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Sample records for surrey tw20 0ex

  1. 投影机 爱普生EMP-TW20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    在爱普生的EMP-TW系列家用投影机中,EMP-TW20是最新的一款低端产品。在外观方面,它仍保持了爱普生EMP-TW投影机简浩高质感的设计风格,而且乳白色的机身可以很容易地与家居环境融合.

  2. Conservation in context: a Maori meeting house in Surrey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Sully

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Institute of Archaeology was founded in the 1930s, conservation has been an integral part of its activities, but it is now being practised and taught in new, more culturally responsive ways. An example of this approach is the involvement of staff and students in the conservation of a Maori meeting house at Clandon Park, Surrey, made possible by a partnership between the Institute and the National Trust.

  3. Evaluating the signal head upgrade program in the city of surrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Sayed, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of full Bayes multivariate linear intervention models to evaluate the impact of the Signal Head Upgrade Program in the City of Surrey, British Columbia. The program was implemented by the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) and is aimed at reducing the number of collisions by improving signal visibility. Specific improvements include: upgrading signal lens size, installing new backplates, adding reflective tapes to existing backplates, and installing additional signal heads. The evaluation utilizes full Bayes multivariate linear intervention models with a multiple regression links representing time, treatment, and interaction effects as well as the traffic volumes effects. The models were utilized to determine the safety impacts of the program on each combination of collision severity and collision time of occurrence (i.e. severe/day-time, severe/night-time, PDO/day-time, PDO/night-time) in the City of Surrey. The results indicated the effectiveness of the program in improving the safety of the treated intersections as there were reductions in all types of collisions at the treated sites after the improvement. However, such reductions were statistically significant only for night-time severe collisions and day-time PDO collisions.

  4. Turkey BILSAT-1: a Case Study for the Surrey Know-How Transfer and Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Nadeem; Murat Leloglu, Ugur; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Surrey has established itself over the past 18 years as a world leader in providing hands-on spacecraft engineering training through its Small Satellite Engineering Know-How Transfer and Training (`KHTT') programme. This 18- month course runs alongside the construction of a microsatellite executed through SSTL, and strikes a balance between classroom-based teaching and total immersion within professional engineering teams. Hands-on training is provided covering the entire satellite engineering process, from mission and subsystem design, through module manufacture, assembly and integration, to qualification and flight model environmental tests, launch and commissioning. SSTL's experience in providing the KHTT programme has resulted in a well-defined course structure that yet retains the ability to accommodate individual customer requirements. The programme also takes full advantage of SSTL's intrinsic link with the Surrey Space Centre (`SSC') at the University of Surrey, offering a range of MSc and PhD research programmes pursuing common research interests of both SSTL and the customer, and in many cases complementing the development of either the customer's satellite or their future plans for an evolved space capability. Throughout 2002, three KHTT programmes have run in parallel at SSTL. A team of 11 engineers from the Centre Nationale des Techniques Spatiales in Algeria have now reached completion of their programme with Alsat-1, the first enhanced microsatellite of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (`DMC'). In December 2001, 15 engineers from the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology in Nigeria arrived at SSTL and are now midway through their programme with Nigeriasat-1, the second enhanced microsatellite of the DMC. Thirdly, arriving slightly earlier in August 2001, a team from Tubitak-Bilten in Turkey commenced their KHTT programme with BILSAT-1, a high-capability enhanced microsatellite also contributing to the DMC, and are due to continue through

  5. Effects of lunar phase on sleep in men and women in Surrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Monica, Ciro; Atzori, Giuseppe; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2015-12-01

    Recently, evidence has emerged that the phases of the moon may modulate subjective sleep quality and polysomnographically assessed sleep structure in humans. We aimed to explore further the putative effects of circa-lunar periodicity (~29.5 days) on subjective and objective parameters of human sleep in a retrospective analysis. The baseline sleep recordings of 205 (91 males and 114 females; mean age = 47.47 years, standard deviation =19.01; range: 20-84 years) healthy and carefully screened participants who participated in two clinical trials in the Surrey Clinical Research Centre were included in the analyses. Sleep was recorded in windowless sleep laboratories. For each study night, we calculated the distance, in days, to the date of the closest full moon phase and based on this distance, classified sleep records in three lunar classes. Univariate analysis of variance with factors lunar class, age and sex was applied to each of 21 sleep parameters. No significant main effect for the factor lunar class was observed for any of the objective sleep parameters and subjective sleep quality but some significant interactions were observed. The interaction between lunar class and sex was significant for total sleep time, Stage 4 sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Separate analyses for men and women indicated that in women total sleep time, Stage 4 sleep and REM sleep were reduced when sleep occurred close to full moon, whereas in men REM duration increased around full moon. These data provide limited evidence for an effect of lunar phase on human sleep.

  6. An investigation into the move towards electronic journals: a case study of NHS libraries in Kent, Surrey and Sussex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Electronic journals are so embedded into practice in academic libraries that it is easy to forget that this is not the case everywhere. In NHS libraries, for example, the staff face a particular set of issues. This article is based on Rebecca England's dissertation on this topic, completed as part of the MSc Econ course in Information and Library studies at Aberystwyth University. Rebecca is E-resources Librarian at the Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust. She investigated the momentum towards electronic journals in NHS libraries in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region and the potential for a regional purchasing consortium.

  7. Reducing travel by design: a micro analysis of new household location and the commute to work in Surrey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robin

    , house value, respondent sex, respondent age, marital status, occupation, qualification, attitude to travel, attitude to home and home location, reason for moving home and choosing new home location, relative levels of mobility, and dual income households. The methodological approach is to systematically examine the study hypothesis and a series of related research questions using data from the county of Surrey, UK. The empirical analysis is based on two new household occupier surveys carried out in 1998 and 2001, together with additional, complementary data taken from local authority datasets and the Census 2001. The thesis's particular originality is in providing: An examination of the complexity of the land use and transport interaction field, using energy consumption as the dependent variable and an estimation of the strength and significance of a wide range of land use and socio-economic variables - both previously researched and under researched variables A segmentation of respondents into different groups, such as stayers, inmovers and outmovers, showing the different manifestation of the land use and transport relationship for different groups within society A systematic tracking of the impact of time on the land use and transport relationship, with temporality and adaptation (including "co-location" effects) noted as critical features in travel behaviour, with the analysis controlling for potential attrition factors Analysis of a seldom-studied London fringe/suburban county such as Surrey - much previous work is concentrated on the city or other urban areas. The key findings and recommendations are that each land use, socio-economic and attitudinal variable, when considered on its own or even in small groupings, offers limited explanatory power in explaining travel behaviour. When a number of variables are brought together, including some variables not usually considered in the literature, the explanatory power of the modelling begins to work. Linear regression

  8. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  9. 15 January 2010 - Vice-Chancellor & Chief Executive C. Snowden, University of Surrey, United Kingdom and Mrs Snowden visiting ALICE exhibition and experimental undeground area with Collabortion Spokesperson J. Schukraft and Beams Department Head P. Collier; Signature of the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    15 January 2010 - Vice-Chancellor & Chief Executive C. Snowden, University of Surrey, United Kingdom and Mrs Snowden visiting ALICE exhibition and experimental undeground area with Collabortion Spokesperson J. Schukraft and Beams Department Head P. Collier; Signature of the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  10. Plasma free fatty acids do not provide the link between obesity and insulin resistance or β-cell dysfunction: results of the Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Cambridge, Kings (RISCK) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, I; Goff, L; Bluck, L J; Griffin, B A; Jebb, S A; Lovegrove, J A; Sanders, T A B; Frost, G; Dornhorst, A

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between adiposity and plasma free fatty acid levels and the influence of total plasma free fatty acid level on insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. An insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response to glucose and a disposition index, derived from i.v. glucose tolerance minimal model analysis and total fasting plasma free fatty acid levels were available for 533 participants in the Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Cambridge, Kings study. Bivariate correlations were made between insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response to glucose and disposition index and both adiposity measures (BMI, waist circumference and body fat mass) and total plasma free fatty acid levels. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed, controlling for age, sex, ethnicity and adiposity. After adjustment, all adiposity measures were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity index (BMI: β = -0.357; waist circumference: β = -0.380; body fat mass: β = -0.375) and disposition index (BMI: β = -0.215; waist circumference: β = -0.248; body fat mass: β = -0.221) and positively associated with acute insulin response to glucose [BMI: β = 0.200; waist circumference: β = 0.195; body fat mass β = 0.209 (P values insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response to glucose and disposition index, respectively. After adjustment, no adiposity measure was associated with free fatty acid level, but total plasma free fatty acid level was inversely associated with insulin sensitivity index (β = -0.133), acute insulin response to glucose (β = -0.148) and disposition index [β = -0.218 (P values insulin sensitivity index, acute insulin response to glucose and disposition index, respectively. Plasma free fatty acid levels have a modest negative association with insulin sensitivity, β-cell secretion and disposition index but no association with adiposity measures. It is unlikely that plasma free fatty acids are the primary

  11. Edificio de oficinas en Surrey Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manser, Michael

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available This office building, consisting of semibasement, two main floors and penthouse, is located next to an old mansion built in 1730, in Thorncroft Manor, Leatherhead. The historical nature of the old edifice and the scenery of the location, with wooded parks and gardens that reach to the bank of a river, necessitated the adoption of criteria which, by neutralizing the physical presence of the new structure, are materialized in the façades treated entirely with mirror type reflecting glass. Thus, the new office building blends into its surroundings by reflecting from different angles the old manorial house, its trees and its gardens.Este edificio de oficinas, compuesto de semisótano, dos plantas principales y ático, está situado junto a una vieja mansión construida en 1730, en Thorncroft Manor, Leatherhead. El carácter histórico de la vieja construcción y la naturaleza del lugar, con parques y jardines arbolados que llegan hasta la orilla de un río, obligaron a adoptar criterios que, neutralizando la presencia física de la nueva obra, se materializan en las fachadas, tratadas enteramente con cristal reflectante del tipo espejo. De este modo la nueva estructura de oficinas se diluye en el entorno, reflejando, desde distintos ángulos, a la vieja casa solariega, sus árboles y sus jardines.

  12. Edificios del Ayuntamiento de Egham (Surrey – Inglaterra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Hall, Denis

    1967-12-01

    Full Text Available It consists of a basement with the usual installations and stores, and two floors for the offices. The office space is divided by moveable partitions. This building, together with the municipal library and the municipal chamber, form one integrated design, and are connected by a network of covered footpaths.Consta de un sótano que aloja los cuartos para las diferentes instalaciones y, almacenes; y dos plantas que albergan las oficinas; la compartimentación de las mismas ha sido realizada a base de tabiques móviles y desmontables. Dicho edificio, junto con el de la Biblioteca Municipal y el de la Cámara Municipal, constituyen el conjunto construido, quedando unidos entre sí por medio de una red de pasos cubiertos.

  13. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  14. Labourers' Letters from Wellington to Surrey, 1840-1845: Lefebvre, Bernstein and Pedagogies of Appropriation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Henri Lefebvre suggested that social researchers engage in "the concrete analysis of rhythms" in order to reveal the "pedagogy of appropriation (the appropriation of the body, as of spatial practice)". Lefebvre's spatial analysis has influenced educational researchers, while the idea of "pedagogy" has travelled beyond education. This…

  15. Surrey of Circlevision Production%环幕电影制作综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大强

    2001-01-01

    本文从环幕电影制作的筹备阶段、拍摄阶段、后期制作、影院设计、电影放映五个方面系统地论述了环幕电影制作的工艺过程和由于技术进步所带来的制作变化.

  16. Bartuccelli, M. V.; Woolcock, C. J. (University of Surrey, Dept. of Mathematics, Guildford (GB))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    On the positivity of solutions for a generalized diffusion model

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper aims to prove positivity of solutions for the following semilinear dissipative partial differential equation: u{sub t} -{alpha}{upsilon}{sub x}xxx - {upsilon}{sub x}x - {upsilon}{upsilon}{sub x} + {upsilon}(1-{upsilon}{sup 2}). The equation can be considered as a model equation representing a class of dissipative partial differential equations containing differential operators of higher order than the Laplacian. It appears in various scientific contexts including population dynamics and chemical reactions, where the solutions of the model must be positive functions.

  17. Mansion Nolan en Worcester Park - Surrey - Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout & Litchfield, Arquitectos

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available The site is the end plot in a cul-de-sac of new houses, in the immediate neighbourhood of an old convent. The house is designed as two identical flats: — on the ground floor the entrance hall, the children's bedrooms, bathroom, dining room and kitchen, — on the first floor the parents bedroom with bathroom suite and living room, both open onto a roof terrace. The walls are constructed of while sandlime bricks with white pointing, cavity and light-weight concrete insulating blocks internally. The roofs are externally clad with natural slate and internally with Columbian Pine boarding. The slope of the roof is exposed internally. Walls are white painted throughout and the floors are covered with grey haircord carpet. The staircase is made of Columbian Pine and is open tread. Heating is by gas fired ducted warm air.Esta vivienda se ha construido en la parcela final de un fondo de saco, situado en las proximidades de un antiguo convento. El edificio consta de dos plantas: - en la baja se han dispuesto, además de la entrada, los dormitorios de los niños, un cuarto de baño, el comedor y la cocina, y - en la primera, el dormitorio de los padres, con cuarto de baño y una sala de estar, abiertos ambos sobre amplias terrazas. Sistema constructivo: muros exteriores construidos con ladrillo blanco, rejuntados con mortero blanco; los muros interiores y huecos se realizaron con placas o bloques de hormigón ligero aislado, pintados de blanco posteriormente. En el interior se respetó la inclinación de la cubierta, revistiéndola con un entablado de pino colombiano; en el exterior se utilizó un recubrimiento de pizarra natural. Los suelos están enmoquetados, con alfombras de pelo, de color gris. La calefacción se consigue por conducciones de aire caliente, producido por estufa de gas.

  18. International Symposium on Solubility Phenomena (3rd) Held in Guildford, Surrey England on 23 - 26 August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-26

    n-Alkanes A TrRej R Gonzalez, Florentino Murrieta-Guevara and 0 Parra Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo , Subdireccion de I B P - Fisicoquimica Eje L_...69 P28 Excess Heat Capacities and Excess Volumes of Normal Alkane Mixtures , A. Trejo and D. Apam-Martinez Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo Subdireccion

  19. Manual transrectal palpations performed by veterinary students in cows: a Surrey - Palpaciones transrectales realizadas por estudiantes de veterinaria en las vacas: una encuesta

    OpenAIRE

    João Simões

    2012-01-01

    AbstractVeterinary education of novice veterinary students in bovine reproduction field, like rectum palpation training, represent some handicaps mainly related with animal welfare.ResumenLa educación veterinaria de estudiantes de veterinaria en el campo de la reproducción bovina, en el caso del entrenamiento mediante la palpación transrectal, tiene algunas desventajas, principalmente relacionadas con el bienestar animal.

  20. Current Scientific Approaches to Decision Making in Complex Systems: 3. Volume 1. Conference Proceedings. Third Conference, Richmond, Surrey, England, 6-8 August 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    they change what we can do?". Their role will not be so much in the working out of optimization algoriths and similar complex mathematical operations...a 70-year old. It is hybrid between social standards providing environmental cues and unfolding genetic material. You cognise something as good or

  1. Ion Implantation Technology: Proceedings of the International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (8th) Held at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK on 30 July - 3 August 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    tesi site to ground by adding the site to substrate tial of conductors large enough to trap the whole beam. voltage and the substrate to ground voltage...phosphorus and arsenic dopants in thermally reacted titanium sili- cide thin films on silicon (100) have been determined 20. - Aexperimentally using SIMS and...2 by conventional furnace anneal- ing [10]. There is, however, little lateral growth of sili- cides in the samples which were As’ implanted after

  2. Surrey on QOL, psychological health situation in train drivers%火车司机生活质量及心理健康状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皇甫丽; 于凤兰; 汪斌

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解火车司机的生存质量、心理健康状况以及两者的关系.方法 采用整群抽样方法,抽取参加体检的230名火车司机,用世界卫生组织生活质量测定量表简表(WHOQOL-BREF)中文版及症状自评量表(SCL-90)对火车司机进行测评,并进行统计分析.结果 WHOQOL-BREF测评结果表明,火车司机的生理、心理、社会关系、环境领域得分均低于社区人群(P0.05).结论 火车司机生存质量及心理健康水平均低于普通人群,其心理健康状况影响生存质量.

  3. Manual transrectal palpations performed by veterinary students in cows: a Surrey - Palpaciones transrectales realizadas por estudiantes de veterinaria en las vacas: una encuesta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simões

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVeterinary education of novice veterinary students in bovine reproduction field, like rectum palpation training, represent some handicaps mainly related with animal welfare.ResumenLa educación veterinaria de estudiantes de veterinaria en el campo de la reproducción bovina, en el caso del entrenamiento mediante la palpación transrectal, tiene algunas desventajas, principalmente relacionadas con el bienestar animal.

  4. Considering Animals: Contemporary Studies in Human-Animal Relations. By Carol Freeman, Elizabeth Leane and Yvette Watt. Ashgate: Surrey, UK, 2011; Hardcover, 236 pp; ISBN 978-1-4094-0013-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan O’Sullivan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2005 a small group of academics gathered at the University of Western Australia for a modest yet highly significant interdisciplinary conference focused on scholarship in the emerging field of human-animal studies. A critical mass of academics from the University of Tasmania attended that first conference and pledged to host a second human-animal studies conference two years later. True to their word a second human-animal studies conference was held in Hobart, Australia, in 2007. The organisers called the second conference “Considering Animals” and the book under review here is a compilation of papers presented at that conference. [...

  5. Surrey on contraceptive status among married female residents separated from household registration%北京市怀柔山区人户分离已婚育龄妇女避孕节育现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭淑英; 刘秀平

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解怀柔山区人户分离已婚育龄妇女避孕节育知识知晓程度和接受避孕节育服务情况,为改善服务质量提供依据.方法:采用随机数字表法,抽取3 900名居住在怀柔区2个街道及城区附近各镇的居(村)、但户籍在本区北部山区5个乡镇(喇叭沟门满族乡、长哨营满族乡、汤口镇、宝山镇、琉璃庙镇)的人户分离已婚育龄妇女为调查对象进行问卷调查.结果:有效问卷3 876份,调查对象在2009年度接受避孕节育知识教育比例89.04%,紧急避孕知晓率85.91%,其中对紧急避孕药的认知度高达95.07%,放置含铜宫内节育器进行紧急避孕的认知度仅为5.95%;避孕措施失败率为6.22%;对在社区可获得避孕药具的知晓率仅5.21%.结论:怀柔区人户分离已婚育龄妇女避孕节育服务参与率较高,但知识和政策知晓率较低.计划生育服务部门应针对人群特点,充分发挥社区卫生服务机构功能,开展避孕节育知识和政策的宣传教育.%Objective: To explore the contraceptive status of married female residents separated from household registration in a mountain area of Huairou District, Beijing. Methods: A total of 3 900 married women of reproductive age were recruited. A questionnaire survey was conducted. Results: A total of 3 876 questionnaires were valid. In 2009, 89.04% of the respondents trained for contraceptive knowledge. The awareness rate of emergency contraception was 85. 91%, and 95. 07% of the women knew emergency contraceptive pills and 5.95% knew cooper intrauterine device. The contraceptive failure rate was 6.22%.Only 5.21% knew that contraceptives could be obtained at community. Conclusion: Married female residents separated from household registration in a mountain area of Huairou District have poor contraceptive knowledge, while most of them involve in contraception. Therefore, the community health service ability should be improved to provide services according to the characteristics of the clients.

  6. The Influence on the Biodegradation of Phenanthrene by Nonionic Surfactant, Tween20%非离子表面活性剂Tween20对菲生物降解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建刚; 刘翔; 余刚; 龙涛; 佘鹏; 刘铮

    2004-01-01

    以菲(PHE)为典型多环芳烃(PAHs),利用PAHs优势降解菌,研究了非离子表面活性剂Tween20(TW20)对PAHs类疏水性有机物生物降解过程的影响结果表明,TW20对PHE具有较好的增溶效果;TW20具有很好的生物降解性;不同浓度的TW20存在情况下,降解菌对PHE都有很好的去除效果.TW20可以用于PAHs污染的生物修复.

  7. Symposium on ‘Geographical and geological influences on nutrition’ Iodine deficiency in industrialised countries: Conference on ‘Over- and undernutrition: challenges and approaches’ on 30 June–2 July 2009, The Summer Meeting of the Nutrition Society, was held at the University of Surrey, Guildford

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is not only a problem in developing regions; it also affects many industrialised countries. Globally, two billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and approximately 50% of continental Europe remains mildly iodine deficient. Iodine intakes in other industrialised

  8. Effects of Small and Large Molecule Emulsifiers on the Characteristics of β-Carotene Nanoemulsions Prepared by High Pressure Homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Mao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil-in-water (O/W nanoemulsion allows the preparation of lipophilic nutrients such as carotenoids in liquid form, which may improve their bioavailability and broaden applications. In the present study, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20, TW-20, decaglycerol monolaurate (DML, octenyl succinate starch (OSS, whey protein isolate (WPI, and finally a blend of TW-20 and WPI (1 % by mass have been tested for the preparation of β-carotene nanoemulsions. Interfacial tension, droplet size, zeta potential, microstructures observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM, stability of the emulsion and β-carotene have been compared. Results show that nanoemulsions stabilized with TW-20 and DML had smaller droplet size, but relatively poorer stability, compared with the ones stabilized with OSS and WPI (p0.05.

  9. Kosmosesatelliidid taskukohaseks / Mart Vihmand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vihmand, Mart

    2008-01-01

    Viis Eesti teadlast ja spetsialisti külastas Londoni lähistel Guilfordi linnakeses asuvat maailma üht juhtivat erakapitalil põhinevat kosmosesatelliitide tootjat Surrey Satellite Technology Limited

  10. Kosmosesatelliidid taskukohaseks / Mart Vihmand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vihmand, Mart

    2008-01-01

    Viis Eesti teadlast ja spetsialisti külastas Londoni lähistel Guilfordi linnakeses asuvat maailma üht juhtivat erakapitalil põhinevat kosmosesatelliitide tootjat Surrey Satellite Technology Limited

  11. Trajektoor : subkultuur / Hanno Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Soome rulafotograafist Tuukka Kailast. 1995. a. tuli ta õppima EKA graafikaosakonda, 1999. a. lõpetas Surrey Institute of Art & Design'i, 2004. a. siirdus Londonisse rulaajakirja toimetajaks. T. Kaila fotoinstallatsioon on Kiasmas näitusel "Ajaloost kiiremini"

  12. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  13. Application of biosurfactants and periodic voltage gradient for enhanced electrokinetic remediation of metals and PAHs in dredged marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammami, M T; Portet-Koltalo, F; Benamar, A; Duclairoir-Poc, C; Wang, H; Le Derf, F

    2015-04-01

    Dredged harbor sediment co-contaminated by heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was subjected to enhanced electrokinetic treatments, using a mixture of a chelating agent (citric acid CA) and a surfactant as additives in the processing fluids. We tested various operating conditions (at 1 V cm(-1)): different CA concentrations, applying a periodic voltage gradient, pre-conditioning the sediment with the additives, and replacing the synthetic surfactant Tween 20 (TW20) by biosurfactants. Increasing the CA concentration was favorable for both metal and PAH removal. Applying a periodic voltage gradient associated to a low concentration of CA and TW20 provided the best results for Zn, Cd and Pb removal and also for removal of the 16 priority PAHs. Promising results were obtained with solutions containing rhamnolipids (0.028%) and a viscosin-like biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pfa7B (0.025%), associated to a periodic voltage gradient. Although the rhamnolipid and the viscosin-like compounds involved a higher electrical current than TW20, metals were less removed from the sediment. The electroosmotic flow was lower when we used biosurfactants, hence a less effective effect on PAH removal.

  14. Richard J. Hill, Picturing Scotland through the Waverley Novels: Walter Scott and the Origins of the Victorian Illustrated Novel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Irene Cannata

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard J. Hill, Picturing Scotland through the Waverley Novels: Walter Scott and the Origins of the Victorian Illustrated Novel . Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2010. Pp. 236. ISBN 978-0-7546-6806-0. US$99.99.

  15. 'You get out what you put in'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Chris O'Connor trained at the Nightingale School of Nursing at St Thomas' Hospital in London, qualifying as a mental health nurse in 1993. He worked in acute psychiatry, and learning disabilities and older people's services, before becoming head of nursing practice for a London mental health trust. His current role is nurse consultant for dementia and older people at East Surrey Hospital.

  16. In conversation with habitual entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Bowen, Andrea; Dhaliwal, Spinder

    2007-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 a team at the University of Surrey researched best practice in small businesses in hospitality and tourism as part of the ‘Profit through productivity’ initiative. This identified specific types of entrepreneur, so-called ‘habitual’ entrepreneurs. This article seeks to explore the similarities and differences between alternative types of habitual entrepreneurs.

  17. Practical Instruction in Tissue Culture and Cytogenetics for Sandwich Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. C.; Bishun, N. P.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the training and practical techniques taught to students involved in a sandwich course at the Tissue Culture and Cytogenetics Unit of the Marie Curie Memorial Foundation, Surrey, England. Students spend a minimum of six months involved in the sandwich course before returning to university for a final academic year. (JR)

  18. International Advances in Pesticide Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, L.; Cooper, S.; Cross, J.; Glass, R.; Magri, B.; Robinson, T.; Stock, D.; Taylor, B.; Walklate, P.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of Aspects of Applied Biology reports the proceedings of the AAB/BCPC conference at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK on 7-9 January 2002. It contains 59 scientific papers reporting much of the latest research and development relating to spray application. The conference was divide

  19. Workshop report: Proceedings of the Rank Forum on Vitamin D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanham-New, S.A.; Buttriss, J.L.; Miles, L.M.; Ashwell, M.; Berry, J.L.; Boucher, B.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Cooper, C.; Darling, A.L.; Francis, R.M.; Fraser, W.D.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hypponen, E.; Kiely, M.; Lamberg-Allardt, C.; Macdonald, H.M.; Martineau, A.R.; Masud, T.; Mavroeidi, A.; Nowson, C.; Prentice, A.; Stone, E.M.; Reddy, S.; Vieth, R.; Williams, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Rank Forum on Vitamin D was held on 2nd and 3rd July 2009 at the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK. The workshop consisted of a series of scene-setting presentations to address the current issues and challenges concerning vitamin D and health, and included an open discussion focusing on the id

  20. High Aspirations: Transforming Dance Students from Print Consumers to Digital Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Inma

    2013-01-01

    During 2012, the Dance Department at the University of Surrey developed a set of Open Educational Resources with a Creative Commons license (Attribution, Non- Commercial, Share Alike) for dance studies as part of the JISC-funded project Contexts, Culture and Creativity: Enriching E-learning in Dance (CCC:EED) see…

  1. Developing a nurse led hospice outpatient clinic to improve palliative care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Catherine

    A team of palliative care clinical nurse specialists at the Phyllis Tuckwell Hospice in Farnham, Surrey, set up a hospice based outpatient clinic to improve services for patients with cancer. This article examines how the team used clinical audit, a staff questionnaire and patient feedback to evaluate the service and make recommendations for the future development of the clinic.

  2. Developing Independent Learners: The Box Hill School Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Box Hill School is an independent school in Surrey, England. In 2008 the English curriculum was abandoned in favour of the International Baccalaureate Diploma (IBD). A library is a statutory requirement of the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) endorsement who also recommend this be managed by a qualified teacher-librarian. In May…

  3. Computer Aided Teaching of Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based software package developed at the University of Surrey for teaching digital signal processing to undergraduate science and engineering students. Menu-driven software capabilities are explained, including demonstration of qualitative concepts and experimentation with quantitative data, and examples are given of…

  4. Instrumentality, Expressivity, and Relational Qualities in the Same-Sex Friendships of College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Lisa L.; Beesley, Denise; Hurst, Rebecca; Saldana, Star; Licuanan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Using the relational-cultural model (Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Surrey, 1991), the authors hypothesized that instrumentality, expressivity, and the individual affective experience of same-sex friendships would predict increased relationship mutuality, with college women and men showing different predictive patterns. Overall, results…

  5. The SMITE Approach to Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Royal Signals and Radar Establishment. ACCesio’ art NTIS CkA&I DrIC TAB Q z",:Ua t n o’. ’ ccd [] Retix Systems Ltd Z Alan Turing Road By Surrey...89014 U/C Classification 5. Originator’s Code (if 6. Originator (Corporate Author) Name and Location 7784000 known) RETIX SYSTEMS LTD 20 ALAN TURING ROAD

  6. Gender Associations for Musical Instruments in Nursery Children: The Effect of Sound and Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nigel; Shibazaki, Kagari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a study carried out with 105 children, aged between three and four years in three nursery units in London and Surrey, UK. The aim of this study was to explore the level of association which young children have between various musical instruments, musical styles and a particular gender. However, we also aimed to…

  7. Armies in Transition: Civil-Military Relations in New Democracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-18

    eiqn Policy 82 Orenstein, Harold S. "A Year After the velvet Revolution." Military Review 70.12 (1990) 64-71. Payne, Stanley G. Stanford, CA...York: St. Martin’s, 1986. Sharpe, Richard, ed. Jane’s Fightinq Ships 1991-92. Surrey: Jane’s, 1991. Coulsden, Shub, Joyce Lasky , and Raymond Cart

  8. Pain in People with Learning Disabilities in Residential Settings--The Need for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacroft, Monica; Dodd, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This audit investigated residential staff beliefs around pain thresholds and strategies they adopt to recognise and manage pain in people with learning disabilities across Surrey. A structured interview was constructed to elicit information. Results demonstrated that pain is not being effectively recognised or managed by residential staff in…

  9. "I Feel Pain"--Audit of Communication Skills and Understanding of Pain and Health Needs with People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacroft, Monica; Dodd, Karen

    2011-01-01

    An audit was conducted across Surrey to investigate pain recognition and management with people with learning disabilities. This section of the audit looked at what people with learning disabilities understood and experienced when they had pain compared to good practice from the literature. The results show that people with learning disabilities…

  10. Thermodynamics of Philicphobic Interaction Shift in Aqueous Tweens 20 to 80

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Density (ρ ± 10-3 kgm-3, surface tension (γ ± 10-2 mNm-1 for 8.4 to 83.6 mmolkg-1 at 8 mmolkg-1 interval aqueous polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (C=12, Tw20, monopalmitate (C=16, Tw40, monostearate (C=18, Tw60 and monooleate (C=18, 1 double bond, Tw80 nonionic surfactants at 293.15 K are reported. Apparent molar volumes (V2 are derived from densities. The γ is used for surface excess tension (γexcess, concentration (τ and area per molecule. The ρ and γ were regressed for ρ0 and γ0 limiting and slopes for shift from hydrophilic to hydrophobic interactions (philicphobic. The ρ0Tw200Tw400Tw80 >ρ0Tw60 and V20Tw60> V20Tw40> V20Tw80> V20Tw20 as limiting densities and molal volume respectively in opposite order with stronger structural interaction with Tw20 and weaker with Tw60. The γwater 0Tw80 0Tw40 0Tw200Tw60 inferred 18% weaker cohesive force (CF

  11. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe......Cap and the DITTO research projects granted by EPSRC and RSSB. The authors would like to thank Linh Hong Vu for providing the benchmark of scheme plans and the drawings of the track plans....

  12. The current skills gaps in analytical sciences are failing industry: debate at the 21st International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Neil; Sangster, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    21st International Reid Bioanalytical Forum, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 7-10 September 2015 The 21st International Reid Bioanalytical Forum held between 7 and 10 September 2015, brought together over 100 scientists from around the world, representing industry, academia and vendors, for 4 days of engaging science at the University of Surrey in Guildford, UK. The scientific program consisted of 43 podium and 23 poster presentations from key opinion leaders and those just setting out on their scientific career. The latter being the focus of the meeting. One of the highlights of the forum was the debate. An expert panel helped spark off an active discussion among a passionate audience on the topic of 'The Current Skills Gaps in Analytical Sciences are Failing Industry.'

  13. Peter V.Hobbs (1936-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John M.

    Peter Hobbs, a professor in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle, died of pancreatic cancer on 25 July 2005.Born in 1936, Hobbs experienced what he described as “a wild, adventurous youth on the streets of postwar London.” He engaged in competitive swimming and at age 13 held the title of Junior Boxing Champion of the County of Surrey.

  14. DoD Space S and T Community of Interest Presentation to National Defense University

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Satellite Communications Technology Sub-Area 2 Missile Warning, Missile Defense, Kill Assessment and Attack Assessment Technology Sub-Area 3...7% Air Force Army Navy DARPA Other Components Space Control 9% Satellite Comms 8% Missile Warning & Attack 1% Command and Control, $23 Space...24 satellites • NASA investments are buoying new entrants for orbital and suborbital markets © Virgin Galactic © Surrey © Iridium © COSMO

  15. Modification of the Geographic Corrosivity Index and its Application to Overseas Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    characteristics. The weight loss data was obtained on coupons of aluminium alloys 6061 and 7075 exposed in the open. Comprehensive climate data for...geographic and climatic conditions, the correlation between the GCIA and weight loss data from aluminium alloy coupons exposed in the open at 38 sites in...University of Surrey. On returning to Australia he worked in the copper and aluminium alloy extrusion industry for many years in areas such as R & D

  16. Plausible Reasoning in Tactical Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Frames in a Person’s Memory i • flower type/of =(plant) types =Irose, daffodil, peony, bougainvillea ... parts =Ipetals, stem ..-I colors =Ipink...J World South AmericF r ESubtropical Surrey Flowers Daffodils Bougainvillea Peonies Roses Yellow RosesFa Figure 4. Part Hierarchy for England and...England) = Iyellow roses...I (7) SIm flower-type(England)= 1peonies... I (8) DIS flower-type(England)6 bougainvillea ... * *18 that they think are most

  17. Pectinases in leaf degradation by aquatic Hyphomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chamier, Anne-Carole

    1980-01-01

    Packs of oak and alder leaves were submerged in late autumn in the River Bourne, a moderately eutrophic stream in Surrey so that the colonization pattern of aquatic Hyphomycetes on the leaves could be quantified as the leaves were degraded. The physico-chemical of the water was monitored over the experimental period and the inoculum available for leaf colonization was measured by filter counts of conidia in the stream. Colonization of the leaves by pectolytic bacteria was also measured. There...

  18. Treading water: Flood hazard management and adapting to climate change in BC’s Lower Mainland

    OpenAIRE

    Arros, Pomme Mira

    2013-01-01

    Increases in coastal flooding from climate change related sea level rise and increased rainfall will stress local government’s resources. While local governments are planning for expected climate change effects through the use of adaptation and flood management tools, a number of barriers limit long-term adaptation planning. This study examines which flood management tools are currently used in four municipalities in the Lower Mainland: the City of Vancouver, Delta, Richmond and Surrey. The s...

  19. Jane Austen (1775-1817) and the cultural history of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiss, Michael

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides a review of some aspects of the life and novels of Jane Austen that have particular bearing on her approach to issues of sickness and health. It is based on a Keynote Lecture given at the Annual Congress of the British Society for the History of Medicine on 1 September 2011 at the University of Surrey. © IMechE 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. UoGAS - A Get Away Special Satellite with Orbit-Raising Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    The low cost of satellite deployment from Shuttle GAS canister makes it an attractive launch option. However, the low deployment altitude severely constrains lifetime so the UoGAS (University of Surrey Get Away Special) spacecraft will incorporate a propulsion system. Lifetime extension methods are considered and a start-of-mission orbit-raising manoeuvre is selected. An orbit dynamics simulation method (taking into account the atmospheric drag) is discussed and results presented. Mission pro...

  1. Birdshot uveitis: current and emerging treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Menezo V; Taylor SRJ

    2013-01-01

    Victor Menezo,1,2 Simon RJ Taylor3,4 1Institut Catala de Retina, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Provincial Hospital Consortium Castellon, Castello, Spain; 3Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK; 4Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, UK Abstract: Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a relatively uncommon subtype of idiopathic posterior uveitis with distinct clinical characteristics and a strong genetic association wit...

  2. Characterization, Analysis and Significance of Defects in Composite Materials. Conference Proceedings: Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel (56th) held in London, England on 12-14 April 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    NDL TLkCIINIQUPS Tin Cry Wood AE Analysis Crockling Seisnic avesStress Waves in Metils and lCompusites Frequency 󈧎- 10-1 10 a 10 110 210 310 410 510...contributions to this work: Elias Pattie for his help in fatigue testing and data reduction, Yolanda Hinton for the development of software for data...Aircraft Establishment, and D J Portmouth and C J Wood , sandwich students from the University of Surrey and North Staffordshire Polytechnic

  3. Space Fundamentals for the War Fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-08

    Army Operations. FM 100-18. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combined Arms Command, 4 Jun 93. The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs. Newington, CT: The...NOTES 1. U.S. Army, Sace Reference Text. (Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: U.S. Army Space Institute, July 93). p. 5-2. 2. The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs... Handbook . A War Fighter’s Guide to Space. Montgomery, Alabama: Air University Press, Dec 93. Space Directory. 1992-93. Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information

  4. An evaluation of a teaching package constructed using a Web-based lecture recorder

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, Judith

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a teaching package constructed using Audiograph, a Web-based lecture recorder developed at the University of Surrey. Audiograph is described in detail in Jesshope and Shafarenko (1997). Its developer aims to provide a medium by which multimedia teaching packages, based on traditional university lectures, may be developed rapidly by the lecturer(s) concerned (as opposed to professional CAL developers) at low cost. Audiograph is designed so that developmen...

  5. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Raymond L.; Nibbering, J.W.; Jim Schiller; Ivan A. Hadar; Niels Mulder; Masykuri Abdillah; Nico Kaptein; Volker Heeschen; Alfons van der Kraan; Hans Hagerdal; Penny Van Esterik; Mies Grijns; Brook Barrington; J. van Goor; Karl-Heinze Kohl

    1999-01-01

    - R.H. Barnes, Janet Hoskins, Biographical objects; How things tell the stories of people’s lives. London: Routledge, 1998, x + 213 pp. - Peter Boomgaard, Ann Kumar, Java and modern Europe; Ambiguous encounters. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1997, vii + 472 pp. - Peter Boomgaard, Lenore Manderson, Sickness and the state; Health and illness in colonial Malaya, 1870-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, xix + 315 pp. - Matthew Isaac Cohen, Bambang Widoyo, Gapit; 4 naskah drama berbahas...

  6. Composition of the Essential Oil of Pink Chablis Bluebeard (Caryopteris x clandonensis ’Durio’) and Its Biological Activity against the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    alternative insecticides to supplement pyrethroids for control of a wide variety of insect-vectored diseases (Maharaj, 2011; Pridgeon, Becnel, Clark ...seedling in the garden of Arthur Simmonds in Surrey, England, in 1933. Since then, additional ornamental cultivars have been selected by...hydrocarbons. Hamburg: EB- Verlag. Katritzky, A. R., Wang, Z., Slavov, S., Dobchev, D. A., Hall, C. D., Tsikolia, M., Bernier, U. R., Elejalde, N. M., Clark

  7. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  8. Alloparenting experience affects future parental behavior and reproductive success in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anita Iyengar; Mathieu, Denise; Griffin, Luana; Bales, Karen Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the function of alloparental behavior in cooperatively breeding species. We examined whether alloparental experience as juveniles enhanced later parental care and reproductive success in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a cooperatively breeding rodent. Juveniles cared for one litter of siblings (1EX), two litters of siblings (2EX) or no siblings (0EX). As adults, these individuals were mated to other 0EX, 1EX or 2EX voles, yielding seven different pair combinations, and we recorded measures of parental behaviors, reproductive success, and pup development. As juveniles, individuals caring for siblings for the first time were more alloparental; and as adults, 0EX females paired with 0EX males spent more time in the nest with their pups. Taken together, these results suggest that inexperienced animals spend more time in infant care. As parents, 1EX males spent more time licking their pups than 2EX and 0EX males. Pups with either a 1EX or 2EX parent gained weight faster than pups with 0EX parents during certain developmental periods. While inexperienced animals may spend more time in pup care, long-term benefits of alloparenting may become apparent in the display of certain, particularly important parental behaviors such as licking pups, and in faster weight gain of offspring.

