers using a web interface to health-economic models - Illustrated with a cost-effectiveness analysis of nation-wide infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubben, G.A.A.; Bos, J.M.; Glynn, D.M.; van der Ende, A.; van Alphen, L.; Postma, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a web-based user-interface (web interface) to enhance the usefulness of health-economic evaluations to support decision making (http://pcv.healtheconomics.nl). It allows the user to interact with a health-economic model to evaluate predefined and customized scenarios and perform se

  1. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas; Holzwarth, Natalie;

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used.......A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used....

  2. Surrogate Endpoints in Suicide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortzel, Hal S.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Breshears, Ryan E.; Harwood, Jeri E.

    2010-01-01

    Surrogate endpoints frequently substitute for rare outcomes in research. The ability to learn about completed suicides by investigating more readily available and proximate outcomes, such as suicide attempts, has obvious appeal. However, concerns with surrogates from the statistical science perspective exist, and mounting evidence from…

  3. Design-to-fabricate: maker hardware requires maker software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ryan; Ratto, Matt

    2013-01-01

    As a result of consumer-level 3D printers' increasing availability and affordability, the audience for 3D-design tools has grown considerably. However, current tools are ill-suited for these users. They have steep learning curves and don't take into account that the end goal is a physical object, not a digital model. A new class of "maker"-level design tools is needed to accompany this new commodity hardware. However, recent examples of such tools achieve accessibility primarily by constraining functionality. In contrast, the meshmixer project is building tools that provide accessibility and expressive power by leveraging recent computer graphics research in geometry processing. The project members have had positive experiences with several 3D-design-to-print workshops and are exploring several design-to-fabricate problems. This article is part of a special issue on 3D printing.

  4. Pengembangan Software Game Menggunakan RPG Maker VX

    OpenAIRE

    Beny

    2010-01-01

    Dalam Tugas Akhir ini dibahas mengenai perancangan game Role Playing Game (RPG) menggunakan RPG Maker VX. Software RPG Maker VX ini digunakan untuk mempermudah dalam pembuatan perangkat lunak game atau software game. Objektif utama adalah mengembangkan permainan atau game menggunakan RPG Maker VX sehingga menghasilkan perangkat lunak game atau software game yang berbasis RPG. 072406137

  5. Pengembangan Software Game Menggunakan RPG Maker VX

    OpenAIRE

    Beny

    2010-01-01

    Dalam Tugas Akhir ini dibahas mengenai perancangan game Role Playing Game (RPG) menggunakan RPG Maker VX. Software RPG Maker VX ini digunakan untuk mempermudah dalam pembuatan perangkat lunak game atau software game. Objektif utama adalah mengembangkan permainan atau game menggunakan RPG Maker VX sehingga menghasilkan perangkat lunak game atau software game yang berbasis RPG. 072406137

  6. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  7. Improving Decision Making by Means of a Marketing Decision Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrit H. van Bruggen; Ale Smidts; Berend Wierenga

    1998-01-01

    Marketing decision makers are confronted with an increasing amount of information. This leads to a complex decision environment that may cause decision makers to lapse into using mental-effort-reducing heuristics such as anchoring and adjustment. In an experimental study, we find that the use of a marketing decision support system (MDSS) increases the effectiveness of marketing decision makers. An MDSS is effective because it assists its users in identifying the important decision variables a...

  8. The law and its interaction with medical ethics in end-of-life decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerminara, Kathy L

    2011-09-01

    The previous two articles in this series explored the historical and theoretical development of medical decision making from initial reliance on medical beneficence to a more recent emphasis on patient autonomy. The law of withholding and withdrawal of treatment has much in common with medical ethics. It is based on concerns about patient autonomy expressed by courts, legislatures, and the executive branch of the government. Legally, the patient's right of self-determination has been based on a variety of sources ranging from state and federal constitutions to the common law of torts and from cases to statutes and regulations. Understanding the various sources of the law, the distinctions among those sources, and the interaction of the branches of government in this context assists in understanding the law itself. In our federalist system of government, significant legal variations can exist among the states, but although technically valid, excessive concern about compliance with the precise contours of each state's statute when surrogate decision makers are engaging in bedside deliberations is unnecessary. Regardless of source or precise legal contours, the overall goal, which neither the physician nor the patient's surrogate or proxy decision makers should forget, is to honor what the patient would want to have done. Physicians and attorneys will agree on that as a matter of both ethics and the law.

  9. Understanding The Decision Context: DPSIR, Decision Landscape, And Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...

  10. Decision Support for effective production control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Africa, E.; Nehzati, T.; Strandhagen, J.O.;

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify the actual needs of decision makers for decision support in the production control activity, considering the role and cognitive skills of human decision-makers in the decision-making process. Multiple case studies have been conducted in order to gain practical insights...

  11. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  12. Insight into Foreign Thoughtworlds for National Security Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    disposition, tendencies of action); cultural/historical context; memories and life experience; beliefs ( religion , ideology, worldview); motivations......and choice. Witness also the growth in popular support for euthanasia and assisted suicide. Other nations, in most of which disease and death are a

  13. Multimodel Design of Large Scale Systems with Multiple Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    virtue. 5- , Lead me from darkneu to light. - Lead me from death to eternal Life. ( Vedic Payer) p. I, MULTIMODEL DESIGN OF LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS WITH...BFI-S2L) is stable for all e in H. To avoid mathematical complications, the feedback matrices of (2.31) are restricted to be of the form, S(e)= Fli + 0...control values used during all past sampling intervals. This information pattern, though not of ouch practical importance, is mathematically con

  14. The Roles of Decision Makers in Special Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    appropriate. They were not trained to fly long distance at night, especially in a desert dust storm. A special operation task force should consist of fully...Hostage Crisis—which were conducted by different countries’ Special Forces , are studied in order to test the argument. Ultimately, this thesis seeks to...the Moscow Theater Hostage Crisis—which were conducted by different countries’ Special Forces , are studied in order to test the argument

  15. Top Benefits Challenges Facing School Business Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    What's the main factor coloring employee satisfaction? Many organizations' leaders think the answer is salary, yet in reality, employee benefits packages are one of the biggest incentives an employer can offer. Educational institutions have done well in providing benefits to employees. However, with an unpredictable economic climate and a complex…

  16. Developing Tomorrow's Decision-Makers: Opportunities for Biotechnology Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim; Kanasa, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Globally, science curricula have been described as outdated, and students perceive school science as lacking in relevance. Declines in senior secondary and tertiary student participation in science indicate an urgent need for change if we are to sustain future scientific research and development, and perhaps more importantly, to equip students…

  17. Crossing disciplines to increase effective decision maker-scientist interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing knowledge of how climate will continue to change, there remain substantial challenges in determining what actions to take to curb the anticipated loss of biodiversity. Scientists sometimes struggle to speak across disciplines, and managers are often treated as a repository of information rather than a partner in the scientific process. However, through integrative study and collaboration, resource managers can collaborate with physical and biological scientists to translate the latest science into strategies that conserve species in spite of climate change uncertainty. We highlight case studies of how scientists and managers are working together to manage forest ecosystems, songbirds, and cold-adapted fish species in the face of climate change. This work is a collaboration of postdoctoral researchers and graduate students funded through the Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center.

  18. Toolkit for local decision makers aims to strengthen environmental sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Members of the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas were involved in a meeting aimed at the development of a toolkit towards improved integration of climate change into local government's integrated development planning (IDP) process....

  19. 公共部门温室气体排放清单协议—已有工作及其对我国城市规划师、决策者的启示%GHG Emission Inventory Protocol for the Local Public Sector: Existing Work and Its Implications for Chinese Urban Planners and Decision-makers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周江评; 严升宪; 易晓峰

    2011-01-01

    我国政府尽管对总体环境治理、各生产部门的温室气体排放控制、可再生能源等工作高度重视,但对公共部门活动本身所带来的温室气体排放、节能减碳等工作还没有作为单独的子项进行决策或采取行动.本文研究了我国开展公共部门温室气体排放清单协议工作的必要性以及国际经验对我国城市规划师、公共决策者的启示.%Chinese government has attached great importance to overall environment improvements, control over the GHG emissions by production sectors, renewable energy, etc. But there are few separate policies or actions on energy saving and carbon reduction and GHG emissions inventory in the public sector. This paper examines the needs for China to compile the GHG inventory for the public sector and implications from the international experience for Chinese urban planners and decision-makers.

  20. Revisiting algorithms for generating surrogate time series

    CERN Document Server

    Raeth, C; Papadakis, I E; Brinkmann, W

    2011-01-01

    The method of surrogates is one of the key concepts of nonlinear data analysis. Here, we demonstrate that commonly used algorithms for generating surrogates often fail to generate truly linear time series. Rather, they create surrogate realizations with Fourier phase correlations leading to non-detections of nonlinearities. We argue that reliable surrogates can only be generated, if one tests separately for static and dynamic nonlinearities.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of a solar coffee maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa-Montemayor, F.; Jaramillo, O.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos CP 62580 (Mexico); del Rio, J.A. [Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Tranferencia Tecnologica, CCyTEM, Camino Temixco a Emiliano Zapata, Km 0.3, Colonia Emiliano Zapata, Morelos CP 62760 (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we present a novel solar concentrating application, a coffee brewing system using a satellite TV mini-Dish concentrator coupled to a stovetop espresso coffee maker. We present a theoretical model for the thermal behavior of the water in the lower chamber of the coffee maker. We validate the model obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Our findings indicate that the coffee brewing system works, it takes 30-50 min to complete its task. The model and our practical experience encourage us to improve the concentration device in order to obtain a useful solar coffee maker, using the theoretical model as a safe guide to achieve this. (author)

  2. A review of selection-based tests of abiotic surrogates for species representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Paul; Sutcliffe, Patricia; Hjort, Jan; Faith, Daniel P; Pressey, Robert L; Albuquerque, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Because conservation planners typically lack data on where species occur, environmental surrogates--including geophysical settings and climate types--have been used to prioritize sites within a planning area. We reviewed 622 evaluations of the effectiveness of abiotic surrogates in representing species in 19 study areas. Sites selected using abiotic surrogates represented more species than an equal number of randomly selected sites in 43% of tests (55% for plants) and on average improved on random selection of sites by about 8% (21% for plants). Environmental diversity (ED) (42% median improvement on random selection) and biotically informed clusters showed promising results and merit additional testing. We suggest 4 ways to improve performance of abiotic surrogates. First, analysts should consider a broad spectrum of candidate variables to define surrogates, including rarely used variables related to geographic separation, distance from coast, hydrology, and within-site abiotic diversity. Second, abiotic surrogates should be defined at fine thematic resolution. Third, sites (the landscape units prioritized within a planning area) should be small enough to ensure that surrogates reflect species' environments and to produce prioritizations that match the spatial resolution of conservation decisions. Fourth, if species inventories are available for some planning units, planners should define surrogates based on the abiotic variables that most influence species turnover in the planning area. Although species inventories increase the cost of using abiotic surrogates, a modest number of inventories could provide the data needed to select variables and evaluate surrogates. Additional tests of nonclimate abiotic surrogates are needed to evaluate the utility of conserving nature's stage as a strategy for conservation planning in the face of climate change. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Development of Copeland Score Methods for Determine Group Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermatita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Voting method requires to determine group decision of decision by each decision maker in group. Determination of decisions by group of decision maker requires voting methods. Copeland score is one of voting method that has been developed by previous researchers. This method does not accommodate the weight of the expertise and interests of each decision maker. This paper proposed the voting method using Copeland score with added weighting. The method has developed of considering the weight of the expertise and interests of the decision maker. The method accordance with the problems encountered of group decision making . Expertise and interests of decision makers are given weight based on their expertises of decision maker contribution of the problems faced by the group to determine the decision.

  4. FileMaker 85 Integrating the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Susan

    2006-01-01

    FileMaker Pro, famed for power and ease of use, has added a suite of new features that can seriously boost your database productivity. This tutorial helps you take full advantage of the fresh stuff. It focuses on FileMaker's terrific new tool for integrating the Web with your databases: the Web Viewer. Step-by-step instructions help you create a Web Viewer from one of FileMaker's templates or a totally custom version of your own. But the tutorial doesn't stop there. It goes on to cover Object Naming, including FileMaker's rules for Object Names and how to use them in scripts; new scripts; ne

  5. URBAN DECISION-MAKING, THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAILEY, STEPHEN K.

    THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE VARIOUS WAYS IN WHICH THE UNIVERSITY CAN AND SHOULD INFLUENCE URBAN DECISION MAKING. THE CENTRAL UNIVERSITY ROLE IS SENSITIZING THE DECISION MAKERS AND THE CITIZENS TO HUMAN MISERY, SUCH AS BIGOTRY, SQUALOR, DISEASE, UGLINESS, POVERTY, AND IGNORANCE. LONG-RANGE ROLES ARE PINPOINTING THE PROBLEMS URBAN DECISION MAKERS SHOULD…

  6. Decision Theory and the Governance of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Edward J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of the decision making process for science and technology. Finds that government agencies and officials are not the major decision makers. Examines obstacles to achieving intelligent decisions when policy makers are scientists, business executives, and consumers. Concludes with five strategies for improving technological…

  7. Decision Theory and the Governance of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Edward J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of the decision making process for science and technology. Finds that government agencies and officials are not the major decision makers. Examines obstacles to achieving intelligent decisions when policy makers are scientists, business executives, and consumers. Concludes with five strategies for improving technological…

  8. An Integrated Model for Optimization Oriented Decision Aiding and Rule Based Decision Making in Fuzzy Environment

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yousefli; M. Ghazanfari; M. B. Abiri

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a fuzzy decision aid system is developed base on new concepts that presented in the field of fuzzy decision making in fuzzy environment (FDMFE). This framework aids decision makers to understand different circumstances of an uncertain problem that may occur in the future. Also, to keep decision maker from the optimization problem complexities, a decision support system, which can be replaced by optimization problem, is presented to make optimum or near optimum decisions without ...

  9. Decision Support for effective production control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Africa, E.; Nehzati, T.; Strandhagen, J.O.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify the actual needs of decision makers for decision support in the production control activity, considering the role and cognitive skills of human decision-makers in the decision-making process. Multiple case studies have been conducted in order to gain practical insights...... from the manufacturing industry. This paper contributes to raise the issues that should be considered for successful implementation of the decision support systems in practice....

  10. Surrogate Analysis and Index Developer (SAID) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Landers, Mark N.

    2015-10-01

    The use of acoustic and other parameters as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) in rivers has been successful in multiple applications across the Nation. Tools to process and evaluate the data are critical to advancing the operational use of surrogates along with the subsequent development of regression models from which real-time sediment concentrations can be made available to the public. Recent developments in both areas are having an immediate impact on surrogate research and on surrogate monitoring sites currently (2015) in operation.

  11. Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S

    2014-01-01

    What impact does surrogacy have on the surrogates' own children? The children of surrogate mothers do not experience any negative consequences as a result of their mother's decision to be a surrogate, irrespective of whether or not the surrogate uses her own egg. Participants were recruited as part of a study of the long-term effects of surrogacy for surrogates and their family members. Data were collected from 36 children of surrogates at a single time point. Participants whose mother had been a surrogate 5-15 years prior to interview and who were aged over 12 years were eligible to take part. Thirty-six participants (14 male and 22 female) aged 12-25 years were interviewed (response rate = 52%). Questionnaires assessing psychological health and family functioning were administered. Forty-four per cent (15) of participants' mothers had undergone gestational surrogacy, 39% (14) had used their own egg (genetic surrogacy) and 19% (7) had completed both types of surrogacy. Most surrogates' children (86%, 31) had a positive view of their mother's surrogacy. Forty-seven per cent (17) of children were in contact with the surrogacy child and all reported good relationships with him/her. Forty per cent (14) of children referred to the child as a sibling or half-sibling and this did not differ between genetic and gestational surrogacy. Most children (89%, 32), reported a positive view of family life, with all enjoying spending time with their mother. Mean scores on the questionnaire assessments of psychological health and self-esteem were within the normal range and did not differ by surrogacy type. The sample size for this study was relatively small and not all children chose to take part, therefore their views cannot be known. Nevertheless, this is the first study to assess the experiences of surrogacy from the perspective of the surrogates' own children. There may be some bias from the inclusion of siblings from the same family. Findings of this study show that family

  12. Nordsøen Movie Maker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    oplevelser med legesyge sæler, susende hvirvelstrømme og gigantiske klumpfisk. Nordsøen Movie Maker giver filmen et ekstra virtuelt lag, og via augmented reality bliver der tilføjet seje og morsomme, animerede specialeffekter. 1) Download app’en 2) Find et moviespot ved ekspeditionsposterne i Nordsøen...

  13. Taiwan Garment Makers Plan Branding in Mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Seeing the promising branded fashions market in mainland, Taiwan textile manufacturers plan to promote branded products here. Precedent has been set by Tainan Enterprises Co., a leading garment maker in Taiwan, has been in business in mainland for nearly two decades and in recent years successfully promoted its own line of "Tony Wear" fashions.

  14. Recent Discoveries on Antwerp Panel Makers' Marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    There still exist today uncertainties and misunderstandings in our interpretation of panel makers' marks from early 17th century Antwerp. In the future, panel marks and the panels on which they can be found will certainly render much more information concerning the technology of that time. Still...

  15. Recent Discoveries on Antwerp Panel Makers' Marks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    more can be added to our comprehension of the way the panel makers worked in Antwerp. In the following paper I shall give a brief summary of the present state of research, as well as outline the complicated task of interpreting these marks and their use as a dating tool. The ready-made supports...

