WorldWideScience

Sample records for surprisingly similar effects

  1. The Educational Philosophies of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak: Surprising Similarities and Illuminating Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Jeffrey; Caplan, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The thoughts of Mordecai Kaplan and Michael Rosenak present surprising commonalities as well as illuminating differences. Similarities include the perception that Judaism and Jewish education are in crisis, the belief that Jewish peoplehood must include commitment to meaningful content, the need for teachers to teach from a position of…

  2. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time...... constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs...

  3. Carbon Dioxide: Surprising Effects on Decision Making and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2013-01-01

    The occupants of modern submarines and the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common as far as their air quality is concerned. Air is polluted by materials offgassing, use of utility compounds, leaks of systems chemicals, and anthropogenic sources. The primary anthropogenic compound of concern to submariners and astronauts has been carbon dioxide (CO2). NASA and the US Navy rely on the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRC-COT) to help formulate exposure levels to CO2 that are thought to be safe for exposures of 3-6 months. NASA calls its limits Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Years of experience aboard the ISS and a recent publication on deficits in decision making in ground-based subjects exposed briefly to 0.25% CO2 suggest that exposure levels that have been presumed acceptable to preserve health and performance need to be reevaluated. The current CO2 exposure limits for 3-6 months set by NASA and the UK Navy are 0.7%, and the limit for US submariners is 0.5%, although the NRC-COT recommended a 90-day level of 0.8% as safe a few years ago. NASA has set a 1000-day SMAC at 0.5% for exploration-class missions. Anecdotal experience with ISS operations approaching the current 180-day SMAC of 0.7% suggest that this limit is too high. Temporarily, NASA has limited exposures to 0.5% until further peer-reviewed data become available. In the meantime, a study published last year in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives (Satish U, et al. 2012) demonstrated that complexdecision- making performance is somewhat affected at 0.1% CO2 and becomes "dysfunctional" for at least half of the 9 indices of performance at concentrations approaching 0.25% CO2. The investigators used the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) method of testing for decisionmaking ability, and the results were so surprising to the investigators that they declared that their findings need to be independently confirmed. NASA has responded to the

  4. Effects of Surprisal and Locality on Danish Sentence Processing: An Eye-Tracking Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-03-22

    An eye-tracking experiment in Danish investigates two dominant accounts of sentence processing: locality-based theories that predict a processing advantage for sentences where the distance between the major syntactic heads is minimized, and the surprisal theory which predicts that processing time increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish constructions with two postverbal NP-objects. An eye-tracking experiment showed a clear advantage for local syntactic relations, with only a marginal effect of lexicalised surprisal and no effect of syntactic surprisal. We conclude that surprisal has a relatively marginal effect, which may be clearest for verbs in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing.

  5. Imaging enhancement of malignancy by cyclophosphamide: surprising chemotherapy opposite effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Kensuke; Yang, Meng; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Jiang, Ping; Xu, Mingxu; Yamamoto, Norio; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuro; Moossa, A. R.; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2008-02-01

    Although side effects of cancer chemotherapy are well known, "opposite effects" of chemotherapy which enhance the malignancy of the treated cancer are not well understood. We have observed a number of steps of malignancy that are enhanced by chemotherapy pre-treatment of mice before transplantation of human tumor cells. The induction of intravascular proliferation, extravasation, and colony formation by cancer cells, critical steps of metastasis was enhanced by pretreatment of host mice with the commonly-used chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide appears to interfere with a host process that inhibits intravascular proliferation, extravasation, and extravascular colony formation by at least some tumor cells. Cyclophosphamide does not directly affect the cancer cells since cyclophosphamide has been cleared by the time the cancer cells were injected. Without cyclophosphamide pretreatment, human colon cancer cells died quickly after injection in the portal vein of nude mice. Extensive clasmocytosis (destruction of the cytoplasm) of the cancer cells occurred within 6 hours. The number of apoptotic cells rapidly increased within the portal vein within 12 hours of injection. However, when the host mice were pretreated with cyclophosphamide, the cancer cells survived and formed colonies in the liver after portal vein injection. These results suggest that a cyclophosphamide-sensitive host cellular system attacked the cancer cells. This review describes an important unexpected "opposite effects" of chemotherapy that enhances critical steps in malignancy rather than inhibiting them, suggesting that certain current approaches to cancer chemotherapy should be modified.

  6. Surprise, Memory, and Retrospective Judgment Making: Testing Cognitive Reconstruction Theories of the Hindsight Bias Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.

    2009-01-01

    Hindsight bias has been shown to be a pervasive and potentially harmful decision-making bias. A review of 4 competing cognitive reconstruction theories of hindsight bias revealed conflicting predictions about the role and effect of expectation or surprise in retrospective judgment formation. Two experiments tested these predictions examining the…

  7. Ontological Surprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how we might rethink design as the technological crafting of human-machine relations in the context of a machine learning technique called neural networks. It analyzes Google’s Inceptionism project, which uses neural networks for image recognition. The surprising output of...... a hybrid approach where machine learning algorithms are used to identify objects as well as connections between them; finally, it argues for remaining open to ontological surprises in machine learning as they may enable the crafting of different relations with and through technologies....

  8. Surprise Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Kawash, Raghid; Andersen, Lisbet Møller

    We report on a platform that augments the natural experience of exploration in diverse indoor and outdoor environments. The system builds on the theme of surprises in terms of user expectations and finding points of interest. It utilizes physical icons as representations of users' interests and a...

  9. Investigating locality effects and surprisal in written English syntactic choice phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Rajakrishnan; van Schijndel, Marten; White, Michael; Schuler, William

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the extent to which syntactic choice in written English is influenced by processing considerations as predicted by Gibson's (2000) Dependency Locality Theory (DLT) and Surprisal Theory (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008). A long line of previous work attests that languages display a tendency for shorter dependencies, and in a previous corpus study, Temperley (2007) provided evidence that this tendency exerts a strong influence on constituent ordering choices. However, Temperley's study included no frequency-based controls, and subsequent work on sentence comprehension with broad-coverage eye-tracking corpora found weak or negative effects of DLT-based measures when frequency effects were statistically controlled for (Demberg & Keller, 2008; van Schijndel, Nguyen, & Schuler 2013; van Schijndel & Schuler, 2013), calling into question the actual impact of dependency locality on syntactic choice phenomena. Going beyond Temperley's work, we show that DLT integration costs are indeed a significant predictor of syntactic choice in written English even in the presence of competing frequency-based and cognitively motivated control factors, including n-gram probability and PCFG surprisal as well as embedding depth (Wu, Bachrach, Cardenas, & Schuler, 2010; Yngve, 1960). Our study also shows that the predictions of dependency length and surprisal are only moderately correlated, a finding which mirrors Dember & Keller's (2008) results for sentence comprehension. Further, we demonstrate that the efficacy of dependency length in predicting the corpus choice increases with increasing head-dependent distances. At the same time, we find that the tendency towards dependency locality is not always observed, and with pre-verbal adjuncts in particular, non-locality cases are found more often than not. In contrast, surprisal is effective in these cases, and the embedding depth measures further increase prediction accuracy. We discuss the implications of our findings for theories of

  10. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case.   The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of t...

  11. Charming surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2011-01-01

    The CP violation in charm quarks has always been thought to be extremely small. So, looking at particle decays involving matter and antimatter, the LHCb experiment has recently been surprised to observe that things might be different. Theorists are on the case. The study of the physics of the charm quark was not in the initial plans of the LHCb experiment, whose letter “b” stands for “beauty quark”. However, already one year ago, the Collaboration decided to look into a wider spectrum of processes that involve charm quarks among other things. The LHCb trigger allows a lot of these processes to be selected, and, among them, one has recently shown interesting features. Other experiments at b-factories have already performed the same measurement but this is the first time that it has been possible to achieve such high precision, thanks to the huge amount of data provided by the very high luminosity of the LHC. “We have observed the decay modes of the D0, a pa...

  12. Similarity effects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Lee, Hyejin J; Asaad, Anthony; Remington, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Perceptual similarity is an important property of multiple stimuli. Its computation supports a wide range of cognitive functions, including reasoning, categorization, and memory recognition. It is important, therefore, to determine why previous research has found conflicting effects of inter-item similarity on visual working memory. Studies reporting a similarity advantage have used simple stimuli whose similarity varied along a featural continuum. Studies reporting a similarity disadvantage have used complex stimuli from either a single or multiple categories. To elucidate stimulus conditions for similarity effects in visual working memory, we tested memory for complex stimuli (faces) whose similarity varied along a morph continuum. Participants encoded 3 morphs generated from a single face identity in the similar condition, or 3 morphs generated from different face identities in the dissimilar condition. After a brief delay, a test face appeared at one of the encoding locations for participants to make a same/different judgment. Two experiments showed that similarity enhanced memory accuracy without changing the response criterion. These findings support previous computational models that incorporate featural variance as a component of working memory load. They delineate limitations of models that emphasize cortical resources or response decisions.

  13. Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  14. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect : The effects of When-Similarity in mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  15. Surprisingly low frequency attenuation effects in long tubes when measuring turbulent fluxes at tall towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brændholt, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim

    2016-01-01

    by reducing both the water vapour dilution correction and the cross sensitivity effects on the N2O and CO flux measurements. Here we present the set-up of the concentration step change experiment and its results and compare them with recently developed theories for the behaviour of gases in turbulent tube......The eddy covariance technique relies on the fast and accurate measurement of gas concentration fluctuations. While for some gasses robust and compact sensors are available, measurement of, e.g., non CO2 greenhouse gas fluxes is often performed with sensitive equipment that cannot be run on a tower...... that the concentration signal was hardly biased during the ca 10 s travel through the tube. Due to the larger turbulence time scales at large measurement heights the low-pass correction was for the majority of the measurements effect...

  16. [Less need for insulin, a surprising effect of phototherapy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, R F; Spooren, P F M J; Tilanus, J J D

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was treated successfully with phototherapy for a seasonal affective disorder. Following sessions of phototherapy she developed hypoglycaemias and required less insulin. A review of the literature showed that melatonin has an inhibiting effect on insulin sensitivity. The melatonin secretion, which is suppressed by phototherapy, may cause an immediate decrease in the plasma glucose levels. This decrease may well be important for patients with insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus and seasonal affective disorder.

  17. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  18. The effect of similarity on evaluative priming: Higher similarity predicts stronger congruency effects

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    The evaluative priming paradigm aims to uncover the processes underlying evaluations. For this purpose, this paradigm presents a sequence of two or more stimuli varying on the valence dimension to which participants must provide a response. The “standard” evaluative priming effect is a relative facilitation of the required responses in congruent trials compared to incongruent trials. The following thesis argues that this evaluative priming effect depends on prime-target similarity, with highe...

  19. More Supernova Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    SEP 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Supernova Surprises 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...PERSPECTIVES More Supernova Surprises ASTRONOMY J. Martin Laming Spectroscopic observations of the supernova SN1987A are providing a new window into high...a core-collapse supernova ) have stretched and motivated research that has expanded our knowledge of astrophysics. The brightest such event in

  20. Effective semantic search using thematic similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifullah Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most existing semantic search systems expand search keywords using domain ontology to deal with semantic heterogeneity. They focus on matching the semantic similarity of individual keywords in a multiple-keywords query; however, they ignore the semantic relationships that exist among the keywords of the query themselves. The systems return less relevant answers for these types of queries. More relevant documents for a multiple-keywords query can be retrieved if the systems know the relationships that exist among multiple keywords in the query. The proposed search methodology matches patterns of keywords for capturing the context of keywords, and then the relevant documents are ranked according to their pattern relevance score. A prototype system has been implemented to validate the proposed search methodology. The system has been compared with existing systems for evaluation. The results demonstrate improvement in precision and recall of search.

  1. Surprises with Nonrelativistic Naturalness

    CERN Document Server

    Horava, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We explore the landscape of technical naturalness for nonrelativistic systems, finding surprises which challenge and enrich our relativistic intuition already in the simplest case of a single scalar field. While the immediate applications are expected in condensed matter and perhaps in cosmology, the study is motivated by the leading puzzles of fundamental physics involving gravity: The cosmological constant problem and the Higgs mass hierarchy problem.

  2. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect: The Effects of When-Similarity in Computer-Mediated Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  3. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect: The Effects of When-Similarity in Computer-Mediated Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  4. More statistics, less surprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & the LHCb collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration has recently announced new results for a parameter that measures the CP violation effect in particles containing charm quarks. The new values obtained with a larger data set and with a new independent method are showing that the effect is smaller than previous measurements had  suggested. The parameter is back into the Standard Model picture.   CP violation signals – in particles containing charm quarks, such as the D0 particle, is a powerful probe of new physics. Indeed, such effects could result in unexpected values of parameters whose expectation values in the Standard Model are known. Although less precise than similar approaches used in particles made of b quarks, the investigation of the charm system has proven  to be intriguing. The LHCb collaboration has reported new measurements of ΔACP, the difference in CP violation between the D0→K+K– and D0→π+π– decays. The results are ob...

  5. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balbus, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionised gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetised fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosynchratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out import...

  6. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  7. Evaluative Appraisals of Environmental Mystery and Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack L.; Cubukcu, Ebru

    2011-01-01

    This study used a desktop virtual environment (VE) of 15 large-scale residential streets to test the effects of environmental mystery and surprise on response. In theory, mystery and surprise should increase interest and visual appeal. For each VE, participants walked through an approach street and turned right onto a post-turn street. We designed…

  8. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Potter, William J.

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one’s a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  9. Surprises in astrophysical gasdynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A; Potter, William J

    2016-06-01

    Much of astrophysics consists of the study of ionized gas under the influence of gravitational and magnetic fields. Thus, it is not possible to understand the astrophysical universe without a detailed knowledge of the dynamics of magnetized fluids. Fluid dynamics is, however, a notoriously tricky subject, in which it is all too easy for one's a priori intuition to go astray. In this review, we seek to guide the reader through a series of illuminating yet deceptive problems, all with an enlightening twist. We cover a broad range of topics including the instabilities acting in accretion discs, the hydrodynamics governing the convective zone of the Sun, the magnetic shielding of a cooling galaxy cluster, and the behaviour of thermal instabilities and evaporating clouds. The aim of this review is to surprise and intrigue even veteran astrophysical theorists with an idiosyncratic choice of problems and counterintuitive results. At the same time, we endeavour to bring forth the fundamental ideas, to set out important assumptions, and to describe carefully whatever novel techniques may be appropriate to the problem at hand. By beginning at the beginning, and analysing a wide variety of astrophysical settings, we seek not only to make this review suitable for fluid dynamic veterans, but to engage novice recruits as well with what we hope will be an unusual and instructive introduction to the subject.

  10. Effect of similarity between patterns in associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Yang, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    We study the stability of patterns in Hopfield networks in which a part of memorized patterns are similar. The similarity between patterns impacts the stability of these patterns, but the stability of other independent patterns is only changed slightly. We show that the stability of patterns is affected in different ways by similarity. For networks storing a number of patterns, the similarity between patterns enhances the pattern stability. However, the stability of patterns can be weakened by the similarity when networks store fewer patterns, and the relation between the stability of patterns and similarity is nonmonotonic. We present a theoretical explanation of the effect of similarity on stability using signal-to-noise-ratio analysis.

  11. Effect of similarity between patterns in associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Yang, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    We study the stability of patterns in Hopfield networks in which a part of memorized patterns are similar. The similarity between patterns impacts the stability of these patterns, but the stability of other independent patterns is only changed slightly. We show that the stability of patterns is affected in different ways by similarity. For networks storing a number of patterns, the similarity between patterns enhances the pattern stability. However, the stability of patterns can be weakened by the similarity when networks store fewer patterns, and the relation between the stability of patterns and similarity is nonmonotonic. We present a theoretical explanation of the effect of similarity on stability using signal-to-noise-ratio analysis.

  12. Similar compositional biases are caused by very different mutational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Eduardo P.C.; Touchon, Marie; Feil, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    Compositional replication strand bias, commonly referred to as GC skew, is present in many genomes of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses. Although cytosine deamination in ssDNA (resulting in C→T changes on the leading strand) is often invoked as its major cause, the precise contributions of this and other substitution types are currently unknown. It is also unclear if the underlying mutational asymmetries are the same among taxa, are stable over time, or how closely the observed biases are to mutational equilibrium. We analyzed nearly neutral sites of seven taxa each with between three and six complete bacterial genomes, and inferred the substitution spectra of fourfold degenerate positions in nonhighly expressed genes. Using a bootstrap procedure, we extracted compositional biases associated with replication and identified the significant asymmetries. Although all taxa showed an overrepresentation of G relative to C on the leading strand (and imbalances between A and T), widely variable substitution asymmetries are noted. Surprisingly, all substitution types show significant asymmetry in at least one taxon, but none were universally biased in all taxa. Notably, in the two most biased genomes, A→G, rather than C→T, shapes the compositional bias. Given the variability in these biases, we propose that the process is multifactorial. Finally, we also find that most genomes are not at compositional equilibrium, and suggest that mutational-based heterotachy is deeply imprinted in the history of biological macromolecules. This shows that similar compositional biases associated with the same essential well-conserved process, replication, do not reflect similar mutational processes in different genomes, and that caution is required in inferring the roles of specific mutational biases on the basis of contemporary patterns of sequence composition. PMID:17068325

  13. Feedback first: the surprisingly weak effects of magnetic fields, viscosity, conduction, and metal diffusion on galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Kung-Yi; Hayward, Christopher C; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan; Ma, Xiangcheng; Robles, Victor H

    2016-01-01

    Using high-resolution simulations with explicit treatment of stellar feedback physics based on the FIRE (Feedback in Realistic Environments) project, we study how galaxy formation and the interstellar medium (ISM) are affected by magnetic fields, anisotropic Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, and sub-grid turbulent metal diffusion. We consider controlled simulations of isolated (non-cosmological) galaxies but also a limited set of cosmological "zoom-in" simulations. Although simulations have shown significant effects from these physics with weak or absent stellar feedback, the effects are much weaker than those of stellar feedback when the latter is modeled explicitly. The additional physics have no systematic effect on galactic star formation rates (SFRs). In contrast, removing stellar feedback leads to SFRs being over-predicted by factors of $\\sim 10 -100$. Without feedback, neither galactic winds nor volume filling hot-phase gas exist, and discs tend to runaway collapse to ultra-thin scale-height...

  14. Contrasting ecosystem-effects of morphologically similar copepods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Matthews

    Full Text Available Organisms alter the biotic and abiotic conditions of ecosystems. They can modulate the availability of resources to other species (ecosystem engineering and shape selection pressures on other organisms (niche construction. Very little is known about how the engineering effects of organisms vary among and within species, and, as a result, the ecosystem consequences of species diversification and phenotypic evolution are poorly understood. Here, using a common gardening experiment, we test whether morphologically similar species and populations of Diaptomidae copepods (Leptodiaptomus ashlandi, Hesperodiaptomus franciscanus, Skistodiaptomus oregonensis have similar or different effects on the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. We found that copepod species had contrasting effects on algal biomass, ammonium concentrations, and sedimentation rates, and that copepod populations had contrasting effects on prokaryote abundance, sedimentation rates, and gross primary productivity. The average size of ecosystem-effect contrasts between species was similar to those between populations, and was comparable to those between fish species and populations measured in previous common gardening experiments. Our results suggest that subtle morphological variation among and within species can cause multifarious and divergent ecosystem-effects. We conclude that using morphological trait variation to assess the functional similarity of organisms may underestimate the importance of species and population diversity for ecosystem functioning.

  15. The effects of black-tailed prairie dogs on plant communities within a complex urban landscape: an ecological surprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Stower C; Hartley, Laurel M; Prevéy, Janet S; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2014-05-01

    Historically, prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) have been considered essential keystone species of western United States grassland ecosystems because they provide unique services and increase vegetation community richness, evenness, and diversity. However, the effects of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) on lands adjacent to or surrounded by urban areas may not result in the same ecosystem benefits historically associated with their presence. An urban landscape presents prairie dogs with movement challenges unparalleled in natural landscapes, as well as suites of nonnative plant species that are more common in disturbed areas. This study examined a complex ecosystem where vegetation communities are being influenced by directional environmental change, and quantified the synergistic effects resulting from the protective management of a native keystone species. The data set for this analysis was comprised of 71 paired (occupied by prairie dogs vs. unoccupied) vegetation surveys and 156 additional unpaired surveys collected from around the city of Boulder, Colorado, USA for 14 yr. Linear mixed models were used to compare data from transects occupied and unoccupied by prairie dogs, as well as to evaluate the effect of prairie dog occupation duration. In the absence of prairie dogs, vegetation in this region exhibited declines in native grasses, no changes in introduced grasses, and increases in native and nonnative forbs and bare soil over the study interval. In the presence of prairie dogs, these observed directional changes were nearly all amplified at rates four to 10 times greater than when prairie dogs were absent. Areas in Boulder occupied by prairie dogs also had significantly lower richness, evenness, and diversity of plant species, compared to unoccupied areas. Analysis of plant functional groups revealed the significant reduction of perennial native grasses, as well as a significantly higher cover of introduced forbs in occupied areas. Prairie dogs

  16. Surprising quantum bounces

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery

    2015-01-01

    This unique book demonstrates the undivided unity and infinite diversity of quantum mechanics using a single phenomenon: quantum bounces of ultra-cold particles. Various examples of such "quantum bounces" are: gravitational quantum states of ultra-cold neutrons (the first observed quantum states of matter in a gravitational field), the neutron whispering gallery (an observed matter-wave analog of the whispering gallery effect well known in acoustics and for electromagnetic waves), and gravitational and whispering gallery states for anti-matter atoms that remain to be observed. These quantum states are an invaluable tool in the search for additional fundamental short-range forces, for exploring the gravitational interaction and quantum effects of gravity, for probing physics beyond the standard model, and for furthering studies into the foundations of quantum mechanics, quantum optics, and surface science.

  17. Surprising Connections between Partitions and Divisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Hassen, Abdulkadir; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2007-01-01

    The sum of the divisors of a positive integer is one of the most interesting concepts in multiplicative number theory, while the number of ways of expressing a number as a sum is a primary topic in additive number theory. In this article, we describe some of the surprising connections between and similarities of these two concepts.

  18. The surprising superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Yildirim

    2002-04-01

    The serendipitous discovery by Akimitsu’s group1 of the superconductivity of MgB2 at Tc=39 K, almost twice the temperature of other simple intermetallic compounds, has sparked a race to uncover its basic properties and to find other related diborides with even higher Tcs. After the first announcement, the number of preprints appearing on the Los Alamos preprint server (Fig. 1 grew almost exponentially, reaching a maximum of about 60 studies in March (two papers a day, then decreasing linearly down to a paper every other day in August, and staying steady at about this rate until now. During the first year of the MgB2 era, more than 300 studies were published, exploring both fundamental and practical issues, such as the mechanism of the superconductivity; synthesis of MgB2 in the form of powder, thin films, wires, and tapes; the effect on Tc of substitution with various elements and on critical current and fields.

  19. The effect of script similarity on executive control in bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L.; van Heuven, Walter J. B.

    2014-01-01

    The need for executive control (EC) during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a “bilingual advantage” on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual's two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE), Polish-English (PE), and Arabic-English (AE), respectively) and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic influences in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities. PMID:25400594

  20. The effect of script similarity on executive control in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Emily L; van Heuven, Walter J B

    2014-01-01

    The need for executive control (EC) during bilingual language processing is thought to enhance these abilities, conferring a "bilingual advantage" on EC tasks. Recently, the reliability and robustness of the bilingual advantage has been questioned, with many variables reportedly affecting the size and presence of the bilingual advantage. This study investigates one further variable that may affect bilingual EC abilities: the similarity of a bilingual's two languages. We hypothesize that bilinguals whose two languages have a larger degree of orthographic overlap will require greater EC to manage their languages compared to bilinguals who use two languages with less overlap. We tested three groups of bilinguals with language pairs ranging from high- to low-similarity (German-English (GE), Polish-English (PE), and Arabic-English (AE), respectively) and a group of English monolinguals on a Stroop and Simon task. Two components of the bilingual advantage were investigated: an interference advantage, such that bilinguals have smaller interference effects than monolinguals; and a global RT advantage, such that bilinguals are faster overall than monolinguals. Between bilingual groups, these effects were expected to be modulated by script similarity. AE bilinguals showed the smallest Stroop interference effects, but the longest overall RTs in both tasks. These seemingly contradictory results are explained by the presence of cross-linguistic influences in the Stroop task. We conclude that similar-script bilinguals demonstrated more effective domain-general EC than different-script bilinguals, since high orthographic overlap creates more cross-linguistic activation and increases the daily demands on cognitive control. The role of individual variation is also discussed. These results suggest that script similarity is an important variable to consider in investigations of bilingual executive control abilities.

  1. Effects of Spatial Frequency Similarity and Dissimilarity on Contour Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Persike

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of spatial frequency similarity and dissimilarity on human contour integration under various conditions of uncertainty. Participants performed a temporal 2AFC contour detection task. Spatial frequency jitter up to 3.0 octaves was applied either to background elements, or to contour and background elements, or to none of both. Results converge on four major findings. (1 Contours defined by spatial frequency similarity alone are only scarcely visible, suggesting the absence of specialized cortical routines for shape detection based on spatial frequency similarity. (2 When orientation collinearity and spatial frequency similarity are combined along a contour, performance amplifies far beyond probability summation when compared to the fully heterogenous condition but only to a margin compatible with probability summation when compared to the fully homogenous case. (3 Psychometric functions are steeper but not shifted for homogenous contours in heterogenous backgrounds indicating an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. The additional similarity cue therefore not so much improves contour detection performance but primarily reduces observer uncertainty about whether a potential candidate is a contour or just a false positive. (4 Contour integration is a broadband mechanism which is only moderately impaired by spatial frequency dissimilarity.

  2. What is the mechanism of Ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant effect? A concise overview of the surprisingly large number of possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, S E; Bhimani, P M; Kaabe, J H; Krysiak, J T; Nanchanatt, D L; Nguyen, T N; Pough, K A; Prince, T A; Ramsey, N S; Savsani, K H; Scandlen, L; Cavaretta, M J; Raffa, R B

    2017-04-01

    Abundant clinical data now confirm that ketamine produces a remarkable rapid-onset antidepressant effect - hours or days - in contrast to the delayed onset (typically weeks) of current antidepressant drugs. This surprising and revolutionary finding may lead to the development of life-saving pharmacotherapy for depressive illness by reducing the high suicide risk associated with the delayed onset of effect of current drugs. As ketamine has serious self-limiting drawbacks that restrict its widespread use for this purpose, a safer alternative is needed. Our objective is to review the proposed mechanism(s) of ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant action for new insights into the physiological basis of depressive illness that may lead to new and novel targets for antidepressant drug discovery. A search was conducted on published literature (e.g. PubMed) and Internet sources to identify information relevant to ketamine's rapid-acting antidepressant action and, specifically, to the possible mechanism(s) of this action. Key search words included 'ketamine', 'antidepressant', 'mechanism of action', 'depression' and 'rapid acting', either individually or in combination. Information was sought that would include less well-known, as well as well-known, basic pharmacologic properties of ketamine and that identified and evaluated the several hypotheses about ketamine's mechanism of antidepressant action. Whether the mechanistic explanation for ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant action is related to its well-known antagonism of the NMDA (N-Methyl-d-aspartate) subtype of glutamate receptor or to something else has not yet been fully elucidated. The evidence from pharmacologic, medicinal chemistry, animal model and drug-discovery sources reveals a wide variety of postulated mechanisms. The surprising discovery of ketamine's rapid-onset antidepressant effect is a game-changer for the understanding and treatment of depressive illness. There is some convergence on NMDA receptor

  3. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively

  4. Surprise... Surprise..., An Empirical Investigation on How Surprise is Connected to Customer Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis research investigates the specific influence of the emotion of surprise on customer transaction-specific satisfaction. Four empirical studies-two field studies (a diary study and a cross section survey) and two experiments-were conducted. The results show that surprise positively [n

  5. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...... binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs....

  6. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of

  7. Surprise as a design strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, G.D.S.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine yourself queuing for the cashier’s desk in a supermarket. Naturally, you have picked the wrong line, the one that does not seem to move at all. Soon, you get tired of waiting. Now, how would you feel if the cashier suddenly started to sing? Many of us would be surprised and, regardless of th

  8. Reexamining the phonological similarity effect in immediate serial recall: the roles of type of similarity, category cuing, and item recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Lipinski, John; Aktunc, Emrah

    2005-09-01

    Study of the phonological similarity effect (PSE) in immediate serial recall (ISR) has produced a conflicting body of results. Five experiments tested various theoretical ideas that together may help integrate these results. Experiments 1 and 2 tested alternative accounts that explain the effect of phonological similarity on item recall in terms of feature overlap, linguistic structure, or serial order. In each experiment, the participants' ISR was assessed for rhyming, alliterative, and similar nonrhyming/nonalliterative lists. The results were consistent with the predictions of the serial order account, with item recall being higher for rhyming than for alliterative lists and higher for alliterative than for similar nonrhyming/nonalliterative lists. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that these item recall differences are reduced when list items repeat across lists. Experiment 5 employed rhyming and dissimilar one-syllable and two-syllable lists to demonstrate that recall for similar (rhyming) lists can be better than that for dissimilar lists even in a typical ISR task in which words are used, providing a direct reversal of the classic PSE. These and other previously published results are interpreted and integrated within a proposed theoretical framework that offers an account of the PSE.

  9. Young Galaxy's Magnetism Surprises Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Astronomers have made the first direct measurement of the magnetic field in a young, distant galaxy, and the result is a big surprise. Looking at a faraway protogalaxy seen as it was 6.5 billion years ago, the scientists measured a magnetic field at least 10 times stronger than that of our own Milky Way. They had expected just the opposite. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The scientists made the discovery using the National Science Foundation's ultra-sensitive Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. "This new measurement indicates that magnetic fields may play a more important role in the formation and evolution of galaxies than we have realized," said Arthur Wolfe, of the University of California-San Diego (UCSD). At its great distance, the protogalaxy is seen as it was when the Universe was about half its current age. According to the leading theory, cosmic magnetic fields are generated by the dynamos of rotating galaxies -- a process that would produce stronger fields with the passage of time. In this scenario, the magnetic fields should be weaker in the earlier Universe, not stronger. The new, direct magnetic-field measurement comes on the heels of a July report by Swiss and American astronomers who made indirect measurements that also implied strong magnetic fields in the early Universe. "Our results present a challenge to the dynamo model, but they do not rule it out," Wolfe said. There are other possible explanations for the strong magnetic field seen in the one protogalaxy Wolfe's team studied. "We may be seeing the field close to the central region of a massive galaxy, and we know such fields are stronger toward the centers of nearby galaxies. Also, the field we see may have been amplified by a shock wave caused by the collision of two galaxies," he said. The protogalaxy studied with the GBT, called DLA-3C286, consists of gas with little or no star formation occurring in it. The astronomers suspect that

  10. Alphabetic letter identification: Effects of perceivability, similarity, and bias☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Shane T.; Weidemann, Christoph T.

    2012-01-01

    The legibility of the letters in the Latin alphabet has been measured numerous times since the beginning of experimental psychology. To identify the theoretical mechanisms attributed to letter identification, we report a comprehensive review of literature, spanning more than a century. This review revealed that identification accuracy has frequently been attributed to a subset of three common sources: perceivability, bias, and similarity. However, simultaneous estimates of these values have rarely (if ever) been performed. We present the results of two new experiments which allow for the simultaneous estimation of these factors, and examine how the shape of a visual mask impacts each of them, as inferred through a new statistical model. Results showed that the shape and identity of the mask impacted the inferred perceivability, bias, and similarity space of a letter set, but that there were aspects of similarity that were robust to the choice of mask. The results illustrate how the psychological concepts of perceivability, bias, and similarity can be estimated simultaneously, and how each make powerful contributions to visual letter identification. PMID:22036587

  11. Brazilian rescue plan sparks surprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Financial Times,when Guido Mantega,Brazil's finance minister,suddenly proposed a “Bric” rescue package for the eurozone this week,he caught not only other world leaders by surprise but also many of his fellow countrymen.Even as officials from other members of the so-called Bric grouping,Russia,India and China,said it was the first they heard of the idea,many ordinary Brazilians expressed shock at the notion of bailing out the world's richest trading bloc.

  12. Effect of similarity of ego identity status on interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, J A; Rosenzweig, C M; Lutter, A D

    1980-04-01

    Similarity of ego identity status, assessed by Marcia's four-category classification system, was related to interpersonal attraction. Using male and female college students as subjects, this study found that (1) while all judges preferred targets who had or who are undergoing a crisis to those who have not had a crisis, (2) diffuse judges preferred targets with no commitments to those with commitments, and (3) judges with commitments preferred a foreclosure target more than judges without commitments. Differential evaluations of the targets' intelligence, knowledge of current events, adjustment, and morality were also found. Results are discussed both in terms of previous research positively relating personality similarity to attraction and Erikson's theory of the relationship between ego identity development and intimacy in interpersonal relations.

  13. Some Surprises in Relativistic Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, N O

    2016-01-01

    General Relativity has had tremendous success both on the theoretical and the experimental fronts for over a century now. However, the contents of the theory are far from exhausted. Only very recently, with the detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, we have started probing the behavior of gravity in the strongly non-linear regime. Even today, the studies of black holes keep revealing more and more paradoxes and bizarre results. In this paper, inspired by David Hilbert's startling observation, we show that, contrary to the conventional wisdom, a freely falling test particle feels gravitational repulsion by a black hole as seen by the asymptotic observer. We dig deeper into this surprising behavior of relativistic gravity and offer some explanations.

  14. Some Surprising Introductory Physics Facts and Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, A. James

    2016-01-01

    In the entertainment world, people usually like, and find memorable, novels, short stories, and movies with surprise endings. This suggests that classroom teachers might want to present to their students examples of surprising facts associated with principles of physics. Possible benefits of finding surprising facts about principles of physics are…

  15. Cost Effectiveness Ratio: Evaluation Tool for Comparing the Effectiveness of Similar Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, K. S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been challenged to be cost effective in their educational programming. The cost effectiveness ratio is a versatile evaluation indicator for Extension educators to compare the cost of achieving a unit of outcomes or educating a client in similar educational programs. This article describes the cost effectiveness ratio and…

  16. George gives to geology Jane : the name letter effect and incidental similarity cues in fundraising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    - People tend to like others with attributes similar to their own (the similarity principle) and favor products with names similar to their own (the name letter effect). - In the present field experiment, the name letter effect and similarity principle are tested in a phonaton among alumni of Utrech

  17. George gives to geology Jane : the name letter effect and incidental similarity cues in fundraising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    - People tend to like others with attributes similar to their own (the similarity principle) and favor products with names similar to their own (the name letter effect). - In the present field experiment, the name letter effect and similarity principle are tested in a phonaton among alumni of

  18. George gives to geology Jane : the name letter effect and incidental similarity cues in fundraising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    - People tend to like others with attributes similar to their own (the similarity principle) and favor products with names similar to their own (the name letter effect). - In the present field experiment, the name letter effect and similarity principle are tested in a phonaton among alumni of Utrech

  19. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events.

  20. Effect of Character-Audience Similarity on the Perceived Effectiveness of Antismoking PSAs via Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Shi, Rui; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-10-01

    This study assesses the impact of character-audience similarity, a core aspect of tailored communication, on evaluation of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs). Smoker and persuader characters are distinguished to explore their different roles in message effectiveness. Daily adult smokers (n = 1,160) were exposed to four video PSAs randomly selected from a larger pool. Similarity scores were determined from matching in demographic (age, gender, race) and motivational factors (quitting status) between the audience and the PSA's characters. Results show that PSAs featuring distinctive smoker and/or persuader characters yielded significantly higher message engagement and perceived effectiveness (PE) than PSAs without characters. Given the presence of characters, smoker-audience similarity was positively associated with the engagement, which in turn enhanced PE. Persuader-audience similarity failed to predict increases in either engagement or PE.

  1. Surprises and mysteries in urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groffman, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, one of two urban long-term ecological research (LTER) projects funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, we are using "the watershed approach" to integrate ecological, physical and social sciences. Urban and suburban watershed input/output budgets for nitrogen have shown surprisingly high retention which has led to detailed analysis of sources and sinks in soils these watersheds. Home lawns, thought to be major sources of reactive nitrogen in suburban watersheds, have more complex coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics than previously thought, and are likely the site of much nitrogen retention. Riparian zones, thought to be an important sink for reactive nitrogen in many watersheds, have turned out be nitrogen sources in urban watersheds due to hydrologic changes that disconnect streams from their surrounding landscape. Urban effects on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and nitrogen deposition have strong effects on soil nitrogen cycling processes and soil:atmosphere fluxes of nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane. Efforts to manage urban soils and watersheds through geomorphic stream restoration, creation of stormwater management features and changes in lawn and forest management can have significant effects on watershed carbon and nitrogen dynamics. Urban soils present a basic and applied science frontier that challenges our understanding of biological, physical, chemical and social science processes. The watershed approach provides an effective platform for integrating these disciplines and for articulating critical questions that arise from surprising results. This approach can help us to meet the challenge of urban soils, which is critical to achieving sustainability goals in cities across the world.

  2. What Is the Role of Tone in the Phonological Similarity Effect?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yip, Michael C. W

    2014-01-01

    ...; this is the well-known phonological similarity effect in verbal working memory. However, it is hypothesized that not all phonological aspects of a word would create the phonological similarity interference in verbal working memory...

  3. Analyst Information Precision and Small Earnings Surprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bissessur; D. Veenman

    2014-01-01

    Prior research attributes zero and small positive earnings surprises to managers’ incentives for earnings management. In contrast, this study introduces and empirically tests an explanation for zero and small positive earnings surprises based on predictable variation in analyst forecast errors. We a

  4. Cognitive and Social Perspectives on Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Mundler

    2007-01-01

    Meanings of "surprise" are wide and include uplifting and engaging facets like wonder and amazement on the one hand as well as ones that may be of the opposite nature like interruption and disrupt on the other. Pedagogically, educators who use surprise in class activities are focusing on students being "taken aback" by a situation, hopefully…

  5. Not Everybody Needs Help to Seek Help: Surprising Effects of Metacognitive Instructions to Foster Help-Seeking in an Online-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Elmar; Bromme, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Offering help functions is a standard feature of computer-based interactive learning environments (ILE). Nevertheless, a number of recent studies indicate that learners are not using such help facilities effectively. We compared the effects of different metacognitive supports to foster learners' help-seeking behavior in an ILE for plant…

  6. Some effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retriactive interference in short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of

  7. A toolkit for detecting technical surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Michael Wayne; Foehse, Mark C.

    2010-10-01

    The detection of a scientific or technological surprise within a secretive country or institute is very difficult. The ability to detect such surprises would allow analysts to identify the capabilities that could be a military or economic threat to national security. Sandia's current approach utilizing ThreatView has been successful in revealing potential technological surprises. However, as data sets become larger, it becomes critical to use algorithms as filters along with the visualization environments. Our two-year LDRD had two primary goals. First, we developed a tool, a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), to extend ThreatView and improve our understanding of the issues involved in working with textual data sets. Second, we developed a toolkit for detecting indicators of technical surprise in textual data sets. Our toolkit has been successfully used to perform technology assessments for the Science & Technology Intelligence (S&TI) program.

  8. Deciphering network community structure by surprise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldecoa, Rodrigo; Marín, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    .... A fundamental, unsolved problem is how to characterize the community structure of a network. Here, using both standard and novel benchmarks, we show that maximization of a simple global parameter, which we call Surprise...

  9. A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164503.html A Surprising Culprit Behind Celiac Disease? Study suggests harmless viruses may set stage ... typically harmless type of virus might sometimes trigger celiac disease, a new study suggests. Celiac disease is ...

  10. Scale effects and a method for similarity evaluation in micro electrical discharge machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyu; Zhang, Qinhe; Wang, Kan; Zhu, Guang; Fu, Xiuzhuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    Electrical discharge machining(EDM) is a promising non-traditional micro machining technology that offers a vast array of applications in the manufacturing industry. However, scale effects occur when machining at the micro-scale, which can make it difficult to predict and optimize the machining performances of micro EDM. A new concept of "scale effects" in micro EDM is proposed, the scale effects can reveal the difference in machining performances between micro EDM and conventional macro EDM. Similarity theory is presented to evaluate the scale effects in micro EDM. Single factor experiments are conducted and the experimental results are analyzed by discussing the similarity difference and similarity precision. The results show that the output results of scale effects in micro EDM do not change linearly with discharge parameters. The values of similarity precision of machining time significantly increase when scaling-down the capacitance or open-circuit voltage. It is indicated that the lower the scale of the discharge parameter, the greater the deviation of non-geometrical similarity degree over geometrical similarity degree, which means that the micro EDM system with lower discharge energy experiences more scale effects. The largest similarity difference is 5.34 while the largest similarity precision can be as high as 114.03. It is suggested that the similarity precision is more effective in reflecting the scale effects and their fluctuation than similarity difference. Consequently, similarity theory is suitable for evaluating the scale effects in micro EDM. This proposed research offers engineering values for optimizing the machining parameters and improving the machining performances of micro EDM.

  11. Higher-order effects on self-similar parabolic pulse in the microstructured fibre amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei-Ci; Xu Wen-Cheng; Feng Jie; Chen Wei-Cheng; Li Shu-Xian; Lin Song-Hao

    2008-01-01

    By considering higher-order effects, the properties of self-similar parabolic pulses propagating in the microstructured fibre amplifier with a normal group-velocity dispersion have been investigated. The numerical results indicate that the higher-order effects can badly distort self-similar parabolic pulse shape and optical spectrum, and at the same time the peak shift and oscillation appear, while the pulse still reveals highly linear chirp but grows into asymmetry. The influence of different higher-order effects on self-similar parabolic pulse propagation has been analysed. It shows thatthe self-steepening plays a more important role. We can manipulate the geometrical parameters of the microstructured fibre amplifier to gain a suitable dispersion and nonlinearity coefficient which will keep high-quality self-similar parabolic pulse propagation. These results are significant for the further study of self-similar parabolic pulse propagation.

  12. A Synchronic Lexical Study of Gbe Language Varieties: The Effects of Different Similarity Judgment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kluge

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a synchronic lexical study of the Gbe varieties of West Africa, this paper explores the question whether the use of different criteria sets to judge the similarity of lexical features in different language varieties yields the same or different conclusions regarding the relative relationships and clustering of the investigated varieties and the prioritization of further sociolinguistic research. Word lists elicited in 49 Gbe varieties were analyzed by means of the inspection method. To assess the effects of different similarity judgment criteria, two different similarity judgment criteria sets were applied to the elicited data to identify similar lexical items. The quantification of these similarity decisions resulted in the computation of two similarity matrices which were subsequently analyzed by means of correlation analysis and multidimensional scaling. The findings of the correlation analysis indicate a significant linear and positive relationship between both word-list computations, thus supporting the conclusion that application of either set of similarity judgment criteria would lead to similar clustering results for the Gbe data set. These findings are corroborated by the findings of multidimensional scaling which suggest that different sets of similarity judgment criteria lead to similar clustering results and similar conclusions as to the scope and priorities for further research

  13. Visual and Phonological Similarity Effects in Verbal Immediate Serial Recall: A Test with Kanji Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoru; Logie, Robert H.; Morita, Aiko; Law, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In a series of three experiments, native speakers of Japanese performed serial ordered written recall of visually presented Japanese kanji characters that varied systematically in visual and phonological similarity. Overall effects of phonological similarity were observed for retention of serial order under silent reading in Experiments 1 and 3…

  14. Effects of High-Order Co-occurrences on Word Semantic Similarities

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaire, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    A computational model of the construction of word meaning through exposure to texts is built in order to simulate the effects of co-occurrence values on word semantic similarities, paragraph by paragraph. Semantic similarity is here viewed as association. It turns out that the similarity between two words W1 and W2 strongly increases with a co-occurrence, decreases with the occurrence of W1 without W2 or W2 without W1, and slightly increases with high-order co-occurrences. Therefore, operationalizing similarity as a frequency of co-occurrence probably introduces a bias: first, there are cases in which there is similarity without co-occurrence and, second, the frequency of co-occurrence overestimates similarity.

  15. Effect of Similarity-Based Guided Discovery Learning on Conceptual Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrin, Pierre-A; Preckel, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analogies are known to foster concept learning, whereas discovery learning is effective for transfer. By combining discovery learning and analogies or similarities of concepts, attractive new arrangements emerge, but do they maintain both concept and transfer effects? Unfortunately, there is a lack of data confirming such combined effectiveness.…

  16. Surprises in numerical expressions of physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel; Tokieda, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In science, as in life, `surprises' can be adequately appreciated only in the presence of a null model, what we expect a priori. In physics, theories sometimes express the values of dimensionless physical constants as combinations of mathematical constants like pi or e. The inverse problem also arises, whereby the measured value of a physical constant admits a `surprisingly' simple approximation in terms of well-known mathematical constants. Can we estimate the probability for this to be a mere coincidence, rather than an inkling of some theory? We answer the question in the most naive form.

  17. Exploring the concept of climate surprises. A review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, M.H.; Moore, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Streets, D.G.; Bhatti, N.; Rosa, C.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Stewart, T.R. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the concept of climate surprise and its implications for environmental policymaking. Although most integrated assessment models of climate change deal with average values of change, it is usually the extreme events or surprises that cause the most damage to human health and property. Current models do not help the policymaker decide how to deal with climate surprises. This report examines the literature of surprise in many aspects of human society: psychology, military, health care, humor, agriculture, etc. It draws together various ways to consider the concept of surprise and examines different taxonomies of surprise that have been proposed. In many ways, surprise is revealed to be a subjective concept, triggered by such factors as prior experience, belief system, and level of education. How policymakers have reacted to specific instances of climate change or climate surprise in the past is considered, particularly with regard to the choices they made between proactive and reactive measures. Finally, the report discusses techniques used in the current generation of assessment models and makes suggestions as to how climate surprises might be included in future models. The report concludes that some kinds of surprises are simply unpredictable, but there are several types that could in some way be anticipated and assessed, and their negative effects forestalled.

  18. An experimental test of the persuasive effect of source similarity in narrative and nonnarrative health blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Amy Shirong

    2013-07-25

    Blogs, or websites containing online personal journals, are a form of popular personal communication with immense potential for health promotion. Narratives are stories with a beginning, middle, and end that provide information about the characters and plot. Source similarity refers to the degree to which the message source and each recipient are alike with respect to certain attributes. Narratives and source similarity have seldom been examined in tandem as strategies for health persuasion. Personal health blogs provide a suitable platform for such an investigation. This study examined the persuasive effects of message type and source similarity on participants' intentions to adopt a specific health behavior (running for exercise). A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (n=25 per condition) in a completely crossed, 2 (message type: narrative and nonnarrative) × 3 (source similarity: no similarity, non-health-related similarity, and health-related similarity) between-subjects experiment. First, in an online questionnaire, participants provided personal information in 42 categories and rated the relatedness of each category to running and then completed pretest measures of the dependent variables. Based on their responses, 150 personal health blogs were created. Two weeks later, the initial participants read the blog created with their personal characteristics and completed a questionnaire online. The source similarity effect was stronger in nonnarrative than narrative blogs. When the blogs were nonnarrative, those with health-related similarities were more persuasive than those with non-health-related similarities. Narrative blogs generated more positive thoughts and stronger blogger identification than nonnarrative blogs. Health-related source similarity is key for persuasive health communication, especially when the messages are nonnarrative.