  9. A mild method of amine-type adsorbents syntheses with emulsion graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate on polyethylene non-woven fabric by pre-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjuan; Yao, Side; Li, Jingye; Cao, Changqing; Wang, Min

    2012-09-01

    A mild pre-irradiation method was used to graft glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto polyethylene (PE) non-woven fabric (NF). The polymer was irradiated by electron beam in air atmosphere at room temperature. The degree of grafting (Dg) was determined as a function of reaction time, absorbed dose, monomer concentration and temperature. After 30 kGy irradiation, with 5% GMA, surfactant Tween 20 (Tw-20) of 0.5% at 55 °C for 15 min, the trunk polymer was made grafted with a Dg of 150%. Selected PE-g-PGMA of different Dg was modified with aminated compounds such as ethylenediamine (EDA), diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). The obtained amine-type adsorbents were prepared to remove copper and uranium ions from solution. It was shown that at least 90% of copper and 60% of uranium with the initial concentration from 3 to 1000 ppb can be removed from water.

  10. Effect of self-injection on ultraintense laser wake-field acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkov, A; Koga, J; Kinoshita, K; Uesaka, M

    2004-03-01

    The self-injection of plasma electrons which have been accelerated to relativistic energies by a laser pulse moving with a group velocity less than the speed of light with I lambda(2)>5 x 10(19) W microm(2)/cm(2) is found via particle-in-cell simulation to be efficient for laser wake-field acceleration. When the matching condition a(0)> or =(2(1/4)omega/omega(pl))(2/3) is met, the self-injection, along with wave breaking, dominates monoenergetic electron acceleration yielding up to 100 MeV energies by a 100 TW, 20 fs laser pulse. In contrast to the injection due to wave-breaking processes, self-injection allows suppression of production of a Maxwell distribution of accelerated particles and the extraction of a beam-quality bunch of energetic electrons.

  11. Effects of Formulation Variables on the Particle Size and Drug Encapsulation of Imatinib-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Biki; Poudel, Bijay Kumar; Pathak, Shiva; Tak, Jin Wook; Lee, Hee Hyun; Jeong, Jee-Heon; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2016-06-01

    Imatinib (IMT), an anticancer agent, inhibits receptor tyrosine kinases and is characterized by poor aqueous solubility, extensive first-pass metabolism, and rapid clearance. The aims of the current study are to prepare imatinib-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (IMT-SLN) and study the effects of associated formulation variables on particle size and drug encapsulation on IMT-SLN using an experimental design. IMT-SLN was optimized by use of a "combo" approach involving Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD). PBD screening resulted in the determination of organic-to-aqueous phase ratio (O/A), drug-to-lipid ratio (D/L), and amount of Tween® 20 (Tw20) as three significant variables for particle size (S z), drug loading (DL), and encapsulation efficiency (EE) of IMT-SLN, which were used for optimization by BBD, yielding an optimized criteria of O/A = 0.04, D/L = 0.03, and Tw20 = 2.50% w/v. The optimized IMT-SLN exhibited monodispersed particles with a size range of 69.0 ± 0.9 nm, ζ-potential of -24.2 ± 1.2 mV, and DL and EE of 2.9 ± 0.1 and 97.6 ± 0.1% w/w, respectively. Results of in vitro release study showed a sustained release pattern, presumably by diffusion and erosion, with a higher release rate at pH 5.0, compared to pH 7.4. In conclusion, use of the combo experimental design approach enabled clear understanding of the effects of various formulation variables on IMT-SLN and aided in the preparation of a system which exhibited desirable physicochemical and release characteristics.

  12. Aerospace Power Journal. Volume 16, Number 2, Summer 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    stage missile with a solid-fuel booster motor and a liquid- fuel sustainer motor . It had a range of 50 km, or 31 miles, and could reach targets at a...Surrey, Eng­ land: Jane’s Information Group Ltd., 1989), 98–109. 7. A. G. Magritskiy, Zenitnaya Raketnaya sistema S-300 (S-300 Air Defense Missile...Ministry of Defense, is the Co­ mando da Aeronáutica (COMAer), which has three major commands (MAJCOM)—the Co­ mando Geral do Ar (COMGAR), which

  13. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Law

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Peter Jarvis is Professor of Continuing Education at the University of Surrey and a distinguished authority in this field. In this work he attempts to analyse what constitutes a 'real university' and whether the social changes which have impacted on traditional universities and the growth of other types of university represent a crisis and/or a failure to meet societal needs. Corporate universities have grown into a major business because the traditional university failed to meet the demands of corporate business for education and training. He stresses the need for universities to be true to their own identity in the face of such pressure.

  14. Proceedings of Tunnel Detection Symposium on Subsurface Exploration Technology (4th) held in Golden, Colorado on 26 - 29 Apr 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-29

    REFERENCES 1. Waters, K. H., 1978, "Reflection Seismology. A Tool for Energy Resource Exploration," Wiley, 377 pp. 2. Obert , L., and W, I, Duvall, 1967...the centre frequency signal. TRACE NUMBER 0 10 20 (a) -70 -80- (dB) -90 -100 0 10 20 (b) -7r) -80 (dB) -90 -100 o-00 1o0 20 (C) -801 (dB) -90 -100...Richard J. Chignell Colorado School of Mines EMPAD Ltd. Golden, CO 80401 Surrey Tech Centre 40 Occam Road Yves Barbin Guildford GU2 544 Research

  15. The effectiveness of treatment for substance dependence within the prison system in England: A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Larry; Cappello, Rose; Alaszewski, Andy; Appleton, Sarah; Cook, Geoff

    2003-01-01

    This review was jointly commissioned by Geoff Cooke, Area Drug Strategy Co-ordinator\\ud for the Prison Service, the East and West Kent Health Authorities and the West Sussex\\ud Drug Action Team, as part of a wider programme of work evaluating the outcome\\ud effectiveness of drug treatment services within Kent, East Surrey and Sussex prisons. The\\ud specific aims of this scoping review were to identify treatments that are used for those\\ud with substance dependence, describe the current regime...

  16. Propagation Effects in Space/Earth Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    at the incidence of lightning strokes 34, 40 Incoherent emissions Received incoherent energy will raise the noise background for coherent radio...1 fmR -*-tl ESsgt...s Us8. Lawtim7 DATE. 3-9/4-9- 1979 * 80 COPOLAR 7 z a .4 1- 4 z 2 1 2321 2230123 4 TIME (GMT) Fig. 12 B 0 copolar level during...A. Dr DFVLR Institut fMr Hochfrequenztechnik, 8031 Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany SCHMITH, B.G. Dr Smiths Associates, 45/57 High Street, Cobham, Surrey, UK

  17. Thermohaline structure and circulation in the upper layers of the southern Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot (October-November 1998)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V; Murty, V; Rao, L.V; Prabhu, C.V; Tilvi, V

    C 1984 Surface currents of the Indian Ocean (to 25 S;100 E). Surrey: Institute of Oceano- graphic Sciencies (United Kingdom). Gopalakrishna V V, Pednekar S M and Murty V S N 1996 Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25 50--55 Murty V S N, Ramesh Babu V, Rao L V G...=ISO-8859-1 Thermohaline structure and circulation in the upper layers of the southern Bay of Bengal during BOBMEX-Pilot (October -- November 1998) VRAMESH BABU,VSNMURTY, LVGRAO,CVPRABHU and V TILVI National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula...

  18. The elemental analysis of staple foods for children in Tanzania as a step to the improvement of their nutrition and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Najat K. [Department of Physics, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: njkassim@yahoo.com; Spyrou, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics, School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contents of essential elements in the two staple foods (rice and maize flour) consumed by children in Tanzania as a possible selection measure for high nutrient foods in order to combat malnutrition. Samples were analysed using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The mean concentrations of elements determined in the two staple foods are presented and compared with the mean concentrations published in the literature.

  19. Are we ready for spray-on carbon nanotubes?

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier this year, British sculptor, Anish Kapoor was given exclusive rights to use a new spray-on carbon nanotube-based paint. The material, produced by UK-based Surrey NanoSystems and marketed as Vantablack S-VIS, can be applied to a range of surfaces, and absorbs well over 99% of the light that falls onto it. It is claimed to be the world's blackest paint, and there is growing interest in its use in works of art and high-end consumer products. It's easy to see the appeal of Vantablack S-VI...

  20. 世界上最黑的材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈禾

    2014-01-01

    英国萨里纳米系统公司(Surrey NanoSystems)研发了一种世界上最黑的材料(Vantablack),黑到几乎无法看见。这种材料几乎不反射任何光线一只有不到千分之一的入射光线会被反射网去。材料由碳纳米管组成,其表面一层几十微米的薄层能持续吸收光线。

  1. Are we ready for spray-on carbon nanotubes?

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier this year, British sculptor, Anish Kapoor was given exclusive rights to use a new spray-on carbon nanotube-based paint. The material, produced by UK-based Surrey NanoSystems and marketed as Vantablack S-VIS, can be applied to a range of surfaces, and absorbs well over 99% of the light that falls onto it. It is claimed to be the world's blackest paint, and there is growing interest in its use in works of art and high-end consumer products. It's easy to see the appeal of Vantablack S-VI...

  2. Reflections on the development of CHASE Children's Hospice Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, A

    2001-01-01

    The tasks along the way to developing a children's hospice service are examined. CHASE Children's Hospice Service aims to establish a network of care for life-limited and life-threatened children, young people and their families. The services will be provided for families living mainly in SW London, Surrey and parts of West Sussex. They will comprise a source of palliative and respite care for the children and their families in their own homes (community care), backed-up by a respite care service in the related hospice at Artington, near Guildford (Christopher's).

  3. Augmented reality for underground pipe inspection and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Pretlove, John R. G.

    1998-12-01

    The University of Surrey is engaged in developing augmented reality systems and teleoperation techniques for enhanced visual analysis and task performance in hostile environments. One particular current project in the UK is addressing the development of stereo vision systems, augmented reality, image processing techniques and specialist robotic vehicles which may be used for the future examination and maintenance of underground sewage pipes. This paper describes the components of the stereo vision and augmented reality system and illustrates some preliminary results of the use of the stereo robotic system mounted on a mobile laboratory vehicle and calibrated using a pin-hole camera model.

  4. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  5. A Video Introduction to the IPinCH Project

    OpenAIRE

    Alexa Walker; Aynur Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Who defines and owns cultural heritage? Is it the people who create it? What if heritage is being used in ways that are considered inappropriate, or even harmful? Who owns Native culture? These questions are at the heart of the IPinCH project and are explored in the new IPinCH introductory video, created by Aynur Kadir (IPinCH RA, PhD student in the School of Interactive Arts and Technology, SFU Surrey) and Alexa Walker (IPinCH Research Assistant).   The video is the result of the ...

  6. Almost Sure Central Limit Theorems for Heavily Trimmed Sums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang WANG; Shi Hong CHENG

    2004-01-01

    We obtain an almost sure central limit theorem (ASCLT) for heavily trimmed sums. We also prove a function-typed ASCLT under the same conditions that assure measurable functions to satisfy the ASCLT for the partial sums of i.i.d. random variables with EX1 = 0, EX12 = 1.

  7. Smartphone qualification & linux-based tools for CubeSat computing payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, C. P.; Yeomans, B.; Iacopino, C.; Frame, T. E.; Schofield, A.; Kenyon, S.; Sweeting, M. N.

    Modern computers are now far in advance of satellite systems and leveraging of these technologies for space applications could lead to cheaper and more capable spacecraft. Together with NASA AMES's PhoneSat, the STRaND-1 nanosatellite team has been developing and designing new ways to include smart-phone technologies to the popular CubeSat platform whilst mitigating numerous risks. Surrey Space Centre (SSC) and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) have led in qualifying state-of-the-art COTS technologies and capabilities - contributing to numerous low-cost satellite missions. The focus of this paper is to answer if 1) modern smart-phone software is compatible for fast and low-cost development as required by CubeSats, and 2) if the components utilised are robust to the space environment. The STRaND-1 smart-phone payload software explored in this paper is united using various open-source Linux tools and generic interfaces found in terrestrial systems. A major result from our developments is that many existing software and hardware processes are more than sufficient to provide autonomous and operational payload object-to-object and file-based management solutions. The paper will provide methodologies on the software chains and tools used for the STRaND-1 smartphone computing platform, the hardware built with space qualification results (thermal, thermal vacuum, and TID radiation), and how they can be implemented in future missions.

  8. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare these appro......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare...... these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  9. The development and evaluation of Student Training, Education and Practice for Dietetics CD-ROM: a computer-assisted instruction programme for dietetic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, A M; Bishop, J A; Truby, H

    2004-02-01

    The Student Training, Education and Practice for Dietetics (STEP-DIET) CD-ROM was developed at the University of Surrey to prepare dietetic students for the practical dietetic training component of their Nutrition/Dietetics degree. This study aimed to evaluate student response to the programme and its effectiveness as a teaching tool, based on the evaluation framework of D.L. Kirkpatrick (Evaluating a Course, 2nd edn. London, Kogan Page). Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed, with 41 dietetic students, separated by year group, completing questionnaires and taking part in six focus groups, at the University of Surrey. Student attitudes towards the instruction method and the STEP-DIET programme itself were investigated, in conjunction with their perceived learning achievements. Students rated the programme highly in terms of design and content, however, there was a reluctance to accept computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as a sole teaching method. A number of learning achievements relevant to dietetic practice were reported including a perceived increase in ability to conduct a dietetic interview and an increased understanding of the management of Type 2 diabetes. In general students reacted positively to the STEP-DIET programme and it was perceived by students to be effective in preparing them for the practical component of their dietetic training.

  10. Making connections and building resilience: Developing workshops with undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Anthoney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While defining resilience is recognised as complex with recent research highlighting the disparity of interpretations, there is however, a common appreciation of the wide range of contributory factors impacting on students’ resilience within the Higher Education sector. These can include but are not limited to, an increasingly competitive environment for graduate jobs, increased financial pressure from student tuition fees, alongside the more traditional concerns of moving away from home and transitioning towards greater independence. Building on previous research at the University of Surrey with high achieving students, this paper outlines the development and delivery of a student focused workshop designed to enable the participants to build their understanding of resilience using different but complementary pedagogic approaches: LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® and Concept Mapping. The case study included within this paper demonstrates one student’s reflection of the workshop and previous experiences which have contributed to their own resilience. What has become apparent at the University of Surrey, and more broadly within the UK Higher Education sector, is that universities have a vital role to play in fostering positive mindsets amongst students and developing strong and resilient independent learners.

  11. Perspectives on medicine adherence in service users and carers with experience of legally sanctioned detention and medication: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Iris Gault,1 Ann Gallagher,2 Mary Chambers31Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, Kingston, Surrey, UK; 2International Centre for Nursing Ethics, School of Health and Social Care, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK; 3Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, St George's University of London, Tooting, London, UKAim: To explore and analyze perceptions of service users and caregivers on adherence and nonadherence to medication in a mental health care context.Background: Mental health medication adherence is considered problematic and legal coercion exists in many countries.Design: This was a qualitative study aiming to explore perceptions of medication adherence from the perspective of the service user (and their caregiver, where possible.Participants: Eighteen mental health service users (and six caregivers with histories of medication nonadherence and repeated compulsory admission were recruited from voluntary sector support groups in England.Methods: Data were collected between 2008 and 2010. Using qualitative coding techniques, the study analyzed interview and focus group data from service users, previously subjected to compulsory medication under mental health law, or their caregivers.Results: The process of medication adherence or nonadherence is encapsulated in an explanatory narrative. This narrative constitutes participants' struggle to negotiate acceptable and effective routes through variable quality of care. Results indicated that service users and caregivers eventually accepted the reality of their own mental illness and their need for safety and treatment. They perceived the behavior of professionals as key in their recovery process. Professionals could be enabling or disabling with regard to adherence to medication.Conclusion: This study investigated service user

  12. Transition from interpulse to afterglow plasmas driven by repetitive short-pulse microwaves in a multicusp magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shail; Sahu, Debaprasad; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2012-08-01

    In the power-off phase, plasmas generated by repetitive short-pulse microwaves in a multicusp magnetic field show a transitive nature from interpulse to afterglow as a function of pulse duration tw = 20-200 μs. The ionized medium can be driven from a highly non equilibrium to an equilibrium state inside the pulses, thereby dictating the behavior of the plasma in the power-off phase. Compared to afterglows, interpulse plasmas observed for tw < 50 μs are characterized by a quasi-steady-state in electron density that persists for ˜ 20-40 μs even after the end of the pulse and has a relatively slower decay rate (˜ 4.3 × 104 s-1) of the electron temperature, as corroborated by optical measurements. The associated electron energy probability function indicates depletion in low energy electrons which appear at higher energies just after the end of the pulse. The transition occurs at tw ˜ 50 μs as confirmed by time evolution of integrated electron numbers densities obtained from the distribution function.

  13. Interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with high-Z solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhidkov, A.; Sasaki, Akira; Utsumi, Takayuki; Fukumoto, Ichirou; Tajima, Toshiki [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan); Yoshida, Masatake [National Institute of Material and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kondo, Kenichi [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    A plasma irradiated by an intense very short pulse laser can be an ultimate high brightness source of incoherent inner-shell X-ray emission of 1-30 keV. The recently developed 100 TW, 20 fs laser facility in JAERI can make considerable enhancement here. To show this a hybrid model combining hydrodynamics and collisional particle-in-cell simulations is applied. Effect of laser prepulse on the interaction of an intense s-polarized femtosecond, {approx}20/40 fs, laser pulse with high-Z solid targets is studied. A new absorption mechanism originating from the interaction of the laser pulse with plasma waves excited by the relativistic component of the Lorentz force is found to increase the absorption rate over 30% even for a very short laser pulse. The obtained hot electron temperature exceeds 0.5-1 MeV at optimal conditions for absorption. Results of the simulation for lower laser pulse intensities are in good agreement with the experimental measurements of the hot electron energy distribution. (author)

  14. Investigating operation of the Internet in orbit: Five years of collaboration around CLEO

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Lloyd; Eddy, Wes; Stewart, Dave; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) was launched into space as an experimental secondary payload onboard the UK Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite in September 2003. The UK-DMC satellite is one of an increasing number of DMC satellites in orbit that rely on the Internet Protocol (IP) for command and control and for delivery of data from payloads. The DMC satellites, built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), have imaged the effects of Hurricane Katrina, the Indian Ocean Tsunami, and other events for disaster relief under the International Space and Major Disasters Charter. It was possible to integrate the Cisco mobile access router into the UK-DMC satellite as a result of the DMC satellites' adoption of existing commercial networking standards, using IP over Frame Relay over standard High-Level Data Link Control, or HDLC (ISO 13239) on standard serial interfaces. This approach came from work onboard SSTL's earlier UoSAT-12 satellite

  15. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available -Greg Bankoff, Alfred W. McCoy, Lives at the margin; Biography of Filipinos obscure, ordinary and heroic. Madison, Wisconsin: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madion, v + 481 pp. -Greg Bankoff, Clive J. Christie, Ideology and revolution in Southeast Asia 1900-1980; Political ideas of the anti-colonial era. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, xi + 236 pp. -René van den Berg, Videa P. de Guzman ,Grammatical analysis; Morphology, syntax, and semantics; Studies in honor of Stanley Starosta. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, xv + 298 pp. [Oceanic Linguistics Special Publication 29.], Byron W. Bender (eds -Wayne A. Bougas, Daniel Perret ,Batu Aceh; Warisan sejarah Johor. Kuala Lumpour: École francaise d'Extrême Orient, Johor Baru: Yayasan Warisan Johor, xxxviii + 510 pp., Kamarudin Ab. Razak (eds -Freek Colombijn, Benedict R. O.G. Anderson, Violence and the state in Suharto's Indonesia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University, Southeast Asia Program, 247 pp. [Studies on Southeast Asia 30.] -Harold Crouch, Stefan Eklöf, Indonesian politics in crisis; The long fall of Suharto, 1996-98. Copenhagen: Nodic Institute of Asian Studies, 1999, xi + 272 pp. [NIAS Studies in Contemporary Asia 1.] -John Gullick, Kumar Ramakrishna, Emergency propaganda; The winning of Malayan hearts and minds 1948-1958. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2002, xii + 306 pp. -Han Bing Siong, Daniel S. Lev, Legal evolution and political authority in Indonesia; Selected essays. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 2000, 349 pp., The Hague, London, Boston: Kluwer International. -David Henley, Laura Lee Junker, Raiding, trading, and feasting; The political economy of Philippine chiefdoms. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999, ix + 477 pp. -R.D. Hill, Jonathan Rigg, Southeast Asia; The human landscape of modernization and development. London: Routledge, 1997, xxv + 326 pp. -Adrian Horridge, Gene Ammarell, Bugis navigation. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale

  16. Power system design and in orbit performance of Algeria's first micro satellite Alsat-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekhti, Mohammed [Centre National des Techniques Spatiales, BP13, Arzew 31200 (Algeria); Sweeting, M.N. [Centre for Satellite Engineering Research, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    On the 28th November 2002, Algeria's first enhanced micro satellite was launched into a 686 km low earth orbit onboard a Cosmos 3M rocket from Plesetsk. The spacecraft was designed, manufactured and launched as a technology transfer programme between the National Centre of Space Techniques (CNTS) Algeria and Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom in the timescale of 18 months. This paper will describe the design and in orbit performance of the mission power system, stressing the decisions taken in order to meet the mission requirements within the 18 months, concept to launch programme. Most of the design and construction techniques used in the production of the Alsat-1 power system were based on SSTL heritage over the years. It will be shown how off the shelf components either for the generation or storage of the onboard energy can be applied successfully to such missions. (author)

  17. Benchmarking Energy Efficiency World-wide in the Beer Industry 2003. Feedback report to the participating breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouda, P.

    2004-10-27

    Following the success of the first Worldwide Energy Efficiency Benchmark (WEEB) in the brewing Industry in 2000 using the data from 1999, a second WEEB was set up in 2004 using the data from 2003. The results of the energy benchmark 2003 are presented in this report. The Dutch and Belgium brewers commissioned the study and a consortium of KWA Business Consultants (Amersfoort, The Netherlands) and Brewing Research International (Surrey, UK) performed a world-wide benchmarking study on energy efficiency in the brewing industry. 158 breweries from all over the world, representing 26% of the world's beer production, took part in this project (all with an output of at least 0.5 million hectolitres beer per year). This report consists out of two parts: a description of the methodology, used for benchmarking the energy efficiency in the brewing industry; and the results of the benchmark in world wide figures.

  18. CERN@school shoots for the stars

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    CERN technology will be taking a stellar journey as the Langton Ultimate Cosmic ray Intensity Detector (LUCID) is launched into space in 2012. LUCID has been designed by students from the CERN@school programme using Timepix chips from the Medipix Collaboration at CERN.   CERN@school students present LUCID.  In today’s educational environment, a pioneering school physics programme that involves students in authentic research seems unlikely. But in the UK, the CERN@school programme is providing the resources for school students to do just that. “We develop projects which allow students to work alongside scientists and engineers before they go to university,” says Becky Parker, head of the Langton Star Centre and founder of the CERN@school programme. “Thanks to these programmes, students can make a genuine contribution to global scientific research. LUCID is the culmination of three years of efforts by the students.” Surrey Satellite Tech...

  19. 声音

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Vantablacka可以减少散散光,其超低反射率非常适合用来提高天文望远镜的敏感度,以观测那些光芒最微弱的星体。英国的Surrey NanoSystems公司研发了一种世界上最黑的材料,肉眼根本无法分辨其形态,可产生一种类似黑洞的视觉效果。这种名为Vantablack的材料由碳纳米管制成,可吸收照射其上的99.96%的光线。而传统的黑色颜料、纤维等仅能吸收95%至98%的光线。

  20. The PACSAT Communications Experiment (PCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-12

    While VITA (Volunteers in Technical Assistance) is the recognized world leader in low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite technology (below 1 GHz), its involvement in communications technologies is to facilitate renewable energy technology transfer to developing countries. A communications payload was incorporated into the UoSat 2 satellite (Surrey Univ., UK), launched in 1984; a prototype satellite (PCE) was also launched Jan 1990. US DOE awarded a second grant to VITA to design and test the prototype ground stations (command and field), install field ground stations in several developing country sites, pursue the operational licensing process, and transfer the evaluation results to the design of an operating system. This report covers the principal tasks of this grant.

  1. Promoting space research and applications in developing countries through small satellite missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, M.

    The high vantage-point of space offers very direct and tangible benefits to developing countries when carefully focused upon their real and particular communications and Earth observation needs. However, until recently, access to space has been effectively restricted to only those countries prepared to invest enormous sums in complex facilities and expensive satellites and launchers: this has placed individual participation in space beyond the sensible grasp of developing countries. However, during the last decade, highly capable and yet inexpensive small satellites have been developed which provide an opportunity for developing countries realistically to acquire and operate their own independent space assets - customized to their particular national needs. Over the last 22 years, the Surrey Space Centre has pioneered, developed and launched 23 nano-micro-minisatellite missions, and has worked in partnership with 12 developing countries to enable them to take their first independent steps into space. Surrey has developed a comprehensive and in-depth space technology know-how transfer and 'hands-on' training programme that uses a collaborative project comprising the design, construction, launch and operation of a microsatellite to acquire an indigenous space capability and create the nucleus of a national space agency and space industry. Using low cost small satellite projects as a focus, developing countries are able to initiate a long term, affordable and sustainable national space programme specifically tailored to their requirements, that is able to access the benefits derived from Earth observation for land use and national security; improved communications services; catalyzing scientific research and indigenous high-technology supporting industries. Perhaps even more important is the long-term benefit to the country provided by stimulating educational and career opportunities for your scientists and engineers and retaining them inside the country rather the

  2. Silicon photonics: optical modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Gardes, F. Y.; Hu, Youfang; Thomson, D.; Lever, L.; Kelsall, R.; Ikonic, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon Photonics has the potential to revolutionise a whole raft of application areas. Currently, the main focus is on various forms of optical interconnects as this is a near term bottleneck for the computing industry, and hence a number of companies have also released products onto the market place. The adoption of silicon photonics for mass production will significantly benefit a range of other application areas. One of the key components that will enable silicon photonics to flourish in all of the potential application areas is a high performance optical modulator. An overview is given of the major Si photonics modulator research that has been pursued at the University of Surrey to date as well as a worldwide state of the art showing the trend and technology available. We will show the trend taken toward integration of optical and electronic components with the difficulties that are inherent in such a technology.

  3. Challenging stigma around mental illness and promoting social inclusion using the performing arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardzicki, Maya

    2008-03-01

    This article outlines the rationale, evidence base, method and qualitative evaluation of a project that uses the performing arts to challenge the stigma surrounding mental illness and promote social inclusion of people with mental health problems. The partnership project has run for three years with students of Reigate Sixth Form College and staff and users of voluntary and statutory mental health services in East Surrey. Collation of three years of evaluation data showed it as a successful approach to: positively influence students' attitudes, knowledge and empathy around mental health issues; and positively affect mental health service clients' mood and their feelings of achievement, confidence and inclusion. Key elements of the project's success and sustainability are summarised.

  4. Bacterial adhesion on ion-implanted stainless steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: q.zhao@dundee.ac.uk; Liu, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Peng, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jeynes, C. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-31

    Stainless steel disks were implanted with N{sup +}, O{sup +} and SiF{sub 3} {sup +}, respectively at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The surface properties of the implanted surfaces were analyzed, including surface chemical composition, surface topography, surface roughness and surface free energy. Bacterial adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, which frequently cause medical device-associated infections was evaluated under static condition and laminar flow condition. The effect of contact time, growth media and surface properties of the ion-implanted steels on bacterial adhesion was investigated. The experimental results showed that SiF{sub 3} {sup +}-implanted stainless steel performed much better than N{sup +}-implanted steel, O{sup +}-implanted steel and untreated stainless steel control on reducing bacterial attachment under identical experimental conditions.

  5. A system of electronic records developed by a children's hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Antoinette; Esplen, Polly; Bartlett, Paul; Turner, Bridget; Keel, Mike; Etherington, Veronica; Conisbee, Elaine; Plant, Antonia; Haslam, Val; England, Julie

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation and dissemination of an electronic data collection system for children's hospices in the UK. In 1999, CHASE Hospice Care for Children (CHASE) began providing support for life-limited children and their families in their own homes across south-west London, Surrey and West Sussex. CHASE community team is multidisciplinary and original members of the team had to create all of the necessary administrative systems for collecting and storing information about referrals and care provided to children and their families. The community team had the foresight to record activity statistics from day one of the service. The team worked together to identify information routinely collected that could usefully be stored on a computer database and a simple solution was created for this purpose using Microsoft Access version 2. CHASE was in a privileged position because the commitment to use information technology came from people providing care to children and their families.

  6. The portraiture of William Harvey (1578-1657) unveiled by the detective work of Geoffrey Keynes (1887-1983) and Alex Sakula (1917-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, D Geraint

    2005-05-01

    In November 1948, Sir Geoffrey Keynes exhibited the only known portrait of William Harvey in mid-life. The recovery of this rare portrait was due to Keynes's detective work at visits to Rolls Park in Essex. Dr Alex Sakula discovered the Betchworth portraits of the Harvey family by accident when he was invited to visit a patient, Major General Goulburn, at Betchworth in Surrey. After much research work Sakula was able to mount an informative exhibition at the Royal College of Physicians. Sakula also reminded us of Eliab Harvey (1758-1830), William's descendant, captain of the Téméraire at the Battle of Trafalgar; the year 2005 marks the bicentenary.

  7. The PACSAT Communications Experiment (PCE). Final report, August 13, 1990--February 12, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-12

    While VITA (Volunteers in Technical Assistance) is the recognized world leader in low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite technology (below 1 GHz), its involvement in communications technologies is to facilitate renewable energy technology transfer to developing countries. A communications payload was incorporated into the UoSat 2 satellite (Surrey Univ., UK), launched in 1984; a prototype satellite (PCE) was also launched Jan 1990. US DOE awarded a second grant to VITA to design and test the prototype ground stations (command and field), install field ground stations in several developing country sites, pursue the operational licensing process, and transfer the evaluation results to the design of an operating system. This report covers the principal tasks of this grant.

  8. Small satellites and their regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Jakhu, Ram S

    2014-01-01

    Since the launch of UoSat-1 of the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) in 1981, small satellites proved regularly to be useful, beneficial, and cost-effective tools. Typical tasks cover education and workforce development, technology demonstration, verification and validation, scientific and engineering research as well as commercial applications. Today the launch masses range over almost three orders of magnitude starting at less than a kilogram up to a few hundred kilograms, with budgets of less than US$ 100.00 and up to millions within very short timeframes of sometimes less than two years. Therefore each category of small satellites provides specific challenges in design, development and operations. Small satellites offer great potentials to gain responsive, low-cost access to space within a short timeframe for institutions, companies, regions and countries beyond the traditional big players in the space arena. For these reasons (particularly the low cost of construction, launch and operation), small (m...

  9. Oral healthcare challenges for older Punjabi-speaking immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEntee, Michael I; Wong, Sabrina T; Smith, André; Beattie, B Lynn; Brondani, Mario; Bryant, S Ross; Graf, Peter; Soheilipour, Shimae

    2014-06-01

    This study explored how older Punjabi-speaking South-Asian immigrants (four focus groups; 33 participants) in Surrey, British Columbia, perceive oral health and related problems. Content analysis revealed two umbrella themes: (a) interpretations of mouth conditions and (b) challenges to oral health. The umbrella themes had four sub-themes: damage caused by heat (wai), disturbances caused by caries, coping with dentures, and quality of life. Three challenges were considered: home remedies, Western dentistry, and difficulties accessing dentists. Participants explained oral diseases in terms of a systemic infection (resha), and preferred to decrease imbalances of wai in the mouth with home remedies from India. We conclude that older Punjabi-speaking immigrants interpret oral health and disease in the context of both Western and Ayurvedic traditions, and that they manage dental problems with a mix of traditional remedies supplemented, if possible, by elective oral health care in India, and by emergency dental care in Canada.

  10. An evaluation of a teaching package constructed using a Web-based lecture recorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Segal

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an evaluation of a teaching package constructed using Audiograph, a Web-based lecture recorder developed at the University of Surrey. Audiograph is described in detail in Jesshope and Shafarenko (1997. Its developer aims to provide a medium by which multimedia teaching packages, based on traditional university lectures, may be developed rapidly by the lecturer(s concerned (as opposed to professional CAL developers at low cost. Audiograph is designed so that development time should only be in the order of two hours for every hour of presentation. Packages developed using Audiograph make much use of audio, which is somewhat unusual (apart from in video clips in a package not dedicated to Computer-Assisted Language Learning or to addressing learning difficulties associated with vision. They also use text and (some animation.

  11. Hydrail : a parade Canada can lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S. [Mooresville-South Iredell Economic Development Corp., NC (United States). Hydrogen Economy Advancement Team

    2007-07-01

    This paper suggested that Canada can play a leading role in the development of hydrogen railways. Canadian scientists were among the first to test and develop the world's first hydrogen locomotive, and Canadian rail firms are now in a position to play a prominent role in the passenger hydrogen rail equipment market. A hydrogen railway will be built as part of Vancouver's 2010 winter olympics infrastructure. The Fraser Valley Heritage Railway Society is planning to use hydrogen to power vintage inter-urban trolley cars connecting Surrey communities. A Canadian manufactured hybrid locomotive will be modified to create the world's first hydrogen rail switch engine. It was concluded that hydrogen's storage capacity makes it an enabling technology for other other renewable energy technologies. Future hydrogen storage technologies will probably be hybridized with fuel cells in highly efficient applications. 1 ref.

  12. Blind source separation advances in theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    Blind Source Separation intends to report the new results of the efforts on the study of Blind Source Separation (BSS). The book collects novel research ideas and some training in BSS, independent component analysis (ICA), artificial intelligence and signal processing applications. Furthermore, the research results previously scattered in many journals and conferences worldwide are methodically edited and presented in a unified form. The book is likely to be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in computer science and electronics who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of BSS. Dr. Ganesh R. Naik works at University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; Dr. Wenwu Wang works at University of Surrey, UK.

  13. PIXE and ion beam analysis in forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Melanie; Warmenhoven, John [Deparlmenl of Chemislry, Universily of Surrey (United Kingdom); Chrislopher, Matt; Kirkby, Karen; Palitsin, Vladimir; Grime, Geoff; Jeynes, Chris; Jones, Brian; Wenn, Roger [Surrey lon Beam Cenlre, Universily of Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: University of Surrey has, for the past four years, collaborated with police institutions from across Europe and the rest of the world lo scope potential applications of ion beam analysis (IBA) in forensic science. In doing this we have consulted practitioners across a range of forensic disciplines, and critically compared IBA with conventional characterisation techniques to investigate the areas in which IBA can add evidential value. In this talk, the results of this feasibility study will be presented, showing the types of sample for which IBA shows considerable promise. We will show how a combination of PIXE with other IBA techniques (EBS, PIGE, MeV-SIMS) can be used to give unprecedented characterisation of forensic samples and comment on the significance of these results for forensic casework. We will also show cases where IBA not appear to add any significant improvement over conventional techniques. (author)

  14. Measurement of the total activity concentrations of Libyan oil scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, F. C. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Rozaila, Z. Siti

    2017-08-01

    Twenty-three oil scale samples obtained from the Libyan oil and gas industry production facilities onshore have been measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with a shielded HPGe detector, the work being carried out within the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory at the University of Surrey. The main objectives of this work were to determine the extent to which the predominant radionuclides associated with the uranium and thorium natural decay chains were in secular equilibrium with their decay progeny, also to compare differences between the total activity concentrations (TAC) in secular equilibrium and disequilibrium and to evaluate the measured activities for the predominant gamma-ray emitting decay radionuclides within the 232Th and 238U chains. The oil scale NORM samples did not exhibit radioactive equilibrium between the decay progeny and longer-lived parent radionuclides of the 238U and 232Th series.

  15. Modelling of eddy-current interaction with cracks in the thin-skin regime. Two approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastorchio, S. [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou (France). Research and Development Div.; Harfield, N. [Surrey Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1998-02-01

    EDF uses TRIFOU code for eddy current testing modelling. This general electromagnetic code is to be further adapted to Non Destructive Testing applications, not only for nuclear NDT but also in other fields such as aeronautical. This paper compares experimental data for aluminium and steel specimens with two methods of solving the forward problem in the thin-skin regime. The first approach is a 3D Finite Element / Boundary Integral Element method (TRIFOU) developed by EDF/RD Division (France). The second approach is specialized for the treatment of surface cracks in the thin-skin regime developed by the University of Surrey (England). In the thin-skin regime, the electromagnetic skin-depth is small compared with the depth of the crack. Such conditions are common in tests on steels and sometimes on aluminium. (K.A.) 4 refs.

  16. An exploration into pedagogic frailty: Transitioning from face-to-face to online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Niculescu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogic frailty and concept mapping can simultaneously encourage personal and organisational change by supporting critical reflection and resilience. These ideas are nascent within higher education institutions and currently, at the University of Surrey, are only developed through face-to-face sessions. This revealed the need for a scalable intervention which engages academics with the discourse on introspective and professional development practices. In response, we have created the design for a blended programme of online foundation for concept mapping leading to face-to-face workshops to explore the pedagogic frailty model. This paper will discuss some significant challenges arising from transitioning self-reflective practices from face-to-face to online spaces. In the process, we will consider ways in which learning design can take the learner context into account.

  17. Contraception for women with diabetes: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ann Robinson, Chidiebere Nwolise, Jill Shawe School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Surrey, UK Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM, the most common of metabolic disorders, is a global public health concern. Numbers are rising with 383 million adults currently diagnosed with DM and another 175 million as yet undiagnosed. The rise in cases includes increasing numbers of women of a reproductive age whose reproductive health and contraception need careful consideration. Unintended pregnancy with poor glycemic control at the time of conception increases the chance of adverse pregnancy outcomes including stillbirth, congenital abnormalities, and perinatal mortality. In order to minimize complications, safe and effective contraception is paramount for all women with DM. This is a challenge as women have been found to be reticent to ask for advice, appear to lack understanding of risks, and are less likely to be using contraception than women without DM. The World Health Organization has developed Medical Eligibility Criteria to guide contraceptive choice. Women with DM without complications can choose from the full range of contraceptive methods including hormonal contraception as the advantages of use outweigh any risk. Women with diabetic complications may need specialist advice to assess the risk–benefit equation, particularly in respect of hormonal contraception. Women should be aware that there is no restriction to the use of oral and copper intrauterine emergency contraception methods. There is a need for an integrated approach to diabetes and reproductive health with improved communication between women with DM and their health care providers. Women need to be aware of advice and services and should make their own choice of contraception based on their needs and associated risk factors. Practitioners can offer nonjudgmental guidance working in partnership with women. This will enable discussion of

  18. Capacity building in emerging space nations: Experiences, challenges and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Susan; da Silva Curiel, Alex; Liddle, Doug; Chizea, Francis; Leloglu, Ugur Murat; Helvaci, Mustafa; Bekhti, Mohammed; Benachir, Djouad; Boland, Lee; Gomes, Luis; Sweeting, Martin

    2010-09-01

    This paper focuses on ways in which space is being used to build capacity in science and technology in order to: Offer increasing support for national and global solutions to current and emerging problems including: how to improve food security; resource management; understanding the impacts of climate change and how to deal with them; improving disaster mitigation, management and response. Support sustainable economic development. We present some of the experiences, lessons learned and benefits gained in capacity building projects undertaken by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. and our partners from developing and mature space nations. We focus on the Turkish, Algerian and Nigerian know-how and technology transfer programmes which form part of the first Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) in orbit. From the lessons learned on Surrey's know-how and technology transfer partnership programmes, it is clear that space technology needs to be implemented responsibly as part of a long-term capacity building plan to be a sustainable one. It needs to be supported with appropriate policy and legal frameworks, institutional development, including community participation, human resources development and strengthening of managerial systems. In taking this on board, DMC has resulted in a strong international partnership combining national objectives, humanitarian aid and commerce. The benefits include: Ownership of space-based and supporting ground assets with low capital expenditure that is in line with national budgets of developing nations. Ownership of data and control over data acquisition. More for the money via collaborative consortium. Space related capacity building in organisations and nations with the goal of sustainable development. Opportunities for international collaboration, including disaster management and relief.