  16. 基于决策者风险规避特性的供应链需求信息共享价值分析%Analysis of Supply Chain's Demand Information Sharing Values Based on Decision-Maker's Risk Aversion Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶飞; 陈晓明; 林强

    2012-01-01

    在随机需求条件下,利用条件风险估值( conditional value-at-risk,CVaR)的风险度量准则建立了供应链的需求信息共享决策模型,着重分析了零售商的风险规避程度以及市场需求的不确定性信息对供应链各决策者以及供应链整体信息共享价值的影响.研究结果表明,需求信息共享价值与零售商的风险规避程度、市场不确定性大小以及市场不确定信息所预测的市场需求变化情况有关.数值分析结果表明,零售商越害怕市场的不确定性风险,需求信息共享越有利于提升分散供应链的运作效率;但当市场信息反映出未来的市场需求是消极且零售商接近风险中性时,供应链的需求信息共享价值反而小于零,此时没有进行信息共享的必要.%In the 21st century, enterprises are competing with each other on supply chain efficiency and effectiveness. Although information integration across supply chain partners is critical to supply chain competitiveness and profitability, its actualization remains challenging because of the prevalent information sharing barriers, such as asymmetric information, bounded rationality, opportunism, risk prevention, etc. The current literature often calculates information sharing values in a supply chain based on the assumption that decision-makers are risk neutral. This paper proposes a new model be built to consider the potential impact of decision makers' risk aversion characteristics. We therefore propose a supply chain demand information-sharing model based conditional value-at-risk criterion under stochastic demand. This paper analyzes how a retailer's risk aversion and demand uncertainty would affect the information sharing value of supply chain. We build a Stackelberg game that considers supplier and retailer as leader and follower. This study assumes that the retailer is able to pay a certain fee to obtain information about demand uncertainty and can decide whether to

  17. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  18. Decision making and imperfection

    CERN Document Server

    Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2013-01-01

    Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process.   The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider:   ·          how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions;   ·          how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available;   ...

  19. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  20. Surrogate utility estimation by long-term partners and unfamiliar dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Tunney

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To what extent are people able to make predictions about other people’s preferences and values? We report two experiments that present a novel method assessing some of the basic processes in surrogate decision-making, namely surrogate-utility estimation. In each experiment participants formed dyads who were asked to assign utilities to health related items and commodity items, and to predict their partner’s utility judgments for the same items. In experiment one we showed that older adults in long-term relationships were able to accurately predict their partner’s wishes. In experiment two we showed that younger adults who were relatively unfamiliar with one another were also able to predict other people’s wishes. Crucially we demonstrated that these judgments were accurate even after partialling out each participant’s own preferences indicating that in order to make surrogate utility estimations people engage in perspective-taking rather than simple anchoring and adjustment, suggesting that utility estimation is not the cause of inaccuracy in surrogate decision-making. The data and implications are discussed with respect to theories of surrogate decision-making.

  1. Imaging Seeker Surrogate for IRCM evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Carpenter, S.R.; Mellier, B.; Dimmeler, A.

    2007-01-01

    NATO-SCI-139 and its predecessor groups have more than a decade of history in the evaluation and recommendation of EO and IR Countermeasures against anti-aircraft missiles. Surrogate Seekers have proven to be a valuable tool for this work. The use of surrogate seekers in international co-operations

  2. 77 FR 34788 - Surrogate Foreign Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF47 Surrogate Foreign Corporations AGENCY: Internal... regulations regarding whether a foreign corporation is treated as a surrogate foreign corporation. The final ] regulations affect certain domestic corporations and partnerships (and certain parties related thereto),...

  3. Surrogate Guderley Test Problem Definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-06

    The surrogate Guderley problem (SGP) is a 'spherical shock tube' (or 'spherical driven implosion') designed to ease the notoriously subtle initialization of the true Guderley problem, while still maintaining a high degree of fidelity. In this problem (similar to the Guderley problem), an infinitely strong shock wave forms and converges in one-dimensional (1D) cylindrical or spherical symmetry through a polytropic gas with arbitrary adiabatic index {gamma}, uniform density {rho}{sub 0}, zero velocity, and negligible pre-shock pressure and specific internal energy (SIE). This shock proceeds to focus on the point or axis of symmetry at r = 0 (resulting in ostensibly infinite pressure, velocity, etc.) and reflect back out into the incoming perturbed gas.

  4. Manipulating decision making of typical agents

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how the choice of decision makers can be varied under the presence of risk and uncertainty. Our analysis is based on the approach we have previously applied to individual decision makers, which we now generalize to the case of decision makers that are members of a society. The approach employs the mathematical techniques that are common in quantum theory, justifying our naming as Quantum Decision Theory. However, we do not assume that decision makers are quantum objects. The techniques of quantum theory are needed only for defining the prospect probabilities taking into account such hidden variables as behavioral biases and other subconscious feelings. The approach describes an agent's choice as a probabilistic event occurring with a probability that is the sum of a utility factor and of an attraction factor. The attraction factor embodies subjective and unconscious dimensions in the mind of the decision maker. We show that the typical aggregate amplitude of the attraction factor is $1/4$, and ...

  5. On Using Surrogates with Genetic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Torsten; Branke, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    One way to accelerate evolutionary algorithms with expensive fitness evaluations is to combine them with surrogate models. Surrogate models are efficiently computable approximations of the fitness function, derived by means of statistical or machine learning techniques from samples of fully evaluated solutions. But these models usually require a numerical representation, and therefore cannot be used with the tree representation of genetic programming (GP). In this paper, we present a new way to use surrogate models with GP. Rather than using the genotype directly as input to the surrogate model, we propose using a phenotypic characterization. This phenotypic characterization can be computed efficiently and allows us to define approximate measures of equivalence and similarity. Using a stochastic, dynamic job shop scenario as an example of simulation-based GP with an expensive fitness evaluation, we show how these ideas can be used to construct surrogate models and improve the convergence speed and solution quality of GP.

  6. Demandas y expectativas de la evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias en Galicia: Análisis cualitativo desde la perspectiva de decisores y clínicos Requirements for and expectations of health technology assessment in Galicia (Spain: A qualitative study from the perspective of decision-makers and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Varela-Lema

    2011-12-01

    in the Galician public health system, identify opinions on the usefulness of the products and services developed by the Galician Health Technology Assessment Agency (avalia-t, and determine the barriers and facilitators to the transfer of results to clinical practice. Method: We performed a qualitative study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews of 20 intentionally selected experts (10 health care professionals and 10 hospital decision makers. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed for inductive thematic analysis. Results: Interest in HTA activities was high, but most informants considered these activities to be underused as a tool to aid decision making in clinical practice. A series of key factors was identified to guarantee HTA use: greater dissemination of HTA activities and availability of the results, increased involvement and communication among health care professionals in the selection and prioritization of relevant research, contextualization and adaptation of results to the local context, increased organizational support and greater financial resources. Conclusions: The present study allows end-users´ opinions on the utility of the various products/services offered by HTA agencies to be contrasted in order to adapt HTA activity to their needs and requirements. The involvement of health care professionals in all HTA fields is perceived as one of the main lines of action for HTA agencies. Such involvement could be achieved by reinforcing personal contact and increasing feedback to collaborators.

  7. Significance of Including a Surrogate Arousal for Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Diagnosis by Respiratory Polygraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa, Juan F.; Corral, Jaime; Gomez de Terreros, Javier; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernández-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Zamorano, Jose; Cano, Ricardo; Montserrat, Jose M.; Garcia-Ledesma, Estefania; Pereira, Ricardo; Cancelo, Laura; Martinez, Angeles; Sacristan, Lirios; Salord, Neus; Carrera, Miguel; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Embid, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Respiratory polygraphy is an accepted alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) diagnosis, although it underestimates the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) because respiratory polygraphy cannot identify arousals. Objectives: We performed a multicentric, randomized, blinded crossover study to determine the agreement between home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) and PSG, and between simultaneous respiratory polygraphy (respiratory polygraphy with PSG) (SimultRP) and PSG by means of 2 AHI scoring protocols with or without hyperventilation following flow reduction considered as a surrogate arousal. Methods: We included suspected SAHS patients from 8 hospitals. They were assigned to home and hospital protocols at random. We determined the agreement between respiratory polygraphy AHI and PSG AHI scorings using Bland and Altman plots and diagnostic agreement using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The agreement in therapeutic decisions (continuous positive airway pressure treatment or not) between HRP and PSG scorings was done with likelihood ratios and post-test probability calculations. Results: Of 366 randomized patients, 342 completed the protocol. AHI from HRP scorings (with and without surrogate arousal) had similar agreement with PSG. AHI from SimultRP with surrogate arousal scoring had better agreement with PSG than AHI from SimultRP without surrogate arousal. HRP with surrogate arousal scoring had slightly worse ROC curves than HRP without surrogate arousal, and the opposite was true for SimultRP scorings. HRP with surrogate arousal showed slightly better agreement with PSG in therapeutic decisions than for HRP without surrogate arousal. Conclusion: Incorporating a surrogate arousal measure into HRP did not substantially increase its agreement with PSG when compared with the usual procedure (HRP without surrogate arousal). Citation: Masa JF; Corral J; Gomez de Terreros J; Duran-Cantolla J; Cabello M; Hern

  8. Mapping with the Masses: Google Map Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, J.

    2008-12-01

    After some 15,000 years of map making, which saw the innovations of cardinal directions, map projections for a spherical earth, and GIS analysis, many parts of the world still appear as the "Dark Continent" on modern maps. Google Map Maker intends to shine a light on these areas by tapping into the power of the GeoWeb. Google Map Maker is a website which allows you to collaborate with others on one unified map to add, edit, locate, describe, and moderate map features, such as roads, cities, businesses, parks, schools and more, for certain regions of the world using Google Maps imagery. In this session, we will show some examples of how people are mapping with this powerful tool as well as what they are doing with the data. With Google Map Maker, you can become a citizen cartographer and join the global network of users helping to improve the quality of maps and local information in your region of interest. You are invited to map the world with us!

  9. Changing Times, Complex Decisions: Presidential Values and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Anne M.; Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to delve more deeply into the thought processes of the key decision makers at community colleges and understand how they make decisions. Specifically, this article focuses on the role of the community college president's personal values in decision making. Method: We conducted interviews with 13…

  10. Study on delivery date and pricing decision in supply chain based on different delivery date decision-maker%基于不同交货期决策权下的供应链交货期和定价决策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 陈旭

    2011-01-01

    Based on price and delivery time sensitive demand,in a single-manufacturer-single-retailer's two-echelon supply chain system,with the objective of maximizing the expected profit,models of both the delivery date controlled by manufacturer and controlled by retailer are built,and the optimal solutions and the maximum expected profit are obtained. By comparison,the impact of different decision-making power of the delivery date on the optimal time of delivery date and the maximum expected profit of supply chain is discussed.In order to achieve the maximization of expected profit,based on customer demand characteristics and the guaranteed service level of delivery date,the supply chain should select the manufacturer to control the supply chain delivery date.%基于对价格和交货期敏感的需求,针对一个制造商与一个零售商构成的两阶段供应链,以最大化期望利润为目标,分别建立供应链交货期由制造商和零售商控制的决策模型,以得到相应的最优解和最大期望利润.通过比较,探讨了不同交货期决策权对供应链最优交货期和最大期望利润的影响,得到了为实现期望利润最大化,针对顾客需求特性,供应链系统应在保证一定交货期服务水平的基础上选择由制造商控制供应链交货期的结论.

  11. Induction of Ordinal Decision Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); V. Popova (Viara)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the problem of monotone decision trees from the point of view of the multicriteria decision aid methodology (MCDA). By taking into account the preferences of the decision maker, an attempt is made to bring closer similar research within machine learning and MCDA.

  12. Parents and children: "surrogate" paradigm of modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Archimandrite; Akhaladze, Vakhtang

    2011-06-01

    The article provides an overview of surrogate motherhood--one of many currently available forms of Assisted Reproductive Technologies for couples who find themselves unable to conceive a child on their own. Within the years of its existence surrogate motherhood managed to accumulate lots of bioethical problems, paradoxes, dilemmas and collisions. Author represents some of them. Also the legal, moral and religious implications of surrogacy are addressed. The religious perspective from the Orthodox Christian, Catholic, Jewish, Hinduism, and Islamic points of view are provided. The author concludes that surrogate motherhood is not only the answer to childlessness but it supports metamorphosis of traditional attitude towards such human value as it is a family.

  13. Engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulharman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There had been mechanically conducted an engineering of Rocking Nut Maker Tools for rocking nut small industry. The objective is to engineer a maker tool for rocking nut which can work with the assistance of motor without using manpower, thus it will increase the production of rocking nut. Making method on rocking nut maker tool includes: (1 Designing tool; (2 tool making; (3 Tool testing. According to the result of engineering tool, there were obtained: frame for tray that was made from angle iron: the height was 450 mm, the length was 1500 mm, and the width was 500 mm width, while the thickness was 3 mm. The tray was made from aluminium with 60 mm height, 1485 mm length, 485 mm width and 3 mm plate thickness. The motor had the power capacity of ½ HP, single phase and 1400 rpm while gearbox was 1:10. The wheels were made from iron with the diameter of 60 mm and the thickness of 20 mm. There are 4 wheels which were installed under the tray. Popper mechanism was made from iron that included iron plate with the diameter of 210 mm, the thickness of 7 mm and iron bar with the diameter of 15 mm and the length of 220 mm. This was equipped with speed variable. The result from tools performance could increase the production capacity by 400%; the bumpy texture on peanut surface could attach more strongly, the storage capacity increased for 6 months, while the production only lasted for 3 months if it was by manual. The capacity of rocking nut maker was 45 kg/day; it was only 7.5 kg/day by manual. The average time consumed for rocking nut making was 1.5 hours/ processing, while by manual was 3 hours/ processing. The rocking speed was 89-99rpm. This was an economical technology, by using this engineered tool, the production capacity per month was increased by 750 kg or equivalent with Rp. 47,250,000.- and by using this tool, there was an increase in profit of Rp. 13,450/ kg while by manual was only Rp 2,250/ kg. On the other side, the production cost by

  14. Manufacturing Toy Makers Forced to Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ Whether you are in Beijing or Boston, Hangzhou or Helsinki, if you visit a toy retailer, odds are the dolls, model cars, games and just about everything else around you were "Made in China". A business that dates back 3,000years to early kite development, China's 8,000 toy manufacturers today account for 70 to 80 percent of the world's toy supply, producing more than 30,000 toy varieties worth US$I5.I8 billion in exports annually. As impressive as such figures may be, however, the country's toy-makers find themselves at a crossroad.

  15. Surrogate endpoints and emerging surrogate endpoints for risk reduction of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnake, Crystal M; Trumbo, Paula R; Heinonen, Therese M

    2008-02-01

    This article reviews surrogate endpoints and emerging biomarkers that were discussed at the annual "Cardiovascular Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints" symposium cosponsored by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Montreal Heart Institute. The FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) uses surrogate endpoints in its scientific review of a substance/disease relationship for a health claim. CFSAN currently recognizes three validated surrogate endpoints: blood pressure, blood total cholesterol, and blood low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration in its review of a health claim for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Numerous potential surrogate endpoints of CVD are being evaluated as the pathophysiology of heart disease is becoming better understood. However, these emerging biomarkers need to be validated as surrogate endpoints before they are used by CFSAN in the evaluation of a CVD health claim.

  16. Surrogate mothers: whose baby is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B

    1984-01-01

    Advances in medical technology offer infertile couples who wish to raise children alternatives to adoption. The increasing number of surrogate mother contracts creates a myriad of legal issues surrounding the rights of the natural mother, the natural father and the child that is produced. In this Article, the Author discusses the legal issues and rights of the parties under the Constitution, the surrogate contract and family law principles. The Author proposes that courts should consider a surrogate contract as a revocable prebirth agreement which allows the natural mother to keep the child if she chooses. In addition, the Author advocates an interpretation of the statutes forbidding baby selling that would prohibit surrogate contracts in which the mother is paid a fee for the child.

  17. Neutron capture cross sections from Surrogate measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scielzo N.D.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The prospects for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear neutron-capture reactions from Surrogate measurements are investigated. Calculations as well as experimental results are presented that test the Weisskopf-Ewing approximation, which is employed in most analyses of Surrogate data. It is concluded that, in general, one has to go beyond this approximation in order to obtain (n,γ cross sections of sufficient accuracy for most astrophysical and nuclear-energy applications.

  18. Eli Hecksher as a Portrait Maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Carlson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eli Heckscher was not only author of extensive investigations into economic history. He was also skillful in depicting phenomena in small format in encyclopædias, journals and newspapers. This article presents Heckscher as portrait maker of economic scholars. In these portraits—what he emphasized, what he praised, what he criticized—one can discern the stance of the portrait maker himself. Overall, his portraits are permeated by admiration of sharp theoretical analyses and massive economic historical investigations. He admires the founding fathers of political economy, Adam Smith and David Ricardo, stresses continuity in the development of economic thought, praises humble innovators like David Davidson, Knut Wicksell and Alfred Marshall and denounces (what he perceives as pretentious innovators like Gustav Cassel and John Maynard Keynes. He is critical towards economists who attempt to break out of the classical and neoclassical tradition, especially representatives of the German historical school, and what he judges to be a new type of mercantilism, represented by Bertil Ohlin and Keynes. At the same time he appreciates voluminous and solid investigations into economic history, even if performed without theoretical beacons, by scholars like William Cunningham, William Ashley, John Clapham, Marc Bloch, Richard Ehrenberg and Werner Sombart.

  19. An Integrated Model for Optimization Oriented Decision Aiding and Rule Based Decision Making in Fuzzy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yousefli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy decision aid system is developed base on new concepts that presented in the field of fuzzy decision making in fuzzy environment (FDMFE. This framework aids decision makers to understand different circumstances of an uncertain problem that may occur in the future. Also, to keep decision maker from the optimization problem complexities, a decision support system, which can be replaced by optimization problem, is presented to make optimum or near optimum decisions without solving optimization problem directly. An application of the developed decision aid model and the decision support system is presented in the field of inventory models.

  20. Strategic control and interests, its effects on decision outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, FN; Stokman, JV

    1995-01-01

    In political systems and large organizations, ultimate decision makers are usually just a small subset of all actors in the social system. To arrive at acceptable decisions, decision makers have to take into account the preferences of other actors in the system. Typically preferences of more interes

  1. An Introduction to Solar Decision-Making Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mow, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) offers a variety of models and analysis tools to help decision makers evaluate and make informed decisions about solar projects, policies, and programs. This fact sheet aims to help decision makers determine which NREL tool to use for a given solar project or policy question, depending on its scope.