  19. Surprises from extragalactic propagation of UHECRs

    CERN Document Server

    Boncioli, Denise; Grillo, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic ray experimental data are now of very good statistical significance even in the region of the expected GZK feature. The identification of their sources requires sophisticate analysis of their propagation in the extragalactic space. When looking at the details of this propagation some unforeseen features emerge. We will discuss some of these "surprises".

  20. Using Similarities and Differences: A Meta-Analysis of Its Effects and Emergent Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Helen S.; Igel, Charles; Dean, Ceri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to update previous meta-analytic findings on the effectiveness of using similarities and differences as an instructional strategy. The strategy includes facilitating student comparison, classification, use of analogies, and use of metaphors. Previously, Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock reported a mean effect size of…

  1. Using Similarities and Differences: A Meta-Analysis of Its Effects and Emergent Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Helen S.; Igel, Charles; Dean, Ceri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to update previous meta-analytic findings on the effectiveness of using similarities and differences as an instructional strategy. The strategy includes facilitating student comparison, classification, use of analogies, and use of metaphors. Previously, Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock reported a mean effect size of…

  2. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  3. Layer Decomposition: An Effective Structure-based Approach for Scientific Workflow Similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Starlinger, Johannes; Cohen-Boulakia, Sarah; Khanna, Sanjeev; Davidson, Susan; Leser, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Scientific workflows have become a valuable tool for large-scale data processing and analysis. This has led to the creation of specialized online repositories to facilitate workflow sharing and reuse. Over time, these repositories have grown to sizes that call for advanced methods to support workflow discovery, in particular for effective similarity search. Here, we present a novel and intuitive workflow similarity measure that is based on layer decomposition. Layer de...

  4. Predicting Lexical Priming Effects from Distributional Semantic Similarities: A Replication with Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Fritz; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we attempted to replicate and extend findings by Günther et al. (2016) that word similarity measures obtained from distributional semantics models-Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and Hyperspace Analog to Language (HAL)-predict lexical priming effects. To this end, we used the pseudo-random method to generate item material while systematically controlling for word similarities introduced by Günther et al. (2016) which was based on LSA cosine similarities (Experiment 1) and HAL cosine similarities (Experiment 2). Extending the original study, we used semantic spaces created from far larger corpora, and implemented several additional methodological improvements. In Experiment 1, we only found a significant effect of HAL cosines on lexical decision times, while we found significant effects for both LSA and HAL cosines in Experiment 2. As further supported by an analysis of the pooled data from both experiments, this indicates that HAL cosines are a better predictor of priming effects than LSA cosines. Taken together, the results replicate the finding that priming effects can be predicted from distributional semantic similarity measures.

  5. Predicting lexical priming effects from distributional semantic similarities: A replication with extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Günther

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, we attempted to replicate findings by Günther, Dudschig &Kaup (2016 that word similarity measures obtained from distributional semantics models -Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA and Hyperspace Analogue to Language (HAL - predictlexical priming effects. To this end, we used the pseudo-random method to generate itemmaterial while systematically controlling for word similarities introduced by Günther et al.,which was based on LSA cosine similarities (Experiment 1 and HAL cosine similarities(Experiment 2. Contrary to the original study, we used semantic spaces created from farlarger corpora, and implemented several additional methodological improvements. InExperiment 1, we only found a significant effect of HAL cosines on lexical decision times,while we found significant effects for both LSA and HAL cosines in Experiment 2. Asfurther supported by an analysis of the pooled data from both experiments, this indicatesthat HAL cosines are a better predictor of priming effects than LSA cosines. Takentogether, the results replicate the finding that priming effects can be predicted fromdistributional semantic similarity measures.

  6. The role of similarity in updating numerical information in working memory: decomposing the numerical distance effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the process of updating representations in working memory (WM) and how similarity between the information involved influences this process. In WM updating tasks, the similarity in terms of numerical distance between the number to be substituted and the new one facilitates the updating process. We aimed to disentangle the possible effect of two dimensions of similarity that may contribute to this numerical effect: numerical distance itself and common digits shared between the numbers involved. Three experiments were conducted in which different ranges of distances and the coincidence between the digits of the two numbers involved in updating were manipulated. Results showed that the two dimensions of similarity had an effect on updating times. The greater the similarity between the information maintained in memory and the new information that substituted it, the faster the updating. This is consistent both with the idea of distributed representations based on features, and with a selective updating process based on a feature overwriting mechanism. Thus, updating in WM can be understood as a selective substitution process influenced by similarity in which only certain parts of the representation stored in memory are changed.

  7. [Contrast effects of background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction: a study of topic familiarity effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. Mascaro and Graves (1973) argued that a contrast effect on perception of similarity mediated interpersonal attraction. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that topic familiarity moderated the effects of a background stimulus person on attitude similarity judgement and interpersonal attraction. One hundred twenty-two (122) female students were randomly assigned to four groups, formed by two levels of topic familiarity and two levels of similarity for the background stimulus person. They saw the attitudes of two stimulus persons together, and were asked to rate perceived similarity and interpersonal attraction. Results showed that in familiar topic condition, contrast effect was not found for attitude similarity judgement, but it was found for interpersonal attraction. The finding suggested that presence of a background stimulus person immediately led to the contrast effect on interpersonal attraction.

  8. Do transposed-letter similarity effects occur at a prelexical phonological level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Carreiras, Manuel

    2006-09-01

    Nonwords created by transposing two letters (e.g., RELOVUTION) are very effective at activating the lexical representation of their base words (Perea & Lupker, 2004). In the present study, we examined whether the nature of transposed-letter (TL) similarity effects was purely orthographic or whether it could also have a phonological component. Specifically, we examined transposed-letter similarity effects for nonwords created by transposing two nonadjacent letters (e.g., relovución-REVOLUCION) in a masked form priming experiment using the lexical decision task (Experiment 1). The controls were (a) a pseudohomophone of the transposed-letter prime (relobución-REVOLUCION; note that B and V are pronounced as /b/ in Spanish) or (b) an orthographic control (relodución-REVOLUCION). Results showed a similar advantage of the TL nonword condition over the phonological and the orthographic control conditions. Experiment 2 showed a masked phonological priming effect when the letter positions in the prime were in the right order. In a third experiment, using a single-presentation lexical decision task, TL nonwords produced longer latencies than the orthographic and phonological controls, whereas there was only a small phonological effect restricted to the error data. These results suggest that TL similarity effects are orthographic--rather than phonological--in nature.

  9. Similarity-based search of model organism, disease and drug effect phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoehndorf, Robert

    2015-02-19

    Background: Semantic similarity measures over phenotype ontologies have been demonstrated to provide a powerful approach for the analysis of model organism phenotypes, the discovery of animal models of human disease, novel pathways, gene functions, druggable therapeutic targets, and determination of pathogenicity. Results: We have developed PhenomeNET 2, a system that enables similarity-based searches over a large repository of phenotypes in real-time. It can be used to identify strains of model organisms that are phenotypically similar to human patients, diseases that are phenotypically similar to model organism phenotypes, or drug effect profiles that are similar to the phenotypes observed in a patient or model organism. PhenomeNET 2 is available at http://aber-owl.net/phenomenet. Conclusions: Phenotype-similarity searches can provide a powerful tool for the discovery and investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying an observed phenotypic manifestation. PhenomeNET 2 facilitates user-defined similarity searches and allows researchers to analyze their data within a large repository of human, mouse and rat phenotypes.

  10. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  11. Surprise Leads to Noisier Perceptual Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Garrido

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Surprising events in the environment can impair task performance. This might be due to complete distraction, leading to lapses during which performance is reduced to guessing. Alternatively, unpredictability might cause a graded withdrawal of perceptual resources from the task at hand and thereby reduce sensitivity. Here we attempt to distinguish between these two mechanisms. Listeners performed a novel auditory pitch—duration discrimination, where stimulus loudness changed occasionally and incidentally to the task. Responses were slower and less accurate in the surprising condition, where loudness changed unpredictably, than in the predictable condition, where the loudness was held constant. By explicitly modelling both lapses and changes in sensitivity, we found that unpredictable changes diminished sensitivity but did not increase the rate of lapses. These findings suggest that background environmental uncertainty can disrupt goal-directed behaviour. This graded processing strategy might be adaptive in potentially threatening contexts, and reflect a flexible system for automatic allocation of perceptual resources.

  12. Radar Design to Protect Against Surprise.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2015-02-01

    Technological and doctrinal surprise is about rendering preparations for conflict as irrelevant or ineffective . For a sensor, this means essentially rendering the sensor as irrelevant or ineffective in its ability to help determine truth. Recovery from this sort of surprise is facilitated by flexibility in our own technology and doctrine. For a sensor, this mean s flexibility in its architecture, design, tactics, and the designing organizations ' processes. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report is the result of a n unfunded research and development activity . Sandia National Laboratories is a multi - program laboratory manage d and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000.

  13. Surprise-Based Learning for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    for scientific theories containing recursive theoretical terms". British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 44. 641-652, 1993. Piaget J.. "The Origins...paradigm stems from Piaget’s theory of Developmental Psychology [5], Herben Simon’s theory on dual-space search for knowledge and problem solving [6...34, Twenty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, Edinburgh, Scotland, July 2005. [34] Itti L., Baldi P., "A Surprising Theory of

  14. Prosodic Similarity Effects in Short-Term Memory in Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Barnes, Lisa; Mead, Natasha; Power, Alan James; Leong, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia are characterized by phonological difficulties across languages. Classically, this 'phonological deficit' in dyslexia has been investigated with tasks using single-syllable words. Recently, however, several studies have demonstrated difficulties in prosodic awareness in dyslexia. Potential prosodic effects in short-term memory have not yet been investigated. Here we create a new instrument based on three-syllable words that vary in stress patterns, to investigate whether prosodic similarity (the same prosodic pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables) exerts systematic effects on short-term memory. We study participants with dyslexia and age-matched and younger reading-level-matched typically developing controls. We find that all participants, including dyslexic participants, show prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. All participants exhibited better retention of words that differed in prosodic structure, although participants with dyslexia recalled fewer words accurately overall compared to age-matched controls. Individual differences in prosodic memory were predicted by earlier vocabulary abilities, by earlier sensitivity to syllable stress and by earlier phonological awareness. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of prosodic similarity effects in short-term memory. The implications of a prosodic similarity effect for theories of lexical representation and of dyslexia are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of multiple conformers per compound upon 3-D similarity search and bioassay data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve the utility of PubChem, a public repository containing biological activities of small molecules, the PubChem3D project adds computationally-derived three-dimensional (3-D descriptions to the small-molecule records contained in the PubChem Compound database and provides various search and analysis tools that exploit 3-D molecular similarity. Therefore, the efficient use of PubChem3D resources requires an understanding of the statistical and biological meaning of computed 3-D molecular similarity scores between molecules. Results The present study investigated effects of employing multiple conformers per compound upon the 3-D similarity scores between ten thousand randomly selected biologically-tested compounds (10-K set and between non-inactive compounds in a given biological assay (156-K set. When the “best-conformer-pair” approach, in which a 3-D similarity score between two compounds is represented by the greatest similarity score among all possible conformer pairs arising from a compound pair, was employed with ten diverse conformers per compound, the average 3-D similarity scores for the 10-K set increased by 0.11, 0.09, 0.15, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.18 for STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt, respectively, relative to the corresponding averages computed using a single conformer per compound. Interestingly, the best-conformer-pair approach also increased the average 3-D similarity scores for the non-inactive–non-inactive (NN pairs for a given assay, by comparable amounts to those for the random compound pairs, although some assays showed a pronounced increase in the per-assay NN-pair 3-D similarity scores, compared to the average increase for the random compound pairs. Conclusion These results suggest that the use of ten diverse conformers per compound in PubChem bioassay data analysis using 3-D molecular similarity is not expected to increase the separation of non

  16. Perceiving others' personalities: examining the dimensionality, assumed similarity to the self, and stability of perceiver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Guglielmo, Steve; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-03-01

    In interpersonal perception, "perceiver effects" are tendencies of perceivers to see other people in a particular way. Two studies of naturalistic interactions examined perceiver effects for personality traits: seeing a typical other as sympathetic or quarrelsome, responsible or careless, and so forth. Several basic questions were addressed. First, are perceiver effects organized as a global evaluative halo, or do perceptions of different traits vary in distinct ways? Second, does assumed similarity (as evidenced by self-perceiver correlations) reflect broad evaluative consistency or trait-specific content? Third, are perceiver effects a manifestation of stable beliefs about the generalized other, or do they form in specific contexts as group-specific stereotypes? Findings indicated that perceiver effects were better described by a differentiated, multidimensional structure with both trait-specific content and a higher order global evaluation factor. Assumed similarity was at least partially attributable to trait-specific content, not just to broad evaluative similarity between self and others. Perceiver effects were correlated with gender and attachment style, but in newly formed groups, they became more stable over time, suggesting that they grew dynamically as group stereotypes. Implications for the interpretation of perceiver effects and for research on personality assessment and psychopathology are discussed.

  17. Hardly thinking about others : On cognitive busyness and target similarity in social comparison effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, DA; Marx, DM

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were undertaken to investigate the impact of other-self similarity on the outcome of social comparison effects when people are cognitively busy versus non-busy. Results demonstrate that when perceivers are able to devote sufficient cognitive resources to the comparison process, extremely

  18. Cross-language Similarity Modulates Effectiveness of Second Language Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolentino, Leida C.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instruction method and cross-language similarity during second language (L2) grammar learning. English speakers learned a subset of Swedish using contrast and color highlighting (Salience Group), contrast and highlighting with grammatical explanations (Rule & Salience Group), or neither (Control Group with…

  19. The effects of familiarity and similarity on compliance in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Nass, C.; Markopoulos, P.

    2014-01-01

    Advertisers on social network sites often use recommendations by others in a user's networks to endorse products. While these familiar others are hypothesised to be more effective in influencing users than unfamiliar others, there is a catch: familiarity does not necessarily ensure similarity to the

  20. An Exploratory Study of Gender Effect on Student Presentation Evaluations: Does Gender Similarity Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an evaluation form. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from marketing students at two universities in the USA. A rubric and separate survey instrument were used…

  1. The effects of familiarity and similarity on compliance in social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Nass, C.; Markopoulos, P.

    2014-01-01

    Advertisers on social network sites often use recommendations by others in a user's networks to endorse products. While these familiar others are hypothesised to be more effective in influencing users than unfamiliar others, there is a catch: familiarity does not necessarily ensure similarity to the

  2. Generalized quantum similarity in atomic systems: A quantifier of relativistic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, A. L.; Angulo, J. C.; Antolín, J.; López-Rosa, S.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum similarity between Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Fock electron densities reveals the depth of relativistic effects on the core and valence regions in atomic systems. The results emphasize the relevance of differences in the outermost subshells, as pointed out in recent studies by means of Shannon-like functionals. In this work, a generalized similarity functional allows us to go far beyond the Shannon-based analyses. The numerical results for systems throughout the Periodic Table show that discrepancies between the relativistic and non-relativistic descriptions are patently governed by shell-filling patterns.

  3. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  4. Evaluation of similar metal weld effects on residual stress of nozzle dissimilar metal weld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seung Cheon; Jeong, Jae Uk; Chang, Yoon Suk; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Determination of weld-induced residual stress has been an important issue in nuclear power industry because several failures were reported in dissimilar metal weld parts due to primary water stress corrosion cracking. In this context, a couple of remarkable round robin analyses were conducted to quantify the welding simulation variables and to establish optimized numerical analysis process. The purpose of the present research is to introduce welding simulation results for a safety and relief nozzle, which has a dissimilar metal weld part as well as a similar metal weld part. First, finite element analyses are carried out to calculate residual stresses at the inside of nozzle considering only dissimilar metal welding. Subsequently, residual stresses taking into account both the dissimilar and similar metal welding are computed. The similar metal weld effect is evaluated by comparing these analysis results and technical findings derived from the evaluation are fully discussed.

  5. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: Similar patterns of rehearsal and similar effects of word length, presentation rate, and articulatory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Smith, Jessica; Hayes, Louise

    2009-07-01

    In five experiments, rehearsal and recall phenomena were examined using the free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with lists of eight words, were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR, and rehearsed out loud during presentation. The patterns of rehearsal were similar in all the conditions, and there was little difference between recall in the precued and postcued conditions. In Experiment 2, both free recall and ISR were sensitive to word length and presentation rate and showed similar patterns of rehearsal. In Experiment 3, both tasks were sensitive to word length and articulatory suppression. The word length effects generalized to 6-item (Experiment 4) and 12-item (Experiment 5) lists. These findings suggest that the two tasks are underpinned by highly similar rehearsal and recall processes.

  6. Waveguiding and mirroring effects in stochastic self-similar and Cantorian {epsilon}{sup (infinity)} universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovane, G. E-mail: iovane@diima.unisa.it

    2005-02-01

    A waveguiding effect is considered with respect to the large scale structure of the Universe, where the structures formation appears as if it were a classically self-similar random process at all astrophysical scales. The result is that it seems we live in an El Naschie's {epsilon}{sup (infinity)} Cantorian space-time, where gravitational lensing and waveguiding effects can explain the appearing Universe. In particular, we consider filamentary and planar large scale structures as possible refraction channels for electromagnetic radiation coming from cosmological structures. From this vision the Universe appears like a large self-similar adaptive mirrors set. Consequently, an infinite Universe is just an optical illusion that is produced by mirroring effects connected with the large scale structure of a finite and not so large Universe. Thanks to the presented analytical model supported by a numerical simulation, it is possible to explain the quasar luminosity distribution and the presence of 'twin' or 'brother' objects. More generally, the infinity and the abundance of astrophysical objects could be just a mirroring effect due to the peculiar self-similarity of the Universe.

  7. A Novel Drug-Mouse Phenotypic Similarity Method Detects Molecular Determinants of Drug Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Jeanette; Vogt, Ingo; Adornetto, Gianluca; Campillos, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that translate drug treatment into beneficial and unwanted effects are largely unknown. We present here a novel approach to detect gene-drug and gene-side effect associations based on the phenotypic similarity of drugs and single gene perturbations in mice that account for the polypharmacological property of drugs. We scored the phenotypic similarity of human side effect profiles of 1,667 small molecules and biologicals to profiles of phenotypic traits of 5,384 mouse genes. The benchmarking with known relationships revealed a strong enrichment of physical and indirect drug-target connections, causative drug target-side effect links as well as gene-drug links involved in pharmacogenetic associations among phenotypically similar gene-drug pairs. The validation by in vitro assays and the experimental verification of an unknown connection between oxandrolone and prokineticin receptor 2 reinforces the ability of this method to provide new molecular insights underlying drug treatment. Thus, this approach may aid in the proposal of novel and personalized treatments. PMID:27673331

  8. Identification with the retail organization and customer-perceived employee similarity: effects on customer spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netemeyer, Richard G; Heilman, Carrie M; Maxham, James G

    2012-09-01

    Two constructs important to academicians and managers are the degree to which employees and customers identify with an organization, employee organizational identification (employee OI) and customer-company identification (customer identification), respectively. This research examines the effects of these identification constructs and the related construct of customer perceived similarity to employees on customer spending. Via a 1-year multilevel study of 12,047 customers and 1,464 store employees (sales associates) covering 212 stores of a specialty apparel retailer, our study contributes to the literature in 2 critical ways. First, we expand the theoretical network of employee OI and customer identification by examining the related construct of a customer's perceived similarity to store employees. We examine the incremental (not fully mediated) main and interaction effects of customer-perceived similarity to employees and employee OI on customer spending. Second, we examine the effect of customer identification on customer spending relative to the effect of customer satisfaction on customer spending. Thus, our study also contributes by demonstrating a potential complementary route to achieve customer spending (customer identification), a route that may be more readily affected by management than the efforts required for a sustained increase in customer satisfaction. Implications for academics and managers are offered.

  9. Some surprising facts about (the problem of) surprising facts (from the Dusseldorf Conference, February 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, D

    2014-03-01

    A common intuition about evidence is that if data x have been used to construct a hypothesis H, then x should not be used again in support of H. It is no surprise that x fits H, if H was deliberately constructed to accord with x. The question of when and why we should avoid such "double-counting" continues to be debated in philosophy and statistics. It arises as a prohibition against data mining, hunting for significance, tuning on the signal, and ad hoc hypotheses, and as a preference for predesignated hypotheses and "surprising" predictions. I have argued that it is the severity or probativeness of the test--or lack of it--that should determine whether a double-use of data is admissible. I examine a number of surprising ambiguities and unexpected facts that continue to bedevil this debate.

  10. Similarity transformation for equilibrium flows, including effects of blowing and suction

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    A similarity transformation for the mean velocity profiles is obtained in sink flow turbulent boundary layers (TBL), including effects of blowing and suction. It is based on symmetry analysis which transforms the governing partial differential equations (for mean mass and momentum) into an ordinary differential equation and yields a new result including an exact, linear relation between the mean normal ($V$) and streamwise ($U$) velocities. A characteristic length is further introduced which, under a first order expansion in wall blowing/suction velocity, leads to the similarity transformation for $U$. This transformation is shown to be a group invariant under a generalized symmetry analysis and maps different $U$ profiles under different blowing/suction conditions into a (universal) profile under no blowing/suction. Its inverse transformation enables predictions of all mean quantities in the mean mass and momentum equations - $U$, $V$ and the Reynolds shear stress - in good agreement with direct numerical si...

  11. Stroke Recovery: Surprising Influences and Residual Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argye E. Hillis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is startling individual variability in the degree to which people recover from stroke and the duration of time over which recovery of some symptoms occurs. There are a variety of mechanisms of recovery from stroke which take place at distinct time points after stroke and are influenced by different variables. We review recent studies from our laboratory that unveil some surprising findings, such as the role of education in chronic recovery. We also report data showing that the consequences that most plague survivors of stroke and their caregivers are loss of high level cortical functions, such as empathy or written language. These results have implications for rehabilitation and management of stroke.

  12. Thermal hydraulic similarity analysis of the integral effect test facility for main steam line break events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K.Y.; Park, H.S.; Euh, D.J.; Kwon, T.S.; Baek, W.P. [Thermal Hydraulic Safety Research Division Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute 150 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is being constructed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ATLAS is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288 volume scaled test facility based on the design features of the APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor developed by Korean industry. The ATLAS will be used to get more realistic understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena following postulated events and to carry out performance evaluation and safety analysis of the reference plants. The MSLB (Main Steam Line Break) event is one of the representative non-LOCA events and thermalhydraulic phenomena following the event are to be investigated in the ATLAS. In this paper, thermal hydraulic similarity for MSLB events between the ATLAS and the prototype plant, APR1400 is assessed by using the MARS code, which is a multi-dimensional best-estimate thermal hydraulic code being developed by KAERI. Several cases including SLBFPLOOP and SLBFP are taken into account for similarity analysis in this paper. The neutronic effects such as moderator temperature coefficients and doppler reactivity in APR1400 are not considered in this study. The same control logics for the major sequence of events such as reactor trip, turbine trip, valve opening and actuation of the emergency cooling system are applied to the ATLAS and the APR1400. The present investigation is focused on the scaling and the reduced power effects on thermal hydraulic similarity after initiation of MSLB events. It is found that the ATLAS facility has the similar thermal hydraulic responses against the MSLB events. However, the initial high secondary pressure before the MSLB initiation resulted in different primary pressure and temperature progression from the APR1400. The break flow from the main steam line is found to be one of the most dominating parameters governing the transient

  13. High doses of dextromethorphan, an NMDA antagonist, produce effects similar to classic hallucinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Although reports of dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have increased recently, few studies have examined the effects of high doses of DXM. Objective This study in humans evaluated the effects of supratherapeutic doses of DXM and triazolam. Methods Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg/70kg), and placebo were administered to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed repeatedly after drug administration for 6 hours. Results Triazolam produced dose-related increases in subject-rated sedation, observer-rated sedation, and behavioral impairment. DXM produced a profile of dose-related physiological and subjective effects differing from triazolam. DXM effects included increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and emesis, increases in observer-rated effects typical of classic hallucinogens (e.g. distance from reality, visual effects with eyes open and closed, joy, anxiety), and participant ratings of stimulation (e.g. jittery, nervous), somatic effects (e.g. tingling, headache), perceptual changes, end-of-session drug liking, and mystical-type experience. After 400 mg/70kg DXM, 11 of 12 participants indicated on a pharmacological class questionnaire that they thought they had received a classic hallucinogen (e.g. psilocybin). Drug effects resolved without significant adverse effects by the end of the session. In a 1-month follow up volunteers attributed increased spirituality and positive changes in attitudes, moods, and behavior to the session experiences. Conclusions High doses of DXM produced effects distinct from triazolam and had characteristics that were similar to the classic hallucinogen psilocybin. PMID:22526529

  14. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment.

  15. Effective algorithm for ray-tracing simulations of lobster eye and similar reflective optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, Vladimír; Hudec, René; Němcová, Šárka

    2016-06-01

    The algorithm presented is intended mainly for lobster eye optics. This type of optics (and some similar types) allows for a simplification of the classical ray-tracing procedure that requires great many rays to simulate. The method presented performs the simulation of a only few rays; therefore it is extremely effective. Moreover, to simplify the equations, a specific mathematical formalism is used. Only a few simple equations are used, therefore the program code can be simple as well. The paper also outlines how to apply the method to some other reflective optical systems.

  16. Improving the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group via approximate inclusion of three-body effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Titus; Bogner, Scott

    2016-09-01

    The In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG) has been applied successfully to the ground state of closed shell finite nuclei. Recent work has extended its ability to target excited states of these closed shell systems via equation of motion methods, and also complete spectra of the whole SD shell via effective shell model interactions. A recent alternative method for solving of the IM-SRG equations, based on the Magnus expansion, not only provides a computationally feasible route to producing observables, but also allows for approximate handling of induced three-body forces. Promising results for several systems, including finite nuclei, will be presented and discussed.

  17. The conceptualization model problem—surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John

    2005-03-01

    The foundation of model analysis is the conceptual model. Surprise is defined as new data that renders the prevailing conceptual model invalid; as defined here it represents a paradigm shift. Limited empirical data indicate that surprises occur in 20-30% of model analyses. These data suggest that groundwater analysts have difficulty selecting the appropriate conceptual model. There is no ready remedy to the conceptual model problem other than (1) to collect as much data as is feasible, using all applicable methods—a complementary data collection methodology can lead to new information that changes the prevailing conceptual model, and (2) for the analyst to remain open to the fact that the conceptual model can change dramatically as more information is collected. In the final analysis, the hydrogeologist makes a subjective decision on the appropriate conceptual model. The conceptualization problem does not render models unusable. The problem introduces an uncertainty that often is not widely recognized. Conceptual model uncertainty is exacerbated in making long-term predictions of system performance. C'est le modèle conceptuel qui se trouve à base d'une analyse sur un modèle. On considère comme une surprise lorsque le modèle est invalidé par des données nouvelles; dans les termes définis ici la surprise est équivalente à un change de paradigme. Des données empiriques limitées indiquent que les surprises apparaissent dans 20 à 30% des analyses effectuées sur les modèles. Ces données suggèrent que l'analyse des eaux souterraines présente des difficultés lorsqu'il s'agit de choisir le modèle conceptuel approprié. Il n'existe pas un autre remède au problème du modèle conceptuel que: (1) rassembler autant des données que possible en utilisant toutes les méthodes applicables—la méthode des données complémentaires peut conduire aux nouvelles informations qui vont changer le modèle conceptuel, et (2) l'analyste doit rester ouvert au fait

  18. A Neural Mechanism for Surprise-related Interruptions of Visuospatial Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R

    2016-11-30

    Surprising perceptual events recruit a fronto-basal ganglia mechanism for inhibition, which suppresses motor activity following surprise. A recent study found that this inhibitory mechanism also disrupts the maintenance of verbal working memory (WM) after surprising tones. However, it is unclear whether this same mechanism also relates to surprise-related interruptions of non-verbal WM. We tested this hypothesis using a change-detection task, in which surprising tones impaired visuospatial WM. Participants also performed a stop-signal task (SST). We used independent component analysis and single-trial scalp-electroencephalogram to test whether the same inhibitory mechanism that reflects motor inhibition in the SST relates to surprise-related visuospatial WM decrements, as was the case for verbal WM. As expected, surprising tones elicited activity of the inhibitory mechanism, and this activity correlated strongly with the trial-by-trial level of surprise. However, unlike for verbal WM, the activity of this mechanism was unrelated to visuospatial WM accuracy. Instead, inhibition-independent activity that immediately succeeded the inhibitory mechanism was increased when visuospatial WM was disrupted. This shows that surprise-related interruptions of visuospatial WM are not effected by the same inhibitory mechanism that interrupts verbal WM, and instead provides evidence for a 2-stage model of distraction.

  19. The role of surprising events in a math game on proportional reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.; Oostendorp, van H.; Vrugte, ter J.; Jong, de T.; Vandercruysse, S.; Elen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether surprising events can be used to stimulate students’ playful learning in a GBL environment in the domain of proportional reasoning. The assumed effect of surprise is that unexpected events interrupt an expectation and therefore triggers the player to evaluate the new situ

  20. Competition-similarity relationships and the nonlinearity of competitive effects in consumer-resource systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Peter A; Rueffler, Claus; Dinnage, Russell

    2008-10-01

    Much previous ecological and evolutionary theory about exploitative competition for a continuous spectrum of resources has used the Lotka-Volterra model with competition coefficients given by a Gaussian function of niche separation. Using explicit consumer-resource models, we show that the Lotka-Volterra model and the assumption of a Gaussian competition-similarity relationship both fail to reflect the impact of strong resource depletion, which typically reduces the influence of the most heavily used resources on the competitive interaction. Taking proper account of resource depletion reveals that strong exploitative competition between efficient consumers is usually a highly nonlinear interaction, implying that a single measure is no longer sufficient to characterize the process. The nonlinearity usually entails weak coupling of competing species when their abundances are high and equal. Rare invaders are likely to have effects on abundant residents much larger than those of the resident on the invader. Asymmetrical utilization curves often produce asymmetrical competition coefficients. Competition coefficients are typically non-Gaussian and are often nonmonotonic functions of niche separation. Utilization curve shape and resource growth functions can have major effects on competition-similarity relationships. A variety of previous theoretical findings need to be reassessed in light of these results.

  1. Effect of Process Parameters of Friction Stir Welded Joint for Similar Aluminium Alloys H30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita S. Thete

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of process parameters of friction stir welded joint for similar aluminium alloys H30 was studied. Taper cylindrical with three flutes all made of High speed steel was used for the friction stir welding (FSW aluminium alloy H30 and the tensile test of the welded joint were tested by universal testing method. The optimization done using detailed mathematical model is simulated by Minitab17. In this investigation, an effective approach based on Taguchi method, has been developed to determine the optimum conditions leading to higher tensile strength. Experiments were conducted on varying rotational speed, transverse speed, and axial force using L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. The present study aims at optimizing process parameters to achieve high tensile strength.

  2. Surprising characteristics of visual systems of invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Jiménez-Gahete, A E

    2017-01-01

    To communicate relevant and striking aspects about the visual system of some close invertebrates. Review of the related literature. The capacity of snails to regenerate a complete eye, the benefit of the oval shape of the compound eye of many flying insects as a way of stabilising the image during flight, the potential advantages related to the extreme refractive error that characterises the ocelli of many insects, as well as the ability to detect polarised light as a navigation system, are some of the surprising capabilities present in the small invertebrate eyes that are described in this work. The invertebrate eyes have capabilities and sensorial modalities that are not present in the human eye. The study of the eyes of these animals can help us to improve our understanding of our visual system, and inspire the development of optical devices. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Surprises from Saturn: Implications for Other Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    The exploration of Saturn by Cassini has provided many surprises regarding: Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere, interactions with its diverse moons, and interactions with the solar wind. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 Saturn radii (RS), was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' observed. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field-aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, unexpected heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, which provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission and a return will be made in 2017. In addition, highly accelerated electrons are seen at Saturn's high Mach number (MA˜100) quasi-parallel bow shock. Here we review some of these key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system objects.

  4. Very similar spacing-effect patterns in very different learning/practice domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kornmeier

    Full Text Available Temporally distributed ("spaced" learning can be twice as efficient as massed learning. This "spacing effect" occurs with a broad spectrum of learning materials, with humans of different ages, with non-human vertebrates and also invertebrates. This indicates, that very basic learning mechanisms are at work ("generality". Although most studies so far focused on very narrow spacing interval ranges, there is some evidence for a non-monotonic behavior of this "spacing effect" ("nonlinearity" with optimal spacing intervals at different time scales. In the current study we focused both the nonlinearity aspect by using a broad range of spacing intervals and the generality aspect by using very different learning/practice domains: Participants learned German-Japanese word pairs and performed visual acuity tests. For each of six groups we used a different spacing interval between learning/practice units from 7 min to 24 h in logarithmic steps. Memory retention was studied in three consecutive final tests, one, seven and 28 days after the final learning unit. For both the vocabulary learning and visual acuity performance we found a highly significant effect of the factor spacing interval on the final test performance. In the 12 h-spacing-group about 85% of the learned words stayed in memory and nearly all of the visual acuity gain was preserved. In the 24 h-spacing-group, in contrast, only about 33% of the learned words were retained and the visual acuity gain dropped to zero. The very similar patterns of results from the two very different learning/practice domains point to similar underlying mechanisms. Further, our results indicate spacing in the range of 12 hours as optimal. A second peak may be around a spacing interval of 20 min but here the data are less clear. We discuss relations between our results and basic learning at the neuronal level.

  5. Very similar spacing-effect patterns in very different learning/practice domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornmeier, Jürgen; Spitzer, Manfred; Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka

    2014-01-01

    Temporally distributed ("spaced") learning can be twice as efficient as massed learning. This "spacing effect" occurs with a broad spectrum of learning materials, with humans of different ages, with non-human vertebrates and also invertebrates. This indicates, that very basic learning mechanisms are at work ("generality"). Although most studies so far focused on very narrow spacing interval ranges, there is some evidence for a non-monotonic behavior of this "spacing effect" ("nonlinearity") with optimal spacing intervals at different time scales. In the current study we focused both the nonlinearity aspect by using a broad range of spacing intervals and the generality aspect by using very different learning/practice domains: Participants learned German-Japanese word pairs and performed visual acuity tests. For each of six groups we used a different spacing interval between learning/practice units from 7 min to 24 h in logarithmic steps. Memory retention was studied in three consecutive final tests, one, seven and 28 days after the final learning unit. For both the vocabulary learning and visual acuity performance we found a highly significant effect of the factor spacing interval on the final test performance. In the 12 h-spacing-group about 85% of the learned words stayed in memory and nearly all of the visual acuity gain was preserved. In the 24 h-spacing-group, in contrast, only about 33% of the learned words were retained and the visual acuity gain dropped to zero. The very similar patterns of results from the two very different learning/practice domains point to similar underlying mechanisms. Further, our results indicate spacing in the range of 12 hours as optimal. A second peak may be around a spacing interval of 20 min but here the data are less clear. We discuss relations between our results and basic learning at the neuronal level.

  6. Surprising similarities: Recent monetary regimes of small economies / Andrew K. Rose

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rose, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Artikkel keskendub väikese majandusega riikide (sh Eesti) rahapoliitikale enne ja pärast ülemaailmset finantskriisi. Kokku analüüsitakse 170 riigi näitajaid aastatest 2007-2012 ning jõutakse järeldusele, et riikide rahapoliitika mõju makromajanduslikele ja finantstagajärgedele on tegelikult üllatavalt väike

  7. Surprising similarities: Recent monetary regimes of small economies / Andrew K. Rose

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rose, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Artikkel keskendub väikese majandusega riikide (sh Eesti) rahapoliitikale enne ja pärast ülemaailmset finantskriisi. Kokku analüüsitakse 170 riigi näitajaid aastatest 2007-2012 ning jõutakse järeldusele, et riikide rahapoliitika mõju makromajanduslikele ja finantstagajärgedele on tegelikult üllatavalt väike

  8. Illicit Drug Funding: The Surprising Systemic Similarities between the FARC and the Taliban

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    conquest of northern South America in the 16th century. This monograph will focus on the social turmoil that began about halfway through the 20th...el Estado entre 1950 y 1951 sirvió, a pesar de sus errores y fracaso, para restar fuerzas y dinámica al movimiento guerrillero de Los Llanos.” 10...a social base (in terms of the labour force involved) and the income they need to escalate and expand their armed struggle.52 It is no coincidence

  9. Surprises in the maize pollen transcriptome: Inbred differences and developmental similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollen is the primary means of gene flow between plants and plant populations and plays a critical role in seed production. Our overall objective is to better understand the molecular and genetic basis of the pollen function. We compared gene expression levels in seedlings, mat...

  10. Evaluating the effect of annotation size on measures of semantic similarity

    KAUST Repository

    Kulmanov, Maxat

    2017-02-13

    Background: Ontologies are widely used as metadata in biological and biomedical datasets. Measures of semantic similarity utilize ontologies to determine how similar two entities annotated with classes from ontologies are, and semantic similarity is increasingly applied in applications ranging from diagnosis of disease to investigation in gene networks and functions of gene products.

  11. The similar neurotoxic effects of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadrup, Niels; Loeschner, Katrin; Mortensen, Alicja; Sharma, Anoop K; Qvortrup, Klaus; Larsen, Erik H; Lam, Henrik R

    2012-06-01

    We compared the neurotoxic effects of 14 nm silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ionic silver, in the form of silver acetate (AgAc), in vivo and in vitro. In female rats, we found that AgNPs (4.5 and 9 mg AgNP/kg bw/day) and ionic silver (9 mg Ag/kg bw/day) increased the dopamine concentration in the brain following 28 days of oral administration. The concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain was increased only by AgNP at a dose of 9 mg Ag/kg bw/day. Only AgAc (9 mg Ag/kg bw/day) was found to increase noradrenaline concentration in the brain. In contrast to the results obtained from a 28-day exposure, the dopamine concentration in the brain was decreased by AgNPs (2.25 and 4.5mg/kg bw/day) following a 14-day exposure. These data suggest that there are differential effects of silver on dopamine depending on the length of exposure. In vitro, AgNPs, AgAc and a 12 kDa filtered sub-nano AgNP fraction were used to investigate cell death mechanisms in neuronal-like PC12 cells. AgNPs and the 12 kDa filtered fraction decreased cell viability to a similar extent, whereas AgAc was relatively more potent. AgNPs did not induce necrosis. However, apoptosis was found to be equally increased in cells exposed to AgNPs and the 12kDa filtered fraction, with AgAc showing a greater potency. Both the mitochondrial and the death receptor pathways were found to be involved in AgNP- and AgAc-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, 14 nm AgNPs and AgAc affected brain neurotransmitter concentrations. AgNP affected 5-HT, AgAc affected noradrenaline, whereas both silver formulations affected dopamine. Furthermore, apoptosis was observed in neuronal-like cells exposed to AgNPs, a 12 kDa filtered fraction of AgNP, and AgAc. These findings suggest that ionic silver and a 14 nm AgNP preparation have similar neurotoxic effects; a possible explanation for this could be the release and action of ionic silver from the surface of AgNPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Similar effects of substance P on learning and memory function between hippocampus and striatal marginal division

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yu; Changchun Zeng; Siyun Shu; Xuemei Liu; Chuhua Li

    2014-01-01

    Substance P is an endogenous neurokinin that is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The neuropeptide substance P and its high-afifnity receptor neurokinin 1 receptor are known to play an important role in the central nervous system in inlfammation, blood pressure, motor behavior and anxiety. The effects of substance P in the hippocampus and the marginal di-vision of the striatum on memory remain poorly understood. Compared with the hippocampus as a control, immunolfuorescence showed high expression of the substance P receptor, neuro-kinin 1, in the marginal division of the striatum of normal rats. Unilateral or bilateral injection of an antisense oligonucleotide against neurokinin 1 receptor mRNA in the rat hippocampus or marginal division of the striatum effectively reduced neurokinin 1 receptor expression. Indepen-dent of injection site, rats that received this antisense oligonucleotide showed obviously increased footshock times in a Y-maze test. These results indicate that the marginal division of the striatum plays a similar function in learning and memory to the hippocampus, which is a valuable addi-tion to our mechanistic understanding of the learning and memory functions of the marginal division of the striatum.

  13. Overlap of phonetic features as a determinant of the between-stream phonological similarity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, Danielle E; Chein, Jason M

    2012-03-01

    Serial recall from working memory is known to be impaired by the presence of irrelevant background speech, but several prior studies have concluded that the magnitude of the impairment is independent of the phonological relationship between to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-ignored (TBI) sources of information. In the present study, we examined the influence of between-stream phonological similarity in serial recall while attending to a heretofore uncontrolled variable, the phonetic feature. We found that TBI items sharing many phonetic features with TBR items produced significantly stronger working-memory impairments than TBI items with minimal phonetic feature overlap. In addition, participants were more likely to report remembering incorrect items that incorporated phonological characteristics of the TBI stream in the high-overlap condition. These findings provide evidence for subphonemic between-stream interactions and suggest that multiple parallel processes contribute to the irrelevant speech effect. We propose that a 2-component model, which combines the assumptions of process- and content-based accounts for the irrelevant speech effect, offers the best explanation for these findings.

  14. Effectively integrating information content and structural relationship to improve the GO-based similarity measure between proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Bo; Feltus, F Alex; Zhou, Jizhong; Luo, Feng

    2010-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) provides a knowledge base to effectively describe proteins. However, measuring similarity between proteins based on GO remains a challenge. In this paper, we propose a new similarity measure, information coefficient similarity measure (SimIC), to effectively integrate both the information content (IC) of GO terms and the structural information of GO hierarchy to determine the similarity between proteins. Testing on yeast proteins, our results show that SimIC efficiently addresses the shallow annotation issue in GO, thus improves the correlations between GO similarities of yeast proteins and their expression similarities as well as between GO similarities of yeast proteins and their sequence similarities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed SimIC is superior in predicting yeast protein interactions. We predict 20484 yeast protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between 2462 proteins based on the high SimIC values of biological process (BP) and cellular component (CC). Examining the...

  15. A Shocking Surprise in Stephan's Quintet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image of the Stephan's Quintet galaxy cluster clearly shows one of the largest shock waves ever seen (green arc). The wave was produced by one galaxy falling toward another at speeds of more than one million miles per hour. The image is made up of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a ground-based telescope in Spain. Four of the five galaxies in this picture are involved in a violent collision, which has already stripped most of the hydrogen gas from the interiors of the galaxies. The centers of the galaxies appear as bright yellow-pink knots inside a blue haze of stars, and the galaxy producing all the turmoil, NGC7318b, is the left of two small bright regions in the middle right of the image. One galaxy, the large spiral at the bottom left of the image, is a foreground object and is not associated with the cluster. The titanic shock wave, larger than our own Milky Way galaxy, was detected by the ground-based telescope using visible-light wavelengths. It consists of hot hydrogen gas. As NGC7318b collides with gas spread throughout the cluster, atoms of hydrogen are heated in the shock wave, producing the green glow. Spitzer pointed its infrared spectrograph at the peak of this shock wave (middle of green glow) to learn more about its inner workings. This instrument breaks light apart into its basic components. Data from the instrument are referred to as spectra and are displayed as curving lines that indicate the amount of light coming at each specific wavelength. The Spitzer spectrum showed a strong infrared signature for incredibly turbulent gas made up of hydrogen molecules. This gas is caused when atoms of hydrogen rapidly pair-up to form molecules in the wake of the shock wave. Molecular hydrogen, unlike atomic hydrogen, gives off most of its energy through vibrations that emit in the infrared. This highly disturbed gas is the most turbulent molecular hydrogen ever seen. Astronomers were surprised not only by the turbulence

  16. An enriched environment and 17-beta estradiol produce similar pro-cognitive effects on ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Pérez, A; Espinosa-Raya, J; Picazo, O

    2016-02-01

    Estrogen depletion due to aging, surgery or pathological events can cause a multitude of problems, including neurodegenerative alterations. In rodents without ovaries, 17-beta estradiol (E2) has been shown to produce beneficial effects on cognition, stimulating brain regions (e.g., the neocortex, hippocampus and amygdala) related to cognition and learning. Another treatment that stimulates these brain regions is an enriched environment (EE), which is a complex set of external factors in the immediate surroundings that facilitates greater stimulation of sensorial, cognitive and motor circuits of the brain. The aim of the present study was to test, using an animal model of ovariectomy-induced impairment of memory, the relative effect of E2 (with a time-released pellet; 1 μg/rat/day), EE exposure and a combination of both treatments. Experimental and control groups were submitted to two memory tests 18 weeks post-surgery: the autoshaping learning task (ALT) for measuring associative learning and the novel object recognition test (NORT) for evaluating short- and long-term memory. To assess potential motor impairments caused by treatments, all rats were tested after the ALT in an automatic activity counter. Results from ALT show that the ovariectomy blocked the conditioned responses displayed, an effect rescued by chronic treatment with estrogen or EE exposure. The combination of both treatments did not improve the results obtained separately. In the NORT, the exploration time for recognizing a novel object was similar in the short run with all groups, but greater in the long run with hormone administration or EE exposure. As with the ALT, in the NORT there was no improvement shown by the combination treatment. These data were not masked by changes in spontaneous activity because this parameter was not modified in the rats by either treatment. Possible action mechanisms are proposed, taking into account the role of corticosterone and BDNF on cognition.

  17. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan; Wilborn, Colin; Urbina, Stacie L; Hayward, Sara E; Krieger, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP) (n = 9) or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP) (n = 12). The RT protocol consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 10 weeks. A total-body routine was employed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions for each exercise. Results showed that pre- and post-workout protein consumption had similar effects on all measures studied (p > 0.05). These findings refute the contention of a narrow post-exercise anabolic window to maximize the muscular response and instead lends support to the theory that the interval for protein intake may be as wide as several hours or perhaps more after a training bout depending on when the pre-workout meal was consumed.

  18. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Jon Schoenfeld

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP (n = 9 or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP (n = 12. The RT protocol consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 10 weeks. A total-body routine was employed with three sets of 8–12 repetitions for each exercise. Results showed that pre- and post-workout protein consumption had similar effects on all measures studied (p > 0.05. These findings refute the contention of a narrow post-exercise anabolic window to maximize the muscular response and instead lends support to the theory that the interval for protein intake may be as wide as several hours or perhaps more after a training bout depending on when the pre-workout meal was consumed.