  19. SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Saunier, S.; Choate, M.J.; Scaramuzza, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite data from the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) United Kingdom (UK) Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) were assessed for geometric and radiometric quality. The UK-DMC Surrey Linear Imager 6 (SLIM-6) sensor has a 32-m spatial resolution and a ground swath width of 640 km. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 design consists of a three-band imager with green, red, and near-infrared bands that are set to similar bandpass as Landsat bands 2, 3, and 4. The UK-DMC data consisted of imagery registered to Landsat orthorectified imagery produced from the GeoCover program. Relief displacements within the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery were accounted for by using global 1-km digital elevation models available through the Global Land One-km Base Elevation (GLOBE) Project. Positional accuracy and relative band-to-band accuracy were measured. Positional accuracy of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 imagery was assessed by measuring the imagery against digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs), which are designed to meet national map accuracy standards at 1 : 24 000 scales; this corresponds to a horizontal root-mean-square accuracy of about 6 m. The UK-DMC SLIM-6 images were typically registered to within 1.0-1.5 pixels to the DOQ mosaic images. Several radiometric artifacts like striping, coherent noise, and flat detector were discovered and studied. Indications are that the SSTL UK-DMC SLIM-6 data have few artifacts and calibration challenges, and these can be adjusted or corrected via calibration and processing algorithms. The cross-calibration of the UK-DMC SLIM-6 and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was performed using image statistics derived from large common areas observed by the two sensors.

  20. The use of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool in elderly orthopaedic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M C; Brooks, C N; New, S A; Lumbers, M L

    2000-07-01

    To assess the use of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in elderly orthopaedic patients. An observation study assessing the nutritional status of female orthopaedic patients. The orthopaedic wards of the Royal Surrey County Hospital. Forty-nine female patients aged 60-103 y; dietary records were obtained for 41 subjects and 36 subjects gave a blood sample for biochemical analysis. MAJOR OUTCOME METHODS: MNA questionnaire, anthropometry, plasma albumin, transferrin, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and dietary analyses. The group as a whole had low mean values for body weight, albumin and transferrin and high CRP levels. In addition, the group had mean energy intakes well below the estimated average requirement (EAR) and mean intakes of vitamin D, magnesium, potassium, selenium and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) were below the lower reference nutrient intakes (LRNI). The MNA screening section categorized 69% of the patients as requiring a full assessment (scored 11 or below), but for the purposes of the study the MNA was completed on all patients. The MNA assessment categorized 16% of the group as 'malnourished' (scoredpoints), 47% as 'at risk' (scored 17.5-23.5) and 37% as 'well nourished' (scored>23.5). Significant differences were found between the malnourished and well nourished groups for body weight (PBMI) (Ppoints in comparison with albumin levels, energy intake and mindex varied from 27 to 57% and the specificity was 66-100%. This was compared with the sensitivity and specificity of using a score of less than 23.5 on the MNA to predict malnourished individuals. Using this cut-off the sensitivity ranged from 75 to 100%, but the specificity declined to between 37 and 50%. The results suggest that the MNA is a useful diagnostic tool in the identification of elderly patients at risk from malnutrition and those who are malnourished in this hospital setting. Nestlé Clinical Nutrition, Croydon, Surrey.

  1. First order Bragg grating filters in silicon on insulator waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Peter Michael

    2008-08-01

    The subject of this project is the design; analysis, fabrication and characterisation of first order Bragg Grating optical filters in Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) planar waveguides. It is envisaged that this work will result in the possibility of Bragg Grating filters for use in Silicon Photonics. It is the purpose of the work to create as far as is possible flat surface waveguides so as to facilitate Thermo-Optic tuning and also the incorporation into rib-waveguide Silicon Photonics. The spectral response of the shallow Bragg Gratings was modelled using Coupled Mode Theory (CMT) by way of RSoft Gratingmod TM. Also the effect of having a Bragg Grating with alternate layers of refractive index of 1.5 and 3.5 was simulated in order to verify that Silica and Silicon layered Bragg Gratings could be viable. A series of Bragg Gratings were patterned on 1.5 micron SOI at Philips in Eindhoven, Holland to investigate the variation of grating parameters with a) the period of the gratings b) the mark to space ratio of the gratings and c) the length of the region converted to Bragg Gratings (i.e. the number of grating period repetitions). One set of gratings were thermally oxidised at Philips in Eindhoven and another set were ion implanted with Oxygen ions at the Ion Beam Facility, University of Surrey, England. The gratings were tested and found to give transmission minima at approximately 1540 nanometres and both methods of creating flat surfaces were found to give similar minima. Atomic Force Microscopy was applied to the grating area of the as-implanted samples in the Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, which were found to have surface undulations in the order of 60 nanometres.

  2. Adsorption mechanisms of L-Glutathione on Au and controlled nano-patterning through Dip Pen Nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calborean, A., E-mail: adrian.calborean@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donat 67-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Martin, F.; Marconi, D.; Turcu, R.; Kacso, I.E.; Buimaga-Iarinca, L. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donat 67-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Graur, F. [Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, Babeş 8, 400012 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Turcu, I. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donat 67-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-01

    Dip Pen Nanolithography technique has been employed for patterning L-Glutathione tripeptide (L-y-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) nanostructures at specific locations on metallic Au(111) substrate. The formed supramolecular architectures were designed through straight lines and dots serving as precursors for building blocks assemblies in nano-bio-electronics applications or as template structures for functionalized particles in the form of host–guest networks. Tween 20 polyoxyethylene surfactant concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.1% (v/v) into initial L-Glutathione tripeptide (2 mg mL{sup −1}) ink solutions were sequentially tested for the improvement of the ink delivery process and to assure an optimum uniformity and homogeneity over the patterned space. A strong relationship was found between the coated atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever within the highly effective Tween 20 activator adjuvant and the molecular diffusion along concentration gradients. An increase in the driving force for ink transport from the AFM tip has been demonstrated within the highest 0.1% (v/v) TW 20 surfactant concentration, favoring the patterning of GSH molecules routinely with sub-100 nm resolution. Self-assembled monolayers of GSH were also fabricated and characterized in the light of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ellipsometric optical measurements. Adsorption from water of L-Glutathione to the gold substrate is proven to be made by the thiol group of cysteine. Theoretical DFT approaches were applied for quantum chemical studies dedicated to electronic processes underneath molecular GSH/Au(111) systems. - Highlights: • Controlled nano-patterning of L-Glutathione was performed on Au by DPN. • Tween 20 was used for increasing driving force of molecular ink transport. • SAM's formation has described the adsorption mechanisms of L-Glutathione on Au. • Electronic properties of hybrid GSH/Au(111) structures were investigated by DFT. • Validation of

  3. Adsorption mechanisms of L-Glutathione on Au and controlled nano-patterning through Dip Pen Nanolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calborean, A; Martin, F; Marconi, D; Turcu, R; Kacso, I E; Buimaga-Iarinca, L; Graur, F; Turcu, I

    2015-12-01

    Dip Pen Nanolithography technique has been employed for patterning L-Glutathione tripeptide (l-y-glutamyl-l-cysteinyl-glycine) nanostructures at specific locations on metallic Au(111) substrate. The formed supramolecular architectures were designed through straight lines and dots serving as precursors for building blocks assemblies in nano-bio-electronics applications or as template structures for functionalized particles in the form of host-guest networks. Tween 20 polyoxyethylene surfactant concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.1% (v/v) into initial l-Glutathione tripeptide (2 mg mL(-1)) ink solutions were sequentially tested for the improvement of the ink delivery process and to assure an optimum uniformity and homogeneity over the patterned space. A strong relationship was found between the coated atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever within the highly effective Tween 20 activator adjuvant and the molecular diffusion along concentration gradients. An increase in the driving force for ink transport from the AFM tip has been demonstrated within the highest 0.1% (v/v) TW 20 surfactant concentration, favoring the patterning of GSH molecules routinely with sub-100 nm resolution. Self-assembled monolayers of GSH were also fabricated and characterized in the light of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and ellipsometric optical measurements. Adsorption from water of l-Glutathione to the gold substrate is proven to be made by the thiol group of cysteine. Theoretical DFT approaches were applied for quantum chemical studies dedicated to electronic processes underneath molecular GSH/Au(111) systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 'You can get there from here': Advanced low cost propulsion concepts for small satellites beyond LEO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Adam M.; Silva Curiel, Alex da; Sweeting, Martin [Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd., Surrey (United Kingdom); Schaffner, Jake [California Polytechnic State Univ., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Small satellites have historically been forced to use low cost propulsion, or to do without in order to maintain low cost. Since 1999 an increasing number of SSTL's customers have demanded the capability to precisely position and subsequently manoeuvre their satellites, driven largely by the current attraction of small satellite constellations such as Disaster Monitoring (DMC), which require propulsion for launcher injection error correction, drag compensation, constellation phasing and proximity manoeuvring and rendezvous. SSTL has successfully flight qualified a simple, low cost propulsion system based on a low power (15-100 W) resistojet employing green propellants such as butane and xenon, and demonstrated key constellation manoeuvres. The system is capable of up to 60 m/s deltaV and will be described here. The SSTL low power resistojet is however limited by a low Isp ( about 50s for Xenon in the present design, and about 100s with nitrogen and butane) and a slow reaction time (10 min warm-up required). An increasing desire to apply small satellite technology to high deltaV missions while retaining the low cost aspect demands new solutions. 'Industry standard' solutions based on cryogenic propulsion, or toxic, carcinogenic storable propellants such as hydrazine/nitrogen oxides combination are not favourable for small satellite missions developed within SSTL's low cost engineering environment. This paper describes a number of strawman missions with high deltaV and/or precision manoeuvring requirements and some low cost propulsion solutions which have been explored at the Surrey Space Centre to meet future needs: (1) Deployment of a complex constellation of nano- or pico-satellites from a secondary launch to a new orbit. The S3TV concept has been developed to allow deployment up to 12 payloads from an 'off-the-shelf' thrust tube, using a restartable nitrous oxide hybrid engine, operating in a dual mode with resistojets for attitude

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available -Barbara Watson Andaya, Susan Blackburn, Love, sex and power; Women in Southeast Asia. Clayton VIC: Monash Asia Institute, 2001, iv + 144 pp. [Monash papers on Southeast Asia 55.] -Kathryn Gay Anderson, Juliette Koning ,Women and households in Indonesia; Cultural notions and social practices. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2000, xiii + 354 pp. [Nordic Institute of Asian studies, studies in Asian topics 27.], Marleen Nolten, Janet Rodenburg (eds -Greg Bankoff, Takeshi Kawanaka, Power in a Philippine city. Chiba: Institute of developing economies, 2002, 118 pp. [IDE Occasional papers series 38.] -René van den Berg, John Lynch ,The Oceanic languages. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2002, xvii + 924 pp., Malcolm Ross, Terry Crowley (eds -H.J.M. Claessen, Douglas Oliver, Polynesia in early historic times. Honolulu: Bess Press, 2002, 305 pp. -Harold Crouch, Andrew Rosser, The politics of economic liberalisation in Indonesia; State, market and power. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2002, xv + 232 pp. -Hans Hägerdal, Arend de Roever, De jacht op sandelhout; De VOC en de tweedeling van Timor in de zeventiende eeuw. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 2002, 383 pp. -Fiona Harris, Lorraine V. Aragon ,Structuralism's transformations; Order and revision in Indonesian and Malaysian societies; Paper written in honor of Clark E. Cunningham. Tempe AZ: Arizona State University Press, 1999, lxii + 402 pp., Susan D. Russell (eds -David Henley, Christiaan Heersink, Dependence on green gold: A socio-economic history of the Indonesian coconut island Selayar. Leiden: KITlV Press, 1999, xviii + 371 pp. [Verhandelingen 184.] -David Hicks, James T. Siegel ,Southeast Asia over three generations; Essays presented to Benedict R.O'G. Anderson 2003, 398 pp. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Southeast Asia program. [Studies on Southeast Asia 36.], Audrey R. Kahin (eds -Janny de Jong, L. de Jong, The collapse of a colonial society; The Dutch in Indonesia during the second world war. With an introduction by

  6. Persistent hypertriglyceridemia in statin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feher M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael Feher,1–3 Mark Greener,4 Neil Munro1–3,51Beta Cell Diabetes Centre, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London, 2Diabetes Therapies Evaluation Network, London, 3CSRI, Warwick University, Warwick, 4ROCK Medical Communications, Richmond, 5Department of Health Care Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UKPurpose: This paper reports the results of an audit that assessed the prevalence of residual hypertriglyceridemia and the potential need for intensified management among patients with statin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in primary care in the UK.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional, observational, systematic audit of patients with diagnosed diabetes from 40 primary care practices was undertaken. The audit collected basic demographic information and data on prescriptions issued during the preceding 4 months. T2DM patients were stratified according to the proportion that attained European Society of Cardiology treatment targets.Results: The audit collected data from 14,652 patients with diagnosed diabetes: 89.5% (n = 13,108 of the total cohort had T2DM. Of the people with T2DM, 22.2% (2916 were not currently receiving lipid-lowering therapy. Up to approximately 80% of these people showed evidence of dyslipidemia. Among the group that received lipid-lowering therapy, 94.7% (9647 were on statin monotherapy, which was usually simvastatin (69.5% of patients receiving statin monotherapy; 6707. The currently available statins were prescribed, with the most common dose being 40 mg simvastatin (44.2%; 4267. Irrespective of the statin used, around half of the patients receiving statin monotherapy did not attain the European Society of Cardiology treatment targets for triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol.Conclusion: T2DM patients managed in UK primary care commonly show persistent lipid abnormalities. Clinicians need to optimize compliance with lipid-lowering and other

  7. The BGAN extension programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  8. Veterinary Students' Perspectives on Resilience and Resilience-Building Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Jenny E; Bartram, David J

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, resilience has been lauded as a valuable, even necessary, facet of an effective veterinary practitioner. This study describes a mixed-methods research exploration of the impact of a self-care and mental well-being teaching intervention on the self-reported resilience of 105 first-year veterinary students enrolled at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, UK. Quantitative data were obtained through a questionnaire, the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), which students completed before and after the teaching intervention. The median total score on the scale increased from 27 (IQR=25-30) to 29 (IQR=26-32) (pveterinary students build greater awareness of resilience, and potentially support their development of a more resilient approach in their personal and professional lives. In this study, veterinary students felt that resilience training was a valuable addition to the veterinary curriculum, and that resilience likely plays an important role in achieving a successful veterinary career. The study also suggested that veterinary students utilize a variety of different resilience-building strategies, including drawing on past experiences, seeking help from support networks, and developing an ability to change their perspectives.

  9. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Irving

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided into three groups based on athletic disciplines: sprint (s: 100–400 m; n=80, jump and throw (j/t: jump and throw; n=25 and, middle distance (md: 800–3000 m; n=15. Frequency differences between groups were assessed using chi-square tests. Regional or county distribution of sprint differed from that of middle distance (P<0.001 but not from that of jump and throw athletes (P=0.24 and that of controls (P=0.59. Sprint athletes predominately originated from the Surrey county (s = 46%, j/t = 37%, md = 17, C = 53%, whilst middle distance athletes exhibited excess from the Middlesex county (md = 60%. The language distribution of all groups showed uniformity with a predominance of English. A higher proportion of middle distance and jump and throw athletes walked to school (md = 80%, j/t = 52%, s = 10%, and C = 12% and travelled greater distances to school. In conclusion, Jamaica’s success in sprinting may be related to environmental and social factors.

  10. Some observations on hyperuniform disordered photonic bandgap materials, from microwave scale study to infrared scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitrin, Sam; Nahal, Geev; Florescu, Marian; Man, Weining; San Francisco State University Team; University of Surrey Team

    2015-03-01

    A novel class of disordered photonic materials, hyperuniform disordered solids (HUDS), attracted more attention. Recently they have been experimentally proven to provide complete photonic band gap (PBG) when made with Alumina or Si; as well as single-polarization PBG when made with plastic with refract index of 1.6. These PBGs were shown to be real energy gaps with zero density of photonic states, instead of mobility gaps of low transmission due to scattering, etc. Using cm-scale samples and microwave experiments, we reveal the nature of photonic modes existing in these disordered materials by analyzing phase delay and mapping field distribution profile inside them. We also show how to extend the proof-of-concept microwave studies of these materials to proof-of-scale studies for real applications, by designing and fabricating these disordered photonic materials at submicron-scale with functional devices for 1.55 micron wavelength. The intrinsic isotropy of the disordered structure is an inherent advantage associated with the absence of limitations of orientational order, which is shown to provide valuable freedom in defect architecture design impossible in periodical structures. NSF Award DMR-1308084, the University of Surrey's FRSF and Santander awards.

  11. What can we learn from toddlers about categorical perception of color? Comments on Goldstein, Davidoff, and Roberson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Wright, Oliver; Davies, Ian R L

    2009-02-01

    We comment on Goldstein, Davidoff, and Roberson's replication and extension (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102, 219-238 [2009]) of our study of the effect of toddlers' color term knowledge on their categorical perception (CP) of color (Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 90, 114-141 [2005]). First, we discuss how best to assess color term knowledge when concerned with the effects of language on color CP. A reanalysis of our data indicates that even toddlers who do not know the terms for the relevant focal colors still show CP. Second, we comment on Goldstein and colleagues' finding of blue-purple CP, as we did, but not of blue-green CP in Himba toddlers. We present contrasting data from Wright (unpublished PhD thesis, University of Surrey, 2006) that demonstrates blue-green CP in Himba toddlers. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the approach taken by all of these investigations and discuss theoretical accounts of the origin and nature of color CP.

  12. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  13. Sonnets and psalm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Aaron

    Sonnets and Psalm investigates the relationships between the sacred nature of Psalm 91 and the secular nature of two sonnets, William Shakespeare's Sonnet 73 and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey's Sonnet 8. Sonnets and Psalm exploits a dynamic that arises from the juxtaposition of disparate musical universes, choral and instrumental, and the unique and, at times, ineffable aesthetic qualities that emerge as a result of the intentional ordering of musical language and block structures. In a five movement form the listener is guided from vocal events painted on orchestral palettes, to solely instrumental movements, and back again. While the movements can stand independently of each other, there are ponderous transformations of material within and throughout the piece that create a thread that functions as a consistent generative unifying element. A recurrent utilization of motive, color, register, pitch-specific sonorities and gesture, enhances the unity of the work while exploiting the contradistinctive nature of each movement. Relational aspects of hidden and transformed materials from the Psalm and the sonnets (including the Mosaic movements) that are present throughout create a forward and back-relating dynamic. There is a programmatic element at work as well that in itself is a statement: after the sonnets and the mosaics, the listener is finally presented with the Psalm, a conclusion.

  14. A modular design for rapid-response telecoms and navigation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, D.; Buckley, John; Sweeting, M.; Roussel-Dupre, Diane; Caffrey, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd and Los Alamos National Laboratory are together building the Cibola Flight Experiment (CFESat), a mission with the aim of flight-proving a reconfigurable processor payload intended for a Low Earth Orbit system. The mission will survey portions of the VHF and UHF radio spectra. The satellite will be launched by the Space Test Program in September 2006 on the USAF Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) using the EELV's Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA) that allows up to six small satellites to be launched as "piggyback" passengers with larger spacecraft. The payload is based on networks of reprogrammable, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) to process the received signals for ionospheric and lightning studies. The objective is to validate the on-orbit use of commercial, reconfigurable FPGA technology utilizing several different single-event upset mitigation schemes. It will also detect and measure impulsive events that occur in a complex background. SSTL's satellite platform is based on a new, ESPA- compatible, structure housing subsystems and equipments with proven flight heritage from SSTL's disaster monitoring constellation (DMC) and the Topsat mission satellite due for launch in 2005. The structure is mechanically quite complex for a microsatellite having both deployed solar panels and a pair of long booms as part of the payload. The satellite design is highly constrained by the mass and volume requirements of the EELV/EPSA.

  15. Reactions and Coulex at TRIUMF, progress and prospects of SHARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diget, Christian Aa.; Sarazin, Fred

    2008-10-01

    The Silicon Highly-segmented Array for Reactions and Coulex (SHARC) is a multi-purpose array for charged-particle detection. The array is designed to have high spatial resolution, a large solid angle coverage, and particle identification of the measured reaction products. This combination offers unique capabilities when integrated with the TIGRESS gamma-ray detectors and the post-accelerated beams at the ISAC-II facility at TRIUMF, Canada. Two major research programs will gain significantly from the utilization of SHARC: Reaction studies with particular emphasis on transfer reactions used to indirectly probe nuclear reaction rates important for explosive stellar scenarios as well as nuclear structure studies in which Coulomb excitation will play an important role. The project is funded by the UK-STFC and is lead from the University of York with collaborators from the UK Universities of Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, and Surrey, and Daresbury Laboratory; Colorado School of Mines and Louisiana State University of the USA; and from Canada: TRIUMF as well as McMaster, Saint Mary's, and Simon Fraser Universities.

  16. IPv6 and IPsec Tests of a Space-Based Asset, the Cisco Router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William; Stewart, David; Wood, Lloyd; Jackson, Chris; Northam, James; Wilhelm, James

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the design of network infrastructure to support testing and demonstrating network-centric operations and command and control of space-based assets, using IPv6 and IPsec. These tests were performed using the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO), an experimental payload onboard the United Kingdom--Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC) satellite built and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL). On Thursday, 29 March 2007, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cisco Systems and SSTL performed the first configuration and demonstration of IPsec and IPv6 onboard a satellite in low Earth orbit. IPv6 is the next generation of the Internet Protocol (IP), designed to improve on the popular IPv4 that built the Internet, while IPsec is the protocol used to secure communication across IP networks. This demonstration was made possible in part by NASA s Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) and shows that new commercial technologies such as mobile networking, IPv6 and IPsec can be used for commercial, military and government space applications. This has direct application to NASA s Vision for Space Exploration. The success of CLEO has paved the way for new spacebased Internet technologies, such as the planned Internet Routing In Space (IRIS) payload at geostationary orbit, which will be a U.S. Department of Defense Joint Capability Technology Demonstration. This is a sanitized report for public distribution. All real addressing has been changed to psueco addressing.

  17. An exploration of student midwives' language to describe non-formal learning in professional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Gina; Pope, Rosemary

    2005-05-01

    The essence of non-formal learning in midwifery practice has not been previously explored. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the language of a sample of student midwives' descriptions of their practice learning in a range of clinical settings. The students submitted audio-diaries as part of a national study (Pope, R., Graham. L., Finnerty. G., Magnusson, C. 2003. An investigation of the preparation and assessment for midwifery practice within a range of settings. Project Report. University of Surrey). Participants detailed their learning activities and support obtained whilst working with their named mentors for approximately 10 days or shifts. The rich audio-diary data have been analysed using Discourse Analysis. A typology of non-formal learning (Eraut, M. 2000. Non-formal learning and implicit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 113-136) has been used to provide a framework for the analysis. Non-formal learning is defined as any learning which does not take place within a formally organised learning programme (Eraut, M. 2000. Non-formal learning and implicit knowledge in professional work. British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 113-136). Findings indicate that fear and ambiguity hindered students' learning. Recommendations include the protection of time by mentors within the clinical curriculum to guide and supervise students in both formal and non-formal elements of midwifery practice. This paper will explore the implications of the findings for practice-based education.

  18. Jet set pets: examining the zoonosis risk in animal import and travel across the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fooks AR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthony R Fooks,1,2 Nicholas Johnson1 1Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-Borne Diseases Research Group, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone, Surrey, 2Department of Clinical Infection, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Abstract: Ownership of companion animals or pets is popular throughout the world. Unfortunately, such animals are susceptible to and potential reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens. Close proximity to and contact with pets can lead to human infections. The distribution of zoonotic diseases associated with companion animals such as dogs and cats is not uniform around the world, and moving animals between regions, countries, and continents carries with it the risk of relocating the pathogens they might harbor. Critical among these zoonotic diseases are rabies, echinococcosis, and leishmania. In addition, the protozoan parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia duodenalis, are also significant agents for human disease of pet origin. Considerable effort is applied to controlling movements of companion animals, particularly dogs, into the European Union. However, free movement of people and their pets within the European Union is a risk factor for the translocation of diseases and their vectors. This review considers the current distribution of some of these diseases, the risks associated with pet travel, and the controls implemented within Europe to prevent the free movement of zoonotic pathogens. Keywords: zoonosis, companion animal, rabies, alveolar echinococcosis, leishmania

  19. Space instrumentation: physics and astronomy in harmony?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderin, M [Surrey Satellite Technology Centre, Sevenoaks Enterprise Centre, Sevenoaks, Kent, TN14 5LJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.aderin@sstl.co.uk

    2008-03-01

    Surrey Satellite Technology Limited was formed as a company in 1985 and has been involved in 23 small satellite missions, making it the most successful and experienced small satellite supplier in the world. The challenge of getting a satellite into space takes a dedicated multidisciplinary team of physicists and engineers working together to achieve a common goal. In this paper the author will look at the breakdown of the teams for a number of space projects including NigeriaSAT1; one of the satellites that make up the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), which produces high quality commercial images for monitoring agriculture and the environment as well as dedicating a proportion of it's time to disaster monitoring. Commercial projects like this will be contrasted to instruments such as the Integral Field Unit (IFU) for the NIRSpec instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST is the replacement for the Hubble Space telescope). Although both projects have been running through commercial contracts at SSTL, how does the final goal of the instrument influence the synergy between the physics and the engineering needed to make it, and what, if any, economic differences are seen?.

  20. Pabellón de química del Royal Holloway College - Egham (Gran Bretaña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colquhoun & Miller, Arquitectos

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available This building, situated in Egham, Surrey, has been designed and built bearing in mind its true nature, i.e. part of a large university complex in a continual state of development. For this reason it was necessary to think in terms of a structure and modulation which could be easily extended in the future without interrupting Its running too much. The unit consists of a series of blocks in step formation, which fits in perfectly with the landscape. There are offices, laboratories, research areas, etc., and at the end of these, separated from the rest, are two auditoriums or lecture theatres.Este edificio —situado en Eghatn, Surrey— ha sido proyectado y realizado teniendo en cuenta las características propias del tipo, es decir, formando parte de un gran complejo universitario en continuo desarrollo, lo que obliga a pensar en una estructura y una modulación que permitan sucesivas y fáciles ampliaciones, alterando muy poco la marcha del Centro. El conjunto está constituido por una serie de bloques escalonados —que se adaptan perfectamente al terreno— en los que se han ubicado los despachos, laboratorios, zonas de investigación, etcétera, al final de los cuales, y separados de las demás dependencias, están situados los dos auditorios o aulas magnas.

  1. Development of tailor-made silica fibres for TL dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. A.; Abdul Sani, Siti F.; Alalawi, Amani I.; Jafari, S. M.; Noor, Noramaliza M.; Hairul Azhar, A. R.; Mahdiraji, Ghafour Amouzad; Tamchek, Nizam; Ghosh, S.; Paul, M. C.; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Nisbet, A.; Maah, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    The Ge dopant in commercially available silica optical fibres gives rise to appreciable thermoluminscence (TL), weight-for-weight offering sensitivity to MV X-rays several times that of the LiF dosimeter TLD100. The response of these fibres to UV radiation, X-rays, electrons, protons, neutrons and alpha particles, with doses from a fraction of 1 Gy up to 10 kGy, have stimulated further investigation of the magnitude of the TL signal for intrinsic and doped SiO2 fibres. We represent a consortium effort between Malaysian partners and the University of Surrey, aimed at production of silica fibres with specific TL dosimetry applications, utilizing modified chemical vapour deposition (MCVD) doped silica-glass production and fibre-pulling facilities. The work is informed by defect and dopant concentration and various production dependences including pulling parameters such as temperature, speed and tension; the fibres also provide for spatial resolutions down to <10 μm, confronting many limitations faced in use of conventional (TL) dosimetry. Early results are shown for high spatial resolution (~0.1 mm) single-core Ge-doped TL sensors, suited to radiotherapy applications. Preliminary results are also shown for undoped flat optical fibres of mm dimensions and Ge-B doped flat optical fibres of sub-mm dimensions, with potential for measurement of doses in medical diagnostic applications.

  2. Transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the United Kingdom in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M Cottam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD virus causes an acute vesicular disease of domesticated and wild ruminants and pigs. Identifying sources of FMD outbreaks is often confounded by incomplete epidemiological evidence and the numerous routes by which virus can spread (movements of infected animals or their products, contaminated persons, objects, and aerosols. Here, we show that the outbreaks of FMD in the United Kingdom in August 2007 were caused by a derivative of FMDV O(1 BFS 1860, a virus strain handled at two FMD laboratories located on a single site at Pirbright in Surrey. Genetic analysis of complete viral genomes generated in real-time reveals a probable chain of transmission events, predicting undisclosed infected premises, and connecting the second cluster of outbreaks in September to those in August. Complete genome sequence analysis of FMD viruses conducted in real-time have identified the initial and intermediate sources of these outbreaks and demonstrate the value of such techniques in providing information useful to contemporary disease control programmes.

  3. Oral health of children with intractable epilepsy attending the UK National Centre for Young People with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, T; Aylett, S E; Pool, F; Bloch-Zupan, A; Roberts, G J; Lucas, V S

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the oral health of children with intractable epilepsy attending the UK National Centre for Young People with Epilepsy. 39 children and adolescents with intractable epilepsy at a residential school, the UK National Centre For Young People With Epilepsy (NCYPE) were age, gender and ethnicity matched with 39 healthy children from local schools in Surrey (England). Dental examinations were completed for indices for both the primary and permanent dentitions comprising decayed, missing and filled teeth and surfaces, plaque index, gingivitis index, developmental enamel defects, and incisor tooth trauma. There was no significant difference in the dmfs, dmft, DMFS or DMFT in the children with epilepsy compared with the controls. There was a significantly greater mean plaque score associated with permanent teeth in the children with epilepsy 68.0 SD+/- 31.5, compared with the control children, 142.9 SD+/- 23.2, pepilepsy 47.9+/-33.8, compared with the control children, 15.85+/-21.8, pepilepsy had experienced anterior tooth trauma, 54% in all, compared with the controls, 12.5% pepilepsy had greater mean plaque and gingivitis scores, the prevalence of dental caries was low. Children and teenagers with intractable epilepsy were more likely to have sustained dental trauma than controls. A dental service aimed at early attention to anterior tooth trauma is needed. In addition, there is an ongoing need for improving the oral hygiene of these individuals to prevent the development of periodontal disease in later life.

  4. Primary paraesophageal Ewing’s sarcoma: an uncommon case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarazona N

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Noelia Tarazona,1,* Lara Navarro,2,* Juan Miguel Cejalvo,3,* Valentina Gambardella,3,* J Alejandro Pérez-Fidalgo,3 Alejo Sempere,2 Samuel Navarro,2 Andrés Cervantes31Department of Medicine, GI and Lymphoma Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London and Surrey, UK; 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Biomedical Research Institute, INCLIVA, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Ewing’s sarcoma is a rare and highly aggressive cancer most frequently arising in people under 20 years of age. We report an uncommon case of primary paraesophageal Ewing’s sarcoma in a 25-year-old male harboring the infrequent EWSR1/ERG fusion transcript with multiple splice variants coexisting in the same tumor. The patient was totally refractory to chemotherapy and died 17 months after diagnosis. We underscore the need for better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease and improved systemic therapy options.Keywords: Ewing’s sarcoma, recurrence, immunohistochemistry, fusion genes

  5. Using the Stock Market to Teach Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, David A.; Hearn, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    Students are interested in money. Personal finance is an important issue for most students, especially as they move into university education and take a greater control of their own finances. Many are also interested in stock markets and their ability to allow someone to make, and lose, large sums of money, with their interest fueled by the boom in technology-based stocks of 2000/2001 followed by their subsequent dramatic collapse and the publicizing of so-called "rogue-traders." There is also a much greater ownership of stocks by families following public offerings, stock-based savings products, and the ability to trade stocks online. Consequently, there has been a steady growth of finance and finance-related courses available within degree programs in response to the student demand, with many students motivated by the huge salaries commanded by those with a successful career in the financial sector. We report here details of a joint project between Charterhouse School and the University of Surrey designed to exploit the excitement of finance to teach elements of the high school (age 16-18) curriculum through modeling and simulation.

  6. Network morphology of straight and polymer modified asphalt cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeveld, S J; Shin, E E; Bhurke, A; France, L; Drzal, L T

    1997-09-01

    Asphalt cements are often regarded as a colloidal system containing several hydrocarbon constituents: asphaltenes, resins, and oils. The high molecular weight asphaltene particles are considered to be covered in a sheath of resins and dispersed in the lower molecular weight oily medium [Whiteoak (1990) The Shell Bitumen Handbook (Shell Bitumen UK, Riversdell House, Surrey, UK)]. However, the exact arrangement of the asphaltene particles within the oily phase will vary depending on the relative amounts of resin, asphaltene, and oils. It is this arrangement and the degree of association between asphaltene particles that govern the rheological properties of the cement [Simpson et al. (1961) J. Chem. Eng. Data 6:426-429; Whiteoak (1990)]. Here we report for the first time the observation of a three-dimensional network of asphaltene strands within straight, polymer-modified, and aged asphalt cements. While the existence of a asphaltene/resin micelle network has been proposed in previous studies [Whiteoak (1990)], direct observation has not been reported. The network is expected to greatly influence the rheological properties of the asphalt binder and ultimately the properties of asphalt concretes. In situ fracture studies of asphalt cement/aggregate composites indicate a possible correlation between the network structure and adhesion between the cement binder and aggregate.

  7. Cadmium concentrations in the brains of Alzheimer cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Stedman, J.D. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    There is ongoing research in relating the concentration of elements in the brain with Alzheimer`s disease. The presence of particular elements, such as aluminum and vanadium, has been considered as a possible environmental factor, creating significant interest and controversy in the field. We have been analyzing brain tissue from the MRC Alzheimer`s Disease Brain Bank, Institute of Psychiatry, from a number of cortical regions of the brain, namely, the frontal, occipital, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as from the left and right hemispheres of the same brain whenever possible. The techniques employed have been proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Neutron irradiations were carried out at the Imperial College Consort II reactor, whereas for PIXE, PIGE, and RBS, the University of Surrey Accelerator Laboratories were used employing a Van de Graaff accelerator. In this paper, we present the cadmium results from the frontal lobe of Alzheimer cases and controls determined by PIXE analysis.

  8. A cross-sectional study of self-reported back and neck pain among English schoolchildren and associated physical and psychological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sam; Buckle, Peter; Stubbs, David

    2007-11-01

    This study set out to identify the associations between ergonomics and other factors with back and neck pain among schoolchildren. Self-reported questionnaires were used to record health outcomes and potential risk factors in state schools. Six hundred and seventy-nine schoolchildren from Surrey in the United Kingdom aged 11-14 years took part. Twenty-seven percent of children reported having neck pain, 18% reported having upper back pain, and 22% reported having low back pain. A forward stepwise logistic regression was performed with pain categories the dependent variables. Neck pain was significantly associated with school furniture features, emotional and conduct problems, family history of low back pain and previous treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. Upper back pain was associated with school bag weight (3.4-4.45 kg), school furniture features, emotional problems and previous treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. Low back pain was associated with school furniture features, emotional problems, family history and previous injury or accident. It is important to recognise the influence of physical, psychological and family factors in children's pain.

  9. Don't Count Your Chicken Livers: an Outbreak of Campylobacter sp. Not Associated with Chicken Liver Parfait, England, November 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trienekens, Suzan; Anderson, Charlotte; Duffy, Jennifer; Gill, Rachel; Harvey-Vince, Lisa; Jones, Helen; Mook, Piers; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Kar-Purkayastha, Ishani

    2014-08-12

    In England, several recent campylobacter outbreaks have been associated with poultry liver consumption. Following a lunch event in a hotel in Surrey in November 2013 where chicken liver parfait was served, guests reported having gastrointestinal symptoms. A retrospective cohort study showed 46 of 138 guests became unwell, with a median incubation period of two days and for 11 cases campylobacter infection was laboratory confirmed. Food item analysis identified an association between illness and consumption of roast turkey (aOR=3.02 p=0.041) or jus (aOR=3.55 p=0.045), but not with chicken liver parfait (OR=0.39 p=0.405). The environmental risk assessment did not identify non-compliance with standard food practice guidelines. This study presents a point-source outbreak of campylobacter with a high attack rate and epidemiological analysis results show that the jus or roast turkey was the likely source of infection although this could not be confirmed by the environmental assessment. Consuming the chicken liver dish was not a risk factor for developing symptoms as was initially hypothesised. Prior knowledge on the association between poultry liver food items and campylobacter outbreaks should not overly influence an outbreak investigation to ensure the true aetiology is identified and on-going public health risk is minimised.

  10. Williams syndrome and its cognitive profile: the importance of eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Herwegen J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jo Van Herwegen Department of Psychology, Kingston University London, Surrey, UK Abstract: People with Williams syndrome (WS, a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by a deletion on the long arm of chromosome 7, often show an uneven cognitive profile with participants performing better on language and face recognition tasks, in contrast to visuospatial and number tasks. Recent studies have shown that this specific cognitive profile in WS is a result of atypical developmental processes that interact with and affect brain development from infancy onward. Using examples from language, face processing, number, and visuospatial studies, this review evaluates current evidence from eye-tracking and developmental studies and argues that domain general processes, such as the ability to plan or execute saccades, influence the development of these domain-specific outcomes. Although more research on eye movements in WS is required, the importance of eye movements for cognitive development suggests a possible intervention pathway to improve cognitive abilities in this population. Keywords: Williams syndrome, eye movements, face processing, language, number, visuospatial abilities

  11. QSSPN: dynamic simulation of molecular interaction networks describing gene regulation, signalling and whole-cell metabolism in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ciarán P; Plant, Nicholas J; Moore, J Bernadette; Kierzek, Andrzej M

    2013-12-15

    Dynamic simulation of genome-scale molecular interaction networks will enable the mechanistic prediction of genotype-phenotype relationships. Despite advances in quantitative biology, full parameterization of whole-cell models is not yet possible. Simulation methods capable of using available qualitative data are required to develop dynamic whole-cell models through an iterative process of modelling and experimental validation. We formulate quasi-steady state Petri nets (QSSPN), a novel method integrating Petri nets and constraint-based analysis to predict the feasibility of qualitative dynamic behaviours in qualitative models of gene regulation, signalling and whole-cell metabolism. We present the first dynamic simulations including regulatory mechanisms and a genome-scale metabolic network in human cell, using bile acid homeostasis in human hepatocytes as a case study. QSSPN simulations reproduce experimentally determined qualitative dynamic behaviours and permit mechanistic analysis of genotype-phenotype relationships. The model and simulation software implemented in C++ are available in supplementary material and at http://sysbio3.fhms.surrey.ac.uk/qsspn/.