  2. National policy-makers speak out: are researchers giving them what they need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Corluka, Adrijana; Winch, Peter J; El-Shinnawy, Azza; Ghassany, Harith; Malekafzali, Hossein; Lim, Meng-Kin; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Segura, Elsa; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this empirical study was to understand the perspectives and attitudes of policy-makers towards the use and impact of research in the health sector in low- and middle-income countries. The study used data from 83 semi-structured, in-depth interviews conducted with purposively selected policy-makers at the national level in Argentina, Egypt, Iran, Malawi, Oman and Singapore. The interviews were structured around an interview guide developed based on existing literature and in consultation with all six country investigators. Transcripts were processed using a thematic-analysis approach. Policy-makers interviewed for this study were unequivocal in their support for health research and the high value they attribute to it. However, they stated that there were structural and informal barriers to research contributing to policy processes, to the contribution research makes to knowledge generally, and to the use of research in health decision-making specifically. Major findings regarding barriers to evidence-based policy-making included poor communication and dissemination, lack of technical capacity in policy processes, as well as the influence of the political context. Policy-makers had a variable understanding of economic analysis, equity and burden of disease measures, and were vague in terms of their use in national decisions. Policy-maker recommendations regarding strategies for facilitating the uptake of research into policy included improving the technical capacity of policy-makers, better packaging of research results, use of social networks, and establishment of fora and clearinghouse functions to help assist in evidence-based policy-making.

  3. A threshold for the Maker-Breaker clique game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Tobias; Stojakovic, Milos

    2014-01-01

    We study the Maker-Breaker k-clique game played on the edge set of the random graph G(n, p). In this game, two players, Maker and Breaker, alternately claim unclaimed edges of G(n, p), until all the edges are claimed. Maker wins if he claims all the edges of a k-clique; Breaker wins otherwise. We de

  4. Comparative Assessment and Decision Support System for Strategic Military Airlift Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, John; Iwata, Curtis; Mavris, Dimitri; Weston, Neil; Fahringer, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company has been awarded several programs to modernize the aging C-5 military transport fleet. In order to ensure its continuation amidst budget cuts, it was important to engage the decision makers by providing an environment to analyze the benefits of the modernization program. This paper describes an interface that allows the user to change inputs such as the scenario airfields, take-off conditions, and reliability characteristics. The underlying logistics surrogate model was generated using data from a discrete-event simulation. Various visualizations such as intercontinental flight paths illustrated in 3D, have been created to aid the user in analyzing scenarios and performing comparative assessments for various output logistics metrics. The capability to rapidly and dynamically evaluate and compare scenarios was developed enabling real time strategy exploration and trade-offs.

  5. Juego de rol usando RPG Maker

    OpenAIRE

    Tregon Muniesa, Adrià

    2009-01-01

    En la documentación del proyecto encontramos una introducción a los videojuegos, explicación del rol y sus características más relevantes, y una pincelada sobre el mercado actual de la industria española del videojuego.Los objetivos a alcanzar en la realización del proyecto. Explicación de la historia, de los personajes con sus respectivas estadísticas y un storyboard completo del juego. Explicación de las características más relevantes de RPG Maker VX, así como un diagrama de las clase...

  6. Probabilistic decision graphs for optimization under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn V.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a survey on probabilistic decision graphs for modeling and solving decision problems under uncertainty. We give an introduction to influence diagrams, which is a popular framework for representing and solving sequential decision problems with a single decision maker. As the me...

  7. A qualitative metasynthesis: family involvement in decision making for people with dementia in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriwskyj, Andrea; Gibson, Alexandra; Parker, Deborah; Banks, Susan; Andrews, Sharon; Robinson, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Involving people in decisions about their care is good practice and ensures optimal outcomes. Despite considerable research, in practice family involvement in decision making can be challenging for both care staff and families. The aim of this review was to identify and appraise existing knowledge about family involvement in decision making for people with dementia living in residential aged care. The present Joanna Briggs Institute meta-synthesis considered studies that investigate involvement of family members in decision making for people with dementia in residential aged care settings. While quantitative and qualitative studies were included in the review, this article presents the qualitative findings. A comprehensive search of studies was conducted in 15 electronic databases. The search was limited to papers published in English, from 1990 to 2013. Twenty-six studies were identified as relevant for this review; 16 were qualitative papers reporting on 15 studies. Two independent reviewers assessed the studies for methodological validity and extracted the data using the standardized Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). The findings were synthesized using JBI-QARI. The findings related to the decisions encountered and made by family surrogates, family perceptions of, and preferences for, their role/s, factors regarding treatment decisions and the collaborative decision-making process, and outcomes for family decision makers. Results indicate varied and complex experiences and multiple factors influencing decision making. Communication and contacts between staff and families and the support available for families should be addressed, as well as the role of different stakeholders in decisions.

  8. Rough set and rule-based multicriteria decision aiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Slowinski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of multicriteria decision aiding is to give the decision maker a recommendation concerning a set of objects evaluated from multiple points of view called criteria. Since a rational decision maker acts with respect to his/her value system, in order to recommend the most-preferred decision, one must identify decision maker's preferences. In this paper, we focus on preference discovery from data concerning some past decisions of the decision maker. We consider the preference model in the form of a set of "if..., then..." decision rules discovered from the data by inductive learning. To structure the data prior to induction of rules, we use the Dominance-based Rough Set Approach (DRSA. DRSA is a methodology for reasoning about data, which handles ordinal evaluations of objects on considered criteria and monotonic relationships between these evaluations and the decision. We review applications of DRSA to a large variety of multicriteria decision problems.

  9. FileMaker Pro牛刀小试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    will

    2003-01-01

    《FileMaker Pro牛刀小试》是will写的系列FileMaker Pro简易教学,目的是向大家简单的介绍FileMaker Pro这个优秀的数据库软件,因为高版本对中文支持的问题,该系列教学使用FileMaker Pro 3.0SC作为教学案利,希望大家通过will的系列介绍文章,对FileMaker Pro 首先有一个感性的认识。

  10. Coastal aquifer management under parameter uncertainty: Ensemble surrogate modeling based simulation-optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, S.; Datta, B.

    2011-12-01

    Surrogate models are widely used to develop computationally efficient simulation-optimization models to solve complex groundwater management problems. Artificial intelligence based models are most often used for this purpose where they are trained using predictor-predictand data obtained from a numerical simulation model. Most often this is implemented with the assumption that the parameters and boundary conditions used in the numerical simulation model are perfectly known. However, in most practical situations these values are uncertain. Under these circumstances the application of such approximation surrogates becomes limited. In our study we develop a surrogate model based coupled simulation optimization methodology for determining optimal pumping strategies for coastal aquifers considering parameter uncertainty. An ensemble surrogate modeling approach is used along with multiple realization optimization. The methodology is used to solve a multi-objective coastal aquifer management problem considering two conflicting objectives. Hydraulic conductivity and the aquifer recharge are considered as uncertain values. Three dimensional coupled flow and transport simulation model FEMWATER is used to simulate the aquifer responses for a number of scenarios corresponding to Latin hypercube samples of pumping and uncertain parameters to generate input-output patterns for training the surrogate models. Non-parametric bootstrap sampling of this original data set is used to generate multiple data sets which belong to different regions in the multi-dimensional decision and parameter space. These data sets are used to train and test multiple surrogate models based on genetic programming. The ensemble of surrogate models is then linked to a multi-objective genetic algorithm to solve the pumping optimization problem. Two conflicting objectives, viz, maximizing total pumping from beneficial wells and minimizing the total pumping from barrier wells for hydraulic control of

  11. Choice Task Complexity and Decision Strategy Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Swait, Joffre; Adamowicz, Wiktor L.

    1997-01-01

    The psychology, the marketing consumer behavior and, to a much smaller extent, the economics literature have long reported evidence that decision makers utilize different decision strategies depending upon many factors (person-specific, task-specific, etc.). Such observations have generally failed to affect the specification of choice models in commercial practice and academic research, both of which still tend to assume an utility maximizing, full information, indefatigable decision maker. T...

  12. Surrogates for herbicide removal in stormwater biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kefeng; Deletic, Ana; Page, Declan; McCarthy, David T

    2015-09-15

    Real time monitoring of suitable surrogate parameters are critical to the validation of any water treatment processes, and is of particularly high importance for validation of natural stormwater treatment systems. In this study, potential surrogates for herbicide removal in stormwater biofilters (also known as stormwater bio-retention or rain-gardens) were assessed using field challenge tests and matched laboratory column experiments. Differential UV absorbance at 254mn (ΔUVA254), total phosphorus (ΔTP), dissolved phosphorus (ΔDP), total nitrogen (ΔTN), ammonia (ΔNH3), nitrate and nitrite (ΔNO3+NO2), dissolved organic carbon (ΔDOC) and total suspended solids (ΔTSS) were compared with glyphosate, atrazine, simazine and prometryn removal rates. The influence of different challenge conditions on the performance of each surrogate was studied. Differential TP was significantly and linearly related to glyphosate reduction (R(2) = 0.75-0.98, P herbicides were reliable under normal and challenge dry conditions, but weaker correlations were observed under challenge wet conditions. Of those tested, ΔTP is the most promising surrogate for glyphosate removal and ΔUVA254 is a suitable surrogate for triazines removal in stormwater biofilters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  14. Arguing to motivate decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weide, T.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833622

    2011-01-01

    Decision makers often have to make difficult trade-offs in situations where multiple aspects matter that are different by nature. For example, in a crisis scenario with a big fire in a factory, trade-offs may have to be made between the safety of the victims and personnel, and the effects on the env

  15. 76 FR 27304 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... source of data for calculating the surrogate financial ratios. See Jiaxing Brother Fastener Co., Ltd. v... surrogate financial ratios, pursuant to section 773(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the ``Act... calculating surrogate financial ratios. On November 16, 2010, the CIT issued its decision sustaining...

  16. Research on Collaboration Decision Design of Complex C2 System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Xian-jin; DONG Wen-hong; SHAN Yue-chun; SHA Ji-chang

    2008-01-01

    The design of collaboration decision of C2 system is one of the puzzles which dicision science studies in complex system. To solve the contravention between the theory of collaboration decision design and development requirement in distributed C2 system, three-stage design approach is proposed to research coherence and optimization by which decision-maker carries out decision regulations. First, getting information and decision process are described;decision indexes and regulation modds of collaboration are established. And then, a test circumstance is designed and established for measuring various decision-maker's capabilities of carrying out decision regulation by simulation and getting their load capability pa-rameters. Finally, the obtained parameters from the experiment are disposed and substituted into the original models for proving the coherence of decision regulations. As a result, it is feasible for three-stage approach to design collaboration de-cision, and decision regulations can satisfy various decision-maker requirements.

  17. Implications of the main mathematical methods on marketing decision making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision analysis incorporates both the awareness of decision makers, which is located between total confidence and total ignorance and action values assigned to outcomes variants, meaning decision makers preferences. Marketing actions are often insecure. Under these conditions, to achieve the desired result, the company management shall have decision analysis models based on mathematical theories developed in recent decades. Decision analysis is the procedural and formal logic highlights include decision makers a situation and a number of techniques that determine the selection of a solution which solves the problem. Methodological approach of this process serves to form makers options.

  18. Managing Climate Policy Information Facilitating Knowledge Transfer to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Karakosta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenging context of intense negotiations and radical developments in the field of climate policy, informing stakeholders about opportunities and pathways and about scientific insights and warnings is important to help create positive dynamics. Policy makers need digestible information to design good policies, and understand their options and the possible impacts of these options. They need access to well-structured knowledge, as well as appropriate techniques to manage information and data. However, available information is often difficult to access, not in the right format and of limited use to stakeholders. The range of knowledge needs identified has to be effectively addressed by providing interested parties with suitable, to-the-point information, covering the identified gaps. This is the main aim of this article that proposes the design and development of a climate policy database, which contains all the resources that can cover the identified knowledge gaps. The resources are derived from a broad range of existing reports, research and climate policy decisions at different levels. The goal is to render climate policy associated stakeholders able to extract key policy conclusions. The added value of this database was verified by users and stakeholders that generally argued that the climate policy database facilitates solid understanding of climate policy implications and fosters collaborative knowledge exchange in the field.

  19. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  20. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  1. [Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2012-10-01

    Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives.

  2. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  3. Videotrees: Improving video surrogate presentation using hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Michel; Heeren, Willemijn; Dijk, van Betsy

    2008-01-01

    As the amount of available video content increases, so does the need for better ways of browsing all this material. Because the nature of video makes it hard to process, the need arises for adequate surrogates for video that can readily be skimmed and browsed. In this paper, the effects of the use o

  4. Combustion Kinetic Studies of Gasolines and Surrogates

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-11-01

    Future thrusts for gasoline engine development can be broadly summarized into two categories: (i) efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines, and (ii) development of advance compression ignition (ACI) concepts. Efficiency improvements in conventional spark ignition engines requires downsizing (and turbocharging) which may be achieved by using high octane gasolines, whereas, low octane gasolines fuels are anticipated for ACI concepts. The current work provides the essential combustion kinetic data, targeting both thrusts, that is needed to develop high fidelity gasoline surrogate mechanisms and surrogate complexity guidelines. Ignition delay times of a wide range of certified gasolines and surrogates are reported here. These measurements were performed in shock tubes and rapid compression machines over a wide range of experimental conditions (650 – 1250 K, 10 – 40 bar) relevant to internal combustion engines. Using the measured the data and chemical kinetic analyses, the surrogate complexity requirements for these gasolines in homogeneous environments are specified. For the discussions presented here, gasolines are classified into three categories: (i)\\tLow octane gasolines including Saudi Aramco’s light naphtha fuel (anti-knock index, AKI = (RON + MON)/2 = 64; Sensitivity (S) = RON – MON = 1), certified FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) gasoline I and J (AKI ~ 70, S = 0.7 and 3 respectively), and their Primary Reference Fuels (PRF, mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane) and multi-component surrogates. (ii)\\t Mid octane gasolines including FACE A and C (AKI ~ 84, S ~ 0 and 1 respectively) and their PRF surrogates. Laser absorption measurements of intermediate and product species formed during gasoline/surrogate oxidation are also reported. (iii)\\t A wide range of n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene (TPRF) blends to adequately represent the octane and sensitivity requirements of high octane gasolines including FACE gasoline F and G

  5. A novel surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vangipurapu, J

    2011-03-01

    In epidemiological and genetic studies surrogate indices are needed to investigate insulin resistance in different insulin-sensitive tissues. Our objective was to develop a surrogate index for hepatic insulin resistance.

  6. Calibration of an agricultural-hydrological model (RZWQM2) using surrogate global optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Maolong; Lu, Dan; Gui, Dongwei; Qi, Zhiming; Zhang, Guannan

    2017-01-01

    Robust calibration of an agricultural-hydrological model is critical for simulating crop yield and water quality and making reasonable agricultural management. However, calibration of the agricultural-hydrological system models is challenging because of model complexity, the existence of strong parameter correlation, and significant computational requirements. Therefore, only a limited number of simulations can be allowed in any attempt to find a near-optimal solution within an affordable time, which greatly restricts the successful application of the model. The goal of this study is to locate the optimal solution of the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM2) given a limited simulation time, so as to improve the model simulation and help make rational and effective agricultural-hydrological decisions. To this end, we propose a computationally efficient global optimization procedure using sparse-grid based surrogates. We first used advanced sparse grid (SG) interpolation to construct a surrogate system of the actual RZWQM2, and then we calibrate the surrogate model using the global optimization algorithm, Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO). As the surrogate model is a polynomial with fast evaluation, it can be efficiently evaluated with a sufficiently large number of times during the optimization, which facilitates the global search. We calibrate seven model parameters against five years of yield, drain flow, and NO3-N loss data from a subsurface-drained corn-soybean field in Iowa. Results indicate that an accurate surrogate model can be created for the RZWQM2 with a relatively small number of SG points (i.e., RZWQM2 runs). Compared to the conventional QPSO algorithm, our surrogate-based optimization method can achieve a smaller objective function value and better calibration performance using a fewer number of expensive RZWQM2 executions, which greatly improves computational efficiency.

  7. Surrogate analysis and index developer (SAID) tool and real-time data dissemination utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Wood, Molly S.; Landers, Mark N.; Wall, Gary R.; Brady, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of acoustic and other parameters as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) in rivers has been successful in multiple applications across the Nation. Critical to advancing the operational use of surrogates are tools to process and evaluate the data along with the subsequent development of regression models from which real-time sediment concentrations can be made available to the public. Recent developments in both areas are having an immediate impact on surrogate research, and on surrogate monitoring sites currently in operation. The Surrogate Analysis and Index Developer (SAID) standalone tool, under development by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), assists in the creation of regression models that relate response and explanatory variables by providing visual and quantitative diagnostics to the user. SAID also processes acoustic parameters to be used as explanatory variables for suspended-sediment concentrations. The sediment acoustic method utilizes acoustic parameters from fixed-mount stationary equipment. The background theory and method used by the tool have been described in recent publications, and the tool also serves to support sediment-acoustic-index methods being drafted by the multi-agency Sediment Acoustic Leadership Team (SALT), and other surrogate guidelines like USGS Techniques and Methods 3-C4 for turbidity and SSC. The regression models in SAID can be used in utilities that have been developed to work with the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and for the USGS National Real-Time Water Quality (NRTWQ) Web site. The real-time dissemination of predicted SSC and prediction intervals for each time step has substantial potential to improve understanding of sediment-related water-quality and associated engineering and ecological management decisions.

  8. System Reliability Analysis Capability and Surrogate Model Application in RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Huang, Dongli; Gleicher, Frederick; Wang, Bei; Adbel-Khalik, Hany S.; Pascucci, Valerio; Smith, Curtis L.

    2015-11-01

    This report collect the effort performed to improve the reliability analysis capabilities of the RAVEN code and explore new opportunity in the usage of surrogate model by extending the current RAVEN capabilities to multi physics surrogate models and construction of surrogate models for high dimensionality fields.