  19. Web Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale fr

  20. Therapeugenic Factors in Psychotherapy: The Effect of Attitude Similarity on Therapist Credibility and Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautt, Gregory M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, and more likeable. Subjects were more willing to recommend or seek therapy from these therapists. Significant interaction indicated that male subjects were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity. (Author)

  1. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes : A six-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is th

  2. Therapeugenic Factors in Psychotherapy: The Effect of Attitude Similarity on Therapist Credibility and Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautt, Gregory M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The therapist with similar attitudes was seen as more qualified, higher in interpersonal attraction, and more likeable. Subjects were more willing to recommend or seek therapy from these therapists. Significant interaction indicated that male subjects were more affected by the degree of attitude similarity. (Author)

  3. The Effects of Graphic Similarity on Japanese Recognition of Simplified Chinese Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaochun; Yamada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The pedagogical and theoretical questions addressed in this study relate to the extent to which native Japanese readers with little or no knowledge of Chinese characters recognize Chinese characters that are viewed as abbreviations of the kanji they already know. Three graphic similarity functions (i.e., an orthographically acceptable similarity,…

  4. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes : A six-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is th

  5. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes : A six-nation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is

  6. Personality similarity in negotiations: Testing the dyadic effects of similarity in interpersonal traits and the use of emotional displays on negotiation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly Schwind; DeRue, D Scott; Matta, Fadel K; Howe, Michael; Conlon, Donald E

    2016-10-01

    We build on the small but growing literature documenting personality influences on negotiation by examining how the joint disposition of both negotiators with respect to the interpersonal traits of agreeableness and extraversion influences important negotiation processes and outcomes. Building on similarity-attraction theory, we articulate and demonstrate how being similarly high or similarly low on agreeableness and extraversion leads dyad members to express more positive emotional displays during negotiation. Moreover, because of increased positive emotional displays, we show that dyads with such compositions also tend to reach agreements faster, perceive less relationship conflict, and have more positive impressions of their negotiation partner. Interestingly, these results hold regardless of whether negotiating dyads are similar in normatively positive (i.e., similarly agreeable and similarly extraverted) or normatively negative (i.e., similarly disagreeable and similarly introverted) ways. Overall, these findings demonstrate the importance of considering the dyad's personality configuration when attempting to understand the affective experience as well as the downstream outcomes of a negotiation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Primary Renal Synovial Sarcoma: An Oncologic Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krishna Moorthy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary renal synovial sarcoma is a rare tumor having a specific chromosomal translocation t(X; 18 (p11.2; q11.2. The clinical features of this tumor and radiologic appearances are quite similar to those of renal cell carcinoma. Confirmatory diagnosis requires fluorescent in situ hybridization or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction validation for differentiating the tumors from sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. We present a case of primary renal synovial sarcoma that was diagnosed in a middle-aged man.

  8. A little similarity goes a long way: the effects of peripheral but self-revealing similarities on improving and sustaining interracial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V; Magee, Joe C; Gordon, Sarah H; Gullett, Lindy

    2014-07-01

    Integrating theory on close relationships and intergroup relations, we construct a manipulation of similarity that we demonstrate can improve interracial interactions across different settings. We find that manipulating perceptions of similarity on self-revealing attributes that are peripheral to the interaction improves interactions in cross-race dyads and racially diverse task groups. In a getting-acquainted context, we demonstrate that the belief that one's different-race partner is similar to oneself on self-revealing, peripheral attributes leads to less anticipatory anxiety than the belief that one's partner is similar on peripheral, nonself-revealing attributes. In another dyadic context, we explore the range of benefits that perceptions of peripheral, self-revealing similarity can bring to different-race interaction partners and find (a) less anxiety during interaction, (b) greater interest in sustained contact with one's partner, and (c) stronger accuracy in perceptions of one's partners' relationship intentions. By contrast, participants in same-race interactions were largely unaffected by these manipulations of perceived similarity. Our final experiment shows that among small task groups composed of racially diverse individuals, those whose members perceive peripheral, self-revealing similarity perform superior to those who perceive dissimilarity. Implications for using this approach to improve interracial interactions across different goal-driven contexts are discussed.

  9. Similar associations of parental prenatal smoking suggest child blood pressure is not influenced by intrauterine effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Marie-Jo A; Leary, Sam D; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andy R

    2007-06-01

    Maternal smoking in pregnancy may be associated with higher offspring blood pressure; however, results of previous studies have been inconsistent and included varying confounder adjustments. We studied the association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and offspring blood pressure at 7 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, accounting for important social and environmental confounders and using partner smoking to investigate intrauterine effects. Analysis was carried out in 6509 children with maternal smoking data and 7149 children with partner smoking data. In models adjusting for child age and sex, modest differences in systolic blood pressure were observed between children of mothers who did and did not smoke during pregnancy (beta=0.64 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.09 to 1.20; P=0.02). Adjusting for all of the confounders attenuated this difference toward the null (beta=0.05 mm Hg; 95% CI: -0.59 to 0.68; P=0.9), mostly because of adjustment for breastfeeding, maternal education, and family social class. Associations were similar between maternal and partner smoking with offspring systolic blood pressure (for partner smoking: beta=0.62 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.17 to 1.07; P=0.07 minimally adjusted and beta=0.26 mm Hg; 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.87; P=0.4 fully adjusted), providing further evidence that differences in child blood pressure observed in minimally adjusted models are not because of a biological influence of maternal smoking on the intrauterine environment.

  10. Some Effects of Attitudinal Similarity and Exposure on Attraction and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuntich, Richard J.

    1976-01-01

    Previous research investigating the relationship of attraction and aggression has yielded somewhat equivocal results. The present study investigated the influence of two variables, attitudinal similarity and exposure, on interpersonal attraction and physical aggression. (Editor)

  11. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  12. Psychosurgery: National Commission Issues Surprisingly Favorable Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1976-01-01

    Presents results of a national commission's investigation of psychosurgery. Results indicate the procedure to be effective in the cure of patients suffering from pain accompanied by depression, while avoiding the destruction caused by prefrontal lobotomies. (SL)

  13. Coupling effect of nodes popularity and similarity on social network persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaogang; Jin, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxuan; Min, Yong

    2017-02-01

    Network robustness represents the ability of networks to withstand failures and perturbations. In social networks, maintenance of individual activities, also called persistence, is significant towards understanding robustness. Previous works usually consider persistence on pre-generated network structures; while in social networks, the network structure is growing with the cascading inactivity of existed individuals. Here, we address this challenge through analysis for nodes under a coevolution model, which characterizes individual activity changes under three network growth modes: following the descending order of nodes’ popularity, similarity or uniform random. We show that when nodes possess high spontaneous activities, a popularity-first growth mode obtains highly persistent networks; otherwise, with low spontaneous activities, a similarity-first mode does better. Moreover, a compound growth mode, with the consecutive joining of similar nodes in a short period and mixing a few high popularity nodes, obtains the highest persistence. Therefore, nodes similarity is essential for persistent social networks, while properly coupling popularity with similarity further optimizes the persistence. This demonstrates the evolution of nodes activity not only depends on network topology, but also their connective typology.

  14. Similar effects of bottom trawling and natural disturbance on composition and function of benthic communities across habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Denderen, Pieter Daniël; Bolam, S.G.; Hiddink, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    communities in similar ways. Both sources of disturbance caused declines in long-living, hard-bodied (exoskeleton) and suspension-feeding organisms. Given these similar impacts, there was no detectable trawling effect on communities exposed to high natural disturbance. Conversely, in 3 out of 5 areas with low...

  15. Similar effects of bottom trawling and natural disturbance on composition and function of benthic communities across habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Denderen, Pieter Daniël; Bolam, S.G.; Hiddink, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    communities in similar ways. Both sources of disturbance caused declines in long-living, hard-bodied (exoskeleton) and suspension-feeding organisms. Given these similar impacts, there was no detectable trawling effect on communities exposed to high natural disturbance. Conversely, in 3 out of 5 areas with low...

  16. The Effects of Similarity, Evaluation, and Self-Esteem on Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Donald H.

    It was predicted that high self-esteem subjects would have higher attraction scores than low self-esteem subjects to similar strangers or to strangers who gave positive personal evaluations. It was also predicted that high self-esteem subjects would have lower attraction scores than low self-esteem subjects to dissimilar strangers or to subjects…

  17. Dissociating the Effects of Angular Disparity and Image Similarity in Mental Rotation and Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Olivia S.; Hayward, William G.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Performance is often impaired linearly with increasing angular disparity between two objects in tasks that measure mental rotation or object recognition. But increased angular disparity is often accompanied by changes in the similarity between views of an object, confounding the impact of the two factors in these tasks. We examined separately the…

  18. The Effects of Similarity, Evaluation, and Self-Esteem on Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Donald H.

    It was predicted that high self-esteem subjects would have higher attraction scores than low self-esteem subjects to similar strangers or to strangers who gave positive personal evaluations. It was also predicted that high self-esteem subjects would have lower attraction scores than low self-esteem subjects to dissimilar strangers or to subjects…

  19. The Susceptibility of Young Preschoolers to Source Similarity Effects: Confusing Story or Video Events with Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Karen L.; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined children's tendency to confuse events that varied in source similarity, which was manipulated using different media of event presentation. In Experiment 1, children in two age groups (3- and 4-year-olds and 5- and 6-year-olds) experienced a live presentation of an event, and another event was either heard from a story (low…

  20. Structural similarity causes different category-effects depending on task characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific impairments for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more globally visually similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage [Aphasiology 13 (1992) 169]. This account has been challenged by the fin...

  1. Naming Action in Japanese: Effects of Semantic Similarity and Grammatical Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Noriko; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Watanabe, Masumi; Arciuli, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether the semantic similarity and grammatical class of distracter words affects the naming of pictured actions (verbs) in Japanese. Three experiments used the picture-word interference paradigm with participants naming picturable actions while ignoring distracters. In all three experiments, we manipulated the semantic…

  2. Probability and Surprisal in Auditory Comprehension of Morphologically Complex Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2012-01-01

    Two auditory lexical decision experiments document for morphologically complex words two points at which the probability of a target word given the evidence shifts dramatically. The first point is reached when morphologically unrelated competitors are no longer compatible with the evidence....... Adapting terminology from Marslen-Wilson (1984), we refer to this as the word’s initial uniqueness point (UP1). The second point is the complex uniqueness point (CUP) introduced by Balling and Baayen (2008), at which morphologically related competitors become incompatible with the input. Later initial...... in the course of the word co-determines response latencies. The presence of effects of surprisal, both at the initial uniqueness point of complex words, and cumulatively throughout the word, challenges the Shortlist B model of Norris and McQueen (2008), and suggests that a Bayesian approach to auditory...

  3. Study on the Similarity Laws for Local Damage Effects in a Concrete Target under the Impact of Projectiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Mingyang; Liu, Zheng; Qiu, Yanyu; Shi, Cuncheng

    2015-01-01

      The local destruction and deformation characteristics of a concrete target impacted by a rigid projectile were analyzed, and the similarity laws for local damage effects in the concrete target were...

  4. The Effect of Feeling of Similarity with Music on Relaxation : Relation between Mood before Listening and Music Type

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 孝子; 岩永, 誠

    1999-01-01

    It is empirically said that music which has the similar characteristics to the negative mood in listening is effective in relaxation (ISO PRINCIPLE, Altshuler, 1954). However, previous studies suggested that the types of music influence relaxation; negative toned music elicited negative emotion. This finding couldnot explain the effect on relaxation by Iso Principle. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) what type of music a subject in what kind of mood feels the similarity between mus...

  5. The Effect of Feeling of Similarity with Music on Relaxation : Relation between Mood before Listening and Music Type

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 孝子; 岩永, 誠

    1999-01-01

    It is empirically said that music which has the similar characteristics to the negative mood in listening is effective in relaxation (ISO PRINCIPLE, Altshuler, 1954). However, previous studies suggested that the types of music influence relaxation; negative toned music elicited negative emotion. This finding couldnot explain the effect on relaxation by Iso Principle. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) what type of music a subject in what kind of mood feels the similarity between mus...

  6. Correlated Oscillations Due to Similar Multipath Effects Seen in Two Widely Separated Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, P. N.; Phuong, N. T.; Darriulat, P.; Nhung, P. T.; Anh, P. T.; Dong, P. N.; Hoai, D. T.; Thao, N. T.

    2014-07-01

    A multipath mechanism similar to that used in Australia sixty years ago by the Sea-cliff Interferometer is shown to generate correlations between the periods of oscillations observed by two distant radio telescopes pointed to the Sun. The oscillations are the result of interferences between the direct wave detected in the main antenna lobe and its reflection on ground detected in a side lobe. A model is made of such oscillations in the case of two observatories located at equal longitudes and opposite tropical latitudes, respectively in Ha Noi (Viet Nam) and Learmonth (Australia), where similar radio telescopes are operated at 1.4 GHz. Simple specular reflection from ground is found to give a good description of the observed oscillations and to explain correlations that had been previously observed and for which no satisfactory interpretation, instrumental or other, had been found.

  7. Correlated oscillations due to similar multi-path effects seen in two widely separated radio telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Diep, P N; Darriulat, P; Nhung, P T; Anh, P T; Dong, P N; Hoai, D T; Thao, N T

    2014-01-01

    A multipath mechanism similar to that used in Australia sixty years ago by the Sea-cliff Interferometer is shown to generate correlations between the periods of oscillations observed by two distant radio telescopes pointed to the Sun. The oscillations are the result of interferences between the direct wave detected in the main antenna lobe and its reflection on ground detected in a side lobe. A model is made of such oscillations in the case of two observatories located at equal longitudes and opposite tropical latitudes, respectively in Ha Noi (Viet Nam) and Learmonth (Australia), where similar radio telescopes are operated at 1.4 GHz. Simple specular reflection from ground is found to give a good description of the observed oscillations and to explain correlations that had been previously observed and for which no satisfactory interpretation, instrumental or other, had been found.

  8. Surprise and Sense Making: Undergraduate Placement Experiences in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore undergraduate placement experiences in tourism and hospitality SMEs, focusing on the notions of surprise and sense making. It aims to argue that surprises and sense making are important elements not only of the adjustment process when entering new work environments, but also of the learning experience that…

  9. Differences in Effects of Zuojin Pills(左金丸)and Its Similar Formulas on Wei Cold Model in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳玲; 史文丽; 山丽梅; 王伽伯; 赵海平; 肖小河

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of Zuojin Pills(左金丸)and its similar formulas on the stomach cold syndrome in a Wei cold model in rats.Methods:The rat Wei cold model was established by intragastric administration of glacial NaOH,and the gastric mucosa injury indices,together with the levels of motilin and gastrin in the stomach,were determined.The preventive and curative effects of Zuojin Pills and its similar formulas on gastric mucosa injury were investigated.Results:Zuojin Pills and its similar formul...

  10. Neural Responses to Rapid Facial Expressions of Fear and Surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans that involves multiple, bilateral regions. There are six basic facial expressions that may be recognized in humans (fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust; however, fearful faces and surprised faces are easily confused in rapid presentation. The functional organization of the facial expression recognition system embodies a distinction between these two emotions, which is investigated in the present study. A core system that includes the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 30, fusiform gyrus, and amygdala mediates the visual recognition of fear and surprise. We found that fearful faces evoked greater activity in the left precuneus, middle temporal gyrus (MTG, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus, whereas surprised faces were associated with greater activity in the right postcentral gyrus and left posterior insula. These findings indicate the importance of common and separate mechanisms of the neural activation that underlies the recognition of fearful and surprised faces.

  11. Comment exploiter les 'corpus-surprise' ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rittaud-Hutinet, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To what extent non-recorded oral corpora may constitute objects of analysis of pragmatic meaning?These corpora are heard by chance: on the radio, on television, in the street, a shop, a means of transport or generally in any conversational interaction in which the linguist participates, but had not previously planned to record for his research. The problem of the use of these corpora in linguistics is all the more crucial since the aim, in phonopragmatics, is to discover the functions and significations of their phonic part. I shall attempt to answer the following questions:–The accuracy of the transcription with respect to the original. To what extent can we ignore our own phonological code, our regional variants, mastered/partly known styles of speech?–The reliability of the oral reproduction carried out by the linguist – for example, during a talk at a conference. What is his capacity for deferred mimicry?–The relation between a significant discrepancy and the elocutionary habits of the speaker.–The relation between the comprehension of the external auditors and the effect produced on the 'real' person addressed.Considering that transparency is (sometimes? often? an illusion, I shall also examine what precautions should be taken so that these corpora offer guarantees as to the veracity.

  12. The Energetic Universe: a Nobel Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    he history of cosmic expansion can be accurately traced using Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) as standard candles. Over the past 40 years, this effort has improved its precision and extended its reach in redshift. Recently, the distances to SN Ia have been measured to a precision of ~5% using luminosity information that is encoded in the shape of the supernova's rest frame optical light curve. By combining observations of supernova distances as measured from their light curves and redshifts measured from spectra, we can detect changes in the cosmic expansion rate. This empirical approach was successfully exploited by the High-Z Supernova Team and by the Supernova Cosmology Project to detect cosmic expansion and to infer the presence of dark energy. The 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess for this discovery. The world's sample of well-observed SN Ia light curves at high redshift and low, approaching 1000 objects, is now large enough to make statistical errors due to sample size a thing of the past. Systematic errors are now the challenge. To learn the properties of dark energy and determine, for example, whether it has an equation-of-state that is different from the cosmological constant demands higher precision and better accuracy. The largest systematic uncertainties come from light curve fitters, photometric calibration errors, and from uncertain knowledge of the scattering properties of dust along the line of sight. Efforts to use SN Ia spectra as luminosity indicators have had some success, but have not yet produced a big step forward. Fortunately, observations of SN Ia in the near infrared (NIR), from 1 to 2 microns, offer a very promising path to better knowledge of the Hubble constant and to improved constraints on dark energy. In the NIR, SN Ia are better standard candles and the effects of dust absorption are smaller. We have begun an HST program dubbed RAISIN (SN IA in the IR) to tighten our grip on dark energy properties

  13. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  14. The Influence of Cross-Language Similarity on within- and between-Language Stroop Effects in Trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Coderre, Emily L; Guo, Taomei; Dijkstra, Ton

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German-English-Dutch trilinguals), two similar scripts and one different script (Chinese and alphabetic scripts in Chinese-English-Malay trilinguals), or three completely different scripts (Arabic, Chinese, and alphabetic in Uyghur-Chinese-English trilinguals). The results revealed a similar magnitude of within-language Stroop interference for the three groups, whereas between-language interference was modulated by cross-language similarity. For the same-script trilinguals, the within- and between-language interference was similar, whereas the between-language Stroop interference was reduced for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The magnitude of within-language Stroop facilitation was similar across the three groups of trilinguals, but smaller than within-language Stroop interference. Between-language Stroop facilitation was also modulated by cross-language similarity such that these effects became negative for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The overall pattern of Stroop interference and facilitation effects can be explained in terms of diverging and converging color and word information across languages.

  15. The similar neurotoxic effects of nanoparticulate and ionic silver in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Loeschner, Katrin; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2012-01-01

    -nano AgNP fraction were used to investigate cell death mechanisms in neuronal-like PC12 cells. AgNPs and the 12kDa filtered fraction decreased cell viability to a similar extent, whereas AgAc was relatively more potent. AgNPs did not induce necrosis. However, apoptosis was found to be equally increased......NP affected 5-HT, AgAc affected noradrenaline, whereas both silver formulations affected dopamine. Furthermore, apoptosis was observed in neuronal-like cells exposed to AgNPs, a 12kDa filtered fraction of AgNP, and AgAc. These findings suggest that ionic silver and a 14nm AgNP preparation have similar...... in cells exposed to AgNPs and the 12kDa filtered fraction, with AgAc showing a greater potency. Both the mitochondrial and the death receptor pathways were found to be involved in AgNP- and AgAc-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, 14nm AgNPs and AgAc affected brain neurotransmitter concentrations. Ag...

  16. Effects of country size and language similarity on international attitudes: a six-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Selenko, Eva; Otten, Sabine

    2010-02-01

    Linguistically similar neighbouring nations that differ in size are often asymmetrical in their attitudinal relations towards each other: Citizens of smaller nations tend to see larger nations as less likeable and less similar than vice versa. We hypothesized that the smaller nations' reaction is the consequence of a threatened identity due to its relative size combined with too much similarity on a vital part of its identity, namely language. To test this hypothesis, 832 high-school students from six different ethnic/national entities (France, Germany, Austria, the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland, the French- and Dutch-speaking parts of Belgium, and The Netherlands) completed a questionnaire on liking and similarity ratings. The results-to a large extent-showed that differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity with another nation, pose a threat to the identity of the smaller nation or ethnic group. Differences in size, in combination with linguistic similarity, were associated with asymmetries in mutual liking on one hand and asymmetrical perceptions of similarity to the other country on the other hand. The conclusions of this study are consistent with findings of earlier research and stress the importance of language for a nation's identity. Moreover, the findings support social identity theory as a useful theory for understanding intergroup and international relations. Les nations voisines linguistiquement similaires qui diffèrent en taille sont souvent asymétriques dans leurs relations attitudinales l'une envers l'autre: les citoyens des nations plus petites tendent à voir les nations plus grandes comme moins sympathiques et moins semblables et vice-versa. Notre hypothèse était que la réaction des nations plus petites est la conséquence d'un sentiment de menace à l'identité dû à leur taille réduite combinée avec trop de similitudes concernant une partie vitale de leur identité: c'est-à-dire le langage. Pour

  17. The Effects of Attitude Similarity, Spatial Relationship, and Task Difficulty on Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonos, Paul D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a study of the effects of the occupation of an individual's personal space on that individual's judgment of the invader when the invader's attitudes are known to the invadee. Also studies the effect of the difficulty of the task on the relationship between spatial orientation and interpersonal attraction. (JMF)

  18. The Effects of Attitude Similarity, Spatial Relationship, and Task Difficulty on Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonos, Paul D.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a study of the effects of the occupation of an individual's personal space on that individual's judgment of the invader when the invader's attitudes are known to the invadee. Also studies the effect of the difficulty of the task on the relationship between spatial orientation and interpersonal attraction. (JMF)

  19. Modeling the self-organization of vocabularies under phonological similarity effects

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This work develops a computational model (by Automata Networks) of short-term memory constraints involved in the formation of linguistic conventions on artificial populations of speakers. The individuals confound phonologically similar words according to a predefined parameter. The main hypothesis of this paper is that there is a critical range of working memory capacities, in particular, a critical phonological degree of confusion, which implies drastic changes in the final consensus of the entire population. A theoretical result proves the convergence of a particular case of the model. Computer simulations describe the evolution of an energy function that measures the amount of local agreement between individuals. The main finding is the appearance of sudden changes in the energy function at critical parameters. Finally, the results are related to previous work on the absence of stages in the formation of languages.

  20. Social contexts and personal relationships : The effect of meeting opportunities on similarity for relationships of different strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, Gerald; Völker, Beate; Flap, Henk

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of social contexts on similarity in personal relationships. We argue that the effect of social contexts is larger for weaker, and smaller for stronger relationships. Using data from The Survey of the Social Networks of the Dutch (collected in 1999/2000, n = 1007), we f

  1. Substance use in Portuguese and Spanish Adolescents: Highlights from Differences and Similarities and Moderate Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Celeste; Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco; Batista-Foguet, Joan M.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Many behaviors with lasting health impact are initiated in adolescence. Substance use is one such behavior. To analyse the factors involved in adolescent substance use among Portuguese and Spanish boys and girls, an explanatory model was developed using structural equations modelling. The model proposes that the impact of social contexts (family, friends, classmates and teachers) on substance use (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs) is mediated by perceptions of well-being (psychological symptoms, well-being and school satisfaction). Data on 1589 Portuguese (mean age = 13.27, SD=. 59) and 4191 Spanish adolescents (mean age= 13.21; SD =.47) who took part in the HBSC/WHO survey were analysed. The models fits the data of each country (CFI >.90; RMSEA < .03) and the majority of the relationships proposed in the model had revealed as expected for both samples. The relations with a major effect, for both countries, were: the negative effect of family on psychological symptoms and the positive effect of family on subjective well-being; the negative effect of classmates on psychological symptoms; the positive effect of teachers on school satisfaction; the effect of psychological symptoms (negative) and school satisfaction (positive) on well-being; the negative effect of school satisfaction on tobacco and alcohol use; and the positive effect of tobacco on alcohol use, and alcohol use on cannabis. For each of the dependent factors studied (tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs), the levels of explained variance varied between 9% (for tobacco use) and 46% (for alcohol use). Some non-invariant paths were obtained in country comparisons, controlling for gender. In multivariate analyses the paths from tobacco use to cannabis and from alcohol to cannabis were significant, but much stronger for Spanish girls than Portuguese girls. PMID:23156911

  2. Joint Effect of Habitat Identity and Spatial Distance on Spiders’ Community Similarity in a Fragmented Transition Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the main processes that affect community similarity have been the focus of much ecological research. However, the relative effects of environmental and spatial aspects in structuring ecological communities is still unresolved and is probably scale-dependent. Here, we examine the effect of habitat identity and spatial distance on fine-grained community similarity within a biogeographic transition zone. We compared four hypotheses: i) habitat identity alone, ii) spatial proximity alone, iii) non-interactive effects of both habitat identity and spatial proximity, and iv) interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We explored these hypotheses for spiders in three fragmented landscapes located along the sharp climatic gradient of Southern Judea Lowlands (SJL), Israel. We sampled 14,854 spiders (from 199 species or morphospecies) in 644 samples, taken in 35 patches and stratified to nine different habitats. We calculated the Bray-Curtis similarity between all samples-pairs. We divided the pairwise values to four functional distance categories (same patch, different patches from the same landscape, adjacent landscapes and distant landscapes) and two habitat categories (same or different habitats) and compared them using non-parametric MANOVA. A significant interaction between habitat identity and spatial distance was found, such that the difference in mean similarity between same-habitat pairs and different-habitat pairs decreases with spatial distance. Additionally, community similarity decayed with spatial distance. Furthermore, at all distances, same-habitat pairs had higher similarity than different-habitats pairs. Our results support the fourth hypothesis of interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We suggest that the environmental complexity of habitats or increased habitat specificity of species near the edge of their distribution range may explain this pattern. Thus, in transitions zones care should be taken

  3. A Short Survey of Document Structure Similarity Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, D

    2004-02-27

    This paper provides a brief survey of document structural similarity algorithms, including the optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithm and various approximation algorithms. The approximation algorithms include the simple weighted tag similarity algorithm, Fourier transforms of the structure, and a new application of the shingle technique to structural similarity. We show three surprising results. First, the Fourier transform technique proves to be the least accurate of any of approximation algorithms, while also being slowest. Second, optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithms may not be the best technique for clustering pages from different sites. Third, the simplest approximation to structure may be the most effective and efficient mechanism for many applications.

  4. Effects of Racial Similarity and Interviewer Intimacy in a Peer Counseling Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, John H.; Wright-Buckley, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Examined effects of intimacy of interviewer's disclosure and racial composition of counselor-client dyad on clients' liking for counselor, impressions of counselor, and subsequent self-disclosure in peer counseling analogue. Results from 64 White and 64 Black female college student clients revealed that intimate disclosure by counselor was useful…

  5. The Consequences of Differentiation in Episodic Memory: Similarity and the Strength Based Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Amy H.

    2006-01-01

    When items on one list receive more encoding than items on another list, the improvement in performance usually manifests as an increase in the hit rate and a decrease in the false alarm rate (FAR). A common account of this strength based mirror effect is that participants adopt a more strict criterion following a strongly than weakly encoded list…

  6. Between-population similarity in intestinal parasite community structure of pike (Esox lucius)--effects of distance and historical connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, Anssi; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2009-06-01

    The effect of geographical distance on similarity in parasite communities of freshwater fish has received considerable attention in recent years, and it has become evident that these apparently simple relationships are influenced by, among other things, colonization ability of parasites and degree of connectivity between the populations. In the present paper, we explored qualitative and quantitative similarity in the intestinal parasite communities of pike (Esox lucius) in a particular system where previously interconnected groups of lakes became isolated ca. 8,400 yr ago. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find differences in similarity between the lake groups or a negative effect of distance among the populations. This supports the role of common ancestral colonization events and shows that no significant loss of species has occurred during the past 8,000 yr. However, the communities were dominated by a single parasite species, the cestode Triaenophorus nodulosus. The exclusion of this species from the data had a significant negative impact on the community similarities and also revealed a negative relationship between distance and quantitative similarity. This suggests that patterns of community organization may be obscured by a single dominant species. We also highlight the need for further studies in different systems and host species, as well as detailed reanalysis of existing data sets, to unravel the controversy in the relationship between distance and similarity in parasite communities.

  7. Defense Science Board (DSB) Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise July 2015 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE DSB Summer Study Report on Strategic Surprise 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Science Board ( DSB ),The Pentagon ,OUSD(AT&L

  8. Self-other agreement and assumed similarity in neuroticism, extraversion, and trait affect: distinguishing the effects of form and content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Andrew; Watson, David; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Trait Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) are strongly associated with Neuroticism and Extraversion, respectively. Nevertheless, measures of the former tend to show substantially weaker self-other agreement-and stronger assumed similarity correlations-than scales assessing the latter. The current study separated the effects of item content versus format on agreement and assumed similarity using two different sets of Neuroticism and Extraversion measures and two different indicators of NA and PA (N = 381 newlyweds). Neuroticism and Extraversion consistently showed stronger agreement than NA and PA; in addition, however, scales with more elaborated items yielded significantly higher agreement correlations than those based on single adjectives. Conversely, the trait affect scales yielded stronger assumed similarity correlations than the personality scales; these coefficients were strongest for the adjectival measures of trait affect. Thus, our data establish a significant role for both content and format in assumed similarity and self-other agreement.

  9. Monetary, Food, and Social Rewards Induce Similar Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Rea; Balsters, Joshua H.; Herger, Andreas; Hare, Todd A.; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Multiple types of reward, such as money, food or social approval, are capable of driving behavior. However, most previous investigations have only focused on one of these reward classes in isolation, as such it is not clear whether different reward classes have a unique influence on instrumental responding or whether the subjective value of the reward, rather than the reward type per se, is most important in driving behavior. Here, we investigate behavior using a well-established reward paradigm, Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT), and three different reward types: monetary, food and social rewards. The subjective value of each reward type was matched using a modified Becker-DeGroot-Marschak (BDM) auction where subjective reward value was expressed through physical effort using a bimanual grip force task. We measured the influence of reward-associated stimuli on how participants distributed forces between hands when reaching a target effort range on the screen bimanually and on how much time participants spent in this target range. Participants spent significantly more time in the target range (15% ± 2% maximal voluntary contraction) when a stimulus was presented that was associated with a reward used during instrumental conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning compared to a stimulus associated with a neutral outcome (i.e., general PIT). The strength of the PIT effect was modulated by subjective value (i.e., individuals who showed a stronger PIT effect rated the value of rewards more highly), but not by reward type, demonstrating that stimuli of all reward types were able to act as appetitive reinforcers and influenced instrumental responding, when matched to the same subjective reward value. This is the first demonstration that individually matched monetary, food and social rewards are equally effective as appetitive reinforcers in PIT. These findings strengthen the hypotheses that the subjective value is crucial for how much reward-associated stimuli

  10. Atom Surprise: Using Theatre in Primary Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ran; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2011-10-01

    Early exposure to science may have a lifelong effect on children's attitudes towards science and their motivation to learn science in later life. Out-of-class environments can play a significant role in creating favourable attitudes, while contributing to conceptual learning. Educational science theatre is one form of an out-of-class environment, which has received little research attention. This study aims to describe affective and cognitive learning outcomes of watching such a play and to point to connections between theatrical elements and specific outcomes. "Atom Surprise" is a play portraying several concepts on the topic of matter. A mixed methods approach was adopted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of children (grades 1-6) from two different school settings who watched the play. Data were gathered using questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Analysis suggested that in both schools children's knowledge on the topic of matter increased after the play with younger children gaining more conceptual knowledge than their older peers. In the public school girls showed greater gains in conceptual knowledge than boys. No significant changes in students' general attitudes towards science were found, however, students demonstrated positive changes towards science learning. Theatrical elements that seemed to be important in children's recollection of the play were the narrative, props and stage effects, and characters. In the children's memory, science was intertwined with the theatrical elements. Nonetheless, children could distinguish well between scientific facts and the fictive narrative.

  11. Pork, beef and chicken have similar effects on acute satiety and hormonal markers of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Tapsell, Linda C; Batterham, Marijka J; Thorne, Rebecca; O'Shea, Jane; Zhang, Qingsheng; Beck, Eleanor J

    2011-02-01

    The effects of three different meat-containing breakfast meals (pork, beef or chicken) on acute satiety and appetite regulatory hormones were compared using a within-subjects study design. Thirty fasting non-smoking pre-menopausal women attended a research centre on three test days to consume, a meat-containing meal matched in energy (kJ) and protein content, palatability, and appearance. No difference was found between meat groups for either energy intake or macronutrient profile of food consumed at a subsequent ad libitum buffet lunch, or over the rest of the day. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) ratings for hunger and satiety over an 180 min period did not differ between test meals. After consumption of the test meals, a significant difference was found in PYY response between pork and chicken meals (P=0.027) but not for levels of CCK, ghrelin, insulin or glucose. This study positions pork, beef, and chicken as equal in their effect on satiety and release of appetite-related intestinal hormones and of insulin.

  12. Maltodextrin can produce similar metabolic and cognitive effects to those of sucrose in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Michael D; Lin, Candy S; Beilharz, Jessica E; Rooney, Kieron B; Boakes, Robert A

    2014-06-01

    In the context of the well-documented metabolic and behavioural effects of supplementing rats' diets with access to a sucrose solution, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of 10% sucrose with that of an isoenergetic (10.4%) solution of hydrolysed starch, maltodextrin. This polysaccharide is metabolised at least as rapidly as sucrose and is also very palatable to rats, but does not contain fructose. Each of three experiments contained three groups: one given a sucrose solution, one given a maltodextrin solution and a control group maintained on standard chow and water alone. In Experiment 1 the sucrose and maltodextrin groups were given their supplementary drinks for 2 h each day, while in Experiments 2 and 3 these groups had 24-h access to their supplements. Ad libitum access to maltodextrin produced at least as rapid weight gain as sucrose and in Experiment 2 retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in the two carbohydrate groups than in the control group. Moreover, in Experiment 3, impaired performance on a location recognition task was also found in both carbohydrate groups after only 17 days on the diets. These results indicate that the harmful effects of excess sucrose consumption can also be produced by another rapidly absorbed carbohydrate that does not contain fructose.

  13. Cold modalities with different thermodynamic properties have similar effects on muscular performance and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Oliveira, A B; Costa, J R; Herrera, E; Salvini, T F

    2013-10-01

    Although tissue cooling is widely used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries there is still controversy about its effects on muscular performance. The combination of cooling and exercise justifies the study of this topic. The aim was to compare the effects of ice pack and cold-water immersion on the muscular performance parameters of plantar flexors and muscular activation of the triceps surae. 41 healthy men (mean age: 22.1 years, SD: 2.9) were randomly assigned to cooling with either ice pack (n=20) or cold-water immersion (n=21). Independent variables were cold modality (ice pack or cold-water immersion) and pre- and post-cooling measurement time. Dependent variables were muscular performance (measured during isometric and concentric contractions of plantar flexors) and electromyography parameters of the triceps surae (median frequency and root mean square amplitude). Dependent-samples t-tests were used to compare pre- and post-cooling data and independent-samples t-tests were used to compare the difference (pre- and post-cooling) between groups. Ice pack increased isometric peak torque (mean: 9.00 Nm, P=0.01) and both cold modalities reduced muscular activation in triceps surae (P<0.0001); Cold-water immersion and ice pack reduced peak torque and total work during dynamic isokinetic contraction at both velocities (mean: -11,00 Nm, P<0.05) and affected muscular activation in different ways. In conclusion, ice pack increases isometric torque, while both ice pack and cold-water immersion decrease concentric muscular performance. These results indicate that these cooling methods should be chosen with caution, considering the type of task required during training or rehabilitation. New studies investigating other muscle groups and joints are necessary.

  14. The Effects of Attitude Similarity-Dissimilarity, Religion, and Topic Importance on Interpersonal Attraction among Lebanese University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabrudi, Philip F; Diab, Lutfy N

    1978-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of attitudinal similarity and topic importance on interpersonal attraction when the religion of the stimulus stranger was the same as or was different from that of the S. Each of 80 Lebanese male and female undergraduates at the American University of Beirut responded to an eight-item attitude scale dealing with four important and four unimportant issues, examined later the same scale purportedly filled out by a stranger, and then indicated his attraction toward that stranger. The standard stranger technique was followed which consisted of experimentally manipulating similarity or dissimilarity of a stranger's attitudes and religion with respect to those of the S. The results confirmed the hypothesis in showing that while the variable of religion had no significant effect on interpersonal attraction, the latter was significantly influenced by attitudinal similarity between subject and stranger, particularly on topics considered important by the S.

  15. Physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and social prominence in early adolescence: reciprocal effects supporting gender similarities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaana; Wang, Yueyan; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2013-12-01

    There is a robust association between aggression and social prominence by early adolescence, yet findings regarding the direction of influence remain inconclusive in light of gender differences across various forms of aggressive behaviors. The current study examined whether physical aggression and spreading of rumors, as two gender-typed aggressive behaviors that differ in overt displays of power, promote and/or maintain socially prominent status for girls and boys during non-transitional grades in middle school. Peer nominations were used to assess physical aggression, spreading of rumors, and "cool" reputation (social prominence) during three time points between the spring of seventh grade and spring of eighth grade. Participants included 1,895 (54 % female) ethnically diverse youth: 47 % Latino, 22 % African-American, 11 % Asian, 10 % White and 10 % Other/Mixed ethnic background. Cross-lagged path analyses were conducted to test the directionality of the effects, and gender moderation was assessed by relying on multi-group analyses. The analyses revealed mainly reciprocal associations for each form of aggression, suggesting that boys, as well as girls, can both gain and maintain their status by spreading rumors about their peers, just as they do by physically fighting and pushing others in urban middle schools. The implications of the findings for interventions are discussed.

  16. The influence of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop effects in trilinguals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, W.J.B. van; Conklin, K.; Coderre, E.L.; Guo, T.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German–English–Dutch trilinguals), two simil

  17. The Effect of Similarity/Dissimilarity of Race and Personal Interests on Empathy and Altruism in Second Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panofsky, Anne D.

    The experiment reported in this dissertation investigated the effect of similarity/dissimilarity of race and personal interests on empathy and altruism in second graders. It was hypothesized that white children would empathize more with other white children than with black children. It was also hypothesized that white children would empathize more…

  18. MASS ACCRETION AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE SELF-SIMILARITY OF GAS PROFILES IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke; Avestruz, Camille [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Nelson, Kaylea [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Vikhlinin, Alexey, E-mail: erwin.lau@yale.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    Galaxy clusters exhibit remarkable self-similar behavior which allows us to establish simple scaling relationships between observable quantities and cluster masses, making galaxy clusters useful cosmological probes. Recent X-ray observations suggested that self-similarity may be broken in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. In this work, we analyze a mass-limited sample of massive galaxy clusters from the Omega500 cosmological hydrodynamic simulation to investigate the self-similarity of the diffuse X-ray emitting intracluster medium (ICM) in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. We find that the self-similarity of the outer ICM profiles is better preserved if they are normalized with respect to the mean density of the universe, while the inner profiles are more self-similar when normalized using the critical density. However, the outer ICM profiles as well as the location of accretion shock around clusters are sensitive to their mass accretion rate, which causes the apparent breaking of self-similarity in cluster outskirts. We also find that the collisional gas does not follow the distribution of collisionless dark matter (DM) perfectly in the infall regions of galaxy clusters, leading to 10% departures in the gas-to-DM density ratio from the cosmic mean value. Our results have a number implications for interpreting observations of galaxy clusters in X-ray and through the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect, and their applications to cosmology.

  19. The Actor, Partner, Similarity Effects of Personality, and Interactions with Gender and Relationship Duration among Chinese Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding personality effects and their role in influencing relationship quality, varied according to gender and relationship duration, could help us better understand close relationships. Participants were Chinese dating dyads and were asked to complete both the Big Five Inventory and Perceived Relationship Quality Component scales. Males and those who had a long-term relationship perceived better relationship quality; individuals who scored higher on agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability enjoyed better relationship quality; gender and/or relationship duration moderated the actor effect of extraversion and the partner effects of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness on relationship quality. Regarding the profile similarity, those couples who were more dissimilar in their profile personality had better relationship quality, especially when they were in a relatively long-term relationship. Meanwhile, with an increase in profile similarity, the males' perceived relationship quality decreased.

  20. Persuasive Effects of Point of View, Protagonist Competence, and Similarity in a Health Narrative About Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Bell, Robert A; Taylor, Laramie D

    2017-08-01

    We examined the persuasive effects of three narrative features in a message about type 2 diabetes: narrative point of view (first- vs. third-person perspective), protagonist competence (positive role model who prevents diabetes vs. negative role model who develops diabetes), and protagonist-reader similarity (demographically similar vs. dissimilar). We posited that a first-person point of view would elevate people's identification levels more than a third-person point of view, especially when the protagonist was depicted as a positive role model. We also expected a similar protagonist to foster greater levels of identification than a dissimilar one. In addition, the positive effect of a competent role model on identification was expected to be enhanced under the condition of reader-protagonist similarity. Finally, we hypothesized that the effects of identification on persuasion would be mediated by self-referencing. Participants 30 years of age or younger (N = 489) were randomly assigned to read a story about a person with a family history of type 2 diabetes that was altered with regard to the experimental factors. Thereafter they completed a questionnaire incorporating measures of study variables. Greater levels of identification were found to foster self-referencing, leading to persuasion. Identification was strongest with a first-person point of view and when the narrator was a positive role model. The effect of identification on persuasion was mediated by self-referencing. Contrary to expectations, protagonist-reader demographic similarity did not affect identification or self-referencing. There was no support for the two moderation hypotheses.

  1. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: A boost from confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Marathe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interaction (BCI technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in similar neural activity between the two classes. It is unknown how current neural-based target classification algorithms perform when qualitatively similar target and non-target images are presented. This study address this question by comparing behavioral and neural classification performance across two conditions: first, when targets were the only infrequent stimulus presented amongst frequent background distracters; and second when targets were presented together with infrequent non-targets containing similar visual features to the targets. The resulting findings show that behavior is slower and less accurate when targets are presented together with similar non-targets; moreover, single-trial classification yielded high levels of misclassification when infrequent non-targets are included. Furthermore, we present an approach to mitigate the image misclassification. We use confidence measures to assess the quality of single-trial classification, and demonstrate that a system in which low confidence trials are reclassified through a secondary process can result in improved performance.

  2. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: a boost from confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Amar R; Ries, Anthony J; Lawhern, Vernon J; Lance, Brent J; Touryan, Jonathan; McDowell, Kaleb; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in similar neural activity between the two classes. It is unknown how current neural-based target classification algorithms perform when qualitatively similar target and non-target images are presented. This study address this question by comparing behavioral and neural classification performance across two conditions: first, when targets were the only infrequent stimulus presented amongst frequent background distracters; and second when targets were presented together with infrequent non-targets containing similar visual features to the targets. The resulting findings show that behavior is slower and less accurate when targets are presented together with similar non-targets; moreover, single-trial classification yielded high levels of misclassification when infrequent non-targets are included. Furthermore, we present an approach to mitigate the image misclassification. We use confidence measures to assess the quality of single-trial classification, and demonstrate that a system in which low confidence trials are reclassified through a secondary process can result in improved performance.

  3. Filling predictable and unpredictable gaps, with and without similarity-based interference: Evidence for LIFG effects of dependency processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eLeiken

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most replicated findings in neurolinguistic literature on syntax is the increase of hemodynamic activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG in response to object relative clauses (ORs compared to subject relative clauses (SRs. However, behavioral studies have shown that ORs are primarily only costly when similarity-based interference is involved and recently, Leiken & Pylkkänen (2014 showed with magnetoencephalography (MEG that an LIFG increase at an OR gap is also dependent on such interference. However, since ORs always involve a cue indicating an upcoming dependency formation, OR dependencies could be processed already prior to the gap-site and thus show no sheer dependency effects at the gap itself. To investigate the role of gap predictability in LIFG dependency effects, this MEG study compared ORs to Verb Phrase Ellipsis (VPE, which was used as an example of a non-predictable dependency. Additionally, we explored LIFG sensitivity to filler-gap order by including Right Node Raising (RNR structures, in which the order of filler and gap is reverse to that of ORs and VPE. Half of the stimuli invoked similarity-based interference and half did not. Our results demonstrate that LIFG effects of dependency can be elicited regardless of whether the dependency is predictable, the stimulus materials evoke similarity-based interference, or the filler precedes the gap. Thus, contrary to our own prior data, the current findings suggest a highly general role for the LIFG in dependency interpretation that is not limited to environments involving similarity-based interference. Additionally, the millisecond time-resolution of MEG allowed for a detailed characterization of the temporal profiles of LIFG dependency effects across our three constructions, revealing that the timing of these effects is somewhat construction-specific.

  4. Ethnic differences in the effects of media on body image: the effects of priming with ethnically different or similar models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Gina L; Carter, Michele M

    2015-04-01

    Media exposure has been positively correlated with body dissatisfaction. While body image concerns are common, being African American has been found to be a protective factor in the development of body dissatisfaction. Participants either viewed ten advertisements showing 1) ethnically-similar thin models; 2) ethnically-different thin models; 3) ethnically-similar plus-sized models; and 4) ethnically-diverse plus-sized models. Following exposure, body image was measured. African American women had less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian women. Ethnically-similar thin-model conditions did not elicit greater body dissatisfaction scores than ethnically-different thin or plus-sized models nor did the ethnicity of the model impact ratings of body dissatisfaction for women of either race. There were no differences among the African American women exposed to plus-sized versus thin models. Among Caucasian women exposure to plus-sized models resulted in greater body dissatisfaction than exposure to thin models. Results support existing literature that African American women experience less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian women even following exposure to an ethnically-similar thin model. Additionally, women exposed to plus-sized model conditions experienced greater body dissatisfaction than those shown thin models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pressure ratio effects on self-similar scalar mixing of high-pressure turbulent jets in a pressurized volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Adam; Pickett, Lyle; Frank, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Many real world combustion devices model fuel scalar mixing by assuming the self-similar argument established in atmospheric free jets. This allows simple prediction of the mean and rms fuel scalar fields to describe the mixing. This approach has been adopted in super critical liquid injections found in diesel engines where the liquid behaves as a dense fluid. The effect of pressure ratio (injection to ambient) when the ambient is greater than atmospheric pressure, upon the self-similar collapse has not been well characterized, particularly the effect upon mixing constants, jet spreading rates, and virtual origins. Changes in these self-similar parameters control the reproduction of the scalar mixing statistics. This experiment investigates the steady state mixing of high pressure ethylene jets in a pressurized pure nitrogen environment for various pressure ratios and jet orifice diameters. Quantitative laser Rayleigh scattering imaging was performed utilizing a calibration procedure to account for the pressure effects upon scattering interference within the high-pressure vessel.

  6. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New

  7. Did the FED Surprise the Markets in 2001? A Case Study for Vars with Sign Restrictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, the Fed has lowered interest rates in a series of cuts, starting from 6.5 % at the end of 2000 to 2.0 % by early November.This paper asks, whether the Federal Reserve Bank has been surprising the markets, taking as given the conventional view about the effect of monetary policy shocks.New e

  8. Opposing effects of phonological similarity on item and order memory of words and nonwords in the serial recall task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Arild; Karlsen, Paul Johan; Eriksen, Thor Birger

    2004-05-01

    This study shows that the classical phonological similarity effect (PSE) in immediate serial recall is critically affected by the lexicality of list items, the type of phonological similarity involved, and the scoring procedure. PSE was present in the serial recall score when phonologically distinct words were compared to words that share the middle vowel and end consonant (rhyming lists). PSE was absent in the serial recall score when phonologically distinct words were compared to words that share the initial and final consonants (consonant frame lists). There was a reversal of PSE in serial recall of nonwords when comparing distinct lists to both types of similar lists. Recall accuracy on the other hand was higher for distinct lists regardless of lexicality. Item errors dominated in relation to order errors in the case of nonwords, whereas order errors dominated in relation to item errors in the case of words. Furthermore, order errors were more common for phonologically similar lists, whereas item errors were more common for phonologically distinct lists. This may be the result of intra-list and inter-list interference, respectively. The dominance of the former error type may cause a classical PSE, whereas the dominance of the latter error type may cause a reversal of PSE. Finally, an item identification task yielded no evidence of an association between intra-list interference and discriminability of items in a list.