  12. An Integrated Method for Mapping Impervious and Pervious Areas in Urban Environments Using Hyperspectral and LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Beni, L.; McArdle, S.; Khayer, Y.

    2014-11-01

    As urbanization continues to increase and extreme climatic events become more prevalent, urban planners and engineers are actively implementing adaptive measures to protect urban assets and communities. To support the urban planning adaptation process, mapping of impervious and pervious areas is essential to understanding the hydrodynamic environment within urban areas for flood risk planning. The application of advance geospatial data and analytical techniques using remote sensing and GIS can improve land surface characterization to better quantify surface run-off and infiltration. This study presents a method to combine airborne hyperspectral and LiDAR data for classifying pervious (e.g. vegetation, gravel, and soil) and impervious (e.g. asphalt and concrete) areas within road allowance areas for the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. Hyperspectral data was acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) at 1 m ground spatial resolution, consisting of 72 spectral bands, and LiDAR data acquired from Leica Airborne LiDAR system at a density of 20 points/m2. A spectral library was established using 10 cm orthophotography and GIS data to identify surface features. In addition to spectral functions such as mean and standard deviation, several spectral indices were developed to discriminate between asphalt, concrete, gravel, vegetation, and shadows respectively. A spectral analysis of selected endmembers was conducted and an initial classification technique was applied using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). The classification results (i.e. shadows) were improved by integrating LIDAR data with the hyperspectral data.

  13. Virtual Mission Operations of Remote Sensors With Rapid Access To and From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, Dave; Walke, Jon; Dikeman, Larry; Sage, Steven; Miller, Eric; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; Taylor, John; Lynch, Scott; Heberle, Jay

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes network-centric operations, where a virtual mission operations center autonomously receives sensor triggers, and schedules space and ground assets using Internet-based technologies and service-oriented architectures. For proof-of-concept purposes, sensor triggers are received from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to determine targets for space-based sensors. The Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) Disaster Monitoring Constellation satellite, the United Kingdom Disaster Monitoring Constellation (UK-DMC), is used as the space-based sensor. The UK-DMC s availability is determined via machine-to-machine communications using SSTL s mission planning system. Access to/from the UK-DMC for tasking and sensor data is via SSTL s and Universal Space Network s (USN) ground assets. The availability and scheduling of USN s assets can also be performed autonomously via machine-to-machine communications. All communication, both on the ground and between ground and space, uses open Internet standards.

  14. GEOSPATIAL MODELLING APPROACH FOR 3D URBAN DENSIFICATION DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Koziatek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D. The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE, and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI’s CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA language.

  15. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  16. Implementing a strategy to promote lifelong learning in the primary care workforce: an evaluation of leadership roles, change management approaches, interim challenges and achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Susan; Woods, Leslie; Boudioni, Markella; Lemma, Ferew; Tavabie, Abdol

    2008-01-01

    To identify and explore leadership roles and responsibilities for implementing the workforce development strategy; to identify approaches used to implement and disseminate the strategy; and to identify and explore challenges and achievements in the first 18 months following implementation. A formative evaluation with qualitative methods was used. Documentary analysis, interviews (n = 29) and two focus groups (n = 12) were conducted with a purposive sample of individuals responsible for strategy implementation. Data were transcribed and analysed thematically using framework analysis. Regional health area in Kent, Surrey and Sussex: 24 primary care trusts (PCTs) and 900 general practices. Primary care workforce tutors, lifelong learning advisors, GP tutors, patch associate GP deans and chairs of PCT education committees all had vital leadership roles, some existing and others newly developed. Approaches used to implement the strategy encompassed working within and across organisational boundaries, communication and dissemination of information. Challenges encountered by implementers were resistance to change - evident in some negative attitudes to uptake of training and development opportunities - and role diversity and influence. Achievements included successes in embedding appraisal and protected learning time, and changes in educational practices and services. The use of key leadership roles and change-management approaches had brought about early indications of positive transition in lifelong learning cultures.

  17. Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.

  18. Are we ready for spray-on carbon nanotubes?

    CERN Document Server

    Maynard, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Earlier this year, British sculptor, Anish Kapoor was given exclusive rights to use a new spray-on carbon nanotube-based paint. The material, produced by UK-based Surrey NanoSystems and marketed as Vantablack S-VIS, can be applied to a range of surfaces, and absorbs well over 99% of the light that falls onto it. It is claimed to be the world's blackest paint, and there is growing interest in its use in works of art and high-end consumer products. It's easy to see the appeal of Vantablack S-VIS. Apart from technical applications where stray reflections need to be suppressed, this is a material that potentially enables manufacturers and artists to give their products a unique aesthetic edge. Yet, having worked on carbon nanotube safety for some years, I was intrigued to see the material in a spray-paint designed to coat objects that people may possibly come into contact with. It was, after all, only a few years ago that journalists were asking if carbon nanotubes were the next asbestos. And while this is unlike...

  19. Bigger, Brighter, Bluer-Better?Current light-emitting devices- adverse sleep properties and preventative strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGringras

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveIn an effort to enhance the efficiency, brightness and contrast of light-emitting (LE devices during the day, displays often generate substantial short-wavelength (blue-enriched light emissions that can adversely affect sleep. We set out to verify the extent of such short-wavelength emissions, produced by a tablet (iPad Air, e-reader (Kindle Paperwhite 1st generation and smartphone (iPhone 5s and to determine the impact of strategies designed to reduce these light emissions. SettingUniversity of Surrey dedicated chronobiology facility.MethodsFirstly, the spectral power of all the light-emitting (LE devices was assessed when displaying identical text. Secondly, we compared the text output with that of ‘Angry Birds’-a popular top 100 ‘App Store’ game. Finally we measured the impact of two strategies that attempt to reduce the output of short-wavelength light emissions. The first strategy employed an inexpensive commercially available pair of orange-tinted ‘blue-blocking’ glasses. The second tested an app designed to be ‘sleep-aware’ whose designers deliberately attempted to reduce blue-enriched light emissions.ResultsAll the LE devices shared very similar enhanced blue-light peaks when displaying text. This included the output from the backlit Kindle Paperwhite device. The spectra when comparing text to the Angry Birds game were also very similar, although the

  20. Invasive Shrub Mapping in an Urban Environment from Hyperspectral and LiDAR-Derived Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Curtis M; Coops, Nicholas C; Plowright, Andrew A; Tooke, Thoreau R; Christen, Andreas; Aven, Neal

    2016-01-01

    Proactive management of invasive species in urban areas is critical to restricting their overall distribution. The objective of this work is to determine whether advanced remote sensing technologies can help to detect invasions effectively and efficiently in complex urban ecosystems such as parks. In Surrey, BC, Canada, Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus) and English ivy (Hedera helix) are two invasive shrub species that can negatively affect native ecosystems in cities and managed urban parks. Random forest (RF) models were created to detect these two species using a combination of hyperspectral imagery, and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. LiDAR-derived predictor variables included irradiance models, canopy structural characteristics, and orographic variables. RF detection accuracy ranged from 77.8 to 87.8% for Himalayan blackberry and 81.9 to 82.1% for English ivy, with open areas classified more accurately than areas under canopy cover. English ivy was predicted to occur across a greater area than Himalayan blackberry both within parks and across the entire city. Both Himalayan blackberry and English ivy were mostly located in clusters according to a Local Moran's I analysis. The occurrence of both species decreased as the distance from roads increased. This study shows the feasibility of producing highly accurate detection maps of plant invasions in urban environments using a fusion of remotely sensed data, as well as the ability to use these products to guide management decisions.

  1. Which way to the Moon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Andrew J.; Crawford, Ian A.

    2006-08-01

    A PPARC-led delegation comprising David Parker (BNSC/PPARC Director of Science), Prof. Sir Martin Sweeting (Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd), Ian Crawford (Birkbeck College) and Andrew Ball (Open University) attended the NASA Exploration Strategy Workshop in Washington DC, from 25-28 April 2006 (http://www.aiaa.org/events/expwkshp). NASA initiated the workshop as a first step in its activities during 2006 to define a strategy for lunar exploration, building on the ``Vision for Space Exploration'' announced in 2004 (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/exploration/main/ and http://exploration.nasa.gov/). Given the backdrop of the Vision framework, the goal was to bring together the reasons why we (meaning humanity) are going back to the Moon and what we want to do there. For many, the answers to these questions have been clear, albeit diverse, for a long time, being articulated and updated in various forms over the years (e.g. ESA 1992, 2003; Spudis 1996, 2001; Crawford 2004a,b; Stern 2005). The answers to the ``why'' and ``what'' questions reflect a wide variety of scientific, technological, commercial and societal motivations.

  2. The Gray Institute 'open' high-content, fluorescence lifetime microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, P R; Tullis, I D C; Pierce, G P; Newman, R G; Prentice, J; Rowley, M I; Matthews, D R; Ameer-Beg, S M; Vojnovic, B

    2013-08-01

    We describe a microscopy design methodology and details of microscopes built to this 'open' design approach. These demonstrate the first implementation of time-domain fluorescence microscopy in a flexible automated platform with the ability to ease the transition of this and other advanced microscopy techniques from development to use in routine biology applications. This approach allows easy expansion and modification of the platform capabilities, as it moves away from the use of a commercial, monolithic, microscope body to small, commercial off-the-shelf and custom made modular components. Drawings and diagrams of our microscopes have been made available under an open license for noncommercial use at http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atdgroup. Several automated high-content fluorescence microscope implementations have been constructed with this design framework and optimized for specific applications with multiwell plates and tissue microarrays. In particular, three platforms incorporate time-domain FLIM via time-correlated single photon counting in an automated fashion. We also present data from experiments performed on these platforms highlighting their automated wide-field and laser scanning capabilities designed for high-content microscopy. Devices using these designs also form radiation-beam 'end-stations' at Oxford and Surrey Universities, showing the versatility and extendibility of this approach. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. The Gray Institute ‘open’ high-content, fluorescence lifetime microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBER, PR; TULLIS, IDC; PIERCE, GP; NEWMAN, RG; PRENTICE, J; ROWLEY, MI; MATTHEWS, DR; AMEER-BEG, SM; VOJNOVIC, B

    2013-01-01

    Summary We describe a microscopy design methodology and details of microscopes built to this ‘open’ design approach. These demonstrate the first implementation of time-domain fluorescence microscopy in a flexible automated platform with the ability to ease the transition of this and other advanced microscopy techniques from development to use in routine biology applications. This approach allows easy expansion and modification of the platform capabilities, as it moves away from the use of a commercial, monolithic, microscope body to small, commercial off-the-shelf and custom made modular components. Drawings and diagrams of our microscopes have been made available under an open license for noncommercial use at http://users.ox.ac.uk/~atdgroup. Several automated high-content fluorescence microscope implementations have been constructed with this design framework and optimized for specific applications with multiwell plates and tissue microarrays. In particular, three platforms incorporate time-domain FLIM via time-correlated single photon counting in an automated fashion. We also present data from experiments performed on these platforms highlighting their automated wide-field and laser scanning capabilities designed for high-content microscopy. Devices using these designs also form radiation-beam ‘end-stations’ at Oxford and Surrey Universities, showing the versatility and extendibility of this approach. PMID:23772985

  4. Quadriceps and respiratory muscle fatigue following high-intensity cycling in COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Bachasson

    Full Text Available Exercise intolerance in COPD seems to combine abnormal ventilatory mechanics, impaired O2 transport and skeletal muscle dysfunction. However their relative contribution and their influence on symptoms reported by patients remain to be clarified. In order to clarify the complex interaction between ventilatory and neuromuscular exercise limiting factors and symptoms, we evaluated respiratory muscles and quadriceps contractile fatigue, dynamic hyperinflation and symptoms induced by exhaustive high-intensity cycling in COPD patients. Fifteen gold II-III COPD patients (age = 67 ± 6 yr; BMI = 26.6 ± 4.2 kg.m(-2 performed constant-load cycling test at 80% of their peak workload until exhaustion (9.3 ± 2.4 min. Before exercise and at exhaustion, potentiated twitch quadriceps strength (Q(tw, transdiaphragmatic (P(di,tw and gastric (P(ga,tw pressures were evoked by femoral nerve, cervical and thoracic magnetic stimulation, respectively. Changes in operational lung volumes during exercise were assessed via repetitive inspiratory capacity (IC measurements. Dyspnoea and leg discomfort were measured on visual analog scale. At exhaustion, Q(tw (-33 ± 15%, >15% reduction observed in all patients but two and Pdi,tw (-20 ± 15%, >15% reduction in 6 patients were significantly reduced (P15% reduction in 3 patients. Percentage reduction in Q(tw correlated with the percentage reduction in P(di,tw (r = 0.66; P<0.05. Percentage reductions in P(di,tw and P(ga,tw negatively correlated with the reduction in IC at exhaustion (r = -0.56 and r = -0.62, respectively; P<0.05. Neither dyspnea nor leg discomfort correlated with the amount of muscle fatigue. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise induces quadriceps, diaphragm and less frequently abdominal contractile fatigue in this group of COPD patients. In addition, the rise in end-expiratory lung volume and diaphragm flattening associated with dynamic hyperinflation in COPD might limit the development of abdominal and

  5. Effect of floor surface temperature on blood flow and skin temperature in the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G-S

    2008-12-01

    A total of 16 healthy college students participated as subjects to elucidate the hypothesis that blood flow and skin temperature in foot are affected by the floor surface temperature. The floor surface temperature was controlled by varying the temperature of water (tw) flowing underneath the floor, and it ranged from tw 15 to 40 degrees C at 5 degrees C intervals. The blood flow rate was measured in the dorsal right toe, and skin temperatures were measured for 60 min at 8 points: the neck, right scapular, left hand, right shin, left bottom of the toe, right instep, left finger, and rectum. The blood flow rate in the foot tissue was increased until the foot skin temperature warmed up to 34 degrees C (P = 0.000). The final skin temperatures on the bottom of the toe were 19.4 +/- 2.44 degrees C for tw 15 degrees C, 22.4 +/- 2.45 degrees C for tw 20 degrees C, 24.8 +/- 2.80 degrees C for tw 25 degrees C, 27.7 +/- 2.13 degrees C for tw 30 degrees C, 30.6 +/- 2.06 degrees C for tw 35 degrees C, 33.2 +/- 1.45 degrees C for tw 40 degrees C, 34.2 +/- 1.55 degrees C for tw 45 degrees C, and 35.2 +/- 1.65 degrees C for tw 50 degrees C. Considering blood flow and comfort, the partial floor heating system is suggested and the recommended floor surface temperature range is 27-33 degrees C. A warm floor surface can serve to satisfy occupants when the ambient temperature maintained at 20 degrees C which represents an energy conscious temperature. A warm floor can induce high blood perfusion in the feet and consequently improve an occupant's health by treating many vascular-related disorders. Even in a well-insulated residential building, a partially heated floor system could prevent overheating while providing surface warmth.

  6. Comparative genomics and drug resistance of a geographic variant of ST239 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Two distinct classes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are spreading in hospitals (as hospital-acquired MRSA, HA-MRSA and in the community (as community-acquired MRSA, CA-MRSA. Multilocus sequence type (ST 239 MRSA, one of the most worldwide-disseminated lineages, has been noted as a representative HA-MRSA. Here, we isolated ST239 MRSA (spa type 3 [t037] and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec [SCCmec] type III.1.1.1 and its novel variant with ST239/spa351 (t030/SCCmecIII.1.1.4 (SCCmecIII(R not only from hospitals but also from patients with urethritis in the community in Russia. The Russian variant (strain 16K possessed a hybrid genome consisting of CC8 and CC30, similar to the ST239/spa3/SCCmecIII.1.1.1 HA-MRSA (TW20 genome, but with marked diversity. The 16K' CC30 section had SCCmecIII(R carrying the dcs-carrying unit (which corresponded to the SCCmecIVc J3 joining region of ST30 CA-MRSA, lacked SCCmercury, and possessed a novel mobile element structure (MES16K carrying the ccrC-carrying unit (with the recombinase gene ccrC1 allele 3 and drug resistance tranposons. The Russian variant included strains with a high ability to transfer its multiple drug resistance by conjugation; e.g., for strain 16K, the transfer frequency of a chloramphenicol resistance plasmid (p16K-1 with 2.9 kb in size reached 1.4×10(-2, followed by Tn554 conjugative transfer at 3.6×l0(-4. The Russian variant, which has been increasing recently, included divergent strains with different plasmid patterns and pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles. The data demonstrate the alternative nature of ST239 MRSA as CA-MRSA and also as a drug resistance disseminator, and its micro but dynamic evolution in Russia.

  7. Reconnection experiments including 3D magnetic nulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, A.; Egedal, J.; Vrublevskis, A.

    2010-11-01

    A rich collection of magnetic reconnection scenarios is possible in three dimensions depending on the topological and geometric structure of the magnetic field [1]. In recent experiments at the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) three-dimensional effects were essential even in nearly axisymmetric plasmas with a non-vanishing toroidal field [2]. To explore reconnection in 3D geometries including magnetic null points, a new adjustable set of coils will be installed in the vacuum chamber of VTF. The range of vacuum magnetic field topologies attainable in VTF will be explored numerically. Plasma reconnection experiments will be run in these configurations, and measurements will be presented if available. [4pt] [1] CE Parnell, et al., (2009) ``Three-Dimensional Magnetic Reconnection, in Magnetic Coupling between the Interior and the Atmosphere of the Sun,'' eds. S.S. Hasan and R.J. Rutten, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin. [0ex] [2] Katz, N. et al., (2010) Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 255004.

  8. Small Satellites and the Nigerian National Space Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroffice, Robert; Chizea, Francis; Sun, Wei; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    2002-01-01

    Space technology and access to space have been elusive to most developing countries over the last half of the 21st century, which is attributed to very low par capital income and the lack of awareness of policy/decision makers about the role of space technology in national development. Space technology was seen as very expensive and prestigious, meant only for the major industrialized countries, while the developing countries should focus on building their national economy and providing food, shelter and other social amenities for their ever-growing populations. In the last decade, the trend has changed with many developing countries embracing spaced technology as one of the major ways of achieving sustainable development. The present trend towards the use of small satellites in meeting national needs has aided this transition because, apart from the small size, they are cheaper to build and to launch, with shorter development time, lower complexity, improved effectiveness and reduced operating costs. This in turn has made them more affordable and has opened up new avenues for the acquisition of satellite technology. The collaborative work between National Space Research and Development Agency of Nigeria (NASRDA) and Surrey Satellite and Technology Limited (SSTL) is a programme aimed at building two small satellites as a way of kick- starting the national space programme. The first project, NigeriaSAT-1, is an enhanced microsatellite carrying Earth observation payloads able to provide 32 metre GSD 3 band multispectral images with a 600km swath width. NigeriaSAT-1 is one of six microsatellites forming the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) alongside microsatellites contributed by Algeria, China, Turkey, Thailand and UK. Through participation in this international constellation, Nigeria will be able to receive images with a daily revisit worldwide. The EO images generated by NigeriaSAT-1 and the partner microsatellites will be used for providing rapid coverage

  9. Dose study of the multikinase inhibitor, LY2457546, in patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacheck V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Volker Wacheck1, Michael Lahn2, Gemma Dickinson3, Wolfgang Füreder4, Renata Meyer4, Susanne Herndlhofer4, Thorsten Füreder1, Georg Dorfner5, Sada Pillay2, Valérie André6, Timothy P Burkholder7, Jacqueline K Akunda8, Leann Flye-Blakemore9, Dirk Van Bockstaele9, Richard F Schlenk10, Wolfgang R Sperr4, Peter Valent4,111Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel, Vienna, Austria; 2Early Oncology Clinical Investigation, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Department of Pharmacokinetics, Eli Lilly and Company, Erl Wood Research Centre, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Hematology and Hemostaseology, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel, Vienna, Austria; 5Eli Lilly GesmbH, Medical Department, Vienna, Austria; 6Department of Statistics, Eli Lilly and Company, Erl Wood Research Centre, Surrey, UK; 7Discovery Chemistry Research and Technology, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 8Nonclinical Toxicology, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 9Flow Cytometry and Cell Analysis, Esoterix Clinical Trials Services, Mechelen, Belgium; 10Universitätsklinikum Ulm, Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Ulm, Germany; 11Ludwig Boltzmann Cluster Oncology, Vienna, AustriaBackground: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a life-threatening malignancy with limited treatment options in chemotherapy-refractory patients. A first-in-human dose study was designed to investigate a safe and biologically effective dose range for LY2457546, a novel multikinase inhibitor, in patients with relapsed AML.Methods: In this nonrandomized, open-label, dose escalation Phase I study, LY2457546 was administered orally once a day. Safety, pharmacokinetics, changes in phosphorylation of target kinases in AML blasts, and risk of drug–drug interactions (DDI were assessed.Results: Five patients were treated at the starting and predicted minimal biologically effective dose of 50 mg

  10. 小麦-冰草异源衍生系淀粉物理特性的研究%Physical properties of starch from intergeneric hybrids between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron cristatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Physical properties of Starch from 35 wheat-Agropyron cristatum alien derivatives and their parents (Fukuho:Triticum aestivum cv.Fukuho,2n=6x=42,AABBDD,as female parent;Z559:Agropyron cristatum L.Gaertn,2n=4x=28,PPPP,as male parent.) were investigated using RVA-3D (Newport Scientific Pey.Ltd.,Narrabeen,Australia),TA-XT2 (Stable Micro Systems,Godalming,Surrey,England),DSC20 (Mettler Naenikon-Uster,Switzerland) et al.The main physical properties of starch were significant difference between A.Cristatum (Z559) and wheat (Fukuho),but their trends of RVA pasting curves were quite similar.Among the 35 wheat A.cristatum alien derivatives,variation range was very big for the same starch character,some of variables were higher,and another variables were lower than wheat parent (Fukuho).The mean hot paste viscosity (HPV),cool paste viscosity (CPV),and breakdown of the 35 alien derivatives were significant difference to compare with parents,respectively.Moreover,the mean hardness of the 35 alien derivatives was only significant difference to wheat,but was not difference to A.Cristatum.In addition,there were significantly positive correlation or negative correlation among the most of traits studied.These results will play a major role in further evaluation and utilization intergeneric hybrids between wheat and A.Cristatum for wheat improvement and wheat breeding.%利用RVA-3D (Newport Scientific Pey.Ltd.,Narrabeen,Australia)、TA-XT2 (Stable Micro Systems,Godalming,Surrey,England)、DSC20 (Mettler Naenikon-Uster,Switzerland)等分析仪,对已被染色体组原位杂交(GISH)检测过的35份小麦-冰草异源衍生系及其亲本Fukuho(Triticum aestivum cv.Fukuho,2n = 6x = 42,AABBDD,母本)和Z559 (Agropyron cristatum L.Gaertn,2n=4x=28,PPPP,父本)进行了淀粉糊化特性、淀粉胶结构特性、淀粉糊化过程中的热量变化、淀粉膨胀体积及直链淀粉含量等主要物理特性的研究.结果发现:①冰草(Z559)和小麦(Fukuho)淀粉的主要物理

  11. Genesis and characteristics of woodlot forms in the landscape of southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Fortuna-Antoszkiewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The paper is a synthesis of the research on the genesis and characteristics of woodlot forms in the traditional English landscape. Historically, their origin is related among other things to the British being inspired by the Arcadian myths popular in the 16th and 17th centuries, as a result of trips to places like Italy or the Far East, and a fascination with nature. At the same time the 16th century was characterized by a progressive and gradual deforestation of the landscape of the island. Therefore, during the 17th and 18th centuries a very particular cultural landscape of England developed, of which the specific pastoral physiognomy found some representation in the archetype of the 19th-century English park. This can be clearly stated on the example of woodlots, which very similar forms can be shown both in English agricultural landscape and in English parks. The aim of this research was to analyse forms and functions of selected examples of woodlots in southern England. Material and methods. The collection of field data took place in April 2015 during scientific workshops organized by the Polish Dendrology Society (PTD, devoted to woody plants of southern England (including Surrey and vicinity. As a result, the physiognomy of the complex system of woodlots was analysed in situ and a rich photo documentation was collected. Results and conclusions. It can be stated that the forms of woodlots occurring in the contempor­ary English landscape bear a strong resemblance to those presented in 19th-century landscape paintings. This is a phenomenon of effective protection of the physiognomy of the cultural landscape, which has survived virtually unchanged after more than two centuries. As a result, the authors characterized exceptional values of woodlots to traditional rural and parkland landscape in southern England as an example for development and protection of the cultural landscapes in Poland – both in the past and the present.

  12. Transferability of calibrated microsimulation model parameters for safety assessment using simulated conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Mohamed; Sayed, Tarek

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between field-measured conflicts and the conflicts obtained from micro-simulation models using the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM). Results from recent studies have shown that while reasonable correlation between simulated and real traffic conflicts can be obtained especially after proper calibration, more work is still needed to confirm that simulated conflicts provide safety measures beyond what can be expected from exposure. As well, the results have emphasized that using micro-simulation model to evaluate safety without proper model calibration should be avoided. The calibration process adjusts relevant simulation parameters to maximize the correlation between field-measured and simulated conflicts. The main objective of this study is to investigate the transferability of calibrated parameters of the traffic simulation model (VISSIM) for safety analysis between different sites. The main purpose is to examine whether the calibrated parameters, when applied to other sites, give reasonable results in terms of the correlation between the field-measured and the simulated conflicts. Eighty-three hours of video data from two signalized intersections in Surrey, BC were used in this study. Automated video-based computer vision techniques were used to extract vehicle trajectories and identify field-measured rear-end conflicts. Calibrated VISSIM parameters obtained from the first intersection which maximized the correlation between simulated and field-observed conflicts were used to estimate traffic conflicts at the second intersection and to compare the results to parameters optimized specifically for the second intersection. The results show that the VISSIM parameters are generally transferable between the two locations as the transferred parameters provided better correlation between simulated and field-measured conflicts than using the default VISSIM parameters. Of the six VISSIM parameters identified as

  13. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  14. ¿Ellos y Nosotros o Ellos v/s Nosotros?: Reporte de una Experiencia de Fusión en el Ámbito Educacional ¿They & Us or They v/s Us?: Report of an Educational Merging Project

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    Antonella Moure

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available La motivación central de este trabajo es examinar una experiencia de fusión escolar. Se reporta la experiencia de fusión realizada por un colegio particular de Santiago de Chile. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un estudio de carácter cualitativo y cuantitativo, mediante la realización de entrevistas en profundidad y la aplicación de una encuesta post-hoc. Se examina la escuela como una empresa educacional, desde donde es posible entender la importancia de la fusión entre dos establecimientos, cuyo objetivo es aumentar el desempeño educativo, logrando ventajas con los recursos que se posee. Si bien la fusión de culturas puede darse exitosamente, es un proceso largo, no exento de dificultades y en el cual se requieren ciertas condiciones para lograrla.The main purpose of this work is to report the outcome of an educational merging project. The study was conducted in a private school in Santiago, Chile that is implementing this change. A detailed assessment was performed by in-depth interviews with the involved parties and evaluations through a surrey at the end of the experience. The school is seen in the light of an educational enterprise, whose main goals are to improve students' performance by obtaining maximum advantage of its' resources. We conclude that intercultural education can succeed as a long term process, despite the need for certain initial conditions and implementation difficulties.

  15. Applications of coxsackievirus A21 in oncology

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    Bradley S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Bradley,1 Adam D Jakes,1 Kevin Harrington,2 Hardev Pandha,3 Alan Melcher,1 Fiona Errington-Mais11Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, Cancer Research UK and Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, St James' University Hospital, Leeds, UK; 2Division of Cancer Biology, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK; 3Oncology Department, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UKAbstract: The clinical management of cancer continues to be dominated by macroscopic surgical resection, radiotherapy, and cytotoxic drugs. The major challenge facing oncology is to achieve more selective, less toxic and effective methods of targeting disseminated tumors, a challenge oncolytic virotherapy may be well-placed to meet. Characterization of coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21 receptor-based mechanism of virus internalization and lysis in the last decade has suggested promise for CVA21 as a virotherapy against malignancies which overexpress those receptors. Preclinical studies have demonstrated proof of principle, and with the results of early clinical trials awaited, CVA21 may be one of the few viruses to demonstrate benefit for patients. This review outlines the potential of CVA21 as an oncolytic agent, describing the therapeutic development of CVA21 in preclinical studies and early stage clinical trials. Preclinical evidence supports the potential use of CVA21 across a range of malignancies. Malignant melanoma is the most intensively studied cancer, and may represent a “test case” for future development of the virus. Although there are theoretical barriers to the clinical utility of oncolytic viruses like CVA21, whether these will block the efficacy of the virus in clinical practice remains to be established, and is a question which can only be answered by appropriate trials. As these data become available, the rapid journey of CVA21 from animal studies to clinical trials may offer a model for the translation of other

  16. Twinkle - a mission to unravel the story of planets in our galaxy

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    Tessenyi, Marcell

    2016-07-01

    The study of exoplanets has been incredibly successful over the past 20 years: nearly 2000 planets have been discovered, and along these discoveries fundamental parameters such as mass, radius and semi-major axis have been obtained. In the past decade, pioneering results have been obtained using transit spectroscopy with Hubble, Spitzer and ground-based facilities, which have enabled the detection of a few of the most abundant chemical species, the presence of clouds, and also permitted the study of the planetary thermal structure. Twinkle is a small, dedicated satellite designed to measure the atmospheric composition of exoplanets. Twinkle is a cost-effective spacecraft being built on a short timescale and is planned for a launch by 2019. The satellite uses an existing platform designed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd, and instrumentation built by a consortium of UK institutes. Twinkle will analyse >100 exoplanets in our galaxy and a few objects in our solar system. Its infrared spectrograph will enable observations of a wide range of planet types including super-Earths and hot-Jupiters. Some of the target planets are orbiting stars similar to our Sun and some are orbiting cooler red-dwarfs. For the largest planets orbiting bright stars, Twinkle will even be able to produce maps of clouds and temperature. The Twinkle instrument will be composed of a visible-IR spectrograph (between 0.5 and 5mum) with resolving power Rsim300, and will orbit Earth on a sun-synchronous polar orbit. More information on Twinkle can be found on our website: www.twinkle-spacemission.co.uk

  17. Impact of anxiety symptoms on outcomes of depression: an observational study in Asian patients

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    Novick D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Jaume Aguado,3 Xiaomei Peng,4 Josep Maria Haro3 1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objective: To investigate the impact of anxiety symptoms on depression outcomes in Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD (n=714. Methods: The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17, overall severity, somatic symptoms, and quality of life (QOL (EuroQOL Questionnaire-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D] were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Anxiety was measured using items 10 and 11 from the HAMD-17. Linear, tobit, and logistic multiple regression models analyzed the impact of anxiety symptoms on outcomes. Baseline anxiety was related to age and the presence of pain symptoms at baseline. Results: Regression models showed that a higher level of anxiety was associated with a lower frequency of remission and lower QOL at 3 months. Patients with lower baseline anxiety symptoms had higher remission rates (odds ratio for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.829 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.723–0.951]. Patients with higher levels of baseline anxiety had a lower QOL at 3 months (a decrease in EQ-5D tariff score for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.023 [95% CI: 0.045–0.001]. Conclusion: In conclusion, the presence of anxiety symptoms negatively impacts the outcomes of depression. Keywords: depression, anxiety, Asia, observational, outcomes

  18. The use of MCNP and gamma spectrometry in supporting the evaluation of NORM in Libyan oil pipeline scale

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    Habib, Ahmed S.; Bradley, D. A.; Regan, P. H.; Shutt, A. L.

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of scales in production pipes is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and also leading to costly remedies and disposal issues. Typical materials found in such scale are sulphates and carbonates of calcium and barium, or iron sulphide. Radium arising from the uranium/thorium present in oil-bearing rock formations may replace the barium or calcium in these salts to form radium salts. This creates what is known as technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM or simply NORM). NORM is a serious environmental and health and safety issue arising from commercial oil and gas extraction operations. Whilst a good deal has been published on the characterisation and measurement of radioactive scales from offshore oil production, little information has been published regarding NORM associated with land-based facilities such as that of the Libyan oil industry. The ongoing investigation described in this paper concerns an assessment of NORM from a number of land based Libyan oil fields. A total of 27 pipe scale samples were collected from eight oil fields, from different locations in Libya. The dose rates, measured using a handheld survey meter positioned on sample surfaces, ranged from 0.1-27.3 μSv h -1. In the initial evaluations of the sample activity, use is being made of a portable HPGe based spectrometry system. To comply with the prevailing safety regulations of the University of Surrey, the samples are being counted in their original form, creating a need for correction of non-homogeneous sample geometries. To derive a detection efficiency based on the actual sample geometries, a technique has been developed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code (MCNPX). A preliminary activity determination has been performed using an HPGe portable detector system.

  19. The validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression: a qualitative interview study of the perceptions of junior doctors and their trainers

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    Rich, Antonia; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate trainee doctors’ and trainers’ perceptions of the validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) using Messick’s conceptualisation of construct validity. Design Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Kent Surrey and Sussex, Yorkshire and Humber, and Wales in November/December 2015. Part of a larger study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants Ninety-six trainees and 41 trainers, comprising UK and international medical graduates from Foundation, General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery, at all levels of training. Main outcome measures Trainee and trainer perceptions of the validity of the ARCP as an assessment tool. Results Participants recognised the need for assessment, but were generally dissatisfied with ARCPs, especially UK graduate trainees. Participants criticised the perceived tick-box nature of ARCPs as measuring clerical rather than clinical ability, and which they found detrimental to learning. Trainees described being able to populate their e-portfolios with just positive feedback; they also experienced difficulty getting assessments signed off by supervisors. ARCPs were perceived as poor at identifying struggling trainees and/or as discouraging excellence by focussing on minimal competency. Positive experiences of ARCPs arose when trainees could discuss their progress with interested supervisors. Conclusions Trainee and trainer criticisms of ARCPs can be conceptualised as evidence that ARCPs lack validity as an assessment tool. Ongoing reforms to workplace-based assessments could address negative perceptions of the ‘tick-box’ elements, encourage constructive input from seniors and allow trainees to demonstrate excellence as well as minimal competency, while keeping patients safe. PMID:28116956

  20. E. coli O157 outbreaks in the United Kingdom: past, present, and future

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    Pennington TH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hugh Pennington University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom Abstract: This review describes Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in the United Kingdom, beginning from the first, in the 1980s, to those recorded in 2013. We point out that the United Kingdom differs from other countries, particularly the United States, in that it has had a considerable number of outbreaks associated with butchers, but very few caused by contaminated burgers. Two of the butcher-associated outbreaks (in central Scotland in 1996 and South Wales in 2005 were very large and are considered here in detail; the reviewer conducted detailed investigations into both outbreaks. Also considered is the very large outbreak that occurred in visitors to an open farm in Surrey in 2009. Detailed descriptions of some milk-borne outbreaks and incidents connected with camping and childrens' nurseries have been published, and these are also considered in this review. Large outbreaks in the United Kingdom have sometimes led to policy developments regarding food safety, and these are considered, together with public reactions to them, their health effect, and their value, as examples to follow or eschew in terms of the procedures to be adopted in response to incidents of this kind. Regulatory and legal consequences are also considered. As a wise man said, making predictions is difficult, particularly about the future. This review follows this position but points out that although human infections caused by E. coli O157 are rare in the United Kingdom, their incidence has not changed significantly in the last 17 years. This review points out that although a response to an outbreak is to say "lessons must be learned", this response has been tempered by forgetfulness. Accordingly, this review restricts its recommendations regarding outbreaks to two: the crucial importance of a rapid response and the importance of experience, and even "gut feeling", when an inspector is evaluating the

  1. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status.

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    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-05-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (Pwomen gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required.

  2. Software applications for flux balance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Meiyappan; Koh, Geoffrey; Chung, Bevan K S; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2014-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is a widely used computational method for characterizing and engineering intrinsic cellular metabolism. The increasing number of its successful applications and growing popularity are possibly attributable to the availability of specific software tools for FBA. Each tool has its unique features and limitations with respect to operational environment, user-interface and supported analysis algorithms. Presented herein is an in-depth evaluation of currently available FBA applications, focusing mainly on usability, functionality, graphical representation and inter-operability. Overall, most of the applications are able to perform basic features of model creation and FBA simulation. COBRA toolbox, OptFlux and FASIMU are versatile to support advanced in silico algorithms to identify environmental and genetic targets for strain design. SurreyFBA, WEbcoli, Acorn, FAME, GEMSiRV and MetaFluxNet are the distinct tools which provide the user friendly interfaces in model handling. In terms of software architecture, FBA-SimVis and OptFlux have the flexible environments as they enable the plug-in/add-on feature to aid prospective functional extensions. Notably, an increasing trend towards the implementation of more tailored e-services such as central model repository and assistance to collaborative efforts was observed among the web-based applications with the help of advanced web-technologies. Furthermore, most recent applications such as the Model SEED, FAME, MetaFlux and MicrobesFlux have even included several routines to facilitate the reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic models. Finally, a brief discussion on the future directions of FBA applications was made for the benefit of potential tool developers.

  3. The GNSS Reflectometry Response to the Ocean Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paul; Jelenak, Zorana; Soisuvarn, Seubson; Said, Faozi

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System - Reflectometry (GNSS-R) exploits signals of opportunity from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). GNSS transmitters continuously transmit navigation signals at L-band toward the earth's surface. The scattered power reflected off the earth's surface can be sensed by specially designed GNSS-R receivers. The reflected signal can then be used to glean information about the surface of the earth, such as ocean surface roughness, snow depth, sea ice extent, and soil moisture. The use of GNSS-R for ocean wind retrievals was first demonstrated from aircraft. On July 8 2014, the TechDemoSat-1 satellite (TDS-1) was launched by Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd as a technology risk reduction mission into sun-synchronous orbit. This paper investigates the GNSS-R measurements collected by the Space GNSS Receiver-Remote Sensing Instrument (SGR-ReSI) on board the TDS-1 satellite. The sensitivity of the SGR-ReSI measurements to the ocean surface winds and waves are characterized. The effects of sea surface temperature, wind direction, and rain are also investigated. The SGR-ReSI measurements exhibited sensitivity through the entire range of wind speeds sampled in this dataset, up to 35 m/s. A significant dependence on the larger waves was observed for winds 5 m/s. There appeared to be very little wind direction signal, and investigation of the rain impacts found no apparent sensitivity in the data. These results are shown through the analysis of global statistics and examination of a few case studies. This released SGR-ReSI dataset provided the first opportunity to comprehensively investigate the sensitivity of satellite-based GNSS-R measurements to various ocean surface parameters. The upcoming NASA's Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) satellite constellation will utilize a similar receiver to SGI-ReSI and thus this data provides valuable pre-launch knowledge for the CYGNSS mission.

  4. Younger children experience lower levels of language competence and academic progress in the first year of school: evidence from a population study.