  9. Active Absorption Wave Maker System for Irregular Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳淑学; 王先涛; 李木国; 郭美谊

    2003-01-01

    The key problem in physical model tests with highly reflective structures is to prevent the multiple reflections between the reflective structures and the wave maker. An active absorption wave maker system is described and the representative frequency method for irregular waves is proposed in this paper. Physical model tests are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Value of Information for Sewer Replacement Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. It is unknown to what extent each information source is appreciated by decision makers. Further insight into this relative

  11. Relevance of a Managerial Decision-Model to Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Edward.; Welty, Gordon

    The rational model of classical economic theory assumes that the decision maker has complete information on alternatives and consequences, and that he chooses the alternative that maximizes expected utility. This model does not allow for constraints placed on the decision maker resulting from lack of information, organizational pressures,…

  12. The Surrogate Method: Past, Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesher, S R; Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Lyles, B F; Clark, R M; Fallon, P; Phair, L

    2008-01-09

    The STARS/LiBerACE collaboration has been exploring the surrogate technique with success in the actinide region. This method uses a direct reaction to measure the decay probability of the same compound nucleus produced via a neutron-induced channel. This paper serves as an overview of these activities. Using the STARS array at 88-inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory we have explored the following surrogate reactions: {sup 234}U({alpha}, {alpha}{prime}f), {sup 235}U({sup 3}He, {alpha}f), {sup 236}U({alpha}, {alpha}{prime}f), {sup 238}U ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}f), {sup 238}U({sup 3}He,{alpha}f), {sup 238}U({sup 3}He, tf) surrogates for {sup 233}U(n,f), {sup 233}U(n,f), {sup 235}U(n,f), {sup 237}U(n,f), {sup 236}U(n,f), and {sup 237}Np(n,f), respectively.

  13. [Biomedical Perspective of the Surrogate Motherhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouve de la Barreda, Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    The subrogated motherhood takes place when an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology is implanted in a surrogate, sometimes called a gestational mother, by means a contract with her. It can imply to natural families (woman and man) with or without infertility problems, or to monoparental or biparental families of the same sex. Concerning the origin of the gametes used in the IVF emerges different implications on the genetic relationship of the resulting child with the surrogate and the future parents. The subrogated motherhood was initially considered an option to solve infertility problems. Nevertheless this practice has become a possible and attractive option as a source of economic resources for poor women. The cases of benefit of a pregnancy without mediating a contract are exceptional and they are not properly cases of ″subrogated maternity″ but of ″altruistic maternity″ and must be considered as heterologous in vitro fertilization. In this article are analyzed the medical, genetic and bioethics aspects of this new derivation of the fertilization in vitro. As points of special attention are considered the following questions: Is it the surrogate motherhood used preferably to solve infertility problems? Is not this actually a new form of exploitation of the woman? Does not suppose an attack to the natural family? Does not suppose in addition an attack to the dignity of the human being?

  14. Microstructure And Market Maker Price Strategies: Study Of A Tunisian Market Maker Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida GTIFA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence on market making behaviour of FX dealer in the Tunisian FX. It uses a complete data set that includes intra-day trades for the euro and US dollar. The sample period is 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2007. The results are consistent with the findings of the literature that used trades and inventories data. I find evidence that customer order flow has information effect on USD/TND. However, I do not find evidence that customer order flow has information effect on EUR/TND. Moreover, inter-dealer order flow has a positive effect on the market maker price strategy. I also find that the central bank intervention has positive and significant effect on dealer’s behaviour and price formation process. My study also suggests that dealer is risk aversion and his quotes flows the references quotes tendency.

  15. Defining decision making: a qualitative study of international experts' views on surgical trainee decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Sarah C; van Rij, Andre M; Jaye, Chrystal; Hall, Katherine H

    2011-06-01

    Decision making is a key competency of surgeons; however, how best to assess decisions and decision makers is not clearly established. The aim of the present study was to identify criteria that inform judgments about surgical trainees' decision-making skills. A qualitative free text web-based survey was distributed to recognized international experts in Surgery, Medical Education, and Cognitive Research. Half the participants were asked to identify features of good decisions, characteristics of good decision makers, and essential factors for developing good decision-making skills. The other half were asked to consider these areas in relation to poor decision making. Template analysis of free text responses was performed. Twenty-nine (52%) experts responded to the survey, identifying 13 categories for judging a decision and 14 for judging a decision maker. Twelve features/characteristics overlapped (considered, informed, well timed, aware of limitations, communicated, knowledgeable, collaborative, patient-focused, flexible, able to act on the decision, evidence-based, and coherent). Fifteen categories were generated for essential factors leading to development of decision-making skills that fall into three major themes (personal qualities, training, and culture). The categories compiled from the perspectives of good/poor were predominantly the inverse of each other; however, the weighting given to some categories varied. This study provides criteria described by experts when considering surgical decisions, decision makers, and development of decision-making skills. It proposes a working definition of a good decision maker. Understanding these criteria will enable clinical teachers to better recognize and encourage good decision-making skills and identify poor decision-making skills for remediation.

  16. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 1: Radiological surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockdale, J.A.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, H.T. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The evaluation and comparison of proposed thermal treatment systems for mixed wastes can be expedited by tests in which the radioactive components of the wastes are replaced by surrogate materials chosen to mimic, as far as is possible, the chemical and physical properties of the radioactive materials of concern. In this work, sponsored by the Mixed Waste Integrated Project of the US Department of Energy, the authors have examined reported experience with such surrogates and suggest a simplified standard list of materials for use in tests of thermal treatment systems. The chief radioactive nuclides of concern in the treatment of mixed wastes are {sup 239}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 90}Sr. These nuclides are largely by-products of uranium enrichment, reactor fuel reprocessing, and weapons program activities. Cs, Ru, and Sr all have stable isotopes that can be used as perfect surrogates for the radioactive forms. Technetium exists only in radioactive form, as do plutonium and uranium. If one wishes to preclude radioactive contamination of the thermal treatment system under trial burn, surrogate elements must be chosen for these three. For technetium, the authors suggest the use of natural ruthenium, and for both plutonium and uranium, they recommend cerium. The seven radionuclides listed can therefore be simulated by a surrogate package containing stable isotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, and cerium.

  17. How clinical decisions are made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Louise; Hutchinson, Andrew; Underhill, Jonathan; Maskrey, Neal

    2012-10-01

    There is much variation in the implementation of the best available evidence into clinical practice. These gaps between evidence and practice are often a result of multiple individual decisions. When making a decision, there is so much potentially relevant information available, it is impossible to know or process it all (so called 'bounded rationality'). Usually, a limited amount of information is selected to reach a sufficiently satisfactory decision, a process known as satisficing. There are two key processes used in decision making: System 1 and System 2. System 1 involves fast, intuitive decisions; System 2 is a deliberate analytical approach, used to locate information which is not instantly recalled. Human beings unconsciously use System 1 processing whenever possible because it is quicker and requires less effort than System 2. In clinical practice, gaps between evidence and practice can occur when a clinician develops a pattern of knowledge, which is then relied on for decisions using System 1 processing, without the activation of a System 2 check against the best available evidence from high quality research. The processing of information and decision making may be influenced by a number of cognitive biases, of which the decision maker may be unaware. Interventions to encourage appropriate use of System 1 and System 2 processing have been shown to improve clinical decision making. Increased understanding of decision making processes and common sources of error should help clinical decision makers to minimize avoidable mistakes and increase the proportion of decisions that are better.

  18. FileMaker Pro 11 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Prosser, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This hands-on, friendly guide shows you how to harness FileMaker's power to make your information work for you. With a few mouse clicks, the FileMaker Pro 11 database helps you create and print corporate reports, manage a mailing list, or run your entire business. FileMaker Pro 11: The Missing Manual helps you get started, build your database, and produce results, whether you're running a business, pursuing a hobby, or planning your retirement. It's a thorough, accessible guide for new, non-technical users, as well as those with more experience. Start up: Get your first database up and runnin

  19. An Ontology-driven Framework for Supporting Complex Decision Process

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Junyi; Liu, James N. K.

    2011-01-01

    The study proposes a framework of ONTOlogy-based Group Decision Support System (ONTOGDSS) for decision process which exhibits the complex structure of decision-problem and decision-group. It is capable of reducing the complexity of problem structure and group relations. The system allows decision makers to participate in group decision-making through the web environment, via the ontology relation. It facilitates the management of decision process as a whole, from criteria generation, alternat...

  20. Organic farming and multi-criteria decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Dubgaard, Alex;

    Organic food production is a sphere where decision making is multi-facetted and complex. This applies to producers, political decision makers and consumers alike. This paper provides an overview of the economic methods that can aid such multi criteria decision making. We first provide an outline...... studies on organic farming. Based on this review we provide directional markers for future research where MCA may possibly be applied and adapted in order to provide useful knowledge and support for decision makers in the context of organic farming....

  1. Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis entitled “Optimising Transport Decision Making using Customised Decision Models and Decision Conferences” is multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and decision support in the context of transport infrastructure assessments. Despite the fact that large amounts...... is concerned with the insufficiency of conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA), and proposes the use of MCDA as a supplementing tool in order to also capture impacts of a more strategic character in the appraisals and hence make more use of the often large efforts put in the preliminary examinations. MCDA...... identification to the possible decision making. The process makes use of a preliminary problem structuring phase, and an intervention phase featuring the concept of a decision conference where decision-makers and multiple stakeholders have the possibility of interacting with the decision support model...

  2. UQ -- Fast Surrogates Key to New Methodologies in an Operational and Research Volcanic Hazard Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C. G.; Stefanescu, R. E. R.; Patra, A. K.; Bursik, M. I.; Madankan, R.; Pouget, S.; Jones, M.; Singla, P.; Singh, T.; Pitman, E. B.; Morton, D.; Webley, P.

    2014-12-01

    As the decision to construct a hazard map is frequently precipitated by the sudden initiation of activity at a volcano that was previously considered dormant, timely completion of the map is imperative. This prohibits the calculation of probabilities through direct sampling of a numerical ash-transport and dispersion model. In developing a probabilistic forecast for ash cloud locations following an explosive volcanic eruption, we construct a number of possible meta-models (a model of the simulator) to act as fast surrogates for the time-expensive model. We will illustrate the new fast surrogates based on both polynomial chaos and multilevel sparse representations that have allowed us to conduct the Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) in a timely fashion. These surrogates allow orders of magnitude improvement in cost associated with UQ, and are likely to have a major impact in many related domains.This work will be part of an operational and research volcanic forecasting system (see the Webley et al companion presentation) moving towards using ensembles of eruption source parameters and Numerical Weather Predictions (NWPs), rather than single deterministic forecasts, to drive the ash cloud forecasting systems. This involves using an Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) as input to an ash transport and dispersion model, such as PUFF, to produce ash cloud predictions, which will be supported by a Decision Support System. Simulation ensembles with different input volcanic source parameters are intelligently chosen to predict the average and higher-order moments of the output correctly.

  3. Insider trading with non-fiduciary market makers

    OpenAIRE

    Aase, Knut K.; Gjesdal, Frøystein

    2016-01-01

    The single auction equilibrium of Kyle's (1985) is studied, in which market makers are not fiduciaries. They have some market power which they utilize to set the price to their advantage, resulting in positive expected profits. This has several implications for the equilibrium, the most important being that by setting a relatively modest "fee", the market maker is able to obtain a profit of the order of magnitude, and even better than, a perfectly informed insider. Our model indicates why ...

  4. Mutual benefits of collaborations between instrument makers, musicians and acousticians

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, David,

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Effective collaboration between instrument makers, musicians and acousticians can be of great benefit to all parties, leading to improved instrument designs, greater understanding of an instrument’s playing characteristics, and an improved knowledge of the physical processes that occur within an instrument. As a working relationship develops between an instrument maker, a musician and an acoustician, the trust that builds up can facilitate increasingly more detailed in...

  5. Bridging the gap between science and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2013-08-20

    All decisions, whether they are personal, public, or business-related, are based on the decision maker's beliefs and values. Science can and should help decision makers by shaping their beliefs. Unfortunately, science is not easily accessible to decision makers, and scientists often do not understand decision makers' information needs. This article presents a framework for bridging the gap between science and decision making and illustrates it with two examples. The first example is a personal health decision. It shows how a formal representation of the beliefs and values can reflect scientific inputs by a physician to combine with the values held by the decision maker to inform a medical choice. The second example is a public policy decision about managing a potential environmental hazard. It illustrates how controversial beliefs can be reflected as uncertainties and informed by science to make better decisions. Both examples use decision analysis to bridge science and decisions. The conclusions suggest that this can be a helpful process that requires skills in both science and decision making.

  6. Evaluating β Diversity as a Surrogate for Species Representation at Fine Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Beier

    Full Text Available Species turnover or β diversity is a conceptually attractive surrogate for conservation planning. However, there has been only 1 attempt to determine how well sites selected to maximize β diversity represent species, and that test was done at a scale too coarse (2,500 km2 sites to inform most conservation decisions. We used 8 plant datasets, 3 bird datasets, and 1 mammal dataset to evaluate whether sites selected to span β diversity will efficiently represent species at finer scale (sites sizes < 1 ha to 625 km2. We used ordinations to characterize dissimilarity in species assemblages (β diversity among plots (inventory data or among grid cells (atlas data. We then selected sites to maximize β diversity and used the Species Accumulation Index, SAI, to evaluate how efficiently the surrogate (selecting sites for maximum β diversity represented species in the same taxon. Across all 12 datasets, sites selected for maximum β diversity represented species with a median efficiency of 24% (i.e., the surrogate was 24% more effective than random selection of sites, and an interquartile range of 4% to 41% efficiency. β diversity was a better surrogate for bird datasets than for plant datasets, and for atlas datasets with 10-km to 14-km grid cells than for atlas datasets with 25-km grid cells. We conclude that β diversity is more than a mere descriptor of how species are distributed on the landscape; in particular β diversity might be useful to maximize the complementarity of a set of sites. Because we tested only within-taxon surrogacy, our results do not prove that β diversity is useful for conservation planning. But our results do justify further investigation to identify the circumstances in which β diversity performs well, and to evaluate it as a cross-taxon surrogate.

  7. Recent Experimental Progress on Surrogate Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausang, Cornelius

    2014-09-01

    Reactions on unstable nuclei are important in a wide variety of nuclear physics scenarios. Cross sections for neutron (or light charged particle) induced reactions on target nuclei spanning the chart of the nuclei are important for nuclear astrophysics (r-process, s-process rp- and p-processes etc.), for nuclear energy generation and for national security applications. Many such reactions occur on short-lived unstable nuclei. Even with the present generation of radioactive beam facilities, many such reactions are difficult, if not impossible, to measure directly. For these reactions, often the surrogate reaction technique provides the only option to provide some experimental guidance for the calculations. The experimental and theoretical techniques required are described in some detail in the recent review article by Escher et al.. Originally introduced in the 1970's the last decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the surrogate technique. Various ratio techniques, external, internal and hybrid, have been developed to minimize the effect of target contamination. In the actinide region, a large number of surrogate (n,f) cross sections have been measured. In general, these show agreement to within 5--10%, with directly measured (n,f) data where these data exist (benchmarking), for equivalent neutron energies ranging from ~100 keV up to tens of MeV. For (n, γ) reactions, measurements have been attempted for select nuclei in various mass regions (A ~ 90, 150 and 235) and for these the agreement with directly measured data is less good. The various experimental techniques employed will be described as well as the current state of the experimental data. Some future directions will be described. Reactions on unstable nuclei are important in a wide variety of nuclear physics scenarios. Cross sections for neutron (or light charged particle) induced reactions on target nuclei spanning the chart of the nuclei are important for nuclear astrophysics (r-process, s

  8. Decision story strategy: a practical approach for teaching decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D L; Hamrick, M H; Anspaugh, D J

    1981-12-01

    Teachers are usually very enthusiastic in their evaluations of decision stories. Decision Story Strategies offer a change of pace, promote student involvement and stimulate creative thinking, problem solving and everpresent creative teaching-learning opportunities. The real-life problems presented within the structure of a decision story provide meaningful learning opportunities for students. Students begin to think in a broader perspective when considering other points of view and information sources. The Decision Story Strategy used with the Decision-Making Model provides a powerful tool for health educators to develop skills for making and evaluating decisions in an interesting and meaningful context. It may not be a panacea for all health educators, but is an effective strategy for the teacher concerned with developing independent decision makers. Most importantly, students are provided opportunities to solve their present problems as well as develop decision-making skills for the future.

  9. Do probabilistic forecasts lead to better decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. H.; van Andel, S. J.; Pappenberger, F.

    2013-06-01

    The last decade has seen growing research in producing probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecasts and increasing their reliability. This followed the promise that, supplied with information about uncertainty, people would take better risk-based decisions. In recent years, therefore, research and operational developments have also started focusing attention on ways of communicating the probabilistic forecasts to decision-makers. Communicating probabilistic forecasts includes preparing tools and products for visualisation, but also requires understanding how decision-makers perceive and use uncertainty information in real time. At the EGU General Assembly 2012, we conducted a laboratory-style experiment in which several cases of flood forecasts and a choice of actions to take were presented as part of a game to participants, who acted as decision-makers. Answers were collected and analysed. In this paper, we present the results of this exercise and discuss if we indeed make better decisions on the basis of probabilistic forecasts.

  10. Decision making in high-velocity environments: implications for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanovich, P L; Uhrig, J D

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare can be considered a high-velocity environment and, as such, can benefit from research conducted in other industries regarding strategic decision making. Strategic planning is not only relevant to firms in high-velocity environments, but is also important for high performance and survival. Specifically, decision-making speed seems to be instrumental in differentiating between high and low performers; fast decision makers outperform slow decision makers. This article outlines the differences between fast and slow decision makers, identifies five paralyses that can slow decision making in healthcare, and outlines the role of a planning department in circumventing these paralyses. Executives can use the proposed planning structure to improve both the speed and quality of strategic decisions. The structure uses planning facilitators to avoid the following five paralyses: 1. Analysis. Decision makers can no longer afford the luxury of lengthy, detailed analysis but must develop real-time systems that provide appropriate, timely information. 2. Alternatives. Many alternatives (beyond the traditional two or three) need to be considered and the alternatives must be evaluated simultaneously. 3. Group Think. Decision makers must avoid limited mind-sets and autocratic leadership styles by seeking out independent, knowledgeable counselors. 4. Process. Decision makers need to resolve conflicts through "consensus with qualification," as opposed to waiting for everyone to come on board. 5. Separation. Successful implementation requires a structured process that cuts across disciplines and levels.