  9. Avoiding surprises when implementing a single quality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    European medical device manufacturers are sometimes surprised to learn that operating ISO 13485 alone is not sufficient to meet United States (US) quality system requirements. This article discusses important considerations for meeting US and European requirements when operating under a single quality system.

  10. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  11. Reconsiderations: Donald Murray and the Pedagogy of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Toward the end of his life, Donald Murray felt that his approach to writing instruction was no longer appreciated by journals in his field. Nevertheless, his emphasis on encouraging students to surprise themselves through informal writing still has considerable value. (Contains 1 note.)

  12. Errors and surprise in patients with focal brain lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullsperger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of performance monitoring suggest that not only errors and negative action outcomes but also valence-free expectancy violations can trigger cognitive and behavioral adaptations. EEG and fMRI evidence suggests that monitoring of both errors and surprising but valence-free action

  13. Ageism and death: effects of mortality salience and perceived similarity to elders on reactions to elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Andy; Greenberg, Jeff; Schimel, Jeff; Landau, Mark J

    2004-12-01

    The present research investigated the hypotheses that elderly people can be reminders of our mortality and that concerns about our own mortality can therefore instigate ageism. In Study 1, college-age participants who saw photos of two elderly people subsequently showed more death accessibility than participants who saw photos of only younger people. In Study 2, making mortality salient for participants increased distancing from the average elderly person and decreased perceptions that the average elderly person possesses favorable attitudes. Mortality salience did not affect ratings of teenagers. In Study 3, these mortality salience effects were moderated by prior reported similarity to elderly people. Distancing from, and derogation of, elderly people after mortality salience occurred only in participants who, weeks before the study, rated their personalities as relatively similar to the average elderly person's. Discussion addresses distinguishing ageism from other forms of prejudice, as well as possibilities for reducing ageism.

  14. TG containing stearic acid, synthesized from coconut oil, exhibit lipidemic effects in rats similar to those of cocoa butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Reena; Lokesh, Belur R

    2003-09-01

    Lipase-catalyzed interesterification was used to prepare structured TG from coconut oil TG by partially replacing some of the atherogenic saturated FA with stearic acid, which is known to have a neutral effect on lipid levels in the body. The level of stearic acid was increased from 4% in the native coconut oil to 40% in the structured lipids, with most of the stearic acid being incorporated into the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of TG. When structured lipids were fed to rats at a 10% level for a period of 60 d, a 15% decrease in total cholesterol and a 23% decrease in LDL cholesterol levels in the serum were observed when compared to those fed coconut oil. Similarly, the total and free cholesterol levels in the livers of the rats fed structured lipids were lowered by 31 and 36%, respectively, when compared to those fed coconut oil. The TG levels in the serum and in the liver showed decreases of 14 and 30%, respectively, in animals fed structured lipids. Rats fed cocoa butter and structured lipids having a similar amount of stearic acid had similar lipid levels in the serum and liver. These studies indicated that the atherogenic potential of coconut oil lipids can be reduced significantly by enriching them with stearic acid. This also changed the physical properties of coconut oil closer to those of cocoa butter as determined by DSC.

  15. Effect Of Process Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of Friction Stir.Welded Joint Of Two Similar &Dissimilar Al-Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasankar Das,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is an advance joining process for different similar and dissimilar materials. It is commonly used for joining of Aluminum alloys. However it is necessary to overcome some challenges for its wide-spread uses. Tool design and the selection of process parameters are critical issues in the usage of this process. This study focuses on the process parameters that is required for producing effective friction stir welding of two similar aluminum alloys (AA6101T6 to AA6101T6 and dissimilar Aluminum alloys (AA6101T6 alloy to AA6351T6 . Three different tool diameters such as 20 mm, 25 mm and 30 mm with three different tool rotational speeds such as 600 rpm, 800 rpm and 1200 rpm have been used to weld the joints. The welded samples were tested for mechanical properties as well as microstructure. It was observed that 30 mm tool gives better weld quality for friction stir welding of similar aluminum alloy but 25 mm tool with 1200 rpm rotational speed gave satisfactory weld quality for friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys. It is one of the important welding process that can adopted for welding of aluminum alloys with excellent mechanical properties. The results were confirmed by further experiments.

  16. Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Thanu

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...

  17. The June surprises: balls, strikes, and the fog of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Charles

    2013-04-01

    At first, few constitutional experts took seriously the argument that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act exceeded Congress's power under the commerce clause. The highly political opinions of two federal district judges - carefully chosen by challenging plaintiffs - of no particular distinction did not shake that confidence that the act was constitutional. This disdain for the challengers' arguments was only confirmed when the act was upheld by two highly respected conservative court of appeals judges in two separate circuits. But after the hostile, even mocking questioning of the government's advocate in the Supreme Court by the five Republican-appointed justices, the expectation was that the act would indeed be struck down on that ground. So it came as no surprise when the five opined the act did indeed exceed Congress's commerce clause power. But it came as a great surprise when Chief Justice John Roberts, joined by the four Democrat-appointed justices, ruled that the act could be sustained as an exercise of Congress's taxing power - a ground urged by the government almost as an afterthought. It was further surprising, even shocking, that Justices Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, Clarence Thomas, and Samuel Alito not only wrote a joint opinion on the commerce clause virtually identical to that of their chief, but that in writing it they did not refer to or even acknowledge his opinion. Finally surprising was the fact that Justices Ruth Bader Ginsburg and Stephen Breyer joined the chief in holding that aspects of the act's Medicaid expansion were unconstitutional. This essay ponders and tries to unravel some of these puzzles.

  18. The Effects and Safety of Exercise Training in Subjects With Chronic Heart Failure—Do Elder Subjects Gain Similar Benefits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau-Fu Hsieh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, chronic heart failure (CHF subjects are often recommended to rest and restrict physical activity; however, this advice may exacerbate the disease. Exercise training is associated with many central and peripheral adaptations that improve clinical outcomes. Exercise training can restore the abnormal autonomic function, attenuate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the N-terminal precursor of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP, and improve the endothelial dysfunction and the oxidative capacity of peripheral muscle. The current evidence supports the concept that exercise training can effectively improve the exercise capacity and quality of life of subjects with CHF, to some extent, as well as reduce hospitalization and risk of mortality. Structured exercise training is proved to be safe for CHF subjects. Exercise training had no detrimental effects on the left ventricular remodeling. Ultimately, trained subjects showed a significant improvement in left ventricle function. An important limitation of current published studies is that only a few have included significant proportions of elderly subjects with CHF. The limited data available suggests that elderly subjects derive similar benefits from exercise training as younger subjects. In summary, exercise training is an inexpensive and effective intervention for subjects with CHF. This article reviews the current knowledge of the effects of exercise training on the exercise capacity, quality of life, and mortality and morbidity of subjects with CHF and elderly subjects. A major challenge for the future is the inclusion of representative proportions of elderly and frail subjects in heart failure training trials.

  19. Telemedicine diabetes consultations are cost-effective, and effects on essential diabetes treatment parameters are similar to conventional treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Klaus; Madsen, Jette R; Petersen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    been offered expert diabetes care using teleconsultations. This article describes the impact of the telemedicine solution on essential diabetes treatment parameters, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: Telemedicine consultations were conducted with the patient and nurse specialist......BACKGROUND: The increasing number of patients with diabetes poses a major challenge for the health care system. One instrument to meet these challenges could be the use of telemedicine, which, at the same time, may reduce treatment costs. Since 2005, diabetes patients on the island of Aeroe have...... placed in a consultation room of Aeroe Hospital in audiovisual contact with the physician situated at the hospital on the mainland. Consultations were supported by an electronic patient record and a Web-based quality-monitoring diabetes database. RESULTS: Inclusion criteria in this retrospective study...

  20. Effect of Porosity and Concentration Polarization on Electrolyte Diffusive Transport Parameters through Ceramic Membranes with Similar Nanopore Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Romero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diffusive transport through nanoporous alumina membranes (NPAMs produced by the two-step anodization method, with similar pore size but different porosity, is studied by analyzing membrane potential measured with NaCl solutions at different concentrations. Donnan exclusion of co-ions at the solution/membrane interface seem to exert a certain control on the diffusive transport of ions through NPAMs with low porosity, which might be reduced by coating the membrane surface with appropriated materials, as it is the case of SiO2. Our results also show the effect of concentration polarization at the membrane surface on ionic transport numbers (or diffusion coefficients for low-porosity and high electrolyte affinity membranes, which could mask values of those characteristic electrochemical parameters.

  1. The effects of Xingnao Jieyu capsules on post-stroke depression are similar to those of fluoxetine*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongmei Yan; Wentao Fan; Li Liu; Ru Yang; Wenjia Yang

    2013-01-01

    The Xingnao Jieyu capsule has been shown to effectively relieve neurologic impairments and lessen depression. It remains poorly understood whether this capsule can be used to treat post-stroke depression. Thus, in the present study, we established a rat model of post-stroke de-pression using left middle cerebral artery occlusions in combination of chronic unpredictable stress and solitary housing during development. Experimental rats received intragastric perfusion with 0.82, 0.41, and 0.20 g/kg Xingnao Jieyu capsules separately dissolved in 2 mL distil ed water. Fluoxetine served as a positive control. The treatment was conducted over 28 days. Sugar water consumption test, open-field test, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining re-sults demonstrated that intragastric perfusion with various doses of Xingnao Jieyu capsules in-creased sugar water consumption, voluntary behaviors and synaptotagmin mRNA and protein ex-pression in rats with post-stroke depression. These therapeutic effects were similar to those of fluoxetine. These results indicate that Xingnao Jieyu capsules upregulate synaptotagmin expres-sion in hippocampi of rats with post-stroke depression, and exert antidepressant effects.

  2. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  3. Similar component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; WANG Xin; LI Junwei; CAO Xianguang

    2006-01-01

    A new unsupervised feature extraction method called similar component analysis (SCA) is proposed in this paper. SCA method has a self-aggregation property that the data objects will move towards each other to form clusters through SCA theoretically,which can reveal the inherent pattern of similarity hidden in the dataset. The inputs of SCA are just the pairwise similarities of the dataset,which makes it easier for time series analysis due to the variable length of the time series. Our experimental results on many problems have verified the effectiveness of SCA on some engineering application.

  4. ERP correlates of priming in language and stimulus equivalence: evidence of similar N400 effects in absence of semantic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabullo, Angel; Yorio, Alberto; Zanutto, Silvano; Wainselboim, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    Semantic priming has been widely observed at both behavioral and electrophysiological levels as reductions in response times and N400 magnitudes respectively. However, the possibility that stimulus relations derived from associative learning elicit N400 priming effects comparable to those found in language has not been properly addressed yet. Equivalence relations emerge after establishing a set of arbitrary and intra-experimentally defined relations through associative learning, thus allowing the study of derived stimulus relations in the absence of semantic content. The present study aimed to compare ERP correlates of priming in semantically related words and pseudowords related through equivalence. We found similar behavioral and N400 effects when comparing unrelated vs related prime-target pairs in language and stimulus equivalence tasks, suggesting that priming engages at least partially overlapping neural mechanisms in both contexts. In addition, we found a posteriorly distributed late positivity in the semantic priming task only, which may be reflecting language-specific processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of different levels of wheat bran on iron absorption in rats from bread containing similar amounts of phytate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairweather-Tait, S J

    1982-03-01

    1. Iron absorption was studied in weanling rats using balance techniques from semi-synthetic diets containing dried white bread (60.5 g dietary fibre/kg. White & Southgate, unpublished results), brown bread (130.2 g dietary fibre/kg) or wholemeal bread (221.2 g dietary fibre/kg) at a level of 300 g/kg and compared with a control group given a diet containing added FeSO4 at a similar Fe level to that for the bread groups. The dried bread contained 6.2-6.4 g phytate/kg. 2. Absorption of Fe was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in the control group (0.45) than in the White (0.28), brown (0.31) or wholemeal (0.24) groups. 3. A second experiment was carried out on 6-week-old rats in which the dried bread was extrinsically labelled with 59Fe and absorption from a single meal measured by both faecal excretion and incorporation of 59Fe into the blood. Control animals were given 59FeSO4 for comparison. 4. The excretion of 59Fe (% of administered dose) was significantly lower (P less than 0.001) in the control group (31) than in the white (48), brown (45) or wholemeal (47) groups. After 10 d the control group had significantly more 59Fe in the blood than the bread groups, but there were no differences between the bread groups. 5. It appears that wheat bran fibre itself has no effect on the retention of Fe from the diet in the rat, when supplied in amounts similar to those found in commercially-available bread.

  6. Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children.

  7. Estimations of expectedness and potential surprise in possibility theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Henri; Yager, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    This note investigates how various ideas of 'expectedness' can be captured in the framework of possibility theory. Particularly, we are interested in trying to introduce estimates of the kind of lack of surprise expressed by people when saying 'I would not be surprised that...' before an event takes place, or by saying 'I knew it' after its realization. In possibility theory, a possibility distribution is supposed to model the relative levels of mutually exclusive alternatives in a set, or equivalently, the alternatives are assumed to be rank-ordered according to their level of possibility to take place. Four basic set-functions associated with a possibility distribution, including standard possibility and necessity measures, are discussed from the point of view of what they estimate when applied to potential events. Extensions of these estimates based on the notions of Q-projection or OWA operators are proposed when only significant parts of the possibility distribution are retained in the evaluation. The case of partially-known possibility distributions is also considered. Some potential applications are outlined.

  8. 10 years of surprises at Saturn: CAPS and INMS highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A. J.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The Cassini mission at Saturn has provided many surprises on Saturn's rapidly rotating magnetosphere and its interaction with the diverse moons, as well as its interaction with the solar wind. One of the early discoveries was the water-rich composition of the magnetosphere. Its structure and dynamics indicate remarkable injections, periodicities and interchange events. Enceladus, orbiting at 4 RS, was found to have plumes of water vapour and ice which are the dominant source for the inner magnetosphere. Charged water clusters, charged dust and photoelectrons provide key populations in the 'dusty plasma' seen here, as well as chemical complexity in the plume material. Direct pickup is seen near Enceladus and field aligned currents create a spot in Saturn's aurora. At Titan, orbiting at 20 RS, heavy negative and positive ions are seen in the ionosphere, as well as neutrals, all of which have surprising chemical complexity. These provide the source for Titan's haze. Ionospheric plasma is seen in Titan's tail, enabling ion escape to be estimated at 7 tonnes per day. Saturn's ring ionosphere was seen early in the mission, which was oxygen rich and produced photoelectrons; a return will be made in 2017. At Rhea, pickup positive and negative ions indicated weak atmospheres sustained by energetic particle impact, seen in the neutrals also. A weak atmosphere was also seen at Dione. The exosphere production process operates at Jupiter's moons also. Here we review some of the key new results, and discuss the implications for other solar system contexts.

  9. Chandra Finds Surprising Black Hole Activity In Galaxy Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Scientists at the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California, have uncovered six times the expected number of active, supermassive black holes in a single viewing of a cluster of galaxies, a finding that has profound implications for theories as to how old galaxies fuel the growth of their central black holes. The finding suggests that voracious, central black holes might be as common in old, red galaxies as they are in younger, blue galaxies, a surprise to many astronomers. The team made this discovery with NASA'S Chandra X-ray Observatory. They also used Carnegie's 6.5-meter Walter Baade Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for follow-up optical observations. "This changes our view of galaxy clusters as the retirement homes for old and quiet black holes," said Dr. Paul Martini, lead author on a paper describing the results that appears in the September 10 issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The question now is, how do these black holes produce bright X-ray sources, similar to what we see from much younger galaxies?" Typical of the black hole phenomenon, the cores of these active galaxies are luminous in X-ray radiation. Yet, they are obscured, and thus essentially undetectable in the radio, infrared and optical wavebands. "X rays can penetrate obscuring gas and dust as easily as they penetrate the soft tissue of the human body to look for broken bones," said co-author Dr. Dan Kelson. "So, with Chandra, we can peer through the dust and we have found that even ancient galaxies with 10-billion-year-old stars can have central black holes still actively pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. This activity has simply been hidden from us all this time. This means these galaxies aren't over the hill after all and our theories need to be revised." Scientists say that supermassive black holes -- having the mass of millions to billions of suns squeezed into a region about the size of our Solar System -- are the engines in the cores of

  10. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  11. Thermic effect of food at rest, during exercise, and after exercise in lean and obese men of similar body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, K R; Gutin, B; Nyman, A M; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1985-09-01

    The thermic effect of food at rest, during 30 min of cycle ergometer exercise, and after exercise was studied in eight lean (mean +/- SEM, 10 +/- 1% body fat, hydrostatically-determined) and eight obese men (30 +/- 2% body fat). The lean and obese mean were matched with respect to age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to determine the relationship between thermogenesis and body composition, independent of body weight. All men were overweight, defined as a BMI between 26-34, but the obese had three times more body fat and significantly less lean body mass than the lean men. Metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry under four conditions on separate mornings, in randomized order, after an overnight fast: 3 h of rest in the postabsorptive state; 3 h of rest after a 750-kcal mixed meal (14% protein, 31.5% fat, and 54.5% carbohydrate); during 30 min of cycling and for 3 h post exercise in the postabsorptive state; and during 30 min of cycling performed 30 min after the test meal and for 3 h post exercise. The thermic effect of food, which is the difference between postabsorptive and postprandial energy expenditure, was significantly higher for the lean than the obese men under the rest, post exercise, and exercise conditions: the increments in metabolic rate for the lean and obese men, respectively, were 48 +/- 7 vs. 28 +/- 4 kcal over 3 h rest (P less than 0.05); 44 +/- 7 vs. 16 +/- 5 kcal over 3 h post exercise (P less than 0.05); and 19 +/- 3 vs. 6 +/- 3 kcal over 30 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). The thermic effect of food was significantly negatively related to body fat content under the rest (r = -0.55), post exercise (r = -0.66), and exercise (r = -0.58) conditions. The results of this study indicate that for men of similar total body weight and BMI, body composition is a significant determinant of postprandial thermogenesis; the responses of obese are significantly blunted compared with those of lean men.

  12. Clarithromycin and dexamethasone show similar anti-inflammatory effects on distinct phenotypic chronic rhinosinusitis: an explant model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Li, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Jin; Cao, Ping-Ping; Wang, Heng; Cui, Yong-Hua; Liu, Zheng

    2015-06-06

    , epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and matrix metalloproteinase 9) was suppressed, in different phenotypic CRS by dexamethasone and clarithromycin in comparable extent. Out of our expectation, our explant model study discovered herein that glucocorticoids and macrolides likely exerted similar regulatory actions on CRS and most of their effects did not vary by the phenotypes of CRS.

  13. Measured Zero Net Energy Performance: Results, Lessons, and Surprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Carrie; LaRue, Anna; Pigman, Margaret; Roberts, Jon; Kaneda, David; Connelly, Dylan; Elliott, John; Pless, Shanti; Pande, Abhijeet; Dean, Edward; Anbarlilar, Can

    2016-08-26

    As more and more zero net energy (ZNE) buildings are built and monitored, we can learn from both careful case studies of individual projects as well as a broader perspective of trends over time. In a forum sponsored by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), eight expert speakers discussed: results and lessons from monitoring occupied ZNE buildings; best practices for setting performance targets and getting actionable performance information, and; things that have surprised them about monitored ZNE buildings. This paper distills the content of the forum by laying out the most common hurdles that are encountered in setting up monitoring projects, frequent performance issues that the monitoring uncovers, and lessons learned that can be applied to future projects.

  14. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  15. Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...

  16. 2014 Presidential elections in Romania – surprising result or strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mihalache

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presidential elections in Romania which took place in November 2014 were won by Klaus Iohannis, who clearly defeated the incumbent prime-minister Victor Ponta by 10%. The result was considered by many a surprise, as none of the opinion polls were able to predict it. This article reveals a part of the strategy of Klaus Iohannis’s campaign and it offers a few clues about how this is result was possible, without having the aim to explain it fully. As the authors were accountable for strategy and political message in the electoral campaign for Klaus Iohannis, the scientific approach is combined with the inside view, to provide the reader a better understanding of the November 2014 events.

  17. Novel structurally similar chromene derivatives with opposing effects on p53 and apoptosis mechanisms in colorectal HCT116 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cristovao F; Costa, Marta; Proença, M F; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-05-25

    In the present work, novel chromene derivatives fused with the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine nucleus were tested for their anticancer potential in the human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. Compounds 2a and 2c showed significant growth inhibitory activity with GI50 of 15 μM and 11 μM, respectively. Compound 2c, the most potent, has a carbamate group in position 8 of the pyridine ring, and showed significant cell cycle arrest and induction of cell death by apoptosis, even at 5 μM. Besides different potencies, chromene analogs 2a and 2c showed different mechanisms of action. Whereas the carbamate-free chromene 2a induced cell cycle arrest at G1/G0 phase, compound 2c showed to arrest cell cycle at both S and G2 phases. Chromene derivative 2a at concentrations higher than its GI50 remarkably induced caspases-dependent apoptosis in a p53-independent manner. On the other hand, compound 2c increased significantly p53 levels and induced apoptosis in a p53- and caspases-dependent manner, even at concentrations lower than its GI50. Both compounds increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, induced mitochondria depolarization and activated MAP kinases. In conclusion, two novel and structurally similar chromene derivatives showed cytotoxicity to HCT16 cells through opposing effects on p53 levels and apoptosis mechanisms, which may be relevant for further development of drugs acting on distinct molecular targets useful in the treatment of cancers with different genetic profiles and for personalized medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure-semantics interplay in complex networks and its effects on the predictability of similarity in texts

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1016/j.physa.2012.04.011

    2013-01-01

    There are different ways to define similarity for grouping similar texts into clusters, as the concept of similarity may depend on the purpose of the task. For instance, in topic extraction similar texts mean those within the same semantic field, whereas in author recognition stylistic features should be considered. In this study, we introduce ways to classify texts employing concepts of complex networks, which may be able to capture syntactic, semantic and even pragmatic features. The interplay between the various metrics of the complex networks is analyzed with three applications, namely identification of machine translation (MT) systems, evaluation of quality of machine translated texts and authorship recognition. We shall show that topological features of the networks representing texts can enhance the ability to identify MT systems in particular cases. For evaluating the quality of MT texts, on the other hand, high correlation was obtained with methods capable of capturing the semantics. This was expecte...

  19. Effects of soil, altitude, rainfall, and distance on the floristic similarity of Atlantic Forest fragments in the east-Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Barros Prado Moura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a floristic survey conducted on an Atlantic Forest fragment in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Besides, the results of a similarity analysis between ten rainforest fragments from the Brazilian east-Northeast are presented. The floristic comparison was based on binary data with regard to the presence/ absence criterion for tree species identified in the ten fragments by means of Sørensen’s similarity index. A dendrogram was prepared using cluster analysis (Jaccard’s index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA to test the abiotic factors, which can differently influence the similarity of fragments. The fragments showed low similarity indices. The variations were due to the fact that each fragment is a patch of what once was a continuous and heterogeneous region. However, the diversity loss, including the disappearance of more demanding species, can lead, in large-scale, to homogeneity and simplification of the northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  20. Similarities between exogenously- and endogenously-induced envelope stress: the effects of a new antibacterial molecule, TPI1609-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Yitzhaki

    Full Text Available Antibiotics with novel and/or multiple targets are highly desirable in the face of the steady rise of clinical antibiotic resistance. We have screened and identified small molecules, typified by the compound TPI1609-10 (aka SM10, with antibiotic activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. SM10 was screened in vitro to bind branched Holliday junction intermediates of homologous recombination and tyrosine recombinase-mediated recombination; thus, the cellular targets of the small molecules were expected to include the RuvABC Holliday junction resolvasome and the XerCD complex involved in proper segregation of replicated chromosomes to daughter cells. SM10 indeed induces DNA damage and filamentation in E. coli. However, SM10 also induces envelope stress and causes increased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. In addition, SM10 has similar effects to endogenously-induced envelope stress via overproducing outer membrane proteins (OmpC and OmpF, which also induces the SOS response, chromosome fragmentation, and production of reactive oxygen species. The synergy between SM10, and cerulenin, a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor, together with the SM10 hypersensitivity of cpx and rpoE mutants, further support that SM10's mode of action damages membrane damage. The lethality of SM10 treatment and of OmpC overproduction are observed in both aerobically- and anaerobically-grown cells, and is accompanied by substantial DNA damage even anaerobically. Thus, only some DNA damage is due to reactive oxygen. We propose that membrane depolarization and the potential reduction in intracellular pH, leading to abasic site formation, cause a substantial amount of the DNA damage associated with both SM10 treatment and endogenous envelope stress. While it is difficult to completely exclude effects related to envelope damage as the sources of DNA damage, trapping intermediates associated with DNA repair and chromosome segregation pathways

  1. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2015-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different...... incentive treatments—each relating to the basic content of distinct types of personnel management practices. The findings show that males and females are more similar than different in terms of the incentive treatments’ effects: Significant average effects are found for three out of five incentive...

  2. Why are some people's names easier to learn than others? The effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantelis, Peter C.; Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synthetic faces that varied along four perceptual dimensions (Wilson, Loffler, & Wilkinson, 2002), we examined the effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations. The nature of these stimuli allowed us to go beyond the categorical similarity manipulations used in previous verb

  3. Why are some people's names easier to learn than others? The effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantelis, Peter C.; Van Vugt, Marieke K.; Sekuler, Robert; Wilson, Hugh R.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synthetic faces that varied along four perceptual dimensions (Wilson, Loffler, & Wilkinson, 2002), we examined the effects of face similarity on memory for face-name associations. The nature of these stimuli allowed us to go beyond the categorical similarity manipulations used in previous verb

  4. The Effects of Attitude Similarity and Utility on Liking for a Stranger: Measurement of Attraction with the IJS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesler, Mitchell S.; And Others

    Research has demonstrated that attraction to a stranger is a function of the proportion of similar attitudes reported by that stranger. Traditional theories of attraction do not usually differentiate between respect or esteem for another and liking. This study used a 2 x 2 factorial experiment to test the hypothesis that the desire to work with…

  5. Triadic Closure in Core Networks : Disentangling the Effects of Social Distance, National Origin Similarity and Shared Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollenhorst, Gerald; Van Duijn, Marijtje; Rydgren, Jens; Edling, Christofer

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the composition and structure of personal networks is affected by meeting opportunities, social distance, and national origin similarity, we aim to disentangle their association with triadic closure in the core of personal networks. We use data (collected 2009) on the core network

  6. Competition and Cooperation among Similar Representations: Toward a Unified Account of Facilitative and Inhibitory Effects of Lexical Neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    One of the core principles of how the mind works is the graded, parallel activation of multiple related or similar representations. Parallel activation of multiple representations has been particularly important in the development of theories and models of language processing, where coactivated representations ("neighbors") have been shown to…

  7. The surprising diversity of clostridial hydrogenases: a comparative genomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calusinska, Magdalena; Happe, Thomas; Joris, Bernard; Wilmotte, Annick

    2010-06-01

    Among the large variety of micro-organisms capable of fermentative hydrogen production, strict anaerobes such as members of the genus Clostridium are the most widely studied. They can produce hydrogen by a reversible reduction of protons accumulated during fermentation to dihydrogen, a reaction which is catalysed by hydrogenases. Sequenced genomes provide completely new insights into the diversity of clostridial hydrogenases. Building on previous reports, we found that [FeFe] hydrogenases are not a homogeneous group of enzymes, but exist in multiple forms with different modular structures and are especially abundant in members of the genus Clostridium. This unusual diversity seems to support the central role of hydrogenases in cell metabolism. In particular, the presence of multiple putative operons encoding multisubunit [FeFe] hydrogenases highlights the fact that hydrogen metabolism is very complex in this genus. In contrast with [FeFe] hydrogenases, their [NiFe] hydrogenase counterparts, widely represented in other bacteria and archaea, are found in only a few clostridial species. Surprisingly, a heteromultimeric Ech hydrogenase, known to be an energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenase and previously described only in methanogenic archaea and some sulfur-reducing bacteria, was found to be encoded by the genomes of four cellulolytic strains: Clostridum cellulolyticum, Clostridum papyrosolvens, Clostridum thermocellum and Clostridum phytofermentans.

  8. Novelty biases attention and gaze in a surprise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Gernot; Herwig, Arvid

    2016-01-01

    While the classical distinction between task-driven and stimulus-driven biasing of attention appears to be a dichotomy at first sight, there seems to be a third category that depends on the contrast or discrepancy between active representations and the upcoming stimulus, and may be termed novelty, surprise, or prediction failure. For previous demonstrations of the discrepancy-attention link, stimulus-driven components (saliency) may have played a decisive role. The present study was conducted to evaluate the discrepancy-attention link in a display where novel and familiar stimuli are equated for saliency. Eye tracking was used to determine fixations on novel and familiar stimuli as a proxy for attention. Results show a prioritization of attention by the novel color, and a de-prioritization of the familiar color, which is clearly present at the second fixation, and spans over the next couple of fixations. Saliency, on the other hand, did not prioritize items in the display. The results thus reinforce the notion that novelty captures and binds attention.

  9. A Well-Known But Still Surprising Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2014-12-01

    The bicycle generator is often mentioned as an example of a method to produce electric energy. It is cheap and easily accessible, so it is a natural example to use in teaching. There are different types, but I prefer the old side-wall dynamo. The most common explanation of its working principle seems to be something like the illustration in Fig. 1. The illustration is taken from a popular textbook in the Norwegian junior high school.1 Typically it is explained as a system of a moving magnet or coils that directly results in a varying magnetic field through the coils. According to Faraday's law a voltage is induced in the coils. Simple and easy! A few times I have had a chance to glimpse into a bicycle generator, and I was somewhat surprised to sense that the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil. How could the flux through the coil change and induce a voltage when the magnet rotated parallel to the turns of the coil? When teaching electromagnetic induction I have showed the students a dismantled generator and asked them how this could work. They naturally found that this was more difficult to understand than the principle illustrated in Fig. 1. Other authors in this journal have discussed even more challenging questions concerning electric generators.2,3

  10. Structure-semantics interplay in complex networks and its effects on the predictability of similarity in texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amancio, Diego R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Costa, Luciano da F.

    2012-09-01

    The classification of texts has become a major endeavor with so much electronic material available, for it is an essential task in several applications, including search engines and information retrieval. There are different ways to define similarity for grouping similar texts into clusters, as the concept of similarity may depend on the purpose of the task. For instance, in topic extraction similar texts mean those within the same semantic field, whereas in author recognition stylistic features should be considered. In this study, we introduce ways to classify texts employing concepts of complex networks, which may be able to capture syntactic, semantic and even pragmatic features. The interplay between various metrics of the complex networks is analyzed with three applications, namely identification of machine translation (MT) systems, evaluation of quality of machine translated texts and authorship recognition. We shall show that topological features of the networks representing texts can enhance the ability to identify MT systems in particular cases. For evaluating the quality of MT texts, on the other hand, high correlation was obtained with methods capable of capturing the semantics. This was expected because the golden standards used are themselves based on word co-occurrence. Notwithstanding, the Katz similarity, which involves semantic and structure in the comparison of texts, achieved the highest correlation with the NIST measurement, indicating that in some cases the combination of both approaches can improve the ability to quantify quality in MT. In authorship recognition, again the topological features were relevant in some contexts, though for the books and authors analyzed good results were obtained with semantic features as well. Because hybrid approaches encompassing semantic and topological features have not been extensively used, we believe that the methodology proposed here may be useful to enhance text classification considerably, as it

  11. Is It What You Do, or When You Do It? The Roles of Contingency and Similarity in Pro‐Social Effects of Imitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catmur, Caroline; Heyes, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    .... Naturalistic studies of the effects of being imitated have not established whether pro‐social outcomes are due to the similarity and/or the contingency between the movements performed by the actor and those of the imitator...

  12. Surprise disrupts cognition via a fronto-basal ganglia suppressive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Jenkinson, Ned; Brittain, John-Stuart; Voets, Sarah H E M; Aziz, Tipu Z; Aron, Adam R

    2016-04-18

    Surprising events markedly affect behaviour and cognition, yet the underlying mechanism is unclear. Surprise recruits a brain mechanism that globally suppresses motor activity, ostensibly via the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia. Here, we tested whether this suppressive mechanism extends beyond skeletomotor suppression and also affects cognition (here, verbal working memory, WM). We recorded scalp-EEG (electrophysiology) in healthy participants and STN local field potentials in Parkinson's patients during a task in which surprise disrupted WM. For scalp-EEG, surprising events engage the same independent neural signal component that indexes action stopping in a stop-signal task. Importantly, the degree of this recruitment mediates surprise-related WM decrements. Intracranially, STN activity is also increased post surprise, especially when WM is interrupted. These results suggest that surprise interrupts cognition via the same fronto-basal ganglia mechanism that interrupts action. This motivates a new neural theory of how cognition is interrupted, and how distraction arises after surprising events.

  13. Infants’ Looking to Surprising Events: When Eye-Tracking Reveals More than Looking Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H. Henny; Denison, Stephanie; Johnson, Scott P.

    2016-01-01

    Research on infants’ reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds’ gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls. When measuring looking time to the whole scene, infants were insensitive to the likelihood of the sampling event, replicating failures in similar paradigms. Nevertheless, a new analysis of visual scanning showed that infants did spend more time fixating specific areas-of-interest as a function of the event likelihood. The drawn ball and its associated container attracted more looking than the other containers in the 0% condition, but this pattern was weaker in the 50% condition, and even less strong in the 100% condition. Results suggest that measuring where infants look may be more sensitive than simply how much looking there is to the whole scene. The advantages of eye tracking measures over traditional looking measures are discussed. PMID:27926920

  14. Second-language experience and speech-in-noise recognition: effects of talker-listener accent similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinet, Melanie; Iverson, Paul; Huckvale, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Previous work has shown that the intelligibility of speech in noise is degraded if the speaker and listener differ in accent, in particular when there is a disparity between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) accents. This study investigated how this talker-listener interaction is modulated by L2 experience and accent similarity. L1 Southern British English, L1 French listeners with varying L2 English experience, and French-English bilinguals were tested on the recognition of English sentences mixed in speech-shaped noise that was spoken with a range of accents (French, Korean, Northern Irish, and Southern British English). The results demonstrated clear interactions of accent and experience, with the least experienced French speakers being most accurate with French-accented English, but more experienced listeners being most accurate with L1 Southern British English accents. An acoustic similarity metric was applied to the speech productions of the talkers and the listeners, and significant correlations were obtained between accent similarity and sentence intelligibility for pairs of individuals. Overall, the results suggest that L2 experience affects talker-listener accent interactions, altering both the intelligibility of different accents and the selectivity of accent processing. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  15. Properties and Surprises of Solar Activity XXIII Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2010-12-01

    The main properties of the 23rd cycle match almost completely those of average-magnitude solar cycles, and some of the features of the cycle may indicate a change in the generation mode of magnetic fields in the solar convection zone. If this is the case, the Sun enters a period of intermediate and weak cycles of solar activity (SA) in terms of the Wolf number, which may last for 3 to 6 solar cycles. The main development stages of solar cycle 23 are the following: minimum of solar cycle 22: April 1996 (W* = 8.0); maximum of the smoothed relative sunspot number: April 2000; global polarity reversal of the general solar magnetic field: July to December 2000; secondary maximum of the relative sunspot number: November 2001; maximum of the 10.7-cm radio flux: February 2002; phase of the cycle maximum: October 1999 to June 2002; beginning of the decrease phase: July 2002; the point of minimum of the current SA cycle: December 2008. Solar cycle 23 has presented two powerful flare-active sunspot groups, in September 2005 and December 2006 (+5.5 and +6.6 years from the maximum) which by flare potential occupy 4th and 20th place among the most flare-active regions for the last four solar cycles. The unprecedented duration of the relative sunspot numbers fall that has led to already record duration of the last solar cycle among authentic cycles (since 1849) became the next surprise of development of solar activity during the last cycle. The phase of the minimum began in May 2005 and lasted for 4.5 years. Thus, the new solar cycle 24 has begun in January 2009.

  16. Dracunculiasis eradication - Finishing the job before surprises arise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Jelle Visser

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dracunculiasis(Guinea worm disease) is a preventable waterborne parasitic disease that affects the poorest people living in remote rural areas in sub-SaharanAfrican countries, who do not have access to safe drinking water.The Guinea Worm Eradication Program, a25-year old campaign to rid the world ofGuineaWorm disease has now reached its final stage accelerating to zero cases in all endemic countries.During the19th and20th centuries, dracunculiasis was common in much ofSouthernAsia and theAfrican continent.The overall number of cases has been reduced tremendously by≥99%, from the3.32 million cases estimated to have occurred in1986 inAfrica to only1797 cases reported in2010 reported in only five countries(Sudan,Mali,Ethiopia,Chad andGhana) andAsia free of the disease.This achievement is unique in its kind - the only previously eradicated disease is smallpox, a viral infection for which vaccination was possible - and it has been achieved through primary community-based prevention and health education programs.Most efforts need to be taken in two countries,SouthSudan(comprising94% or1698 out of1797 of the cases reported world-wide in2010) andMali because of frequent movements of nomads in a vast area inside and outsideMali’s borders.All factors favourable to dracunculiasis eradication are available including adequate financial resources, community and political support and high levels of advocacy.Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries.

  17. Dynamics and processing in finite self-similar networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDeo, Simon; Krakauer, David C

    2012-09-07

    A common feature of biological networks is the geometrical property of self-similarity. Molecular regulatory networks through to circulatory systems, nervous systems, social systems and ecological trophic networks show self-similar connectivity at multiple scales. We analyse the relationship between topology and signalling in contrasting classes of such topologies. We find that networks differ in their ability to contain or propagate signals between arbitrary nodes in a network depending on whether they possess branching or loop-like features. Networks also differ in how they respond to noise, such that one allows for greater integration at high noise, and this performance is reversed at low noise. Surprisingly, small-world topologies, with diameters logarithmic in system size, have slower dynamical time scales, and may be less integrated (more modular) than networks with longer path lengths. All of these phenomena are essentially mesoscopic, vanishing in the infinite limit but producing strong effects at sizes and time scales relevant to biology.

  18. Effects of Side Chains with Similar Lengths and Different Structures of Polyimides on Liquid Crystal Alignment Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-hao Xia; Ying Jiang; Shi-ming Gong; Zhen Sun; Ying-han Wang

    2014-01-01

    Polyimides (PI) with different side chains in structure were synthesized by copolycondensation of pyromelliticmdianhydride (PMDA) with 3,5-diamino-(4'-methane acid hexyl ester) phenyl-benzamide (C6-PDA),(4-butoxybiphenol)-3',5'-diaminobenzoate (C4-BBDA) and 3,5-diamino-benzoic acid decyl ester (C 10-DA) named PI-PDA,PI-C4,PI-DA,respectively.The lengths of side chains of PI-PDA and PI-DA are as similar as that of PI-C4.Through the pretilt angle tests it is demonstrated that neither the structure of side chains nor the rubbing process could make an obvious difference on vertical alignment property when the lengths of the side chains are similar,standing at around 1.6 nm.The measurement of surface energy of PI surfaces further proved this result.The result of the X-ray photo-electron spectroscope measurement indicated that the side chains of PIs stretched out from the polymer bulk phase and accumulated on the surface.

  19. On the Effects of Lag-Times in Networks Constructed from Similarities of Monthly Fluctuations of Climate Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tirabassi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    The complex network framework has been successfully applied to the analysis of climatological data, providing, for example, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying reduced predictability during El Ni\\~no or La Ni\\~na years. Despite the large interest that climate networks have attracted, several issues remain to be investigated. Here we focus in the influence of the periodic solar forcing in climate networks constructed via similarities of monthly averaged surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies. We shift the time series in each pair of nodes such as to superpose their seasonal cycles. In this way, when two nodes are located in different hemispheres we are able to quantify the similarity of SAT anomalies during the winters and during the summers. We find that data time-shifting does not significantly modify the network area weighted connectivity (AWC), which is the fraction of the total area of the Earth to which each node is con- nected. This unexpected network property can be understood in terms...

  20. Interference Effects as a Function of Semantic Similarity in the Translation Recognition Task in Bilinguals of Catalan and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Cornelia D.; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Demestre, Josep; Ferre, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Previous evidence has shown that word pairs that are either related in form (e.g., "ruc-berro"; donkey-watercress) or very closely semantically related (e.g., "ruc-caballo", donkey-horse) produce interference effects in a translation recognition task (Ferre et al., 2006; Guasch et al., 2008). However, these effects are not…

  1. Young stars in old galaxies - surprising discovery with the world's leading telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    similar to the way a palaeontologist uses the skeletons of dinosaurs to deduce information about the era in which they lived. A surprising discovery The team combined images of a number of galaxies from Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 with infrared images obtained from the multi-mode ISAAC instrument on the 8.2m VLT Antu telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). To their great surprise, they discovered that many of the globular clusters in one of these galaxies, NGC 4365, a member of the large Virgo cluster of galaxies, were only a few thousand million years old, much younger than most of the other stars in this galaxy (roughly 12 thousand million years old). The astronomers were able to identify three major groups of stellar clusters. There is an old population of clusters of metal-poor stars, some clusters of old but metal-rich stars and now, seen for the first time, a population of clusters with young and metal-rich stars. These results have been fully confirmed by spectroscopic observations made with another of the world's giant telescopes, the 10-metre Keck on Hawaii. "It is a great pleasure to see two projects wholly or partly funded by Europe - VLT and Hubble - work in concert to produce such an important scientific result", says Piero Benvenuti, ESA Hubble Project Scientist. "The synergy between the most advanced ground and space telescopes continues to prove its effectiveness, paving the way to impressive new discoveries that would not otherwise be possible." The discovery of young globular clusters within old galaxies is surprising since the stars in the giant elliptical galaxies were until now believed to have formed during a single period early in the history of the Universe. It is now clear that some of the galaxies may be hiding their true nature and have indeed experienced much more recent periods of major star formation. Notes for editors This press release is issued in coordination between ESA and ESO. The Hubble Space Telescope project

  2. Surprising Sensitivities in Simulations of Radiative Convective Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotos, Gabor; Becker, Tobias; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Stevens, Bjorn

    2017-04-01

    The climate and climate-sensitivity of a global model run in radiative equilibrium is explored. Results from simulations with ECHAM6.3 coupled to a slab ocean and run in a wide range of configurations are presented. Simulations both with and without a parameterised representation of deep convection are conducted for CO2 concentrations ranging from one eighth of present day values to thirty-two times the present day, and for variations in the solar constant of more than a factor of two. Very long simulations, in some case more than a thousand years, are performed to adequately sample the attractor of the different climate states of the model, and provide robust estimates of the system's climate sensitivity parameter. For the standard configuration of the model the climate sensitivity progressively decreases from very large values (6-7K) for the coldest climates to well below 1 K for the warmest climates. For very high CO2 levels (16 and 32 times the present value) fluctuations of globally averaged temperature as large as 10 K arise on decadal time-scales. These fluctuations manifest as quasi-period coolings, driven by large and persistent global scale decks of stratiform low clouds, so that for a period of several years global temperatures drop to levels below the lowest temperatures of the climate with present day values of CO2. The same configuration of the model has more modest sensitivities when the insolation is reduced, but runaway warming results for small (10%) increases. Simulations without parameterised convection have colder (by roughly 10K) climates and smaller (1K) sensitivities, allowing a stable climate with earth-like temperatures even for insolation much (50%) larger than the present day. Such values of insolation are possible because over a large range of the insolation the climate sensitivity parameter is very near zero. The surprising sensitivities of the system, and the limit-cycle like behaviour of the very CO2 rich climates, can be traced to

  3. Repeated downsizing contact: the effects of similar and dissimilar layoff experiences on work and well-being outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah; Grunberg, Leon; Greenberg, Edward

    2004-07-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors compared 1,244 white- and blue-collar workers who reported 0, 1, or 2 contacts with layoffs; all were employees of a large manufacturing company that had engaged in several mass waves of downsizing. Consistent with a stress-vulnerability model, workers with a greater number of exposures to both direct and indirect downsizing reported significantly lower levels of job security and higher levels of role ambiguity, intent to quit, depression, and health problems. Findings did not support the idea that workers became more resilient as they encountered more layoff events. The authors found only partial evidence that the similarity or dissimilarity of the type of repeated downsizing exposure played a role in how workers reported changes in these outcome variables.

  4. Similar Adiponectin Levels in Obese Normotensive and Obese Hypertensive Men and No Vasorelaxant Effect of Adiponectin on Human Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Rasmus; Asferg, Camilla; Berg, Jais O;

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanism linking obesity to hypertension is not fully elucidated. In obesity, circulating concentrations of adiponectin are decreased and hypoadiponectinaemia has in some but not all studies been associated with increased risk....... In conclusion, obese hypertensive men have similar serum concentrations of adiponectin as obese normotensive men. In combination with the in vitro data, these findings question a pathogenic role of adiponectin in human hypertension....... of hypertension. Due to this inconsistency, we decided to study adiponectin from two aspects in a cross-sectional in vivo study and in an experimental in vitro study. In the cross-sectional study, 103 men with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) were studied; 63 had 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130...

  5. Effects of a cognitive dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program are similar for Asian American, Hispanic, and White participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosalía; Marchand, Erica; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2008-11-01

    This study explored the effects of participating in a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on changes in thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating symptoms among White, Asian American, and Hispanic participants. Participants were (n = 394), 13 to 20-year-old adolescent girls and young women who reported being White (n = 311), Hispanic/Latina (n = 61), or Asian-American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 33). The current study used data drawn from the pre- and post assessments of an efficacy trial and an effectiveness trial of this eating disorder prevention program. The intervention reduced disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder risk factors for all three ethnic groups at post-intervention assessment; there was no evidence of significantly stronger effects in any particular ethnic group. Results suggest that a cognitive dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders may be equally effective for Asian American, Hispanic, and White adolescent women.

  6. The effects of similarity, parasocial identification, and source credibility in obesity public service announcements on diet and exercise self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effect of the audience's similarity to, and parasocial identification with, spokespersons in obesity public service announcements, on perceived source credibility, and diet and exercise self-efficacy. The results (N = 200) indicated that perceived similarity to the spokesperson was significantly associated with three dimensions of source credibility (competence, trustworthiness, and goodwill), each of which in turn influenced parasocial identification with the spokesperson. Parasocial identification also exerted a positive impact on the audiences' diet and exercise self-efficacy. Additionally, significant differences were found between overweight viewers and non-overweight viewers on perceived similarity, parasocial identification with the spokesperson, and source credibility.