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    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew

    2015-06-04

    The youngest children in an academic year are reported to be educationally disadvantaged and overrepresented in referrals to clinical services. In this study we investigate for the first time whether these disadvantages are indicative of a mismatch between language competence at school entry and the academic demands of the classroom. We recruited a population sample of 7,267 children aged 4 years 9 months to 5 years 10 months attending state-maintained reception classrooms in Surrey, England. Teacher ratings on the Children's Communication Checklist-Short (CCC-S), a measure of language competence, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Total Difficulties Score (SDQ), a measure of behavioural problems, and the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile (EYFSP), a measure of academic attainment, were obtained at the end of the reception year. The youngest children were rated by teachers as having more language deficits, behaviour problems, and poorer academic progress at the end of the school year. Language deficits were highly associated with behaviour problems; adjusted odds ratio 8.70, 95% CI [7.25-10.45]. Only 4.8% of children with teacher-rated language deficits and 1.3% of those with co-occurring language and behaviour difficulties obtained a 'Good Level of Development' on the EYFSP. While age predicted unique variance in academic attainment (1%), language competence was the largest associate of academic achievement (19%). The youngest children starting school have relatively immature language and behaviour skills and many are not yet ready to meet the academic and social demands of the classroom. At a population level, developing oral language skills and/or ensuring academic targets reflect developmental capacity could substantially reduce the numbers of children requiring specialist clinical services in later years. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and

  5. Remote Sensing of Martian Terrain Hazards via Visually Salient Feature Detection

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    Al-Milli, S.; Shaukat, A.; Spiteri, C.; Gao, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The main objective of the FASTER remote sensing system is the detection of rocks on planetary surfaces by employing models that can efficiently characterise rocks in terms of semantic descriptions. The proposed technique abates some of the algorithmic limitations of existing methods with no training requirements, lower computational complexity and greater robustness towards visual tracking applications over long-distance planetary terrains. Visual saliency models inspired from biological systems help to identify important regions (such as rocks) in the visual scene. Surface rocks are therefore completely described in terms of their local or global conspicuity pop-out characteristics. These local and global pop-out cues are (but not limited to); colour, depth, orientation, curvature, size, luminance intensity, shape, topology etc. The currently applied methods follow a purely bottom-up strategy of visual attention for selection of conspicuous regions in the visual scene without any topdown control. Furthermore the choice of models used (tested and evaluated) are relatively fast among the state-of-the-art and have very low computational load. Quantitative evaluation of these state-ofthe- art models was carried out using benchmark datasets including the Surrey Space Centre Lab Testbed, Pangu generated images, RAL Space SEEKER and CNES Mars Yard datasets. The analysis indicates that models based on visually salient information in the frequency domain (SRA, SDSR, PQFT) are the best performing ones for detecting rocks in an extra-terrestrial setting. In particular the SRA model seems to be the most optimum of the lot especially that it requires the least computational time while keeping errors competitively low. The salient objects extracted using these models can then be merged with the Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) generated from the same navigation cameras in order to be fused to the navigation map thus giving a clear indication of the rock locations.

  6. Multidisciplinary approach to evaluating immunogenicity of biosimilars: lessons learnt and open questions based on 10 years' experience of the European Union regulatory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamberlain PD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul D Chamberlain NDA Advisory Board, NDA Advisory Services Ltd, Surrey, UK Abstract: Clinical evaluation of comparative immunogenicity represents an important component of the European Union regulatory review process for candidate biosimilar products. The clinical evaluation is part of a multidisciplinary review that cross-refers to product quality attributes as well as preclinical and ongoing risk management considerations. Results from the monitoring of anti-drug antibody formation in relevant populations treated for an adequate period of time are interpreted in relation to clinically relevant endpoints, including pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy, and safety parameters. The European Union regulatory standard for designation of biosimilarity requires a suitable weight of evidence, determined on a product-specific basis, to demonstrate that the immunogenicity associated with the biosimilar product does not lead to a higher negative impact on clinically relevant outcomes compared with the reference product. The experience gained during the 10-year period following the implementation of the European Union biosimilars pathway indicates that a suitably cautious approach was applied, insofar as no immunogenicity-related issues have emerged for the approved applications of the different biosimilar products. In some cases, product quality-related issues were identified in the preauthorization setting as being potentially relevant for heightened risk of immunogenicity and were duly taken into account for the biosimilarity decision. Some unresolved issues remain, most notably concerning the limitation of noninterventional post-marketing surveillance measures to monitor the potential for changes in immunogenicity over the longer term, eg, following introduction of changes in manufacture, formulation, or primary product container. Lack of standardization of bioanalytical methods precludes comparison of anti-drug antibody formation for

  7. Transcriptional activity of telomerase complex in CD34- stem cells of cord blood in dependence of preparation time.

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    M Bojdys-Szyndlar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of telomerase subunits encoding genes changes during the process of cord blood preparation. It should establish if the commonly accepted 24 hours time interval in stem cells kriopreservation procedure significantly influences their immortalization and so decreases the "quality" of cord blood stem cells. Investigation includes 69 women. Spontaneous labour was the inclusion condition. The material was collected at birth after clamping of umbilical cord by direct vasopuncture. CD34- cells were extracted from cord blood (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec; Bisley, Surrey, UK. The expression profile of telomerase activators and inhibitors encoding genes was determined using HG_U133A oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix. We used a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay to quantify the telomerase TERT, hTR and TP1 subunits mRNA copy numbers in CD34- cells in 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after cord blood collection. We observed significant decrease of numbers of copies of TERTA+B mRNA within the successive hours of observation. Significant decrease of numbers of TERTA mRNA copies was confirmed after 24 hours. However, we observed significant increase of numbers of copies of TERTB mRNA after 6 hours of observation. Similar level was maintained during another 6h. The significantly lower number of copies of TERTB mRNA was observed after 24h. We also observed significant increase of number of copies of TERT mRNA after 6 hours. Number of copies of TERT mRNA significantly decreased after another 6h, remaining, however, on a higher then initial one. The significant lower number of copies of TERT mRNA was observed 24h after delivery. The possible explanation of those results is discussed in the paper.

  8. Psychological Impact of Primary Screening (PIPS) for HPV: a protocol for a cross-sectional evaluation within the NHS cervical screening programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Emily; Marlow, Laura; Forster, Alice S; Moss, Sue; Myles, Jonathan; Kitchener, Henry; Patnick, Julietta; Waller, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The NHS Cervical Screening Programme is now using human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as the primary test in six sentinel sites in England, with the intention of rolling this out across the whole of England. Previous research evaluating HPV testing in the cervical screening context suggests that an HPV-positive result may increase anxiety beyond that associated with abnormal cytology, but this has not been explored in the context of primary HPV testing. The main aim of this study is to explore the impact of the HPV primary screening programme on anxiety and distress. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional between-groups design (total N ∼ 673) will be employed to assess the psychological impact of different HPV and cytology results at three time points: shortly after receiving the results, and 6 and 12 months later. Women will fall into one of six groups based on their screening results. The primary outcomes will be anxiety and general distress. Secondary outcomes will include understanding of screening results, perceived risk of cervical cancer, psychosexual functioning, intention to attend future screening and knowledge of HPV. General linear modelling will be used to test for differences between groups and changes over the three time points. Ethics and dissemination Health Research Authority approval was received on 26 September 2016. Ethical approval was received from London- Surrey Borders NHS Research Ethics Committee on 30 August 2016. Section 251 approval was received from the Confidentiality Advisory Group on 24 August 2016. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publication and presentation at national and international conferences. PMID:28011816

  9. Jumping to conclusions in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans SL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Simon L Evans,1 Bruno B Averbeck,2 Nicholas Furl31School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex, UK; 2Laboratory of Neuropsychology, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; 3Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UKAbstract: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder associated with a variety of symptoms, including hallucinations, delusions, social withdrawal, and cognitive dysfunction. Impairments on decision-making tasks are routinely reported: evidence points to a particular deficit in learning from and revising behavior following feedback. In addition, patients tend to make hasty decisions when probabilistic judgments are required. This is known as “jumping to conclusions” (JTC and has typically been demonstrated by presenting participants with colored beads drawn from one of two “urns” until they claim to be sure which urn the beads are being drawn from (the proportions of colors vary in each urn. Patients tend to make early decisions on this task, and there is evidence to suggest that a hasty decision-making style might be linked to delusion formation and thus be of clinical relevance. Various accounts have been proposed regarding what underlies this behavior. In this review, we briefly introduce the disorder and the decision-making deficits associated with it. We then explore the evidence for each account of JTC in the context of a wider decision-making deficit and then go on to summarize work exploring JTC in healthy controls using pharmacological manipulations and functional imaging. Finally, we assess whether JTC might have a role in therapy.Keywords: ketamine, decision making, delusions, fMRI, urn task

  10. NET-COMPUTER: Internet Computer Architecture and its Application in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Umenne

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in Intelligent Agents has yielded interesting results, some of which have been translated into commer­cial ventures. Intelligent Agents are executable software components that represent the user, perform tasks on behalf of the user and when the task terminates, the Agents send the result to the user. Intelligent Agents are best suited for the Internet: a collection of computers connected together in a world-wide computer network. Swarm and HYDRA computer architectures for Agents’ execution were developed at the University of Surrey, UK in the 90s. The objective of the research was to develop a software-based computer architecture on which Agents execution could be explored. The combination of Intelligent Agents and HYDRA computer architecture gave rise to a new computer concept: the NET-Computer in which the comput­ing resources reside on the Internet. The Internet computers form the hardware and software resources, and the user is provided with a simple interface to access the Internet and run user tasks. The Agents autonomously roam the Internet (NET-Computer executing the tasks. A growing segment of the Internet is E-Commerce for online shopping for products and services. The Internet computing resources provide a marketplace for product suppliers and consumers alike. Consumers are looking for suppliers selling products and services, while suppliers are looking for buyers. Searching the vast amount of information available on the Internet causes a great deal of problems for both consumers and suppliers. Intelligent Agents executing on the NET-Computer can surf through the Internet and select specific information of interest to the user. The simulation results show that Intelligent Agents executing HYDRA computer architecture could be applied in E-Commerce.

  11. What aspects of intentional rounding work in hospital wards, for whom and in what circumstances? A realist evaluation protocol

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    Harris, Ruth; Sims, Sarah; Levenson, Ros; Gourlay, Stephen; Ross CBE, Fiona; Davies, Nigel; Brearley, Sally; Favato, Giampiero; Grant, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intentional rounding (IR) is a structured process whereby nurses in hospitals carry out regular checks, usually hourly, with individual patients using a standardised protocol to address issues of positioning, pain, personal needs and placement of items. The widespread implementation of IR across the UK has been driven by the recommendations of the Francis Inquiry although empirical evidence of its effectiveness is poor. This paper presents a protocol of a multimethod study using a realist evaluation approach to investigate the impact and effectiveness of IR in hospital wards on the organisation, delivery and experience of care from the perspective of patients, their family members and staff. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in four phases. Phase 1: theory development using realist synthesis to generate hypotheses about what the mechanisms of IR may be, what particular groups may benefit most or least and what contextual factors might be important to its success or failure which will be tested in subsequent phases of the study. Phase 2: a national survey of all NHS acute trusts to explore how IR is implemented and supported across England. Phase 3: case studies to explore how IR is implemented ‘on the ground’, including individual interviews with patients, family members and staff, non-participant observation, retrieval of routinely collected patient outcomes and cost analysis. Phase 4: accumulative data analysis across the phases to scrutinise data for patterns of congruence and discordance and develop an overall evaluation of what aspects of IR work, for whom and in what circumstances. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by NHS South East Coast—Surrey Research Ethics Committee. Findings will be published in a wide range of outputs targeted at key audiences, including patient and carer organisations, nursing staff and healthcare managers. PMID:28069627

  12. The effect of intrathecal iohexol on visual evoked response latency: a comparison including incidence of headache with iopamidol and metrizamide in myeloradiculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbridge, A T; Bayliss, S G; Brayshaw, C I

    1987-01-01

    Fifty consecutive unselected patients referred for myeloradiculography and examined by the same radiologist, when facilities for measuring the visual evoked response were available, are considered. The effect on the visual evoked response of the examination and the incidence of headache following the use of iohexol as the contrast medium are compared with those after the use of iopamidol and metrizamide reported in a previous study. A total of 400 cases examined with iopamidol and 200 cases examined with iohexol are reviewed with regard to the incidence of headache. Whereas iopamidol and, to a greater extent metrizamide, were found to cause significant lengthening of the visual evoked response latency 20 hours after the radiological examination, iohexol did not. Furthermore there was no significant difference in the 20 hour reading following the use of iohexol compared with the original control group of patients who underwent lumbar puncture alone. There was a lower incidence and severity of headache following the use of iohexol than with iopamidol and a markedly reduced incidence compared with metrizamide. Iohexol is considered less neurotoxic than iopamidol which had previously superceded metrizamide as the contrast medium used for myeloradiculography in the Royal Surrey County Hospital. Volumes of up to 14 ml of iohexol 300 mg I/ml have been used for lumbar radiculography and for total myelography and up to 10 ml for direct lateral cervical puncture. In 350 cases examined to date with iohexol the only serious sequel was a case of chemical meningitis following the lumbar injection of 10 ml of the 300 mg I/ml solution for a cervical examination. The patient made an uneventful recovery.

  13. Strength Training for Adolescents with cerebral palsy (STAR): study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to determine the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of resistance training for adolescents with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Theis, Nicola; Kilbride, Cherry; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Waugh, Charlie; Shortland, Adam; Lavelle, Grace; Noorkoiv, Marika; Levin, Wendy; Korff, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gait is inefficient in children with cerebral palsy, particularly as they transition to adolescence. Gait inefficiency may be associated with declines in gross motor function and participation among adolescents with cerebral palsy. Resistance training may improve gait efficiency through a number of biomechanical and neural mechanisms. The aim of the Strength Training for Adolescents with cerebral palsy (STAR) trial is to evaluate the effect of resistance training on gait efficiency, activity and participation in adolescents with cerebral palsy. We also aim to determine the biomechanical and neural adaptations that occur following resistance training and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of such an intervention for adolescents with cerebral palsy. Methods and analysis 60 adolescents (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I–III) will be randomised to a 10-week resistance training group or a usual care control group according to a computer-generated random schedule. The primary outcome is gait efficiency. Secondary outcomes are habitual physical activity, participation, muscle–tendon mechanics and gross motor function. General linear models will be used to evaluate differences in continuous data between the resistance training and usual care groups at 10 and 22 weeks, respectively. A process evaluation will be conducted alongside the intervention. Fidelity of the resistance training programme to trial protocol will be quantified by observations of exercise sessions. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with participants and physiotherapists following the resistance training programme to determine feasibility and acceptability of the programme. Ethics and dissemination This trial has ethical approval from Brunel University London's Department of Clinical Sciences' Research Ethics Committee and the National Research Ethics Service (NRES) Committee London—Surrey Borders. The results of the trial will be submitted for

  14. The validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression: a qualitative interview study of the perceptions of junior doctors and their trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, Rowena; Rich, Antonia; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Objective To investigate trainee doctors' and trainers' perceptions of the validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) using Messick's conceptualisation of construct validity. Design Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Kent Surrey and Sussex, Yorkshire and Humber, and Wales in November/December 2015. Part of a larger study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants Ninety-six trainees and 41 trainers, comprising UK and international medical graduates from Foundation, General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery, at all levels of training. Main outcome measures Trainee and trainer perceptions of the validity of the ARCP as an assessment tool. Results Participants recognised the need for assessment, but were generally dissatisfied with ARCPs, especially UK graduate trainees. Participants criticised the perceived tick-box nature of ARCPs as measuring clerical rather than clinical ability, and which they found detrimental to learning. Trainees described being able to populate their e-portfolios with just positive feedback; they also experienced difficulty getting assessments signed off by supervisors. ARCPs were perceived as poor at identifying struggling trainees and/or as discouraging excellence by focussing on minimal competency. Positive experiences of ARCPs arose when trainees could discuss their progress with interested supervisors. Conclusions Trainee and trainer criticisms of ARCPs can be conceptualised as evidence that ARCPs lack validity as an assessment tool. Ongoing reforms to workplace-based assessments could address negative perceptions of the 'tick-box' elements, encourage constructive input from seniors and allow trainees to demonstrate excellence as well as minimal competency, while keeping patients safe.

  15. "Testing is Healthy" TimePlay campaign: Evaluation of sexual health promotion gamification intervention targeting young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinya; Huhn, Kim J; Tan, Andy; Douglas, Rachel E; Li, Helen Guiyun; Murti, Michelle; Lee, Victoria

    2017-04-20

    The objectives of the study were to 1) describe the implementation of the "Testing is Healthy" campaign in four locations in British Columbia (BC) and 2) report process evaluation indicators for the campaign. Young adults ages 20-29 years, the age group with the highest reported rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea in BC. Movie theatres located in Langley, Burnaby, Coquitlam and Surrey, which are communities served by the Fraser Health Authority (FHA) in BC. The FHA launched the campaign in 2014 and 2015 to bring down the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV in the region. The campaign used the Cineplex TimePlay platform to engage moviegoers in answering STI/HIV-related questions, and to connect them to a clinic finder on the BC Centre for Disease Control Sex Smart Resource (SSR) website. TimePlay includes elements of gaming, is technology-based, and has been a successful advertisement platform for consumer products and services. However, this is the first time it has been used for sexual health promotion. The campaign was evaluated for 1) reach, based on theatre attendance and TimePlay participation, and 2) the effectiveness of connecting people to sexual health information using SSR web analytics. In total, the campaign received 548 410 views and 77 149 plays. SSR web analytics showed a significant increase in unique page views of the Clinic Finder page between the first and the second campaign. The campaign reached a large population at a low cost and was correlated with spikes in the unique page views for the Clinic Finder page.

  16. Development and Validation of a New Reliable Method for the Diagnosis of Avian Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maréchal, Caroline; Rouxel, Sandra; Ballan, Valentine; Houard, Emmanuelle; Poezevara, Typhaine; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Souillard, Rozenn; Morvan, Hervé; Baudouard, Marie-Agnès; Woudstra, Cédric; Mazuet, Christelle; Le Bouquin, Sophie; Fach, Patrick; Popoff, Michel; Chemaly, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Liver is a reliable matrix for laboratory confirmation of avian botulism using real-time PCR. Here, we developed, optimized, and validated the analytical steps preceding PCR to maximize the detection of Clostridium botulinum group III in avian liver. These pre-PCR steps included enrichment incubation of the whole liver (maximum 25 g) at 37°C for at least 24 h in an anaerobic chamber and DNA extraction using an enzymatic digestion step followed by a DNA purification step. Conditions of sample storage before analysis appear to have a strong effect on the detection of group III C. botulinum strains and our results recommend storage at temperatures below -18°C. Short-term storage at 5°C is possible for up to 24 h, but a decrease in sensitivity was observed at 48 h of storage at this temperature. Analysis of whole livers (maximum 25 g) is required and pooling samples before enrichment culturing must be avoided. Pooling is however possible before or after DNA extraction under certain conditions. Whole livers should be 10-fold diluted in enrichment medium and homogenized using a Pulsifier® blender (Microgen, Surrey, UK) instead of a conventional paddle blender. Spiked liver samples showed a limit of detection of 5 spores/g liver for types C and D and 250 spores/g for type E. Using the method developed here, the analysis of 268 samples from 73 suspected outbreaks showed 100% specificity and 95.35% sensitivity compared with other PCR-based methods considered as reference. The mosaic type C/D was the most common neurotoxin type found in examined samples, which included both wild and domestic birds. PMID:28076405

  17. An Analysis on participation in Community Sports of Urbon Old People%甘肃省城镇老年人社区体育参与活动状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠珍

    2012-01-01

    根据全国第六次人口普查结果,我国老年人口已达1亿7千多万人,占人口总数的13.26%,而且还在在持续、快速地增加.鼓励和支持老年人“老有所为”,“老有所动”,参加各类社区体育活动,不仅有利于老年人的生理、心理健康,提升老年人的生活质量,而且还有助于他们保持积极的人生态度,促进社区的和谐与文明.本文通过对兰州市老年人社区体育参与活动的调查,分析了甘肃省城镇老年人体育参与活动的现状.%The survey based on the 6th National Population Census of China shows that senior population has already reached 170 millon, which accounts for 13. 26% of total population,but the figueres are rapidly increasing. Therefore,on the basis of the principle to be engaged and to be active in sports, we should en-cowrage and support old people to take part in various sports held by their communites. Not only can senior citizens improve their physiological and psychological health,but they also have higher life qualities. In addition, they can have a positive attitvede towards life. Finally,the hormonious and civilized communities can be well established. This article,accompanied by the surrey of participation in sports of Lanzhou,analyzes the current situation of participating in community sports of urban old people in Gansu Province.

  18. CRUMB TEXTURE OF SPELT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk-Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Crumb texture is an important quality indicator, as consumer prefer different bread taste. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators for bread texture quality of five Triticum spelta L. varieties – Altgold, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Ostro, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard method and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn and Altgold were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.81++, -0.78++. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  19. Insights into direct nose to brain delivery: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Deepti; Ali, Asgar; Md, Shadab; Baboota, Sanjula; Sahni, Jasjeet K; Ali, Javed

    2014-03-01

    Now a day's intranasal (i.n) drug delivery is emerging as a reliable method to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and deliver a wide range of therapeutic agents including both small and large molecules, growth factors, viral vectors and even stem cells to the brain and has shown therapeutic effects in both animals and humans. This route involves the olfactory or trigeminal nerve systems which initiate in the brain and terminate in the nasal cavity at the olfactory neuroepithelium or respiratory epithelium. They are the only externally exposed portions of the central nervous system (CNS) and therefore represent the most direct method of noninvasive entry into the brain. This approach has been primarily used to explore therapeutic avenues for neurological diseases. The potential for treatment possibilities with olfactory transfer of drugs will increase as more effective formulations and delivery devices are developed. Recently, the apomorphine hydrochloride dry powders have been developed for i.n. delivery (Apomorphine nasal, Lyonase technology, Britannia Pharmaceuticals, Surrey, UK). The results of clinical trial Phase III suggested that the prepared formulation had clinical effect equivalent to subcutaneously administered apomorphine. In coming years, intranasal delivery of drugs will demand more complex and automated delivery devices to ensure accurate and repeatable dosing. Thus, new efforts are needed to make this noninvasive route of delivery more efficient and popular, and it is also predicted that in future a range of intranasal products will be used in diagnosis as well as treatment of CNS diseases. This review will embark the existing evidence of nose-to-brain transport. It also provides insights into the most relevant pre-clinical studies of direct nose-brain delivery and delivery devices which will provide relative success of intranasal delivery system. We have, herein, outlined the relevant aspects of CNS drugs given intranasally to direct the brain in

  20. ‘You can't be a person and a doctor’: the work–life balance of doctors in training—a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the work–life balance of doctors in training in the UK from the perspectives of trainers and trainees. Design Qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and Wales during the junior doctor contract dispute at the end of 2015. Part of a larger General Medical Council study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants 96 trainees and 41 trainers. Trainees comprised UK graduates and International Medical Graduates, across all stages of training in 6 specialties (General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, Surgery) and Foundation. Results Postgraduate training was characterised by work–life imbalance. Long hours at work were typically supplemented with revision and completion of the e-portfolio. Trainees regularly moved workplaces which could disrupt their personal lives and sometimes led to separation from friends and family. This made it challenging to cope with personal pressures, the stresses of which could then impinge on learning and training, while also leaving trainees with a lack of social support outside work to buffer against the considerable stresses of training. Low morale and harm to well-being resulted in some trainees feeling dehumanised. Work–life imbalance was particularly severe for those with children and especially women who faced a lack of less-than-full-time positions and discriminatory attitudes. Female trainees frequently talked about having to choose a specialty they felt was more conducive to a work–life balance such as General Practice. The proposed junior doctor contract was felt to exacerbate existing problems. Conclusions A lack of work–life balance in postgraduate medical training negatively impacted on trainees' learning and well-being. Women with children were particularly affected, suggesting this group would

  1. Investigating the influence of African American and African Caribbean race on primary care doctors' decision making about depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries

  2. The UK Burden of Injury Study – a protocol. [National Research Register number: M0044160889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleney Judith

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally and nationally large numbers of people are injured each year, yet there is little information on the impact of these injuries on people's lives, on society and on health and social care services. Measurement of the burden of injuries is needed at a global, national and regional level to be able to inform injured people of the likely duration of impairment; to guide policy makers in investing in preventative measures; to facilitate the evaluation and cost effectiveness of interventions and to contribute to international efforts to more accurately assess the global burden of injuries. Methods/Design A prospective, longitudinal multi-centre study of 1333 injured individuals, atttending Emergency Departments or admitted to hospital in four UK areas: Swansea, Surrey, Bristol and Nottingham. Specified quotas of patients with defined injuries covering the whole spectrum will be recruited. Participants (or a proxy will complete a baseline questionnaire regarding their injury and pre-injury quality of life. Follow up occurs at 1, 4, and 12 months post injury or until return to normal function within 12 months, with measures of health service utilisation, impairment, disability, and health related quality of life. National estimates of the burden of injuries will be calculated by extrapolation from the sample population to national and regional computerised hospital in-patient, emergency department and mortality data. Discussion This study will provide more detailed data on the national burden of injuries than has previously been available in any country and will contribute to international collaborative efforts to more accurately assess the global burden of injuries. The results will be used to advise policy makers on prioritisation of preventive measures, support the evaluation of interventions, and provide guidance on the likely impact and degree of impairment and disability following specific injuries.

  3. Educational challenges faced by international medical graduates in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers

  4. Iodine deficiency in the U.K.: an overlooked cause of impaired neurodevelopment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2013-05-01

    This review describes historical iodine deficiency in the U.K., gives current information on dietary sources of iodine and summarises recent evidence of iodine deficiency and its association with child neurodevelopment. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones that are needed for brain development, particularly during pregnancy. Iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable brain damage worldwide and is associated with impaired cognitive function. Despite a global focus on the elimination of iodine deficiency, iodine is a largely overlooked nutrient in the U.K., a situation we have endeavoured to address through a series of studies. Although the U.K. has been considered iodine-sufficient for many years, there is now concern that iodine deficiency may be prevalent, particularly in pregnant women and women of childbearing age; indeed we found mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in pregnant women in Surrey. As the major dietary source of iodine in the U.K. is milk and dairy produce, it is relevant to note that we have found the iodine concentration of organic milk to be over 40% lower than that of conventional milk. In contrast to many countries, iodised table salt is unlikely to contribute to U.K. iodine intake as we have shown that its availability is low in grocery stores. This situation is of concern as the level of U.K. iodine deficiency is such that it is associated with adverse effects on offspring neurological development; we demonstrated a higher risk of low IQ and poorer reading-accuracy scores in U.K. children born to mothers who were iodine-deficient during pregnancy. Given our findings and those of others, iodine status in the U.K. population should be monitored, particularly in vulnerable subgroups such as pregnant women and children.

  5. In vitro fracture resistance of root-filled teeth using new-generation dentine bonding adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürmüzlü, F; Serper, A; Siso, S H; Er, K

    2003-11-01

    To compare the fracture resistance of root-filled premolar teeth restored with new-generation dentine bonding adhesives. Sixty extracted single-rooted human maxillary premolar teeth were used. Access cavities were prepared, and the roots were instrumented with K-files to an apical size 50 using a step-back technique. Root fillings were accomplished using gutta percha (Sure-Endo, Seoul, Korea) and AH Plus root canal sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) using the lateral condensation technique. The teeth were then randomly divided into six groups of 10 teeth each. A mesiodistocclusal (MOD) cavity was prepared in the teeth to the level of the canal orifices so that the thickness of the buccal wall of the teeth measured 2 mm at the occlusal surface and 3 mm at the cemento-enamel junction. Preparations were restored using the following adhesive systems: Etch & Prime 3.0 (Degussa AG, Hanau, Germany), Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan), Prompt L-Pop (ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), Panavia F (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan), Optibond Plus (Kerr, Orange, CA, USA) and Admira Bond (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany); all preparations except those of the Panavia F and Admira Bond groups were further restored with resin composites. The Panavia F group was restored with amalgam and the Admira Bond group with Ormocer (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany). The teeth were mounted in a Universal Testing Machine (Hounsfield, Surrey, UK), and the buccal walls were subjected to a slowly increasing compressive force until fracture occurred. The force of fracture of the walls of each tooth was recorded and the results in the various groups were compared. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using one-way anova. There was no significant difference in the fracture resistance of any of the test groups. In this laboratory study, the type of dentine bonding agents had no influence in the fracture resistance of teeth.

  6. TWINKLE - A Low Earth Orbit Visible and Infrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessenyi, Marcell; Savini, Giorgio; Tinetti, Giovanna; Tennyson, Jonathan; Dhesi, Mekhi; Joshua, Max

    2016-10-01

    Twinkle is a space mission designed for visible and near-IR spectroscopic observations of extrasolar planets. Twinkle's highly stable instrument will allow the photometric and spectroscopic observation of a wide range of planetary classes around different types of stars, with a focus on bright sources close to the ecliptic. The planets will be observed through transit and eclipse photometry and spectroscopy, as well as phase curves, eclipse mapping and multiple narrow-band time-series. The targets observed by Twinkle will be composed of known exoplanets mainly discovered by existing and upcoming ground surveys in our galaxy and will also feature new discoveries by space observatories (K2, GAIA, Cheops, TESS).Twinkle is a small satellite with a payload designed to perform high-quality astrophysical observations while adapting to the design of an existing Low Earth Orbit commercial satellite platform. The SSTL-300 bus, to be launched into a low-Earth sun-synchronous polar orbit by 2019, will carry a half-meter class telescope with two instruments (visible and near-IR spectrographs - between 0.4 and 4.5µm - with resolving power R~300 at the lower end of the wavelength scale) using mostly flight proven spacecraft systems designed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd and a combination of high TRL instrumentation and a few lower TRL elements built by a consortium of UK institutes.The Twinkle design will enable the observation of the chemical composition and weather of at least 100 exoplanets in the Milky Way, including super-Earths (rocky planets 1-10 times the mass of Earth), Neptunes, sub-Neptunes and gas giants like Jupiter. It will also allow the follow-up photometric observations of 1000+ exoplanets in the visible and infrared, as well as observations of Solar system objects, bright stars and disks.

  7. Video and the Analysis of Social Interaction. An interview with Christian Heath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pentimalli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Christian Heath is Professor at King’s College London and co-director of the Work, Interaction and Technology Research Centre. Drawing on Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis, he specialises in fine grained, video-based field studies of social interaction. He is currently undertaking research in settings that include auctions, control centres, operating theatres, and museums and galleries. His previous research involves a range of projects UK Research Councils and the European Commission in areas that include command and control, health care, the cultural industries, and advanced telecommunications. He has held positions at the Universities of Manchester, Surrey, and Nottingham and visiting positions at Universities and industrial research laboratories in the UK and abroad. He is an Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences (AcSS, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Art Scholars and in 2015 was given the EUSSET-IISI Lifetime Achievement Award presented to scholars for an outstanding contribution to the reorientation of the fields of computing and Informatics. His publications include: “The Dynamics of Auction: Social Interaction and the Sale of Fine Art and Antiques” (Cambridge 2013: awarded the Best Book Award in 2014 by the International Society for Conversation Analysis, “Video in Qualitative Research: Analysing Social Interaction in Everyday Life” (Sage with Hindmarsh, J. and P. Luff, 2010, “Technology in Action” (with P. Luff, Cambridge 2000, “Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing System Design” (Cambridge with Luff, P. and J. Hindmarsh 2000, “Body Movement and Speech in Medical Interaction” (Cambridge 1986 and numerous articles in journals and books. With Roy Pea and Lucy Suchman he is editor of the book series published by Cambridge University Press, Learning and Doing: Social, Cognitive and Computational Perspectives.

  8. Susceptibility to cartap-induced lethal effect and diaphragmatic injury via ocular exposure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Hwang, Jenn-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Cheng

    2003-11-05

    Cartap is extensively used to control agricultural pests. Pertinent literatures have indicated that it causes no eye irritation [D.E. Ray, Insecticides derived from plants and other organisms, in: W.J. Hayes, E.R. Laws (Eds.), Handbook of Insecticide Toxicology, Classes of Insecticides, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1991, p. 611; C. Tomlin, Cartap, in: C. Tomlin (Ed.), The Insecticide Manual, 12th ed., British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK, 2000, p. 144]; however, the instillation of a little cartap through the eye has caused death in rabbits. The aim of this study was to determine the ocular toxicity of cartap in New Zealand White rabbits. Cartap was directly instilled into the low conjunctival sac of eyes, at doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The changes in the enzymes and isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), as well as pathological changes in the muscles of the heart, thigh and diaphragm were determined in the cartap-treated rabbits. Moreover, the neuromuscular effect of cartap was examined using the isolated rabbit phrenic-nerve diaphragm model. The results indicated that rabbits developed severe signs and they died within 20 min of ocular instillation. The ocular LD50 of cartap was 8.1 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with cartap increased the activities of CK and LD enzymes and their isoenzymes, CK-1, CK-2, and CK-3 in serum, and CK-3 and LD-5 in the diaphragm. Microscopically, hypercontraction bands and the rupture of myofibers of the diaphragm were observed in dead rabbits. Cartap did not affect nerve-evoked twitch but induced irreversible contracture and twitch depression on the isolated rabbit's diaphragm. These results indicate that the rabbit is susceptible to cartap toxicity; the effect of cartap caused contracture and damage to the diaphragm might play a pivotal role in respiratory paralysis and death of rabbits during intoxication.

  9. Complex matters made less perplexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barany, Anders

    2003-09-01

    Book review of 'Quantum: a guide for perplexed' by Jim Al-Khalili, Weidenfeld and Nicolson/Sterling Publications, 2003. It was with mixed feelings that I decided to review Jim Al-Khalili's new book Quantum: A Guide for the Perplexed. As a theoretical nuclear physicist at Surrey University in the UK, Al-Khalili is a practitioner of quantum mechanics and does not bother too much about its foundations. Instead, he adheres - as so many others do - to an interpretation of quantum mechanics called 'shut up while you calculate'. This book, however, is directed at the general reader, which means that Al-Khalili cannot avoid tackling the principles on which quantum mechanics is built. The first part of the book focuses on these founding principles that many people find difficult to grasp. With chapter headings such as 'Nature's conjuring trick', 'Spooky connections' and 'The great debate', we are given standard presentations of the two-slit experiment and of Schroedinger's cat. The author also discusses the important role of decoherence and the different interpretations of quantum mechanics connected with Niels Bohr, Louis de Broglie and others. The second part of the book is a more straightforward account of modern physics, The main text is written in an informal and lively way. My guess is that younger people in particular will appreciate the titles like 'Bohr: physicist, philosopher, phootballer'. Al-Khalili tells many of the stories as if he were giving a popular-science lecture - with imaginary pauses to give the audience time to laugh. But he tells the stories quite well and I enjoyed reading the main text. In the September issue of Physics World Anders Barany reviews this book in full. (U.K.)

  10. The effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on teachers' self-efficacy, attitudes, skills, and knowledge using a thematic learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnin, Richard Kinna

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on self-efficacy beliefs, science attitudes, skills, and knowledge of elementary teachers. The target school was located in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Major elements of the study included the use of thematic science strands, use of the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional model, a focus on the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, and guided, inquiry-based learning experiences. These elements mirror the principles identified as being essential components of effective professional development for mathematics, and science education (Fullan, 1985; Sparks & Loucks-Horsley, 1990; Loucks-Horsley, 1997). The research team was actively involved with the participants for a total of 30 days at their school over the 24 months of the study. During each training, the research team modeled the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional strategy, and the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, set up a wide variety of activity centers, and provided the teachers with opportunities to improve their attitudes, skills, and knowledge of the science content, and teaching strategies. The 15 participants completed pre-, post-, and post-post-Leadership Team Surreys. Quantitative data analyses of gain scores measuring level of confidence to teach Marine and Earth Science, content knowledge, and teaching strategies were significant, p .05. Qualitative analysis of reflective journal comments, classroom observations, and the participants understanding, and use of science process skills across the curriculum supported the quantitative data results. The data demonstrate significant improvement in the self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes, skills, and knowledge toward teaching science of the Pre-Kindergarten--2nd -grade teachers who participated in this long-term professional development study.

  11. TWINKLE - A Low Earth Orbit Visible and Infrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessenyi, M.; Savini, G.; Tinetti, G.; Tennyson, J.; Dhesi, M.; Joshua, M.

    2017-07-01

    Twinkle is a space mission designed for visible and near-IR spectroscopic observations of extrasolar planets. Twinkle's highly stable instrument will allow the photometric and spectroscopic observation of a wide range of planetary classes around different types of stars, with a focus on bright sources close to the ecliptic. The planets will be observed through transit and eclipse photometry and spectroscopy, as well as phase curves, eclipse mapping and multiple narrow-band time-series. The targets observed by Twinkle will be composed of known exoplanets mainly discovered by existing and upcoming ground surveys in our galaxy and will also feature new discoveries by space observatories (K2, GAIA, Cheops, TESS). Twinkle is a small satellite with a payload designed to perform high-quality astrophysical observations while adapting to the design of an existing Low Earth Orbit commercial satellite platform. The SSTL-300 bus, to be launched into a low-Earth sun-synchronous polar orbit by 2019, will carry a half-meter class telescope with two instruments (visible and near-IR spectrographs - between 0.4 and 4.5μm - with resolving power R˜300 at the lower end of the wavelength scale) using mostly flight proven spacecraft systems designed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd and a combination of high TRL instrumentation and a few lower TRL elements built by a consortium of UK institutes. The Twinkle design will enable the observation of the chemical composition and weather of at least 100 exoplanets in the Milky Way, including super-Earths (rocky planets 1-10 times the mass of Earth), Neptunes, sub-Neptunes and gas giants like Jupiter. It will also allow the follow-up photometric observations of 1000+ exoplanets in the visible and infrared, as well as observations of Solar system objects, bright stars and disks.