  11. Surrogate Markers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice.

  12. Multi-species Management Using Modeling and Decision Theory Applications to Integrated Natural Resources Management Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    of the decision maker, risk and uncertainty. Application of decision tools clarifies the logic and facts that support decisions. Resnik (1987...Structured decision making explicitly facilitates selection among alternatives based on their consequences ( Resnik 1987). Decision theory incorporates...species populations. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9(4):889-906 Resnik , M.D. (1987). Choices: An Introduction to Decision Theory. University of

  13. Decision aiding techniques for site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Walle, B.

    1996-09-18

    Decision making problems in the nuclear domain are known for their complexity since they usually involve a wide range of technical, social, and political considerations. Site restoration is a typical example of a complex nuclear decision problem, and more and more decision makers realize that they need new tools to assist in the decision making process. This paper reports on multi-criteria decision analysis, a powerful tool for handling complex decisions involving multiple criteria. The motivation to use multi-criteria decision analysis in the domain of site restoration is illustrated. New developments and challenges in this field are addressed.

  14. Time to Review the Role of Surrogate End Points in Health Policy: State of the Art and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, Oriana; Buyse, Marc; Drummond, Michael; Rasi, Guido; Saad, Everardo D; Taylor, Rod S

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of medicines, medical devices, and other health technologies should be proved in trials that assess final patient-relevant outcomes such as survival or morbidity. Market access and coverage decisions are, however, often based on surrogate end points, biomarkers, or intermediate end points, which aim to substitute and predict patient-relevant outcomes that are unavailable because of methodological, financial, or practical constraints. We provide a summary of the present use of surrogate end points in health care policy, discussing the case for and against their adoption and reviewing validation methods. We introduce a three-step framework for policymakers to handle surrogates, which involves establishing the level of evidence, assessing the strength of the association, and quantifying relations between surrogates and final outcomes. Although the use of surrogates can be problematic, they can, when selected and validated appropriately, offer important opportunities for more efficient clinical trials and faster access to new health technologies that benefit patients and health care systems. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial Decision Support Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ioan Bejinariu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The satellite image processing is an important tool for decision making in domains like agriculture, forestry, hydrology, for normal activity tracking but also in special situations caused by natural disasters. In this paper it is proposed a method for forestry surface evaluation in terms of occupied surface and also as number of trees. The segmentation method is based on watershed transform which offers good performances in case the objects to detect have connected borders. The method is applied for automatic multi-temporal analysis of forestry areas and represents a useful instrument for decision makers.

  16. Priority wetland invertebrates as conservation surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, S J; Durance, Isabelle; Terrier, Aurelie; Swanson, Alisa M

    2010-04-01

    Invertebrates are important functionally in most ecosystems, but seldom appraised as surrogate indicators of biological diversity. Priority species might be good candidates; thus, here we evaluated whether three freshwater invertebrates listed in the U.K. Biodiversity Action Plan indicated the richness, composition, and conservation importance of associated wetland organisms as defined respectively by their alpha diversity, beta diversity, and threat status. Sites occupied by each of the gastropods Segmentina nitida, Anisus vorticulus, and Valvata macrostoma had greater species richness of gastropods and greater conservation importance than other sites. Each also characterized species assemblages associated with significant variations between locations in alpha or beta diversity among other mollusks and aquatic macrophytes. Because of their distinct resource requirements, conserving the three priority species extended the range of wetland types under management for nature conservation by 18% and the associated gastropod niche-space by around 33%. Although nonpriority species indicated variations in richness, composition, and conservation importance among other organisms as effectively as priority species, none characterized such a wide range of high-quality wetland types. We conclude that priority invertebrates are no more effective than nonpriority species as indicators of alpha and beta diversity or conservation importance among associated organisms. Nevertheless, conserving priority species can extend the array of distinct environments that are protected for their specialized biodiversity and environmental quality. We suggest that this is a key role for priority species and conservation surrogates more generally, and, on our evidence, can best be delivered through multiple species with contrasting habitat requirements.

  17. Estimating Predictability Redundancy and Surrogate Data Method

    CERN Document Server

    Pecen, L

    1995-01-01

    A method for estimating theoretical predictability of time series is presented, based on information-theoretic functionals---redundancies and surrogate data technique. The redundancy, designed for a chosen model and a prediction horizon, evaluates amount of information between a model input (e.g., lagged versions of the series) and a model output (i.e., a series lagged by the prediction horizon from the model input) in number of bits. This value, however, is influenced by a method and precision of redundancy estimation and therefore it is a) normalized by maximum possible redundancy (given by the precision used), and b) compared to the redundancies obtained from two types of the surrogate data in order to obtain reliable classification of a series as either unpredictable or predictable. The type of predictability (linear or nonlinear) and its level can be further evaluated. The method is demonstrated using a numerically generated time series as well as high-frequency foreign exchange data and the theoretical ...

  18. Customised DSS and decision conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and exemplifies a combination of techniques for deriving and modelling decision-maker and/or stakeholder preferences using a decision conference process. The applied techniques are used for the development of customised decision support systems (C-DSS) which can be used...... for appraisals of large transport infrastructure projects. The paper exemplifies how the process at a decision conference can be effectively supported by a DSS customised using appropriate techniques for the specific task in hand. In this respect a conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is combined...

  19. Using Modularity with Rough Decision Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T. Shawky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many real world applications need to deal with imprecise data. Therefore, there is a need for new techniques which can manage such imprecision. Computational Intelligence (CI techniques are the most appropriate for dealing with imprecise data to help decision makers. It is well known that soft computing techniques like genetic algorithms, neural networks, and fuzzy logic are effective in dealing with problems without explicit model and characterized by uncertainties Using fuzzy set theory considered as major techniques, which allows decision makers to take a good decision using imprecise inexact data and knowledge. Now using rough set is getting quite necessary to be used for its ability to mining such type of data. In this research, we are looking forward to propose a novel technique, which depends on the integration between fuzzy set concepts and rough set theory in mining relational databases. The proposed model allows introducing modularity mechanism, by building a virtual modular decision tables according to variety of decision makers points of view. And introduce decision grouping mechanism for getting the optimizing decision. This approach provides flexibility in decision making verifies all decision standards and determines decision requirements, through modularizing rough decision table, extraction of rough association rules and developing mechanisms for decision grouping.

  20. USING MODULARITY WITH ROUGH DECISION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T. Shawky

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many real world applications need to deal with imprecise data. Therefore, there is a need for newtechniques which can manage such imprecision. Computational Intelligence (CI techniques are the mostappropriate for dealing with imprecise data to help decision makers. It is well known that soft computingtechniques like genetic algorithms, neural networks, and fuzzy logic are effective in dealing with problemswithout explicit model and characterized by uncertainties Using fuzzy set theory considered as majortechniques, which allows decision makers to take a good decision using imprecise inexact data andknowledge. Now using rough set is getting quite necessary to be used for its ability to mining such type ofdata. In this research, we are looking forward to propose a novel technique, which depends on theintegration between fuzzy set concepts and rough set theory in mining relational databases. The proposedmodel allows introducing modularity mechanism, by building a virtual modular decision tables accordingto variety of decision makers points of view. And introduce decision grouping mechanism for getting theoptimizing decision. This approach provides flexibility in decision making verifies all decision standardsand determines decision requirements, through modularizing rough decision table, extraction of roughassociation rules and developing mechanisms for decision grouping.

  1. Procedural Rationality in the Decision-Making of Internationalizing SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Linda; Elbanna, Said; Narooz, Rose;

    ad hoc internationalization, credit check, distribution adaptation, and decision team size) and their influence on the extent of procedural rationality in SME internationalization decision-making process. The findings from a sample of 176 export-active SMEs show that decision-makers tend to follow......This paper contributes to the growing body of empirical work on how SME decision-makers decide to internationalize in two ways: first, it responds to recent calls for incorporating strategic decision-making literature into understanding SME internationalization decisions. Second, it provides...... a better understanding of under what circumstances, SME decision-makers tend to follow a more rational approach toward internationalization decisions. Specifically, this paper examines a set of contextual variables (the level of perceived international risk, internationalization performance, planned versus...

  2. How Decisions Can Be Organized - and Why It Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Christensen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances allow organizational designers and managers to better understand how decision processes can be improved. These advances allow managers to address a number of critical questions about the structure and process of decision making, issues that are relevant for any kind of organization be it social, political, or economic. Can we add another employee somewhere in the decision process to increase economic performance? Can we add or eliminate a channel of communication to raise the quality of decisions? What level of skill is worth paying for when we hire a decision maker? Is it a good idea to push decision makers beyond their current capacity if doing so increases their error rate by five percent? Where does the injection of inexperienced decision makers hurt the least? We describe an organizational design approach that provides answers to such questions, and we offer specific guidelines that managers can use to improve decision making in their organizations.

  3. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel;

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... risk and utility that economists traditionally assume, allowance for rank-dependent decision weights, and consideration of income thresholds. We examine the issues involved in full maximum likelihood estimation of the model using observed choice data. We propose a general method for integrating...... the multiple criteria, using the logic of mixture models, which we believe is attractive from a decision-theoretic and statistical perspective. The model is applied to observed choices from a major natural experiment involving intrinsically dynamic choices over highly skewed outcomes. The evidence points...

  4. Decision analysis: a primer and application to pain-related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewhan; Nelson, Richard; Biskupiak, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Decision analysis is a quantitative approach to decision making under uncertainty that explicitly states all relevant components of the decision, including statement of the problem, identification of the perspective of the decision maker, alternative courses of action and their consequences, and a model that illustrates the decision-making process. Decision trees and Markov models are used to provide a simplified version of complex clinical problems to help decision makers understand the risks and benefits of several clinical options. This article provides an introduction to decision analysis by describing the construction of decision trees and Markov models and employing examples from the recent literature.

  5. A Method of Surrogate Model Construction which Leverages Lower-Fidelity Information using Space Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    errors found using the polynomial response surrogate (LS PRM ) overlaid on the data from the space-mapped (SM) surrogate...nonlinear space-mapped surrogate responses, with the least-squares PRM surrogate response plotted for comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 42...Percent error comparison between the least-squares space-mapping and the PRM surrogate models derived from samples in the second dataset

  6. Decision criteria of potential solar IPH adapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perwin, E.; Levine, A.; Mikasa, G.; Noun, R. J.; Schaller, D.

    1981-12-01

    If national programs are to be effective in the research and development of viable renewable resource technologies for the industrial sector, understanding industry's decision criteria will be important. The results of a preliminary investigation of the decision criteria of potential and actual users of solar industrial process heat systems are presented. Detailed interviews were completed with decision-makers from ten manufacturing firms. Based on economic theory, it was assumed that corporate decision-makers assess the expected cost, revenue, and uncertainty of competing investment opportunities. These decision criteria are composed of factors that are financial, technical, and institutional. Clearly, the firms interviewed were more concerned with costs than any other category of decision criteria. Most of the firms also believed that there was less uncertainty with competing investments than with current solar technology. Based on this preliminary investigation, a more extensive survey of industrial firms is suggested to determine a more comprehensive list of significant decision criteria.

  7. Complex Decision Making Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan; Spector, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    The increasingly complex environment of today's world, characterized by technological innovation and global communication, generates myriads of possible and actual interactions while limited physical and intellectual resources severely impinge on decision makers, be it in the public or private domains. At the core of the decision-making process is the need for quality information that allows the decision maker to better assess the impact of decisions in terms of outcomes, nonlinear feedback processes and time delays on the performance of the complex system invoked. This volume is a timely review on the principles underlying complex decision making, the handling of uncertainties in dynamic envrionments and of the various modeling approaches used. The book consists of five parts, each composed of several chapters: I: Complex Decision Making: Concepts, Theories and Empirical Evidence II: Tools and Techniques for Decision Making in Complex Environments and Systems III: System Dynamics and Agent-Based Modeling IV:...

  8. Boundary Organizations: Creating a Unique Model for Sustained Dialog Among Scientists and Decison Makers About Long-term Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, B.; Carter, H.; Knight, E.; Meyer, R.

    2015-12-01

    California Ocean Science Trust is a boundary organization formed by the state of California. We work across traditional boundaries between government, science, and communities to build trust and understanding in ocean and coastal science. We work closely with decision makers to understand their priority needs and identify opportunities for science to have a meaningful impact, and we engage scientists and other experts to compile and translate information into innovative products that help to meet those needs. This often sparks new collaborations that live well beyond the products themselves. Through this unique model, we are deepening relationships and facilitating an ongoing dialogue between scientists, decision-makers, and communities. The West Coast of the United States is already experiencing climate-driven changes in marine conditions at both large and small spatial scales. Decision makers are increasingly concerned with the potential threats that these changes pose to coastal communities, industries, ecosystems, and species. Detecting and understanding these multi-stressor changes requires consideration across scientific disciplines and management jurisdictions. Research and monitoring programs must reflect this new reality: they should be designed to connect with the decision makers who may use their results. In this presentation, I will share how we are drawing from the West Coast Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Science Panel - an interdisciplinary team of scientists convened by Ocean Science Trust from California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia - to develop actionable guidance for long-term monitoring for long-term change. Building on our experiences working with the Panel, I will discuss the unique model that boundary organizations provide for sustained dialog across traditionally siloed disciplines and management regimes, and share best practices and lessons learned in working across those boundaries.

  9. Beyond Relativism to Ethical Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Keith D.; Donlevy, J. Kent

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the ethical conundrum of educational decision makers when faced with a plethora of conflicting value-based decisions. It offers an analysis of a well-known fable as the foil to demonstrate the problematic nature of ethical relativism and postmodern ethics in resolving that conundrum, while advocating the use of five core…

  10. Design of Absorbing Wave Maker based on Digital Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    An absorbing wave maker operated by means of on-line signals from digital FIR filters is presented. Surface elevations are measured in two positions in front of the wave maker. The reflected wave train is seperated by the sum of the incident and reflected wave trains by means of digital filtering...... and subsequent superposition of the measured surface elevations. The motion of the wave paddle required to absorb reflected waves is determined and added to the original wave paddle control signal. Irregular wave tests involving test structures with different degrees of reflection show that excellent absorption...

  11. Decision strategy research: system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carle, B

    2000-07-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on decision strategies is (1) to develop theories, methods and software tools which help decision makers shape, analyse and understand their decisions; (2) to study group processes in decision making; (3) to apply theories, methods and tools in a context related to nuclear emergency preparedness and more generally to support in a context dealing with ionising radiation; (4) to increase SCK-CEN's knowledge on general emergency preparedness and to introduce SCK-CEN staff to computer supported decision techniques. Ongoing R and D has two components: (1) the study of the use of information and knowledge transfer in group decision processes, and more specific studying important factors when computers are used as information source and communication tool; and (2) the study of preference modelling individually and during group decision processes. Principal achievements in 1999 are described.

  12. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization in Material Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas B.; Holzwarth, Natalie A.W.;

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new approach based on surrogate modeling for geometry optimization in material design. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)......We propose a new approach based on surrogate modeling for geometry optimization in material design. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)...

  13. Human surrogate neck response to +Gz vertical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Uittenbogaard, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the evaluation of impact scenarios with a substantial vertical component, the performance of current human surrogates - the RID 3D hardware dummy and two numerical human models - was evaluated. Volunteer tests with 10G and 6G pulses were compared to reconstructed tests with human surrogates.

  14. Term clouds as surrogates for user generated speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tsagkias; M. Larson; M. de Rijke

    2008-01-01

    User generated spoken audio remains a challenge for Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology and content-based audio surrogates derived from ASR-transcripts must be error robust. An investigation of the use of term clouds as surrogates for podcasts demonstrates that ASR term clouds closely appr

  15. INTEC SBW Solid Sludge Surrogate Recipe and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maio, Vince; Janikowski, Stuart; Johnson, Jim; Maio, Vince; Pao, Jenn-Hai

    2004-06-01

    A nonhazardous INTEC tank farm sludge surrogate that incorporated metathesis reactions to generate solids from solutions of known elements present in the radioactive INTEC tank farm sodium-bearing waste sludges was formulated. Elemental analyses, physical property analyses, and filtration testing were performed on waste surrogate and tank farm waste samples, and the results were compared. For testing physical systems associated with moving the tank farm solids, the surrogate described in this report is the best currently available choice. No other available surrogate exhibits the noted similarities in behavior to the sludges. The chemical morphology, particle size distribution, and settling and flow characteristics of the surrogate were similar to those exhibited by the waste sludges. Nonetheless, there is a difference in chemical makeup of the surrogate and the tank farm waste. If a chemical treatment process were to be evaluated for final treatment and disposition of the waste sludges, the surrogate synthesis process would likely require modification to yield a surrogate with a closer matching chemical composition.

  16. Inactivation of Tulane virus, a novel surrogate for human norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause of non-bacterial epidemics of gastroenteritis. Due to the inability to cultivate HuNoVs and the lack of an efficient small animal model, surrogates are used to study HuNoV biology. Two such surrogates, the feline calicivirus (FCV) and the murine norovir...

  17. Human surrogate neck response to +Gz vertical impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, L. van; Uittenbogaard, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the evaluation of impact scenarios with a substantial vertical component, the performance of current human surrogates - the RID 3D hardware dummy and two numerical human models - was evaluated. Volunteer tests with 10G and 6G pulses were compared to reconstructed tests with human surrogates. Add

  18. Space Mapping Optimization of Microwave Circuits Exploiting Surrogate Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakr, M. H.; Bandler, J. W.; Madsen, Kaj

    2000-01-01

    A powerful new space-mapping (SM) optimization algorithm is presented in this paper. It draws upon recent developments in both surrogate model-based optimization and modeling of microwave devices, SM optimization is formulated as a general optimization problem of a surrogate model. This model...