  7. Stars Form Surprisingly Close to Milky Way's Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way has surprisingly helped spawn a new generation of stars, according to observations from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This novel mode of star formation may solve several mysteries about the supermassive black holes that reside at the centers of nearly all galaxies. "Massive black holes are usually known for violence and destruction," said Sergei Nayakshin of the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and coauthor of a paper on this research in an upcoming issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. "So it's remarkable that this black hole helped create new stars, not just destroy them." Black holes have earned their fearsome reputation because any material -- including stars -- that falls within the so-called event horizon is never seen again. However, these new results indicate that the immense disks of gas known to orbit many black holes at a "safe" distance from the event horizon can help nurture the formation of new stars. Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole Animation of Stars Forming Around Black Hole This conclusion came from new clues that could only be revealed in X-rays. Until the latest Chandra results, astronomers have disagreed about the origin of a mysterious group of massive stars discovered by infrared astronomers to be orbiting less than a light year from the Milky Way's central black hole, a.k.a. Sagittarius A*, or Sgr A*. At such close distances to Sgr A*, the standard model for star formation predicts that gas clouds from which stars form should have been ripped apart by tidal forces from the black hole. Two models to explain this puzzle have been proposed. In the disk model, the gravity of a dense disk of gas around Sgr A* offsets the tidal forces and allows stars to form; in the migration model, the stars formed in a star cluster far away from the black hole and migrated in to form the ring of massive stars. The migration scenario predicts about a

  8. Effects of sex steroids on bones and muscles: similarities, parallels, and putative interactions in health and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James A.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of bones and muscles and are responsible for their sexual dimorphism. A decline in their circulating levels leads to loss of mass and functional integrity in both tissues. In the article, we highlight the similarities of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of sex steroids in the two tissues; the commonality of a critical role of mechanical forces on tissue mass and function; emerging evidence for an interplay between mechanical forces and hormonal and growth factor signals in both bones and muscles; as well as the current state of evidence for or against a cross-talk between muscles and bone. In addition, we review evidence for the parallels in the development of osteoporosis and sarcopenia with advancing age and the potential common mechanisms responsible for the age-dependent involution of these two tissues. Lastly, we discuss the striking difference in the availability of several drug therapies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, as compared to none for sarcopenia. PMID:26453497

  9. PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta have both similar and distinct effects on myofiber switching toward an oxidative phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Frandsen, Lis; Schjerling, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta (PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta) were overexpressed by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in cultures of primary rat skeletal muscle cells derived from neonatal myoblasts. Effects on muscle fiber type transition and metabolism...

  10. The plant host can affect the encapsidation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA: BMV virions are surprisingly heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Vaughan, Robert C; Tragesser, Brady; Hoover, Haley; Kao, C Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) packages its genomic and subgenomic RNAs into three separate viral particles. BMV purified from barley, wheat, and tobacco have distinct relative abundances of the encapsidated RNAs. We seek to identify the basis for the host-dependent differences in viral RNA encapsidation. Sequencing of the viral RNAs revealed recombination events in the 3' untranslated region of RNA1 of BMV purified from barley and wheat, but not from tobacco. However, the relative amounts of the BMV RNAs that accumulated in barley and wheat are similar and RNA accumulation is not sufficient to account for the difference in RNA encapsidation. Virions purified from barley and wheat were found to differ in their isoelectric points, resistance to proteolysis, and contacts between the capsid residues and the RNA. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that virions from the three hosts had different post-translational modifications that should impact the physiochemical properties of the virions. Another major source of variation in RNA encapsidation was due to the purification of BMV particles to homogeneity. Highly enriched BMV present in lysates had a surprising range of sizes, buoyant densities, and distinct relative amounts of encapsidated RNAs. These results show that the encapsidated BMV RNAs reflect a combination of host effects on the physiochemical properties of the viral capsids and the enrichment of a subset of virions. The previously unexpected heterogeneity in BMV should influence the timing of the infection and also the host innate immune responses.

  11. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

  12. Effects of calorie restriction on reproductive and adrenal systems in Japanese quail: are responses similar to mammals, particularly primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary Ann; Mobarak, Mohammed; Abdelnabi, Mahmoud; Roth, George; Proudman, John; Ingram, Donald K

    2005-09-01

    The benefits of calorie restriction (CR) have been established across a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Although the effects of CR on lifespan in birds have not been examined, it is clear that CR has beneficial effects on reproductive, metabolic, and physiological function in adult poultry. We examined the effects of CR in Japanese quail, a rapidly maturing avian model, on reproductive endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. Male Japanese quail were pair fed at 0% ad libitum (AL), 20%, or 40% CR of AL, recorded for juveniles (3-7 weeks of age) or adults (12-16 weeks of age). Juvenile males on CR matured more slowly, and both juvenile and adult males had reduced plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) with CR. Adults on 40% CR showed evidence of stress, with increased plasma corticosterone and reduced testes weight and circulating androgens. In a separate study, pituitary gland response was tested in juvenile and adult castrated males that had been on the same CR treatments. All birds responded to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge, with LH release. However, the 40% CR juvenile and adult birds had quantitatively lower responses, suggesting central inhibition of the reproductive axis. This hypothesis was tested by measurement of sexual behavior and catecholamines known to stimulate GnRH in hypothalamic regions that modulate these responses. Results showed reduced norepinephrine in key hypothalamic regions and reduced dopamine in posterior hypothalamus. These data support the hypothesis that CR affects reproductive function, with evidence for effects in the central nervous system. These data are discussed and compared to data collected in mammals, especially the rhesus monkey, on the effects of timing and degree of CR on reproductive and stress responses.

  13. Efectos del entrenamiento continuo e interválico de carga externa similar sobre la frecuencia cardiaca Effects of continuous and interval training similar external load on heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Tuimil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comparar la frecuencia cardíaca (FC media entre dos tipos de entrenamiento de carga externa equiparada basados en la carrera, la relación de la velocidad aeróbica máxima (VAM con la F.C. de reserva (FCR y los efectos de estos dos tipos de entrenamiento sobre la F.C. basal (FCB. El estudio se llevó a cabo con ocho estudiantes de educación física (23,25 años; VAM: 17,93 Km.h-1 que realizaron dos tipos de entrenamiento: CC =8 km al 70%VAM y CI= 4x(1000m al 90%VAM+1000m al 50% VAM. Se registró la FC durante el entrenamiento y la FCB antes y después del mismo. La diferencia de la FC media entre ambos métodos no fue estadísticamente significativa, sin embargo las medias del CC (FCCC (Z=2,240; p<0,05 y CI (FCCI (Z=2,380; p<0,05 fueron significativamente más elevadas que la calculada al 70% de FCR. La FCB se elevó de forma significativa (Z=2,319; p=0.020 solamente después del entrenamiento CI. En conclusión, dos métodos de entrenamiento distintos, pero de intensidad media similar, pueden dar lugar a una FC media también similar. La intensidad de carrera programada en función de la VAM es significativamente superior a la programada en función de la FCR. El entrenamiento interválico puede tener un mayor efecto sobre el incremento de la FCB.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Frecuencia cardíaca media, frecuencia cardíaca de reserva, frecuencia cardíaca basal, VAM, carrera continua, carrera interválica.

    The aims of this study were to compare the mean heart rate response in two training methods of equal average intensity based on running, the relationship of the maximal aerobic speed (VAM with the reserve heart rate (FCR and the effects of these modes of training on the basal heart rate (FCB. The study was carried out with eight physical activity students (23,25 years old; VAM: 17,93 Km.h-1

  14. Similar hypotensive effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise with 1 set versus 3 sets in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A; Nascimento, Dahan da C; de Sousa, Nuno M F; de Almeida, Jeeser A; Moraes, Milton R; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti; Collier, Scott R; Prestes, Jonato

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the response of systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) following combined training with 1 set or with 3 sets of resistance exercise (RE). Sixteen women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to perform two combined exercise protocols and a control session (CON): 1-set, 30 min of aerobic exercise (AE) at 65-70% of reserve heart rate and 1 set of 8-12 repetitions at 80% of 10-RM in six resistance exercises; 3-sets, same protocol but with 3 sets; and CON, 30 min of seated rest. The SBP, MBP and DBP were measured before and every 15 min during 90 min following the experimental sessions. The SBP displayed a decrease (P ≤ 0.05) during the 90 min following the RE session with 1-set and 3-set, while MBP was decreased (P ≤ 0.05) up to 75 min after 1-set and up to 30 min after the 3-set exercise session compared with pre-intervention values. There was a decrease in DBP only for the greatest individual decrease following 1-set (-6.1 mmHg) and 3-set (-4.9 mmHg) combined exercise sessions, without differences between them. The rate-pressure product and heart rate remained significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) 75 min and 90 min after the combined exercise session with 1- and 3-sets compared with the CON, respectively. In conclusion, a low-volume RE combined with AE resulted in similar decrease of SBP when compared with RE with 3-sets in women with MetS, which could be beneficial in situations of limited time.

  15. Targeting of natural killer cells by rabbit antithymocyte globulin and campath-1H: similar effects independent of specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Stauch

    Full Text Available T cell depleting strategies are an integral part of immunosuppressive regimens widely used in the hematological and solid organ transplant setting. Although it is known to induce lymphocytopenia, little is known about the effects of the polyclonal rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG or the monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab on Natural Killer (NK cells in detail. Here, we demonstrate that induction therapy with rATG following kidney/pancreas transplantation results in a rapid depletion of NK cells. Treatment of NK cells with rATG and alemtuzumab in vitro leads to impairment of cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis even at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 microg/ml compared with T and B cells. By generating Fc-parts of rATG and alemtuzumab we illustrate that their ligation to FcgammaRIII (CD16 is sufficient for the significant induction of degranulation, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine release (FasL, TNFalpha and IFNgamma exclusively in CD3(-CD56(dim NK cells whereas application of rATG and alemtuzumab F(ab fragments abolishes these effects. These findings are of general importance as our data suggest that NK cells are also mediators of the clinically relevant cytokine release syndrome and that their targeting by therapeutic antibodies should be considered as they are functionally relevant for the effective clearance of opportunistic viral infections and anti-tumor activity posttransplantation.

  16. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study. PMID:27835687

  17. The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Suk; Min, Hyun-Gi; Lee, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

  18. Benidipine has effects similar to losartan on the central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in mild to moderate essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang-Hyun Ihm; Hui-Kyung Jeon; Shung Chull Chae; Do-Sun Lim; Kee-Sik Kim; Dong-Ju Choi; Jong-Won Ha

    2013-01-01

    Background Central blood pressure (BP) is pathophysiologically more important than peripheral BP for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.Arterial stiffness is also a good predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.The effects of benidipine,a unique dual L-/T-type calcium channel blocker,on central BP have not been reported.This study aimed to compare the effect of benidipine and losartan on the central BP and arterial stiffness in mild to moderate essential hypertensives.Methods This 24 weeks,multi-center,open label,randomized,active drug comparative,parallel group study was designed as a non-inferiority study.The eligible patients (n=200) were randomly assigned to receive benidipine (n=101)or losartan (n=99).Radial artery applanation tonometry and pulse wave analysis were used to measure the central BP,pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (Alx).We also measured the metabolic and inflammatory markers.Results After 24 weeks,the central BP decreased significantly from baseline by (16.8+14.0/10.5+9.2) mmHg (1mmHg =0.133 kPa) (systolic/diastolic BP; P <0.001) in benidipine group and (18.9+14.7/12.1+10.2) mmHg (P <0.001)in losartan group respectively.Both benidipine and losartan groups significantly lowered peripheral BP (P <0.001) and Alx (P <0.05),but there were no significant differences between the two groups.The mean aortic,brachial and femoral PWV did not change in both groups after 24-week treatment.There were no significant changes of the blood metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in each group.Conclusion Benidipine is as effective as losartan in lowering the central and peripheral BP,and improving arterial stiffness.

  19. Thermic effect of food at rest, during exercise, and after exercise in lean and obese men of similar body weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, K R; Gutin, B; Nyman, A M; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.

    1985-01-01

    The thermic effect of food at rest, during 30 min of cycle ergometer exercise, and after exercise was studied in eight lean (mean +/- SEM, 10 +/- 1% body fat, hydrostatically-determined) and eight obese men (30 +/- 2% body fat). The lean and obese mean were matched with respect to age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to determine the relationship between thermogenesis and body composition, independent of body weight. All men were overweight, defined as a BMI between 26-34, but the o...

  20. Expectation and surprise determine neural population responses in the ventral visual stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Tobias; Monti, Jim M; Summerfield, Christopher

    2010-12-08

    Visual cortex is traditionally viewed as a hierarchy of neural feature detectors, with neural population responses being driven by bottom-up stimulus features. Conversely, "predictive coding" models propose that each stage of the visual hierarchy harbors two computationally distinct classes of processing unit: representational units that encode the conditional probability of a stimulus and provide predictions to the next lower level; and error units that encode the mismatch between predictions and bottom-up evidence, and forward prediction error to the next higher level. Predictive coding therefore suggests that neural population responses in category-selective visual regions, like the fusiform face area (FFA), reflect a summation of activity related to prediction ("face expectation") and prediction error ("face surprise"), rather than a homogenous feature detection response. We tested the rival hypotheses of the feature detection and predictive coding models by collecting functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the FFA while independently varying both stimulus features (faces vs houses) and subjects' perceptual expectations regarding those features (low vs medium vs high face expectation). The effects of stimulus and expectation factors interacted, whereby FFA activity elicited by face and house stimuli was indistinguishable under high face expectation and maximally differentiated under low face expectation. Using computational modeling, we show that these data can be explained by predictive coding but not by feature detection models, even when the latter are augmented with attentional mechanisms. Thus, population responses in the ventral visual stream appear to be determined by feature expectation and surprise rather than by stimulus features per se.

  1. Diazepam and Jacobson's progressive relaxation show similar attenuating short-term effects on stress-related brain glucose consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifarré, P; Simó, M; Gispert, J-D; Plaza, P; Fernández, A; Pujol, J

    2015-02-01

    A non-pharmacological method to reduce anxiety is "progressive relaxation" (PR). The aim of the method is to reduce mental stress and associated mental processes by means of progressive suppression of muscle tension. The study was addressed to evaluate changes in brain glucose metabolism induced by PR in patients under a stressing state generated by a diagnostic medical intervention. The effect of PR was compared to a dose of sublingual diazepam, with the prediction that both interventions would be associated with a reduction in brain metabolism. Eighty-four oncological patients were assessed with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Maps of brain glucose distribution from 28 patients receiving PR were compared with maps from 28 patients receiving sublingual diazepam and with 28 patients with no treatment intervention. Compared to reference control subjects, the PR and diazepam groups showed a statistically significant, bilateral and generalized cortical hypometabolism. Regions showing the most prominent changes were the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. No significant differences were identified in the direct comparison between relaxation technique and sublingual diazepam. Our findings suggest that relaxation induced by a physical/psychological procedure can be as effective as a reference anxiolytic in reducing brain activity during a stressful state.

  2. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effect of Structurally Similar Flavonoids on Parental and Drug-Resistant Cells of a Human Cervical Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Durgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are phytochemicals characterized by a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant activity, the ability to modulate enzyme or cell receptor activity patterns, and to interfere with essential biochemical pathways. Using HeLa cells of a human cervical carcinoma, and their drug-resistant HeLa CK subline, the effects of three structurally related flavonoids (quercetin, fisetin and luteolin have been examined, in terms of their: (i cytotoxicity, (ii influence on intracellular glutathione (GSH level, (iii influence on glutathione S-transferase (GST activity, and (iv influence on the expression of apoptosis-related genes (PARP, Bcl-2, survivin. Fisetin was more toxic to resistant HeLa CK cell line than to parental cell line, causing decreased expression of survivin in the same cell line. Concentrations of 5 μM of the examined flavonoids caused PARP degradation in parental cell line, leading HeLa cell line into apoptotic cell death. The same event was not determined in the resistant cell line. Fisetin and luteolin induce glutathione and GST in the resistant cell line, pointing to complex cellular effects which could be responsible for higher sensitivity of the resistant cell line in comparison with the parental cell line. Prooxidative nature of the investigated flavonoids was not detected, so free radical formation is not responsible for the induction of GSH, GST and proapoptotic enzymes.

  3. Similar effects in vivo of two aluminum salts on the liver, kidney, bone, and brain of Rattus norvegicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, A.K.; Talukder, G.; Sharma, A. (Univ. of Calcutta (India))

    1991-08-01

    The widespread distribution of aluminum (Al) compounds in nature and their use have stimulated considerable interest in the toxicity of this metal. Aluminum accumulation has been suggested to be an associated phenomenon in various human diseases such as renal dialysis dementia, senile dementia, dialysis osteomalacia, microcytic hypochromic anaemia, gastrointestinal toxicity and Alzheimer's disease. The present work was undertaken to observe the effects of different concentrations of aluminum following oral ingestion for various durations on various organs of rats and also to compare two different Al salts at doses having the same amount of Al. The findings can be of relevance owing to the widespread use of aluminum compounds by oral route either as medicines or unintentionally through utensils and cookwares.

  4. Supermagnetic Neutron Star Surprises Scientists, Forces Revision of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    magnetars because their magnetic fields are 100-1,000 times stronger than those of typical pulsars. It is the decay of those incredibly strong fields that powers their strange X-ray emission. "The magnetic field from a magnetar would make an aircraft carrier spin around and point north quicker than a compass needle moves on Earth," said David Helfand, of Columbia University. A magnetar's field is 1,000 trillion times stronger than Earth's, Helfand pointed out. The new object -- named XTE J1810-197 -- was first discovered by NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer when it emitted a strong burst of X-rays in 2003. While the X-rays were fading in 2004, Jules Halpern of Columbia University and collaborators identified the magnetar as a radio-wave emitter using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. Any radio emission is highly unusual for a magnetar. Because magnetars had not been seen to regularly emit radio waves, the scientists presumed that the radio emission was caused by a cloud of particles thrown off the neutron star at the time of its X-ray outburst, an idea they soon would realize was wrong. With knowledge that the magnetar emitted some form of radio waves, Camilo and his colleagues observed it with the Parkes radio telescope in Australia in March and immediately detected astonishingly strong radio pulsations every 5.5 seconds, corresponding to the previously-determined rotation rate of the neutron star. As they continued to observe XTE J1810-197, the scientists got more surprises. Whereas most pulsars become weaker at higher radio frequencies, XTE J1810-197 does not, remaining a strong emitter at frequencies up to 140 GHz, the highest frequency ever detected from a radio pulsar. In addition, unlike normal pulsars, the object's radio emission fluctuates in strength from day to day, and the shape of the pulsations changes as well. These variations likely indicate that the magnetic fields around the pulsar are changing

  5. PubChem3D: Similar conformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Evan E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubChem is a free and open public resource for the biological activities of small molecules. With many tens of millions of both chemical structures and biological test results, PubChem is a sizeable system with an uneven degree of available information. Some chemical structures in PubChem include a great deal of biological annotation, while others have little to none. To help users, PubChem pre-computes "neighboring" relationships to relate similar chemical structures, which may have similar biological function. In this work, we introduce a "Similar Conformers" neighboring relationship to identify compounds with similar 3-D shape and similar 3-D orientation of functional groups typically used to define pharmacophore features. Results The first two diverse 3-D conformers of 26.1 million PubChem Compound records were compared to each other, using a shape Tanimoto (ST of 0.8 or greater and a color Tanimoto (CT of 0.5 or greater, yielding 8.16 billion conformer neighbor pairs and 6.62 billion compound neighbor pairs, with an average of 253 "Similar Conformers" compound neighbors per compound. Comparing the 3-D neighboring relationship to the corresponding 2-D neighboring relationship ("Similar Compounds" for molecules such as caffeine, aspirin, and morphine, one finds unique sets of related chemical structures, providing additional significant biological annotation. The PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship is also shown to be able to group a set of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, despite limited PubChem 2-D similarity. In a study of 4,218 chemical structures of biomedical interest, consisting of many known drugs, using more diverse conformers per compound results in more 3-D compound neighbors per compound; however, the overlap of the compound neighbor lists per conformer also increasingly resemble each other, being 38% identical at three conformers and 68% at ten conformers. Perhaps surprising is that the average

  6. Biomarkers of vascular function in premenopausal and recent postmenopausal women of similar age: effect of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Michael; Seidelin, Kaare; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Overby, Nickie Neumann; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Menopause is associated with an accelerated decline in vascular function; however, whether this is an effect of age and/or menopause and how exercise training may affect this decline remains unclear. We examined a range of molecular measures related to vascular function in matched premenopausal and postmenopausal women before and after 12 wk of exercise training. Thirteen premenopausal and 10 recently postmenopausal [1.6 ± 0.3 (means ± SE) years after final menstrual period] women only separated by 3 yr (48 ± 1 vs. 51 ± 1 yr) were included. Before training, diastolic blood pressure, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and skeletal muscle expression of thromboxane A synthase were higher in the postmenopausal women compared with the premenopausal women, all indicative of impaired vascular function. In both groups, exercise training lowered diastolic blood pressure, the levels of sICAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), as well as plasma and skeletal muscle endothelin-1. The vasodilator prostacyclin tended (P = 0.061) to be higher in plasma with training in the postmenopausal women only. These findings demonstrate that already within the first years after menopause, several biomarkers of vascular function are adversely altered, indicating that these biomarker changes are more related to hormonal changes than aging. Exercise training appears to have a positive impact on vascular function, as indicated by a marked improvement in the biomarker profile, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  7. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Vasey, Michael W; Kim, Grace; Hu, Dixie D; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad spatial frequency (BSF), high spatial frequency (HSF), and low spatial frequency (LSF) and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of BSF (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at HSF and LSF. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of BSF surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of LSF surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  8. Trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretations when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gewnhi Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact surprised faces. However, the modulation of trait anxiety on the negative interpretation of surprised faces disappeared at high and low spatial frequencies. The current study provides evidence that trait anxiety modulates negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency surprised faces. However, the negative interpretation of low spatial frequency surprised faces appears to be a robust default response that occurs regardless of individual differences in trait anxiety.

  9. Faith-Based and Graduate Adult Educators' Negotiation of Similarities and Differences among People as an Indicator of Their Multicultural Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth Conerly

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adult educators' multicultural effectiveness scores and their negotiation of similarities and differences scores. The participants were in faith-based institutions, specifically Christian churches and in graduate adult education programs of universities and colleges in the United States. Multicultural…

  10. Sensitive Biomarkers of Alcoholism's Effect on Brain Macrostructure: Similarities and Differences between France and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Pascale eLe Berre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption patterns and recognition of health outcomes related to hazardous drinking vary widely internationally, raising the question whether these national differences are reflected in brain damage observed in alcoholism. This retrospective analysis assessed variability of alcoholism’s effects on brain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and white matter volumes between France and the United States (U.S.. MRI data from two French sites (Caen and Orsay and a U.S. laboratory (SRI/Stanford University were acquired on 1.5T imaging systems in 287 controls, 165 uncomplicated alcoholics (ALC, and 26 alcoholics with Korsakoff’s Syndrome (KS. All data were analyzed at the U.S. site using atlas-based parcellation. Results revealed graded CSF volume enlargement from ALC to KS and white matter volume deficits in KS only. In ALC from France but not the U.S., CSF and white matter volumes correlated with lifetime alcohol consumption, alcoholism duration, and length of sobriety. MRI highlighted CSF volume enlargement in both ALC and KS, serving as a basis for an ex vacuo process to explain correlated gray matter shrinkage. By contrast, MRI provided a sensitive in vivo biomarker of white matter volume shrinkage in KS only, suggesting a specific process sensitive to mechanisms contributing to Wernicke's encephalopathy, the precursor of KS. Identified structural brain abnormalities may provide biomarkers underlying alcoholism's heterogeneity in and among nations and suggest a substrate of gray matter tissue shrinkage. Proposed are hypotheses for national differences in interpreting whether the severity of sequelae observe a graded phenomenon or a continuum from uncomplicated alcoholism to alcoholism complicated by KS.

  11. Sensitive biomarkers of alcoholism's effect on brain macrostructure: similarities and differences between France and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Chanraud, Sandra; Beaunieux, Hélène; Eustache, Francis; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Reynaud, Michel; Martelli, Catherine; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption patterns and recognition of health outcomes related to hazardous drinking vary widely internationally, raising the question whether these national differences are reflected in brain damage observed in alcoholism. This retrospective analysis assessed variability of alcoholism's effects on brain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white matter volumes between France and the United States (U.S.). MRI data from two French sites (Caen and Orsay) and a U.S. laboratory (SRI/Stanford University) were acquired on 1.5T imaging systems in 287 controls, 165 uncomplicated alcoholics (ALC), and 26 alcoholics with Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). All data were analyzed at the U.S. site using atlas-based parcellation. Results revealed graded CSF volume enlargement from ALC to KS and white matter volume deficits in KS only. In ALC from France but not the U.S., CSF and white matter volumes correlated with lifetime alcohol consumption, alcoholism duration, and length of sobriety. MRI highlighted CSF volume enlargement in both ALC and KS, serving as a basis for an ex vacuo process to explain correlated gray matter shrinkage. By contrast, MRI provided a sensitive in vivo biomarker of white matter volume shrinkage in KS only, suggesting a specific process sensitive to mechanisms contributing to Wernicke's encephalopathy, the precursor of KS. Identified structural brain abnormalities may provide biomarkers underlying alcoholism's heterogeneity in and among nations and suggest a substrate of gray matter tissue shrinkage. Proposed are hypotheses for national differences in interpreting whether the severity of sequelae observe a graded phenomenon or a continuum from uncomplicated alcoholism to alcoholism complicated by KS. PMID:26157376

  12. Comparative analyses of immunoglobulin genes: surprises and portents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajnik, Martin F

    2002-09-01

    The study of immunoglobulin genes in non-mouse and non-human models has shown that different vertebrate groups have evolved distinct methods of generating antibody diversity. By contrast, the development of T cells in the thymus is quite similar in all of the species that have been examined. The three mechanisms by which B cells uniquely modify their immunoglobulin genes -- somatic hypermutation, gene conversion and class switching -- are increasingly believed to share some fundamental mechanisms, which studies in different vertebrate groups have helped (and will continue to help) to resolve. When these mechanisms are better understood, we should be able to look to the constitutive pathways from which they have evolved and perhaps determine whether the rearrangement of variable, diversity and joining antibody gene segments -- V(D)J recombination -- was superimposed on an existing adaptive immune system.

  13. Trait Anxiety Is Associated with Negative Interpretations When Resolving Valence Ambiguity of Surprised Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Gewnhi Park; Vasey, Michael W.; Grace Kim; Dixie D Hu; Thayer, Julian F

    2016-01-01

    The current research examines whether trait anxiety is associated with negative interpretation bias when resolving valence ambiguity of surprised faces. To further isolate the neuro-cognitive mechanism, we presented angry, happy, and surprised faces at broad, high, and low spatial frequency and asked participants to determine the valence of each face. High trait anxiety was associated with more negative interpretations of broad spatial frequency (i.e., intact) surprised faces. However, the mo...

  14. Non-targeted transcriptomic effects upon thyroid irradiation: similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses varies with tissue type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Britta; Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Swanpalmer, John; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2016-10-25

    Non-targeted effects can induce responses in tissues that have not been exposed to ionizing radiation. Despite their relevance for risk assessment, few studies have investigated these effects in vivo. In particular, these effects have not been studied in context with thyroid exposure, which can occur e.g. during irradiation of head and neck tumors. To determine the similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses in normal tissue, we used a partial body irradiation setup with female mice where the thyroid region, the thorax and abdomen, or all three regions were irradiated. After 24 h, transcriptional regulation in the kidney cortex, kidney medulla, liver, lungs, spleen, and thyroid was analyzed using microarray technology. Thyroid irradiation resulted in transcriptional regulation in the kidney medulla and liver that resembled regulation upon direct exposure of these tissues regarding both strength of response and associated biological function. The kidney cortex showed fewer similarities between the setups, while the lungs and spleen showed little similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses. Interestingly, effects were generally not found to be additive. Future studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanisms that mediate these systemic effects, so that they may be used as targets to minimize detrimental side effects in radiotherapy.

  15. Effective similarity measure for XML retrieval results%有效的XML检索结果的相似性度量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜平; 万常选

    2009-01-01

    As XML has become a de facto standard for formatting and exchanging data on the web and in digital library and scientific applications, there is an increasing need for managing, clustering and retrieving XML data. XML information retrieval is one of the most active areas in database and information retrieval research. In information retrieval, retrieval results organization is an important aspect and effective technique. For example, results clustering has been studied and proved effective in improving retrieval quality. When information retrieval meets XML, it is natural to borrow and extend traditional techniques such as result clustering and apply these techniques to XML retrieval. Clustering XML retrieval results, however, is non-trivial and cannot employ traditional techniques built for traditional information retrieval directly. The core of clustering is similarity measure between data objects, and the similarity measure for XML retrieval results is still open. In this paper, we study the similarity measures of XML retrieval results, and propose novel structural and content similarity measures. Firstly, to remove redundant information, we compute the structural summaries of document trees to reduce the original documents. Summary tree (I. E. Structural summary) still has a lot of structural information. In order to depict the summary tree in a comprehensive way, the paper proposes two feature sets, which reflect structural features of summary tree from different perspectives and are complementary to each other. Corresponding to these feature sets, we present a two-dimensional structural similarity measure comprising two similarities! Horizontal structural similarity and vertical structural similarity. Each of them represents the similarity from one particular perspective and the combination of them will give rise to an accurate structural similarity measure. On the other hand, we propose structural content model to describe the content. A content similarity

  16. Quark Gluon Plasma: Surprises from strongly coupled QCD matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics has long predicted a transition from normal hadronic matter to a phase where the quarks and gluons are no longer bound together and can move freely. Quark gluon plasma is now produced regularly in collisions of heavy nuclei at very high energy at both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in the U.S. and at the LHC in Europe. Quark gluon plasma exhibits remarkable properties. Its vanishingly small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio means that it flows essentially without internal friction, making it one of the most ``perfect'' liquids known. It is also very opaque to transiting particles including heavy charm quarks, though the exact mechanism for this is not yet understood. Recent data suggest that even very small colliding systems may produce a droplet of plasma. The similarities to strongly coupled or correlated systems in ultra-cold atoms and condensed matter are striking, and have inspired novel theoretical descriptions growing out of string theory. It remains a mystery how this plasma emerges from cold, dense gluonic matter deep inside nuclei. I will discuss how a future electron-ion collider can help address this question.

  17. Finding a planet's heartbeat: surprising results from patient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, Vlada; Ward, Lewis; Fischer, Woodward; Russell, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    We explore, from a 3D time-dependent perspective, the evolution of oxidizing and reducing planetary niches and how they form a planetary-scale redox network - from a planet's deep interior to its atmosphere. Such redox networks are similar to the circulatory system of animals, but instead of pressure gradients redox gradients drive the flow of electrons and create hotspots for nutrients and metabolic activity.Using time-dependent geodynamic and atmospheric models, we compute for Mars the time-dependent 3D distribution of 1) hydrogen- and methane-rich reducing subsurface environments, driven by serpentinization and radiolysis of water, and 2) oxygen-rich oases as a product of atmosphere-brine interactions governed by climate and surface chemistry.This is only a first step towards our greater goal to globally model the evolution of local redox environments through time for rocky planets. However, already now our preliminary results show where on Mars oxidizing and reducing oases might have existed and might still exist today. This opens the window to search for extinct and extant life on Mars from a probabilistic global 3D perspective.

  18. Pre-test analysis of an integral effect test facility for thermal hydraulic similarities of 6 inches cold leg break and DVI line break using MARS-1D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ah, D. J.; Park, H. S.; Choi, K. Y.; Kwon, T. S.; Baek, W. P. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    Pre-test analyses of a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) and a DVI line break accident, have been performed for the integral effect test loop of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI-ITL), the construction of which will be started soon. The KAERI-ITL is being designed with a full-height and 1/310 volume scale based on the design features of the APR1400 (Korean Next Generation Reactor). Based on the same control logics and accident scenarios, the similarity between the KAERI-ITL and the prototype plant, APR1400, is evaluated using the MARS code. It is found that the KAERI-ITL and APR1400 have similar thermal hydraulic responses during the transient under the identical accident scenarios. It is also verified that the volume scaling law, applied to the design of the KAERI-ITL, gives reasonable results to keep the similarity between APR1400 and KAERI-ITL.

  19. The Surprisingly Modest Relationship between SES and Educational Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Michael; Maeda, Yukiko; Bishop, Kyoungwon; Xie, Aolin

    2017-01-01

    Measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are routinely used in analyses of achievement data to increase statistical power, statistically control for the effects of SES, and enhance causality arguments under the premise that the SES-achievement relationship is moderate to strong. Empirical evidence characterizing the strength of the SES-achievement…

  20. Cassini Science Highlights: Surprises in the Saturn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Linda J.

    2012-10-01

    Cassini’s exploration of the Saturn system has generated a treasure trove of scientific data on Saturn, Titan, Enceladus, and other diverse icy satellites, the rings, and magnetosphere. After eight years of close study of this exceptionally complex and dynamic environment, Cassini is still unveiling new scientific discoveries that continue to amaze us. Standout recent highlights include aftereffects from Saturn’s huge storm, a possible subsurface ocean on Titan, close flybys of icy satellites, migrating ring “propellers”, and unexpected variations in Saturn kilometric radiation periodicities. Current observations show seasonal changes including the formation of a polar vortex at Titan’s south pole. To date, Cassini has observed Saturn from just after northern winter solstice through northern spring equinox and now is observing the Saturn system in the previously unobserved period leading up to northern summer solstice. In the remaining five years of the on-going Solstice Mission, Cassini will continue to study seasonally and temporally dependent processes. Given the long Saturnian year ( 30 years) the longevity of Cassini is essential for elucidating seasonal change in the Saturn system. The grand finale of the mission occurs in 2017, when a series of inclined orbits brings Cassini between the innermost D ring and the upper regions of Saturn’s atmosphere. This geometry will offer unique opportunities for new discoveries and ground-breaking science, including Saturn interior structure science from otherwise unobtainable gravity and magnetic field measurements and unprecedented determination of the ring mass, currently uncertain by an order of magnitude. This Proximal orbit phase is similar to Juno’s mission at Jupiter. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn is the first step toward the next great leap in solar system origins research. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA

  1. Surprises from the resummation of ladders in the ABJ(M) cusp anomalous dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, Marisa; Preti, Michelangelo; Seminara, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    We study the cusp anomalous dimension in N=6 ABJ(M) theory, identifying a scaling limit in which the ladder diagrams dominate. The resummation is encoded into a Bethe-Salpeter equation that is mapped to a Schroedinger problem, exactly solvable due to the surprising supersymmetry of the effective Hamiltonian. In the ABJ case the solution implies the diagonalization of the U(N) and U(M) building blocks, suggesting the existence of two independent cusp anomalous dimensions and an unexpected exponentiation structure for the related Wilson loops. While consistent with previous perturbative analysis, the strong coupling limit of our result does not agree with the string theory computation, emphasizing a difference with the analogous resummation in the N=4 case.

  2. The Surprising Role of Amyloid Fibrils in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Laura M; Shorter, James

    2012-01-01

    Despite its discovery over 30 years ago, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to threaten public health worldwide. Semen is the principal vehicle for the transmission of this retrovirus and several endogenous peptides in semen, including fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286 and PAP85-120) and semenogelins (SEM1 and SEM2), assemble into amyloid fibrils that promote HIV infection. For example, PAP248-286 fibrils, termed SEVI (Semen derived Enhancer of Viral Infection), potentiate HIV infection by up to 105-fold. Fibrils enhance infectivity by facilitating virion attachment and fusion to target cells, whereas soluble peptides have no effect. Importantly, the stimulatory effect is greatest at low viral titers, which mimics mucosal transmission of HIV, where relatively few virions traverse the mucosal barrier. Devising a method to rapidly reverse fibril formation (rather than simply inhibit it) would provide an innovative and urgently needed preventative strategy for reducing HIV infection via the sexual route. Targeting a host-encoded protein conformer represents a departure from traditional microbicidal approaches that target the viral machinery, and could synergize with direct antiviral approaches. Here, we review the identification of these amyloidogenic peptides, their mechanism of action, and various strategies for inhibiting their HIV-enhancing effects.

  3. The Nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Lots of Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Rosetta Science Working Team

    2016-10-01

    ESA's Rosetta mission has made many new and unexpected discoveries since its arrival at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014. The first of these was the unusual shape of the cometary nucleus. Although bilobate nuclei had been seen before, the extreme concavities on 67P were unexpected. Evidence gathered during the mission suggests that two independent bodies came together to form 67P, rather than the nucleus being a single body that was sculpted by sublimation and/or other processes. Although not a surprise, early observations showed that the nucleus rotation period had decreased by ~22 minutes since the previous aphelion passage. A similar rotation period decrease was seen post-perihelion during the encounter. These changes likely arise from asymmetric jetting forces from the irregular nucleus. Initially, Rosetta's instruments found little evidence for water ice on the surface; the presence of surface water ice increased substantially as the nucleus approached perihelion. The nucleus bulk density, 533 ± 6 kg/m3, was measured with Radio Science and OSIRIS imaging of the nucleus volume. This confirmed previous estimates based on indirect methods that the bulk density of cometary nuclei was on the order of 500-600 kg/m3 and on measurement of the density of 9P/Tempel 1's nucleus by Deep Impact. Nucleus topography proved to be highly varied, from smooth dust-covered plains to shallow circular basins, to the very rough terrain where the Philae lander came to rest. Evidence of thermal cracking is everywhere. The discovery of cylindrical pits on the surface, typically 100-200m in diameter with similar depths was a major surprise and has been interpreted as sinkholes. "Goose-bump" terrain consisting of apparently random piles of boulders 2-3 m in diameter was another unexpected discovery. Apparent layering with scales of meters to many tens of meters was seen but there was little or no evidence for impact features. Radar tomography of the interior of the "head

  4. Surprisingly rational: probability theory plus noise explains biases in judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Fintan; Watts, Paul

    2014-07-01

    The systematic biases seen in people's probability judgments are typically taken as evidence that people do not use the rules of probability theory when reasoning about probability but instead use heuristics, which sometimes yield reasonable judgments and sometimes yield systematic biases. This view has had a major impact in economics, law, medicine, and other fields; indeed, the idea that people cannot reason with probabilities has become a truism. We present a simple alternative to this view, where people reason about probability according to probability theory but are subject to random variation or noise in the reasoning process. In this account the effect of noise is canceled for some probabilistic expressions. Analyzing data from 2 experiments, we find that, for these expressions, people's probability judgments are strikingly close to those required by probability theory. For other expressions, this account produces systematic deviations in probability estimates. These deviations explain 4 reliable biases in human probabilistic reasoning (conservatism, subadditivity, conjunction, and disjunction fallacies). These results suggest that people's probability judgments embody the rules of probability theory and that biases in those judgments are due to the effects of random noise.

  5. Surprisal-based comparison between a symbolic and a connectionist model of sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    The 'unlexicalized surprisal' of a word in sentence context is defined as the negative logarithm of the probability of the word's part-of-speech given the sequence of previous parts-of-speech of the sentence. Unlexicalized surprisal is known to correlate with word reading time. Here, it is shown

  6. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  7. Carbon monoxide and bile pigments: surprising mediators of vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, William

    2002-08-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the degradation of heme to CO, iron, and biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently metabolized to bilirubin by the enzyme biliverdin reductase. Although long considered irrelevant byproducts of heme catabolism, recent studies indicate that CO and the bile pigments biliverdin and bilirubin may play an important physiological role in the circulation. The release of CO by vascular cells may modulate blood flow and blood fluidity by inhibiting vasomotor tone, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet aggregation. CO may also maintain the integrity of the vessel wall by directly blocking vascular cell apoptosis and by inhibiting the release of pro-apoptotic inflammatory cytokines from the vessel wall. These effects of CO are mediated via multiple pathways, including activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, potassium channels, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, or inhibition of cytochrome P450. In addition, the release of bile pigments may serve to sustain vascular homeostasis by protecting vascular cells from oxidative stress and by inhibiting the adhesion and infiltration of leukocytes into the vessel wall. Induction of HO-1 gene expression and the subsequent release of CO and bile pigments are observed in numerous vascular disorders and may provide an important adaptive mechanism to preserve homeostasis at sites of vascular injury. Thus, the HO-catalyzed formation of CO and bile pigments by vascular cells may function as a critical endogenous vasoprotective system. Moreover, pharmacological or genetic approaches targeting HO-1 to the vessel wall may represent a novel therapeutic approach in treating vascular disease.

  8. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  9. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...

  10. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the formatio

  11. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...... assignments. The paper introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD), and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD), two new distance functions that take into account the diversity in feature spaces. WFD functions perform better in supervised and unsupervised methods by comparing data objects on their feature...... spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets...

  12. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in portoarterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat beta-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white...... min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic...

  13. IP Eri: A surprising long-period binary system hosting a He white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, T; Masseron, T; Van Eck, S; Siess, L; Van Winckel, H

    2014-01-01

    We determine the orbital elements for the K0 IV + white dwarf (WD) system IP Eri, which appears to have a surprisingly long period of 1071 d and a significant eccentricity of 0.25. Previous spectroscopic analyses of the WD, based on a distance of 101 pc inferred from its Hipparcos parallax, yielded a mass of only 0.43 M$_\\odot$, implying it to be a helium-core WD. The orbital properties of IP Eri are similar to those of the newly discovered long-period subdwarf B star (sdB) binaries, which involve stars with He-burning cores surrounded by extremely thin H envelopes, and are therefore close relatives to He WDs. We performed a spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution spectra from the HERMES/Mercator spectrograph and concluded that the atmospheric parameters of the K0 component are $T_{\\rm eff} = 4960$ K, $\\log{g} = 3.3$, [Fe/H] = 0.09 and $\\xi = 1.5$ km/s. The detailed abundance analysis focuses on C, N, O abundances, carbon isotopic ratio, light (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti) and s-process (Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, N...

  14. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  15. a Surprise from the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    century. It thus shows many more spectral details. The analysis of the spectrum required very careful work; as would be expected, it was in particular the effective `subtraction' of the background light from the Crab Nebula that caused the greatest problem. The new, first-ever `clean', high-resolution optical spectrum of a pulsar, is a spectacular scientific result; the corresponding graph and its caption are attached to this Press Release. First of all, the overall shape of the spectrum, i.e. the dependance of the emission from the pulsar on wavelength is now defined with unprecedented accuracy. Theory predicts a straight line; this is well confirmed and the slope of the line can be determined with a precision better than 1 percent. This new measurement has a direct implication for our understanding of the acceleration of energetic particles, close to the surface of the pulsar and also of the structure and intensity of its magnetic field. A Mysterious Feature in the New Spectrum Moreover, for the first time a feature is detected in the spectrum. Close to 5900 A (590 nm), i.e. at a wavelength that corresponds to orange light, a rather wide absorption `dip' (100 A or 10 nm) is apparent in the otherwise featureless spectrum. It goes without saying that the astronomers have checked very carefully whether this feature might not, after all, have an origin outside the pulsar. But the measurements show that this dip is neither due to the Earth's atmosphere, absorption in interstellar space between the pulsar and us, nor absorption in the Crab Nebula around the pulsar. It thus appears firmly established that this feature must arise in the immediate surroundings of the neutron star. What is the cause of this mysterious dip? Unfortunately, the present measurements do not allow a firm interpretation as to its physical nature. Normally the exact wavelength of a spectral feature will indicate the origin, but the observed wavelength does not correspond to any obvious feature in

  16. Do similarities or differences between CEO leadership and organizational culture have a more positive effect on firm performance? A test of competing predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnell, Chad A; Kinicki, Angelo J; Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Fugate, Mel; Doyle Corner, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the nature of the interaction between CEO leadership and organizational culture using 2 common metathemes (task and relationship) in leadership and culture research. Two perspectives, similarity and dissimilarity, offer competing predictions about the fit, or interaction, between leadership and culture and its predicted effect on firm performance. Predictions for the similarity perspective draw upon attribution theory and social identity theory of leadership, whereas predictions for the dissimilarity perspective are developed based upon insights from leadership contingency theories and the notion of substitutability. Hierarchical regression results from 114 CEOs and 324 top management team (TMT) members failed to support the similarity hypotheses but revealed broad support for the dissimilarity predictions. Findings suggest that culture can serve as a substitute for leadership when leadership behaviors are redundant with cultural values (i.e., they both share a task- or relationship-oriented focus). Findings also support leadership contingency theories indicating that CEO leadership is effective when it provides psychological and motivational resources lacking in the organization's culture. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and delineate directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Previously seen and expected stimuli elicit surprise in the context of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-04-01

    In the context of visual search, surprise is the phenomenon by which a previously unseen and unexpected stimulus exogenously attracts spatial attention. Capture by such a stimulus occurs, by definition, independent of task goals and is thought to be dependent on the extent to which the stimulus deviates from expectations. However, the relative contributions of prior-exposure and explicit knowledge of an unexpected event to the surprise response have not yet been systematically investigated. Here observers searched for a specific color while ignoring irrelevant cues of different colors presented prior to the target display. After a brief familiarization period, we presented an irrelevant motion cue to elicit surprise. Across conditions we varied prior exposure to the motion stimulus - seen versus unseen - and top-down expectations of occurrence - expected versus unexpected - to assess the extent to which each of these factors contributes to surprise. We found no attenuation of the surprise response when observers were pre-exposed to the motion cue and or had explicit knowledge of its occurrence. Our results show that it is neither sufficient nor necessary that a stimulus be new and unannounced to elicit surprise and suggest that the expectations that determine the surprise response are highly context specific.

  18. Topological Model on the Inductive Effect in Alkyl Halides Using Local Quantum Similarity and Reactivity Descriptors in the Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a topological analysis to the inductive effect through steric and electrostatic scales of quantitative convergence. Using the molecular similarity field based in the local guantum similarity (LQS with the Topo-Geometrical Superposition Algorithm (TGSA alignment method and the chemical reactivity in the density function theory (DFT context, all calculations were carried out with Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF code, using the gradient generalized approximation (GGA and local exchange correlations PW91, in order to characterize the electronic effect by atomic size in the halogens group using a standard Slater-type-orbital basis set. In addition, in this study we introduced news molecular bonding relationships in the inductive effect and the nature of the polar character in the C–H bond taking into account the global and local reactivity descriptors such as chemical potential, hardness, electrophilicity, and Fukui functions, respectively. These descriptors are used to find new alternative considerations on the inductive effect, unlike to the binding energy and dipole moment performed in the traditional organic chemical.

  19. Similar in vitro effects and pulp regeneration in ectopic tooth transplantation by basic fibroblast growth factor and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, N; Hayashi, Y; Murakami, M; Alvarez, F J; Horibe, H; Iohara, K; Nakata, K; Nakamura, H; Nakashima, M

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to have combinatorial trophic effects with dental pulp stem cells for pulp regeneration. The aim of this investigation is to examine the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in vitro and in vivo compared with those of G-CSF and to assess the potential utility of bFGF as an alternative to G-CSF for pulp regeneration. Five different types of cells were examined in the in vitro effects of bFGF on cell migration, proliferation, anti-apoptosis, neurite outgrowth, angiogenesis, and odontogenesis compared with those of G-CSF. The in vivo regenerative potential of pulp tissue including vasculogenesis and odontoblastic differentiation was also compared using an ectopic tooth transplantation model. Basic fibroblast growth factor was similar to G-CSF in high migration, proliferation and anti-apoptotic effects and angiogenic and neurite outgrowth stimulatory activities in vitro. There was no significant difference between bFGF and G-CSF in the regenerative potential in vivo. The potential utility of bFGF for pulp regeneration is demonstrated as a homing/migration factor similar to the influence of G-CSF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A surprisingly simple correlation between the classical and quantum structural networks in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Peter; Fanourgakis, George S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2017-08-14

    Nuclear quantum effects in liquid water have profound implications for several of its macroscopic properties related to structure, dynamics, spectroscopy and transport. Although several of water’s macroscopic properties can be reproduced by classical descriptions of the nuclei using potentials effectively parameterized for a narrow range of its phase diagram, a proper account of the nuclear quantum effects is required in order to ensure that the underlying molecular interactions are transferable across a wide temperature range covering different regions of that diagram. When performing an analysis of the hydrogen bonded structural networks in liquid water resulting from the classical (class.) and quantum (q.m.) descriptions of the nuclei with the transferable, flexible, polarizable TTM3-F interaction potential, we found that the two results can be superimposed over the temperature range of T=270-350 K using a surprisingly simple, linear scaling of the two temperatures according to T(q.m.)=aT(class)- T , where a=1.2 and T=51 K. The linear scaling and constant shift of the temperature scale can be considered as a generalization of the previously reported temperature shifts (corresponding to structural changes and the melting T) induced by quantum effects in liquid water.