  12. Providing effective trauma care: the potential for service provider views to enhance the quality of care (qualitative study nested within a multicentre longitudinal quantitative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Kate; Earthy, Sarah; Sleney, Jude; Barnes, Jo; Kellezi, Blerina; Barker, Marcus; Clarkson, Julie; Coffey, Frank; Elder, Georgina; Kendrick, Denise

    2014-07-08

    To explore views of service providers caring for injured people on: the extent to which services meet patients' needs and their perspectives on factors contributing to any identified gaps in service provision. Qualitative study nested within a quantitative multicentre longitudinal study assessing longer term impact of unintentional injuries in working age adults. Sampling frame for service providers was based on patient-reported service use in the quantitative study, patient interviews and advice of previously injured lay research advisers. Service providers' views were elicited through semistructured interviews. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants were recruited from a range of settings and services in acute hospital trusts in four study centres (Bristol, Leicester, Nottingham and Surrey) and surrounding areas. 40 service providers from a range of disciplines. Service providers described two distinct models of trauma care: an 'ideal' model, informed by professional knowledge of the impact of injury and awareness of best models of care, and a 'real' model based on the realities of National Health Service (NHS) practice. Participants' 'ideal' model was consistent with standards of high-quality effective trauma care and while there were examples of services meeting the ideal model, 'real' care could also be fragmented and inequitable with major gaps in provision. Service provider accounts provide evidence of comprehensive understanding of patients' needs, awareness of best practice, compassion and research but reveal significant organisational and resource barriers limiting implementation of knowledge in practice. Service providers envisage an 'ideal' model of trauma care which is timely, equitable, effective and holistic, but this can differ from the care currently provided. Their experiences provide many suggestions for service improvements to bridge the gap between 'real' and 'ideal' care. Using service provider views to inform service design

  13. Tablet computers for implementing NICE antenatal mental health guidelines: protocol of a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano-Belisario, José S; Gupta, Ajay K; O'Donoghue, John; Morrison, Cecily; Car, Josip

    2016-01-22

    Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders that may affect women during pregnancy. The prompt identification of this disorder, and the provision of treatment, may help to reduce the likelihood of post-partum depression, prevent severe forms of the disease, and reduce its intergenerational impact. Despite women's repeated encounters with health services throughout their antenatal care, depression often goes undiagnosed. This is one area where mobile health could prove useful. We will assess the feasibility of using tablets to incorporate depression screening into antenatal pathways. We will also assess if survey layout could affect the quality of the data collected through these devices. We will test the feasibility of using iPad Airs for the administration of the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in England. We will assess the impact of survey layout on the quality of the responses given to these screening scales using a parallel, randomised controlled study design. We will calculate the positive predictive value, the negative predictive value and the false omission rate of the Whooley questions in comparison with the EPDS. We will calculate differences in data equivalence, time needed to complete the surveys, break-off rates, data completeness and requests for help between the 2 experimental groups: using all questions in one screen and navigation by vertical scrolling, or a single question per screen and navigation by multiple pages. This study has been approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee South East Coast--Surrey. Our findings will be disseminated through academic peer-reviewed publications, conferences and discussion with peers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Crystal structure of the extracellular domain of human myelin protein zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Sohi, Jasloveleen; Kamholz, John; Kovari, Ladislau C. (WSU-MED); (NWU)

    2012-03-27

    different mutations in the MPZ gene leading to peripheral neuropathy in patients have been reported worldwide (http://www.molgen. ua.ac.be/CMTMutations). All identified mutations resulting in a change or deletion of amino acid residues in MPZ give rise to neuropathy with the exception of R215L, which instead causes a benign polymorphism. Furthermore, more detailed analysis has classified the MPZ mutations into two major groups. In the first group, the mutations disrupt the intracellular processing of MPZ and are primarily associated with early onset neuropathy. It has been proposed that the mutated MPZ is trapped inside the cell rather than being transported to the plasma membrane. However, other evidence suggests that the mutated MPZ protein is expressed on the plasma membrane, but dominant-negatively disrupts the structure of myelin. In the second group, the MPZ mutations are associated with late onset neuropathy as these mutations cause only mild demyelination. The underlying mechanism is elusive with the hypothesis being that the second group of mutations cause minor abnormalities in the myelin sheath that over time may lead to aberrant Schwann cell-axon interactions and subsequently to axonal degeneration. The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of human MPZ (hP0ex) fused with maltose binding protein (MBP) is reported at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. While the crystal structure of rat MPZ extracellular domain (rP0ex) is available, the crystal structure of the human counterpart is useful for the analysis of the two homologs as well as a comparison between the two species. The hP0ex molecule reveals subtle structural variations between two homologs allowing comparison of the human myelin protein zero to that of the rat protein. The alignment of these homologs is shown in Figure 1(a).

  15. Improving transmission rates of electronic discharge summaries to GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Rory; Chin, Kuen Yeow; Yeong, Keefai

    2013-01-01

    Discharge summaries are a vital tool to communicate information from Hospital to Primary Care teams; updating GPs about what happened during an admission, and handing over care detailing any follow up care required. Historically, Discharge Summaries have been posted to hospitals, increasing costs for hospitals, creating administrative work for GP practices receiving the letters, and resulting in some letters being lost or delayed in reaching the GP, with implications for patient safety if follow up requests are not received and acted upon. In an effort to improve patient care, the Clinical Commissioning Group in Surrey drew up a contract with Ashford and St Peter's Foundation Trust, aiming to increase the percentage of discharge summaries sent electronically from the rate of 9% sent within 24 hours, to over 75%. This contract set targets of 50% in May, 65% in June, and 80% in July. Financial penalties would be imposed if targets were not achieved, starting in June 2013. The Trust set up a working group comprising of doctors, IT personnel and ward PAs to devise a multi-pronged solution to achieve this target. The electronic discharge summary system was reviewed and improvements were designed and developed to make the process of signing off letters easier, and transmission of signed off letters became automated rather than requiring manual transmission by ward PAs. Presentations and leaflets to explain the importance of prompt completion and transmission of discharge summaries were given to Doctors to improve compliance using the revised IT system. Figures on transmission rates were automatically emailed to key stakeholders every day (Ward PAs, Divisional Leads) showing performance on each ward. This helped identify areas requiring more intervention. Areas (e.g. Day Surgery) that had not used electronic discharge summaries were engaged with, and persuaded to take part. As a result, transmission rates of Discharge Summaries within 24 hours of patient discharge

  16. Long-term functional improvements in the 2-year treatment of schizophrenia outpatients with olanzapine long-acting injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher-Svanum H

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haya Ascher-Svanum,1 Diego Novick,2,3 Josep Maria Haro,4 Jordan Bertsch,4 David McDonnell,1 Holland Detke11Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 3Departament de Psiquiatria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain; 4Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área de Salud Mental, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainBackground: Little is known about the long-term changes in the functioning of schizophrenia patients receiving maintenance therapy with olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI, and whether observed changes differ from those seen with oral olanzapine.Methods: This study describes changes in the levels of functioning among outpatients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine-LAI compared with oral olanzapine over 2 years. This was a secondary analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, open-label, 2-year study comparing the long-term treatment effectiveness of monthly olanzapine-LAI (405 mg/4 weeks; n=264 with daily oral olanzapine (10 mg/day; n=260. Levels of functioning were assessed with the Heinrichs–Carpenter Quality of Life Scale. Functional status was also classified as “good”, “moderate”, or “poor”, using a previous data-driven approach. Changes in functional levels were assessed with McNemar’s test and comparisons between olanzapine-LAI and oral olanzapine employed the Student’s t-test. Results: Over the 2-year study, the patients treated with olanzapine-LAI improved their level of functioning (per Quality of Life total score from 64.0–70.8 (P<0.001. Patients on oral ­olanzapine also increased their level of functioning from 62.1–70.1 (P<0.001. At baseline, 19.2% of the olanzapine-LAI-treated patients had a “good” level of functioning, which increased to 27.5% (P<0.05. The figures for oral olanzapine were 14.2% and 24.5%, respectively (P<0.001. Results did not significantly differ between

  17. Assessment of vitamin D levels in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes mellitus comparing two methods of measurement: a facility's experience in the Middle Eastern country of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haddad FA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatima Ahmed Al-Haddad,1 Mansoor H Rajab,2 S Mahmood Al-Qallaf,3 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,4 Kathryn H Hart5 1Dietetic Unit for Hospitals, 2Pediatric Endocrine and Diabetes Team, Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, 3Pharmacy Program, College of Health Sciences, University of Bahrain, Manama, 4Nutrition and Health Studies Unit Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Sakheer, Kingdom of Bahrain; 5School of Biosciences and Medicine, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Background: The number of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is on the rise and has more than doubled in the past 10 years in Bahrain. Some studies have linked low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of diabetes. There are concerns regarding the variations in circulating 25(OHD levels measured by different laboratories and by using different analytical techniques. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D levels of newly diagnosed children with T1DM using the “gold standard method” with high-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods compared to the chemiluminescence micro-particle immunoassay (CMIA used in a hospital laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen children, aged 6–12 years, who received a confirmed diagnosis of T1DM in 2014 were chosen as subjects. Methods: Serum vitamin D levels were assessed in a hospital, while an extra aliquot of blood collected during routine blood collection after acquiring informed written consents from the subjects, and sent to Princess Al-Jawhara Center for Molecular Medicine and Inherited Disorders to be analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. Results: The mean age of the study group was 9±2 years. The mean total of 25(OHD levels (D3 and D2 assessed by UPLC-MS/MS was 49.7±18.8, whereas the mean total of 25(OHD levels obtained from the CMIA assay was 44.60±13

  18. 生殖医学国际会议讯息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@2001年6月~2002年10月 日期会议名称地点 2001年 6月9~12日第21届美国生殖免疫学会年会美国芝加哥 通讯处:Chicago,Illinois USA J.Y.H. Kwak-Kim,MD, Dept. of Reproductive Medicine, Finch University of Health Sciences/The Chicago Medical School, North Chicago,IL 60064,USA Tel.:+ 1 847 578-8767 Fax:+ 1 847 578-8572 E-mail:kwak@ finchems. edu Website:http://www.theasri.org 6月15~19日第57届临床年会加拿大渥太华 通讯处:Ottawa Canada The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada,780 Promenade Echo Drive, Ottawa ON KIS 5N8 Canada Tel.:+ 1 613 7304192 Fax:+ 1 613 7304314 Website:http://www.sogc.org 7月4~5日第一届结石病国际评议会法国巴黎 通讯处:France Paris Pr Saad Khoury, Clinique Urologique (Pr Richard), Hpital de la Pitié,83 bd de 1'Hpital, 75634,Paris, Cedex 13-France Tel.:+ 33 1 42177120 or 21 Fax:+ 33 1 42 177122 E-mail:consultoro@aol.com Website:http://www.urology-publications.com 7月10~13日第29届妇产科大会英国伯明翰 通讯处:Birmingham UK BCOG Secretariat,Congress House, 65 West Drive,Cheam, Sutton, Surrey SM2 7NB,UK Tel.:+ 44(0)2086610877 Fax:+ 44(0)2086619036 E-mail:info@conforg.com 8月1~3日第一届巴拉圭妇女更年期大会巴拉圭亚松森 通讯处:Asunción, Paraguay Paraguayan Society of Climaterium and Menopause Fax:+ 595 21 211 393 E-mail:sisad@ conexion.com.py

  19. Systematic review and network meta-analysis of combination and monotherapy treatments in disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-experienced patients with rheumatoid arthritis: analysis of American College of Rheumatology criteria scores 20, 50, and 70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orme ME

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Michelle E Orme,1 Katherine S MacGilchrist,2 Stephen Mitchell,2 Dean Spurden,3 Alex Bird31Icera Consulting, Swindon, Wiltshire, UK; 2Systematic Review Department, Abacus International, Bicester, Oxfordshire, UK; 3Pfizer UK Limited, Tadworth, Surrey, UKBackground: Biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs extend the treatment choices for rheumatoid arthritis patients with suboptimal response or intolerance to conventional DMARDs. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the relative efficacy of EU-licensed bDMARD combination therapy or monotherapy for patients intolerant of or contraindicated to continued methotrexate.Methods: Comprehensive, structured literature searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, as well as hand-searching of conference proceedings and reference lists. Phase II or III randomized controlled trials reporting American College of Rheumatology (ACR criteria scores of 20, 50, and 70 between 12 and 30 weeks' follow-up and enrolling adult patients meeting ACR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis previously treated with and with an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs were eligible. To estimate the relative efficacy of treatments whilst preserving the randomized comparisons within each trial, a Bayesian network meta-analysis was conducted in WinBUGS using fixed and random-effects, logit-link models fitted to the binomial ACR 20/50/70 trial data.Results: The systematic review identified 10,625 citations, and after a review of 2450 full-text papers, there were 29 and 14 eligible studies for the combination and monotherapy meta-analyses, respectively. In the combination analysis, all licensed bDMARD combinations had significantly higher odds of ACR 20/50/70 compared to DMARDs alone, except for the rituximab comparison, which did not reach significance for the ACR 70 outcome (based on the 95% credible interval. The etanercept combination was

  20. Castor industry development:from cultivation to product exploitation%蓖麻产业发展:从种植到利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙振钧; 吕丽媛; 伍玉鹏

    2012-01-01

    蓖麻作为世界十大油料作物之一,具有很高的开发利用价值。本文从产业发展的角度,综述了蓖麻种植的历史和高产栽培技术现状,分析了蓖麻利用特别是蓖麻基生物燃油及蓖麻深加工产品的研发现状及发展趋势。论述了蓖麻的耐盐性及蓖麻栽培对盐碱地的修复作用,并结合我国边际土地的情况,分析了我国种植蓖麻的潜力。据此提出我国蓖麻研究及产业发展的重点为:蓖麻适宜种植区调查与区划、种质资源调查与创新、低质非耕土壤蓖麻高产栽培技术研究、蓖麻基生物燃油制备工艺研究、蓖麻综合利用研究和蓖麻产业可持续发展及保障系统研究。%As one of the world's ten largest oil crops,castor has broad utilization prospects based on its high economic value.This paper analyzes the current situation of high-yielding castor cultivation technology,summarizes the comprehensive utilization of castor and describes the development of castor biodiesel fuel.Castor salt resistance and the remediation of saline-alkali soil by castor cultivationis are also discussed,as well as the potential of China's cultivation of castor.In this paper,recommendation for castor research and industrial development were also proposed,including the castor surrey and zoning in suitable planting area,the investigation and innovation of germplasm resources,high-yielding cultivation technology of castor in low quality and non-farming soil,preparation process of castor biodiesel fuel,comprehensive utilization research of castor,sustainable development and security system of castor industry.

  1. Strength Training for Adolescents with cerebral palsy (STAR): study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to determine the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of resistance training for adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jennifer M; Theis, Nicola; Kilbride, Cherry; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Waugh, Charlie; Shortland, Adam; Lavelle, Grace; Noorkoiv, Marika; Levin, Wendy; Korff, Thomas

    2016-10-04

    Gait is inefficient in children with cerebral palsy, particularly as they transition to adolescence. Gait inefficiency may be associated with declines in gross motor function and participation among adolescents with cerebral palsy. Resistance training may improve gait efficiency through a number of biomechanical and neural mechanisms. The aim of the Strength Training for Adolescents with cerebral palsy (STAR) trial is to evaluate the effect of resistance training on gait efficiency, activity and participation in adolescents with cerebral palsy. We also aim to determine the biomechanical and neural adaptations that occur following resistance training and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of such an intervention for adolescents with cerebral palsy. 60 adolescents (Gross Motor Function Classification System level I-III) will be randomised to a 10-week resistance training group or a usual care control group according to a computer-generated random schedule. The primary outcome is gait efficiency. Secondary outcomes are habitual physical activity, participation, muscle-tendon mechanics and gross motor function. General linear models will be used to evaluate differences in continuous data between the resistance training and usual care groups at 10 and 22 weeks, respectively. A process evaluation will be conducted alongside the intervention. Fidelity of the resistance training programme to trial protocol will be quantified by observations of exercise sessions. Semistructured interviews will be conducted with participants and physiotherapists following the resistance training programme to determine feasibility and acceptability of the programme. This trial has ethical approval from Brunel University London's Department of Clinical Sciences' Research Ethics Committee and the National Research Ethics Service (NRES) Committee London-Surrey Borders. The results of the trial will be submitted for publication in academic journals, presented at conferences and

  2. Do concomitant pain symptoms in patients with major depression affect quality of life even when taking into account baseline depression severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novick D

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Zbigniew Kadziola,3 Victoria Moneta,4 Xiaomei Peng,5 Roberto Brugnoli,6 Josep Maria Haro41Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Eli Lilly Austria GmbH, Vienna, Austria; 4Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 5Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 6Università di Roma, “Sapienza,” Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD may suffer from concomitant pain symptoms. The aim of this study is to determine whether the presence of painful physical symptoms (PPS influences quality of life when taking into account baseline depression severity.Methods: Patients with a new or first episode of MDD (n = 909 were enrolled in a 3-month prospective observational study in East Asia. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression-Severity score, Somatic Symptom Inventory, and EuroQoL questionnaire-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D and EQ-Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS were assessed at baseline and 3 months’ follow-up. The presence of PPS was defined as a mean score of ≥2 on the Somatic Symptom Inventory pain-related items. Regression analyses determined predictors of quality of life at 3 months, adjusting for age, sex, depressive symptoms, overall severity, and quality of life at baseline.Results: PPS were present (PPS+ at baseline in 52% of patients. During the 3-month follow-up, EQ-VAS scores improved from 47.7 (standard deviation [SD] 20.6 to 72.5 (SD 20.4, and EQ-5D improved from 0.48 (SD 0.34 to 0.80 (SD 0.26. At 3 months, mean EQ-VAS was 66.4 (SD 21.2 for baseline PPS+ patients versus 78.5 (SD 17.6 for baseline PPS- patients, and mean EQ-5D was 0.71 (SD 0.29 versus 0.89 (SD 0.18. PPS+ at baseline was a significant predictor of quality of life at 3 months after adjusting for sociodemographic and baseline clinical variables

  3. Experience with Delay-Tolerant Networking from Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, W.; Eddy, W. M.; Stewart, D.; Wood, L.; Northam, J.; Jackson, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the first use from space of the Bundle Protocol for Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) and lessons learned from experiments made and experience gained with this protocol. The Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), is a multiple-satellite Earth-imaging low-Earth-orbit sensor network in which recorded image swaths are stored onboard each satellite and later downloaded from the satellite payloads to a ground station. Store-and-forward of images with capture and later download gives each satellite the characteristics of a node in a disruption-tolerant network. Originally developed for the Interplanetary Internet, DTNs are now under investigation in an Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) DTN research group (RG), which has developed a bundle architecture and protocol. The DMC is technically advanced in its adoption of the Internet Protocol (IP) for its imaging payloads and for satellite command and control, based around reuse of commercial networking and link protocols. These satellites use of IP has enabled earlier experiments with the Cisco router in Low Earth Orbit (CLEO) onboard the constellation s UK-DMC satellite. Earth images are downloaded from the satellites using a custom IP-based high-speed transfer protocol developed by SSTL, Saratoga, which tolerates unusual link environments. Saratoga has been documented in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for wider adoption. We experiment with the use of DTNRG bundle concepts onboard the UK-DMC satellite, by examining how Saratoga can be used as a DTN convergence layer to carry the DTNRG Bundle Protocol, so that sensor images can be delivered to ground stations and beyond as bundles. Our practical experience with the first successful use of the DTNRG Bundle Protocol in a space environment gives us insights into the design of the Bundle Protocol and enables us to identify issues that must be addressed before wider deployment of the Bundle Protocol

  4. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  5. Relation of NDVI obtained from different remote sensing at different space and resolutions sensors in Spanish Dehesas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano Rodríguez, Juan; Tarquis, Ana M.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite data are an important source of information and serve as monitoring crops on large scales. There are several indexes, but the most used for monitoring vegetation is NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), calculated from the spectral bands of red (RED) and near infrared (NIR), obtaining the value according to relationship: [(NIR - RED) / (NIR + RED)]. During the years 2010-2013 monthly monitoring was conducted in three areas of Spain (Salamanca, Caceres and Cordoba). Pasture plots were selected and satellite images of two different sensors, DEIMOS-1 and MODIS were obtained. DEIMOS-1 is based on the concept Microsat-100 from Surrey. It is designed for imaging the Earth with a resolution good enough to study terrestrial vegetation cover (20x20 m), although with a wide range of visual field (600 km) to get those images with high temporal resolution. By contrast, MODIS images present a much lower spatial resolution (500x500 m). Indices obtained from both sensors to the same area and date are compared and the results show r2 = 0.56; r2 = 0.65 and r2 = 0.90 for the areas of Salamanca, Cáceres and Cordoba respectively. According to the results obtained show that the NDVI obtained by MODIS is slightly larger than that obtained by the sensor for DEIMOS for same time and area. References J.A. Escribano, C.G.H. Diaz-Ambrona, L. Recuero, M. Huesca, V. Cicuendez, A. Palacios-Orueta y A.M. Tarquis. Aplicacion de Indices de Vegetacion para evaluar la falta de produccion de pastos y montaneras en dehesas. I Congreso Iberico de la Dehesa y el Montado. 6-7 Noviembre, 2013, Badajoz. J.A. Escribano Rodriguez, A.M. Tarquis, C.G. Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Pasture Drought Insurance Based on NDVI and SAVI. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 14, EGU2012-13945, 2012. EGU General Assembly 2012. Juan Escribano Rodriguez, Carmelo Alonso, Ana Maria Tarquis, Rosa Maria Benito, Carlos Hernandez Diaz-Ambrona. Comparison of NDVI fields obtained from different remote sensors

  6. Daily supplementation with 15 μg vitamin D2 compared with vitamin D3 to increase wintertime 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in healthy South Asian and white European women: a 12-wk randomized, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripkovic, Laura; Wilson, Louise R; Hart, Kathryn; Johnsen, Sig; de Lusignan, Simon; Smith, Colin P; Bucca, Giselda; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Elliott, Ruan; Hyppönen, Elina; Berry, Jacqueline L; Lanham-New, Susan A

    2017-08-01

    Background: There are conflicting views in the literature as to whether vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 are equally effective in increasing and maintaining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], particularly at lower doses of vitamin D.Objective: We aimed to investigate whether vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 fortified in juice or food, at a relatively low dose of 15 μg/d, was effective in increasing serum total 25(OH)D and to compare their respective efficacy in South Asian and white European women over the winter months within the setting of a large randomized controlled trial.Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled food-fortification trial was conducted in healthy South Asian and white European women aged 20-64 y (n = 335; Surrey, United Kingdom) who consumed placebo, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D2, biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D2, juice supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D3, or biscuit supplemented with 15 μg vitamin D3 daily for 12 wk. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at weeks 6 and 12 of the study.Results: Postintervention in the 2 ethnic groups combined, both the vitamin D3 biscuit and the vitamin D3 juice groups showed a significantly greater absolute incremental change (Δ) in total 25(OH)D when compared with the vitamin D2 biscuit group [Δ (95% CI): 15.3 nmol/L (7.4, 23.3 nmol/L) (P D2 juice group [Δ (95% CI): 16.3 nmol/L (8.4, 24.2 nmol/L) (P D2 in increasing serum 25(OH)D in the wintertime. Vitamin D3 may therefore be a preferential form to optimize vitamin D status within the general population. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN23421591. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Comparison of the eight weeks of supplementation Creatine and Glutamine consumption along with resistance exercise on the level of ALP in female mice

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    A eskandari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: in recent years, in order to improve power, speed, the increase in the volume of the musculature, preventing sports injuries and maintain the muscle performance athletes use from different resistance exercises and food supplements. In this regard, present study has been conducted with the aim of comparison the influence of an 8 week period consumption of creatine (2 gr.kg-1.day-1 in 1st week and 0.48 gr.kg-1.day-1during 2nd to 8th weeks and glutamine (1 gr.kg-1.day-1 from first to eighth weeks along with resistance exercise on level of ALP of female mice. Materials and methods: This experimental study was done on 80 Small adult female mice of Surrey species (28 ± 5 gram. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups of: resistance exercise, resistance exercise + creatine, resistance exercise + glutamine, resistance exercise + glutamine + creatine, creatine, glutamine, creatine + glutamine and control groups (N= 10. Resistance exercise (5 days a week was including: climbing (4 sets, 5 times repetition with two minutes rest between the sets from a ladder (with the height of one meter and including 26 steps and bearing 30 percent of the weight of the Mouse body (hanging from tail in the first week and the increasing it up to 200 percent of body weight till the last week of the experiment. During 48 hours after the last practice session of resistance exercise, the blood sample was taken and the the level of ALP has been measured. Findings:The results showed that the level of ALP enzyme in creatine + glutamine + resistance exercise groug had been increased in comparison with the control group (144.3 ± 15.86 in comparison with 234.7 ± 25.69 U.L-1 P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate Creatine and Glutamine supplementation consumption along with resistance exercise increases in the level of ALP enzyme in the liver of mice.

  8. Introduction to this Special Issue on Geostatistics and Scaling of Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    The germination of this special PE&RS issue began at the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers)(RCS-IBC) annual meeting in January, 1997 held at the University of Exeter in Exeter, England. The cold and snow of an England winter were greatly tempered by the friendly and cordial discussions that ensued at the meeting on possible ways to foster both dialog and research across "the Big Pond" between geographers in the US and the UK on the use of geostatistics and geospatial techniques for remote sensing of land surface processes. It was decided that one way to stimulate and enhance cooperation on the application of geostatistics and geospatial methods in remote sensing was to hold parallel sessions on these topics at appropriate meeting venues in 1998 in both the US and the UK Selected papers given at these sessions would be published as a special issue of PE&RS on the US side, and as a special issue of Computers and Geosciences (C&G) on the UK side, to highlight the commonality in research on geostatistics and geospatial methods in remote sensing and spatial data analysis on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence, a session on "Ceostatistics and Geospatial Techniques for Remote Sensing of Land Surface Processes" was held at the Association of American Geographers (AAG) annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts in March, 1998, sponsored by the AAG's Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG). A similar session was held at the RGS-IBG annual meeting in Guildford, Surrey, England in January 1998, organized by the Modeling and Advanced Techniques Special Interest Group (MAT SIG) of the Remote Sensing Society (RSS). The six papers that in part, comprise this issue of PE&RS, are the US complement to such a dual journal publication effort. Both of us are co-editors of each of the journal special issues, with the lead editor of each journal being from their respective side of the Atlantic where the journals are published. The special

  9. Introduction to This Special Issue on Geostatistics and Geospatial Techniques in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Peter; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The germination of this special Computers & Geosciences (C&G) issue began at the Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) (RGS-IBG) annual meeting in January 1997 held at the University of Exeter, UK. The snow and cold of the English winter were tempered greatly by warm and cordial discussion of how to stimulate and enhance cooperation on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing 'across the big pond' between UK and US researchers. It was decided that one way forward would be to hold parallel sessions in 1998 on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing at appropriate venues in both the UK and the US. Selected papers given at these sessions would be published as special issues of C&G on the UK side and Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing (PE&RS) on the US side. These issues would highlight the commonality in research on geostatistical and geospatial research in remote sensing on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence, a session on "Geostatistics and Geospatial Techniques for Remote Sensing of Land Surface Processes" was held at the RGS-IBG annual meeting in Guildford, Surrey, UK in January 1998, organized by the Modeling and Advanced Techniques Special Interest Group (MAT SIG) of the Remote Sensing Society (RSS). A similar session was held at the Association of American Geographers (AAG) annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts in March 1998, sponsored by the AAG's Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG). The 10 papers that make up this issue of C&G, comprise 7 papers from the UK and 3 papers from the LIS. We are both co-editors of each of the journal special issues, with the lead editor of each journal issue being from their respective side of the Atlantic. The special issue of PE&RS (vol. 65) that constitutes the other half of this co-edited journal series was published in early 1999, comprising 6 papers by US authors. We are indebted to the International Association for Mathematical

  10. Analysis on Intellectual Disability Prevalence and Rehabilitation Demands in Zhejiang Province%浙江省智力残疾现况及康复需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷怀明; 黄新文

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解浙江省智力残疾人的康复需求.方法 按照第二次全国残疾人抽样调查方案和残疾评定标准,对浙江省进行残疾人调查,分析患病情况及分布特征.结果 确诊智力残疾387例,患病率4.06‰,农村高于城市,轻、中度所占比例较高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);不同年龄组发病率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).接受的服务及康复需求以医疗服务与救助服务/扶持、贫困残疾人救助或扶持及康复训练与服务为主,不同年龄组、不同残疾等级的医疗服务与救助服务/扶持康复保障率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);医疗服务与救助服务/扶持及康复训练与服务城市高于农村(P<0.05).结论浙江省智力残疾的康复保障率存在不平衡,需要进一步完善.%Objective To know the rehabilitation demands of intellectual disability in Zhejiang Province. Methods The data were based on and from the second national sampling surrey scheme on disability. The prevalence and distribution characteristics of intellectual disabilities in Zhejiang province were calculated. Results The incidence of intellectual disability was 4. 06‰, and most disability were mild and moderate. The incidence was higher in rural areas compared to urban areas( P 0.05 ). The main health service received and needed were medical service and salvage service, assistance for disabilities in poverty, and rehabilitation training. Both the practice and demand of these three were obviously different among intellectual disability at different ages and handicapped grades ( P <0. 05). And they were higher in urban area than those in rural area( P <0. 05). Conclusion The rate of rehabilitation for intellectual disabilities shows a big imbalance in Zhejiang province. The rehabilitation and social support systems should still be improved.

  11. Birdshot uveitis: current and emerging treatment options

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    Menezo V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Victor Menezo,1,2 Simon RJ Taylor3,4 1Institut Catala de Retina, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Provincial Hospital Consortium Castellon, Castello, Spain; 3Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK; 4Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, UK Abstract: Birdshot chorioretinopathy is a relatively uncommon subtype of idiopathic posterior uveitis with distinct clinical characteristics and a strong genetic association with the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-A29 allele. The diagnosis remains clinical and is based on the presence of typical clinical features, including multiple, distinctive, hypopigmented choroidal lesions throughout the fundus. The long-term visual prognosis of this disorder, however, remains guarded – central visual acuity can be preserved until late in the disease and it is not uncommon for patients to receive inadequate immunosuppressive treatment, leading to a poor long-term outcome in which peripheral retinal damage eventually leads to visual deterioration. Birdshot chorioretinopathy has proven a particularly attractive area of study within the field of uveitis, as it is a relatively easily defined disease with an associated human leukocyte antigen haplotype. Despite this, however, the immune mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis remain unclear, and some patients continue to lose retinal function despite therapy with corticosteroids and conventional immunosuppressive agents. Laboratory research continues to investigate the underlying mechanisms of disease, and clinical research is now being driven to improve the phenotyping and monitoring of this condition as, in the era of so-called personalized medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to identify patients at risk of visual loss early so that they can be treated more aggressively with targeted therapies such as the newer biological agents. This approach requires the formation of collaborative

  12. Screening for type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic setting using known risk factors to identify those at high risk: a cross-sectional study

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    Laura J Gray

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Laura J Gray1, Jennifer R Tringham2, Melanie J Davies3, David R Webb3, Janet Jarvis4, Timothy C Skinner5, Azhar M Farooqi1, Kamlesh Khunti11Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 2Department of Diabetes, Frimley Park Hospital, Surrey, UK; 3Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UK; 4University Hospitals Leicester, Leicester, UK; 5Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Renmark, AustraliaIntroduction: Screening enables the identification of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM during its asymptomatic stage and therefore allows early intervention which may lead to fewer complications and improve outcomes. A targeted screening program was carried out in a United Kingdom (UK multiethnic population to identify those with abnormal glucose tolerance.Methods: A sample of individuals aged 25–75 years (40–75 white European with at least one risk factor for T2DM were invited for screening from 17 Leicestershire (UK general practices or through a health awareness campaign. All participants received a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, cardiovascular risk assessment, detailed medical and family histories and anthropometric measurements.Results: In the 3,225 participants who were screened. 640 (20% were found to have some form of abnormal glucose tolerance of whom 4% had T2DM, 3% impaired fasting glucose (IFG, 10% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 3% both IFG and IGT. The odds of detecting IGT was approximately 60% greater (confounder-adjusted odds ratios [OR] 1.67 [1.22–2.29] in the South Asian population.Conclusions: Around one in five people who had targeted screening have IGT, IFG or T2DM, with a higher prevalence in those of South Asian origin. The prevalence of undetected T2DM is lower in South Asians compared to previously published studies and maybe due to increased awareness of this group being at high risk.Keywords: type 2 diabetes, screening

  13. The influence of weather and environment on pulmonary embolism: pollutants and fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Ralf; Mayes, Julian; Hilton, Paul; Lawrenson, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Previous publications have highlighted seasonal variations in the incidence of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and that weather patterns can influence these. While medical risk factors for pulmonary thrombo-embolism such as age, obesity, hypercoagulable states, cancer, previous thrombo-embolism, immobility, limb paralysis, surgery, major illness, trauma, hypotension, tachypnoea and right ventricular hypokinesis are not directly implicated regarding environmental factors such as weather, they could be influenced indirectly by these. This would be especially relevant in polluted areas that are associated with a higher pulmonary embolism risk. Routine nuclear medicine lung ventilation/perfusion studies (V/Q scans) of 2071 adult patients referred to the nuclear medicine department of the Royal Surrey County Hospital in Guildford, UK, between January 1998 and October 2002 were reviewed and 316 of these patients were classified as positive for pulmonary embolism with high probability scan on PIOPED criteria. The occurrence of positive scans was compared to environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, vapour pressure, air pressure and rainfall. Multiple linear regression was used to establish the significance of these relations. The incidence of pulmonary embolism was positively related to vapour pressure and rainfall. The most significant relation was to vapour pressure (p=0.010) while rainfall was less significant (p=0.017). There was no significant relation between pulmonary embolism and air pressure, humidity or temperature. It is postulated that rainfall and water vapour may be contributary factors in thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by way of pollutants that are carried as condensation nuclei in micro-droplets of water. In particular, fossil fuel pollutants are implicated as these condensation nuclei. Pollutants may be inhaled by populations exposed to windborne vapour droplets in cities or airports. Polluted vapour droplets may be absorbed by the lung

  14. Reinvestigating an interval of the English Wealden (non-marine Lower Cretaceous): Integrated analysis for palaeoenvironmental and climate cyclicities

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    Sames, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Although increasing over the last years, relatively few studies on changing palaeoenvironments and climate cycles in non-marine archives of the Cretaceous greenhouse Earth do exist. This is primarily a result of the nature of non-marine or terrestrial deposits - strong lateral facies change on local scales and the strong local to regional control of deposition - as well as the lack of high-resolution stratigraphy and correlations to the marine record. On the other hand, major advances in the refinements of the Cretaceous timescale now facilitate the correlation and dating of short-term sea-level records and their supposable relation to climate and/or tectonic events with appropriate resolution, i.e. on Milankovitch scales. Innovations and progress in non-marine bio-, magneto- and chemostratigraphy as well as growing data on Lower and Upper Cretaceous non-marine successions are promising towards approaches for supraregional correlation of these deposits and their appropriate correlation to the Cretaceous marine standard sections. However, convincing evidence for orbitally (climate) driven cyclicity in non-marine Lower Cretaceous deposits is thus far sparse. The non-marine Wealden deposits of England have been used eponymous for widely distributed similar Lower Cretaceous non-marine facies, and they are a 'classical' example for a Mesozoic non-marine succession for which depositional cycles have been suggested since the 1970s, including the famous ostracod 'faunicycles' by F.W. Anderson, but so far lack convincing analyses and remain to be tested. The project 'Lower Cretaceous Climate and Non-marine Stratigraphy (LCCNS)' funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) analyses a chosen interval of the English Wealden at the Clock House Brickworks pit (near Capel, Surrey, England, UK) for orbitally/climate driven cyclicities with an interdisciplinary methodology: micropalaeontology, sedimentology, and geochemistry. Ostracod (aquatic microcrustaceans with calcified shell

  15. Macrophytes: ecosystem engineers in UK urban rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, H.; Gurnell, A.; Heppell, K.; Spencer, K.

    2012-04-01

    Macrophytes act as ecosystem engineers within river channels in that they have the ability to cause geomorphological and ecological change. They induce reductions in flow velocity and associated sediment accumulation, and their system of underground roots and rhizomes also reinforces the accumulated sediment reducing sediment erosion and resuspension and creating habitats. As sediments, particularly finer-grained, store contaminants including metals, this engineering means that in the specific context of urban rivers where sediments are more likely to be contaminated, macrophytes trap and hold contaminated sediments creating a potentially important sink of metals. However, depending on the ability for the macrophyte to reinforce the sediment and reduce erosion and resuspension, there is the potential for the sink to turn in to a source and metals to be released in to the overlying water. This research therefore looks at the ecosystem engineering ability of common macrophytes in UK urban rivers by looking at: (i) the effect upon flow velocity and sediment accumulation of Sparganium erectum (branched bur-reed); (ii) the sediment reinforcement ability of both S. erectum, Typha latifolia (bulrush) and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass); and, (iii) the storage of metals within the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes. Research was undertaken on the River Blackwater, an urban river in Surrey, UK which has extensive macrophyte growth. Flow velocity measurements and fine sediment depths were recorded both within and outside of dense stands of S. erectum. The uprooting resistance (as an indicator of sediment reinforcement) was measured for three species: S. erectum, T. latifolia and P. arundinacea. Additionally, some preliminary sampling was undertaken of the sediment, overlying water and the macrophytes to determine metal storage. Lower flow velocities and greater volumes of fine sediment were recorded within the stands of S. erectum as opposed to the

  16. Vertical and horizontal variability in airborne nanoparticles and their exposure around signalised traffic intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anju; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-07-01

    We measured size-resolved PNCs in the 5-560 nm range at two different types (4- and 3-way) of TIs in Guildford (Surrey, UK) at fixed sites (∼1.5 m above the road level), sequentially at 4 different heights (1, 1.5, 2.5 and 4.7 m), and along the road at five different distances (10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 m). The aims were to: (i) assess the differences in PNCs measured at studied TIs, (ii) identify the best fit probability distribution curves for the PNCs, (iii) determine vertical and horizontal decay profiles of PNCs, (iv) estimate particle number emission factors (PNEFs) under congested and free-flow traffic conditions, and (v) quantify the pedestrian exposure in terms of respiratory deposition dose (RDD) rates at the TIs. Daily averaged particle number distributions at TIs reflected the effect of fresh emissions with peaks at 5.6, 10 and 56 nm. Despite the relatively high traffic volume at 3-way TI, average PNCs at 4-way TI were about twice as high as at 3-way TI, indicating less favourable dispersion conditions. Generalised extreme value distribution fitted well to PNC data at both TIs. Vertical PNC profiles followed an exponential decay, which was much sharper at 4-way TI than at 3-way TI, suggesting ∼40% less exposure for people at first floor (4.7 m) to those at ground floor around 4-way TI. Vertical profiles indicated much sharper (∼132-times larger) decay than in horizontal direction, due to close vicinity of road vehicles during the along-road measurements. Over an order of magnitude higher PNEFs were found during congested, compared with free-flow, conditions due to frequent changes in traffic speed. Average RDD rate at 4-way TI during congested conditions were up to 14-times higher than those at 3-way TI (0.4 × 10(11) h(-1)). Findings of this study are a step forward to understand exposure at and around the TIs.

  17. 'You can't be a person and a doctor': the work-life balance of doctors in training-a qualitative study.