  19. Preclinical and human surrogate models of itch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeck, Emil August; Marker, Jens Broch; Gazerani, Parisa;

    2016-01-01

    Pruritus, or simply itch, is a debilitating symptom that significantly decreases the quality of life in a wide range of clinical conditions. While histamine remains the most studied mediator of itch in humans, treatment options for chronic itch, in particular antihistamine-resistant itch, are lim...... currently applied in animals and humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Pruritus, or simply itch, is a debilitating symptom that significantly decreases the quality of life in a wide range of clinical conditions. While histamine remains the most studied mediator of itch in humans, treatment options for chronic itch, in particular antihistamine-resistant itch......, are limited. Relevant preclinical and human surrogate models of non-histaminergic itch are needed to accelerate the development of novel antipruritics and diagnostic tools. Advances in basic itch research have facilitated the development of diverse models of itch and associated dysesthesiae. While...

  20. Surrogates of plutonium for detection equipment testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerani, Paolo; Tomanin, Alice

    2011-10-01

    Fight against illicit trafficking of nuclear material relies on the possibility to detect nuclear material concealed in vehicles, people or cargo containers. This is done by equipping and training law enforcement and security staff in border stations or other points of access to strategic places and critical infrastructures with radiation detection equipment. The design, development, testing and evaluation of these instruments ideally require the use of real nuclear material to assess, verify and certify their detection performance. Availability of special nuclear material may be an issue, especially for industry, since only few specialized laboratories are licensed for such material. This paper tries to analyse and describe the possibility to use suitable surrogates that may replace the use of real nuclear material in testing the detection capabilities of instruments used in nuclear security.

  1. [Surrogate maternity--literature review and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilka, L; Rumpík, D; Pilka, R; Koudelka, M; Prudil, L

    2009-04-01

    This review summarizes opinions on surrogacy including internatinal and governmental organizations attitudes, as well as some religious concerns. Literature review. Reprofit International, Brno, Reproductive medicine and gynecology centre, Zlin, Department of obstetrics and gynecology, Palacky University, Olomouc. The developments in the field of assissted reproduction during the last twenty years have attracted unexpected public interest in some of its ethical and moral aspects. It is very difficult to find a uniform attitude to ethical concerns of assisted conception in plural society. Surrogate mother is defined as a woman who bears and relinquishes a child for another person. The european congress on human reproduction in Barcelona 2008 adopted following résumé on surrogacy: Public opinion has shifted to a position where surrogacy is recognized as an appropriate response to infertility in some circumstances and it is to be expected that this approach will be further strenghtened with stress on positive aspects of familiar life.

  2. Tractable Experiment Design via Mathematical Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This presentation summarizes the development and implementation of quantitative design criteria motivated by targeted inference objectives for identifying new, potentially expensive computational or physical experiments. The first application is concerned with estimating features of quantities of interest arising from complex computational models, such as quantiles or failure probabilities. A sequential strategy is proposed for iterative refinement of the importance distributions used to efficiently sample the uncertain inputs to the computational model. In the second application, effective use of mathematical surrogates is investigated to help alleviate the analytical and numerical intractability often associated with Bayesian experiment design. This approach allows for the incorporation of prior information into the design process without the need for gross simplification of the design criterion. Illustrative examples of both design problems will be presented as an argument for the relevance of these research problems.

  3. Redes de Producción y Diseminación de Información sobre Educación en América Latina y el Caribe: su Utilidad para Tomadores de Decisión. Networks of Production and Dissemination of Information on Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: Their Usefulness for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Téllez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a study that explored the formal and informal information networks operating in Latin America and the Caribbean, and estimated their utility for educational policymaking processes. To achieve this goal the following procedures were undertaken: first, a search for information networks in the region was conducted; second, an analysis matrix for information networks intended to reveal their main characteristics (origin, members, information resources provided, types of information offered and topics for which information is provided, among others was made; and third, interviews to key informants about the utility of these networks to design educational policies in the region were conducted. The main conclusions of the study were: a most of the information related to educational policy that circulates through information networks in Latin America and the Caribbean is not useful for policymaking processes; b the networks that offer analytic abstracts of research and policy experiences, and propose policy solutions for policy problems in a non-technical language increase the possibility of information use by policymakers; c informal networks, where consultants, advisors, or colleagues communicate orally to policymakers relevant information about the characteristics of successful policy initiatives in specific contexts, seem to have more impact than formal networks on policy development; and d the utility of information networks for educational policy decisions is related to their ability to communicate, in a clear and straightforward way, the main results of policy researches and experiences. Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio que exploró las distintas redes de información formales y no formales que existen en América Latina y el Caribe, estimando su utilidad para el diseño de políticas educativas. Para lograr lo anterior, se llevaron a cabo los siguientes procedimientos: primero, se elabor

  4. Sheet metal forming optimization by using surrogate modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Ye, Fan; Chen, Lei; Li, Enying

    2017-01-01

    Surrogate assisted optimization has been widely applied in sheet metal forming design due to its efficiency. Therefore, to improve the efficiency of design and reduce the product development cycle, it is important for scholars and engineers to have some insight into the performance of each surrogate assisted optimization method and make them more flexible practically. For this purpose, the state-of-the-art surrogate assisted optimizations are investigated. Furthermore, in view of the bottleneck and development of the surrogate assisted optimization and sheet metal forming design, some important issues on the surrogate assisted optimization in support of the sheet metal forming design are analyzed and discussed, involving the description of the sheet metal forming design, off-line and online sampling strategies, space mapping algorithm, high dimensional problems, robust design, some challenges and potential feasible methods. Generally, this paper provides insightful observations into the performance and potential development of these methods in sheet metal forming design.

  5. Surrogate-based modeling and dimension reduction techniques for multi-scale mechanics problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Shyy; Young-Chang Cho; Wenbo Du; Amit Gupta; Chien-Chou Tseng; Ann Marie Sastry

    2011-01-01

    Successful modeling and/or design of engineering systems often requires one to address the impact of multiple “design variables” on the prescribed outcome.There are often multiple,competing objectives based on which we assess the outcome of optimization.Since accurate,high fidelity models are typically time consuming and computationally expensive,comprehensive evaluations can be conducted only if an efficient framework is available.Furthermore,informed decisions of the model/hardware's overall performance rely on an adequate understanding of the global,not local,sensitivity of the individual design variables on the objectives.The surrogate-based approach,which involves approximating the objectives as continuous functions of design variables from limited data,offers a rational framework to reduce the number of important input variables,i.e.,the dimension of a design or modeling space.In this paper,we review the fundamental issues that arise in surrogate-based analysis and optimization,highlighting concepts,methods,techniques,as well as modeling implications for mechanics problems.To aid the discussions of the issues involved,we summarize recent efforts in investigating cryogenic cavitating flows,active flow control based on dielectric barrier discharge concepts,and lithium (Li)-ion batteries.It is also stressed that many multi-scale mechanics problems can naturally benefit from the surrogate approach for “scale bridging.”

  6. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D.; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor “source of funding”: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors “agreeableness” and “openness” showed moderate to modest – but significant – effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion. PMID:24624100

  7. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne ePrinz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002 lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version. Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor ‘source of funding’: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships had much higher rates of risk aversion (RRA than subjects with support from family (RRAdiff=0.22; p=0.018. Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the IQ significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors ‘agreeableness’ and ‘openness’ showed moderate to modest – but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  8. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual's financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor "source of funding": students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors "agreeableness" and "openness" showed moderate to modest - but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion.

  9. The Virtual Workplace Ethnography: Positioning Student Writers as Knowledge Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Workplace Ethnography is a first-year composition assignment that positions students as knowledge makers by requiring them to apply a theoretical lens ("Working Knowledge") to a video representation of a workplace. The lens provides multiple terms for analysis of workplace behaviors in context, providing a scaffolding for…

  10. Biosimilar Makers Hope Court Starts 6-Month Wait Sooner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ed

    2017-03-01

    The dispute centers on dueling interpretations of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act, which says a company seeking to sell a biosimilar must give the maker of the brand-name biologic at least a 180-day notice before selling its drug.

  11. SMILE Maker: A Web-Based Tool for Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Svetoslav; Aroyo, Lora; Kommers, Piet; Kurtev, Ivan

    This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between constructivism/instructivism, content-treatment…

  12. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  13. A computer-based education intervention to enhance surrogates' informed consent for genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Ann K; Freeman, Bradley D; Fish, Anne F; Bachman, Jean A; Richardson, Lloyd I

    2015-03-01

    Many research studies conducted today in critical care have a genomics component. Patients' surrogates asked to authorize participation in genomics research for a loved one in the intensive care unit may not be prepared to make informed decisions about a patient's participation in the research. To examine the effectiveness of a new, computer-based education module on surrogates' understanding of the process of informed consent for genomics research. A pilot study was conducted with visitors in the waiting rooms of 2 intensive care units in a Midwestern tertiary care medical center. Visitors were randomly assigned to the experimental (education module plus a sample genomics consent form; n = 65) or the control (sample genomics consent form only; n = 69) group. Participants later completed a test on informed genomics consent. Understanding the process of informed consent was greater (P = .001) in the experimental group than in the control group. Specifically, compared with the control group, the experimental group had a greater understanding of 8 of 13 elements of informed consent: intended benefits of research (P = .02), definition of surrogate consenter (P= .001), withdrawal from the study (P = .001), explanation of risk (P = .002), purpose of the institutional review board (P = .001), definition of substituted judgment (P = .03), compensation for harm (P = .001), and alternative treatments (P = .004). Computer-based education modules may be an important addition to conventional approaches for obtaining informed consent in the intensive care unit. Preparing patients' family members who may consider serving as surrogate consenters is critical to facilitating genomics research in critical care. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Research on group expandable optimization decision-ms,king model for construction programme choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the decision-making problem of construction programme choice, this paper advanced a new group expandable optimization decision-making model. Various factors were comprehensively considered, and the new multi- attribute evaluation index system was established. Based on the assumption that decision-makers were rational, this pa- per formed a group of rational preferences through extracting the personal preferences pertinently, so the decision-makers position matrix was determined. The decision-makers position matrix integrated values given by group decision-makers to construction programme comprised a matrix, of which the entropy theory for data mining was adopted in this paper to determine the attribute weights. A decision was made by using the extension decision method. Eventually, the feasibility and practicability of the model were verified by the example.

  15. Surrogate motherhood as a medical treatment procedure for women's infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Olga S

    2011-03-01

    The content of this work is conceived on the research of the consequences of surrogate motherhood as a process of assisted procreation, which represent a way of parenthood in cases when it is not possible to realize parenthood through a natural way. Surrogate motherhood is a process in which a woman (surrogate mother) agrees to carry a pregnancy with the intent to give the child to the couple with whom she has made a contract on surrogate maternity after the birth. This process of conception and birth makes the determination of the child's origin on its mother's side hard to determine, because of the distinction of the genetic and gestation phases of the two women. The concept of surrogate motherhood is to appear in two forms, depending on the existence or the non-existence of the genetic link between the surrogate mother and the child she gives birth to. There are gestation (full) and genetic (partial) surrogates each with different modalities and legal and ethical implications. In Serbia, Infertility Treatment and the Bio-medically Assisted Procreation Act from 2009 explicitly forbids surrogate motherhood, despite the fact that an infertile couple decides to use it, as a rule, after having tried all other treatment procedures, in cases when there is a diagnosis but the conventional treatment applied has not produced the desired results. Given the fact that no one has the right to ignore the sufferings of people who cannot procreate naturally, the medical practice and legal science in our country plead for a formulation of a legal framework in which to apply surrogate motherhood as an infertility treatment, under particular conditions.

  16. Quantitative decisions in drug development

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang-Stein, Christy

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a high-level treatise of evidence-based decisions in drug development. Because of the inseparable relationship between designs and decisions, a good portion of this book is devoted to the design of clinical trials. The book begins with an overview of product development and regulatory approval pathways. It then discusses how to incorporate prior knowledge into study design and decision making at different stages of drug development. The latter include selecting appropriate metrics to formulate decisions criteria, determining go/no-go decisions for progressing a drug candidate to the next stage and predicting the effectiveness of a product. Lastly, it points out common mistakes made by drug developers under the current drug-development paradigm. The book offers useful insights to statisticians, clinicians, regulatory affairs managers and decision-makers in the pharmaceutical industry who have a basic understanding of the drug-development process and the clinical trials conducted to support dru...

  17. Shared decision-making in epilepsy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, W O; Elwyn, G; Smith, P E M

    2015-06-01

    Policy makers, clinicians, and patients increasingly recognize the need for greater patient involvement in clinical decision-making. Shared decision-making helps address these concerns by providing a framework for clinicians and patients to make decisions together using the best evidence. Shared decision-making is applicable to situations where several acceptable options exist (clinical equipoise). Such situations occur commonly in epilepsy, for example, in decisions regarding the choice of medication, treatment in pregnancy, and medication withdrawal. A talk model is a way of implementing shared decision-making during consultations, and decision aids are useful tools to assist in the process. Although there is limited evidence available for shared decision-making in epilepsy, there are several benefits of shared decision-making in general including improved decision quality, more informed choices, and better treatment concordance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The decision-making process between rationality and emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvino, Letizia; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The decision-making process has been analyzed in several disciplines (economics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) with the aim of creating models to help decision-makers in strategy formulation. The Organizational theory takes into account both the decision-making process of individuals and groups

  19. A classification of the multiple criteria decision making models

    OpenAIRE

    Guerras Martín, Luis Angel

    1987-01-01

    In this work we have tried to present a classification of multiobjective techniques based in the relationship between the main subJects of decision process: analyst and decision maker. These relation, in terms of information flows, have important consequences for decision making processes in business organizations.

  20. Decision to resuscitate or not in patients with chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltbæk, Lena; Tvedegaard, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decisions are frequently made without informing the patients. We attempt to determine whether patients and physicians wish to discuss the DNR decision, who they think, should be the final decision maker and whether they agree on the indication for cardiopulmonary resuscit...... resuscitation (CPR) in case of cardiac arrest....

  1. A Generic Approach to the Development of Tactical Decision Aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.; Brake, G. te

    2005-01-01

    Military tactics require efficient and effective decision making in unclear, complex and dynamic environments. Tactical decision-makers need to make the right choices based on large amounts of data from various sources with varying reliability and often under severe time-pressure. Therefore decision

  2. Management and Decision Making in the Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna; Paolucci, Beatrice

    1974-01-01

    Types of decisions (educational, social, and resource) made by nursery school personnel and the process of helping children become effective decision-makers are explored. Nursery school management may be evaluated by asking, how effective is decision making in the nursery school, and how is each child actually progressing? (AJ)

  3. Swift and Smart Decision Making: Heuristics that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the research literature on decision making and identify and develop a set of heuristics that work for school decision makers. Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is a synthesis of the research on decision-making heuristics that work. Findings: A set of nine rules for swift and smart decision…

  4. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  5. Use of economic evaluation in decision making: evidence and recommendations for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2010-10-22

    Information about the value for money of a medicine as derived from an economic evaluation can be used for decision-making purposes by policy makers, healthcare payers, healthcare professionals and pharmaceutical companies. This article illustrates the use of economic evaluation by decision makers and formulates a number of recommendations to enhance the use of such evaluations for decision-making purposes. Over the last decades, there has been a substantial increase in the number of economic evaluations assessing the value for money of medicines. Economic evaluation is used by policy makers and healthcare payers to inform medicine pricing/reimbursement decisions in more and more countries. It is a suitable tool to evaluate medicines and to present information about their value for money to decision makers in a familiar format. In order to fully exploit the use of economic evaluation for decision-making purposes, researchers need to take care to conduct such economic evaluations according to methodologically sound principles. Additionally, researchers need to take into account the decision-making context. They need to identify the various objectives that decision makers pursue and discuss how decision makers can use study findings to attain these objectives. These issues require further attention from researchers, policy makers, healthcare payers, healthcare professionals and pharmaceutical companies with a view to optimizing the use of economic evaluation in decision making.

  6. Effective use of integrated hydrological models in basin-scale water resources management: surrogate modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated hydrological models (IHMs) consider surface water and subsurface water as a unified system, and have been widely adopted in basin-scale water resources studies. However, due to IHMs' mathematical complexity and high computational cost, it is difficult to implement them in an iterative model evaluation process (e.g., Monte Carlo Simulation, simulation-optimization analysis, etc.), which diminishes their applicability for supporting decision-making in real-world situations. Our studies investigated how to effectively use complex IHMs to address real-world water issues via surrogate modeling. Three surrogate modeling approaches were considered, including 1) DYCORS (DYnamic COordinate search using Response Surface models), a well-established response surface-based optimization algorithm; 2) SOIM (Surrogate-based Optimization for Integrated surface water-groundwater Modeling), a response surface-based optimization algorithm that we developed specifically for IHMs; and 3) Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM), a stochastic response surface approach. Our investigation was based on a modeling case study in the Heihe River Basin (HRB), China's second largest endorheic river basin. The GSFLOW (Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model) model was employed. Two decision problems were discussed. One is to optimize, both in time and in space, the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for agricultural irrigation in the middle HRB region; and the other is to cost-effectively collect hydrological data based on a data-worth evaluation. Overall, our study results highlight the value of incorporating an IHM in making decisions of water resources management and hydrological data collection. An IHM like GSFLOW can provide great flexibility to formulating proper objective functions and constraints for various optimization problems. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that surrogate modeling approaches can pave the path for such incorporation in real

  7. Impact of Climate Change: Views and Perceptions of Policy Makers on Smallholder Agriculture in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Tetteh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The threat of global climate change has caused intense debate among policy makers as agricultural productivity and food security risks considerable decline due to changes in rainfallpatterns and temperature. Although the impact of climate change on crop yields vary greatly from region to region, smallholder farmers in developing countries who depend solely on rain-fed agriculture are among the most disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. While the successes in agricultural production in Africa and Ghana over the last decades are heralded, the inequitable distribution of benefits and unsustainable impacts on natural resources are becoming more evident. Many authors have blamed global warming and climate change on the emission of greenhouse gasses however, farming methods and other human activities are also to blame for the emerging change in the climate. Therefore, bringing farming practices and ecosystem services into decision-making in order to make full use of the potential gains from working with the natural environment and the underpinning biophysical processes is imperative. This paper assesses the views and perceptions of Ghanaian policy makers on the impact of climate change on smallholder agricultural productivity in order to sustain agricultural productivity in Ghana. The study used data from a case study conducted by the Environment Policy Action Node Project with sponsorship from the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA in Ghana between 2012 and 2013. An interview guide was used to collect qualitatively data from 35 key policy making institutions/organization in Ghana. One important finding of the paper is that even though Ghana has a climate change policy, most of the policy makers were not aware of the policy document and its contents. The paper however argues that to improve smallholder agricultural productivity in Ghana, a national debate on climate change mitigation and adaptation policies are needed to ensure coherence

  8. SURROGATE MOTHER DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM PIDANA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Muntaha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of science and technology, in particular in the field of health, has already recently brought a huge advantage and problem in human life. An example of technological marvel that not only requires deep legal thoughts but also at the same time solution is the bio-medical technology advancement of surrogacy. Surrogacy deals with human’s inclination towards reproductive activity. However, it opens up legal complication, in particular with regards to the potential commission of a criminal action as well as to the notion of doctor’s liability. Perkembangan ilmu dan teknologi di bidang kesehatan yang semakin maju dan pesat telah membawa berbagai manfaat dan masalah dalam kehidupan manusia dewasa ini. Salah satu perkembangan yang tidak hanya membutuhkan pemikiran di bidang hukum, tetapi juga sekaligus solusinya adalah mengenai kecanggihan teknologi bio-medis surrogate mother. Surrogacy menyentuh sisi kemanusiaan seorang insan terhadap reproduksi. Akan tetapi, lembaga surrogacy juga membawa komplikasi hukum terutama terkait dengan potensi tindak pidana dan dengan persoalan tanggung jawab dokter.