  1. Semantic relatedness and similarity of biomedical terms: examining the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publications on the performance of word2vec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Yan, Erjia; Wang, Fei

    2017-07-03

    Understanding semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms has a great impact on a variety of applications such as biomedical information retrieval, information extraction, and recommender systems. The objective of this study is to examine word2vec's ability in deriving semantic relatedness and similarity between biomedical terms from large publication data. Specifically, we focus on the effects of recency, size, and section of biomedical publication data on the performance of word2vec. We download abstracts of 18,777,129 articles from PubMed and 766,326 full-text articles from PubMed Central (PMC). The datasets are preprocessed and grouped into subsets by recency, size, and section. Word2vec models are trained on these subtests. Cosine similarities between biomedical terms obtained from the word2vec models are compared against reference standards. Performance of models trained on different subsets are compared to examine recency, size, and section effects. Models trained on recent datasets did not boost the performance. Models trained on larger datasets identified more pairs of biomedical terms than models trained on smaller datasets in relatedness task (from 368 at the 10% level to 494 at the 100% level) and similarity task (from 374 at the 10% level to 491 at the 100% level). The model trained on abstracts produced results that have higher correlations with the reference standards than the one trained on article bodies (i.e., 0.65 vs. 0.62 in the similarity task and 0.66 vs. 0.59 in the relatedness task). However, the latter identified more pairs of biomedical terms than the former (i.e., 344 vs. 498 in the similarity task and 339 vs. 503 in the relatedness task). Increasing the size of dataset does not always enhance the performance. Increasing the size of datasets can result in the identification of more relations of biomedical terms even though it does not guarantee better precision. As summaries of research articles, compared with article

  2. Vitis labrusca extract effects on cellular dynamics and redox modulations in a SH-SY5Y neuronal cell model: a similar role to lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, Gustavo; Laliberte, Victoria Louise Marina; Kim, Helena Kyunghee; Pinguelo, Arsene; Salvador, Mirian; Young, L Trevor; Andreazza, Ana Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress and calcium imbalance are consistently reported in bipolar disorder (BD). Polymorphism of voltage-dependent calcium channel, L type, alpha 1C subunit (CACNA1c), which is responsible for the regulation of calcium influx, was also shown to have a strong association with BD. These alterations can lead to a number of different consequences in the cell including production of reactive species causing oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Lithium is the most frequent medication used for the treatment of BD. Despite lithium's effects, long-term use can result in many negative side effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of drugs that may have similar biological effects as lithium without the negative consequences. Moreover, polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants that present multi-faceted molecular abilities, such as regulation of cellular responses. Vitis labrusca extract (VLE), a complex mixture of polyphenols obtained from seeds of winery wastes of V. labrusca, was previously characterized by our group. This extract presented powerful antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, the ability of VLE to ameliorate the consequences of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced redox alterations to cell viability, intracellular calcium levels and the relative levels of the calcium channel CACNA1c in comparison to lithium's effects were evaluated using a neuroblastoma cell model. H2O2 treatment increased cell mortality through apoptotic and necrotic pathways leading to an increase in intracellular calcium levels and alterations to relative CACNA1c levels. VLE and lithium were found to similarly ameliorate cell mortality through regulation of the apoptotic/necrotic pathways, decreasing intracellular calcium levels and preventing alterations to the relative levels of CACNA1c. The findings of this study suggest that VLE exhibits protective properties against oxidative stress-induced alterations similar to that of lithium

  3. A Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Harmonic Surprise and Preference in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Rosen, David S; Grzywacz, Norberto M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that some musical pieces may preferentially activate reward centers in the brain. Less is known, however, about the structural aspects of music that are associated with this activation. Based on the music cognition literature, we propose two hypotheses for why some musical pieces are preferred over others. The first, the Absolute-Surprise Hypothesis, states that unexpected events in music directly lead to pleasure. The second, the Contrastive-Surprise Hypothesis, proposes that the juxtaposition of unexpected events and subsequent expected events leads to an overall rewarding response. We tested these hypotheses within the framework of information theory, using the measure of "surprise." This information-theoretic variable mathematically describes how improbable an event is given a known distribution. We performed a statistical investigation of surprise in the harmonic structure of songs within a representative corpus of Western popular music, namely, the McGill Billboard Project corpus. We found that chords of songs in the top quartile of the Billboard chart showed greater average surprise than those in the bottom quartile. We also found that the different sections within top-quartile songs varied more in their average surprise than the sections within bottom-quartile songs. The results of this study are consistent with both the Absolute- and Contrastive-Surprise Hypotheses. Although these hypotheses seem contradictory to one another, we cannot yet discard the possibility that both absolute and contrastive types of surprise play roles in the enjoyment of popular music. We call this possibility the Hybrid-Surprise Hypothesis. The results of this statistical investigation have implications for both music cognition and the human neural mechanisms of esthetic judgments.

  4. October Surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Ushered in with the rampage of Hurricane Matthew, later days brightened in this month that has often been harbinger of both good and bad news for Cuba and the world. Hurricane Matthew ripped through Eastern Cuba, devastating the historic town of Baracoa (Cuba's first capital, founded in 1511) and the village of Maisí, where the morning sun first rises over Cuban territory. Wind and flood leveled hundreds of homes, brought down the power grid and destroyed crops. Yet there was no loss of human life, unlike in neighboring Haiti and other countries in Matthew's path, and unlike in Cuba in 1963, when Hurricane Flora caused more than 1200 deaths. In Haiti, efforts of health workers-including hundreds of Haitian graduates from Cuba's Latin American Medical School and 600 Cuban health professionals already there-were bolstered by dozens of specially trained Cuban disaster medical personnel in the wake of the storm.

  5. Surprising Resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Stephie

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an art adventure with her third, fourth, and fifth grade enrichment kids to the Fort Collins Museum of Contemporary Art in Colorado. The author demonstrates and teaches her students how to use the art tissue paper and oil pastel complementing the creative spirit of the Jaune Quick-to-See Smith work presented…

  6. Factors Affecting Choice in A Multi-Stage Model: The Influence of Saliency and Similarity on Retrieval Set and the Implication of Context Effect on Consideration Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Santosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available While it is considered a new paradigm in consumer research, the multi-stage model of consumer decision-making remains unclear as to whether brands are easily retrieved. Likewise, the process of consideration, after particular brands are successfully retrieved, is still in question. This study purports to investigate the effects of saliency and similarity on the ease of retrieval. In addition, referring to some studies of context effect, the effects of attraction, compromise, and assimilation are examined to observe whether they contribute to consideration. A within-subject design is employed in this study. Previously, three preliminary studies are arranged to determine the dominants, new entrants, attributes, and other criteria nominated in the experimental study. The results turn out to be supporting the hypotheses.

  7. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lhermie

    Full Text Available We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting.

  8. Bacterial Species-Specific Activity of a Fluoroquinolone against Two Closely Related Pasteurellaceae with Similar MICs: Differential In Vitro Inoculum Effects and In Vivo Efficacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhermie, Guillaume; El Garch, Farid; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A.; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial activity of a fluoroquinolone against two genetically close bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Time-kill experiments were used to measure the in vitro activity of marbofloxacin against two strains of Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida with similar MICs. We observed that marbofloxacin was equally potent against 105 CFU/mL inocula M. haemolytica and P. multocida. However, an inoculum effect was observed with P. multocida, meaning that marbofloxacin activity was decreased against a 108 CFU/mL inoculum, whereas no inoculum effect was observed with M. haemolytica. Marbofloxacin activity was also tested in a lung infection model with immunocompromised mice intratracheally infected with 109 CFU of each bacteria. At the same dose, the clinical and bacteriological outcomes were much better for mice infected with M. haemolytica than for those infected with P. multocida. Moreover, bacteriological eradication was obtained with a lower marbofloxacin dose for mice infected with M. haemolytica. Our results suggest that the differential in vivo marbofloxacin efficacy observed with the two bacterial species of similar MIC could be explained by a differential inoculum effect. Consequently, MICs determined on 105 CFU inocula were not predictive of the differences in antibiotic efficacies against high bacterial inocula of closely related bacterial strains. These results could stimulate further investigations on bacterial species-specific antibiotic doses in a clinical setting. PMID:26506096

  9. Similarity of samples and trimming

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Esteban, Pedro C; Cuesta-Albertos, Juan A; Matrán, Carlos; 10.3150/11-BEJ351

    2012-01-01

    We say that two probabilities are similar at level $\\alpha$ if they are contaminated versions (up to an $\\alpha$ fraction) of the same common probability. We show how this model is related to minimal distances between sets of trimmed probabilities. Empirical versions turn out to present an overfitting effect in the sense that trimming beyond the similarity level results in trimmed samples that are closer than expected to each other. We show how this can be combined with a bootstrap approach to assess similarity from two data samples.

  10. Compression-based Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B

    2011-01-01

    First we consider pair-wise distances for literal objects consisting of finite binary files. These files are taken to contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books. The distances are based on compression of the objects concerned, normalized, and can be viewed as similarity distances. Second, we consider pair-wise distances between names of objects, like "red" or "christianity." In this case the distances are based on searches of the Internet. Such a search can be performed by any search engine that returns aggregate page counts. We can extract a code length from the numbers returned, use the same formula as before, and derive a similarity or relative semantics between names for objects. The theory is based on Kolmogorov complexity. We test both similarities extensively experimentally.

  11. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  12. Segmentation Similarity and Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new segmentation evaluation metric, called segmentation similarity (S), that quantifies the similarity between two segmentations as the proportion of boundaries that are not transformed when comparing them using edit distance, essentially using edit distance as a penalty function and scaling penalties by segmentation size. We propose several adapted inter-annotator agreement coefficients which use S that are suitable for segmentation. We show that S is configurable enough to suit a wide variety of segmentation evaluations, and is an improvement upon the state of the art. We also propose using inter-annotator agreement coefficients to evaluate automatic segmenters in terms of human performance.

  13. The role of loudness in detection of surprising events in music recordings

    OpenAIRE

    Holonowicz, Piotr; Herrera, Perfecto; Purwins, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The abrupt change of loudness is a salient event that is not always expected by a music listener. Therefore loudness is an important cue when seeking for events in a music stream that could violate human expectations. The concept of expectation and surprise in music has become recently the subject of extensive research, however mostly using symbolic data. The aim of this work is to investigate the circumstances when a change of sound intensity could be surprising for a listener. Then, using t...

  14. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  15. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko-Balasha, Nataly; Simon, Simcha; Levine, R D; Remacle, F; Exman, Iaakov

    2014-01-01

    Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  16. Computational surprisal analysis speeds-up genomic characterization of cancer processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly Kravchenko-Balasha

    Full Text Available Surprisal analysis is increasingly being applied for the examination of transcription levels in cellular processes, towards revealing inner network structures and predicting response. But to achieve its full potential, surprisal analysis should be integrated into a wider range computational tool. The purposes of this paper are to combine surprisal analysis with other important computation procedures, such as easy manipulation of the analysis results--e.g. to choose desirable result sub-sets for further inspection--, retrieval and comparison with relevant datasets from public databases, and flexible graphical displays for heuristic thinking. The whole set of computation procedures integrated into a single practical tool is what we call Computational Surprisal Analysis. This combined kind of analysis should facilitate significantly quantitative understanding of different cellular processes for researchers, including applications in proteomics and metabolomics. Beyond that, our vision is that Computational Surprisal Analysis has the potential to reach the status of a routine method of analysis for practitioners. The resolving power of Computational Surprisal Analysis is here demonstrated by its application to a variety of cellular cancer process transcription datasets, ours and from the literature. The results provide a compact biological picture of the thermodynamic significance of the leading gene expression phenotypes in every stage of the disease. For each transcript we characterize both its inherent steady state weight, its correlation with the other transcripts and its variation due to the disease. We present a dedicated website to facilitate the analysis for researchers and practitioners.

  17. Significant Treatment Effect of Bupropion in Patients With Bipolar Disorder but Similar Phase-Shifting Rate as Other Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis Following the PRISMA Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dian-Jeng; Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2016-03-01

    Bupropion is widely used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), and especially those with depressive mood, based on its good treatment effect, safety profile, and lower risk of phase shifting. However, increasing evidence indicates that the safety of bupropion in BD patients may not be as good as previously thought. The aim of this study was to summarize data on the treatment effect and safety profile of bupropion in the treatment of BD via a meta-analysis. Electronic search through PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed. The inclusion criteria were: (i) studies comparing changes in disease severity before and after bupropion treatment or articles comparing the treatment effect of bupropion in BD patients with those receiving other standard treatments; (ii) articles on clinical trials in humans. The exclusion criteria were (i) case reports/series, and (ii) nonclinical trials. All effect sizes from 10 clinical trials were pooled using a random effects model. We examined the possible confounding variables using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Bupropion significantly improved the severity of disease in BD patients (P < 0.001), and the treatment effect was similar to other antidepressants/standard treatments (P = 0.220). There were no significant differences in the dropout rate (P = 0.285) and rate of phase shifting (P = 0.952) between BD patients who received bupropion and those who received other antidepressants. We could not perform a detailed meta-analysis of every category of antidepressant, nor could we rule out the possible confounding effect of concurrent psychotropics or include all drug side effects. Furthermore, the number of studies recruited in the meta-analysis was relatively small. Our findings reconfirm the benefits of bupropion for the treatment of bipolar depression, which are similar to those of other antidepressants. However, the rate of phase shifting with bupropion usage was not as low compared to other antidepressants as

  18. Temporary inhibition of dorsal or ventral hippocampus by muscimol: distinct effects on measures of innate anxiety on the elevated plus maze, but similar disruption of contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Ning; Bast, Tobias; Xu, Yan; Feldon, Joram

    2014-04-01

    Studies in rats, involving hippocampal lesions and hippocampal drug infusions, have implicated the hippocampus in the modulation of anxiety-related behaviors and conditioned fear. The ventral hippocampus is considered to be more important for anxiety- and fear-related behaviors than the dorsal hippocampus. In the present study, we compared the role of dorsal and ventral hippocampus in innate anxiety and classical fear conditioning in Wistar rats, examining the effects of temporary pharmacological inhibition by the GABA-A agonist muscimol (0.5 ug/0.5 ul/side) in the elevated plus maze and on fear conditioning to a tone and the conditioning context. In the elevated plus maze, dorsal and ventral hippocampal muscimol caused distinct behavioral changes. The effects of ventral hippocampal muscimol were consistent with suppression of locomotion, possibly accompanied by anxiolytic effects, whereas the pattern of changes caused by dorsal hippocampal muscimol was consistent with anxiogenic effects. In contrast, dorsal and ventral hippocampal muscimol caused similar effects in the fear conditioning experiments, disrupting contextual, but not tone, fear conditioning.

  19. The effect of the couple's personality similarity on the marital quality%夫妻人格相似性对婚姻质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀丽; 郭菲; 陈祉妍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate couple's personality similarity effect on the marital quality,and to explore the vairance of such effect under different levels of spouse's depression. Methods The cross⁃sectional da⁃ta of 4644 couple from the national survey of mental health database in china( 2009) was used. Couples completed Locke ⁃Wallance marital adjustment test,The CES⁃D scale a self⁃report depression scale and Eysenck personality questionnaire short scale for Chinese version (EPQ⁃RSC). Results The personality similarities of couples(0.44 ±0.27) and their marital quality (wife (103.71±27.54),husband (106.15±26.94))had significant positive corre⁃lation ( r=0.25~0.27, P<0.01). Regression analysis showed the effect of personality similarity on the marital quality were varied according to the level of spouse depression( β=0.09⁃0.22, P<0.05) . Among participants whose husband or wife had higher level of depression,couple's personality similarity had stronger effect on his/her per⁃ceived marital quality. Conclusion Husband and wife personality similarity is related to marital quality signifi⁃cantly,and the spouse depression plays a significant moderating role in this relationship.%目的:探讨夫妻人格相似性对婚姻质量的影响,以及在配偶不同抑郁水平下,夫妻人格相似性对婚姻质量的影响程度的差异。方法采用横断面研究,从2009年中科院心理所全国心理健康数据库中,选取了其中4644对夫妻配对数据进行分析。夫妻分别完成了Locke⁃Wallance婚姻调适量表,艾森克人格问卷简式量表(EPQ⁃RSC)和流调中心抑郁量表的填写。结果夫妻人格相似性(0.44±0.27)与婚姻质量[妻子(103.71±27.54)分,丈夫(106.15±26.94)分]呈显著正相关( r=0.25~0.27, P<0.01)。回归分析显示:配偶抑郁程度不同,夫妻人格相似性对婚姻质量的影响差异具有统计学意义(β=0.09

  20. Communication Management and Trust: Their Role in Building Resilience to "Surprises" Such As Natural Disasters, Pandemic Flu, and Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Longstaff

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In times of public danger such as natural disasters and health emergencies, a country's communication systems will be some of its most important assets because access to information will make individuals and groups more resilient. Communication by those charged with dealing with the situation is often critical. We analyzed reports from a wide variety of crisis incidents and found a direct correlation between trust and an organization's preparedness and internal coordination of crisis communication and the effectiveness of its leadership. Thus, trust is one of the most important variables in effective communication management in times of "surprise."

  1. The aqueous crude extract of Montanoa frutescens produces anxiolytic-like effects similarly to diazepam in Wistar rats: involvement of GABAA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez-Peña, María de Lourdes; Rovirosa-Hernández, María de Jesús; García-Orduña, Francisco

    2012-09-28

    Cihuapatli is the Nahuatl name assigned to some medicinal plants grouped in the genus Montanoa, where Montanoa frutescens (Family: Asteraceae, Tribe: Heliantheae) is included. The crude extract from these plants has been used for centuries in the Mexican traditional medicine as a remedy for reproductive impairments and mood disorders. Experimental studies have systematically corroborated the traditional use of cihuapatli on reproductive impairments and sexual motivation, however, the effect on mood and "nervous" disorders, remains to be explored. The anxiolytic-like effect of aqueous crude extract of M. frutescens (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) was investigated in male Wistar rats evaluated in the elevated plus-maze and compared with several doses of diazepam (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg) as a reference anxiolytic drug. Picrotoxin (1 mg/kg), a noncompetitive antagonist of the GABA(A) receptor, was used in experimental procedures to evaluate if this receptor could be involved in the anxiolytic-like effects produced by M. frutescens. To discard hypoactivity, hyperactivity, or no changes associated with treatments, which could interfere with the behavioral activity in the elevated plus-maze, rats were subjected to the open field test. M. frutescens at 50 mg/kg showed anxiolytic-like activity similarly to 2 mg/kg of diazepam, without disrupts in general motor activity. The anxiolytic-like effect of M. frutescens detected in the elevated plus-maze was blocked by picrotoxin, indicating that GABA(A) receptors are involved in the modulation of this effect. The results corroborate the use of M. frutescens in folk Mexican ethnomedicine as a potential anxiolytic agent and suggest that this effect is mediated by the GABA(A) receptors. Additionally, some sedative effects with high doses of M. frutescens were detected in the present study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2015-03-01

    The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially

  3. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  4. The genome of Pelobacter carbinolicus reveals surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aklujkar Muktak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterium Pelobacter carbinolicus is able to grow by fermentation, syntrophic hydrogen/formate transfer, or electron transfer to sulfur from short-chain alcohols, hydrogen or formate; it does not oxidize acetate and is not known to ferment any sugars or grow autotrophically. The genome of P. carbinolicus was sequenced in order to understand its metabolic capabilities and physiological features in comparison with its relatives, acetate-oxidizing Geobacter species. Results Pathways were predicted for catabolism of known substrates: 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, glycerol, 1,2-ethanediol, ethanolamine, choline and ethanol. Multiple isozymes of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, ATP synthase and [FeFe]-hydrogenase were differentiated and assigned roles according to their structural properties and genomic contexts. The absence of asparagine synthetase and the presence of a mutant tRNA for asparagine encoded among RNA-active enzymes suggest that P. carbinolicus may make asparaginyl-tRNA in a novel way. Catabolic glutamate dehydrogenases were discovered, implying that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle can function catabolically. A phosphotransferase system for uptake of sugars was discovered, along with enzymes that function in 2,3-butanediol production. Pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase was identified as a potential bottleneck in both the supply of oxaloacetate for oxidation of acetate by the TCA cycle and the connection of glycolysis to production of ethanol. The P. carbinolicus genome was found to encode autotransporters and various appendages, including three proteins with similarity to the geopilin of electroconductive nanowires. Conclusions Several surprising metabolic capabilities and physiological features were predicted from the genome of P. carbinolicus, suggesting that it is more versatile than anticipated.

  5. Tianeptine, olanzapine and fluoxetine show similar restoring effects on stress induced molecular changes in mice brain: An FT-IR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker-Kaya, Sevgi; Mutlu, Oğuz; Çelikyurt, İpek K.; Akar, Furuzan; Ulak, Güner

    2016-05-01

    Chronic stress which can cause a variety of disorders and illness ranging from metabolic and cardiovascular to mental leads to alterations in content, structure and dynamics of biomolecules in brain. The determination of stress-induced changes along with the effects of antidepressant treatment on these parameters might bring about more effective therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we investigated unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS)-induced changes in biomolecules in mouse brain and the restoring effects of tianeptine (TIA), olanzapine (OLZ) and fluoxetine (FLX) on these variations, by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results revealed that chronic stress causes different membrane packing and an increase in lipid peroxidation, membrane fluidity. A significant increment for lipid/protein, Cdbnd O/lipid, CH3/lipid, CH2/lipid, PO-2/lipid, COO-/lipid and RNA/protein ratios but a significant decrease for lipid/protein ratios were also obtained. Additionally, altered protein secondary structure components were estimated, such as increment in random coils and beta structures. The administration of TIA, OLZ and FLX drugs restored these stress-induced variations except for alterations in protein structure and RNA/protein ratio. This may suggest that these drugs have similar restoring effects on the consequences of stress activity in brain, in spite of the differences in their action mechanisms. All findings might have importance in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying chronic stress and contribute to studies aimed for drug development.

  6. Immunological and physiological effects of chronic exposure of Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, M.; Arena, S.M.; Greeley, E.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Graham, D.A.; French, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems. Limited data are available on their effects on the immune system of wildlife species. Previously, we found that 4 and 6-week-old white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. Here, we examined the effect of transplacental lactational and postnatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites, on various physiological parameters of 22-week-old white-footed mice. Liver weight and liver somatic index of PCB treated animals were significantly higher, the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower and EROD and BROD enzyme activity was significantly higher compared to control values. The number of thymocytes of the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher proliferative response to the mitogen Con A. These alterations were correlated with the PCBs body burdens. Some toxic effects of chronic exposure to PCBs, at levels comparable to exposure found in contaminated sites in the USA, are still evident in adult P. leucopus.

  7. DNA barcodes effectively identify the morphologically similar Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) from areas of sympatry in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Fernando A; Arcangeli, Jésica; Hortelano-Moncada, Yolanda; Borisenko, Alex V

    2010-12-01

    Two morphologically similar species of opossum from the genus Didelphis-Didelphis virginiana and Didelphis marsupialis-cooccur sympatrically in Mexico. High intraspecific variation complicates their morphological discrimination, under both field and museum conditions. This study aims to evaluate the utility and reliability of using DNA barcodes (short standardized genome fragments used for DNA-based identification) to distinguish these two species. Sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (Cox1) mitochondrial gene were obtained from 12 D. marsupialis and 29 D. virginiana individuals and were compared using the neighbor-joining (NJ) algorithm with Kimura's two-parameter (K2P) model of nucleotide substitution. Average K2P distances were 1.56% within D. virginiana and 1.65% in D. marsupialis. Interspecific distances between D. virginiana and D. marsupialis varied from 7.8 to 9.3% and their barcode sequences formed distinct non-overlapping clusters on NJ trees. All sympatric specimens of both species were effectively discriminated, confirming the utility of Cox1 barcoding as a tool for taxonomic identification of these morphologically similar taxa.

  8. Two highly similar LAEDDTNAQKT and LTDKIGTEI epitopes in G glycoprotein may be useful for effective epitope based vaccine design against pathogenic Henipavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvege, Md Masud; Rahman, Monzilur; Nibir, Yead Morshed; Hossain, Mohammad Shahnoor

    2016-04-01

    Nipah virus and Hendra virus, two members of the genus Henipavirus, are newly emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause acute respiratory illness and severe encephalitis in human. Lack of the effective antiviral therapy endorses the urgency for the development of vaccine against these deadly viruses. In this study, we employed various computational approaches to identify epitopes which has the potential for vaccine development. By analyzing the immune parameters of the conserved sequences of G glycoprotein using various databases and bioinformatics tools, we identified two potential epitopes which may be used as peptide vaccines. Using different B cell epitope prediction servers, four highly similar B cell epitopes were identified. Immunoinformatics analyses revealed that LAEDDTNAQKT is a highly flexible and accessible B-cell epitope to antibody. Highly similar putative CTL epitopes were analyzed for their binding with the HLA-C 12*03 molecule. Docking simulation assay revealed that LTDKIGTEI has significantly lower binding energy, which bolstered its potential as epitope-based vaccine design. Finally, cytotoxicity analysis has also justified their potential as promising epitope-based vaccine candidate. In sum, our computational analysis indicates that either LAEDDTNAQKT or LTDKIGTEI epitope holds a promise for the development of universal vaccine against all kinds of pathogenic Henipavirus. Further in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to validate the obtained findings.

  9. Surprise responses in the human brain demonstrate statistical learning under high concurrent cognitive demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marta Isabel; Teng, Chee Leong James; Taylor, Jeremy Alexander; Rowe, Elise Genevieve; Mattingley, Jason Brett

    2016-06-01

    The ability to learn about regularities in the environment and to make predictions about future events is fundamental for adaptive behaviour. We have previously shown that people can implicitly encode statistical regularities and detect violations therein, as reflected in neuronal responses to unpredictable events that carry a unique prediction error signature. In the real world, however, learning about regularities will often occur in the context of competing cognitive demands. Here we asked whether learning of statistical regularities is modulated by concurrent cognitive load. We compared electroencephalographic metrics associated with responses to pure-tone sounds with frequencies sampled from narrow or wide Gaussian distributions. We showed that outliers evoked a larger response than those in the centre of the stimulus distribution (i.e., an effect of surprise) and that this difference was greater for physically identical outliers in the narrow than in the broad distribution. These results demonstrate an early neurophysiological marker of the brain's ability to implicitly encode complex statistical structure in the environment. Moreover, we manipulated concurrent cognitive load by having participants perform a visual working memory task while listening to these streams of sounds. We again observed greater prediction error responses in the narrower distribution under both low and high cognitive load. Furthermore, there was no reliable reduction in prediction error magnitude under high-relative to low-cognitive load. Our findings suggest that statistical learning is not a capacity limited process, and that it proceeds automatically even when cognitive resources are taxed by concurrent demands.

  10. Similar dissection of sets

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Okazaki, Ryotaro; Steiner, Wolfgang; Thuswaldner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Martin Gardner stated a set of questions concerning the dissection of a square or an equilateral triangle in three similar parts. Meanwhile, Gardner's questions have been generalized and some of them are already solved. In the present paper, we solve more of his questions and treat them in a much more general context. Let $D\\subset \\mathbb{R}^d$ be a given set and let $f_1,...,f_k$ be injective continuous mappings. Does there exist a set $X$ such that $D = X \\cup f_1(X) \\cup ... \\cup f_k(X)$ is satisfied with a non-overlapping union? We prove that such a set $X$ exists for certain choices of $D$ and $\\{f_1,...,f_k\\}$. The solutions $X$ often turn out to be attractors of iterated function systems with condensation in the sense of Barnsley. Coming back to Gardner's setting, we use our theory to prove that an equilateral triangle can be dissected in three similar copies whose areas have ratio $1:1:a$ for $a \\ge (3+\\sqrt{5})/2$.

  11. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and derived hepatocyte-like cells exhibit similar therapeutic effects on an acute liver failure mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Zhou

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have exhibited therapeutic effects in multiple animal models so that are promising liver substitute for transplantation treatment of end-stage liver diseases. However, it has been shown that over-manipulation of these cells increased their tumorigenic potential, and that reducing the in vitro culture time could minimize the risk. In this study, we used a D-galactosamine plus lipopolysaccharide (Gal/LPS-induced acute liver failure mouse model, which caused death of about 50% of the mice with necrosis of more than 50% hepatocytes, to compare the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs before and after induction of differentiation into hepatocyte (i-Heps. Induction of hUCMSCs to become i-Heps was achieved by treatment of the cells with a group of growth factors within 4 weeks. The resulted i-Heps exhibited a panel of human hepatocyte biomarkers including cytokeratin (hCK-18, α-fetoprotein (hAFP, albumin (hALB, and hepatocyte-specific functions glycogen storage and urea metabolism. We demonstrated that transplantation of both cell types through tail vein injection rescued almost all of the Gal/LPS-intoxicated mice. Although both cell types exhibited similar ability in homing at the mouse livers, the populations of the hUCMSCs-derived cells, as judged by expressing hAFP, hCK-18 and human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF, were small. These observations let us to conclude that the hUCMSCs was as effective as the i-Heps in treatment of the mouse acute liver failure, and that the therapeutic effects of hUCMSCs were mediated largely via stimulation of host hepatocyte regeneration, and that delivery of the cells through intravenous injection was effective.

  12. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  13. Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy has similar effects on pain and disability as ‘wait and see’ and other approaches in people with neck pain: a systematic review

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    Hiroshi Takasaki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Questions: In people with neck pain, does Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT reduce pain and disability more than ‘wait and see’? Does MDT reduce pain and disability more than other interventions? Are any differences in effect clinically important? Design: Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Participants: People with neck pain. Intervention: MDT. Outcome measures: Pain intensity and disability due to neck pain in the short (< 3 months, intermediate (< 1 year and long term (≥ 1 year. Results: Five trials were included. Most comparisons demonstrated mean differences in effect that favoured MDT over wait-and-see controls or other interventions, although most were statistically non-significant. For pain, all comparisons had a 95% confidence interval (CI with lower limits that were less than 20 on a scale of 0 to 100, which suggests that the difference may not be clinically important. For disability, even the upper limits of the 95% CI were below this threshold, confirming that the differences are not clinically important. In all of the trials, some or all of the treating therapists did not have the highest level of MDT training. Conclusion: The additional benefit of MDT compared with the wait-and-see approach or other therapeutic approaches may not be clinically important in terms of pain intensity and is not clinically important in terms of disability. However, these estimates of the effect of MDT may reflect suboptimal training of the treating therapists. Further research could improve the precision of the estimates and assess whether the extent of training in MDT influences its effect. [Takasaki H, May S (2014 Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy has similar effects on pain and disability as ‘wait and see’ and other approaches in people with neck pain: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 78–84].

  14. Efficient reduction of complex noise in passive millimeter-wavelength video utilizing Bayesian surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, T. Nathan; Baron, Josh; Matic, Roy M.

    2011-06-01

    Passive millimeter wavelength (PMMW) video holds great promise given its ability to see targets and obstacles through fog, smoke and rain. However, current imagers produce undesirable complex noise. This can come as a mixture of fast shot (snow like) noise and a slower forming circular fixed pattern. Shot noise can be removed by a simple gain style filter. However, this can produce blurring of objects in the scene. To alleviate this, we measure the amount of Bayesian surprise in videos. Bayesian surprise is feature change in time which is abrupt, but cannot be accounted for as shot noise. Surprise is used to attenuate the shot noise filter in locations of high surprise. Since high Bayesian surprise in videos is very salient to observers, this reduces blurring particularly in places where people visually attend. Fixed pattern noise is removed after the shot noise using a combination of Non-uniformity correction (NUC) and Eigen Image Wavelet Transformation. The combination allows for online removal of time varying fixed pattern noise even when background motion may be absent. It also allows for online adaptation to differing intensities of fixed pattern noise. The fixed pattern and shot noise filters are all efficient allowing for real time video processing of PMMW video. We show several examples of PMMW video with complex noise that is much cleaner as a result of the noise removal. Processed video clearly shows cars, houses, trees and utility poles at 20 frames per second.

  15. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Arntz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current or slope depths (California Current. These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between <100 and about 600 m, with decreasing thickness in a poleward direction. The OMZ merges into better oxygenated zones towards the deep sea, where large cold-water mega- and macrofauna occupy a dominant role as in the nearshore strip. The Benguela Current OMZ has a similar upper limit but remains shallower. It also hosts giant sulphur bacteria but little is known about the benthic fauna. However, sulphur eruptions and intense hypoxia might preclude the coexistence of significant mega- und macrobenthos. Conversely, off North America the upper limit of the OMZ is considerably deeper (e.g., 500–600 m off California and Oregon, and the lower boundary may exceed 1000m. The properties described are valid for very cold and cold (La Niña and "normal" ENSO conditions with effective upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling

  16. Similarity transformed semiclassical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Troy; Heller, Eric J.

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we employ a recently discovered criterion for selecting important contributions to the semiclassical coherent state propagator [T. Van Voorhis and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050501 (2002)] to study the dynamics of many dimensional problems. We show that the dynamics are governed by a similarity transformed version of the standard classical Hamiltonian. In this light, our selection criterion amounts to using trajectories generated with the untransformed Hamiltonian as approximate initial conditions for the transformed boundary value problem. We apply the new selection scheme to some multidimensional Henon-Heiles problems and compare our results to those obtained with the more sophisticated Herman-Kluk approach. We find that the present technique gives near-quantitative agreement with the the standard results, but that the amount of computational effort is less than Herman-Kluk requires even when sophisticated integral smoothing techniques are employed in the latter.

  17. Similar Effects of Thrust and Non-Thrust Spinal Manipulation Found in Adults With Subacute and Chronic Low Back Pain – A Controlled Trial with Adaptive Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Long, Cynthia R.; Gudavalli, Maruti R.; Wilder, David G.; Vining, Robert D.; Rowell, Robert M.; Reed, William R.; DeVocht, James W.; Goertz, Christine M.; Owens, Edward F.; Meeker, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A three-arm controlled trial with adaptive allocation. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare short-term effects of a side-lying, thrust spinal manipulation (SM) procedure and a non-thrust, flexion-distraction SM procedure in adults with subacute or chronic low back pain (LBP) over 2 weeks. Summary of Background Data SM has been recommended in recently published clinical guidelines for LBP management. Previous studies suggest that thrust and non-thrust SM procedures, though distinctly different in joint loading characteristics, have similar effects on patients with LBP. Methods Participants were eligible if they were 21-54 years old, had LBP for at least 4 weeks, scored 6 or above on the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire, and met the diagnostic classification of 1, 2, or 3 according to the Quebec Task Force Classification for Spinal Disorders. Participants were allocated in a 3:3:2 ratio to 4 sessions of thrust or non-thrust SM procedures directed at the lower lumbar and pelvic regions, or to a 2-week wait list control. The primary outcome was LBP-related disability using Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and the secondary outcomes were LBP intensity using visual analog scale, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. The study was conducted at the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research with care provided by experienced doctors of chiropractic. Clinicians and patients were not blinded to treatment group. Results Of 192 participants enrolled, the mean age was 40 years and 54% were male. Improvement in disability, LBP intensity, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire – work subscale, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey – physical health summary measure for the two SM groups were significantly greater than the control group. No difference in any outcomes was observed between the two SM groups. Conclusions Thrust and non-thrust SM procedures with distinctly different joint loading characteristics

  18. Conference of “Uncertainty and Surprise: Questions on Working with the Unexpected and Unknowable”

    CERN Document Server

    McDaniel, Reuben R; Uncertainty and Surprise in Complex Systems : Questions on Working with the Unexpected

    2005-01-01

    Complexity science has been a source of new insight in physical and social systems and has demonstrated that unpredictability and surprise are fundamental aspects of the world around us. This book is the outcome of a discussion meeting of leading scholars and critical thinkers with expertise in complex systems sciences and leaders from a variety of organizations sponsored by the Prigogine Center at The University of Texas at Austin and the Plexus Institute to explore strategies for understanding uncertainty and surprise. Besides distributions to the conference it includes a key digest by the editors as well as a commentary by the late nobel laureat Ilya Prigogine, "Surprises in half of a century". The book is intended for researchers and scientists in complexity science as well as for a broad interdisciplinary audience of both practitioners and scholars. It will well serve those interested in the research issues and in the application of complexity science to physical and social systems.

  19. What is a surprise earthquake? The example of the 2002, San Giuliano (Italy event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mucciarelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Both in scientific literature and in the mass media, some earthquakes are defined as «surprise earthquakes». Based on his own judgment, probably any geologist, seismologist or engineer may have his own list of past «surprise earthquakes». This paper tries to quantify the underlying individual perception that may lead a scientist to apply such a definition to a seismic event. The meaning is different, depending on the disciplinary approach. For geologists, the Italian database of seismogenic sources is still too incomplete to allow for a quantitative estimate of the subjective degree of belief. For seismologists, quantification is possible defining the distance between an earthquake and its closest previous neighbor. Finally, for engineers, the San Giuliano quake could not be considered a surprise, since probabilistic site hazard estimates reveal that the change before and after the earthquake is just 4%.

  20. Salience and Attention in Surprisal-Based Accounts of Language Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, Alessandra; van Schijndel, Marten; Vogels, Jorrig; Demberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range of linguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g., visual salience of objects in the world, acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds) and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g., prominence of recently mentioned or topical referents) have been shown to influence language comprehension and production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates of cognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage using information-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect language processing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequately elucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability is still open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminological inconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalize upon work in visual cognition in order to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguistics and their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects of linguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attention and relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides a unified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levels of processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes and between predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus. PMID:27375525

  1. Salience and attention in surprisal-based accounts of language processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eZarcone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of salience has been singled out as the explanatory factor for a diverse range oflinguistic phenomena. In particular, perceptual salience (e.g. visual salience of objects in the world,acoustic prominence of linguistic sounds and semantic-pragmatic salience (e.g. prominence ofrecently mentioned or topical referents have been shown to influence language comprehensionand production. A different line of research has sought to account for behavioral correlates ofcognitive load during comprehension as well as for certain patterns in language usage usinginformation-theoretic notions, such as surprisal. Surprisal and salience both affect languageprocessing at different levels, but the relationship between the two has not been adequatelyelucidated, and the question of whether salience can be reduced to surprisal / predictability isstill open. Our review identifies two main challenges in addressing this question: terminologicalinconsistency and lack of integration between high and low levels of representations in salience-based accounts and surprisal-based accounts. We capitalise upon work in visual cognition inorder to orient ourselves in surveying the different facets of the notion of salience in linguisticsand their relation with models of surprisal. We find that work on salience highlights aspects oflinguistic communication that models of surprisal tend to overlook, namely the role of attentionand relevance to current goals, and we argue that the Predictive Coding framework provides aunified view which can account for the role played by attention and predictability at different levelsof processing and which can clarify the interplay between low and high levels of processes andbetween predictability-driven expectation and attention-driven focus.

  2. One In Five Inpatient Emergency Department Cases May Lead To Surprise Bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmon, Christopher; Chartock, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    A surprise medical bill is a bill from an out-of-network provider that was not expected by the patient or that came from an out-of-network provider not chosen by the patient. In 2014, 20 percent of hospital inpatient admissions that originated in the emergency department (ED), 14 percent of outpatient visits to the ED, and 9 percent of elective inpatient admissions likely led to a surprise medical bill. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  4. A surprise at the bottom of the main sequence: Rapid rotation and NO H-alpha emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    We report Kech Observatory high-resolution echelle spectra from 640-850 nm for eight stars near the faint end of the main sequence. These spectra are the highest resolution spectra of such late-type stars, and clearly resolve the TiO, VO, and atomic lines. The sample includes the field brown-dwarf candidate, BRI 0021-0214 (M9.5+). Very unexpectedly, it shows the most rapid rotation in the entire samples, v sin i approximately 40 km/s, which is 20x faster than typical field nonemission M stars. Equally surprising is that BRI 0021 exhibits no emission or absorptionat H-alpha. We argue that this absence is not simply due to its cool photosphere, but that stellar activity declines in a fundamental way at the end of the main sequence. As it is the first very late M dwarf observed at high spectral resolution, BRI 0021 may be signaling a qualitative change in the angular momentum loss rate among the lowest mass stars. Conventionally, its rapid rotation would have marked BRI 0021 as very young, consistent with the selection effect which arises if the latest-type dwarfs are really brown dwarfs on cooling curves. In any case, it is unprecedented to find no sign of stellar activity in such a rapidly rotating convective star. We also discuss the possible conflict between this observation and the extremely strong H-alpha seen in another very cool star, PC 0025+0447. Extrapolation of M-L relations for BRI 0021 yields M approximately 0.065 solar mass, and the other sample objects have expected masses near the H-burning limit. These include two Pleiades brown-dwarf candidates, four field M6 dwarfs and one late-type T Tauri star. The two Pleiades M6 dwarfs have v sin i of 26 and 37 km/s, H-alpha in emission, and radial velocities consistent with Pleiades M6 dwarfs have v sin i of 26 and 37 km/s, H-alpha in emission, and radial velocities consistent with Pleiades membership. Similarly, the late-type T Tauri star has v sin i approximately 30 km/s and H alpha emission indicate of its

  5. Creatine, similarly to ketamine, affords antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test via adenosine A₁ and A2A receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mauricio P; Pazini, Francis L; Rosa, Julia M; Ramos-Hryb, Ana B; Oliveira, Ágatha; Kaster, Manuella P; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of creatine supplementation have been reported in a broad range of central nervous systems diseases, including depression. A previous study from our group demonstrated that creatine produces an antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test (TST), a predictive model of antidepressant activity. Since depression is associated with a dysfunction of the adenosinergic system, we investigated the involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in the antidepressant-like effect of creatine in the TST. The anti-immobility effect of creatine (1 mg/kg, po) or ketamine (a fast-acting antidepressant, 1 mg/kg, ip) in the TST was prevented by pretreatment of mice with caffeine (3 mg/kg, ip, nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist), 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) (2 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-{2-furyl}{1,2,4}triazolo-{2,3-a}{1,3,5}triazin-5-yl-amino]ethyl)-phenol (ZM241385) (1 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist). In addition, the combined administration of subeffective doses of creatine and adenosine (0.1 mg/kg, ip, nonselective adenosine receptor agonist) or inosine (0.1 mg/kg, ip, nucleoside formed by the breakdown of adenosine) reduced immobility time in the TST. Moreover, the administration of subeffective doses of creatine or ketamine combined with N-6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) (0.05 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A1 receptor agonist), N-6-[2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(methylphenyl)ethyl]adenosine (DPMA) (0.1 mg/kg, ip, selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist), or dipyridamole (0.1 μg/mouse, icv, adenosine transporter inhibitor) produced a synergistic antidepressant-like effect in the TST. These results indicate that creatine, similarly to ketamine, exhibits antidepressant-like effect in the TST probably mediated by the activation of both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, further reinforcing the potential of targeting the purinergic system to the management of mood disorders.

  6. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

    2013-12-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) of northern Arizona, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has evaluated experimental flow and nonflow policy tests since 1990. Flow experiments have consisted of a variety of water releases from the dam within pre-existing annual downstream delivery agreements. The daily experimental dam operation, termed the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF), implemented in 1996 to increase daily low flows and decrease daily peaks were intended to limit daily flow range to conserve tributary sand inputs and improve navigation among other objectives, including hydropower energy. Other flow tests have included controlled floods with some larger releases bypassing the dam's hydropower plant to rebuild and maintain eroded sandbars in GCNP. Experimental daily hydropeaking tests beyond MLFF have also been evaluated for managing the exotic recreational rainbow trout fishery in the dam's GCNRA tailwater. Experimental nonflow policies, such as physical removal of exotic fish below the tailwater, and experimental translocation of endangered native humpback chub from spawning habitats in the Little Colorado River (the largest natal origin site for chub in the basin) to other tributaries within GCNP have also been monitored. None of these large-scale field experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions, owing to inadequate monitoring programs and confounding of treatment effects with effects of ongoing natural changes; most notably, a persistent warming of the river resulting from reduced storage in the dam's reservoir after 2003. But there have been several surprising results relative to predictions from models developed to identify monitoring needs and evaluate experimental design options at the start of the adaptive ecosystem assessment and management program in 1997

  7. Sparse Similarity-Based Fisherfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effect of introducing Sparse Principal Component Analysis within the Similarity-based Fisherfaces algorithm is examined. The technique aims at mimicking the human ability to discriminate faces by projecting the faces in a highly discriminative and easy interpretative way. Pixel...... obtain the same recognition results as the technique in a dense version using only a fraction of the input data. Furthermore, the presented results suggest that using SPCA in the technique offers robustness to occlusions....

  8. Similar Motor Block Effects and Disposition Kinetics between Lidocaine and (±Mepivacaine in Patients Undergoing Axillary Brachial Plexus Block during Day Case Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. M. Simon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to compare the clinical effects and pharmacokinetics of lidocaine (one metabolite and mepivacaine (two metabolites in 2 groups of 15 patients undergoing axillary brachial plexus anaesthesia. The study had a randomised design. The 30 patients were divided into 2 groups. The patients received either lidocaine (600 mg = 2.561 mMol + 5 μg ml-1 adrenaline or mepivacaine (600 mg = 2.436 mMol + 5 μg ml-1 adrenaline, injected via the axilla near the brachial plexus over a period of 30 s. Onset of surgical analgesia was defined as the period from the end of the local anaesthetic injection to the loss of pinprick sensation in the distribution of the ulnar, radial, and median nerve. Motor block was measured. Onset of motor block was similar for both drugs. Lidocaine is eliminated biexponentially with a t1/2α of 9.95 ± 14.3 min and a t1/2β of 2.86 α 1.55 h. Lidocaine is metabolised into MEGX (tmax 2.31 α 0.84 h; Cmax 0.32 α 0.13 mg l-1; t1/2β 2.36 α 2.35 h; total body clearance was 67.9 α 28.9 l h-1.