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    Rich, Antonia; Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2016-12-02

    Investigate the work-life balance of doctors in training in the UK from the perspectives of trainers and trainees. Qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Postgraduate medical training in London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and Wales during the junior doctor contract dispute at the end of 2015. Part of a larger General Medical Council study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. 96 trainees and 41 trainers. Trainees comprised UK graduates and International Medical Graduates, across all stages of training in 6 specialties (General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, Surgery) and Foundation. Postgraduate training was characterised by work-life imbalance. Long hours at work were typically supplemented with revision and completion of the e-portfolio. Trainees regularly moved workplaces which could disrupt their personal lives and sometimes led to separation from friends and family. This made it challenging to cope with personal pressures, the stresses of which could then impinge on learning and training, while also leaving trainees with a lack of social support outside work to buffer against the considerable stresses of training. Low morale and harm to well-being resulted in some trainees feeling dehumanised. Work-life imbalance was particularly severe for those with children and especially women who faced a lack of less-than-full-time positions and discriminatory attitudes. Female trainees frequently talked about having to choose a specialty they felt was more conducive to a work-life balance such as General Practice. The proposed junior doctor contract was felt to exacerbate existing problems. A lack of work-life balance in postgraduate medical training negatively impacted on trainees' learning and well-being. Women with children were particularly affected, suggesting this group would benefit the greatest from changes to improve the work-life balance of

  18. Exploring older adults’ perceptions of a patient-centered education manual for hip fracture recovery: “everything in one place”

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    Tsui K

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Karen Tsui,1,2,* Lena Fleig,1,3,4,* Dolores P Langford,2,5 Pierre Guy,1,2,6 Valerie MacDonald,7,8 Maureen C Ashe1,31Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, The University of British Columbia, 2Vancouver Coastal Health, 3Department of Family Practice, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Health Psychology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 5Department of Physical Therapy, The University of British Columbia, 6Department of Orthopaedics, 7School of Nursing, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 8Fraser Health Authority, Surrey, BC, Canada*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To describe older adults’ perspectives on a new patient education manual for the recovery process after hip fracture.Materials and methods: The Fracture Recovery for Seniors at Home (FReSH Start manual is an evidence-based manual for older adults with fall-related hip fracture. The manual aims to support the transition from hospital to home by facilitating self-management of the recovery process. We enrolled 31 community-dwelling older adults with previous fall-related hip fracture and one family member. We collected data using a telephone-based questionnaire with eight five-point Likert items and four semi-structured open-ended questions to explore participants’ perceptions on the structure, content, and illustration of the manual. The questionnaire also asked participants to rate the overall utility (out of 10 points and length of the manual. We used content analysis to describe main themes from responses to the open-ended interview questions.Results: Participants’ ratings for structure, content, and illustrations ranged from 4 to 5 (agree to highly agree, and the median usefulness rating was 9 (10th percentile: 7, 90th percentile: 10. Main themes from the content analysis included: ease of use and presentation; health literacy; illustration utility; health care team delivery; general impression, information

  19. The effectiveness of behavioural interventions in the primary prevention of Hepatitis C amongst injecting drug users: a randomised controlled trial and lessons learned

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    Tibbs Christopher

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To develop and evaluate the comparative effectiveness of behavioural interventions of enhanced prevention counselling (EPC and simple educational counselling (SEC in reducing hepatitis C viral (HCV infection in sero-negative injecting drug users (IDU. Design Randomised controlled trial (RCT of EPC intervention in comparison with simple educational counselling (SEC. Setting Specialised Drug services in London and Surrey, United Kingdom. Participants and Measurements Ninety five IDUs were recruited and randomised to receive EPC (n = 43 or SEC (n = 52. Subjects were assessed at baseline using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI, the Injecting Risk Questionnaire (IRQ, and Drug Injecting Confidence Questionnaire (DICQ. The primary outcome was measured by the rate of sero-conversion at 6 months and 12 months from baseline and by the ASI, IRQ and DICQ at 6 months from baseline. Hepatitis C testing was undertaken by the innovative test of the dried blood spot (DBS test which increased the rate of testing by 4 fold compared to routine blood testing. Findings Seventy Eighty two subjects (82% out of the 95 recruited were followed up at 6 months and 62 (65% were followed up at 12 months. On the primary outcome measure of the rate of seroconversion, 8 out of 62 patients followed-up at twelve months seroconverted, three in the EPC group and five in the SEC group, indicating incidence rates of 9.1 per 100 person years for the EPC group, 17.2 per 100 person years for the SEC group, and 12.9 per 100 person years for the cohort as a whole. Analysis of the secondary outcome measures on alcohol use, risk behaviour, psychological measures, quality of life, showed no significant differences between the EPC and the SEC groups. However, there were significant changes on a number of measures from baseline values indicating positive change for both groups. Conclusion We were not able to prove the efficacy of EPC in comparison with SEC in the prevention of

  20. Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race: Performance, Pacing and Tactics Between 1890 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew M; Guy, Joshua H; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-10-01

    Currently no studies have examined the historical performances of Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race crews in the context of performance, pacing and tactics which is surprising as the event has routinely taken place annually for over 150 years on the same course. The purpose of this study was twofold, to firstly examine the historical development of performances and physical characteristics of crews over 124 years of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race between 1890 and 2014 and secondly to investigate the pacing and tactics employed by crews over that period. Linear regression modelling was applied to investigate the development of performance and body size for crews of eight male individuals over time from Boat Race archive data. Performance change over time was further assessed in 10-year clusters while four intra-race checkpoints were used to examine pacing and tactics. Significant correlations were observed between performance and time (1890-2014) for both Oxford (r = -0.67; p Cambridge (r = -0.64; p Cambridge (1168 ± 89.8 s) during 1890-2014. Crew performance times improved over time with significant gains from baseline achieved in the 1950s (Cambridge) and the 1960s (Oxford), which coincided with significant change in the physicality of the competing crews (p < 0.01). There was no tactical advantage from commencing on either the Surrey or Middlesex station beyond chance alone; however, all crews (n = 228) adopted a fast-start strategy, with 81 % of victories achieved by the crew leading the race at the first intra-race checkpoint (24 % of total distance). Crews leading the race at the final checkpoint (83 % of total distance; 1143 m) achieved victory on 94 % of occasions. Performances and physical characteristics of the crews have changed markedly since 1890, with faster heavier crews now common. Tactically, gaining the early lead position with a fast-start strategy seems particularly meaningful to success in the Boat Race throughout the years

  1. Performance of TechLab C. DIFF QUIK CHEK and TechLab C. DIFFICILE TOX A/B II for the detection of Clostridium difficile in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Romina C; John, Michael A; Ayotte, Diane L; Covacich, Alexia; Milburn, Susan; Hussain, Zafar

    2007-09-01

    Two membrane-bound enzyme immunoassays by TechLab, Blacksburg, VA, were evaluated and compared with the Triage Micro C. difficile Panel (Biosite Diagnostics, San Diego, CA), with culture, and with cytotoxic assay. The TechLab panels were C. DIFF QUIK CHEK (QC-GDH) and C. DIFFICILE TOX A/B II (QC-toxinA/B), which detect glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, respectively. The Triage Panel detects GDH (TR-GDH) and toxin A (TR-toxinA). Stool samples were inoculated onto CCFA plates (Q-Labs, Quebec, Canada) after alcohol shock, and suspected colonies were identified by the MicroScreen C. difficile latex slide agglutination test (Microgen Bioproducts, Surrey, UK). TR-GDH, TR-toxinA, QC-GDH, and QC-toxinA/B tests were performed according to the manufacturers' instructions on all the samples. Samples positive for GDH or culture but negative for TR-toxinA and QC-toxinA/B were further tested by cytotoxin assay (CTA). CTA was also performed on samples that caused blackening of the Triage Micro C. difficile Panel. A total of 313 of 401 stool samples were negative for GDH and toxins (78%). Eighty-eight samples were positive either for GDH or culture or both. Thirteen of these could not be evaluated for C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) because CTA test was not performed. Toxin/s was detected at least by one method in 46 (11.8%) of 388 samples that were positive for culture or GDH and were considered diagnostic of CDAD. The QC-GDH was more sensitive than culture and TR-GDH for the detection of C. difficile. However, in 18GDH-positive samples positive for either of the Triage or TechLab immunoassays, the culture remained negative. Ten (2%) results of the Triage immunoassays could not be evaluated because of discoloration of the panels. QC-GDH (93.5%) was more sensitive for detecting the presence of toxin-producing C. difficile than TR-GDH (79.5%). TR-toxinA was more specific for detecting the presence of toxin-producing C. difficile than QC

  2. Mothers as informal science class teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Phyllis

    This study explores the participation of mothers as teachers (termed "Adult Leaders") in the Hands On Science Outreach (HOSO) informal science program for pre-kindergarten through sixth grade children. Since women continue to be underrepresented in the sciences (AAUW, 1992; AAUW 1998), there is a need to probe the nature of mothers' choices in science experiences, in the family context, and as role models. Mothers of school age children who choose to lead informal science activities are in a position to teach and learn not only within this alternative setting, but within their homes where values, attitudes, beliefs and motivations are continually cultivated by daily choices (Gordon, 1972; Tamir, 1990; Gerber, 1997). Policy makers recognize that schools are only one environment from many for learning science (National Science Board, 1983; National Research Council, 1996). Using complementary methodology, this study was conducted in two HOSO sessions that extended over six months. Twelve mothers who were HOSO teachers were case study participants. Primary data collection strategies were interviews, journals, and "draw-a-scientist." A larger sample of HOSO mother-teachers (N = 112) also contributed to a surrey, developed from an analysis of the case studies. Informal learning settings must, by their non-compulsory nature, focus on the affective component of learning as a necessity of participation. The framework for the qualitative analysis was from the affective characteristics described by Simpson et al. (1994). The interpretation is informed by sociobiology, science education and adult education theories. The study finds that the twelve mothers began their HOSO teaching believing in science as a way of knowing and valuing the processes and information from its practice. These women perceive their participation as a likely means to increase the success of their child(ren)'s education and are interested in the potential personal gains of leading an informal science

  3. RELACIÓN ENTRE NIVEL SOCIOECONÓMICO, APOYO SOCIAL PERCIBIDO, GÉNERO Y DEPRESIÓN EN NIÑOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLANGE RODRIGUEZ ESPÍNOLA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio correlacional con una muestra de 593 escolares de 9 a 13 años, a quienes se les administró la adaptación argentina para niños del Cuestionario MOS de Apoyo Social (MOS-A de Rodriguez Espínola (2009a. El cuestionario original fue construido por el grupo médico de estudios en apoyo social (The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Surrey -MOSSSS dirigido por Sherbourne y Stewart (1991. También se administró la Versión Argentina de la Escala de Depresión para Niños y Adolescentes de Harter y Nowakowski (Richaud de Minzi, Sacchi & Moreno, 2001. El análisis MANOVA mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas [F de Hotelling (2, 590 = 11.37; p = .000] entre el nivel socioeconómico bajo y medio en la percepción de apoyo social total y estructural. La clase baja demostró menor apoyo social percibido y estructural que la clase media. La percepción de apoyo social según género no demostró diferencias significativas. Se pudo observar mediante un MANOVA que había diferencias en la depresión, según la percepción de apoyo social, categorizado en bajo, medio y alto [F de Hotelling (8, 284 = 3.71; p = .000]. Los niños que percibieron alto apoyo social demostraron mayor estado de ánimo positivo, autovaloración positiva y me nor energía-interés. Los distintos factores de depresión se relacionaron estadísticamente según el nivel socioeconómico medio y bajo [F de Hotelling (4, 586 = 8.09; p = .000]. El grupo de clase baja puntuó menos en estado de ánimo positivo, en autovaloración positiva, en energía-interés y en autoinculpación, demostrando que estos niños se perciben más deprimidos que los de clase media. No se observaron diferencias con respecto a la depresión y el género.

  4. 营养知识及饮食行为现状网络调查%Internet survey of nutrition knowledge and eating behavior status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋军; 肖(砾); 靳雪征; 李晓北; 黄凯; 张倩; 徐海泉; 徐春燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the knowledge about nutrition and eating behaviors among Chinese Internet users' and provide the theoretical basis to the health education. Methods A questionnaire surrey about nutrition knowledge and eating behaviors was carried out for 4172 Chinese Internet users by Internet. Results The awareness rate of the basics knowledge of nutrition and dietary guidelines were good, the rate of answered correctly 4 or more among the 7 basics nutrition questions was 90.3% . The rate answered correctly 3 or more among the 5 dietary guidelines questions was 88.7%. The prevalence of drinking was 70.6% , only 66.8% of the populations prefer a light meal with less salt and 46.9% of people were taking health products. Conclusion The high level understanding of knowledge about nutrition and health among the surveyed population was found. But the further more education is needed for the Internet users to improve the poor eating behavior.%目的 了解我国网民营养知识和饮食行为现状,为制定营养健康教育策略提供依据.方法 对我国4172名网民进行营养相关知识和饮食行为情况利用网络开展了同卷调查.结果 所调查人群营养基础知识及膳食指南的知晓情况较好,调查对象答对7道营养基础知识问题中4题及以上者,占90.3%.膳食指南相关知识答对5道问题中的3题及以上者占88.7%.饮酒者占总调查人数的70.6%,只有66.8%的被调查者喜欢清淡食物,有46.9%的人正在服用保健品.结论 所调查群体对营养及健康相关知识有一定了解,但仍需继续加强健康教育,改善不健康的饮食行为.

  5. Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate, a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbertz S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Herbertz,1 J Scott Sawyer,2 Anja J Stauber,2 Ivelina Gueorguieva,3 Kyla E Driscoll,4 Shawn T Estrem,2 Ann L Cleverly,3 Durisala Desaiah,2 Susan C Guba,2 Karim A Benhadji,2 Christopher A Slapak,2 Michael M Lahn21Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany; 2Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to block TGF-β signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors. Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway. Furthermore, galunisertib has antitumor activity in tumor-bearing animal models such as breast, colon, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Continuous long-term exposure to galunisertib caused cardiac toxicities in animals requiring adoption of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy to allow further development. The use of such a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model defined a therapeutic window with an appropriate safety profile that enabled the clinical investigation of galunisertib. These efforts resulted in an intermittent dosing regimen (14 days on/14 days off, on a 28-day cycle of galunisertib for all ongoing trials. Galunisertib is being investigated either as monotherapy or in combination with standard antitumor regimens (including nivolumab

  6. Productivity loss and resource utilization, and associated indirect and direct costs in individuals providing care for adults with schizophrenia in the EU5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shaloo Gupta,1 Gina Isherwood,2 Kevin Jones,3 Kristel Van Impe4 1Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, USA; 2Kantar Health, Epsom, Surrey, UK; 3European Federation of Associations of Families of People with Mental Illness, Diestsevest, Leuven, Belgium; 4Janssen-Cilag GmbH, Neuss, Germany Objective: This study aimed to understand the impact of providing care for adults with schizophrenia on productivity, resource utilization, and costs in the EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK. Methods: Data from the 2010, 2011, and 2013 EU5 National Health and Wellness Survey, an online questionnaire of a nationwide sample of adults, were analyzed. Schizophrenia caregivers (n=398 were matched to noncaregivers (n=158,989 and other caregivers (n=14,341 via propensity scores. Outcome measures included health care utilization, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire-based scores, and associated direct and indirect costs (estimated from the literature. Significant differences between schizophrenia caregivers vs noncaregivers and other caregivers (eg, cancer and Alzheimer's disease were examined. Results: After matching, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 26.1%, provider visits (8.0 vs 5.7, emergency room visits (0.9 vs 0.2, hospitalizations (0.8 vs 0.1, and direct costs (€2,258 vs €617 than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Employed schizophrenia caregivers reported greater absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work impairment (35.0% vs 20.7%, and indirect costs (€6,667 vs €3,795 than noncaregivers, all P<0.001. Schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers reported greater activity impairment (38.4% vs 32.3% and provider visits (8.0 vs 6.6, P<0.05. A greater proportion of schizophrenia caregivers (vs other caregivers reported at least one emergency room visit (26.1% vs 20.2% and hospitalization (20.4% vs 14.3%, P<0.05. Employed schizophrenia caregivers incurred greater indirect costs than other caregivers (€6

  7. A bespoke mobile application for the longitudinal assessment of depression and mood during pregnancy: protocol of a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano Belisario, Jose Salvador; Doherty, Kevin; O'Donoghue, John; Ramchandani, Paul; Majeed, Azeem; Doherty, Gavin; Morrison, Cecily; Car, Josip

    2017-05-29

    Depression is a common mental health disorder during pregnancy, with important consequences for mothers and their children. Despite this, it goes undiagnosed and untreated in many women attending antenatal care. Smartphones could help support the prompt identification of antenatal depression in this setting. In addition, these devices enable the implementation of ecological momentary assessment techniques, which could be used to assess how mood is experienced during pregnancy. With this study, we will assess the feasibility of using a bespoke mobile application (app) running on participants' own handsets for the longitudinal (6 months) monitoring of antenatal mood and screening of depression. We will use a randomised controlled study design to compare two types of assessment strategies: retrospective + momentary (consisting of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale plus five momentary and two contextual questions), and retrospective (consisting of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale only). We will assess the impact that these strategies have on participant adherence to a prespecified sampling protocol, dropout rates and timeliness of data completion. We will evaluate differences in acceptance of the technology through a short quantitative survey and open-ended questions. We will also assess the potential effect that momentary assessments could have on retrospective data. We will attempt to identify any patterns in app usage through the analysis of log data. This study has been reviewed and approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee South East Coast-Surrey on 15 April 2016 as a notice of substantial amendment to the original submission (9 July 2015) under the Research Ethics Committee (REC) reference 15/LO/0977. This study is being sponsored by Imperial College London under the reference number 15IC2687 and has been included in the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio under the Central Portfolio Management System number 19280. The

  8. Soil weed seed bank in situ and ex situ at a smallholder field in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil

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    Mário Luiz Ribeiro Mesquita

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the density, floristic composition,  phytosociology and diversity of a soil weed seed bank ex situ by germination in a greenhouse and in situ by weed sampling on a smallholder corn field located in Lago Verde County, Maranhão State. Fifteen pairs of 25 m2 plots were designated. In half of these plots, 90 soil samples were collected with an open metal template measuring 25 x 16 x 3 cm and placed in a greenhouse to germinate. In the other half, 90 weed samples were collected using the same metal template. We recorded a total of 1,998 individuals from 40 species, 31 genera and 16 families, from which 659 individuals germinated in situ and 1,339 exsitu. Density was higher ex situ, with 372 plants m-2. The Cyperaceae family had the highest floristic richness with nine species, followed by the Poaceae with six. The dominant species based on the Importance Value Index were Lindernia crustacea (IVI 27.7% in situ and Scleria lithosperma (IVI 37.0% ex situ. Floristic diversity was higher ex situ, with H’ = 2.66 nats ind-1. These results could help predict infestation potential and could lead to improved weed management strategies in corn-growing areas on smallholdings in Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil.

  9. Washer-Gun Plasma Source for Magnetic Reconnection Experiments on VTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, A.; Egedal, J.; Fox, W.; Katz, N.; Le, A.; Porkolab, M.

    2009-11-01

    We present a recently built electrostatic washer-gun plasma source for the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF). The source produces plasmas with estimated densities of ˜10^19 m^- 3 and electron temperatures of ˜5-20 eV. The present plasma source for VTF is microwave-induced electron cyclotron resonant breakdown and requires a strong toroidal magnetic field, which acts as a guide field in reconnection experiments. The gun will allow reconnection experiments with no guide field. The source is based on the design developed by Sterling Scientific [1, 2]. To operate, gas is injected into a channel formed by a stack of alternating molybdenum and boron nitride washers with a molybdenum electrode washer at each end. A capacitor bank is discharged through these electrodes and the gas. The resulting plasma escapes the channel into the main chamber of the experiment. If available, we will present data on argon plasma produced by the gun inside the VTF. [1ex] [1] G. Fiksel, et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 5, 78 (1996)[0ex] [2] D. Hartog et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 6, 492 (1997)

  10. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanatip Kesavadhana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available - A.S. Baer, Philip Houghton, People of the Great Ocean; Aspects of human biology of the early Pacific. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, x + 292 pp. - Greg Bankoff, Vicente L. Rafael, Figures of criminality in Indonesia, the Philippines, and colonial Vietnam. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Southeast Asis Program, 1999, 258 pp. - Harold Brookfield, Donald Denoon, The Cambridge history of the Pacific Islanders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, xvi + 518 pp., Stewart Firth, Jocelyn Linnekin (eds. - Cynthia Chou, Shoma Munshi, Clifford Sather, The Bajau Laut; Adaptation, history, and fate in a maritime fishing society of south-eastern Sabah. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1997, xviii + 359 pp. - Cynthia Chou, Shoma Munshi, Krishna Sen, Gender and power in affluent Asia. London: Routledge, 1998, xiii + 323 pp., Maila Stivens (eds. - Freek Colombijn, Arne Kalland, Environmental movements in Asia. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1998, xiii + 296 pp. [Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Man and Nature in Asia Series 4.], Gerard Persoon (eds. - Kirsten W. Endres, Phan Huy Chu, Hai trinh chi luoc; Récit sommaire d’un voyage en mer (1833; Un émissaire Vietnamien à Batavia. Paris: EHESS, 1994, viii + 228 pp. [Cahier d’Archipel 25.] - Aone van Engelenhoven, Veronica Du Feu, Rapanui. London: Routledge, 1996, xv + 217 pp. [Routledge Descriptive Grammars.] - Fukui Hayao, Peter Boomgard, Paper landscapes; Explorations in the environmental history of Indonesia, 1997, vi + 424 pp. Leiden: KITLV Press. [Verhandelingen 178.], Freek Colombijn, David Henley (eds. - Volker Heeschen, J. Miedema, Texts from the oral tradition in the south-western Bird’s Head Peninsula of Irian Jaya; Teminabuan and hinterland. Leiden: DSALCUL, Jakarta: ISIR, 1995, vi + 98 pp. [Irian Jaya Source Materials 14.] - Volker Heeschen, J. Miedema, Texts from the oral tradition in the southern Bird’s Head Peninsula of Irian Jaya; Inanwatan-Berau, Arandai

  11. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  12. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2003-01-01

    + 241 pp. [BRC Occasional paper 1.] -Gerrit Knaap, Frédéric Mantienne, Les relations politiques et commerciales entre la France et la péninsule Indochinoise (XVIIe siècle. Paris: Les Indes Savantes, 2001, 395 pp. -Uli Kozok, James T. Collins, Malay, world language; A short history. Second edition. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan bahasa dan pustaka, 2000, xii + 101 pp. -Nathan Porath, Hoe Ban Seng, Semalai communities at Tasek Bera; A study of the structure of an Orang Asli society. [A.S. Baer and R. Gianno, eds.] Subang Jaya, Malaysia: Centre for Orang Asli concerns, 2001, xii + 191 pp. -Nathan Porath, Narifumi Maeda Tachimoto, The Orang Hulu; A report on Malaysian orang asli in the 1960's. [A.S. Baer, ed.] Subang Jaya, Malaysia: Centre for Orang Asli concerns, 2001, xiv + 104 pp. -Martin Ramstedt, Raechelle Rubinstein ,Staying local in the global village; Bali in the twentieth century. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999, xiii + 353 pp., Linda H. Connor (eds -Albert M. Salamanca, Thomas R. Leinbach ,Southeast Asia: diversity and development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000, xiii + 594 pp., Richard Ulack (eds -Heather Sutherland, Muhamad Hisyam, Caught between three fires; The Javanese pangulu under the Dutch colonial administration, 1882-1942. Jakarta: Indonesian-Netherlands cooperation in Islamic studies (INIS, 2001, 331 pp. [Seri INIS 37.] -Heather Sutherland, Roderich Ptak, China's seaborne trade with South and Southeast Asia (1200-1750. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999, xii + 366 pp. [Variorum collected studies series CS638.] -Sikko Visscher, M. Jocelyn Armstrong ,Chinese populations in contemporary Southeast Asian societies. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2001, xiv + 268 pp., R. Warwick Armstrong, Kent Mulliner (eds -Reed Wadley, Clifford Sather, Seeds of play, words of power; An ethnographic study of Iban shamanic chants. Kuching: Tun Jugah foundation, 2001, xvii + 753 pp. [Borneo classic series 5.] -Boris Wastiau, Raymond Corbey, Tribal art traffic; A chronicle

  13. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas James Hayward

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available - Peter Boomgaard, R.H. Barnes, Sea hunters of Indonesia; Fishers and weavers of Lamalera. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996, xxii + 467 pp. - Sini Cedercreutz, Janet Carsten, The heat of the earth; The process of kinship in a Malay fishing community. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, xv + 314 pp., plates, figures, maps, bibliography, index. - Freek Colombijn, Brenda S.A. Yeoh, Contesting space; Power relations and the urban built environment in colonial Singapore. Kuala Lumpur, Oxford, Singapore and New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, xxiii + 351 pp., tables, figures, plates, index. - Robert Cribb, H.A.J. Klooster, Bibliography of the Indonesian Revolution; Publications from 1942 to 1994. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1997, viii + 666 pp., indices. [Bibliographical Series 21.] - Gavin W. Jones, Sharifah Zaleha Syed Hassan, Managing marital disputes in Malaysia; Islamic mediators and conflict resolution in the Syariah courts. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1997, 252 pp., Sven Cederroth (eds. - Bernice de Jong Boers, G.J. Schutte, State and trade in the Indonesian archipelago. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1994, viii + 199 pp. [Working Papers 13.] - Nico Kaptein, Greg Barton, Nahdlatul Ulama; Traditional Islam and modernity in Indonesia. Clayton, Victoria: Monash Asia Institute, 1996, xvii - 293 pp., Greg Fealy (eds. - Gerrit Knaap, J.E. Schooneveld-Oosterling, Generale Missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan Heren XVII der Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie. Vol. XI. Den Haag: Instituut voor Nederlandse Geschiedenis. [Rijks Geschiedkundige Publicatiën, Grote Serie 232], 1997, xii + 949 pp. - Niels Mulder, Unni Wikan, Managing turbulent hearts; A Balinese formula for living. Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press, 1990, xxvi + 343 pp. - Sandra Niessen, Janet Rodenburg, In the shadow of migration; Rural women and their households in North Tapanuli, Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, vii + 214 pp. [Verhandelingen 174.] - Dianne W.J.H. van Oosterhout, Roy

  14. Predictors and consequences of adherence to the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Central Europe and East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jihyung Hong,1 Diego Novick,1 Tamás Treuer,2 William Montgomery,3 Virginia S Haynes,4 Shenghu Wu,5 Josep Maria Haro61Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Neuroscience Research, Budapest, Hungary; 3Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, US; 5Eli Lilly China, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 6Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: To assess baseline predictors and consequences of medication non-adherence in the treatment of pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD from Central Europe and East Asia.Patients and methods: Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 1-year prospective, observational study that included a total of 1,068 newly-diagnosed pediatric patients with ADHD symptoms from Central Europe and East Asia. Medication adherence during the week prior to each visit was assessed by treating physicians using a 5-point Likert scale, and then dichotomized into either adherent or non-adherent. Clinical severity was measured by the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD scale and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4 Checklist. Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL was measured using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition (CHIP-CE. Regression analyses were used to assess baseline predictors of overall adherence during follow-up, and the impact of time-varying adherence on subsequent outcomes: response (defined as a decrease of at least 1 point in CGI, changes in CGI-ADHD, CSI-4, and the five dimensions of CHIP-CE.Results: Of the 860 patients analyzed, 64.5% (71.6% in Central Europe and 55.5% in East Asia were rated as adherent and 35.5% as non-adherent during follow-up. Being from East Asia was found to be a strong predictor of non-adherence. In East Asia, a family history of ADHD and parental emotional

  15. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  16. Functioning in patients with major depression treated with duloxetine or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novick D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Josep Maria Haro,3 Maria Victoria Moneta,3 Gang Zhu,4 Li Yue,5 Jihyung Hong,6 Héctor Dueñas,7 Roberto Brugnoli8 1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 5Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Company, Ltd, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Healthcare Management, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea; 7Eli Lilly de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 8School of Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ItalyPurpose: To assess and compare the levels of functioning in patients with major depressive disorder treated with either duloxetine with a daily dose of ≤60 mg or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI as monotherapy for up to 6 months in a naturalistic setting in East Asia. In addition, this study examined the impact of painful physical symptoms (PPS on the effects of these treatments.Patients and methods: Data for this post hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month prospective observational study involving 1,549 patients with major depressive disorder without sexual dysfunction. The present analysis focused on a subgroup of patients from East Asia (n=587. Functioning was measured using the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS. Depression severity was assessed using the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report. PPS were rated using the modified Somatic Symptom Inventory. A mixed model with repeated measures was fitted to compare the levels of functioning between duloxetine-treated (n=227 and SSRI-treated (n=225 patients, adjusting for baseline patient characteristics.Results: The mean SDS total score was similar between the two treatment cohorts (15.46 [standard deviation =6.11] in the duloxetine

  17. Challenges and prospects for the control of foot-and-mouth disease: an African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree FF

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francois F Maree,1,2 Christopher J Kasanga,3, Katherine A Scott,1 Pamela A Opperman,1,2 Melanie Chitray,1,2, Abraham K Sangula,4 Raphael Sallu,3 Yona Sinkala,5 Philemon N Wambura,3 Donald P King,6 David J Paton,6 Mark M Rweyemamu,3 1Transboundary Animal Diseases Programme, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa; 2Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural and Natural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania; 4Foot-and-Mouth Disease Laboratory, Embakasi, Nairobi, Kenya; 5Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 6The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, UK Abstract: The epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD in Africa is unique in the sense that six of the seven serotypes of FMD viruses (Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, SAT2, SAT3, A, O, and C, with the exception of Asia-1, have occurred in the last decade. Due to underreporting of FMD, the current strains circulating throughout sub-Saharan Africa are in many cases unknown. For SAT1, SAT2, and serotype A viruses, the genetic diversity is reflected in antigenic variation, and indications are that vaccine strains may be needed for each topotype. This has serious implications for control using vaccines and for choice of strains to include in regional antigen banks. The epidemiology is further complicated by the fact that SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 viruses are maintained and spread by wildlife, persistently infecting African buffalo in particular. Although the precise mechanism of transmission of FMD from buffalo to cattle is not well understood, it is facilitated by direct contact between these two species. Once cattle are infected they may maintain SAT infections without the further involvement of buffalo. No

  18. The risk of bleeding with duloxetine treatment in patients who use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs: analysis of placebo-controlled trials and post-marketing adverse event reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perahia DG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available David G Perahia,1 Mark E Bangs,2 Qi Zhang,2 Yingkai Cheng,2 Jonna Ahl,2 Elijah P Frakes,2 Michael J Adams,2 James M Martinez2 1Neurosciences, Lilly Research Centre, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Neurosciences, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Purpose: To assess the safety of duloxetine with regards to bleeding-related events in patients who concomitantly did, versus did not, use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, including aspirin. Methods: Safety data from all placebo-controlled trials of duloxetine conducted between December 1993 and December 2010, and post-marketing reports from duloxetine-treated patients in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS, were searched for bleeding-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs. The percentage of patients with bleeding-related TEAEs was summarized and compared between treatment groups in all the placebo-controlled studies. Differences between NSAID user and non-user subgroups from clinical trial data were analyzed by a logistic regression model that included therapy, NSAID use, and therapy-by-NSAID subgroup interaction. In addition, to determine if higher duloxetine doses are associated with an increased incidence of bleeding-related TEAEs, and whether the use of concomitant NSAIDs might influence the dose effect if one exists, placebo-controlled clinical trials with duloxetine fixed doses of 60 mg, 120 mg, and placebo were analyzed. Also, the incidence of bleeding-related TEAEs reported for duloxetine alone was compared with the incidence in patients treated with duloxetine and concomitant NSAIDs. Finally, the number of bleeding-related cases reported for duloxetine in the FAERS database was compared with the numbers reported for all other drugs. Results: Across duloxetine clinical trials, there was a significantly greater incidence of bleeding-related TEAEs in duloxetine- versus placebo-treated patients overall and also in those patients who

  19. Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Daniel; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Ellison, Brian N.; Aylward, Alan D.; Aruliah, Anasuya; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Saunders, Christopher; Friend, Jonathan; Bird, Rachel; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Parkes, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The Mesosphere - Lower Thermosphere region (MLT) is often quoted as being the least well known region of the atmosphere, meaning that measurements of this altitude range are sparser than for the neighbouring layers. The reason for this apparent lack of observations can be traced back to a combination of two facts - A) the MLT is ill suited for in-situ sampling on a global scale because the residual air drag is prohibitive for suborbital vehicles (rockets are traditionally used to sample the MLT region, but they only provide snapshot measurements both geographically, as well as temporally), and B) Some of the most important trace gases in the MLT have spectral emission lines in the THz range, a frequency band which has only just become accessible to conventional remote sensing technologies (i.e. passive heterodyne detection) thanks to ongoing technology development, but which still poses massive - often prohibitive - demands on the complexity, weight and power consumption of satellite borne remote sensing detectors. To mitigate the substantial power requirements of a Local Oscillator (LO) able to pump a heterodyne receiver at THZ frequencies, we are suggesting the use of Quantum Cascade Laser diodes (QCL). Combining a QCL LO with a sub-harmonic Schottky mixer in an integrated receiver system would allow us to build a THz passive heterodyne detector for atmospheric remote sensing that is both very compact and power efficient, and could therefore be built and launched much more cheaply than competitive systems. Many of the technologies required for such an instrument already exist at technology readiness levels (TRL) of 3-5. A consortium of RAL Space, University College London (UCL), University of Leeds, Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) and STAR-Dundee have been awarded a grant through the ESA In Orbit Demonstration Programme (IOD) to start developing an integrated, sub-harmonic heterodyne receiver with a QCL LO up to a TRL that would allow IOD hopefully in the

  20. Using Spacecraft in Climate and Natural Disasters Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Galyna; Kotlov, Vladyslav; Khorischenko, Oleksandr; Davydova, Angelica; Heti, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    Since the beginning of the space age it become possible the global monitoring of the planet Earth's state. Since the second half of the 20th century there are observations of the atmosphere's state and the Earth's climate have been held by a spacecraft. Also become possible large-scale monitoring of climate change. An attempt was made to define the role of infrasound in the interaction between a space weather, climate and biosphere of the Earth using spacecraft sensors recording. Many countries are involving in the detection of earthquakes, predicting volcanic eruptions and floods and also the monitoring of irregular solar activity. Understanding this leads to the conclusion that international cooperation for the protection of humanity is not only a political priority in the international arena, but also a question of the quality of living standards of any state. Commonly known following monitoring systems: Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), FUEGO program (Spain), Sentinel-Asia program (Japan) and International aerospace system for monitoring of global phenomena (MAKCM, Russia). The Disaster Monitoring Constellation for International Imaging (DMCii) consists of a number of remote sensing satellites constructed by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) and operated for the Algerian, Nigerian, Turkish, British and Chinese governments by DMC International Imaging. The DMC has monitored the effects and aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami (December 2004), Hurricane Katrina (August 2005), and many other floods, fires and disasters. The individual DMC satellites are: 1. First generation satellites (AlSAT-1 - Algeria, BilSAT - Turkey, NigeriaSAT-1 - Nigeria, UK-DMC - United Kingdom); 2. Second generation satellites (Beijing - China, UK-DMC 2 - United Kingdom, Deimos-1 - Spanish commercial, NigeriaSAT-2 and NigeriaSAT-X). The sun-synchronous orbits of these satellites are coordinated so that the satellites follow each other around an orbital plane, ascending north

  1. Investigation and Analysis of Life Satisfaction of Nurses in Clinic and Its Influencing Factors%临床护士生活满意度及其影响因素的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许梅; 唐媛; 陈美娇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey the life satisfaction of nurses in clinic and its influencing factors,and analyze the relationships between them. Methods Life satisfaction assessment form was used to surrey the life satisfaction of clinical nurses of 318 nurses in two municipal hospitals in our city. Spearman rank correlation was use to analyze the life satisfaction and its influencing factors. Logistic regression model was performed to analyze the influence of relevant factors on life satisfaction. Results All 170 (53. 5% ) nurses had a high life satisfaction and 148(46.5% ) nurses had low life satisfaction. Individual characteristics had impact on the life satisfaction. The spearman correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficient between the fatigue score,the pressure score,negative coping,positive coping and life satisfaction were separately r1 = -0.602,r2 = -0.395,r3 = -0.407, r4 = 0.368 (P < 0.01). The results of logistic regression analysis showed the fatigue, pressure and negative were the risk factors of nurse life satisfaction, and their OR values were respectively 1.239,1.646 and 1.116. Conclusion The life satisfaction of clinical nurse is disappointed. 46.5% of the nurses in clinic shards low life satisfaction. Life satisfaction is affected by fatigue, pressure and coping styles. There is a positive correlation between life satisfaction and positive response and negative correlation between life satisfaction and work stress, negative coping and fatigue.%目的 调查临床护士生活满意度,分析其影响因素,探讨生活满意度与其影响因素的相关性.方法 采用《生活满意度评定表》对湛江市2家市级医院的318名临床护士进行问卷调查,了解临床护士的生活满意度,用Spearman等级相关分析法分析临床护士生活满意度及其影响因素的相关性,用Logistic回归模型分析相关因素对生活满意度的影响.结果 318名被调查的临床护士中,170人(53.5%)生活满意度高,148人

  2. Radon, radionuclides and the Cretaceous Folkestone Sands - gamma spectroscopy and geochemical analysis of silver sands and associated deposits in the SE of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Al-Rafai, Yousef; Flowers, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentrations in a historic sand mine in Surrey, UK (Reigate Caves), have been measured by both real-time and time-averaged methods over a number of years. These mines are not identified as being in a 'Radon Affected Area' as defined by Public Health England, although concentrations show a summer level of 640 Bqm3 +-44 Bqm3. Average radon concentrations (September 2013 to January 2014) in Reigate caves were above the UK 200 Bqm3 domestic Action Level, above the UK domestic Target Level (of 100 Bqm3) but below the current workplace Action Level of 400 Bqm3. By way of a comparison radon has also been measured in nearby Dorking (South Street Caves). These enigmatic caves were not mined for sand for glass manufacture as Reigate Caves were and there is speculation on why the caves were created. Both are visited by tourists on a semi-regular basis. Dorking caves have a different morphology with radon concentrations in Autumn 2016 of up to 1940 +/- 230 Bqm3. The caves in Reigate are situated along Tunnel Road. These mines were also used as air raid shelters and wine stores. They consist of an East and West system and an older cave (Barons cave) which may have a medieval origin. As the Western Caves are now a shooting range our work has been carried out in the Eastern section at Reigate. Where Dorking is concerned the shops and houses in the town have extensive interconnected cellars and galleries cut into these sands. The caves probably date from the 17th century but were used quite extensively for wine storage in the 19th century due to their constant 140C air temperatures. Real-time measurements were taken with a Durridge Rad7 with time-averaged CR39 SSNTDs being placed throughout the cave systems to assess radon distribution and compare results with the real-time detector. Both caves contain marine shallow-water deposited locking (having tensile and compressive strength) silica sands of the Cretaceous Lower Greensand Group, Folkestone Formation, with little

  3. 我国5省市18~60岁城乡居民超重肥胖现状调查及影响因素分析%Study on the prevalence status of body overweight and obesity and their influencing factors among the urban and rural adult citizens aged 18 to 60 in 5 provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方波; 李英华; 孙思伟; 聂雪琼; 卢永; 黎慕; 程玉兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study current epidemiological status of overweight and obesity and their influencing factors among the urban and rural citizens aged 18 to 60 in China. Methods 61S9 urban and rural citizens were selected with multi-stage stratified sampling from Beijing, Liaoning, Zhejiang, Yunnan and Shaanxi to undergo a questionnaire surrey on the status of overweight and obesity. We use Chi-square test and Binary Logistic Regression to analysis and decide which factors affect the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the interviewers. Results We successfully collected 6159 valid questionnaires in all during our survey and the response rate was 100%. The mean of the citizens' Body Mass Index ( BMI) mean was (23.1 ±3.6). The prevalence rates of underweight, normal, overweight and obesity in this population were 5.7% , 58.79b , 28.9% and 6.3%. The prevalence of citizens from different part of the country, gender, educational status, occupation, marriage status, frequency of drinking, smoking and excise, and the length of exercise were significantly different (P<0.05). Binary Logistic Regression analysis showed male, high age, workers, smoking abandon , drinking less than 3 times a week but more than 1 time. Conclusion The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in Chinese population was high. It is necessary to promote healthy life style and behavior in the community population to prevent and control of overweight, especially in rural middle aged and elderly population.%目的 研究我国18~60岁城乡居民超重和肥胖流行现状及影响因素.方法 采用多阶段分层抽样方法,在北京、辽宁、浙江、云南、陕西抽取6159名城乡居民,进行超重、肥胖流行现状的问卷调查,采用SPSS 13.0软件对影响因素进行单因素x2检验和多因素Logistic回归分析.结果 收回有效问卷6159份,问卷有效率100%.调查对象的体重指数(BMI)为(23.1±3.6),体重偏轻比例为5.7%,正常为58.7%,超重为28.9

  4. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Pan

    2000-04-01

    horizon; Short stories from contemporary Indonesia. Clayton, Victoria: Monash Asia Institute, 1998, xxxviii + 201 pp. - John N. Miksic, Helena A. van Bemmel, Dvarapalas in Indonesia; Temple guardians and acculturation, 1994, xvii + 249 pp. Rotterdam: Balkema. [Modern Quarternary Research in Southeast Asia 13.] - Remco Raben, Paul van Beckum, Adoe Den Haag; Getuigessen uit Indisch Den Haag. Den Haag: SeaPress, 1998, 200 pp. - Cornelia M.J. van der Sluys, Colin Nicholas, Pathway to dependence; Commodity relations and the dissolution of Semai society. Clayton: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1994, vii + 130 pp. [Monash Papers on Southeast Asia 33.] - David Stuart-Fox, Herman C. Kemp, Bibliographies on Southeast Asia. Leiden: KITLV Press, 1998, xvii + 1128 pp. - Sikko Visscher, Lynn Pan, The encyclopedia of the Chinese overseas. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1999, 399 pp. - Sikko Visscher, Jurgen Rudolph, Reconstructing identities; A social history of the Babas in Singapore. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998, 507 pp. - Edwin Wieringa, Perry Moree, ‘Met vriend die God geleide’; Het Nederlands-Aziatisch postvervoer ten tijde van de Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1998, 287 pp. - Edwin Wieringa, Monique Zaini-Lajoubert, L’image de la femme dans les littératures modernes indonésienne et malaise. Paris: Association Archipel, 1994, ix + 221 pp. [Cahiers d‘Archipel 24.