  9. Polynomial Chaos Surrogates for Bayesian Inference

    KAUST Repository

    Le Maitre, Olivier

    2016-01-06

    The Bayesian inference is a popular probabilistic method to solve inverse problems, such as the identification of field parameter in a PDE model. The inference rely on the Bayes rule to update the prior density of the sought field, from observations, and derive its posterior distribution. In most cases the posterior distribution has no explicit form and has to be sampled, for instance using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. In practice the prior field parameter is decomposed and truncated (e.g. by means of Karhunen- Lo´eve decomposition) to recast the inference problem into the inference of a finite number of coordinates. Although proved effective in many situations, the Bayesian inference as sketched above faces several difficulties requiring improvements. First, sampling the posterior can be a extremely costly task as it requires multiple resolutions of the PDE model for different values of the field parameter. Second, when the observations are not very much informative, the inferred parameter field can highly depends on its prior which can be somehow arbitrary. These issues have motivated the introduction of reduced modeling or surrogates for the (approximate) determination of the parametrized PDE solution and hyperparameters in the description of the prior field. Our contribution focuses on recent developments in these two directions: the acceleration of the posterior sampling by means of Polynomial Chaos expansions and the efficient treatment of parametrized covariance functions for the prior field. We also discuss the possibility of making such approach adaptive to further improve its efficiency.

  10. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation and entropy weight decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... With the rapid development of the Chinese electric power industry, the working .... The amount of useful information that the target provides to the decision-maker is reduced.

  11. A Large-Scale Study of Surrogate Physicality and Gesturing on Human–Surrogate Interactions in a Public Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangsoo Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological human surrogates, including robotic and virtual humans, have been popularly used in various scenarios, including training, education, and entertainment. Prior research has investigated the effects of the surrogate’s physicality and gesturing in human perceptions and social influence of the surrogate. However, those studies have been carried out in research laboratories, where the participants were aware that it was an experiment, and the participant demographics are typically relatively narrow—e.g., college students. In this paper, we describe and share results from a large-scale exploratory user study involving 7,685 people in a public space, where they were unaware of the experimental nature of the setting, to investigate the effects of surrogate physicality and gesturing on their behavior during human–surrogate interactions. We evaluate human behaviors using several variables, such as proactivity and reactivity, and proximity. We have identified several interesting phenomena that could lead to hypotheses developed as part of future hypothesis-based studies. Based on the measurements of the variables, we believe people are more likely to be engaged in a human–surrogate interaction when the surrogate is physically present, but movements and gesturing with its body parts have not shown the expected benefits for the interaction engagement. Regarding the demographics of the people in the study, we found higher overall engagement for females than males, and higher reactivity for younger than older people. We discuss implications for practitioners aiming to design a technological surrogate that will directly interact with real humans.

  12. PaperMaker: validation of biomedical scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, D; Kavaliauskas, S; Pezik, P

    2010-04-01

    The automatic analysis of scientific literature can support authors in writing their manuscripts. PaperMaker is a novel IT solution that receives a scientific manuscript via a Web interface, automatically analyses the publication, evaluates consistency parameters and interactively delivers feedback to the author. It analyses the proper use of acronyms and their definitions, and the use of specialized terminology. It provides Gene Ontology (GO) and Medline Subject Headings (MeSH) categorization of text passages, the retrieval of relevant publications from public scientific literature repositories, and the identification of missing or unused references. The author receives a summary of findings, the manuscript in its corrected form and a digital abstract containing the GO and MeSH annotations in the NLM/PubMed format. http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Rebholz-srv/PaperMaker.

  13. The Power Makers' Challenge And the Need for Fission Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Power Makers - the producers of our electricity - must meet the demands of their customers while also addressing the threat of climate change. There are widely differing views about solutions to electricity generation in an emission constrained world. Some see the problem as relatively straight forward, requiring deep cuts in emissions now by improving energy efficiency, energy conservation and using only renewable resources. Many electricity industry engineers and scientists see the problem as being much more involved.   The Power Makers ’ Challenge: and the need for Fission Energy looks at why using only conventional renewable energy sources is not quite as simple as it seems. Following a general introduction to electricity and its distribution, the author quantifies the reductions needed in greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector in the face of ever increasing world demands for electricity. It provides some much needed background on the many energy sources available for producing electricity ...

  14. Decision Making in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  15. Safety surrogate histograms (SSH): A novel real-time safety assessment of dilemma zone related conflicts at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanipoor Machiani, Sahar; Abbas, Montasir

    2016-11-01

    Drivers' indecisiveness in dilemma zones (DZ) could result in crash-prone situations at signalized intersections. DZ is to the area ahead of an intersection in which drivers encounter a dilemma regarding whether to stop or proceed through the intersection when the signal turns yellow. An improper decision to stop by the leading driver, combined with the following driver deciding to go, can result in a rear-end collision, unless the following driver recognizes a collision is imminent and adjusts his or her behavior at or shortly after the onset of yellow. Considering the significance of DZ-related crashes, a comprehensive safety measure is needed to characterize the level of safety at signalized intersections. In this study, a novel safety surrogate measure was developed utilizing real-time radar field data. This new measure, called safety surrogate histogram (SSH), captures the degree and frequency of DZ-related conflicts at each intersection approach. SSH includes detailed information regarding the possibility of crashes, because it is calculated based on the vehicles conflicts. An example illustrating the application of the new methodology at two study sites in Virginia is presented and discussed, and a comparison is provided between SSH and other DZ-related safety surrogate measures mentioned in the literature. The results of the study reveal the efficacy of the SSH as complementary to existing surrogate measures.

  16. Development of coffee maker service robot using speech and face recognition systems using POMDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiharto, Widodo; Meiliana; Santoso Gunawan, Alexander Agung

    2016-07-01

    There are many development of intelligent service robot in order to interact with user naturally. This purpose can be done by embedding speech and face recognition ability on specific tasks to the robot. In this research, we would like to propose Intelligent Coffee Maker Robot which the speech recognition is based on Indonesian language and powered by statistical dialogue systems. This kind of robot can be used in the office, supermarket or restaurant. In our scenario, robot will recognize user's face and then accept commands from the user to do an action, specifically in making a coffee. Based on our previous work, the accuracy for speech recognition is about 86% and face recognition is about 93% in laboratory experiments. The main problem in here is to know the intention of user about how sweetness of the coffee. The intelligent coffee maker robot should conclude the user intention through conversation under unreliable automatic speech in noisy environment. In this paper, this spoken dialog problem is treated as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). We describe how this formulation establish a promising framework by empirical results. The dialog simulations are presented which demonstrate significant quantitative outcome.

  17. Urban logistics: how can it meet policy makers' sustainability objectives?

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, S; Allen, J.; Browne, M

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses how urban freight activity can function such that it meets the urban sustainability objectives policy makers are now beginning to implement. It considers: the importance of urban freight transport in maintaining the economic vitality of the city; the negative impacts that it imposes; the concept of urban sustainability and the development of sustainability strategies; and the means and measures by which freight transport could be made more sustainable. It presents results...

  18. The Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA): A tool to aid developers and decision makers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabille, E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Why is a wind atlas important for South Africa? This presentation recommends that a dedicated wind energy measurement programme needs to be undertaken to confirm the true wind energy potential in South Africa....

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility in NCAA Athletics: Institutional Practices and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lauren Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Tactical corporate social responsibility (CSR) can play a central role in an organization's strategic management (Hamil & Morrow, 2011) by enhancing the relationship between an organization and its key stakeholders (Babiak & Wolfe, 2009). In the context of sport, these stakeholders can include fans, the media, team employees, and the…

  20. Preparing Capable Decision Makers for an Uncertain Future within Underdeveloped, Degraded and Denied Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    HIQUES. POETRY . RHETHEORIQUE LOG IQ UE . The Science o f J ust a nd Unjust. Con sequ en ces from the Pass ion s o f Men...Consider a more expansive ‘smart power’ interpretation, where the influences of the hard physical strengths and the more mental, and nuanced soft...Consequences from the rest of the Senses. OPTIQUES. MUSIQUE. ETHIQUES. POETRY . RHETHEORIQUE. LOGIQUE. The Science of Just and Unjust

  1. Counter-Factual Reinforcement Learning: How to Model Decision-Makers That Anticipate The Future

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Bono, James; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Tracey, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game. This "iterated semi network-form game" framework has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic players (i.e., players account for one another's reward functions when predicting one another's behavior), and (3) computational tractability even on real-world systems. We achieve these benefits by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. T...

  2. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The credibility of evidence or information submitted in the applicant's request for a waiver; and (ii... security clearance necessary to review classified or otherwise protected information and evidence. If the... not include evidence or information that was not presented to TSA in the request for a waiver under...

  3. Potential for the adoption of probabilistic risk assessments by end-users and decision-makers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van den Brink, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    -user and regulatory uptake has not been, to date, extensive. A case study, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, was conducted in order to identify potential determinants of end-user adoption of probabilistic risk assessments associated with the ecotoxicological impact of pesticides. Seventy potential end...

  4. Parent Support Services at the Workplace: What's Involved? Guidelines for Corporate Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eleanor T.

    A comprehensive program of services for working parents who are employees of a consortium of companies is described and evaluated. With the support of the Prospect Hill Executive Office Park in Waltham, Massachusetts, the Prospect Hill Parents' and Children's Center offers parent support services, such as information and counseling, information…

  5. Software project estimation the fundamentals for providing high quality information to decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Abran, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Software projects are often late and over-budget and this leads to major problems for software customers. Clearly, there is a serious issue in estimating a realistic, software project budget. Furthermore, generic estimation models cannot be trusted to provide credible estimates for projects as complex as software projects. This book presents a number of examples using data collected over the years from various organizations building software. It also presents an overview of the non-for-profit organization, which collects data on software projects, the International Software Benchmarking Stan

  6. BiFold: visualizing decision-makers and choice in a common embedding space

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Yazhen; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The emerging domain of data-enabled science necessitates development of algorithms and tools to provide for knowledge discovery. Human interaction with data through well-constructed graphical representation can take special advantage of our visual processing system's ability to identify patterns. We develop a data visualization framework, called BiFold, for exploratory analysis of binary relationships between two groups of objects. Typical data examples would include voting records, organizational memberships, and pairwise associations, or other binary datasets. BiFold visualization provides a low dimensional embedding of the data in a way that captures similarity by visual nearness, analogous to Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). The unique and new feature of BiFold is its ability to simultaneously capture both the within-group and between-group relationships among the objects, significantly enhancing visual knowledge discovery. We benchmark BiFold using the classic Southern Women Dataset, where previously iden...

  7. Electricity Storage and Renewables for Island Power. A Guide for Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komor, P.; Glassmire, J. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable development. In island and remote communities, where grid extension is difficult and fuel transportation and logistics are challenging and costly, renewable energy is emerging as the energy supply solution for the 21st century, ensuring reliable and secure energy supply in such communities. The deployment of renewable energy technologies is increasing globally, supported by rapidly declining prices and government policies and strategies in many countries, resulting in renewable energy solutions being the most cost-effective option in many markets today. For example, in 2011 the Special Report of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation showed that approximately 50% of new electricity generation capacity added globally between 2008 and 2009 came from renewable energy sources. Therefore, the future of renewables as the base energy source for islands and remote communities looks very bright. However, as the share of renewables in power supply increases, the natural variability of some renewable energy sources must be tackled appropriately to ensure continuous availability and efficient use of the energy generated. Successful strategies to manage this variability can encompass a range of measures, such as a balanced supply technology portfolio, geographical spread of supply, better forecasting tools, demand-side management and appropriate storage solutions. Traditionally, large scale electricity storage systems were based on pumped hydropower installations. New solutions are emerging, including affordable and long-lasting batteries. This technology field is developing rapidly and prices are falling. IRENA has developed this report as a practical guide to the available energy storage solutions and their successful applications in the context of islands communities. The report also includes various best practice cases and different scenarios and strategies. It is part of the IRENA Renewables in Islands Initiative (IRII) and contributes to the sustainable energy for all initiative of the United Nations.

  8. Human Capital: DOD Should Fully Develop Its Civilian Strategic Workforce Plan to Aid Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    DOD’s 2013-2018 Workforce Plan 22 functional communities 32 mission-critical occupations (series) Medical Psychology Series (0180) Social Work...Updates. Listen to our Podcasts . Visit GAO on the web at www.gao.gov. Contact: Website: http://www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm E-mail: fraudnet

  9. Joint Hazard Assessment for Urban Decision-Makers in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R. M.; Little, C. M.; Coffel, E.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the large municipalities of the Northeastern U.S. have conducted adaptation assessments that include downscaled climate projections. In these assessments, each climate variable has generally been considered independently, and downscaling methodologies have generally not been tailored to the extremes of a variable's distribution. In the wake of events such as Hurricane Sandy, stakeholder need and scientific advances are increasingly converging towards assessments focused on extreme events from a joint hazards perspective, across multiple climate variables. Such a joint approach requires consideration of possible correlation across climate variables (e.g., changes in relative sea level rise and coastal storms), as well as emphasis on additional variables—and their extremes—not considered quantitatively to date (e.g., humidity). This presentation will focus on two examples: 1) heat stress, based on combined impacts of high temperatures and high humidity, and 2) coastal flood risk associated with combined impacts of sea level rise and changes in coastal storms. This talk will demonstrate how the joint hazards approach can lead to large changes in projected extreme event frequency, relative to downscaling approaches that treat climate variables as independent. Challenges—and opportunities--associated with downscaling across multiple climate variables, with an emphasis on the extremes of the variables, will also be highlighted.

  10. COMMUNICATING THE PARAMETER UNCERTAINTY IN THE IQWIG EFFICIENCY FRONTIER TO DECISION-MAKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, Björn; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Briggs, Andrew; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Caro, Jaime J; Siebert, Uwe; Danner, Marion; Gerber-Grote, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) developed—in a consultation process with an international expert panel—the efficiency frontier (EF) approach to satisfy a range of legal requirements for economic evaluation in Germany's statutory health insurance system. The EF approach is distinctly different from other health economic approaches. Here, we evaluate established tools for assessing and communicating parameter uncertainty in terms of their applicability to the EF approach. Among these are tools that perform the following: (i) graphically display overall uncertainty within the IQWiG EF (scatter plots, confidence bands, and contour plots) and (ii) communicate the uncertainty around the reimbursable price. We found that, within the EF approach, most established plots were not always easy to interpret. Hence, we propose the use of price reimbursement acceptability curves—a modification of the well-known cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Furthermore, it emerges that the net monetary benefit allows an intuitive interpretation of parameter uncertainty within the EF approach. This research closes a gap for handling uncertainty in the economic evaluation approach of the IQWiG methods when using the EF. However, the precise consequences of uncertainty when determining prices are yet to be defined. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24590819

  11. Home care in Europe: growing interest among decision makers, but little information available for policy development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genet, N.

    2010-01-01

    Research problem: Integrated systems of home care are assumed to be an adequate response to current and future challenges to health and social services that result from demographic and social developments. The interest in home care systems and the willingness to learn from foreign experiences is gro

  12. Better to Be Active (Rather Than Passive) When Considering How Soil Moisture Can Help Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, R.

    2016-12-01

    As recent events have shown, Texas is a land of drought and flood. Texas experienced the worst one-year drought of record in 2011; the second worst statewide drought of record between 2010 and 2015; and record-breaking floods in the spring of 2015, fall of 2015, and spring of 2016 (with flash droughts occurring during the summers of 2015 and 2016). Soil moisture is one factor that links drought and flood in addressing key policy and management questions: When will soil moisture be high enough to allow groundwater recharge and runoff into reservoirs? When will soil moisture be high enough to cause flash floods with excessive rainfall? After tragic floods in Wimberley in the spring of 2015, Texas is expanding its stream-flow monitoring capabilities and is starting a statewide mesonet called TexMesonet to provide more detailed weather information to flood forecasters but also to provide baseline information on soil moisture for flood, drought, and water conservation purposes. Our hope is that the TexMesonet will help ground-truth SMAP and other remote sensing systems, help improve the National Water Model (a next generation tool for flood forecasting), and spark research into sub-basin soil moisture predictors of runoff which break water-supply droughts or lead to major floods.

  13. Potential for the adaptation of probabilistic risk assessments by end-users and decision-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Byrne, P.; Brock, T.C.M.; Brown, C.; Crocker, J.; Goerlitz, G.; Hart, A.; Scholderer, J.; Solomon, K.