  9. CLA isomer t10,c12 induce oxidation and apoptosis in 3t3 adipocyte cells in a similar effect as omega-3 linolenic acid and DHA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Meadus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commercial conjugated linoleic acid (CLA dietary supplements contain an equal mixture of the C18:2 isomers, cis-9trans-11 and trans-10cis-12. Predominantly, CLA-c9t11 occurs naturally in meat and dairy products at ~ 0.5% of total fat , whereas CLA-t10c12 occurs at >0.1%. Recent studies show that CLA-c9t11 generally promotes lipid accumulation but CLA-t10c12 may inhibit lipid accumulation and may also promote inflammation. The omega-3 fatty acids α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA have also been observed to inhibit lipid accumulation and effect inflammation; therefore we examined the effects of the two main isomersof CLA and omega -3 fatty acids C18:3n-3 and DHA at the molecular levelto determine if they are causing similar oxidative stresses.Methods:Purified CLA-c9t11 and CLA-t10c12 were added to 3T3 cells induced into mature adipocyte cultures at 100uM concentrations and compared with 100uM C18:3n-3(α-linolenic acid and 50uM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA to observe their effect on growth, gene transcription and general oxidation. The results of multiple separate trials were averaged and compared for significance at levels of P< 0.05, using one way ANOVA and Student’s t-test.Results:C18:3n-3, DHA and CLA-t10c12inhibited 3T3 adipose cell growth and caused a significant increase in lipid hydro peroxide activity. CLA-t10c12 and c9t11 increased AFABP, FAS and ACOX1 mRNA gene expression but DHA and C18:3n-3decreased the same mRNAs. CLA-c9t11 but not the t10c12 stimulated adipoQ expression even though; CLA-c9t11 had only a slightly greater affinity for PPARγ than CLA-t10c12, according to TR-FRET assays. The expression of the xenobiotic metabolism genes, aldo-keto reduct as 1c1 (akr1c1, superoxide dismutase (SODand inflammation chemokine secretions of eotaxin (CCL11, Rantes (CCL5, MIG (CCL9 and MCP-1 were increased by DHA, C18:3n-3and CLA-t10c12 but not CLA-c9t11. This correlated with an increase in apoptosis factors

  10. Virtual Volatility, an Elementary New Concept with Surprising Stock Market Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Richard; Silva, A. Christian

    2006-03-01

    Textbook investors start by predicting the future price distribution, PDF, of a candidate stock (or portfolio) at horizon T, e.g. a year hence. A (log)normal PDF with center (=drift =expected return) μT and width (=volatility) σT is often assumed on Central Limit Theorem grounds, i.e. by a random walk of daily (log)price increments δs. The standard deviation, stdev, of historical (ex post) δs `s is usually a fair predictor of the coming year's (ex ante) stdev(δs) = σdaily, but the historical mean E(δs) at best roughly limits the true, to be predicted, drift by μtrueT˜ μhistT ± σhistT. Textbooks take a PDF with σ ˜ σdaily and μ as somehow known, as if accurate predictions of μ were possible. It is elementary and presumably new to argue that an average of PDF's over a range of μ values should be taken, e.g. an average over forecasts by different analysts. We estimate that this leads to a PDF with a `virtual' volatility σ ˜ 1.3σdaily. It is indeed clear that uncertainty in the value of the expected gain parameter increases the risk of investment in that security by most measures, e. g. Sharpe's ratio μT/σT will be 30% smaller because of this effect. It is significant and surprising that there are investments which benefit from this 30% virtual increase in the volatility

  11. The Most Distant Mature Galaxy Cluster - Young, but surprisingly grown-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Astronomers have used an armada of telescopes on the ground and in space, including the Very Large Telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile to discover and measure the distance to the most remote mature cluster of galaxies yet found. Although this cluster is seen when the Universe was less than one quarter of its current age it looks surprisingly similar to galaxy clusters in the current Universe. "We have measured the distance to the most distant mature cluster of galaxies ever found", says the lead author of the study in which the observations from ESO's VLT have been used, Raphael Gobat (CEA, Paris). "The surprising thing is that when we look closely at this galaxy cluster it doesn't look young - many of the galaxies have settled down and don't resemble the usual star-forming galaxies seen in the early Universe." Clusters of galaxies are the largest structures in the Universe that are held together by gravity. Astronomers expect these clusters to grow through time and hence that massive clusters would be rare in the early Universe. Although even more distant clusters have been seen, they appear to be young clusters in the process of formation and are not settled mature systems. The international team of astronomers used the powerful VIMOS and FORS2 instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the distances to some of the blobs in a curious patch of very faint red objects first observed with the Spitzer space telescope. This grouping, named CL J1449+0856 [1], had all the hallmarks of being a very remote cluster of galaxies [2]. The results showed that we are indeed seeing a galaxy cluster as it was when the Universe was about three billion years old - less than one quarter of its current age [3]. Once the team knew the distance to this very rare object they looked carefully at the component galaxies using both the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based telescopes, including the VLT. They found evidence suggesting that most of the

  12. HOW DISSIMILARLY SIMILAR ARE BIOSIMILARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshankar Vijayalakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently Biopharmaceuticals are the new chemotherapeutical agents that are called as “Biosimilars” or “follow on protein products” by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and the American regulatory agencies (Food and Drug Administration respectively. Biosimilars are extremely similar to the reference molecule but not identical, however close their similarities may be. A regulatory framework is therefore in place to assess the application for marketing authorisation of biosimilars. When a biosimilar is similar to the reference biopharmaceutical in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy, it can be registered. It is important to document data from clinical trials with a view of similar safety and efficacy. If the development time for a generic medicine is around 3 years, a biosimilar takes about 6-9 years. Generic medicines need to demonstrate bioequivalence only unlike biosimilars that need to conduct phase I and Phase III clinical trials. In this review, different biosimilars that are already being used successfully in the field on Oncology is discussed. Their similarity, differences and guidelines to be followed before a clinically informed decision to be taken, is discussed. More importantly the regulatory guidelines that are operational in India with a work flow of making a biosimilar with relevant dos and dont’s are discussed. For a large populous country like India, where with improved treatments in all sectors including oncology, our ageing population is increasing. For the health care of this sector, we need more newer, cheaper and effective biosimilars in the market. It becomes therefore important to understand the regulatory guidelines and steps to come up with more biosimilars for the existing population and also more information is mandatory for the practicing clinicians to translate these effectively into clinical practice.

  13. Surprise Gift” Purchases of Small Electric Appliances: A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vanhamme (Joëlle); C.J.P.M. de Bont (Cees)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding decision-making processes for gifts is of strategic importance for companies selling small electrical appliances as gifts account for a large part of their sales. Among all gifts, the ones that are surprising are the most valued by recipients. However, research about

  14. Surprising convergence of the Monte Carlo renormalization group for the three-dimensional Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Dorit; Brandt, Achi; Swendsen, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    We present a surprisingly simple approach to high-accuracy calculations of the critical properties of the three-dimensional Ising model. The method uses a modified block-spin transformation with a tunable parameter to improve convergence in the Monte Carlo renormalization group. The block-spin parameter must be tuned differently for different exponents to produce optimal convergence.

  15. Bagpipes and Artichokes: Surprise as a Stimulus to Learning in the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Bonnie Schaffhauser

    2016-01-01

    Incorporating surprise into music instruction can stimulate student attention, curiosity, and interest. Novelty focuses attention in the reticular activating system, increasing the potential for brain memory storage. Elementary ages are ideal for introducing novel instruments, pieces, composers, or styles of music. Young children have fewer…

  16. Pleurotomy with subxyphoid pleural drain affords similar effects to pleural integrity in pulmonary function after off-pump coronary artery bypass graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizilini Solange

    2012-01-01

    insertion of pleural drain provides similar effects to preserved pleural integrity in pulmonary function, clinical outcomes, and thoracic pain after OPCAB. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis that once pleural cavities are incidentally or purposely opened during LITA dissection, subxyphoid placement of the pleural drain is recommended.

  17. Similar cerebral protective effectiveness of antegrade and retrograde cerebral perfusion during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in aortic surgery: a meta-analysis of 7023 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shasha; Sun, Yanhua; Ji, Bingyang; Liu, Jinping; Wang, Guyan; Zheng, Zhe

    2015-04-01

    In aortic arch surgery, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) combined with cerebral perfusion is employed worldwide as a routine practice. Even though antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is more widely used than retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP), the difference in benefit and risk between ACP and RCP during DHCA is uncertain. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare neurologic outcomes and early mortality between ACP and RCP in patients who underwent aortic surgery during DHCA. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the key words "antegrade," "retrograde," "cerebral perfusion," "cardiopulmonary bypass," "extracorporeal circulation," and "cardiac surgery" for studies reporting on clinical endpoints including early mortality, stroke, temporary neurologic dysfunction (TND), and permanent neurologic dysfunction (PND) in aortic surgery requiring DHCA with ACP or RCP. Heterogeneity was analyzed with the Cochrane Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Publication bias was tested with Begg's funnel plot and Egger's test. Thirty-four studies were included in this meta-analysis, with 4262 patients undergoing DHCA + ACP and 2761 undergoing DHCA + RCP. The overall pooled relative risk for TND was 0.722 (95% CI = [0.579, 0.900]), and the z-score for overall effect was 2.9 (P = 0.004). There was low heterogeneity (I(2) = 18.7%). The analysis showed that patients undergoing DHCA + ACP had better outcomes than those undergoing DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while there were no significant differences between groups in terms of PND, stroke, and early mortality. This meta-analysis indicates that DHCA + ACP has an advantage over DHCA + RCP in terms of TND, while the two methods show similar results in terms of PND, early mortality, and stroke.

  18. Surprising electronic structure of the BeH- dimer: a full-configuration-interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdicchio, Marco; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Leininger, Thierry

    2013-01-10

    The electronic structure of the beryllium hydride anion, BeH(-), was investigated at valence full-configuration-interaction (FCI) level, using large cc-pV6Z basis sets. It appears that there is a deep change of the wave function nature as a function of the internuclear distance: the ion structure goes from a weakly bonded Be···H(-) complex, at long distance, to a rather strongly bonded system (more than 2 eV) at short distance, having a (:Be-H)(-) Lewis structure. In this case, it is the beryllium atom that formally bears the negative charge, a surprising result in view of the fact that it is the hydrogen atom that has a larger electronegativity. Even more surprisingly, at very short distances the average position of the total electronic charge is close to the beryllium atom but on the opposite side with respect to the hydrogen position.

  19. Surprise and sense making: what newcomers experience in entering unfamiliar organizational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, M R

    1980-06-01

    Growing disillusionment among new members of organizations has been traced to inadequacies in approaches to organizational entry. Current directions of research on organizational entry and their limitations are described, and a new perspective is proposed. The new perspective identifies key features of newcomers' entry experiences, including surprise, contrast, and change, and describes the sense-making processes by which individuals cope with their entry experiences. Implications for research and practice on organizational entry are drawn.

  20. Each individual is a surprise: a conversation with Marianne Horney Eckardt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jeffrey B

    2014-06-01

    "Each Individual is a Surprise" is a brief account of a dialogue between Marianne Horney Eckardt and myself about the state of psychoanalysis and the psychoanalytic process, the danger of idolatry, the damaging impact of psychoanalytic schools when they create a standardized and pathologizing approach to people, the value of curiosity and humility and retaining one's clinical creativity. The role of Rank, Horney, Sullivan, and Fromm in Dr. Eckardt's long life and rich work is touched upon.

  1. Estimating similarity of XML Schemas using path similarity measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Trivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop an algorithm which estimates the similarity for XML Schemas using multiple similarity measures. For performing the task, the XML Schema element information has been represented in the form of string and four different similarity measure approaches have been employed. To further improve the similarity measure, an overall similarity measure has also been calculated. The approach used in this paper is a distinguished one, as it calculates the similarity between two XML schemas using four approaches and gives an integrated values for the similarity measure. Keywords-componen

  2. Shape Similarity Measures of Linear Entities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The essential of feature matching technology lies in how to measure the similarity of spatial entities.Among all the possible similarity measures,the shape similarity measure is one of the most important measures because it is easy to collect the necessary parameters and it is also well matched with the human intuition.In this paper a new shape similarity measure of linear entities based on the differences of direction change along each line is presented and its effectiveness is illustrated.

  3. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Melis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  4. The Effect of Edaphic Factors on the Similarity of Parasitic Nematodes in the Soil Sampled in Nurseries of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałańska Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest faunistic similarity of nematodes was found in soils sampled in coniferous nurseries where arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis - Cupressaceae, spruces (Picea spp. - Pinaceae and pines (Pinus spp. - Pi-naceae were grown. In soil sampled from deciduous tree and shrub nurseries, similar species composition of parasitic nematodes was found in stands of oaks (Quercus spp. - Fagaceae, black locusts (Robiniapseudo-acacia - Fabaceae and maples (Acer spp. - Sapindaceae. In soils, especially the light and medium, from stands of coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs, Aphelenchus avenae was often isolated. Bitylenchus dubius occurred in both types of nurseries, particularly in light soils. The largest faunistic similarities between nematodes isolated from places of growth of coniferous and deciduous plants were recorded in soils of loamy sand and sandy loam. The most abundant nematode species and the greatest similarity in species of plant parasitic nematodes were observed in soils with neutral pH or slightly acidic. Aphelenchus avenae was found in soil samples collected from both coniferous and deciduous plants, with no relation to soil acidity.

  5. Serological misdiagnosis of acute liver failure associated with echovirus 25 due to immunological similarities to hepatitis A virus and prozone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim, Susan K; Humphries, Romney M; Cherry, James D; Krogstad, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of acute liver failure caused by echovirus 25 (E25) in a previously healthy 2-year-old boy. Initial serological studies were consistent with hepatitis A virus (HAV), with prozone phenomenon. The similarity of E25 to HAV may obscure accurate diagnosis in some cases of hepatitis.

  6. Surprise and Uncertainty—Framing Regional Geohazards in the Theory of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate M. W. Ratter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the concepts of uncertainty and surprise as key variables of a socio-ecological system’s behavior in the context of the theory of complexity. Experiences from the past have shown that living with uncertainty is part of our daily life and surprises are only surprising because our perspective of system trajectories is basically linear and non-dynamic. The future of humanity is dependent on the understanding of the system’s behavior and needs a change in perspective of linearity to non-linearity and from the planning imperative to a management hedging uncertainty and surprise. In the context of humanity’s future, the theory of complexity offers a new perspective on system trajectories and their understanding of surprises and uncertainty. There is a need for a Gestaltwechsel—a change in perception—which helps to see things differently and fosters the search for new answers to emerging questions at the human-nature interface. Drawing on the case study of hazard management the paper will explain the necessity of analysis system’s behavior and the taking into account of multi-agent behavior on the micro level which led to emergent behavior on the macro-level of the system. Regional geohazards are explained as the regional impact of an uncontrolled risk based on a state of a natural feature that has a direct impact on a regional population being affected by the appearance of a hazard and its development into damage. By acting in space, time and connectivity, people construct hazardscapes and change risk into regional geohazards. This concept shows relevance for future mitigation and adaptation measures. The theory of complexity can help in engendering the necessary shift in perspective. What is non-linear dynamic thinking as suggested by the theory of complexity? Why is the consideration of the system’s behavior crucial and not just the number of system’s elements? What is the role of agents in these systems? In

  7. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  8. Interpersonal attraction and personality: what is attractive--self similarity, ideal similarity, complementarity or attachment security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klohnen, Eva C; Luo, Shanhong

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about whether personality characteristics influence initial attraction. Because adult attachment differences influence a broad range of relationship processes, the authors examined their role in 3 experimental attraction studies. The authors tested four major attraction hypotheses--self similarity, ideal-self similarity, complementarity, and attachment security--and examined both actual and perceptual factors. Replicated analyses across samples, designs, and manipulations showed that actual security and self similarity predicted attraction. With regard to perceptual factors, ideal similarity, self similarity, and security all were significant predictors. Whereas perceptual ideal and self similarity had incremental predictive power, perceptual security's effects were subsumed by perceptual ideal similarity. Perceptual self similarity fully mediated actual attachment similarity effects, whereas ideal similarity was only a partial mediator.

  9. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  10. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybist, James P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to the transportation sector. Examples include steam reforming of natural gas to provide hydrogen for hydrotreating unit operations within the refinery and production of urea for use as a reductant for diesel after treatment in selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This discussion focuses on the consumption of natural gas in the production pathway of conventional ethanol (non-cellulosic) from corn through fermentation. Though it is clear that NG would also play a significant role in the cellulosic production pathways, those cases are not considered in this analysis.

  11. Organometallic Ru(II) Photosensitizers Derived from π-Expansive Cyclometalating Ligands: Surprising Theranostic PDT Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainuddin, Tariq; McCain, Julia; Pinto, Mitch; Yin, Huimin; Gibson, Jordan; Hetu, Marc; McFarland, Sherri A

    2016-01-04

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of π-expansive cyclometalating ligands on the photophysical and photobiological properties of organometallic Ru(II) compounds. Four compounds with increasing π conjugation on the cyclometalating ligand were prepared, and their structures were confirmed by HPLC, 1D and 2D (1)H NMR, and mass spectrometry. The properties of these compounds differed substantially from their Ru(II) polypyridyl counterparts. Namely, they were characterized by red-shifted absorption, very weak to no room temperature phosphorescence, extremely short phosphorescence state lifetimes ( 300 μM) but was phototoxic to cells in the nanomolar regime. Exceptionally large phototherapeutic margins, exceeding 3 orders of magnitude in some cases, were accompanied by bright ligand-centered intracellular fluorescence in cancer cells. Thus, Ru(II) organometallic systems derived from π-expansive cyclometalating ligands, such 4,9,16-triazadibenzo[a,c]napthacene (pbpn), represent the first class of potent light-responsive Ru(II) cyclometalating agents with theranostic potential.

  12. Surprising results from a search for effective disinfectants for Tobacco mosaic virus-contaminated tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and four other tobamoviruses infected multiple petunia cultivars without producing obvious viral symptoms. A single cutting event on a TMV-infected plant was sufficient for transmission to many plants subsequently cut with the same clippers. A number of 'old standbys' an...

  13. A strange and surprising debate: mountains, original sin and 'science' in seventeenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragge-Morley, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    It could come as a shock to learn that some seventeenth-century men of science and learning thought that mountains were bad. Even more alarmingly, some thought that God had imposed them on the earth to punish man for his sins. By the end of the seventeenth century, surprisingly many English natural philosophers and theologians were engaged in a debate about whether mountains were 'good' or 'bad', useful or useless. At stake in this debate were not just the careers of its participants, but arguments about the best ways of looking at and reckoning with 'nature' itself.

  14. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformatio...

  15. A Systems Biology Strategy for Predicting Similarities and Differences of Drug Effects: Evidence for Drug-specific Modulation of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Bureeva, S.; Perlina, A.; Kaput, J.; Verschuren, L.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Hurt-Camejo, E.; Nikolsky, Y.; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.

    2011-01-01

    Successful drug development has been hampered by a limited understanding of how to translate laboratory-based biological discoveries into safe and effective medicines. We have developed a generic method for predicting the effects of drugs on biological processes. Information derived from the chemica

  16. A Systems Biology Strategy for Predicting Similarities and Differences of Drug Effects: Evidence for Drug-specific Modulation of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Bureeva, S.; Perlina, A.; Kaput, J.; Verschuren, L.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Hurt-Camejo, E.; Nikolsky, Y.; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.

    2011-01-01

    Successful drug development has been hampered by a limited understanding of how to translate laboratory-based biological discoveries into safe and effective medicines. We have developed a generic method for predicting the effects of drugs on biological processes. Information derived from the chemica

  17. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did…

  18. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  19. On finding similar items in a stream of transactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagna, Andrea; Pagh, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    While there has been a lot of work on finding frequent itemsets in transaction data streams, none of these solve the problem of finding similar pairs according to standard similarity measures. This paper is a first attempt at dealing with this, arguably more important, problem. We start out......(\\min\\{mb,n^k,(mb/\\varphi)^k\\})$ bits, where $mb$ is the number of items in the stream so far, $n$ is the number of distinct items and $\\varphi$ is a support threshold. To achieve any non-trivial space upper bound we must thus abandon a worst-case assumption on the data stream. We work under the model that the transactions come...... in random order, and show that surprisingly, not only is small-space similarity mining possible for the most common similarity measures, but the mining accuracy {\\em improves\\/} with the length of the stream for any fixed support threshold....

  20. Stability of similarity measurements for bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental measure in network analyses and machine learning algorithms, with wide applications ranging from personalized recommendation to socio-economic dynamics. We argue that an effective similarity measurement should guarantee the stability even under some information loss. With six bipartite networks, we investigate the stabilities of fifteen similarity measurements by comparing the similarity matrixes of two data samples which are randomly divided from original data sets. Results show that, the fifteen measurements can be well classified into three clusters according to their stabilities, and measurements in the same cluster have similar mathematical definitions. In addition, we develop a top-$n$-stability method for personalized recommendation, and find that the unstable similarities would recommend false information to users, and the performance of recommendation would be largely improved by using stable similarity measurements. This work provides a novel dimension to analyze and eval...

  1. The mc2-CMX vaccine induces an enhanced immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin but with similar lung inflammatory effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fábio Muniz; Trentini, Monalisa Martins; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Kipnis, André

    2016-01-01

    Although the attenuated Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been used since 1921, tuberculosis (TB) control still proceeds at a slow pace. The main reason is the variable efficacy of BCG protection against TB among adults, which ranges from 0-80%. Subsequently, the mc2-CMX vaccine was developed with promising results. Nonetheless, this recombinant vaccine needs to be compared to the standard BCG vaccine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune response induced by mc2-CMX and compare it to the response generated by BCG. BALB/c mice were immunised with both vaccines and challenged withMycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The immune and inflammatory responses were evaluated by ELISA, flow cytometry, and histopathology. Mice vaccinated with mc2-CMX and challenged with Mtb induced an increase in the IgG1 and IgG2 levels against CMX as well as recalled specific CD4+ T-cells that produced T-helper 1 cytokines in the lungs and spleen compared with BCG vaccinated and challenged mice. Both vaccines reduced the lung inflammatory pathology induced by the Mtb infection. The mc2-CMX vaccine induces a humoral and cellular response that is superior to BCG and is efficiently recalled after challenge with Mtb, although both vaccines induced similar inflammatory reductions. PMID:27074251

  2. On structural similarity in wall turbulence organization under weak thermal effects: from the wind tunnel to the atmospheric surface layer (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, M.

    2013-12-01

    Reproducing the different thermal stability regimes of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in wind tunnel experiments requires accurate control of the free stream air and wall temperatures and a test section long enough to ensure the establishment of fully developed conditions. Such requirements are met in the SAFL atmospheric wind tunnel, with some limitations on the achievable range of z/L, confined between the weakly stratified and weakly convective boundary layers. A number of statistical checks based on Reynolds, Monin-Obukhov similarities, Kolmogorov small scale universality, temperature and velocity variance balance equations, are available to assess the quality of the measurements, flow and estimate of the scaling parameters. However, limited work has been devoted to the comparison of the spatio-temporal structure of turbulent flows from the laboratory to the field scale. Specifically, the vertical extent, scaling and statistical relevance of different structural types pose some scalability issues and deserve further investigation. PIV and triple wire measurements from the SAFL Wind Tunnel will be presented and compared with measurements in the atmospheric surface layer. Particular care is devoted to the contributions of large and very-large scale motions to the momentum and heat fluxes, and to their role in near-surface processes and wind energy.

  3. Perilla Oil Has Similar Protective Effects of Fish Oil on High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Gut Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wang, Hualin; Yuan, Fahu; Li, Na; Huang, Qiang; He, Lei; Wang, Limei; Liu, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease in developed countries. Recent studies indicated that the modification of gut microbiota plays an important role in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated consumption of fish oil or perilla oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) protects against NAFLD. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we adopted 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing technique to investigate the impacts of fish oil and perilla oil on gut microbiomes modification in rats with high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced NAFLD. Both fish oil and perilla oil ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In comparison with the low-fat control diet, HFD feeding significantly reduced the relative abundance of Gram-positive bacteria in the gut, which was slightly reversed by either fish oil or perilla oil. Additionally, fish oil and perilla oil consumption abrogated the elevated abundance of Prevotella and Escherichia in the gut from HFD fed animals. Interestingly, the relative abundance of antiobese Akkermansia was remarkably increased only in animals fed fish oil compared with HFD group. In conclusion, compared with fish oil, perilla oil has similar but slightly weaker potency against HFD-induced NAFLD and gut dysbiosis.

  4. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  5. a Comparison of Semantic Similarity Models in Evaluating Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q. X.; Shi, W. Z.

    2012-08-01

    The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  6. Auditory Speech Recognition and Visual Text Recognition in Younger and Older Adults: Similarities and Differences between Modalities and the Effects of Presentation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, Larry E.; Burk, Matthew H.; Coughlin, Maureen P.; Busey, Thomas A.; Strauser, Lauren E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine age-related differences in auditory speech recognition and visual text recognition performance for parallel sets of stimulus materials in the auditory and visual modalities. In addition, the effects of variation in rate of presentation of stimuli in each modality were investigated in each age group. Method: A mixed-model design…

  7. Intracerebroventricular application of competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists induce similar effects upon rat hippocampal electroencephalogram and local cerebral glucose utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boddeke, H.W.G.M.; Wiederhold, K.H.; Palacios, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we have used electrophysiological and metabolic markers to investigate the effects of competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists in rats after central or peripheral administration. The non-competitive antagonist, MK-801, induced dose-dependent suppression of rat hippocampal EEG e

  8. INTRACEREBROVENTRICULAR APPLICATION OF COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NMDA ANTAGONISTS INDUCE SIMILAR EFFECTS UPON RAT HIPPOCAMPAL ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM AND LOCAL CEREBRAL GLUCOSE-UTILIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BODDEKE, HWGM; WIEDERHOLD, KH; PALACIOS, JM

    1992-01-01

    In this study we have used electrophysiological and metabolic markers to investigate the effects of competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists in rats after central or peripheral administration. The non-competitive antagonist, MK-801, induced dose-dependent suppression of rat hippocampal EEG e

  9. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    McFee, Brian

    2010-01-01

    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning technique for integrating heterogeneous data into a single, unified similarity space. Our algorithm learns an optimal ensemble of kernel transfor- mations which conform to measurements of human perceptual similarity, as expressed by relative comparisons. To cope with the ubiquitous problems of subjectivity and inconsistency in multi- media similarity, we develop graph-based techniques to filter similarity measurements, resulting in a simplified and robust training procedure.

  10. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  11. Similarity Learning of Manifold Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Bao; Ding, Chris H Q; Luo, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Without constructing adjacency graph for neighborhood, we propose a method to learn similarity among sample points of manifold in Laplacian embedding (LE) based on adding constraints of linear reconstruction and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type minimization. Two algorithms and corresponding analyses are presented to learn similarity for mix-signed and nonnegative data respectively. The similarity learning method is further extended to kernel spaces. The experiments on both synthetic and real world benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed LE with new similarity has better visualization and achieves higher accuracy in classification.

  12. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Sato

    Full Text Available The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  13. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Kentaro; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays) is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI) distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  14. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  15. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  16. Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) and gamma valerolactone (GVL): similarities and differences in their effects on the acoustic startle reflex and the conditioned enhancement of startle in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Leavell, Bonita J; Jones, Calleen M; Hepler, Bradford R; Isenschmid, Daniel S; Commissaris, Randall L

    2012-06-01

    Gamma butyrolactone (GBL) is metabolized to gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in the body. GHB is a DEA Schedule 1 compound; GBL is a DEA List 1 chemical. Gamma valerolactone (GVL) is the 4-methyl analog of GBL; GVL is metabolized to 4-methyl-GHB; GVL is NOT metabolized to GBL or GHB. The effects of GBL (18.75-150 mg/kg), GVL (200-1600 mg/kg) or vehicle on the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), and the classically-conditioned enhancement of startle, the Startle Anticipated Potentiation of Startle (SAPS) response were studied in male rats. Both compounds produced a dose-dependent reduction of ASR, with GBL 5-7 times more potent than GVL. In contrast, GBL treatment significantly reduced SAPS at doses that exerted only moderate effects on ASR, whereas GVL exerted little or no effect on the SAPS, except at doses that produced pronounced reductions in Noise Alone ASR. In a second experiment, rats were tested for Noise Alone ASR behavior following treatment with a single mid-range dose of GBL (75 mg/kg), GVL (400mg/kg) or vehicle; immediately following startle testing the animals were sacrificed and their brains and blood were collected for determination of GHB, 4-methyl-GHB, GBL and GVL. GHB was found in measurable concentrations in all of the blood specimens and 6 (of 8) of the brain specimens from the GBL-treated subjects. 4-Methyl-GHB was found in measurable concentrations in all of the blood and brain specimens of the GVL-treated subjects; the change in startle amplitude was inversely correlated to the brain concentrations of these compounds. These findings confirm the differences in the metabolic fate of GBL and GVL as pro-drugs for the formation of GHB and 4-methyl-GHB, respectively. Moreover, the dissimilarity in effect profile for GBL and GVL on ASR versus SAPS behaviors suggests that different receptor(s) may be involved in mediating these behavioral effects.

  17. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  18. OCEAN CIRCULATION. Observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation yields a decade of inevitable surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokosz, M A; Bryden, H L

    2015-06-19

    The importance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) heat transport for climate is well acknowledged. Climate models predict that the AMOC will slow down under global warming, with substantial impacts, but measurements of ocean circulation have been inadequate to evaluate these predictions. Observations over the past decade have changed that situation, providing a detailed picture of variations in the AMOC. These observations reveal a surprising degree of AMOC variability in terms of the intraannual range, the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle, the interannual changes in strength affecting the ocean heat content, and the decline of the AMOC over the decade, both of the latter two exceeding the variations seen in climate models. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs often in cryptogenic ischaemic stroke. Final results from the SURPRISE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Louisa; Krieger, D W; Højberg, S;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke fourfold and is associated with a poor clinical outcome. Despite work-up in compliance with guidelines, up to one-third of patients have cryptogenic stroke (CS). The prevalence of asymptomatic paroxysmal atrial...... fibrillation (PAF) in CS remains unknown. The SURPRISE project aimed at determining this rate using long-term cardiac monitoring. METHODS: Patients with CS after protocolled work-up including electrocardiography (ECG) and telemetry were included after informed consent. An implantable loop recorder (ILR...... patients (16.1%). In three patients PAF was detected by other methods before or after monitoring and was undiscovered due to device sensitivity in one case. The first event of PAF was documented at a mean of 109 days (SD ±48) after stroke onset. PAF was asymptomatic in all cases and occurred in episodes...

  20. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C; Feenstra, Randall M; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2015-10-14

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe2 surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  1. Beyond surprise: the puzzle of infants' expressive reactions to expectancy violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Klaus R; Zentner, Marcel R; Stern, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    The reactions of 58 infants to expectancy violation by digitally filtering the experimenter's voice were studied in a cross-sectional design for ages 5, 7, 9, 11-12, and 14 months. The results show that behavioral freezing and changes in gaze direction, but not facial or vocal expression, are reliable responses to expectancy violation. The pattern suggests that a transition in the infant's capacity for cognitive evaluation of novel and discrepant events may occur around age 9 months. These findings confirm the consistent failure to find prototypical facial surprise reactions in research on novel or impossible situations. Componential theories of emotion, which predict adaptive behavior patterns from appraisal processes, may provide clues for underlying mechanisms and generate hypotheses on age-related changes in emotional expression. copyright (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  3. Wavelet transform in similarity paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.R. Struzik; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[INS-R9802] Searching for similarity in time series finds still broader applications in data mining. However, due to the very broad spectrum of data involved, there is no possibility of defining one single notion of similarity suitable to serve all applications. We present a powerful

  4. Surprising judgments about robot drivers: Experiments on rising expectations and blaming humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danielson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available N-Reasons is an experimental Internet survey platform designed to enhance public participation in applied ethics and policy. N-Reasons encourages individuals to generate reasons to support their judgments, and groups to converge on a common set of reasons pro and con various issues.  In the Robot Ethics Survey some of the reasons contributed surprising judgments about autonomous machines. Presented with a version of the trolley problem with an autonomous train as the agent, participants gave unexpected answers, revealing high expectations for the autonomous machine and shifting blame from the automated device to the humans in the scenario. Further experiments with a standard pair of human-only trolley problems refine these results. While showing the high expectations even when no autonomous machine is involved, human bystanders are only blamed in the machine case. A third experiment explicitly aimed at responsibility for driverless cars confirms our findings about shifting blame in the case of autonomous machine agents. We conclude methodologically that both results point to the power of an experimental survey based approach to public participation to explore surprising assumptions and judgments in applied ethics. However, both results also support using caution when interpreting survey results in ethics, demonstrating the importance of qualitative data to provide further context for evaluating judgments revealed by surveys. On the ethics side, the result about shifting blame to humans interacting with autonomous machines suggests caution about the unintended consequences of intuitive principles requiring human responsibility.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v9i1.1727

  5. Hypoxia pretreatment and EPO-modification enhance the protective effects of MSC on neuron-like PC12 cells in a similar way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinli; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-08

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) based cell transplantation therapy is proved to be an attractive strategy with great potential for improvement of hypoxia induced neural damage. In the present study, MSCs were co-culture with PC12 to investigate its protective effects against hypoxia pretreatment, and the Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, MTT and Anexin V staining were performed to analysis the cellular damage or apoptotic. RT-PCR and Western blotting were further used to investigate the underlying mechanism. The results indicate that hypoxia treatment results in the decrease of PC12 cell viability, yet co-culture with MSC could protect the PC12 from hypoxia induced damage. Hypoxia pre-activated or EPO transduced MSC with up-regulated erythropoietin (EPO) expression could further enhance MSC's protective effect against hypoxia induced cell damage, which was associated with high level of anti-apoptotic p-Akt and ration Bcl-2/Bax, and decreased Caspase 3 in PC12. Taken together, these data suggests high levels of MSC-mediated cyto-protection is closely tied to high gene expression levels of EPO. The up-regulation of EPO for enhanced MSC-mediated cyto-protection may has great potential for the MSC cellular therapy of neural or neuronal injuries induced by hypoxia.

  6. Visual similarity is stronger than semantic similarity in guiding visual search for numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Hayward J; Hout, Michael C; Menneer, Tamaryn

    2014-06-01

    Using a visual search task, we explored how behavior is influenced by both visual and semantic information. We recorded participants' eye movements as they searched for a single target number in a search array of single-digit numbers (0-9). We examined the probability of fixating the various distractors as a function of two key dimensions: the visual similarity between the target and each distractor, and the semantic similarity (i.e., the numerical distance) between the target and each distractor. Visual similarity estimates were obtained using multidimensional scaling based on the independent observer similarity ratings. A linear mixed-effects model demonstrated that both visual and semantic similarity influenced the probability that distractors would be fixated. However, the visual similarity effect was substantially larger than the semantic similarity effect. We close by discussing the potential value of using this novel methodological approach and the implications for both simple and complex visual search displays.

  7. Effects of UV-C irradiation on phosphoinositide turnover in plant cells: similarities with those occurring via the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates in animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, M P; Ricci, D; Fraternale, D; Piatti, E; Manunta, A; Accorsi, A

    1999-03-01

    With the aim of examining the response of plant cells to UV-C irradiation, we investigated the behaviour of the phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PtdIns 4,5-P2) molecule (the precursor of the phosphoinositide signal transduction cascade) by exposing callus cells from Peucedanum verticillare to UV-C (130 J m-2) and by examining the level and the fatty acid composition of PtdIns 4,5-P2 at different times after irradiation. We show that a pathway for the UV-C response includes transient PtdIns 4,5-P2 breakdown. The effect of ultraviolet rays is mimicked by H2O2 suggesting that in this plant it may be brought about by reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), as already underlined in experimental animal models.

  8. Proliferative and anti-proliferative effects of retinoic acid at doses similar to endogenous levels in Leydig MLTC-1/R2C/TM-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Mariarita; Pingitore, Attilio; Cione, Erika; Vilardi, Emma; Perrone, Valentina; Genchi, Giuseppe

    2010-09-01

    Vitamin A is suggested to be protective against oxidative stress. However, different authors observed pro-oxidant effects of retinoids both in experimental works and clinical trials. These discordances are the bases for the investigation of the proliferative and anti-proliferative properties of retinoic acid (RA) in biological systems. Cell viability is determined with the MTT assay. Oxidative stress parameters are detected measuring catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymatic activities. FABP5 mRNA levels are measured by RT-PCR. Autophagy and apoptosis are analyzed by Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and TUNEL assay, respectively. RA, at nutraceutic/endogenous doses (10-200 nM), increases cell viability of testes tumor Leydig cell lines (MLTC-1 and R2C) and modulates antioxidant enzyme activities, as CAT and GST. RA is able to induce proliferation through non-classical and redox-dependent mechanisms accompanied by increased levels of FABP5 mRNA. The redox environment of the cell is currently thought to be extremely important for controlling either apoptosis or autophagy. Apoptosis occurs at pharmacological doses, while autophagy, which plays a critical role in removing damaged or surplus organelles in order to maintain cellular homeostasis, is triggered at the critical concentration of 500 nM RA, both in normal and tumoral cells. Slight variations of RA concentrations are evaluated as a threshold value to distinguish between the proliferative or anti-proliferative effects. Although retinoids have a promising role as antineoplastic agents, physiological levels of RA play a key role in Leydig cancer progression, fostering proliferation and growth of testicular tumoral mass. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jong Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5 were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of

  10. Polysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus brasiliensis show similarities in their structures and their immunomodulatory effects on human monocytic THP-1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichers Harry J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mushroom polysaccharides have traditionally been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of disorders like infectious illnesses, cancers and various autoimmune diseases. Crude mushroom extracts have been tested without detailed chemical analyses of its polysaccharide content. For the present study we decided to chemically determine the carbohydrate composition of semi-purified extracts from 2 closely related and well known basidiomycete species, i.e. Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis and to study their effects on the innate immune system, in particular on the in vitro induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, using THP-1 cells. Methods Mushroom polysaccharide extracts were prepared by hot water extraction and precipitation with ethanol. Their composition was analyzed by GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. PMA activated THP-1 cells were treated with the extracts under different conditions and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by qPCR. Results Semi-purified polysaccharide extracts of A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis (= blazei were found to contain (1→6,(1→4-linked α-glucan, (1→6-linked β-glucan, and mannogalactan. Their proportions were determined by integration of 1H-NMR signs, and were considerably different for the two species. A. brasiliensis showed a higher content of β-glucan, while A. bisporus presented mannogalactan as its main polysaccharide. The extracts induced a comparable increase of transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1β and TNF-α as well as of COX-2 in PMA differentiated THP-1 cells. Pro-inflammatory effects of bacterial LPS in this assay could be reduced significantly by the simultaneous addition of A. brasiliensis extract. Conclusions The polysaccharide preparations from the closely related species A. bisporus and A. brasiliensis show major differences in composition: A. bisporus shows high mannogalactan content whereas A. brasiliensis has mostly

  11. Vitamin C may have similar beneficial effects to Gemfibrozil on serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavash, Mansour; Amini, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-T2) is commonly associated with increased triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Fibrates like gemfibrozil are frequently used in diabetic patients to decrease TG and increase HDL-C levels. We compared the efficacy of Vitamin C, an antioxidant vitamin, with gemfibrozil on serum HDL-C in diabetic patients. Type 2 diabetic patients, referred to our out-patient clinic were randomly divided into three groups. After 1 month of lifestyle and diet modifications, groups A, B, and C were prescribed 1000 mg Vitamin C, 600 mg gemfibrozil and combination of both, respectively. Before the study initiation and after 6(th) week of drug prescription, the blood samples were taken and analyzed for total cholesterol (Total-C), HDL-C, TG, fasting blood sugar (FBS), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels. Sixty-seven patients entered, and 50 patients (18 male, 32 female) finished the study. Overall, serum HDL-C increased significantly from 39.8 to 45.2 mg/dL in the participants (P = 0.001). HDL-C increased 6.3, 4.4 and 5.0 mg/dL in groups A, B and C, respectively (related significances were 0.017, 0.022 and 0.033, respectively). Significant decrease of serum TG and Total-C occurred in gemfibrozil and combination groups, but not in Vitamin C group. Changes in serum HDL-C between three groups were not significant (P = 0.963). We found a significant decrease in TG and Total-C in the groups B and C (P 0.05). The results demonstrated that Vitamin C may have beneficial effects on HDL-C in diabetic patients without significant effects on plasma glucose or other lipid parameters; however, its role for the treatment of low HDL-C patients should be evaluated in larger studies.

  12. Aberrant cell divisions in root meristeme of maize following exposure to X-rays low doses compared to similar effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focea, R.; Capraru, G.; Racuciu, M.; Creanga, D.; Luchian, T.

    2012-04-01

    The response of maize to radiation exposure was investigated by two cytogenetic methods considering the importance of the geno-toxic effect for environmental and agricultural purposes. Uniform genophond seeds, freshly germinated, were exposed to relatively low radiation doses using a radiotherapy X-ray applicator from a hospital irradiation device and to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field with about 10 mT magnetic induction (generated within laboratory assembled electromagnetic coils). Radicular meristeme tissue aliquots were prevailed for cytogenetic investigation based on microscopic observations and cell counting. Microscope slides were prepared following a specific procedure (squash technique and Feulgen method based on modified Carr reactive coloration). Mitotic index as well as chromosomal aberration percentage were calculated for more than 30,000 cells taken into account. From a qualitative viewpoint, chromosomal aberrations such as interchromatidian bridges, lagging and expelled chromosomes and multipolar divisions were evidenced - no distinct situation for either ionizing radiation or electromagnetic field being identified. The main quantitative difference consisted in the increased mitotic index for electromagnetic exposure increased times compared with the diminished mitotic index in the case of low X-ray doses.

  13. Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information

    CERN Document Server

    Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2009-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

  14. Self-similar aftershock rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  15. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals in complex mixtures be obtained using hyperspectral data? Debba (CSIR) Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals MERAKA 2009 3 / 18 Method of spectral unmixing Old method: problem Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA...

  16. Self-similar aftershock rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise --- intermittent avalanche-like relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes --- the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is in particular true for the case of seismicity and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing in particular clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved way of time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  17. Community Detection by Neighborhood Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xu; XIE Zheng; YI Dong-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network.By exploring the neighborhood of vertices,a local similarity metric is proposed,which can be quickly computed.The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix.Based on local similarity,an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection.The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time,thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes.Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures,and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.%Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network. By exploring the neighborhood of vertices, a local similarity metric is proposed, which can be quickly computed. The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix. Based on local similarity, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection. The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time, thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes. Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures, and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.

  18. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformations...... a synthetic example from molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply the algorithms to revisit the problem of ensemble averaging during structure determination of proteins, and find that an ensemble refinement method is able to recover the correct distribution of conformations better than standard single...

  19. Synthetic and Biopolymer Gels - Similarities and Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc

    2006-03-01

    Ion exchange plays a central role in a variety of physiological processes, such as nerve excitation, muscle contraction and cell locomotion. Hydrogels can be used as model systems for identifying fundamental chemical and physical interactions that govern structure formation, phase transition, etc. in biopolymer systems. Polyelectrolyte gels are particularly well-suited to study ion-polymer interactions because their structure and physical-chemical properties (charge density, crosslink density, etc) can be carefully controlled. They are sensitive to different external stimuli such as temperature, ionic composition and pH. Surprisingly few investigations have been made on polyelectrolyte gels in salt solutions containing both monovalent and multivalent cations. We have developed an experimental approach that combines small angle neutron scattering and osmotic swelling pressure measurements. The osmotic pressure exerted on a macroscopic scale is a consequence of changes occurring at a molecular level. The intensity of the neutron scattering signal, which provides structural information as a function of spatial resolution, is directly related to the osmotic pressure. We have found a striking similarity in the scattering and osmotic behavior of polyacrylic acid gels and DNA gels swollen in nearly physiological salt solutions. Addition of calcium ions to both systems causes a sudden volume change. This volume transition, which occurs when the majority of the sodium counterions are replaced by calcium ions, is reversible. Such reversibility implies that the calcium ions are not strongly bound by the polyanion, but are free to move along the polymer chain, which allows these ions to form temporary bridges between negative charges on adjacent chains. Mechanical measurements reveal that the elastic modulus is practically unchanged in the calcium-containing gels, i.e., ion bridging is qualitatively different from covalent crosslinks.

  20. Mechanisms for similarity matching in disparity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross eGoutcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early neural mechanisms for the measurement of binocular disparity appear to operate in a manner consistent with cross-correlation-like processes. Consequently, cross-correlation, or cross-correlation-like procedures have been used in a range of models of disparity measurement. Using such procedures as the basis for disparity measurement creates a preference for correspondence solutions that maximise the similarity between local left and right eye image regions. Here, we examine how observers’ perception of depth in an ambiguous stereogram is affected by manipulations of luminance and orientation-based image similarity. Results show a strong effect of coarse-scale luminance similarity manipulations, but a relatively weak effect of finer-scale manipulations of orientation similarity. This is in contrast to the measurements of depth obtained from a standard cross-correlation model. This model shows strong effects of orientation similarity manipulations and weaker effects of luminance similarity. In order to account for these discrepancies, the standard cross-correlation approach may be modified to include an initial spatial frequency filtering stage. The performance of this adjusted model most closely matches human psychophysical data when spatial frequency filtering favours coarser scales. This is consistent with the operation of disparity measurement processes where spatial frequency and disparity tuning are correlated, or where disparity measurement operates in a coarse-to-fine manner.

  1. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  2. Investigation of the heat source(s) of the Surprise Valley Geothermal System, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, N.; Holt, C. D.; Hawkes, S.; McClain, J. S.; Safford, L.; Mink, L. L.; Rose, C.; Zierenberg, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Concerns about environmental impacts and energy security have led to an increased interest in sustainable and renewable energy resources, including geothermal systems. It is essential to know the permeability structure and possible heat source(s) of a geothermal area in order to assess the capacity and extent of the potential resource. We have undertaken geophysical surveys at the Surprise Valley Hot Springs in Cedarville, California to characterize essential parameters related to a fault-controlled geothermal system. At present, the heat source(s) for the system are unknown. Igneous bodies in the area are likely too old to have retained enough heat to supply the system, so it is probable that fracture networks provide heat from some deeper or more distributed heat sources. However, the fracture system and permeability structure remain enigmatic. The goal of our research is to identify the pathways for fluid transport within the Surprise Valley geothermal system using a combination of geophysical methods including active seismic surveys and short- and long-period magnetotelluric (MT) surveys. We have collected 14 spreads, consisting of 24 geophones each, of active-source seismic data. We used a "Betsy Gun" source at 8 to 12 locations along each spread and have collected and analyzed about 2800 shot-receiver pairs. Seismic velocities reveal shallow lake sediments, as well as velocities consistent with porous basalts. The latter, with velocities of greater than 3.0 km/s, lie along strike with known hot springs and faulted and tilted basalt outcrops outside our field area. This suggests that basalts may provide a permeable pathway through impermeable lake deposits. We conducted short-period (10Hz-60kHz) MT measurements at 33 stations. Our short-period MT models indicate shallow resistive blocks (>100Ωm) with a thin cover of more conductive sediments ( 10Ωm) at the surface. Hot springs are located in gaps between resistive blocks and are connected to deeper low

  3. Moderate rates of late Quaternary slip along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range Province, Surprise Valley fault, northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personius, Stephen F.; Crone, Anthony J.; Machette, Michael N.; Mahan, Shannon; Lidke, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The 86-km-long Surprise Valley normal fault forms part of the active northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province in northeastern California. We use trench mapping and radiocarbon, luminescence, and tephra dating to estimate displacements and timing of the past five surface-rupturing earthquakes on the central part of the fault near Cedarville. A Bayesian OxCal analysis of timing constraints indicates earthquake times of 18.2 ± 2.6, 10.9 ± 3.2, 8.5 ± 0.5, 5.8 ± 1.5, and 1.2 ± 0.1 ka. These data yield recurrence intervals of 7.3 ± 4.1, 2.5 ± 3.2, 2.7 ± 1.6, and 4.5 ± 1.5 ka and an elapsed time of 1.2 ± 0.1 ka since the latest surface-rupturing earthquake. Our best estimate of latest Quaternary vertical slip rate is 0.6 ?? 0.1 mm/a. This late Quaternary rate is remarkably similar to long-term (8-14 Ma) minimum vertical slip rates (>0.4-0.5 ± 0.3 mm/a) calculated from recently acquired seismic reflection and chronologic and structural data in Surprise Valley and the adjacent Warner Mountains. However, our slip rate yields estimates of extension that are lower than recent campaign GPS determinations by factors of 1.5-4 unless the fault has an unusually shallow (30°-35°) dip as suggested by recently acquired seismic reflection data. Coseismic displacements of 2-4.5 ± 1 m documented in the trench and probable rupture lengths of 53-65 km indicate a history of latest Quaternary earthquakes of M 6.8-7.3 on the central part of the. Surprise Valley fault.