  5. Study about outcomes of non-pharmacological conservative treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis%退变性腰椎管狭窄症的非药物保守治疗效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张扬红; 关振鹏; 王彤; 冯雪斌; 袁巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the short-term outcomes of a non-pharmacological conservative approach to patients with LSS.Methods This is a prospective consecutive case series with short-term follow-up of 21 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with LSS.Patients recruited from the outpatients of orthopaedic department and rehabilitation department in the Peking University People's Hospital from March 2010 to March 2011.Patients had baseline interviews with follow-up questionnaires in the end of the first and the third month.Main outcome measures:pain intensity was measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and disability was measured using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire ( RMDQ),as well as the 36-item Short Form Health Surrey (SF-36) and efficacy assessment for evaluation.Results All of 21 eligible consenting patients initially enrolling completed the follow-up.Pain at worst,functional status,quality of life improved significantly in the end of the first month.These were considered to be clinically meaningful in the end of the third month.No patients went on to require surgery.No major complications of treatment were noted.Conclusions A non-pharmacological conservative treatment may be useful and safe in bringing about clinically meaningful improvement in pain and disability in patients with LSS.Before surgical management,a non-surgical approach should be taken into account at first.%目的 研究非药物保守治疗对退变性腰椎管狭窄症患者的近期疗效.方法 对2010年3月至2011年3月在骨关节科、康复医学科就诊并接受非药物保守治疗的21位退变性腰椎管狭窄症患者进行前瞻性研究.于治疗前、1、3个月时分别评定.主要结局指标:数字疼痛分级法、中文版Roland-Morris功能障碍调查表;次要结局指标:中文版SF-36健康调查量表、有效率.本文用SPSS13.0软件对数据进行统计学分析.用方差分析检验差异的显著性,q检验做两两比较.结果

  6. 居民膳食营养与健康状况研究%Survey on Dietary Nutrition and Health Status among Residents in Two Areas of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄李春; 章荣华; 顾昉; 张荷香; 何青芳; 孟佳; 黄恩善

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the health status and dietary nutrition of population in two areas of Zhejiang province according to physical examination and dietary surrey. Methods 2337 participants from Hangzhou and Jinhua areas were recruited in this study in 2009 from May to August. Dietary intake was collected with the method of 24 - hour recall for 3 consecutive days. Height, weight and blood pressure were included in the physical examination, and hemoglobin, glycemia and blood - lipid were tested. Results The prevalence of overweight, obesity and low weight were 29.91% , 7.92% and 6.43% , respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, iron deficiency anemia and diabetes were 13.39% , 17.42% and 3.67% , respectively. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein were 11. 70% , 31. 98% and 1.39% , respectively. Compared with recommended nutrient intake (RNI) and adequate intakes (AI) , the intake of meat and oil were a little higher , while the intake of beans, milk and calcium were insufficient; fat and sodium intake were excessive. Conclusion The dietary problems exist in residents of Hangzhou and Jinhua areas and the dietary quality should be improved. In addition, attentions should been paid to the situation of obesity, hypertensive, iron deficiency anemia, diabetes and dyslipidemia.%目的 分析2009年浙江省杭州、金华地区居民膳食营养及健康状况.方法 运用3天24小时回顾法对浙江省杭州、金华地区共2337名调查对象进行膳食调查,获得居民每日食物和营养素摄人量.对调查对象体检,包括身高、体重和血压测量.采集血样进行血红蛋白、血糖和血脂检测.结果 浙江省两地居民成人超重患病率为29.92%,肥胖患病率为7.92%,低体重患病率为6.43%;高血压患病率为13.39%;缺铁性贫血患病率为17.42%.18 ~45岁育龄期妇女的贫血患病率比较高,是贫血高危人群;糖尿病检出率为3.67%;

  7. 美沙酮维持治疗患者的健康问题和就医行为%HEALTH PROBLEMS AND HELP-SEEKING ACTIVITIES OF METHADONE MAINTENANCE CLIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 朱军红; 严峻; 王朔

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解美沙酮维持治疗患者的健康问题和就医行为.方法:问卷调查;分项统计人数及百分比,并计算标准差、中位数、众数、极差.结果:90.1%的患者报告患有一种或一种以上疾病,其中丙型肝炎患病率为84.8%;98.4%的患者报告近3个月有健康问题,其中报告性欲减退(80.7%)、便秘(77.0%)、多汗(67.1%)的患者最多,73.0%的男性患者有勃起障碍,56.8%的女性患者月经不规则;60.4%的患者会首选咨询美沙酮维持治疗门诊医生,其次是综合医院医生(14.3%)和其他服药人员(10.2%);54.4%的患者因经济原因未能得到规范治疗,其次是因为不愿向医生坦白吸毒史(43.3%)和认为自行服药可以解决问题(39.5%).结论:美沙酮维持治疗患者普遍存在健康问题,而患者的就医意识不强,大部分患者没有接受正规的医疗服务,应在门诊内开展积极有效的健康教育和医疗援助活动.%Objective:To evaluate the health problems and help -seeking activities of methadone maintenance clients. Methods: Questionnaire surrey; the number and percentage of methadone maintenance clients were added up;standard deviation (SD), median, mode and range were measured by sub - item statistics. Results :90. 1% of the methadone maintenance clients said they had one or more diseases, among which morbidity rate of HCV was 84. 8% ;98. 4% of methadone maintenance clients said they had health problems in the past 3 months, among which maximum were the incidence rate of hyposexuality (80. 7% ), constipation (77.0%) and hyperhidrosis ( 67. 1% ). 73.0% of the male clients had erectile dysfunction (ED), 56. 8% female clients had irregular menses;the clients might inquire someone such as the doctors in methadone maintenance treatment clinics (60. 4% ) firstly, doctors in general hospitals ( 14. 3% ) and other chents ( 10. 2% ) next;the reasons that the clients hadn't had normative therapy were as follows: economy (54

  8. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available -Doris Jedamski, René Witte, De Indische radio-omroep; Overheidsbeleid en ontwikkeling, 1923-1942. Hilversum: Verloren, 1998, 202 pp. -Edwin Jurriëns, Philip Kitley, Television, nation, and culture in Indonesia. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 2000, xviii + 411 pp. [Research in International Studies, Southeast Asia Series 104.] -Gerrit Knaap, Scott Merrillees, Batavia in nineteenth century photographs. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2000, 282 pp. -C.C. MacKnight, David Bulbeck ,Land of iron; The historical archaelogy of Luwu and the Cenrana valley; Results of the Origin of Complex Society in South Sulawesi Project (OXIS. Hull and Canberra: Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull / School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, 2000, vi + 141 pp., Ian Caldwell (eds -Niels Mulder, Toh Goda, Political culture and ethnicity; An anthropological study in Southeast Asia. Quezon City: New Day, 1999, xviii + 182 pp. -Niels Mulder, Norman G. Owen, The Bikol blend; Bikolanos and their history. Quezon City: New Day, 1999, x + 291 pp. -Anton Ploeg, Donald Tuzin, Social complexity in the making; A case study among the Arapesh of New Guinea. London: Routledge, 2001, xii + 159 pp. -Henk Schulte-Nordholt, Maarten Kuitenbrouwer, Tussen oriëntalisme en wetenschap; Het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde in historisch verband 1851-2001. Leiden: KITLV Uitgeverij, 2001, ix + 362 pp. -Sri Margana, Peter Carey ,The archive of Yogyakarta, Volume II, Documents relating to economic and agrarian affairs. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000, 566 pp., Mason C. Hoadley (eds -Eric Venbrux, Wilfried van Damme, Bijdragen over kunst en cultuur in Oceanië/Studies in Oceanic Art and Culture. Gent: Academia Press, 2000, 122 pp. -Edwin Wieringa, Raharjo Suwandi, A quest for justice; The millenary aspirations of a contemporary Javanese wali. Leiden: KITLV Press, 2000, x + 229 pp

  9. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Bryant

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available - R.H. Barnes, Janet Hoskins, Biographical objects; How things tell the stories of people’s lives. London: Routledge, 1998, x + 213 pp. - Peter Boomgaard, Ann Kumar, Java and modern Europe; Ambiguous encounters. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1997, vii + 472 pp. - Peter Boomgaard, Lenore Manderson, Sickness and the state; Health and illness in colonial Malaya, 1870-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, xix + 315 pp. - Matthew Isaac Cohen, Bambang Widoyo, Gapit; 4 naskah drama berbahasa Jawa: Rol, Leng, Tuk dan Dom. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Benteng Budaya, 1998, xiv + 302 pp. - James T. Collins, Bernd Nothofer, Reconstruction, classification, description; Festschrift in honor of Isidore Dyen. Hamburg: Abera, 1996, xiv + 259 pp. - J.R. Flenley, Kristina R.M. Beuning, Modern pollen rain, vegetation and climate in lowland East Java, Indonesia. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1996, 51 pp. + 49 plates. [Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 14.] - Gregory Forth, Karl-Heinze Kohl, Der Tod der Riesjungfrau; Mythen, Kulte und Allianzen in einer ostindonesischen Lokalkultur. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1998, 304 pp. [Religionsethnologische Studien des Frobenius-Instituts Frankfurt am Main, Band I.] - J. van Goor, Brook Barrington, Empires, imperialism and Southeast Asia; Essays in honour of Nicholas Tarling. Clayton, Victoria: Monash Asia Institute, 1997, v + 250 pp. [Monash Papers on Southeast Asia 43.] - Mies Grijns, Penny van Esterik, Women of Southeast Asia. DeKalb: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University, 1996, xiv + 229 pp. ‘Monographs on Southeast Asia, Occasional Paper 17; Second, revised edition.] - Hans Hagerdal, Alfons van der Kraan, Bali at war; A history of the Dutch-Balinese conflict of 1846-49. Clayton, Victoria: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1995, x + 240 pp. [Monash Papers on Southeast Asia 34]. - Volker Heeschen, Jurg Wassmann, Das Ideal des leicht gebeugten Menschen; Eine ethnokognitive

  10. Investigation on hypertension, diabetes and relevant risk factors among elderly in Guilin community%桂林市社区老年人高血压、糖尿病及相关危险因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋兴兴; 阳冬; 麦浩; 石武祥; 黄萍; 李春红; 黄灵; 石瑀; 胡明

    2016-01-01

    目的了解桂林市社区老年人高血压、糖尿病及其危险因素流行情况。方法采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法,对桂林市城区15个居委会中≥60岁1348名老年居民进行问卷调查和体格检查,了解其高血压、糖尿病患病情况,采用非条件 logistic 回归分析其相关危险因素。结果桂林市社区老年人高血压及2型糖尿病患病率分别为55.12%和12.61%,老年人超重、肥胖、向心性肥胖、吸烟、饮酒、缺乏锻炼等比率分别为32.27%、8.46%、59.79%、16.42%、18.38%和21.21%。Logistic回归分析,老年人高血压的主要影响因素有年龄、中心性肥胖、超重肥胖、离婚、身体锻炼和水果摄入等;糖尿病的主要影响因素有超重肥胖、吸烟、缺少锻炼等。结论桂林市社区老年人高血压、糖尿病患病率处于较高水平,超重和肥胖是主要危险因素。开展社区老年人慢性病综合干预和健康管理,对改善老年人健康水平、提高生活质量具有重要意义。%Objective To explore the epidemic status and risk factors of hypertension,diabetes and relevant risk factors among elderly residents in Guilin community. Methods A multi-stage randomized cluster sampling method was used to select the participants. Data on health status were collected by a face-to-face questionnaire surrey and physical examination. Results Among the 1348 residents aged 60 gears and over selected from Guilin City, the prevalence rate s of hypertension and diabetes were 55.12% and 12.61% respectively. The proportion of overweight, obesity, central obesity, smoking, drinking, less exercise were 32.27%,8.46%,59.77%,16.42%,18.38%and21.21% respectively.The results of logistic regression analysis showed age, central obesity, overweight and obesity, divorce, exercise and fruit intake were the major affecting factors of hypertension, overweight and obesity, quit smoking, exercise were the major affecting factors of

  11. Modes of transference and rupture of the nucleus with neutron halos {sup 6} He on {sup 209} Bi near of the Coulomb barrier; Modos de transferencia y rompimiento del nucleo con halo neutronico {sup 6} He sobre {sup 209} Bi cerca de la barrera de Coulomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano C, D

    2003-07-01

    In recent experiments, the fusion of the exotic radioactive nucleus {sup 6} He with {sup 209} Bi has been studied for the first time at energies above and below the Coulomb barrier. A considerable enhancement in the fusion was observed, which implies a reduction of about 25% in the nominal fusion barrier. Some previous theoretical works suggest that this striking effect may be caused by the coupling to neutron transfer channels with a positive Q-value which would lead to a neutron flow and the consequent formation of a neck between the projectile and the target. Later, in the current work, we ran two new experiments on the same reaction using the FN Tandem Van de Graaff (10 MV) accelerator and the dual superconducting TwinSol system, both of them belonging to the University of Notre Dame, USA. This time, the purpose was to study one- and two-neutron transfer and the {sup 6} He projectile breakup at laboratory energies of 14.7, 16.2, 17.9, 19.0 and 22.5 MeV. A strong group of {sup 4} He was observed (with an effective Q-value about .5 MeV) whose integrated cross section results exceptionally high, exceeding the fusion cross section both above and below the barrier. The simultaneously measured elastic scattering angular distribution required high total cross sections so that this yield is confirmed. Preliminary coupled channels calculations sing the computer program called Fresco developed at the University of Surrey (England) suggested that the reaction mechanisms may be better described as a direct nuclear breakup and two-neutron transfer to unbound states in {sup 211} Bi. These calculations predicted also an enhancement in the fusion cross section below the barrier due to the transfer and breakup channel coupling, which strongly suggests that this channel is the 'doorway state' that explains the fusion barrier reduction observed in previous experiments. It was found that the {sup 4} He group fully dominates the total reaction cross section at the

  12. Approaches for Making High Performance Polymer Materials from Commodity Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xi

    2004-01-01

    A brief surrey of ongoing research work done for improving and enhancing the properties of commodity polymers by the author and author's colleagues is given in this paper. A series of high performance polymers and polymer nanomaterials were successfully prepared through irradiation and stress-induced reactions of polymers and hydrogen bonding. The methods proposed are viable, easy in operation, clean and efficient.1. The effect of irradiation source (UV light, electron beam, γ -ray and microwave), irradiation dose, irradiation time and atmosphere etc. on molecular structure of polyolefine during irradiation was studied. The basic rules of dominating oxidation, degradation and cross-linking reactions were mastered. Under the controlled conditions, cross-linking reactions are prevented, some oxygen containing groups are introduced on the molecular chain of polyolefine to facilitate the interface compatibility of their blends. A series of high performance polymer materials: u-HDPE/PA6,u-HDPE/CaCO3, u-iPP/STC, γ-HDPE/STC, γ-LLDPE/ATH, e-HDPE, e-LLDPE and m-HDPEfilled system were prepared (u- ultraviolet light irradiated, γ- γ-ray irradiated, e- electron beam irradiated, m- microwave irradiated)2. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation, jet and pan-milling on structure and changes in properties of polymers were studied. Imposition of critical stress on polymer chain can cause the scission of bonds to form macroradicals. The macroradicals formed in this way may recombine or react with monomer or other radicals to form linear, branched or cross-linked polymers or copolymers. About 20 kinds of block/graft copolymers have been synthesized from polymer-polymer or polymer-monomer through ultrasonic irradiation.Through jet-milling, the molecular weight of PVC is decreased somewhat, the intensity of its crystalline absorption bonds becomes indistinct. The processability, the yield strength, strength at break and elongation at break of PVC get increased quite a lot after

  13. Smoking behavior among hospital staff still influences attitudes and counseling on smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaing, Ingrid; Ladelund, Steen

    2004-04-01

    Smoking among health professionals has been shown to influence smoking-related knowledge and counseling in clinical practice. The evidence regarding smoking as a risk factor has increased in the past decade. The present study was carried out in 2000 and investigated the associations between individual smoking behavior among hospital staff and (a). smoking-related knowledge, (b). attitudes toward counseling on smoking, and (c). self-reported smoking-related counseling provided by the staff. The study was based on a survey using self-administered questionnaires given to all hospital staff in a large university hospital in Denmark. Altogether, 82% of staff (2561) returned a completed questionnaire. Analyses focused on a subsample consisting of health professionals in the clinical wards (1429). Multivariate analyses were performed in which smoking-related knowledge, attitudes toward smoking-related counseling, smoking-related counseling practices, and self-rated qualifications for counseling were main outcome measures. Health professionals who were current smokers systematically underestimated the health consequences of smoking and differed significantly from nonsmokers in their assessments of smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers might overestimate smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers gave patients advice on smoking cessation significantly more often than did current smokers (ex-smokers, OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.8-3.4; never-smokers, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.0). Ex-smokers and smokers felt significantly more qualified to counsel patients about smoking than did never-smokers (ex-smokers, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.3-2.5; smokers, OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.0-1.9). Individual smoking behavior among hospital staff was strongly associated with smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and counseling practices. Lack of self-rated qualifications was a major barrier to professional counseling on smoking in a hospital framework.

  14. Population-based study of smoking behaviour throughout pregnancy and adverse perinatal outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Deirdre J

    2013-09-01

    There has been limited research addressing whether behavioural change in relation to smoking is maintained throughout pregnancy and the effect on perinatal outcomes. A cohort study addressed lifestyle behaviours of 907 women who booked for antenatal care and delivered in a large urban teaching hospital in 2010-2011. Adverse perinatal outcomes were compared for "non-smokers", "ex-smokers" and "current smokers". Of the 907 women, 270 (30%) reported smoking in the six months prior to pregnancy, and of those 160 (59%) had stopped smoking and 110 (41%) continued to smoke at the time of the first antenatal visit. There was virtually no change in smoking behaviour between the first antenatal visit and the third trimester of pregnancy. Factors associated with continuing to smoke included unplanned pregnancy (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3, 2.9), alcohol use (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.1, 6.0) and previous illicit drug use (OR 3.6; 95% CI 2.1, 6.0). Ex-smokers had similar perinatal outcomes to non-smokers. Current smoking was associated with an average reduction in birth weight of 191 g (95% CI -294, -88) and an increased incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (24% versus 13%, adjusted OR 1.39 (95% CI 1.06, 1.84). Public Health campaigns emphasise the health benefits of quitting smoking in pregnancy. The greatest success appears to be pre-pregnancy and during the first trimester where women are largely self-motivated to quit.

  15. Khat use as risk factor for psychotic disorders: A cross-sectional and case-control study in Somalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbert Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the prevalence of khat-induced psychotic disorders in East African countries, where the chewing of khat leaves is common. Its main psycho-active component cathinone produces effects similar to those of amphetamine. We aimed to explore the prevalence of psychotic disorders among the general population and the association between khat use and psychotic symptoms. Methods In an epidemiological household assessment in the city of Hargeisa, North-West Somalia, trained local interviewers screened 4,854 randomly selected persons from among the general population for disability due to severe mental problems. The identified cases were interviewed based on a structured interview and compared to healthy matched controls. Psychotic symptoms were assessed using the items of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview and quantified with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale. Statistical testing included Student's t-test and ANOVA. Results Local interviewers found that rates of severe disability due to mental disorders were 8.4% among males (above the age of 12 and differed according to war experiences (no war experience: 3.2%; civilian war survivors: 8.0%; ex-combatants: 15.9%. The clinical interview verified that in 83% of positive screening cases psychotic symptoms were the most prominent manifestations of psychiatric illness. On average, cases with psychotic symptoms had started to use khat earlier in life than matched controls and had been using khat 8.6 years before positive symptoms emerged. In most cases with psychotic symptoms, a pattern of binge use (> two 'bundles' per day preceded the onset of psychotic symptoms, in contrast to controls of the same age. We found significant correlations between variables of khat consumption and clinical scales (0.35 to 0.50; p Conclusion Evidence indicates a relationship between the consumption of khat and the onset of psychotic symptoms among the male

  16. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2002-07-01

    , Maine: Borneo Research Council, 2001, xiv + 279 pp. [BRC Monograph Series 5.] -Nicholas J. White, Francis Loh Kok Wah ,Democracy in Malaysia; Discourses and practices. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 2002, xiii + 274 pp. [Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Democracy in Asia Series 5.], Khoo Boo Teik (eds

  17. PREFACE: Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic and Photonic Materials and Applications (ICOOPMA) 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Stephen J.; Jha, Animesh

    2015-06-01

    Developments in the connected fields of optics, optoelectronics and photonics have had a profound effect on the emergence of modern technologies and their influence on our lives. In all of these fields, understanding and improving the basic underlying materials is of crucial importance for the development of systems and applications. The International Conference on Optical, Optoelectronic and Photonic Materials and Applications (ICOOPMA) has successfully married these fields and become a regular feature in the conference calendar. The 6th conference in the series, held at the University of Leeds from 27th July - 1st August, 2014, continued the ICOOPMA tradition and attracted 220 international delegates with a diverse range of disciplines and interests. The 59 papers in this Proceedings provide an excellent overview of the topics presented. The conference consisted of four thematic areas in the fields of inorganic semiconductors, carbon and polymeric materials, inorganic glasses and crystalline materials, and metamaterials and plasmonics where each theme area included research on basic materials through to device applications. The conference began with a Workshop organised by Professor Dan Hewak (University of Southampton) with speakers covering Organic Optoelectronic Complexes (Dr Richard Curry, University of Surrey), Metamaterials (Dr Vassili Fedotov, University of Southampton), Graphene (Dr Monica Craciun, University of Exeter) and Amorphous Semiconductors (Dr Jiri Orava, University of Cambridge and Tohoku University). This provided an excellent overview of a representative range of the important topics that were discussed further at the conference. The conference included a banquet which successfully combined excellent food with a relaxing opportunity for the conference delegates to socialise and network. The pinnacle of the evening was the after dinner speech given by our distinguished guest, Professor Sir David Payne (University of Southampton), who gave a

  18. 鲑鱼降钙素与骨水泥成形术治疗骨质疏松性椎体压缩骨折的临床比较%Treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: clinical application of bone cementoplasty and Salmon calcitonin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永刚; 唐海

    2012-01-01

    and Cobb angle, detected the bone mineral density. RESULTS Therapies were successful in all cases, with distinct pain relief without obvious complications. VAS: there were obvious differences before and after treatment in every group (P < 0.05). The bone cementplasty's VAS outweigh Salmon calcitonin's after a week of operation (P < 0.05), two weeks after operation, there were no significant differences between them. SF-12 health surrey: there were obvious differences before and after treatment in every group (P < 0.05). Calcitonin' score from SF-12 health survey was lower to bone cementoplasty and showed a fluctuate. The degree of recovery of compressing vertebra; Cobb angle and vertebra height improved in bone cementoplasty group that PKP group was better than PVP group in general (P< 0.01). Bone mineral density: the bone mineral density of calcitonin group was improved after therapy (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Bone cementoplasty (PVP and PKP) can quickly relief pain, improve vertebral height and cobb angle, enhance vertebral stability. Salmon calcitonin can improve BMD and relief pain, while the effect of relief pain in earlier period will postpone about 2 weeks comparing with bone cementoplasty. All methods can elevate the quality life of patients in treating OVCFs.

  19. Quality in university physics teaching: is it being achieved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    ) satisfied the doubters with a tantalisingly brief description of how the new IoP-sponsored post-16 course intends to tackle this perennial problem. Perhaps mathematics worriers could learn from the efforts being made by several universities to tackle the problem of illiterate physics students. Chris Hall from Warwick described how the Physics Department shared in, developed and adapted a whole-university project - the Warwick Writing Programme - with clear instructions, models and assessment tasks which targeted clearly defined skills in context. And it worked. It sounded a lot like Nuffield A-Level's Research and Analysis to me, but we all know that the school-university interface is semi-permeable at best. This account of a fascinating two days could go on and on. So briefly: James Miller, as Head of Newcastle Royal Grammar School, an ancestral voice prophesying doom, foresaw the demise of university physics mainly because state schools didn't have good labs, enough physics teachers or good discipline, and even when they did they probably taught some kind of general science so that their pupils never even heard of physics. How things must have changed since I stopped teaching. David Baume (FDTL (don't ask)) of the Open University made us do some work in groups and think up what qualities a good physics teacher needs. There were few surprises here, but as a physics `drop-out' Dr Baume was keen on the idea that courses should be more openly structured so that students knew where they were and indeed where they were going. Dave Wonnacott (CTI, Surrey University) showed us some up-to-date teaching software, emphasizing that the current problem was not in finding good stuff but in integrating it into courses. Finally (more or less) we were shown how all these things should be done by Dr Dick Moyes of the chemists' Project Improve. This has been up and running for several years and has organized workshops, training sessions, secondments for producing `transportable ideas' for

  20. Obituary: Thomas Gold, 1920-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2004-12-01

    Thomas "Tommy" Gold died of heart disease at Cayuga Medical Center, Ithaca NY on 22 June 2004 at the age of 84. He will be remembered as one of the most interesting, dynamic and influential scientists of his generation. Tommy's paradigm-changing ideas in astronomy and planetary science, while original and bold, were also highly controversial. With his radical work on the origin of natural gas and petroleum, the controversy is likely to continue. Tommy was born in Vienna, Austria on 22 May 1920, moving with his family to Berlin at age 10 and then, after the rise of Hitler in 1933, to England. His parents were Josephine (nee Martin) and Maximillian Gold, a successful steel magnate. Tommy was educated at Zuoz College in Switzerland where he became an expert skier and developed an athletic prowess that he maintained throughout his life, winning a NASTAR gold medal for skiing at the age of 65. He studied Mechanical Sciences at Trinity College, Cambridge, but much to his disgust his education was interrupted because of internment by the British as a suspected enemy alien. That unfortunate period (I remember him saying to me "Can you believe the stupidity, interring people like me who had fled from Nazi Germany?") had one good outcome: on his first night in camp he met Hermann Bondi who had an important influence on his early development as a scientist. They were both born in Vienna, their parents knew each other, and they were fellow students at Trinity, but this was their first meeting. On release, he went immediately into top-secret radar research for the British Admiralty, working as a team with Bondi and Fred Hoyle in a farm cottage in Dunsfold, Surrey. Tommy's first published research, which was a Nature paper with R.J. Pumphrey in 1947, was not in astronomy but physiology. He applied his engineer's understanding of positive feedback to develop and test a resonance model for how the human ear determines pitch. His conclusion that pitch discrimination occurs

  1. EDITORIAL: Physical behaviour at the nanoscale: a model for fertile research Physical behaviour at the nanoscale: a model for fertile research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    increasing availability of nanomaterials provided a number of advantages for research in field emission for displays, microwave and x-ray generation, electron-beam lithography and photonic devices [5, 6]. However the results reported in these studies have often misapplied the Fowler-Nordheim theory for describing field-emission behaviour, as changes in scale alter the validity of the widely cited simplified equation. As Forbes at the University of Surrey points out, this equation over-predicts the large-area field-emission average current density by a large highly variable factor thought to usually lie between 103 and 109. In his paper he explains how to modify the Fowler-Nordheim type equations so that they can be applied to large-area field emitters with recommendations for improved practice in this area of research [7]. The unusual nuances of behaviour in electronic circuits at the nanoscale has piqued avid interest in 'the memristor', the fourth circuit element reported 'missing' by Leon Chua in 1971 [8] and 'found' by researchers at HP Labs in 2008 [9]. The past five years have seen intense research into the mechanisms governing memristor behaviour [10], as well as the potential to apply this behaviour in novel electronic devices capable of mimicking the biological synapses that implement human learning [11]. (Keep an eye out for Nanotechnology's special issue on synaptic electronics later this year.) However, as Di Ventra and Pershin point out, 'Although this whole field of research has been growing at a fast pace, there is still much confusion about the fundamental physical properties that realistic systems with memory (as opposed to ideal ones) satisfy'. In this issue they derive expressions for memristances, memcapacitances and meminductances from the Kubo response and microscopic theories and show that they are indeed simply response functions that satisfy well defined physical properties. In the midst of concrete facts, cutting edge research often exploits cracks

  2. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2006-12-01

    : Cambridge Healthtech Institute 250 First Avenue, Suite 300 Needham, MA 02494 (781 972-5400 or (888 999-6288 - Fax: (781 972-5425 www.healthtech.com SCANNING 2007 “Scanning Microscopy In Forensics Science” 10-12 April 2007 CA,USA Further information S. Frank Platek, Forensic Chemistry Center, US Food and Drug Administration, 6751 Steger Drive, Cincinnati, OH Tel: 513-679-2700 x254 - Email: fplatek@ora.fda.gov Web: www.fams.org The 9th Annual Conference of BAHID 12-14 April 2007, United Kingdom University of Surrey, Guildford Further information: Web:www.bahid.org AFDIL’s International Training Course 16-20 April 2007, USA Extraction of DNA from Aged Skeletal Remains and Forensic Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Further information: The Armed Forces DNA Identification Laboratory, 1413 Research Blvd, Bldg, 101, Rockville, MD 20850 25th Annual CME Symposium in Forensic Psychiatry April 26-29, 2007 Santa Fe, New Mexico - Inn and Spa at Loretto Further information: American College of Forensic Psychiatry PO Box 5870, Balboa Island CA 92662 Tel: (949 673-7773 - www.forensicpsychonline.com Scanning Microscopy in Forensic Science - A 3-Day Symposium at SCANNING 2007 10-12 April To be held at the Portola Plaza Hotel at Monterey Bay in Monterey, CA. Mark K. Sullivan Program Planning Committee SCANNING 2007 PO Box 485 Mahwah, NJ 07430-0485 (201 818-1010 Fax: (201 818-0086 mks@fams.org - www.fams.org -www.scanning2007.org 7th Annual Proteomic and Genomic Sample Preparation Conference - Optimizing Samples for Diagnostics and Drug Discovery 11-13 April To be held at the World Trade Center in Boston, MA. Margit Eder, PhD Conference Director Cambridge Healthtech Institute (781 972-5478 - Fax: (781 972-5425 meder@healthtech.com - www.GOTSummit.com Forensic Medical Investigation Comprehensive Review Course 11-13 April To be held in Atlantic City, NJ. CONTACT: Michael Henderson or Mary Dudley, MD Forensic Medical Investigation Institute 6505 East Central; PMB#176 Wichita, KS 67206-1924 mike

  3. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sean

    2012-09-01

    , giving a really excellent set of presentations. Finally we are also pleased to express our thanks to the Conference Office of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organising this event. We are especially grateful to Dawn Stewart for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, as well as to Claire Garland for her planning and management of this event. This conference is the second in a series of conferences that began with the Rutherford Jubilee Conference held in Manchester in 1961, which is described in one of the contributions to these proceedings. I do hope that at least some of the delegates from the Centennial Conference will be able to attend the next one, fifty years hence in 2061, just as we were honoured to have some of the Jubilee delegates with us for the Centennial. If I am still around, I doubt that I will have the energy then to be conference chair. I would also not like to attempt to predict the plenary programme, but I hope that it will be as vibrant and exciting as the 2011 conference. Professor Sean J Freeman Conference Chair On behalf of the UK Organising Committee Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford (Photograph courtesy of The University of Manchester) Edited by: Sean Freeman (The University of Manchester) Andrei Andreyev (University of the West of Scotland/The University of York) Alison Bruce (University of Brighton) Alick Deacon (The University of Manchester) Dave Jenkins (University of York) Dave Joss (University of Liverpool) Douglas MacGregor (University of Glasgow) Paddy Regan (University of Surrey) John Simpson (University of Daresbury) Garry Tungate (University of Birmingham) Bob Wadsworth (University of York) Dan Watts (University of Edinburgh) International Advisory Panel: A Aprahamian (Notre Dame, USA) J Äystö (Jyväskylä, Finland) F Aziaez (Orsay, France) J-P Blaizot (Saclay, France/ECT, Italy) A Bracco (Milan, Italy) H Caines (Yale, USA) C W de Jaeger (JLAB, USA) J Dilling (TRIUMF, Canada) J

  4. Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    the bulk modulus and ρ is the density. Note that the speed is inversely proportional to the square root of the density. The higher the density the lower the speed. A little reasoning will lead to the obvious fact that if a material is more dense, then the mass per unit volume is obviously greater, which implies that the acceleration of any part of the material under application of a force will be less than in a lower density material. In addition, the force producing this acceleration will be due to the stiffness quality of the material. The greater the stiffness the larger the force. How the gross error stated above has found its way into elementary physics texts is beyond me. Perhaps it may have something to do with the Earth and atmosphere modules that seem to be 'hot' topics at the moment, rather than a simple application of Newton II. What amazes me is that if one takes lead and aluminium (not the most uncommon of materials), we find that vAl approx 5000 m s-1 and vlead approx 2000 m s-1. Yet lead is about four times as dense as aluminium! (Who is vetting these books, or is the National Curriculum ignorant of the real world?) Whilst on this subject it seems apparently obvious that a liquid cannot withstand a shear force (it collapses), which is why transverse waves do not travel through the liquid core. Is this simple explanation mentioned? However, in the solid region v = (G/ρ)1/2 where G is the shear modulus - which accounts for the velocity difference compared with compression waves. John Severn George Abbot School, Surrey, UK Bond is back Further to recent correspondence, it is always better for Bond to throw away both of his shoes at once. This will give him maximum velocity on the frictionless ice. Throwing the shoes separately will never match it. This assumes that each shoe is thrown with identical, maximum, effort in either situation. Edmonds [1] is correct to surmise, 'These subtle differences must come from momentum being linearly related to the

  5. Translation and Creative Writing: An Interview with Professor Margaret Rogers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzbeh Babaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This interview was conducted with Emerita Professor Margaret Rogers with the aim of providing a brief but informative summary of the relationship between translation and creative writing. Emerita Professor Rogers is in the Centre for Translation Studies, School of English and Languages, University of Surrey, UK. She is also the founder of Terminology Network at the Institute of Translation and Interpreting in the UK. Professor Rogers introduced creative writing into the translation curriculum some 10 years ago at her own university.   The Interview   RB[1]: Do you believe in a theory of translation? MR[2]: There are many ways of trying to understand and, where we can, explain translation in all its guises, loci and times. To talk about ‘a theory’ in this context doesn’t help much. There are many different approaches to the academic study of translation: rather simply put, the particular approach which we choose to adopt may depend on our object of study (e.g. literary translation or specialised translation, what we want to find out about this (e.g. are we interested in product or process, in a historical or contemporary perspective, what resources we have available (e.g. a fully funded research team or a solo effort and so on. Many projects are interdisciplinary—this has long been recognised—and translation scholars are becoming much more resourceful in identifying, adopting and adapting relevant approaches from intersecting disciplines such as comparative literature, cultural studies, history, linguistics, philosophy, psychology and sociology. Some scholars are now advocating a problem-based approach. In any research project it is important to establish how the problem/phenomenon/issue which has been identified as the focus of the study can be tackled. For this, in an empirical study a method is crucial: in translation studies this is rarely something that can be picked off the shelf and is often a contribution to the

  6. Institute news

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    : Heriot-Watt University 4 Nov: Strathclyde University 17 Nov: York University 24 Nov: Bristol University 1 Dec: Open University 7 Dec: Kent University 14 Dec: Cardiff University 15 Dec: University of Wales, Swansea 24 Jan: Reading University 10 Feb: Abingdon School 16 Feb: Plymouth University 2 Mar: Sheffield University 7 Mar: CLRC Daresbury Laboratory 8 Mar: Liverpool University 9 Mar: Manchester 10 Mar: Lancaster University 15 Mar: Surrey University 16 Mar: Brighton University 17 Mar: St Vincent College, Gosport 22 Mar: Leeds University 23 Mar: Loughborough Grammar School 24 Mar: Oakham School 30 Mar: St Peter's School, Wolverhampton 18 May: University of Hertfordshire 11 Jul: Science Museum 12 Jul: Royal Institution The assistance of the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, CLRC Daresbury Laboratory and DERA Malvern is acknowledged in staging this year's events. Courses, lectures and competitions `Physics in perspective', the study course for sixth-formers and college students, will take place in London on 6 - 8 February 2000, offering insights into many different aspects of physics. The programme commences during the afternoon of Sunday 6 February at King's College London with a Balloon debate, followed by Brian O'Rourke's talk on the `Physics of Formula 1 cars'. On Monday 7 February at the Royal Institution, John Avison (former Honorary Editor of Physics Education) will develop the `Thinking physics' theme by presenting the audience with varied topics in an unusual and challenging way. The second talk of the afternoon, by Professor Roy Sambles, will cover `Lasers, light and liquid crystals'. On the final day (Tuesday 8 February), again at the Royal Institution, Sara Ellison will lead the audience in `Heavenly pursuits', whilst later Dr Colin Wright will entertain with `Juggling - theory and practice'. Futher information and bookings for the course can be made by contacting Mrs Leila Solomon at The Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH

  7. Study of images of projective angles of pulmonary veins by modern imaging modalities%现代影像学技术对肺静脉投射角的测量与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 张兆琪; 马晓海; 刘佳祎

    2012-01-01

    Objective:In cross-sectional images of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography ( CEMRA) and contrast enhanced computed tomography angiography (CECTA) of pulmonary veins-left atri-um there is a visible angle between every pulmonary vein and the coronary, transversal or sagittal section of hotly. These angles are constant, because the myocardial sleeve in the initiation of every pulmonary vein fasten the shape of the initiation of every pulmonary vein. These are so-called projective angles of pulmonary veins. In this study these angles are measured in many ways. Several possible influence factors and characters of distribu-tion are studied and analysed in order to understand better the characters sectional analomy of pulmonary veins. It is possible to provide anatomic basis for a reasonable choice of appropriate projection angle of X-rays in the angiography of pulmonary veins undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation. Methods:Cross-sectional images of CEM-RA and CECTA of pulmonary veins-left atrium of 137 health objects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) were dealed with the technic of post-processing, Projective Angles of Pulmonary to the coronary and transversal sections were measured and analysed statistically. Results;For every projective angles of pulmonary vein threr are no significant differences ( P > 0. 05) between the male group and the female group, between the group of patienls with atrial fibrillation ( AF) and the group of health objects as well as between the group of CEMRA and the group of CECTA. All projective angles of pulmonary veins are leptocurtic ( kurtosis coefficient >0) ex-cept projective angles of the right superior pulmonary vein to the transversal and cross planes are platyeurtic dis- tribution ( kurtosis coefficient f distribution of a!I projeclive angles nf pulmonary veins are positive wkewness distribution ( skewness coefficient >0). Conclusion; Project angles of pulmonary veins are one of real and steady characters of