    2008-01-01

    In the area of risk assessment associated with ecotoxicological and plant protection products, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies have been developed that enable quantification of variability and uncertainty. Despite the potential advantages of these new methodologies, end-user and re

  14. Families as Decision-Makers: When Researchers and Advocates Work Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields-Smith, Cheryl; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Families across the United States must routinely make difficult choices about child care arrangements because of the need to resume a job, continue an education or training program, or care for other family members. Leaving children in the care of others for the first time can be difficult (Sayer, Bianchi, & Robinson, 2004; Van Horn, Ramey,…

  15. Potential for the adoption of probabilistic risk assessments by end-users and decision-makers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; van den Brink, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    -user and regulatory uptake has not been, to date, extensive. A case study, utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior, was conducted in order to identify potential determinants of end-user adoption of probabilistic risk assessments associated with the ecotoxicological impact of pesticides. Seventy potential end...

  16. The Strategically Manageable University: Perceptions of Strategic Choice and Strategic Change among Key Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frølich, Nicoline; Stensaker, Bjørn; Scordato, Lisa; Bótas, Paulo Charles Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    One common way of conceptualising recent changes in university governance is by stating that the universities are being pushed towards a market-like setting where the uniqueness of each university's strategy and capacity for introducing organizational change is seen as necessary to improve the functioning of the university. We argue that the…

  17. Citizen-sensor-networks to confront government decision-makers: Two lessons from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Linda; Ache, Peter

    2017-03-09

    This paper presents one emerging social-technical innovation: The evolution of citizen-sensor-networks where citizens organize themselves from the 'bottom up', for the sake of confronting governance officials with measured information about environmental qualities. We have observed how citizen-sensor-networks have been initiated in the Netherlands in cases where official government monitoring and business organizations leave gaps. The formed citizen-sensor-networks collect information about issues that affect the local community in their quality-of-living. In particular, two community initiatives are described where the sensed environmental information, on noise pollution and gas-extraction induced earthquakes respectively, is published through networked geographic information methods. Both community initiatives pioneered in developing an approach that comprises the combined setting-up of sensor data flows, real-time map portals and community organization. Two particular cases are analyzed to trace the emergence and network operation of such 'networked geo-information tools' in practice: (1) The Groningen earthquake monitor, and (2) The Airplane Monitor Schiphol. In both cases, environmental 'externalities' of spatial-economic activities play an important role, having economic dimensions of national importance (e.g. gas extraction and national airport development) while simultaneously affecting the regional community with environmental consequences. The monitoring systems analyzed in this paper are established bottom-up, by citizens for citizens, to serve as 'information power' in dialogue with government institutions. The goal of this paper is to gain insight in how these citizen-sensor-networks come about: how the idea for establishing a sensor network originated, how their value gets recognized and adopted in the overall 'system of governance'; to what extent they bring countervailing power against vested interests and established discourses to the table and influence power-laden conflicts over environmental pressures; and whether or not they achieve (some form of) institutionalization and, ultimately, policy change. We find that the studied-citizen-sensor networks gain strength by uniting efforts and activities in crowdsourcing data, providing factual, 'objectivized data' or 'evidence' of the situation 'on the ground' on a matter of local community-wide concern. By filling an information need of the local community, a process of 'collective sense-making' combined with citizen empowerment could grow, which influenced societal discourse and challenged prevailing truth-claims of public institutions. In both cases similar, 'competing' web-portals were developed in response, both by the gas-extraction company and the airport. But with the citizen-sensor-networks alongside, we conclude there is a shift in power balance involved between government and affected communities, as the government no longer has information monopoly on environmental measurements.

  18. Detecting Methane Emission Sources in California: a Case-Study of Scientist/Decision-Maker Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Aubrey, A. D.; Falk, M.; Kuwayama, T.; Hinojosa, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reducing anthropogenic methane emissions is a high priority for the state of California as a strategy to meet near-term greenhouse gas emissions targets. However, implementation of an effective, cost-efficient methane mitigation plan requires local-to-regional scale information on methane sources, and cooperation of diverse stakeholders. We hypothesize that methane "super-emitters," large point sources thought to contribute disproportionately to anthropogenic methane emissions, are logical mitigation targets. We outline a tiered observing strategy involving satellite, aircraft, and surface observations to identify these super-emitters and their contribution to regional methane emissions. We demonstrate this approach with field studies of agricultural and oil and gas sources in California's San Joaquin Valley with cooperation a multi-stakeholder team. This partnership between researchers, regulators, and methane emitting industry took advantage of data sharing, site access, and complementary measurement approaches to identify appropriate methane mitigation targets. This experience suggests that collaborative partnerships that leverage multiple observational methods will be required for identifying methane mitigation targets and crafting regionally appropriate methane mitigation policy.

  19. Creating a high resolution social vulnerability map in support of national decision makers in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alice

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The core objective of this study was to create a social vulnerability map based on generally accepted variables that are indicative of drivers of social vulnerability, capturing the unique attributes of South African communities. The paper explains...

  20. Decision-Makers' Forum on a Unified Strategy for Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    An abundant and secure energy supply is critical to our country’s prosperity, and energy supply is now a central issue in global stability and security. Unfortunately, the Unites States continues to steadily increase the fraction of energy it imports from foreign sources. In May 2001, the National Energy Policy noted that this imbalance, "if allowed to continue, will inevitably undermine our economy, our standard of living, and our national security." In addition to these serious impacts, growing concern about air pollution and atmospheric carbon levels hold the potential for global climate change. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth’s surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. The current energy supply situation clearly demands coordinated action. Nuclear energy is preeminent in its ability to deliver affordable energy today and meet the growing imperatives for clean air and energy supplies in the future.

  1. Informing the decision makers on the cost and value of green building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Ed; Howard, Nigel

    2000-09-01

    This paper seeks to challenge the traditional way in which we assess the value of green buildings in terms of their environmental friendliness, energy efficiency and whole life cost. In the UK, quantity surveyors (or cost consultants) have a perception that more energy efficient and environmentally friendly buildings cost between 5% and 15% more to build from the outset. This common assumption is not backed up by recent research and should be questioned. Construction professionals need to be informed of the whole life cost and environmental impact of buildings so that they can encourage key stakeholders to make more sustainable choices. These emerging issues together with practical tools are considered with case studies from recent projects. (Author)

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility in NCAA Athletics: Institutional Practices and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lauren Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Tactical corporate social responsibility (CSR) can play a central role in an organization's strategic management (Hamil & Morrow, 2011) by enhancing the relationship between an organization and its key stakeholders (Babiak & Wolfe, 2009). In the context of sport, these stakeholders can include fans, the media, team employees, and the…

  3. Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers, September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Partyka, E.

    2010-09-01

    This guide presents an overview of the process for successfully planning for and installing solar technology on a federal site. It is specifically targeted to managers of federal buildings and sites, contracting officers, energy and sustainability officers, and regional procurement managers. The solar project process is outlined in a concise, easy-to-understand, step-by-step format. Information includes a brief overview of legislation and executive orders related to renewable energy and the compelling reasons for implementing a solar project on a federal site. It also includes how to assess a facility to identify the best solar installation site, project recommendations and considerations to help avoid unforeseen issues, and guidance on financing and contracting options. Case studies with descriptions of successful solar deployments across multiple agencies are presented. In addition, detailed information and sample documents for specific tasks are referenced with Web links or included in the appendixes. The guide concentrates on distributed solar generation and not large, centralized solar energy generation.

  4. Laboratory Information Management Systems for Forensic Laboratories: A White Paper for Directors and Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Hendrickson; Brian Mennecke; Kevin Scheibe; Anthony Townsend

    2005-10-01

    Modern, forensics laboratories need Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) implementations that allow the lab to track evidentiary items through their examination lifecycle and also serve all pertinent laboratory personnel. The research presented here presents LIMS core requirements as viewed by respondents serving in different forensic laboratory capacities as well as different forensic laboratory environments. A product-development methodology was employed to evaluate the relative value of the key features that constitute a LIMS, in order to develop a set of relative values for these features and the specifics of their implementation. In addition to the results of the product development analysis, this paper also provides an extensive review of LIMS and provides an overview of the preparation and planning process for the successful upgrade or implementation of a LIMS. Analysis of the data indicate that the relative value of LIMS components are viewed differently depending upon respondents' job roles (i.e., evidence technicians, scientists, and lab management), as well as by laboratory size. Specifically, the data show that: (1) Evidence technicians place the most value on chain of evidence capabilities and on chain of custody tracking; (2) Scientists generally place greatest value on report writing and generation, and on tracking daughter evidence that develops during their analyses; (3) Lab. Managers place the greatest value on chain of custody, daughter evidence, and not surprisingly, management reporting capabilities; and (4) Lab size affects LIMS preference in that, while all labs place daughter evidence tracking, chain of custody, and management and analyst report generation as their top three priorities, the order of this prioritization is size dependent.

  5. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  6. Hepatology may have problems with putative surrogate outcome measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper; Gong, Yan;

    2007-01-01

    hepatitis C, serum bilirubin concentration following ursodeoxycholic acid or immunosuppressants for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, and nutritional outcomes following artificial nutrition for liver patients may not be valid surrogates for morbidity or mortality. The challenge is to develop reliable...

  7. Fernald Silos 1 & 2 Accelerated Waste Retrieval Program Surrogate Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, O Dennis; Erian, Fadel F.

    2002-09-01

    Whitepaper describing the rationale and methodology for development of surrogates to be used for testing retrieval and processing systems for the DOE Fernald Silos 1 & 2 wastes. One significant updating/revision is expected.

  8. Quantum decision making by social agents

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2012-01-01

    Decision making of agents who are members of a society is analyzed from the point of view of quantum decision theory. This generalizes the approach, developed earlier by the authors for separate individuals, to decision making under the influence of social interactions. The generalized approach not only avoids paradoxes, typical of classical decision making based on utility theory, but also explains the error-attenuation effects observed for the paradoxes occurring when decision makers, who are members of a society, consult with each other increasing in this way the available mutual information.

  9. Public perception on forestry issues in the Region of Valencia (Eastern Spain): diverging from policy makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabra-Crespo, M.; Mola-Yudego, B.; Gritten, D.; Rojas-Briales, E.

    2012-11-01

    Are the policies designed by decision-makers differing from society's wishes and preferences. The present paper analyzes the divergences between forest policy and public opinion in the Region of Valencia (Comunidad Valenciana) in Eastern Spain. The data is based on an extensive telephone survey of the general public on their perception of forestry issues. The issues studied include attitudes regarding forest fires, silvicultural treatments, the externalise produced by forest owners, and the state forest services role related to these issues. In total, the answers of 823 respondents were analyzed using classification trees. The results of the analysis showed a large divergence between the desires, preferences and priorities of society, on the one hand, and the policies implemented by the regional government, on the other. The study concludes that communication strategies concerning sustainable forest management need to be further developed by the responsible authorities, with the input of the research community. (Author) 53 refs.

  10. THE SURROGATE COLONIZATION OF PALESTINE, 1917-1939

    OpenAIRE

    Atran, Scott

    1989-01-01

    The "surrogate colonization" of Palestine had a foreign power giving to a nonnative group rights over land occupied by an indigenous people. It thus brought into play the complementary and conflicting agendas of three culturally distinguishable parties: British, Jews and Arabs. Each party had both "externalist" [those with no sustained practical experience of day to day life in Palestine] and "internalist" representatives. The surrogate idea was based on a "strategic consensus" involving each...

  11. Surrogate nutrition markers, malnutrition, and adequacy of nutrition support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, David S

    2005-06-01

    Surrogate nutrition markers are used to assess adequacy of nourishment and to define malnutrition despite evidence that fails to link nourishment, surrogate markers, and outcomes. Markers such as serum levels of albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, and IGF-1 and delayed hypersensitivity and total lymphocyte count may be valid to help stratify risk. However, it is not appropriate to consider these as markers of adequacy of nourishment in the sick patient.

  12. Emotional experiences in surrogate mothers: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Ahmari Tehran; Shohreh Tashi; Nahid Mehran; Narges Eskandari; Tahmineh Dadkhah Tehrani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires co...

  13. Human surrogate models of neuropathic pain: validity and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Human surrogate models of neuropathic pain in healthy subjects are used to study symptoms, signs, and the hypothesized underlying mechanisms. Although different models are available, different spontaneous and evoked symptoms and signs are inducible; 2 key questions need to be answered: are human surrogate models conceptually valid, ie, do they share the sensory phenotype of neuropathic pain states, and are they sufficiently reliable to allow consistent translational research?

  14. Magnetometer Response of Commonly Found Munitions Items and Munitions Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    Predicted minimum magnetometer anomaly strength for a variety of munitions and surrogate items at a burial depth corresponding to 11x their respective...Response Live Site Demonstrations. The authors would like to thank Craig Murray of Parsons and Stephen Billings of Sky Research for their...variety of munitions and surrogate items at a burial depth corresponding to 11x their respective diameter. The sensor is assumed to be deployed as part

  15. Reliability-based design optimization with progressive surrogate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabai, Pugazhendhi; Dhingra, Anoop K.

    2014-12-01

    Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) has traditionally been solved as a nested (bilevel) optimization problem, which is a computationally expensive approach. Unilevel and decoupled approaches for solving the RBDO problem have also been suggested in the past to improve the computational efficiency. However, these approaches also require a large number of response evaluations during optimization. To alleviate the computational burden, surrogate models have been used for reliability evaluation. These approaches involve construction of surrogate models for the reliability computation at each point visited by the optimizer in the design variable space. In this article, a novel approach to solving the RBDO problem is proposed based on a progressive sensitivity surrogate model. The sensitivity surrogate models are built in the design variable space outside the optimization loop using the kriging method or the moving least squares (MLS) method based on sample points generated from low-discrepancy sampling (LDS) to estimate the most probable point of failure (MPP). During the iterative deterministic optimization, the MPP is estimated from the surrogate model for each design point visited by the optimizer. The surrogate sensitivity model is also progressively updated for each new iteration of deterministic optimization by adding new points and their responses. Four example problems are presented showing the relative merits of the kriging and MLS approaches and the overall accuracy and improved efficiency of the proposed approach.

  16. Spatial Knowledge Infrastructures - Creating Value for Policy Makers and Benefits the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    The spatial data infrastructure is arguably one of the most significant advancements in the spatial sector. It's been a game changer for governments, providing for the coordination and sharing of spatial data across organisations and the provision of accessible information to the broader community of users. Today however, end-users such as policy-makers require far more from these spatial data infrastructures. They want more than just data; they want the knowledge that can be extracted from data and they don't want to have to download, manipulate and process data in order to get the knowledge they seek. It's time for the spatial sector to reduce its focus on data in spatial data infrastructures and take a more proactive step in emphasising and delivering the knowledge value. Nowadays, decision-makers want to be able to query at will the data to meet their immediate need for knowledge. This is a new value proposal for the decision-making consumer and will require a shift in thinking. This paper presents a model for a Spatial Knowledge Infrastructure and underpinning methods that will realise a new real-time approach to delivering knowledge. The methods embrace the new capabilities afforded through the sematic web, domain and process ontologies and natural query language processing. Semantic Web technologies today have the potential to transform the spatial industry into more than just a distribution channel for data. The Semantic Web RDF (Resource Description Framework) enables meaning to be drawn from data automatically. While pushing data out to end-users will remain a central role for data producers, the power of the semantic web is that end-users have the ability to marshal a broad range of spatial resources via a query to extract knowledge from available data. This can be done without actually having to configure systems specifically for the end-user. All data producers need do is make data accessible in RDF and the spatial analytics does the rest.

  17. 78 FR 72862 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ...''), using its market purchases. In addition, the Department revised the surrogate financial ratios by... calculation of the surrogate financial ratios, constitutes a final decision of that court that is not in...: Final Results and Final Rescission in Part, 76 FR 49729 (August 11, 2011) (``Final Results'')....

  18. The Efficacy of Group Decision Support Systems: A Field Experiment to Evaluate Impacts on Air Force Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    temporal function (i.e., same or different times). 5 Combining the 4 Based on the previous works of Shaw, Carter, Hackman, Steiner , Shiflett, Taylor...Inc., 1991. 10. Finley, Michael. "The New Meaning of Meetings," Communication World. 8: 25-27 (March 1991). 11. Freund, Rudolf J. and Ramon C. Littell

  19. The Structure of Medical Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel C.; Reventlow, Susanne; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, medical choices involve deciding whether to look for evidence of undetected, asymptomatic conditions, or increased risk of future conditions (i.e. screening). Those who screen at sufficiently high risk face decisions about interventions to prevent or postpone the onset of possible......, but not certain, future symptomatic conditions. Other preventive decisions include whether or not to accept population-based intervention, such as vaccination. Using decision trees, we model the normative structures and associated uncertainties that underlie five medical decision situations, each of which......) an individual for a population-based intervention. Analysis of these situations facilitates examination of intuitive probabilistic reasoning. Drawing on evidence in related literature, we discuss some implications of decision-makers imposing the wrong structure or probabilistic reasoning when making medical...

  20. Beyond multi-fractals: surrogate time series and fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, V.; Simmer, C.

    2007-12-01

    Most natural complex are characterised by variability on a large range of temporal and spatial scales. The two main methodologies to generate such structures are Fourier/FARIMA based algorithms and multifractal methods. The former is restricted to Gaussian data, whereas the latter requires the structure to be self-similar. This work will present so-called surrogate data as an alternative that works with any (empirical) distribution and power spectrum. The best-known surrogate algorithm is the iterative amplitude adjusted Fourier transform (IAAFT) algorithm. We have studied six different geophysical time series (two clouds, runoff of a small and a large river, temperature and rain) and their surrogates. The power spectra and consequently the 2nd order structure functions were replicated accurately. Even the fourth order structure function was more accurately reproduced by the surrogates as would be possible by a fractal method, because the measured structure deviated too strong from fractal scaling. Only in case of the daily rain sums a fractal method could have been more accurate. Just as Fourier and multifractal methods, the current surrogates are not able to model the asymmetric increment distributions observed for runoff, i.e., they cannot reproduce nonlinear dynamical processes that are asymmetric in time. Furthermore, we have found differences for the structure functions on small scales. Surrogate methods are especially valuable for empirical studies, because the time series and fields that are generated are able to mimic measured variables accurately. Our main application is radiative transfer through structured clouds. Like many geophysical fields, clouds can only be sampled sparsely, e.g. with in-situ airborne instruments. However, for radiative transfer calculations we need full 3-dimensional cloud fields. A first study relating the measured properties of the cloud droplets and the radiative properties of the cloud field by generating surrogate cloud