  4. Similarity of atoms in molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioslowski, J.; Nanayakkara, A. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Similarity of atoms in molecules is quantitatively assessed with a measure that employs electron densities within respective atomic basins. This atomic similarity measure does not rely on arbitrary assumptions concerning basis functions or 'atomic orbitals', is relatively inexpensive to compute, and has straightforward interpretation. Inspection of similarities between pairs of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine atoms in the CH[sub 4], CH[sub 3]F, CH[sub 2]F[sub 2], CHF[sub 3], CF[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 4], and C[sub 2]H[sub 6] molecules, calculated at the MP2/6-311G[sup **] level of theory, reveals that the atomic similarity is greatly reduced by a change in the number or the character of ligands (i.e. the atoms with nuclei linked through bond paths to the nucleus of the atom in question). On the other hand, atoms with formally identical (i.e. having the same nuclei and numbers of ligands) ligands resemble each other to a large degree, with the similarity indices greater than 0.95 for hydrogens and 0.99 for non-hydrogens. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  6. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  7. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  8. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  9. Surprising results on phylogenetic tree building methods based on molecular sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyze phylogenetic tree building methods from molecular sequences (PTMS. These are methods which base their construction solely on sequences, coding DNA or amino acids. Results Our first result is a statistically significant evaluation of 176 PTMSs done by comparing trees derived from 193138 orthologous groups of proteins using a new measure of quality between trees. This new measure, called the Intra measure, is very consistent between different groups of species and strong in the sense that it separates the methods with high confidence. The second result is the comparison of the trees against trees derived from accepted taxonomies, the Taxon measure. We consider the NCBI taxonomic classification and their derived topologies as the most accepted biological consensus on phylogenies, which are also available in electronic form. The correlation between the two measures is remarkably high, which supports both measures simultaneously. Conclusions The big surprise of the evaluation is that the maximum likelihood methods do not score well, minimal evolution distance methods over MSA-induced alignments score consistently better. This comparison also allows us to rank different components of the tree building methods, like MSAs, substitution matrices, ML tree builders, distance methods, etc. It is also clear that there is a difference between Metazoa and the rest, which points out to evolution leaving different molecular traces. We also think that these measures of quality of trees will motivate the design of new PTMSs as it is now easier to evaluate them with certainty.

  10. Pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction in a finite vector space

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Pooling designs are standard experimental tools in many biotechnical applications. It is well-known that all famous pooling designs are constructed from mathematical structures by the "containment matrix" method. In particular, Macula's designs (resp. Ngo and Du's designs) are constructed by the containment relation of subsets (resp. subspaces) in a finite set (resp. vector space). Recently, we generalized Macula's designs and obtained a family of pooling designs with more high degree of error correction by subsets in a finite set. In this paper, as a generalization of Ngo and Du's designs, we study the corresponding problems in a finite vector space and obtain a family of pooling designs with surprisingly high degree of error correction. Our designs and Ngo and Du's designs have the same number of items and pools, respectively, but the error-tolerant property is much better than that of Ngo and Du's designs, which was given by D'yachkov et al. \\cite{DF}, when the dimension of the space is large enough.

  11. Surprising dissimilarities in a newly formed pair of 'identical twin' stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G; Mathieu, Robert D; Cargile, Phillip A; Aarnio, Alicia N; Stempels, Eric; Geller, Aaron

    2008-06-19

    The mass and chemical composition of a star are the primary determinants of its basic physical properties-radius, temperature and luminosity-and how those properties evolve with time. Accordingly, two stars born at the same time, from the same natal material and with the same mass, are 'identical twins,' and as such might be expected to possess identical physical attributes. We have discovered in the Orion nebula a pair of stellar twins in a newborn binary star system. Each star in the binary has a mass of 0.41 +/- 0.01 solar masses, identical to within 2 per cent. Here we report that these twin stars have surface temperatures differing by approximately 300 K ( approximately 10 per cent) and luminosities differing by approximately 50 per cent, both at high confidence level. Preliminary results indicate that the stars' radii also differ, by 5-10 per cent. These surprising dissimilarities suggest that one of the twins may have been delayed by several hundred thousand years in its formation relative to its sibling. Such a delay could only have been detected in a very young, definitively equal-mass binary system. Our findings reveal cosmic limits on the age synchronization of young binary stars, often used as tests for the age calibrations of star-formation models.

  12. The Surprising Composition of the Salivary Proteome of Preterm Human Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Massimo; Inzitari, Rosanna; Fanali, Chiara; Iavarone, Federica; Vitali, Alberto; Desiderio, Claudia; Vento, Giovanni; Tirone, Chiara; Romagnoli, Costantino; Cabras, Tiziana; Manconi, Barbara; Teresa Sanna, Maria; Boi, Roberto; Pisano, Elisabetta; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Nemolato, Sonia; Wilhelm Heizmann, Claus; Faa, Gavino; Messana, Irene

    2011-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid of a unique composition devoted to protect the mouth cavity and the digestive tract. Our high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the acidic soluble fraction of saliva from preterm human newborn surprisingly revealed more than 40 protein masses often undetected in adult saliva. We were able to identify the following proteins: stefin A and stefin B, S100A7 (two isoforms), S100A8, S100A9 (four isoforms), S100A11, S100A12, small proline-rich protein 3 (two isoforms), lysozyme C, thymosins β4 and β10, antileukoproteinase, histone H1c, and α and γ globins. The average mass value reported in international data banks was often incongruent with our experimental results mostly because of post-translational modifications of the proteins, e.g. acetylation of the N-terminal residue. A quantitative label-free MS analysis showed protein levels altered in relation to the postconceptional age and suggested coordinate and hierarchical functions for these proteins during development. In summary, this study shows for the first time that analysis of these proteins in saliva of preterm newborns might represent a noninvasive way to obtain precious information of the molecular mechanisms of development of human fetal oral structures. PMID:20943598

  13. Marine Protected Areas, Multiple-Agency Management, and Monumental Surprise in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Kittinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large, regional-scale marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks face different challenges in governance systems than locally managed or community-based MPAs. An emerging theme in large-scale MPA management is the prevalence of governance structures that rely on institutional collaboration, presenting new challenges as agencies with differing mandates and cultures work together to implement ecosystem-based management. We analyzed qualitative interview data to investigate multi-level social interactions and institutional responses to the surprise establishment of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (monument in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. The governance arrangement for the monument represents a new model in US MPA management, requiring two federal agencies and the State of Hawai‘i to collaboratively manage the NWHI. We elucidate the principal barriers to institutional cotrusteeship, characterize institutional transformations that have occurred among the partner agencies in the transition to collaborative management, and evaluate the governance arrangement for the monument as a model for MPAs. The lessons learned from the NWHI governance arrangement are critical as large-scale MPAs requiring multiple-agency management become a prevalent feature on the global seascape.

  14. You'll Never Guess Who Wrote That: 78 Surprising Authors of Psychological Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2016-07-01

    One can find psychological authors in the most unexpected places. We present a capsule summary of scholarly publications of psychological interest authored or coauthored by 78 surprising individuals, most of whom are celebrities or relatives of celebrities, historical figures, or people who have otherwise achieved visibility in academic circles, politics, religion, art, and diverse realms of popular culture. Still other publications are authored by individuals who are far better known for their contributions to popular than to academic psychology. The publications, stretching across more than two centuries, encompass a wide swath of domains of psychological inquiry and highlight the intersection of psychology with fields that fall outside its traditional borders, including public health, economics, law, neurosurgery, and even magic. Many of these scholarly contributions have enriched psychology and its allied disciplines, such as psychiatry, in largely unappreciated ways, and they illustrate the penetration of psychological knowledge into multiple scientific disciplines and everyday life. At the same time, our author list demonstrates that remarkable intellectual accomplishments in one scientific domain, such as physics, do not necessarily translate into success in psychology and underscores the distinction between intelligence, on the one hand, and critical thinking and wisdom, on the other.

  15. Polar F-layer model-observation comparisons: a neutral wind surprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Sojka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a month-long continuous database of incoherent scatter radar observations of the ionosphere from the EISCAT Savlbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen, Norway, provides an unprecedented opportunity for model/data comparisons. Physics-based ionospheric models, such as the Utah State University Time Dependent Ionospheric Model (TDIM, are usually only compared with observations over restricted one or two day events or against climatological averages. In this study, using the ESR observations, the daily weather, day-to-day variability, and month-long climatology can be simultaneously addressed to identify modeling shortcomings and successes. Since for this study the TDIM is driven by climatological representations of the magnetospheric convection, auroral oval, neutral atmosphere, and neutral winds, whose inputs are solar and geomagnetic indices, it is not surprising that the daily weather cannot be reproduced. What is unexpected is that the horizontal neutral wind has come to the forefront as a decisive model input parameter in matching the diurnal morphology of density structuring seen in the observations.

  16. Preference for art: similarity, statistics, and selling price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Daniel J.; Friedenberg, Jay D.; McCandless, Cyrus H.; Rockmore, Daniel N.

    2010-02-01

    Factors governing human preference for artwork have long been studied but there remain many holes in our understanding. Bearing in mind contextual factors (both the conditions under which the art is viewed, and the state of knowledge viewers have regarding art) that play some role in preference, we assess in this paper three questions. First, what is the relationship between perceived similarity and preference for different types of art? Second, are we naturally drawn to certain qualities-and perhaps to certain image statistics-in art? And third, do social and economic forces tend to select preferred stimuli, or are these forces governed by non-aesthetic factors such as age, rarity, or artist notoriety? To address the first question, we tested the notion that perceived similarity predicts preference for three classes of paintings: landscape, portrait/still-life, and abstract works. We find that preference is significantly correlated with (a) the first principal component of similarity in abstract works; and (b) the second principal component for landscapes. However, portrait/still-life images did not show a significant correlation between similarity and preference, perhaps due to effects related to face perception. The preference data were then compared to a wide variety of image statistics relevant to early visual system coding. For landscapes and abstract works, nonlinear spatial and intensity statistics relevant to visual processing explained surprisingly large portions of the variance of preference. For abstract works, a quarter of the variance of preference rankings could be explained by a statistic gauging pixel sparseness. For landscape paintings, spatial frequency amplitude spectrum statistics explained one fifth of the variance of preference data. Consistent with results for similarity, image statistics for portrait/still-life works did not correlate significantly with preference. Finally, we addressed the role of value. If there are shared "rules" of

  17. Distance learning for similarity estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Amores, J.; Sebe, N.; Radeva, P.; Tian, Q.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized

  18. Distance learning for similarity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Amores, Jaume; Sebe, Nicu; Radeva, Petia; Tian, Qi

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized variants according to the Maximum Likelihood theory. These measures can provide a more accurate feature model than the classical Euclidean and Manhattan distances. We also find that the feature elements are often from heterogeneous sources that may have different influence on similarity estimation. Therefore, the assumption of single isotropic distribution model is often inappropriate. To alleviate this problem, we use a boosted distance measure framework that finds multiple distance measures which fit the distribution of selected feature elements best for accurate similarity estimation. The new distance measures for similarity estimation are tested on two applications: stereo matching and motion tracking in video sequences. The performance of boosted distance measure is further evaluated on several benchmark data sets from the UCI repository and two image retrieval applications. In all the experiments, robust results are obtained based on the proposed methods.

  19. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  20. Comparison of hydrological similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Maura; Ridolfi, Elena; Manciola, Piergiorgio; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The use of a traditional at site approach for the statistical characterization and simulation of spatio-temporal precipitation fields has a major recognized drawback. Indeed, the weakness of the methodology is related to the estimation of rare events and it involves the uncertainty of the at-site sample statistical inference, because of the limited length of records. In order to overcome the lack of at-site observations, regional frequency approach uses the idea of substituting space for time to estimate design floods. The conventional regional frequency analysis estimates quantile values at a specific site from multi-site analysis. The main idea is that homogeneous sites, once pooled together, have similar probability distribution curves of extremes, except for a scaling factor. The method for pooling groups of sites can be based on geographical or climatological considerations. In this work the region of influence (ROI) pooling method is compared with an entropy-based one. The ROI is a flexible pooling group approach which defines for each site its own "region" formed by a unique set of similar stations. The similarity is found through the Euclidean distance metric in the attribute space. Here an alternative approach based on entropy is introduced to cluster homogeneous sites. The core idea is that homogeneous sites share a redundant (i.e. similar) amount of information. Homogeneous sites are pooled through a hierarchical selection based on the mutual information index (i.e. a measure of redundancy). The method is tested on precipitation data in Central Italy area.

  1. Similarity spectra analysis of high-performance jet aircraft noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Tracianne B; Gee, Kent L; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M

    2013-04-01

    Noise measured in the vicinity of an F-22A Raptor has been compared to similarity spectra found previously to represent mixing noise from large-scale and fine-scale turbulent structures in laboratory-scale jet plumes. Comparisons have been made for three engine conditions using ground-based sideline microphones, which covered a large angular aperture. Even though the nozzle geometry is complex and the jet is nonideally expanded, the similarity spectra do agree with large portions of the measured spectra. Toward the sideline, the fine-scale similarity spectrum is used, while the large-scale similarity spectrum provides a good fit to the area of maximum radiation. Combinations of the two similarity spectra are shown to match the data in between those regions. Surprisingly, a combination of the two is also shown to match the data at the farthest aft angle. However, at high frequencies the degree of congruity between the similarity and the measured spectra changes with engine condition and angle. At the higher engine conditions, there is a systematically shallower measured high-frequency slope, with the largest discrepancy occurring in the regions of maximum radiation.

  2. Do Laboratory Results Concerning High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomers versus Amalgam for Tooth Restorations Indicate Similar Effect Direction and Magnitude than that of Controlled Clinical Trials? - A Meta-Epidemiological Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Mickenautsch

    Full Text Available A large percentage of evidence concerning dental interventions is based on laboratory research. The apparent wealth of laboratory evidence is sometimes used as basis for clinical inference and recommendations for daily dental practice. In this study two null-hypotheses are tested: whether trial results from laboratory and controlled clinical trials concerning the comparison of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC to amalgam for restorations placed in permanent posterior teeth have: (i similar effect direction and (ii similar effect magnitude.7 electronic databases were searched, as well as reference lists. Odds ratios (OR and Standardised Mean Differences (SMD with 95% Confidence intervals were computed for extracted dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Pooled effect estimates for laboratory and clinical data were computed to test for effect direction. Odds ratios were converted into SMDs. SMDs from laboratory and clinical data were statistically compared to test for differences in effect magnitude. The analysed results were further investigated within the context of potential influencing or confounding factors using a Directed acyclic graph.Of the accepted eight laboratory and nine clinical trials, 13 and 21 datasets could be extracted, respectively. The pooled results of the laboratory datasets were highly statistically significant in favor of amalgam. No statistically significant differences, between HVGICs and amalgam, were identified for clinical data. For effect magnitude, statistically significant differences between clinical and laboratory trial results were found. Both null-hypotheses were rejected.Laboratory results concerning high-viscosity glass-ionomers versus amalgam for tooth restorations do not indicate similar effect direction and magnitude than that of controlled clinical trials.

  3. 领略«纪念»与«倾城之恋»异曲同工之妙%An Analysis of the Similar Effect of Memory and Love in a Fallen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林素真

    2014-01-01

    钱钟书的«纪念»与张爱玲的«倾城之恋»写作风格可以说是迥异,却在相同的时代背景下写出相似的爱情故事,具有相似的爱情体悟与婚姻观---自主的觉醒与安全感的寻觅、相似的心理刻画---自我的缺失与真爱的选择、相似的故事结构---真情的回归与暗喻的寓意、相似的叙述手法---骚动的欲念与荒凉的字眼,两部小说具有异曲同工之妙。%The writing style of Qian Zhongshu’s Memory and Eileen Chang’Love in a Fallen City is different;however,under the same historical background,they created the similar love sto-ries.The two books have similar understanding towards love and marriage - self-awakening and pur-suing of security,similar psycho-drawing - the absence of ego and the choice of true love,similar story structure - the return of true love and the implication of metaphor,and the similar narrative skill - the turbulent desire and the bleak words.In a word,these two books have achieved the similar effect by different ways.

  4. Geophysical Investigation of the Lake City Fault Zone, Surprise Valley, California, and Implications for Geothermal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Egger, A. E.; Chuchel, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    New audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity, and magnetic data were collected in Surprise Valley, northwestern Basin and Range, in order to investigate the role that the Lake City Fault Zone (LCFZ) may play in controlling geothermal circulation in the area. Surprise Valley hosts an extensional geothermal system currently undergoing exploration for development on several scales. The focus of much of that exploration has been the LCFZ, a set of NW-SE-trending structures that has been suggested on the basis of (1) low-relief scarps in the NW portion of the zone, (2) dissolved mineral-rich groundwater chemistry along its length, and (3) parallelism with a strong regional fabric that includes the Brothers Fault Zone. The LCFZ extends across the valley at a topographic high, intersecting the N-S-trending basin-bounding faults where major hot springs occur. This relationship suggests that the LCFZ may be a zone of permeability for flow of hydrothermal fluids. Previous potential field data indicate that there is no vertical offset along this fault zone, and little signature at all in either the gravity or magnetic data; along with the lack of surface expression along most of its length, the subsurface geometry of the LCFZ and its influence on geothermal fluid circulation remains enigmatic. The LCFZ therefore provides an ideal opportunity to utilize AMT data, which measures subsurface resistivity and therefore - unlike potential field data - is highly sensitive to the presence of saline fluids. AMT data and additional gravity and magnetic data were collected in 2009 along 3 profiles perpendicular to the LCFZ in order to define the subsurface geometry and conductivity of the fault zone down to depths of ~ 500 m. AMT soundings were collected using the Geometrics Stratagem EH4 system, a four channel, natural and controlled-source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field a transmitter of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles

  5. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  6. Lymphocytic alveolitis: A surprising index of poor prognosis in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalavanga, Y A; Voulgari, P V; Georgiadis, A N; Leontaridi, C; Katsenos, S; Vassiliou, M; Drosos, A A; Constantopoulos, S H

    2006-07-01

    Twelve years ago we reported that lymphocytic alveolitis [or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) lymphocytosis] correlates with clinical pulmonary involvement in primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Our thesis was based on subtle clinical and functional evidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in pSS patients with "high lymphocytic alveolitis" (>15% lymphocytes in BAL). This report is a follow-up study of these patients. Basic clinical and functional re-evaluation of the 22 patients with pSS, studied in 1991, emphasized the differences between those with alveolitis and those without alveolitis. There was no significant functional decline. There were, however, two statistically significant differences between the two groups: (1) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had to be treated with steroids (5/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.05) and (2) only patients with BAL lymphocytosis had died in the mean time (6/12 vs. 0/10, P < 0.01). The causes of death were various. On only two occasions were they related to respiratory infections while there were no deaths from respiratory failure secondary to ILD. BAL lymphocytosis appears to be a surprisingly serious index of dismal prognosis in patients with pSS. We offer no unifying pathophysiologic mechanism for it and, therefore, all we propose is that BAL is performed early, in as many patients with pSS as possible. These patients should then be followed up systematically, in order to evaluate if BAL lymphocytosis has any pathophysiologic importance in the development of clinically serious pSS, which is serious enough to lead to death.

  7. Surprising results from abiotic enzyme digestion of dissolved organic matter at the molecular scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, N. J.; Tfaily, M. M.; Heredia-Langnar, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Purvine, E.; Todd-Brown, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes even the simplest of experiments leads to unexpected results and new understanding. We extract dissolved organic matter using water from peat soil obtained from the S1 bog at the Marcell Experimental Forest in northern Minnesota. We characterized the dissolved organic matter in the water extract before and after adding glucosidase, peroxidase and β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase enzymes using electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. Based on mass measurement accuracy of less than 1 ppm for singly charged ions, we assigned putative chemical formula to greater than 80% of the measured mass spectrometry features. For each enzyme tested we are able to easily distinguish between the types and composition of dissolved organic molecules that are susceptible to enzyme degradation - and those that are not - based on the presence new compounds in reacted extracts and loss of compounds from the initial water extract. Next, we created a consensus molecular network analysis based on the neutral mass loss between the measured compounds for each enzyme. The connectivity within these networks suggested a unique, distinctive chemistry for each enzyme. Some results were expected, like the nondiscriminatory oxidation of organic molecules by peroxidase and preferential loss of lignin and tannin-like molecules by glucosidase. However, surprising results include the apparent reactivity of glucosidase enzymatic products to reassemble, forming larger mass organic molecules. While these experiments were conducted abiotically, these molecular-resolved results suggest that biotic enzymatic processes may result in product compounds with unexpected chemistry and reactivity, implying that our current conceptual model of microbial enzymatic activity may be overly simplistic.

  8. The analysis of eight transcriptomes from all poriferan classes reveals surprising genetic complexity in sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Ana; Farrar, Nathan; Windsor, Pamela J; Giribet, Gonzalo; Leys, Sally P

    2014-05-01

    Sponges (Porifera) are among the earliest evolving metazoans. Their filter-feeding body plan based on choanocyte chambers organized into a complex aquiferous system is so unique among metazoans that it either reflects an early divergence from other animals prior to the evolution of features such as muscles and nerves, or that sponges lost these characters. Analyses of the Amphimedon and Oscarella genomes support this view of uniqueness-many key metazoan genes are absent in these sponges-but whether this is generally true of other sponges remains unknown. We studied the transcriptomes of eight sponge species in four classes (Hexactinellida, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha, and Calcarea) specifically seeking genes and pathways considered to be involved in animal complexity. For reference, we also sought these genes in transcriptomes and genomes of three unicellular opisthokonts, two sponges (A. queenslandica and O. carmela), and two bilaterian taxa. Our analyses showed that all sponge classes share an unexpectedly large complement of genes with other metazoans. Interestingly, hexactinellid, calcareous, and homoscleromorph sponges share more genes with bilaterians than with nonbilaterian metazoans. We were surprised to find representatives of most molecules involved in cell-cell communication, signaling, complex epithelia, immune recognition, and germ-lineage/sex, with only a few, but potentially key, absences. A noteworthy finding was that some important genes were absent from all demosponges (transcriptomes and the Amphimedon genome), which might reflect divergence from main-stem lineages including hexactinellids, calcareous sponges, and homoscleromorphs. Our results suggest that genetic complexity arose early in evolution as shown by the presence of these genes in most of the animal lineages, which suggests sponges either possess cryptic physiological and morphological complexity and/or have lost ancestral cell types or physiological processes.

  9. Self-similarity Driven Demosaicking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital cameras record only one color component per pixel, red, green or blue. Demosaicking is the process by which one can infer a whole color matrix from such a matrix of values, thus interpolating the two missing color values per pixel. In this article we propose a demosaicking method based on the property of non-local self-similarity of images.

  10. A conceptual review of the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise: neuroscience perspectives about the deep psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest L

    2002-10-01

    This conceptual review explores some speculative associations between the neuroscience of expectancy and surprise during stress and therapeutic hypnosis. Current neuroscience is exploring how novel interactions between the organism and the environment initiate cascades of gene expression, protein synthesis, neurogenesis, and healing that operate via Darwinian principles of natural variation and selection on all levels from the molecular-genomic to the subjective states of consciousness. From a neuroscience perspective, the novel and surprising experiences of consciousness appear to have as important a role as expectancy in memory, learning and behavior change in the psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis. This paper explores how we may integrate the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise in therapeutic hypnosis as a complex system of creative adaptation on all levels of human experience from mind to gene expression.

  11. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

  12. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  13. Self-Similar Collisionless Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, B; Waxman, E; Katz, Boaz; Keshet, Uri; Waxman, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows suggest that the correlation length of magnetic field fluctuations downstream of relativistic non-magnetized collisionless shocks grows with distance from the shock to scales much larger than the plasma skin depth. We argue that this indicates that the plasma properties are described by a self-similar solution, and derive constraints on the scaling properties of the solution. For example, we find that the scaling of the characteristic magnetic field amplitude with distance from the shock is B \\propto D^{s_B} with -1 \\propto x^{2s_B} (for x>>D). We show that the plasma may be approximated as a combination of two self-similar components: a kinetic component of energetic particles and an MHD-like component representing "thermal" particles. We argue that the latter may be considered as infinitely conducting, in which case s_B=0 and the scalings are completely determined (e.g. dn/dE \\propto E^{-2} and B \\propto D^0). Similar claims apply to non- relativistic shocks such a...

  14. How to Produce a Surprise Ending for Readers---Writing Strategies in O. Henry’s The Last Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚雪莹

    2014-01-01

    “Twist ending”is well used by writers in a novel in order to leave readers a strong impression. In this essay, the author will focus on the narrative strategies that produce such a surprise ending in a short story, using as the example O. Henry’s The Last Leaf (1907). The author gives each of strategies O. Henry used in the novel a name and explains how it is used to produce a surprise ending, standing at the readers’perspective.

  15. Assessing protein kinase target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Osman A; Thakkar, Balmukund; Narayanan, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    : focussed chemical libraries, drug repurposing, polypharmacological design, to name a few. Protein kinase target similarity is easily quantified by sequence, and its relevance to ligand design includes broad classification by key binding sites, evaluation of resistance mutations, and the use of surrogate......" of sequence and crystal structure information, with statistical methods able to identify key correlates to activity but also here, "the devil is in the details." Examples from specific repurposing and polypharmacology applications illustrate these points. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled...

  16. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music ...

  17. Web Search Results Summarization Using Similarity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawant V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Now day’s internet has become part of our life, the WWW is most important service of internet because it allows presenting information such as document, imaging etc. The WWW grows rapidly and caters to a diversified levels and categories of users. For user specified results web search results are extracted. Millions of information pouring online, users has no time to surf the contents completely .Moreover the information available is repeated or duplicated in nature. This issue has created the necessity to restructure the search results that could yield results summarized. The proposed approach comprises of different feature extraction of web pages. Web page visual similarity assessment has been employed to address the problems in different fields including phishing, web archiving, web search engine etc. In this approach, initially by enters user query the number of search results get stored. The Earth Mover's Distance is used to assessment of web page visual similarity, in this technique take the web page as a low resolution image, create signature of that web page image with color and co-ordinate features .Calculate the distance between web pages by applying EMD method. Compute the Layout Similarity value by using tag comparison algorithm and template comparison algorithm. Textual similarity is computed by using cosine similarity, and hyperlink analysis is performed to compute outward links. The final similarity value is calculated by fusion of layout, text, hyperlink and EMD value. Once the similarity matrix is found clustering is employed with the help of connected component. Finally group of similar web pages i.e. summarized results get displayed to user. Experiment conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of four methods to generate summarized result on different web pages and user queries also.

  18. Interneurons targeting similar layers receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossart, Rosa; Petanjek, Zdravko; Dumitriu, Dani; Hirsch, June C; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons play diverse and important roles in controlling neuronal network dynamics. They are characterized by an extreme heterogeneity morphologically, neurochemically, and physiologically, but a functionally relevant classification is still lacking. Present taxonomy is essentially based on their postsynaptic targets, but a physiological counterpart to this classification has not yet been determined. Using a quantitative analysis based on multidimensional clustering of morphological and physiological variables, we now demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of glutamate and GABA miniature synaptic currents received by CA1 hippocampal interneurons and the laminar distribution of their axons: neurons that project to the same layer(s) receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics distributions. In contrast, the kinetics distributions of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic events received by a given interneuron do not depend upon its somatic location or dendritic arborization. Although the mechanisms responsible for this unexpected observation are still unclear, our results suggest that interneurons may be programmed to receive synaptic currents with specific temporal dynamics depending on their targets and the local networks in which they operate.

  19. Similarity Based Semantic Web Service Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Niu, Wenjia; Huang, Ronghuai

    Semantic web service discovery aims at returning the most matching advertised services to the service requester by comparing the semantic of the request service with an advertised service. The semantic of a web service are described in terms of inputs, outputs, preconditions and results in Ontology Web Language for Service (OWL-S) which formalized by W3C. In this paper we proposed an algorithm to calculate the semantic similarity of two services by weighted averaging their inputs and outputs similarities. Case study and applications show the effectiveness of our algorithm in service match.

  20. Climate change and physical disturbance cause similar community shifts in biological soil crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-09-29

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts)—communities of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophs living at the soil surface—are fundamental components of drylands worldwide, and destruction of biocrusts dramatically alters biogeochemical processes, hydrology, surface energy balance, and vegetation cover. Although there has been long-standing concern over impacts of physical disturbances on biocrusts (e.g., trampling by livestock, damage from vehicles), there is increasing concern over the potential for climate change to alter biocrust community structure. Using long-term data from the Colorado Plateau, we examined the effects of 10 y of experimental warming and altered precipitation (in full-factorial design) on biocrust communities and compared the effects of altered climate with those of long-term physical disturbance (>10 y of replicated human trampling). Surprisingly, altered climate and physical disturbance treatments had similar effects on biocrust community structure. Warming, altered precipitation frequency [an increase of small (1.2 mm) summer rainfall events], and physical disturbance from trampling all promoted early successional community states marked by dramatic declines in moss cover and increases in cyanobacteria cover, with more variable effects on lichens. Although the pace of community change varied significantly among treatments, our results suggest that multiple aspects of climate change will affect biocrusts to the same degree as physical disturbance. This is particularly disconcerting in the context of warming, as temperatures for drylands are projected to increase beyond those imposed as treatments in our study.

  1. Climate change and physical disturbance cause similar community shifts in biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenberg, Scott; Reed, Sasha C.; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts)—communities of mosses, lichens, cyanobacteria, and heterotrophs living at the soil surface—are fundamental components of drylands worldwide, and destruction of biocrusts dramatically alters biogeochemical processes, hydrology, surface energy balance, and vegetation cover. While there has been long-standing concern over impacts of 5 physical disturbances on biocrusts (e.g., trampling by livestock, damage from vehicles), there is also increasing concern over the potential for climate change to alter biocrust community structure. Using long-term data from the Colorado Plateau, USA, we examined the effects of 10 years of experimental warming and altered precipitation (in full-factorial design) on biocrust communities, and compared the effects of altered climate with those of long-term physical 10 disturbance (>10 years of replicated human trampling). Surprisingly, altered climate and physical disturbance treatments had similar effects on biocrust community structure. Warming, altered precipitation frequency [an increase of small (1.2 mm) summer rainfall events], and physical disturbance from trampling all promoted early successional community states marked by dramatic declines in moss cover and increased cyanobacteria cover, with more variable effects 15 on lichens. While the pace of community change varied significantly among treatments, our results suggest that multiple aspects of climate change will affect biocrusts to the same degree as physical disturbance. This is particularly disconcerting in the context of warming, as temperatures for drylands are projected to increase beyond those imposed by the climate treatments used in our study.

  2. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available act: Similarities between the accounting of companies and territorial administrative units accounting are the following: organizing double entry accounting; accounting method both in terms of fundamental theoretical principles and specific practical tools. The differences between the accounting of companies and of territorial administrative units refer to: the accounting of territorial administrative units includes besides general accounting (financial also budgetary accounting, and the accounts system of the budgetary accounting is completely different from that of companies; financial statements of territorial administrative units to which leaders are not main authorizing officers are submitted to the hierarchically superior body (not at MPF; the accounts of territorial administrative units are opened at treasury and financial institutions, accounts at commercial banks being prohibited; equity accounts in territorial administrative units are structured into groups of funds; long term debts have a specific structure in territorial administrative units (internal local public debt and external local public debt.

  3. Performance Indexes: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Machado Caldeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The investor of today is more rigorous on monitoring a financial assets portfolio. He no longer thinks only in terms of the expected return (one dimension, but in terms of risk-return (two dimensions. Thus new perception is more complex, since the risk measurement can vary according to anyone’s perception; some use the standard deviation for that, others disagree with this measure by proposing others. In addition to this difficulty, there is the problem of how to consider these two dimensions. The objective of this essay is to study the main performance indexes through an empirical study in order to verify the differences and similarities for some of the selected assets. One performance index proposed in Caldeira (2005 shall be included in this analysis.

  4. Features Based Text Similarity Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross cultural border by providing different information, plagiarism issue is bound to arise. As a result, plagiarism detection becomes more demanding in overcoming this issue. Different plagiarism detection tools have been developed based on various detection techniques. Nowadays, fingerprint matching technique plays an important role in those detection tools. However, in handling some large content articles, there are some weaknesses in fingerprint matching technique especially in space and time consumption issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect plagiarism which integrates the use of fingerprint matching technique with four key features to assist in the detection process. These proposed features are capable to choose the main point or key sentence in the articles to be compared. Those selected sentence will be undergo the fingerprint matching process in order to detect the similarity between the sentences. Hence, time and space usage for the comparison process is r...

  5. Understanding the similarity in thermophoresis between single- and double-stranded DNA or RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Maren; Herzog, Mario; Greiss, Ferdinand; Wolff, Manuel; Braun, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    Thermophoresis is the movement of molecules in a temperature gradient. For aqueous solutions its microscopic basis is debated. Understanding thermophoresis for this case is, however, important since it proved very useful to detect the binding affinity of biomolecules and since thermophoresis could have played an important role in early molecular evolution. Here we discuss why the thermophoresis of single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides - DNA and RNA - is surprisingly similar. This finding is understood by comparing the spherical capacitor model for single-stranded species with the case of a rod-shaped model for double-stranded oligonucleotides. The approach describes thermophoresis of DNA and RNA with fitted effective charges consistent with electrophoresis measurements and explains the similarity between single- and double-stranded species. We could not confirm the sign change for the thermophoresis of single- versus double-stranded DNA in crowded solutions containing polyethylene glycol [Y. T. Maeda, T. Tlusty, and A. Libchaber, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 17972 (2012)], but find a salt-independent offset while the Debye length dependence still satisfies the capacitor model. Overall, the analysis documents the continuous progress in the microscopic understanding of thermophoresis.

  6. Pre-test analysis of an integral effect test facility for thermal-hydraulic similarities of 6 inches coldleg break and DVI injection line break using MARS-1D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Soon; Choi, Ki Yong; Park, Hyun Sik; Euh, Dong Jin; Baek, Won Pil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    A pre-test analysis of a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA, DVI Line break) has been performed for the integral effect test loop of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL), the construction of which will be started soon. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL is a full-height and 1/310 volume-scaled test facility based on the design features of the APR1400 (Korean Next Generation Reactor). This paper briefly introduces the basic design features of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL and presents the results of pre-test analysis for a postulated cold leg SBLOCA and DVI line break. Based on the same control logics and accident scenarios, the similarity between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL and the prototype plant, APR1400, is evaluated by using the MARS code, which is a multi-dimensional best-estimate thermal hydraulic code being developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. It is found that the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL and APR 1400 have similar thermal hydraulic responses against the analyzed SBLOCA and DVI Line break scenario. It is also verified that the volume scaling law, applied to the design of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute-ITL, gives a reasonable results to keep a similarity with APR1400. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  7. Perceived and actual similarities in biological and adoptive families: does perceived similarity bias genetic inferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S; Scarf, E; Weinberg, R A

    1980-09-01

    Critics of the adoption method to estimate the relative effects of genetic and environmental differences on behavioral development claim that important biases are created by the knowledge of biological relatedness or adoptive status. Since the 1950s, agency policy has led to nearly all adopted children knowing that they are adopted. To test the hypothesis that knowledge of biological or adoptive status influences actual similarity, we correlated absolute differences in objective test scores with ratings of similarity by adolescents and their parents in adoptive and biological families. Although biological family members see themselves as more similar than adoptive family members, there are also important generational and gender differences in perceived similarity that cut across family type. There is moderate agreement among family members on the degree of perceived similarity, but there is no correlation between perceived and actual similarity in intelligence or temperament. However, family members are more accurate about shared social attitudes. Knowledge of adoptive or biological relatedness is related to the degree of perceived similarity, but perceptions of similarity are not related to objective similarities and thus do not constitute a bias in comparisons of measured differences in intelligence or temperament in adoptive and biological families.

  8. Global solution curves for self-similar equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Philip

    2014-10-01

    We consider positive solutions of a semilinear Dirichlet problem Δu+λf(u)=0, for |x|problem. This allows us to derive results on the multiplicity of solutions, and on their Morse indices. In particular, we easily recover the classical results of D.D. Joseph and T.S. Lundgren [6] on the Gelfand problem. Surprisingly, the situation turns out to be different for the generalized Gelfand problem, where infinitely many turns are possible for any space dimension n≥3. We also derive detailed results for the equation modeling electrostatic micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), in particular we easily recover the main result of Z. Guo and J. Wei [4], and we show that the Morse index of the solutions increases by one at each turn. We also consider the self-similar Henon's equation.

  9. Aesthetic Surprise of Artistic Expression in Chinese Ancient Literature%审美惊奇在中国古代文学中的艺术表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇云

    2015-01-01

    Aesthetic surprise is an appreciation of wonder beauty of literature, art and natural beauty. It is related with ideological content of expression, prefers to the artistic form and artistic expression, but also closely related with the aesthetic psychology and aesthetic experience. With the main identifications as aesthetic psychological effects which appeared as "surprising" "astonishing""touched"and so on, its reason can be roughly analyzed from four aspects:imagery, artistic conception, rhetoric and language.%审美惊奇是对具有奇异之美的文学艺术甚至奇特自然美的一种激赏,它和表现的思想内容有关,偏重于艺术形式、艺术表现,也和审美心理和审美经验密不可分,其主要标识为审美心理效果,体现为“惊人”“惊心动魄”“动心惊耳”等,其原因大致可以从四个方面来分析:语言、修辞、意象、意境。

  10. 团队心智模型相似性与正确性对团队创造力的影响%Effects of Similarity and Accuracy Indices of Shared Mental Models on Team Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓敏; 白新文; 林琳

    2014-01-01

    Modern organizations are increasingly turning to teams for creative work and innovation. Most research studying team creativity has been concentrating on the effects of team interaction behaviors on team creativity. Although team creativity is known as the result of team-level cognitive processes through which information is searched, shared and integrated among team members, little has been done to reveal the cognitive mechanism underlying team creativity. The research of team cognition provides with a novel perspective to understand how teams produce creative ideas and products. Shared mental models (SMMs) is one of the important forms of the team cognition. The current study aimed to examine the effects of two indices of SMMs, mental model similarity and accuracy, respectively, on team creativity. Similarity and accuracy were expected to contribute uniquely, as well as interact, to predict team creativity. Data were obtained form 80 teams in a large high technology corporation in China whose responsibilities were to take charge of the operation, monitoring, maintenance of the online transaction network platform. Individual mental models were elicited by asking participants to make paired comparisons the relevance of each pair of the 10 fault statements. Mental model similarity was indexed by calculating the mean value of Quadratic Assignment Procedure correlation (QAP) within each pair’s responses to the 10 fault statements within each team. Similarly, mental model accuracy was indexed by calculating the mean value of QAP between each team member and subject matter experts within each team. Team creativity was obtained from team performance review archival data. Results indicated that: a) Similarity was significant negatively related to team creativity (b = −0.76, p In contract to prior team performance research, our findings suggested that mental model similarity was negatively related to team creativity which have received little attention among the

  11. Gibbs Paradox and Similarity Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shu-Kun

    2008-01-01

    Adding -lnN! term to the accepted entropy formula will immediately make the entropy function nonadditive and sometimes negative. As no heat effect and mechanical work are observed, we have a simple experimental resolution of the Gibbs paradox: the thermodynamic entropy of mixing is always zero and the Gibbs free energy change is also always zero during the formation of any ideal mixture of gases, liquids, solids or solutions, whether their components are different or identical. However, information loss is observed and must be the exclusive driving force of these spontaneous processes. Information is defined and calculated as the amount of the compressed data. Information losses due to dynamic motion and static symmetric structure formation are defined as two kinds of entropies-dynamic entropy and static entropy, respectively. Entropy is defined and calculated as the logarithm of the symmetry number. There are three laws of information theory, where the first and the second laws are analogs of the two thermod...

  12. Sermon and surprise: The meaning of scheduling in broadcast radio history - and - CBC Radio 3: A disquieting revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sahota, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Essay 1 : 'Sermon & Surprise' explores the importance of scheduling to radio's communicative uses. The essay argues that its capacity for continuous transmission and promotion of shared listening is unique to terrestrial radio. The strengths of traditional radio relative to contemporary on-demand audio media are explored. Early Canadian and British broadcasting policies and scheduling practices demonstrate how radio's programming conceits may innovatively accommodate broadcasting philosop...

  13. The surprising external upturn of the Blue Straggler radial distribution in M55

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzoni, B; Perina, S; Ferraro, F R; Rood, R T; Sollima, A

    2007-01-01

    By combining high-resolution HST and wide-field ground based observations, in ultraviolet and optical bands, we study the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population of the low density galactic globular cluster M55 (NGC 6809) over its entire radial extent. The BSS projected radial distribution is found to be bimodal, with a central peak, a broad minimum at intermediate radii, and an upturn at large radii. Similar bimodal distributions have been found in other globular clusters (M3, 47 Tucanae, NGC 6752, M5), but the external upturn in M55 is the largest found to date. This might indicate a large fraction of primordial binaries in the outer regions of M55, which seems somehow in contrast with the relatively low (\\sim 10%) binary fraction recently measured in the core of this cluster.

  14. Surprising Pfaffians in Random Matrix Theory with Dyson index $\\beta=2$

    CERN Document Server

    Kieburg, Mario

    2012-01-01

    In the past decades, determinants and Pfaffians were found for eigenvalue correlations of various random matrix ensembles. These structures simplify the average over a large number of ratios of characteristic polynomials to integrations over one and two characteristic polynomials only. Up to now it was thought that determinants occur for ensembles with Dyson index $\\beta=2$ whereas Pfaffians only for ensembles with $\\beta=1,4$. We derive a non-trivial Pfaffian determinant for $\\beta=2$ random matrix ensembles which is similar to the one for $\\beta=1,4$. Thus, it unveils a hidden universality of this structure. We also give a general relation between the orthogonal polynomials related to the determinantal structure and the skew-orthogonal polynomials corresponding to the Pfaffian. As a particular example we consider the chiral unitary ensembles in great detail.

  15. Common carotid artery surprise during percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy - A near miss, confirmed with ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarfaraz M Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT has gained popularity and acceptance due to the ease in acquiring its skill and low probability of complications. Nevertheless, PDT is associated with a few complications, some really life-threatening. We present a case of an abnormally located common carotid artery encountered during PDT in our intensive care unit. The procedure was electively posted, in an old patient chronically ventilated after a revived cardiac arrest. While identifying the landmarks on palpation pulsation was felt similar to arterial pulsation. This was confirmed using bedside portable ultrasonography and found to be the right common carotid artery forming a loop anterior to the trachea at the level of the third and fourth tracheal rings. The patient had a past history of thyroidectomy and this was suspected to be the primary reason for the altered course of the right common carotid artery.

  16. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadran, Sohila; Arumugam, Rameshkumar; Herschman, Harvey; Phelps, Michael E; Levine, R D

    2014-09-09

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the invasive and metastatic behavior of many epithelial cancers. Mechanisms underlying EMT are not fully known. Surprisal analysis of mRNA time course data from lung and pancreatic cancer cells stimulated to undergo TGF-β1-induced EMT identifies two phenotypes. Examination of the time course for these phenotypes reveals that EMT reprogramming is a multistep process characterized by initiation, maturation, and stabilization stages that correlate with changes in cell metabolism. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of the expression levels throughout the transition in terms of two state variables. The landscape of the free energy changes during the EMT for the lung cancer cells shows a stable intermediate state. Existing data suggest this is the previously proposed maturation stage. Using a single-cell ATP assay, we demonstrate that the TGF-β1-induced EMT for lung cancer cells, particularly during the maturation stage, coincides with a metabolic shift resulting in increased cytosolic ATP levels. Surprisal analysis also characterizes the absolute expression levels of the mRNAs and thereby examines the homeostasis of the transcription system during EMT.

  17. On self-similar rupture of thin-film equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaston, Michael; Tseluiko, Dmitri; Zheng, Zhong; Fontelos, Marco; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    Many interfacial fluid dynamical settings consist of a thin film in the presence of two physical mechanisms, one stabilizing, typically surface tension, and the other one destabilizing. Examples include the Marangoni instability of a film heated from below, Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a film on a cylinder, and film dewetting due to intermolecular forces. Lubrication-type models of these phenomena lead to very similar equations for the evolution of the film thickness, differing only in the exponent of the coefficient function of the destabilizing term. However, the behavior of solutions can vary, depending on the value of this exponent. Here we report the results of analysis based on self-similarity, elements from dynamical systems theory and fully time-dependent computations. We find that branches of self-similar rupture solutions merge at critical values of the exponent, and, surprisingly, there are no stable solutions beyond the first value at which merging occurs. In this regime, time-dependent computations indicate the existence of a cascade of instabilities of increasingly short wavelengths. This work was supported by the EPSRC under Grant No. EP/K008595/1. The work of DT was partly supported by the EPSRC under Grant No. EP/K041134/1.

  18. Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Maio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., equality leads to freedom. Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness.

  19. Compressive Sequential Learning for Action Similarity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yunhong; Shao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Human action recognition in videos has been extensively studied in recent years due to its wide range of applications. Instead of classifying video sequences into a number of action categories, in this paper, we focus on a particular problem of action similarity labeling (ASLAN), which aims at verifying whether a pair of videos contain the same type of action or not. To address this challenge, a novel approach called compressive sequential learning (CSL) is proposed by leveraging the compressive sensing theory and sequential learning. We first project data points to a low-dimensional space by effectively exploring an important property in compressive sensing: the restricted isometry property. In particular, a very sparse measurement matrix is adopted to reduce the dimensionality efficiently. We then learn an ensemble classifier for measuring similarities between pairwise videos by iteratively minimizing its empirical risk with the AdaBoost strategy on the training set. Unlike conventional AdaBoost, the weak learner for each iteration is not explicitly defined and its parameters are learned through greedy optimization. Furthermore, an alternative of CSL named compressive sequential encoding is developed as an encoding technique and followed by a linear classifier to address the similarity-labeling problem. Our method has been systematically evaluated on four action data sets: ASLAN, KTH, HMDB51, and Hollywood2, and the results show the effectiveness and superiority of our method for ASLAN.

  20. Short- and long-lasting consequences of novelty, deviance and surprise on brain and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2015-08-01

    When one encounters a novel stimulus this sets off a cascade of brain responses, activating several neuromodulatory systems. As a consequence novelty has a wide range of effects on cognition; improving perception and action, increasing motivation, eliciting exploratory behavior, and promoting learning. Here, we review these benefits and how they may arise in the brain. We propose a framework that organizes novelty's effects on brain and cognition into three groups. First, novelty can transiently enhance perception. This effect is proposed to be mediated by novel stimuli activating the amygdala and enhancing early sensory processing. Second, novel stimuli can increase arousal, leading to short-lived effects on action in the first hundreds of milliseconds after presentation. We argue that these effects are related to deviance, rather than to novelty per se, and link them to activation of the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine system. Third, spatial novelty may trigger the dopaminergic mesolimbic system, promoting dopamine release in the hippocampus, having longer-lasting effects, up to tens of minutes, on motivation, reward processing, and learning and memory.